Read Data on the seismic danger in the city of Tirana 29.11.2010 1000 text version

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA PARLIAMENT

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER

IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

Tirana, October 2010

1

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

*Summary of the author's Research: Prof. Dr. Shyqyri Aliaj, Prof. Assoc. Dr. Llambro Duni, Prof. Dr. Neki Kuka, As. K. Anuela Çollaku. Published on the web-site of Tirana City Hall: http://www.tirana.gov.al

2

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

INTRODUCTION

The evaluation of the seismic hazard that might threaten the Center of Tirana has been conducted with a contemporary probabilistic methodology [Cornel, 1968; Frankel, 1995]. Like it has been mentioned before, seismic hazard has been expressed in terms of the physical parameters of ground oscillations resulting from earthquake-generated vibrations, such as the maximal acceleration Amax and the spectral acceleration SA for five periods of the vibration of the ground. This methodology has been used to determine the curve of seismic hazard that threatens the foundation of this region, and the spectrum of responses of the ground in terms of relative speed and absolute acceleration. Based on geotechnical models given in the research study of the seismic micro-zoning of Tirana for this part of the city (Fig.1) the maximal acceleration of the vibration of the land has been calculated for different levels of depth. In this study, it has been recommended that the maximal acceleration of the vibration of the ground at the foundations level is used as a seismicity coefficient (parameter required in the calculation of the forces that act in structures according to the current design standard in our country KTP-N2-89) [Duni, 2003]. The assessments of the maximal acceleration Amax and the spectral acceleration SA have been conducted taking into account a 90% probability of non-fulfillment within a 50-year period, which corresponds to a 475-year period of the repetition of the earthquake. Such an assessment degree for seismic hazard parameters makes it possible for them to be used to make comparisons with the Eurocode 8 standard. Nevertheless, the users that are interested in other security levels regarding seismic hazard can use the appropriate seismic hazard curve. Certainly, in this case, seismic hazard for different levels of land depth should be reassessed.

3

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

1. GEOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF TIRANA CITY

Tirana City is situated in the NearAdriatic Lowland, specifically in the most southern field part of the molasic syncline of Tirana, which to the northwest plunges gradually toward the Adriatic Sea. The Syncline of Tirana, approximately 80 long and 10-12 km wide, exists in the form of an asymmetric syncline with its west wing dipping steeply to the point where it is almost overturned, and with its east wing dipping gently. It is built by the molasic deposits of the mid- and upper Miocen and partly from the Pliocenic molase in its most northern part. The Miocenic Molase is transgressively situated, with a structural discordance, on the Carbonatic flysch structures of the Ionic zones and Kruja (Fig.2). Only on the east wing of the syncline of Tirana can be directly observed on the surface the transgressive and discordant placement of the Miocenic deposits on the Oligocenic flysch of the Kruja Zone. Here the Miocenic Molase is presented from Serravalian, Tortonian, and Mesinian deposits. Serravalian deposits are represented by lithotamnic and organogenous limestones in the lower part of the cross-section, moving upward to clay and sandstone. They have a thickness of around 600 m. Tortonian sediments are characterized mainly by clay, which in the upper part of the crosssection change into clay-standstone, with a thickness of 100-200 m. Mesinian sediments are represented by massive sandstones with clay and alevrolitic interlayers. Their thickness is over 1500 m. The syncline of Tirana is carboniferous. In this area, several coal fields can be found, like Krraba, Mushqeta, Phazarda, Mëzezi e Valiasi, which belong to the upper Miocen. The Pliocenic Molase in Thumanë and Mamurras is transgressively situated and at angular discordance on the deposits of the Kruja Zone and those on the Miocenic molase on the east wing of the syncline of Tirana. Pliocenic deposits are represented by sandstones and micro conglomerates, which change into mixes of sandstones, alevrolit and clay as they move up the cross-section. They have a thickness of around 500 m.

