Read Microsoft Word - genuri inJineria_20.04.05.doc text version

saqarTvelos parlamentis aparati

kvleviTi departamenti

sainformacio-analitikuri ganyofileba

genuri inJineria da masTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi

ra aris genuri inJineria? genuri inJineria Cveulebriv gulisxmobs ujredul doneze xelovnuri manipulaciebis Sedegad saWiro genis (genebis) gadatanas erTi saxeobis organizmidan sxva (aramonaTesave) organizmSi. gadasatan gens (genebs) xSirad `interesis gens~ uwodeben. `interesis geni~ sxvadasxva warmomavlobis (baqteriuli, cxoveluri, sokodan an sinTezuri gziT miRebulic ki) da daniSnulebis (bioturi Tu abioturi stresuli faqtorebisadmi mdgradobis ganmsazRvreli, garkveuli cilis sinTezze pasuxismgebeli da sxva) SeiZleba iyos. zemoTqmuli niSnavs, rom SesaZlebelia adamianis genis gadatana cxovelebSi an mcenareebSi da piriqiT. mecnierebma ukve moaxerxes arqtikuli Tevzis yinvagamZleobis genis gadanergva pomidorSi. Sedegad, pomidori dabal temperaturazec izrdeba. genetikuri struqturis Seqmnis mTeli sistema da misi Canergva organizmSi metad rTuli procesia. dnm-is Zafis sxvadasxva adgilas gadaWris da genebis gamocalkevebisaTvis rTuli bioqimiuri procesebi gamoiyeneba. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom genur-sainJinro samuSaoebi 1 xorcieldeba. praqtikulad yovelTvis in vitro

genuri inJineriiT modificirebuli kulturebis gamoyeneba kvebis produqtebis warmoebaSi pirveli komerciuli transgeni iyo "Flavr Savr" jiSis pomidori, romelic kompania "Calgene"-m Seqmna. igi aSS-s supermarketebSi 1994 wels gamoCnda. Tumca, warmoebasTan da transportirebasTan dakavSirebuli garkveuli problemebis gamo, ukve sami wlis Semdeg misi realizacia Sewyda. Tavidan genmodificirebuli mcenareebis Tesvas masStaburi xasiaTi ar hqonia. 1996 wlidan mdgomareoba mkveTrad Seicvala. imisaTvis, rom ufro mkafiod rom warmovidginoT transgenuri mcenareebis Seqmnis

1

sinjaraSi, xelovnur pirobebSi.

