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AFIP 2007-2008 Conference 14, Slide 3 Tissue from a dog.

What is the tissue? Striated muscle.

4 - low power

What is abnormal?

5 - low power

What is abnormal?

Necrotic muscle 6 - low power fibers are hypereosinophilic (brighter pink) and have pyknotic nuclei.

Fibrosis -- fibroblasts in wispy fibrillar matrix.

Regenerating fiber -multiple nuclei arranged in a row at periphery of sarcoplasm.

7 - regen

Fibrosis -- fibroblasts in wispy fibrillar matrix.

Macrophages eating up necrotic fibers.

8-

Degenerate fibers -- centrally displaced nuclei are a feature of degenerating fibers.

Fibrosis

10 -macrophages

Macrophages eating up necrotic fibers.

11 - macropages

Macrophages eating up necrotic fibers.

12 - mineralization

Mineralization of myofibers. Mineralization appears blue or purple with an H&E stain.

Contributor's Morphologic Diagnosis: Diaphragm ­ Severe, diffuse, myodegeneration and necrosis with mineralization and fibrosis and on-going myoregeneration (muscular dystrophy).

X-linked muscular dystrophy

· A genetic disease resulting in abnormal, deficient, or absent dystrophin protein. · First described in Golden Retreivers, has since been found in many other breeds.

X-linked muscular dystrophy

· A genetic disease resulting in abnormal, deficient, or absent dystrophin protein. · First described in Golden Retreivers, has since been found in many other breeds.

X-linked muscular dystrophy

· Different genetic mutations, eg different sized deletions, can lead to variable severity of disease and different presentations. · Clinical signs can include weakness, exercise intolerance, muscle atrophy, dysphagia.

· The following images come from:

Baltzer WI, Calise DV, Levine JM, Shelton GD, Edwards JF, Steiner JM. "Dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy in a Weimaraner." J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2007 Jul-Aug;43(4):227-32.

· This dog is a neat case, so check out this paper!

Note the following abnormal findings: · Variation in fiber size (cross sectional area) · Endomysial fibrosis · Centrally placed nuclei.

Immunohistochemistry for dystrophin 1 (Image B) shows rare positive brown staining (arrow) and no positive staining for dystrophin 2 (Image C). In normal dog muscle all myofibers would stain positive (brown) for dystrophin proteins.

Visit the AFIP WSC website for more cases! http://vp5.afip.org/dodvpr/wsc.php

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