4

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

From the Tirana city to the northwest, the syncline of Tirana becomes broader and is covered by Quaternary alluvial sediments, which extend horizontally over the molasic Miocenic-Pliocenic deposits (Fig.2). Quaternary sediments are represented by coarse gravel with a combination of sandstone and clay. Their thickness is around 15-20 m thick in the Tirana city and toward the north they become thicker, reaching 200m at the Mat River. The syncline of Tirana borders to the west with the monocline of Preza by means of an active fault ramp. To its west the Oligocenic flysch deposits are stripped and the same happens with the Carbonatic flysch deposits, which built the anticline of Dajti (Kruja Zone). The anticline of Dajti exists in the form of a linear isoclinal anticline, complicated with active roll-over in its overturned westwing [Aliaj, 1996] (Fig. 2, 3). The Tirana city is situated in the most southeastern part of the field zone, with an altitude 100-140 m above the sea level of. To the east, south and west the field of Tirana is surrounded by low hills, built by Miocenic molasic deposits. This field, which is superposed to the syncline of Tirana, constitutes a structure similar to graben, bordered to the west by the fault ramp of Preza and to the East with the roll-over of Dajti, which is caught by the subduction during the Quaternary phase [Aliaj et al., 2001]. Subductions are active even nowadays, which is witnessed by the earthquakes generated by them. Earthquakes with a magnitude of up to 5.7 on the Richter scale and epicentral intensity of up to VIII, MSK-64 scale, have been recorded in this zone [Aliaj, 1997].

2. SEISMIC ACTIVITY AND HAZARD IN TIRANA CITY

2.1

Seismic activity in Tirana City and its surrounding region

Tirana is relatively new as a residential center and it became the capital only in 1920. As a result, data on seismic activity in Tirana and its surroundings is limited [Sulstarova & Koçiu, 1975; Sulstarova et al., 1980].

5

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

The strongest earthquake that hit Tirana City occurred in January 9, 1988 Ms=5.4 (ISC) and intensity Io=7-8 (MSK-64). This earthquake was recorded by the accelerographers of the seismologic station in Tirana, nearby the active fault on the cemented sandstones of Tortonian. The maximal acceleration recorded reached Amax=0.4g in the LP component, Amax=0.1g in the VJ component and Amax=0.07g in the vertical component Z, while its duration did not exceed 6 seconds [Koçiu & Pitarka, 1990]. The impact of this earthquake on the ground surface showed once more the importance of the effect of the soil conditions on the intensity of average earthquakes.

2.2

Seismic hazard in the Tirana city

According to the seismic regionalization map, Tirana city is included in a zone where within the next 100 years are expected earthquakes with an intensity Io=7 MSK-64 for average soil conditions [Sulstarova et al., 1980]. Tirana city, from a geological point of view, is situated in the molasic syncline of Tirana, between the active fault ramp that borders to the west the syncline of Tirana and the active roll-over which complicates the overturned wing of Dajti anticline (Figure....) [Aliaj, 1988]. From the active subduction zone of Tirana there have been generated many earthquakes, of which the following are the strongest: 1617 with Io=8 (MSK-64) in Krujë, 26.8.1852 with Io=8 (MSK- 64) in the Rodon Cape, 16.5.1860 with Io=8 (MSK-64) in the Beshiri Bridge, 4.2.1934 with Ms=5.6 in Ndroq, 19.8.1970 with Ms=5.5 and Io=7 (MSK-64) in the Vrapi zone, 16.9.1975 with Ms=5.3 in Rodon Cape, 22.11.1985 with Ms=5.5 in the Drini Bay and 9.1.1988 with Ms=5.4 in Tirana. So, the region of Tirana has been affected by historic earthquakes with a magnitude of Io=8 (MSK-64) and during the past century from earthquakes with a magnitude of M=5.3-5.6 [Aliaj, 1997]. From a seismotectonic point of view, the region of Tirana can be hit in the future by earthquakes with Mmax=5.5-5.9 [Aliaj, 1997], whereas according to the map of possible maximal earthquakes, Tirana city is included in the zone with Mmax=5.8-6.4 or Mmax=6.1±0.3 [Koçiu, 1986]. 6

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

3. ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL AND GEOTECHINCAL CONDITIONS OF THE CENTER OF TIRANA

Tirana city and its suburbs are divided in two great geomorphic units: 1. The field unit, built by Quaternary alluvial deposits. 2. The hill unit, built by mid- and upper - Miocenic molasic deposits [Konomi et al., 1988; Koçiu et al., 1988]. Tirana city is situated in the most southern part of the field unit, filled with Quaternary alluvial deposits of the rivers of Tirana and Lana. These rivers run east to west: while Tirana River runs along the northern periphery of the city, Lana River runs along its southern sector. The thickness of the alluvial deposits is up to 10-20 m in most of the city and maximum thickness reaches 40 m in the city's southwestern sector [Eftimi, 1996] (Fig. 4). In the Tirana city river terraces are well developed: Tirana River has three terrace levels, whereas the Lana River has two terrace levels. In general it has been assessed that the sediments of Tirana River have better geotechnical properties than Lana River and the oldest terraces have better geotechnical properties [Eftimi, 1996].