sferoSi Catarebuli samuSaos masStabebi, sakmarisia imis Tqmac, rom 1998 wlisaTvis msoflios 45 qveyanaSi (gansakuTrebiT aSS-Si, kanadasa da dasavleT evropis qveynebSi), 60 sxvadasxva sasoflo-sameurneo kulturaze 25 aTasze meti savele cda Catarda. 1997 wels, wina welTan SedarebiT, transgenuri sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebis naTesebis saerTo farTi msoflioSi 4,5-jer gaizarda. 1998 wels man 30 mln ha-s gadaaWarba, 2003 wlisaTvis ki am saxis naTesebs ukve 60 milioni heqtari ekava. transgenuri mcenareebis gaSenebaSi msoflio liderebi arian aSS, argentina, kanada da CineTi. genuri inJineriiT miRebuli mcenareebidan yvelaze ufro gavrcelebulia soio (komerciuli moSeneba daiwyo 1995 wlidan). transgenuri soio mTeli mosavlis naxevarze mets warmoadgens. meore adgilzea simindi, Semdeg modis bamba, Tambaqo, pomidori, kartofili da a.S. genetikurad modificirebuli kulturebi gamoiyeneba rogorc kvebis produqtebis, ise sakvebi danamatebis warmoebaSi. magaliTad, soiosgan miiReba soios rZe, romelic bevri Cvili bavSvisTvis naturaluris rZis Semcvlels warmoadgens. gen-modificirebuli nedleuli mcenareul zeTsa da sakveb cilaze arsebuli moTxovnilebis did nawils akmayofilebs. soios lecitini (E322) gamoiyeneba sakonditro warmoebaSi, rogorc emulgatori da stabilizatori, xolo soios qerqi _ qatos, burbuSelas da sxva sakvebis warmoebaSi. amis garda, gen-modificirebuli soio farTod gamoiyeneba kvebis mrewvelobaSi iaffasiani danamatis saxiT. is didi raodenobiT Sedis iseTi produqtebis SemadgenlobaSi, rogoricaa puri, Zexvi, Sokoladi da sxv. modificirebuli kartofili da simindi gamoiyeneba Cifsebis dasamzadeblad. misgan miRebuli saxamebeli farTod gamoiyeneba sakonditro da puris sacxob mwervelobaSi, aseve sxvadasxva sousebis, ketCupebis (saweblebis) da maionezebis misaRebad. simindisa da rafsis zeTs danamatis saxiT iyeneben margarinSi, pur-funTSeulSi da sxva. "Greenpeace"-is specialistebma moamzades CamonaTvali im produqtebisa (mwarmoebeli kompaniis miTiTebiT), romlebic Seicaven an SeiZleba Seicavdnen gen-modificirebul komponentebs. es nusxa xelmisawvdomia internetis yvela momxmareblisaTvis. masSi Sesulia cnobili kompaniebis (Hershey's, Cadbury da Mars) farTod gavrcelebuli Sokoladis nawarmi (Fruit&Nut, M&M, Snickers, Twix, Milky Way), Coca-Cola-sa da Pepsi Cola-s ualkoholo sasmelebi (Coca-Cola, Sprite, Pepsi, 7-Up); Sokoladis sasmeli Nesquik (kompania Nestle), firma Danon-is iogurtebi, Procter & Gamble-is Cifsebi, Knorr-is sousi, Lipton-is Cai, Parmalat-is orcxobilebi, saReWi rezinebi Stimorol da Wrigley's da sxva. msoflio bazarze genuri inJineriis meSveobiT miRebuli produqtebis raodenobis mniSvnelovani zrdis miuxedavad, momxmareblebi mainc frTxilad ekidebian maT. ufro metic, am gziT miRebuli produqcia sazogadoebaSi mZafri polemikis sagani gaxda. gen-modificirebuli produqciis sakvebad gamoyenebis momxreebis mTavari argumenti TviTon sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebis maxasiaTeblebia, romelTac bioinJineriis meTodebis gamoyenebam mravali sasargeblo Tviseba SesZina. kerZod, es

kulturebi ufro mdgradebi gaxdnen daavadebebis, mavne mwerebisa da, rac mTavaria, pesticidebis2 mimarT, romelTa uaryofiTi (mavne) gavlenac adamianis organizmze didi xania damtkicebulia. gen-modificirebuli kulturebidan miRebuli produqtebi gamoirCevian maRali xarisxiT, gaaCniaT momgebiani sasaqonlo saxe da sakveb Rirebulebasac ufro didxans inarCuneben. genuri inJineriis gziT "gaumjobesebuli" simindis, rafsisa da soiosgan amzadeben zeTs, romelSic naklebia najeri cximebis raodenoba. "axal" kartofilsa da simindSi meti saxamebeli da naklebi wyalia. aseT kartofils Sesawvavad mcire raodenobis zeTi sWirdeba, misgan miiReba haerovani Cifsebi da kartofili `fri~, romlis SeTvisebac aramodificirebul produqtTan SedarebiT advilad xdeba. 1999 wels miRebuli "oqros" brinji gamdidrebulia karotiniT. mas ganviTarebad qveynebSi, sadac brinji kvebis ZiriTad produqts warmoadgens, bavSvebis sibrmavis profilaqtikis mizniT iyeneben. genuri inJineriis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebuli safrTxe yvela am dadebiTi argumentis miuxedavad, axal teqnologias uamravi mowinaaRmdege hyavs. oponentebi arcTu usafuZvlod miuTiTeben, rom genuri inJineria `sinjaris~ mecnierebaa. sinjaraSi Seswavlili genis Sesaxeb mxolod imis Tqma SeiZleba, Tu rogoria da rogor iqceva is am sinjaraSi. magram TiTqmis verafers vityviT mis rolsa da qcevaze Tavad mSobliur organizmSi da, miT umetes, sruliad ucxo organizmSi misi gadatanis SemTxvevaSi. maTive mtkicebiT, miuxedavad imisa, rom genuri inJineria zust meTodad moixsenieba, mis bolo stadias _ axali genis Casmas maspinZel umaRles organizmSi, aklia rogorc sizuste, aseve winaswargansazRvruloba. aravin icis, `axali geni~ romelime arsebuli genis gverdiT moTavsdeba, Tu genSi Cajdeba da daarRvevs mis funqcionirebasa da regulirebis meqanizmebs. aseve, arasakamarisia Cveni codna imis Sesaxeb, Tu gadanergilma genma konkretul ubanze moxvedrisas ra procesebi SeiZleba `CarTos~ an, piriqiT, SezRudos, genebis srul `dadumebasa~ da arastabilurobaze rom aRaraferi vTqvaT. Tanac, genuri inJineria xSirad mxolod erTi genis informaciis gadataniT ar ifargleba, rac, ra Tqma unda, riskis faqtors kidev ufro zrdis. garda amisa, genebis gadanergvas mivyavarT mcenareTa principulad axali formebis warmoqmnamde, romelTa ujredebSic winaswar ganuWvretlad SesaZlebelia moxdes adamianisTvis saSiSi nivTierebebis (toqsinebi, alergenebi da a.S.) sinTezireba, rac Secvlis rogorc TviTon sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebis Tvisebebs, aseve maTgan miiRebuli kvebis produqtebis xarisxs.