3.1

Engineering geological conditions of the Center of Tirana

The center of Tirana, from an engineering geological point of view is characterized by 4 zones, of which zones III and V belong to the second terrace of Tirana River, zone IV belongs to the first terrace of the Lana River, whereas zone VI belongs to the radical rocks of the upper Miocenic Molase, with or without an elluvial-delluvial cover [Konomi et al., 1988; Koçiu et al., 1988]. Engineering geological zone III I includes a part of the first terrace of Tirana River, which extends from the former factory Dinamo to the train station and continues in the form of a

7

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

narrow streak for 400-500 m until it reaches the former School of the Party. Within this zone, according to the foundation on which Quaternary sediments are deposited, two subzones have been defined: a) Subzone IIIa with a sandstone base b) Subzone IIIb with alevrolitic-clay base In the most northern part of the Center of Tirana, at the train station, model III3b is developed. The engineering geological zone V includes the second terrace of Tirana River, which is followed along the center of Tirana by the train station until the Lana River. This zone is also divided into two subzones according to the type of foundation on which Quaternary sediments are deposited: a) Sub zone Va with a sandstone base, and b) Subzone Vb with a alevrolitic-clay base In the Center of Tirana two geotechnical models have been developed, V3 b and V4 b. (Fig. 1). In the engineering geological zone IV is included the first terrace of Lana River, which spreads mainly along the flow of Lana River. This zone too, according to the character of the base on which Quaternary sediments are deposited, is dived into two subzones: a) Subzone IVa with a sandstone base, and b) Subzone IVb with an alevrolitic-clay base. In the center of Tirana City two geotechnical models have been developed, and specifically, models IV2 b and IV3 b (Fig. 1). The engineering geological zone VI includes the hill unit, which, according to the type of foundation on which Quaternary sediments lie, is divided into the following two subzones:

8

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

a) Subzone with a sandstone foundation, and b) Subzone with an alevrolitic-clay foundation. In the most southern part of the Center of Tirana is developed only the geotechnical model VI3 b (Fig. 1). In the following paragraph all the geotechnical models that build the Center of Tirana city will be covered in detail.

3.2

Geotechnical models of the Center of Tirana

The effect of earthquakes on the ground surface depends on not only regional characteristics but also the local characteristics of the layers that pervade the radical rocks, from the surface to its depths. Depending on their geometric, physical, mechanical and dynamic characteristics, superficial layers modify the amplitude and frequency of seismic waves, thus influencing the intensity of the destructive effect on structures. To determine the above characteristics of superficial layers and how they affect earthquake ­ generated oscillations of the foundation of the buildings, it is necessary to complete a geological and geophysical study with seismic methods of geotechnical models, thus determining, besides physical and mechanical characteristics, also their velocity parameters. After having calculated these values, it is possible to determine representative geotechnical models of specific zones, which are necessary for the analysis of the effect that these models have on earthquake oscillations. Geotechnical models of the center of Tirana, which are presented in Figure 1, are those that have been compiled in the framework of the study of the seismic microzoning of Tirana city [Konomi et al., 1988; Koçiu et al., 1988]. These are: model IV2 b, model IV3 b, model V3 b, model V4 b and model VI3 b.

9

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

The geotechnical models of the Center of Tirana have been determined as 4-, 5-, and 6layer models. The amplifying environment of seismic oscillations is superficial quaternary layers with a general thickness ranging from 6.5 to 21 m. In some cases, such as models IV2 b and IV3 b, layers have been divided in two parts to be able to assess the maximal acceleration at a depth level of 4 m. Because of their presupposed sufficient solidity, vast extension and considerable thickness, the sedimentary clay layers of Neogen have been accepted as a radical rock. The structure of the model together with the necessary geometric and physical parameters (H, VS, ã) and the lithological composition are displayed in tables 1-5. These tables also display the plasticity indexes and the identifying numbers in the respective database of 11 reports for the modules of the cross section (normalized shear modulus) and damping levels (damping ratio) in terms of the level of deformations, as is required in the computer program WESHAKE5 for the equivalent linear analysis of the earthquake action, which has been used in this study for the calculation of the response of geotechnical models [Yule et al., 1995]. These reports are based on the results of laboratory studies conducted by Harding and Drnevich in 1972; Seed and Wong et al. in 1974; Seed et al. in 1986 and Hynes in 1988 [Yule et al., 1995].

10

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

11

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

3.3

Soil classification according to the Albanian Design Code KTP-N2-89

The classification of soils used in the Albanian Design Code to evaluate seismic hazard, is based on the study for the seismic regionalization of the country, where the concept of average soil conditions has been introduced for the first time [Sulstarova et al., 1980]. The criteria for being classified as a soil in average conditions, of which an increase in macro-seismic intensity has not been observed, are fulfilled by Quaternary soils, which are very thick, compressed, and whose ground waters run in great depths. According to this code, the soils of the geotechnical models of the Center of Tirana are classified as soils of the second Category.

3.4

Soil classification according to EC8

The soil of this construction site can be classified in accordance with the requirements of EC8, based on geological data given in tables 1-5. Consistent with the definitions of EC8 [EC8, 1994], the influence of the local soil conditions of the lands on seismic action can be taken into consideration given that there are classes of soil, A, B, C . In accordance with the EC-8 requirements for soil classification and based on the values of VS and the depths shown in tables 1-5 we can assess that: · The geological environment of geotechnical models IV3 b and V4 b is classified as A class. · The geological environment of geotechnical models IV2 b; V3 b; VI3 b is classified as B class.

12

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

4. SEISMIC HAZARD IN THE CENTER OF TIRANA ACCORDING TO THE PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF STRONG GROUND OSCILLATIONS

For the assessment of seismic hazard that threatens the Center of Tirana we have used Cornell's probabilistic method [Cornell, 1968], according to the methodology proposed by Frankel [Frankel, 1995]. As seismicity parameters for the assessment of seismic hazard in the Center of Tirana have been used the ones included in the study entitled "Earthquakes, seismic hazard and seismic hazard in Albania" [Sulstarova et al., 2003]. The assessments have been conducted using the computer program "OHAZ" [Zabukovec et al., 2000].

4.1

Assessment of the maximal acceleration Amax

Based on the aforementioned methodology, the minimal result that can be reached from a study of seismic hazard is the determination of the maximal acceleration Amax of ground oscillations (which in expert literature is referred to as PGA). Until now, in the assessment practice of the seismic units in modern codes, an Amax value is connected in a standard spectral form in such a way that Amax is the value of the acceleration that corresponds to period zero of the spectral dependency [EC8, 1994; Seed et al., 1974]. This methodology has also been applied in EC8. With the aid of the program OHAZ the maximal acceleration Amax and the curve of seismic hazard for radical rocks has been calculated, using the Sabetta & Pugliese model as a damping model for strong oscillations [1996]. Table 6 shows the value of the maximal acceleration Amax for geotechnical models of the Center of Tirana for a 475-year repetition period of earthquakes, which corresponds to a 90% degree of non-fulfillment for this parameter for a 50-year longevity of objects. The assessment presented in Table 6 takes into account the definition of the damping model of 13

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

strong oscillations through the inclusion of the respective standard error in the calculations of Amax.

Maximal acceleration (g):

Figure 5 shows the seismic hazard curve (the change in maximal acceleration depending on the repetition period of the earthquake) for the foundation level of the geotechnical models of the zone of Center of Tirana.

14

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

Figure 1. Plan of the Center of Tirana and location of models

In the Tirana city the river terraces are well developed: Tirana River has three terrace levels, whereas Lana River has two terrace levels. In general, it has been assessed that the sediments of Tirana River have better geotechnical properties than those of Lana River and the oldest terraces have better geotechnical properties [Eftimi, 1996]. 15

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The Center of Tirana is composed of soils of the second category (according to KTP.N2.89). In the relation with Eurocode 8, geotechnical models IV3 b and V4 b can be classified as A class soils, whereas geotechnical models IV2 b; V3 b; VI3 b can be classified as B class soils. 2. The maximal acceleration of the vibration of the ground at foundation level should be used as a parameter of seismic hazard in the calculations of the structures that could be built in the Center of Tirana. This definition is in accordance with the seismicity coefficients of the current code in our country. 3. Hence, in order to build the foundations at a 4.0 m depth, the seismicity coefficient should be taken kE=0.285 for soils that include model IV2 b, kE=0.274 for model IV3 b, kE=0.226 for model V3 b, kE=0.254 for model V4 b, and kE=0.224 for model VI3 b. For every other level of the building of the foundations, the seismicity coefficient should be taken with interpolation according to tables 7-11 (mean value of maximal acceleration according to 5 accelerograms). 4. The maximal acceleration in the rocks of the foundation of the Center of Tirana assessed with the probabilistic method according to the Sabetta & Pugliese damping models [1996] turns out to be Amax=0.203g. This parameter corresponds to a 475year repetition period of the earthquake (90% nonfulfillment for a 50-year longevity of the object). 5. Nevertheless, the users that are interested in other security levels regarding seismic hazard can use the appropriate seismic hazard curve (Fig. 5). Certainly, in this case it seismic hazard for different levels of soil depth should be re-assessed. 6. The response spectrum is the one presented in figure 6 (in relative speed values), or the one presented in figures 7-11 (in absolute acceleration values). This spectrum 16