2

pesticidebi­ qimiuri nivTierebebi mavne mikro-organizmebTan, mcenareebTan da cxovelebTan brZolisaTvis. maT Soris: inseqticidebi ­ mwerebTan brZolis saSualeba; herbicidebi ­ sarevela mcenareebTan; fungicidebi ­ sokoebTan brZolis saSualebebi.

detalebSi CaRrmavebis gareSec SeiZleba vimsjeloT praqtikul soflis meurneobaSi genur-sainJinro samuSaoebis farTo danergvis potenciur safrTxeebze. saqme imaSi mdgomareobs, rom transgenuri mcenare warmoadgens axal organizms axali TvisebebiT. SeiZleba es Tvisebebi saziano aRmoCndes rogorc adamianisaTvis (magaliTad, transgenuri mcenaris sakvebSi gamoyenebisas), ise ekosistemisaTvis (magaliTad, mwerebisadmi mdgradobis geni SeiZleba gadavides mraval sxva mcenareSic, rac gamoiwvevs mwerebis populaciis gadaSenebas). transgenuri mcenareebis (da ara mxolod mcenareebis, aramed yvela genmodificirebuli organizmis ­ gmo), usafrTxoobis gamosarkvevad saWiroa xangrZlivi mravalmxrivi kvlevebi. swored rom xangrZlivi, radgan genis gadatanis Sedegebi, SesaZloa, gamovlindes rogorc gmo-s TaobebSi, aseve maTi momxmareblebis organizmebSic. amdenad, msgavsi kvlevebis sawinaaRmdego argumentebi (kerZod, `nebismieri hibridi genmodificirebul organizms warmoadgens~ an `genuri inJineria bunebrivi gagrZelebaa im bioteqnologiuri procesebisa, romelsac adamiani dasabamidan iyenebda _ Rvinis dayenebisa da puris cxobidan dawyebuli, mcenareTa da cxovelTa seleqciiT damTavrebuli~), arcTu koreqtulia. marTalia, dReisaTvis sakvebad gamoyenebuli marcvleuli Znelad Tu waagavs im velur winapars, romlisganac is adamianma xelovnuri gadarCevis gziT miiRo, magram gadarCevis tradiciuli forma Tvisobrivad gansxvavdeba genuri inJineriisagan. tradiciuli gadarCevis gamoyenebis dros jiSebi miiReba saxeobis farglebSi arsebuli genTa fondidan. bunebaSi genetikuri mravalferovneba garkveuli sazRvrebis pirobebSi iqmneba _ vardis Sejvareba SesaZlebelia gansxvavebuli jiSis vardTan, magram mas verasodes SevajvarebT kombostosTan. im SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac saxeobebi axlonaTesaur kavSirSi imyofebian da maTi Sejvareba xerxdeba, STamomavloba, rogorc wesi, unayofoa. magaliTad, cxeni SeiZleba Seejvaros virs, magaram maTi STamomavali (jori) steriluria. genuri inJineria ki arRvevs saxeobaTaSoris bariers. dReisaTvis genuri modifikaciis gziT SesaZlebelia genebis aReba da gadatana erTmaneTisagan Zalian daSorebul saxeobebs Sorisac. magaliTad, mcenareebSi SesaZlebelia baqteriebis, virusebis, mwerebis, cxovelebisa da adamianis genis gadatanac ki. xSirad imazec davoben, genebis urTierTCanacvleba sulac ar aris mecnieruli aRmoCena, vinaidan evoluciis procesSi baqteriebi da virusebi xSirad axdenen genebis Canacvlebas saxeobebs Soris. am TvalTaxedviT, genuri inJineria mxolod aCqarebs bunebriv process. magram aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom TviT cvlilebebis siCqaresac didi mniSvneloba aqvs. magaliTad, Tu imave logikiT mivudgebiT radioaqtivobas, romelic dabal dozebSi mudmivad arsebobs Cvens garSemo, maSin birTvul reaqtorSi mimdinare procesebic aseve usafrTxod SeiZleba CaiTvalos, imis safuZvelze, rom iq mxolod Cqardeba bunebrivad mimdinare fenomeni _ radioaqtiuri daSla. aseve, sadavoa mtkicebulebac, rom genetikurad Secvlili mcenareebi pesticidebis gamoyenebis Semcirebis saSualebas iZlevian. piriqiT,

herbicidebisadmi3 mdgradi sasoflo-sameurneo kulturebis gamoyeneba migviyvans Sxam-qimikatebis gamoyenebis katastroful zrdamde. Sesabamisad ki _ sxvadasxva cocxali organizmis ujredebSi mavne qimiuri nivTierebebis dagrovebamde. Tu adre fermeri pesticidebis gamoyenebas sakmaod frTxilad ekideboda, fiqrobda ra, pirvel rigSi sakuTari mosavlis raodenobis Semcirebis saSiSroebaze, dRes, rodesac genmodificirebul mcenareebs maTi aRar "eSiniaT", es SezRudva ukve aRar arsebobs. 1998 wels msoflioSi transgenur mcenareTa saerTo farTobis 71%-s swored herbicid-rezistentuli jiSebi Seadgendnen. aman xeli Seuwyo herbicidebis warmoebis zrdas. amasTan, mwarmoebeli kompaniebi moiTxoven gen-modificirebul kulturebSi am qimikatebis Semcvelobis zRvrulad dasaSvebi normis gazrdas. magaliTad, `monsantom~ evropasa da aSS-Si ukve miiRo genuri inJineriiT miRebuli soioSi herbicidebis narCenebis Semcvelobis samjer gazrdis nebarTva. ZiriTadi kiTxva: usafrTxoa Tu ara adamianisTvis genetikuri modifikaciis safuZvelze miRebuli kvebis produqtebi, _ jerjerobiT kvlav erTmniSvnelovani pasuxis gareSe rCeba. Tumca bolo wlebSi

cnobili gaxda zogierTi gamokvlevis Sedegebi, romlebic cocxal organizmebze gen-modificirebuli produqtebis uaryofiT zegavlenas adasturebs.