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

has the same level of hazard in all periods. It has been calculated for a 475-repetition period (90% non-fulfillment for 50-year durability of the object. 7. EC8 can be used in the calculation of the structures that could be built in this zone of Tirana, if the level of forces that results from its application is higher than the forces that result from the use of KTP-N2-89 in the application of seismicity coefficients according to the recommendation made in point 2. In general, assessments according to this code can be made using the elastic spectrum according to the B class curve, excluding geotechnical models IV2 b and IV3 b, in which the use of elastic spectrum according to class A is recommended. 8. We will emphasize that the spectral curves according to EC8 in this study have been scaled with the maximal acceleration value at a 4.0 m of depth. If the foundation level of the objects will be different from 4.0 m, then the curves of the response spectrum according to EC8 should be scaled in the period T=0.0sek with the respective value of the maximal acceleration Amax. 9. The vibration period in the center of Tirana oscillates in the 0.15-0.70sec range. 10. This study is useful for common objects with up to 8 storeys. For other objects special studies on seismic hazard must be conducted, in accordance with the requirements of the Law on Urban Planning.

17

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

REFERENCES:

Aliaj, Sh. [1988]: Neotektonika dhe Sizmotektonika e Shqipërisë. Disertacion për gradën shkencore "Doktor i Shkencave", Arkivi i Institutit Sizmologjisë, Tiranë. Aliaj, Sh. [1996}: Neotectonics of Tirana Region (Albania). Proc. Of the First Working Group Meeting Int. Project on "Expert Assessment of Land Subsidence Related to Hydrogeological and Engineering Geological Conditions in the Regions of Sofia, Skopje and Tirana", Sofia October 31-November 3, 1996, pp. 72-81. Aliaj, Sh. [1997]: "Active faults in Tirana Region" Proc. Of the Second Working Group Meeting, Inter. Project on "Expert Assessment of Land Subsidence Related to Hydrogeological and Engineering Geological Conditions in the Regions of Sofia, Skopje and Tirana", Skopje, October 29 ­ 31. Aliaj, Sh. [1998]: Neotectonic Structure of Albania. AJNTS, NR.4, Tiranë. Aliaj, Sh. [2000]: Active Fault Zones in Albania. Abstrakt, Asamblea e Përgjithëshme e Committeet Sizmologjik Europian, Lisbon, Portugali, Shtator 2000. Aliaj, Sh. et al. [2001]: Quaternary subsidence zones in Albania: Some case studies. Bull. Eng. Geol. Env. 59, pp. 313-318. Aleksovski, D., Manik, M., Kovaçev, P., Timiovska L. [1990]: "Geofiziçki istrazhivana so metodata na microsezmiçki nemir na terenot na lokacijata na geotermalnata dipnatina" Botim i IZIIS 90-45, Shkup. Ambraseys, N. N., Simpson, K. A., Bommer, J. J. [1996] "Prediction of horizontal response spectra in Europe". Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, Vol. 25, pp. 371-400. Ambraseys, N. N., Douglas, J. [2003] "Near-field horizontal and vertical earthquake ground motions" Soi Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 23, pp. 1-18.