britanelma mecnierma, q. aberdinis saxelmwifo institut rovetis (Rowett) profesorma arpad puStaim (Arpad Pusztai) 1998 wlis aprilSi satelevizio interviuSi ganacxada, rom mis mier Catarebulma eqsperimentebma gamoavlines Seuqcevadi cvlilebebi gen-modificirebuli kartofiliT gamokvebili virTxebis organizmSi: maT dauqveiTdaT imunuri sistema da aRmoaCndaT Sinagani organoebis funqcionirebis sxvadasxva saxis darRvevebi. mecnieris aRniSnuli gancxadeba gaxda "cru, fsevdomecnieruli informaciis gavrcelebis" sababiT misi samsaxuridan ganTavisuflebis safuZveli. Tumca, 1999 wlis TebervalSi cnobili mecnierebis 20-kacianma jgufma, safuZvliani gamokvlevis Semdeg, gamoaqveyna daskvna puStais samuSaos Taobaze, romelSic mTlianad dasturdeboda mis mier miRebuli Sedegebis sandooba. didi britaneTis soflis meurneobis ministri iZulebuli gaxda eRiarebina puStais eqsperimentebis Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebis mizanSewoniloba da ganexila winaswari licenzirebisa da mravalmxrivi gamokvlevebis gareSe gen-modificirebuli produqtebis realizaciis akrZalvis sakiTxi. sifrTxile gen-modificirebul produqtebTan midgomaSi kidev ufro gaizarda 1999 wels, mas Semdeg rac did britaneTSi, iorkis kvebis produqtebis kvlevis laboratoriaSi (York Nutritional Laboratory), aRmoCenil iqna, rom soioTi gamowveuli alergiisa da saWmlis momnelebeli sistemis funqciis darRvevis SemTxvevebi mniSvnelovnad gaxSirda bolo ori wlis ganmavlobaSi. amasTan, gamovlinda, rom gen-modificirebuli soios erTerTi saxeoba saSiSia im adamianebisTvis, romelTac alergia aqvT Txilis mimarT. es gen-modificirebuli produqti miRebul iqna Teslis erT-erTi

Hherbicidebi _ (laT. herba ­ balaxi, caedo ­ vklav) qimiuri niviTierebebebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba sarevela mcenareebis winaaRmdeg.

3

umsxvilesi mwarmoebeli kompaniis "Pioneer Hybrid International"-is mier soios dnm-Si aminomJavebiT mdidari braziliuri Txilis genis Seyvanis Sedegad. kompania iZulebuli gaxda dazaralebulTaTvis kompensacia gadaexada, proeqti ki SeeCerebina. gen-modificirebuli produqtebis komponentebi SeiZleba aRmoCndes ara mxolod alergenebi, aramed maRaltoqsikurebic anu qimiurad saSiSi cocxali organizmebisaTvis. ase, magaliTad, mxolod ramdenime wlis moxmarebis Semdeg gaxda cnobili aspartamis saxeliT gavrcelebuli kvebis danamatiT gamowveuli seriozuli gverdiTi movlenebis Taobaze. aspartami mravali wlis manZilze sruliad usafrTxod iTvleboda da kvebisa da farmacevtul warmoebaSi misi gamoyeneba 100-ze met qveyanaSi iyo daSvebuli. aspartami, rogorc Saqris Semcvleli, rekomendirebuli iyo Saqris diabetiT daavadebulTaTvis, aseve maTTvis, visac awuxebda simsuqnis problema an surda Tavidan aeciebina kariesi. mas iyenebdnen 5 aTasze meti dasaxelebis produqciis warmoebaSi (maT Soris, ualkoholo sasmelebis _ "Coca-cola light", "Pepsi-cola light", iogurtis, rZiani desertebis, nayinis, saReWi rezinebis da sxv.). gen-modificirebul sakvebTan dakavSirebiT erT-erT mniSvnelovan sakiTxs antibiotikebisadmi mdgradoba warmoadgens. bioinJinerul teqnologiebSi am samkurnalo preparatebisadmi mdgradi genebi mravali wlis manZilze gamoiyeneba markerebis saxiT imis gamosavlenad, Cainerga Tu ara axali Tviseba modificirebul produqtSi. ase, magaliTad, pomidvris jiSis "Flavr Savr"-is gamoyvanisas gamoiyeneba kanamicinisadmi mdgradi geni, xolo genetikurad modificirebuli simindisas _ ampicilinisadmi. samwuxarod, jer kidev ver moiZebna transformaciis Semdeg am markeruli genebis mocilebis saSualeba. swored gen-modificirebul produqtebSi maTi arseboba iwvevs medikosebis SeSfoTebas, vinaidan aRniSnuli geni SeiZleba gadaeces daavadebis gamomwvev baqteriebs, romlebic mdgradebi gaxdebian konkretuli jgufis antibiotikebis mimarT. aseTi supermikrobebis warmoqmnam SeiZleba migviyvanos iseTi daavadebebis gavrcelebamde, romelTa gankurnebac arsebuli medikamentebis saSualebiT SeuZlebeli gaxdeba. amrigad, genetikuri sakvebis momxreTa da mowinaaRmdegeTa argumentebis safuZvelze jerjerobiT erTmniSvnelovani daskvnis gamotana SeuZlebelia. danamdvilebiT (sabolood) veravin amtkicebs rogorc gen-modificirebuli produqtebis usafrTxoebas, ise mis saziano Tvisebebs. amis miuxedavad, misi amjobinebs sul ufro da ufro meti momxre amjobinebs "sifrTxilis princips". swored aseTi midgoma

warmoadgens gaeros biologiuri mravalferovnebis Sesaxeb konvenciis biologiuri usafrTxoebis protokolis saxelmZRvanelo princips.

protokolis mixedviT, jer unda damtkicdes genetikuri gziT miRebuli organizmebis usafrTxoeba da mxolod amis Semdeg unda moxdes maTi vargisianobis aRiareba. axali medikamentebis moxmarebiT gamowveuli seriozuli ukuCvenebis 10%-ze meti jer kidev Seuswavlelia. amitom, SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom msoflio Tanasazogadoebis sul ufro da ufro meti qveyana acxadebs

uars rekombinantuli dnm-is Semcveli produqtebis komerciul warmoebaze, Semotanasa da moxmarebaze. bevr qveyanaSi nawilobriv an mTlianad aikrZala gen-modificirebuli produqtebis gamoyeneba usafrTxoebaze Sesabamisi Semowmebis gavlis gareSe. amis garda, miRebulia sakanonmdeblo aqtebi, romlebiTac reglamentirebulia gen-modificirebuli warmoSobis produqciis savaldebulo markireba. es zrdis kvebis produqtebis wamomavlobaze myidvelis informirebis dones da mas saSualeba eZleva Tavad gaakeTos arCevani. evrokavSirSi miRebuli wesebis Tanaxmad, kvebis produqtebSi genetikurad Secvlili komponentebis etiketze ar miTiTeba nebadarTulia mxolod maTi 1%-mde Semcvelobis SemTxvevaSi. genuri inJineria da biomravalferovneba genuri inJineriiT miRebuli organizmebis gavrceleba biomravalferovnebisaTvis iseTive saSiSroebas warmoadgens, rogorc ucxo saxeobebis Casaxleba axal garemoSi. genuri inJineriis saSualebiT marilebisadmi mdgradobis Tvisebas nergaven iseT ZiriTad saarsebo kulturebSi, rogorebicaa brinji da xorbali. ase rom, SesaZlebeli iqneba am kulturebis moyvana mlaSe niadagebzec, iq, sadac adre mxolod aseT pirobebs Seguebuli adgilobrivi jiSebi mohyavdaT. axali niSanTviseba, romelsac transgenuri mcenareebi SeiZenen, maT ufro konkurentunarians gaxdis adgilobriv jiSebTan SedarebiT, ramac SesaZlebelia seriozuli ekologiuri darRvevebi gamoiwvios. aSS-Si gadaSenebis piras myofi mcenareebis 42% gansakuTrebuli riskis qveSaa ucxo saxeobebis farTod gavrcelebis gamo. aSS-is Sida saqmeebis departamentis monacemebiT, qveyanas maTi dacva yovelwliurad sul mcire 123 miliardi dolari mainc ujdeba. bolo drois monacemebis mixedviT, yovelwliurad msoflioSi TiTqmis 30 saxeoba ikargeba. gaerTianebuli erebis kvebisa da soflis meurneobis organizaciis gamokvlevis Tanaxmad sasoflo-samneurneo kulturebis 75% jer kidev wina saukunis dasawyisSi daikarga. es tendencia axlac grZeldeba da kidev ufro mZafrdeba transgenuri kulturebis damkvidrebasTan erTad, radgan genuri inJineria monokulturebis Seqmnis teqnologiaa. monokultura genetikur erTgvarovnebas niSnavs, genetikurad erTgvarovani kulturebis naTesebi ki bevrad mgrZnobiareni arian daavadebisa Tu garemos araxelsayreli pirobebis mimarT. magaliTad, XIX saukuneSi gavrcelebulma daavadebam erTianad gaanadgura irlandiis kartofilis naTesebi maTi genetikuri erTgvarovnebis gamo. maSin, rodesac andebSi, sadac kartofilis 46-ze meti saxeoba iyo gavrcelebuli, avadmyofobam mxolod zogierTi maTgani daaziana, mTliani mosavali ki gadarCa. SemdgomSi, andebis kartofilis saxeobebi evropaSi am kulturis mravalferovnebis aRsadgenad gamoiyenes. tradiciuli gagebiT biomravalferovneba mosaxleobis sakvebiT uzrunvelyofis safuZvelia. rac ufro mravalferovania agrosamrewvelo sistema, miT ufro advilad umklavdeba is mavneblebs, daavadebebs Tu klimatur cvlilebebs, romlebic umTavresad mxolod garkveul jiSebze moqmedeben. aTaswleulebis manZilze miwaTmoqmedebi msoflios yvela