18

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

Bardet, J.P., Ichii, K., Lin, C.H., [2000] "EERA, A Computer Program for Equivalent-linear Earthquake site Response Analyses of Layered Soil Deposits" User Manual, University of Southern California, Department of Civil Engineering. Cornell, C. A., [1968] "Engineering Seismic Hazard Analysis" BSSA, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 1583 ­ 1606. Duni, Ll., 2003 "Përdorimi i modeleve të shuarjes në vlerësimin e rrezikut sizmik të areaeve të ndërtimit nëpërmjet parametrave të lëkundjeve të forta të landit", Studim, Arkivi Institutit të Sizmologjisë, Tiranë, p. 57. Eftimi, R., Taushani, E. [1996] "Hydrogeology of Tirana Region" Proceedings of the First Working Group Meeting, Intern. Project "Expert Assessment of Land Subsidence related to hydrogeological and engineering geological conditions in the Regions of Sofia, Skopje and Tirana", Sofia, Bulgaria, pp. 89-99. Eftimi, R. [1996] "Some engineering-geological data of the Tirana City area". Proceedings of the First Working Group Meeting, Intern. Project "Expert Assessment of Land Subsidence related to hydrogeological and engineering geological conditions in the Regions of Sofia, Skopje and Tirana", Sofia, Bulgaria, pp. 100-104. Eurocode 8 [1994] "Design Provisions for Earthquake Resistance of Structures". Env 1998 1-1, Seismic Actions and General Requirements of Structures (May 1994). Frankel, A., [1995] "Mapping seismic hazard in the Central and Eastern United States", Seism. Res. Lett., Vol. 66, No.4, pp.8 ­ 21. Koçiu, S. [1986] "Rreziku sizmik i kores së Tokës në Shqipëri dhe saktësimi i tij për areaet e ndërtimit". Disertacion per graden shkencore "Doktor i Shkencave", Arkivi Institutit Sizmologjisë Tiranë.

19

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

Koçiu, S., Aliaj, Sh., Pitarka, A., Peçi, V., Konomi, N., Dakoli, H., Prifti, K., Koçiu, A., Kero, J.,Shehu, V., Goga, K., Goro, N., Kume, L., Kapllani, L., Papadhopulli, P., Eftimi, R., Kondo, M., Puka, N. [1988] "Mikrozonimi sizmik i qytetit të Tiranës", Raport Teknik, Arkivi Institutit Sizmologjisë, Tiranë. Koçiu, S., Pitarka, S. [1990] "A Check-up on seismic hazard assessment: Tirana case study". "Natural Hazard", Kluëer Academic Publishers, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 293 - 305. Konomi et al. [1988] "Rajonizimi gjeologo-inxhinierik i qytetit të Tiranës". Raport teknik, Fakulteti Gjeologji-Miniera, Tirane. Kushti Teknik i Projektimit për Ndërtimet Antisizmike. KTP-N2-1989. Ministria e Ndërtimit dhe Akademia e Shkencave (Qëndra Sizmologjike), Tiranë 1989. Newmark, N. M., Chamber, W. J. [1982] "Earthquake spectra and design". EERI, Berkley, California. Paketa "SIP" e programeve të Geometrics për analizën shpejtësiore të mjediseve reale me metodën e Valëve të Thyera. Sabetta, F., Pugliese, A. [1996] "Estimation of response spectra and simulation of nonstationary earthquake ground motions". BSSA, Vol. 86 No. 2, pp. 337-352, April 1996. Seed, B. H., Ugas, C., Lysmer, J. [1974] "Site dependent spectra for earthquake-resistant design". Report No. EERC 74-12, University of California, Berkley. Sulstarova, E., Koçiaj, S. 1975 "Katalogu i tërmeteve të Shqipërisë". Botim i Akademisë së Shkencave, Arkivi Institutit të Sizmologjisë, Tiranë, p. 170. Sulstarova E., Koçiaj S. & Aliaj Sh. 1980: Rajonizimi sizmik i Shqipërisë. Shtypshkronja "Mihal Duri" Tiranë, Monografi, Arkivi Institutit të Sizmologjisë, p. 297.

20

DATA ON THE SEISMIC DANGER IN THE CITY OF TIRANA

Sulstarova, E., Muço, B., Aliaj, Sh., Kuka, N., Duni, Ll. [2003] "Tërmetet, rreziku sizmik dhe hazardu sizmik në Shqipëri" (Kap. 1-5), Studim, Arkivi Institutit Sizmologjisë, Tiranë, p. 82. Zabukovec, B., Motnikar, B. S., Zubancic, P. [2000] "OHAZ, a computer program for seismic hazard calculation" User Manual. Geophysical Survey of Slovenia. pp. 48. Yule, D. E., Wahl, R. E., Wallace, D. C. 1995: Weshake5 Manual. Geotechnical Laboratory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Mississippi USA.

21

Information

Data on the seismic danger in the city of Tirana 29.11.2010 1000

21 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

491676


You might also be interested in

BETA
Data on the seismic danger in the city of Tirana 29.11.2010 1000