kuTxeSi mavneblebisagan, sokovani da virusuli daavadebebisagan mosavlis dasacavad iyenebdnen soflis meurneobis bunebasTan miaxloebul, organul meTodebs. erT-erT aseT meTods swored rTuli mravalkulturiani (erT nakveTze 20-mde sxvadasxva kultura) sitemebis gamoyeneba warmoadgenda. genuri inJineria da mosaxleobis sursaTiT uzrunvelyofa Tanamedroveobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi problema kvebis produqtebis xarisxis amaRleba da raodenobis gazrdaa. bioinJineriis mimdevrebi amtkiceben, rom gen-modificirebuli kulturebi gamoirCevian SedarebiT (15-25%-iT) maRali mosavlianobiT da maT SeswevT unari ixsnan planetis mudmivad mzardi (yovelwliurad 88 milioniT) mosaxleoba gardauvali SimSilisagan. im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu genuri inJineria SeZlebs Seasrulos Tavisi danapirebi uxvmosavlianobasa da daavadebebis mimarT mdgradobasTan dakavSirebiT, msoflios moSimSile adamianebs amiT ar eSvelebaT, radgan genuri inJineria SimSilis mizezebs ver aRmofxvris. mosazreba, rom es rTuli problema bioteqnologiuri panaceis daxmarebiT gadaiWreba, saSualebas aZlevs mTavrobasa da mrewvelebs Tavi aaridon politikuri da socialuri uTanasworobis problemebs, romlebic uSualod arian SimSilis gamomwvevi mizezebi. cxadia, genuri inJineriis gamoyenebiT miRebuli produqcia ufro wminda komerciul interesebs akmayofilebs, xolo SimSilobis mizezi ara imdenad sursaT-sanovagis ukmarisobaa, ramdenadac misi ganawilebis sistemis mankiereba. gaerTianebuli erebis msoflio sasursaTo programis monacemebis mixedviT, amaJamad, msoflioSi warmoebuli produqcia 1.5-jer aRemateba sakvebis im maqsimalur odenobas, romelic dedamiwis mosaxleobis gamokvebisTvisaa saWiro. amave dros ki, yoveli meSvide adamiani SimSilobs. · 1984 wels, rodesac eTiopiaSi SimSili mZvinvarebda, saukeTeso sasoflo-sameurneo miwebze gaerTianebuli samefosa da evropis sxva qveynebSi eqsportisaTvis gankuTvnili safuraJe kulturebi iyo daTesili. imavdroulad, evropaSi yava, xorci, xili da bostneulic gahqondaT. 1997 wlis gamokvlevebis mixedviT xuTi wlis bavSvebis 78%, romlebsac sakmarisi sakvebi ara aqvT, swored im qveynebSi cxovrobs, sadac sakvebi produqtebis warmoeba moTxovnilebas bevrad aWarbebs.

·

magram ZiriTadi problema mainc isaa, rom mosaxleobis zrdasTan erTad yovelwliurad mcirdeba soflis meurneobisaTvis vargisi farTobebi _ garda imisa, rom urbanizaciis Sedegad aTasobiT heqtari asfaltiT ifareba, darCenili sasoflo-sameurneo miwebi umTavresad erozirebuli an danagvianebulia. am problemebis gadaWras axali sasoflo-sameurneo politikisa da midgomis SemuSaveba sWirdeba. gamosavals SeiZleba warmoadgendes ekologiuri miwaTmoqmedeba, romlis ZiriTadi principebia: - adgilobriv garemo pirobebTan Seguebuli kulturebis moyvana;

-

-

agrobiomravalferovnebis dacva da SenarCeuneba SeTesvisa da Teslbrunvis saSualebiT: niadagis degradirebisa da masSi arsebuli sakvebi nivTierebis danakargebis minimumamde dayvana. niadagis nayofierebis gaumjobeseba organuli sasuqis _ nakelisa da kompostis gamoyenebiT; meurneobis Sida resursebis maqsimaluri gamoyeneba. bunebrivi resursebisadmi frTxili damokidebuleba.

problemis gadawyvetis saukeTeso magaliTi kubam mogvca. 1989 wlamde am qveynisTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo arseboba didi samrewvelo fermebisa, romlebic mTlianad importirebul sasoflo-sameurneo teqnikasa da agroqimikatebze iyvnen damokidebulni. aseve, qveynis sasursaTo momaragebis naxevari importze modioda. socialisturi (sabWoTa) sistemis moSlasTan erTad gawyda arsebuli savaWro kavSirebi. amasTan erTad, aSSis mier dawesebulma savaWro embargom qveyana mZime sasursaTo krizisSi Caagdo da kubis mTavroba iZulebuli gaxda alternatiuli sasoflosameurneo sistemebisTvis miemarTa. miwis reformis Semdeg sasoflosameurneo savargulebi mcire fermerebs gadaecaT, romelTa nawili ekologiur miwaTmoqmedebaze gadavida. amJamad, kubaSi 5 milioni ha sasoflo-sameurneo farTidan 1 mln. ekofermerebs uWiravT. qveyana gamovida sasursaTo krizisidan da aRar saWiroebs ZviradRirebuli agroqimiuri saSualebebis imports. 1999 wels kubis ekologiuri miwaTmoqmedebis ganviTarebis xelSemwyob organizacias sasursaTo uzrunvelyofis saukeTeso modelis SeqmnisTvis alternatiuli nobelis premia _ « The Right Livelihood Award » _ gadaeca. rodeilis sasoflo-sameurneo sistemebis Seswavlis institutis 14wlianma gamokvlevam aCvena, rom ekologiuri miwaTmoqmedebis meTodebze gadasvlisas mosavlis danakargs (daaxloebiT 25%) adgili aqvs mxolod pirveli 4 wlis ganmavlobaSi, Semdgom wlebSi ki mosavali konvenciurs4 utoldeba. amasTan, stresul pirobebSi mosavlis danakargi ekologiur sistemebSi gacilebiT naklebia.

gamoyenebuli literatura : 1. "Monsanto Sues North American Farmers", Friends of the Earth Biotech Mailout, Volume 5, Issue 2, 15th March 1999. www.foeeurope.org/programmes/biotechnology/5n2_frames.htm; 2. "Genetic Engeneering and World Hunger", Corner Hous Briefing 10, October 1998; 3. "IFOAM-2000 ­ 13th Scientific Conference of IFOAM in Basel, Proceeding of the conference; 4. Vandana Shiva, Biopiracy: The plunder of Nature and Knowledge, Green Books, 1998, p.73; . // . ­ 2003. - 5 (8).

konvenciuri (meurneoba) ­ Cveulebrivi meurneoba, sadac SezRuduli araa qimiuri an sxva saSualebebis gamoyeneba.

4

Information

Microsoft Word - genuri inJineria_20.04.05.doc

9 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

954475


You might also be interested in

BETA
Microsoft Word - genuri inJineria_20.04.05.doc