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An overview of education in West Bengal (Draft)

AN OVERVIEW OF THE PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION IN WEST BENGAL

CONTENTS Pages Abbreviations.................................................................3 Preface...........................................................................5 I. 1.1 1.2 1.3 Introduction....................................................................................... 6 Evolution of Elementary and Secondary School Education in West Bengal SchoolEducation in West Bengal School Education in Kolkata

II 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

2.5

Overall Structure of School Education................................11 Different Departments of Education Educational Administration in the State KMC-run Schools Different Bodies in the Education System 2.4.1 West Bengal Board of Primary Education 2.4.1.1 District Primary School Council 2.4.1.2 State-KMC Education Department Linkage 2.4.2 West Bengal Board of Secondary Education 2.4.3 West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education 2.4.4 Rabindra Mukta Vidyalaya 2.4.5 DPEP and SSM 2.4.5.1 District Primary Education Programme 2.4.5.2 Sarva Shiksha Mission 2.4.5.3 Link between DPEP and SSM 2.4.6 Structure of Education in Other Urban Local Bodies The Domain of Private Schools 2.5.1 West Bengal Non Government School Organizer's Association (WBNGSOA)

III School Regulations.........................................................................31 3.1 The West Bengal Board of Secondary Education Act, 1963 3.1.1 Regulations for Anglo-Indian and Other Listed Schools 3.1.2 The Merits and Demerits of these Codes 3.2 Private Schools Seeking Affiliation under WBBSE without Government Aid. 3.2.1 Analysis of the Codes by WBNGSOA 3.2.2 Private Schools applying for Affiliation under ICSE/CBSE 3.3 West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education, 1994 3.4 West Bengal Board of Primary Education Act, 1973

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An overview of School Education in West Bengal (Draft)

IV

Incentive Schemes............................................................................36 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Projects under DPEP & SSM Department of School education, Govt. of West Bengal Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India Ministry of Women & Child Development and Social Justice, Govt. of India Central Government National Child Labour Project, Ministry of Labour Govt. of India Schemes provided by Anglo-Indian Schools

V 5.1 5.2

Cost of Education..............................................................................43 Cost of Education in Private Schools Per Child Cost of Children Studying in Government Sponsored Schools and Government Schools Incurred by the Parents

VI

Quality of Education.........................................................................47 6.1 Indicators to Assess Quality of Education 6.1.1 Case Study 62 School Infrastructure 6.3 Result of Madhyamik Examination 6.4 Enrolment in Schools 6.5 Teacher Student Ratio 6.6 Drop-out Rate 6.7 Quality of Primary Education Conclusion.......................................................................................52 Bibliography.......................................................................................53

VII VIII

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ABBREVIATIONS

WBBPE ICSE CBSE NGO KMC MMIC DMC EO Dy. EO DPSC ADSE AI SI DI SSM DPEP WBBSE DA SC/ST RMV DFID DM DPO ADI WBNGSOA DDSE AIS NOC MC NABARD RIDF MPLADS BADP SRGEDUC TSC EGS AIE SSK SSP MSK NPEGEL KGBV

West Bengal Board of Primary Education Indian Council for Secondary Education Central Board of Secondary Education Non-Government Organization Kolkata Municipal Corporation Member mayor-in-Council Deputy Municipal Commissioner Education Officer Deputy Education Officer District Primary School Education Assistant Director School Education Assistant Inspector Sub-Inspector District Inspector Sarva Shiksha Mission District Primary Education Programme West Bengal Board of Secondary Education Dearness Allowance Schedule Caste/Schedule Tribe Rabindra Mukta Vidhyalaya Department For International Development District Magistrate District Project Officer Additional District Inspector West Bengal Non Government School Organizer's Association Director, Department of School Education Assistant Inspector of Schools No Objection Certificate Managing Committee National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development Rural Infrastructure Development Fund Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme Boarder Area Development Program State Resource Group on Education for Deprived Urban Children Total Sanitation Campaign Education Guarantee Scheme Alternate and Innovative Education Sishu Shiksha Kendra Sishu Shiksha Prakalpa Madhyamik Shiksha Kendra National Programme of Education for Girls at Elementary Level Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidalaya

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An overview of School Education in West Bengal (Draft)

TLM OBC PWD BPL BSY NCLP NSSO IIM CBO LD

Teaching Learning Material Other Backward Classes Persons With Disability Below Poverty Line Balika Samridhi Yojona National Child Labour Programme National Sample Survey Organisation Indian Institute of Management Community based Organisations Lower Division Clerk

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PREFACE

Education for All means a quality education for all. Education in one way or the other is a necessary and universal feature of society by which every generation transmits to the next its social heritage; it is essentially an agency of social control both in its conservative and innovative aspects. The influence that education exerts on society and society on education, can lead us to believe that one of the most effective ways to discovering the goals and ideals of society is to study its educational system. Though education of students concerns society yet it is the duty of the state to help, supervise and co-ordinate. It is only by the concerted action of all that illiteracy can be wiped out. Recent research shows that a large number of school children in selected poor urban, periurban and rural areas of India are now moving towards a trend of enrolling in private schools. The research also indicates that the parents from poor backgrounds are willingly investing in private schools to ensure quality learning by their children. This draft document is an overview of education (private and public) in West Bengal. It highlights the structure of school education; school regulations; incentive schemes; cost of education and quality of education in West Bengal. This draft document is based on secondary data, few sample surveys and dialogue and discussion with stakeholders. The document requires further strengthening from various stakeholders for it to be further enriched. We hope that this draft document will serve to steer the thinking of the various stakeholders towards understanding public and private partnerships in ensuring quality education and retention of all children in West Bengal.

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I Introduction 1.1 Evolution of Elementary and Secondary Education in West Bengal. Professor B.C. Rai, in his book "History of Indian Education and Problems" has mentioned that Bengal has always been a centre of educational interest. The people of Bengal have historically had a deep quest for knowledge. The impact of the British rule and modern western culture was first felt in Bengal in general and particularly in Calcutta. For about a century, Calcutta's conscious awareness of the changing modern world was more developed than in other parts of the country. The evolution of education in Bengal can be traced over several centuries. During the mid 11th century- Nadia, then called Navadweep, developed in learning and culture in addition to trade and commerce. It had played an important role in the development of Education in Bengal and brought it to prominence in the medieval period. In fact, evidence shows there were 4000 students and 600 teachers in the Nadia University. The influence of Dutch education was found near Chinsura and Hooghli in Bengal, in the 17th century. The Dutch had gone there in connection to trade and had established several factories in this area. They also started some schools for the children of their factory workers. Though we know very little about the status of school education in the 18th century, we do know that the British appointed a committee to conduct a survey on the actual position of education in India in the 19th century, mainly in three cities, then called Madras, Bombay and Calcutta (Kolkata). The first survey conducted by Sir William Adam, an energetic and enthusiastic missionary, from 1835 to 1838, mentioned the prevalence of primary education in Bengal at that time. According to him there were primary schools (pathshala) in all villages of Bengal. The students began their education at the age of 8 years and studied up to the age of 14 years. The cost of education was low and schools were accessible to all children in this period. The nineteenth century Calcutta witnessed the growth of Western education, development of modern bangla prose, attempts to make social reforms and some initiatives for the welfare of women. All these were regarded as "renaissance" in one word. The Calcuttans responded very differently to the British rule, while some people regarded it as shameful, which should be protested, others thought that Calcutta would be benefitted by them and that would pave the way for the spread of Western Education. Calcutta (Kolkata) played a pioneering role in the development of the modern education system in India. The Western models of education came to India through Calcutta (Kolkata). Several of the first schools, established by the missionaries and reformists were in Calcutta (Kolkata). Personalities such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, David Hare, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and William Carey played a key role in establishing modern schools and colleges in Bengal. Some renowned institutions established in Calcutta during the mid 19th century were the La Martiniere Schools, established in 1836; Bethune school for girls in 1850 by John Bethune to promote womens education; United Missionaries Girls high School established in 1855 and many more throughout Bengal and especially in Kolkata.

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The East India Company at this time felt that the responsibility of education could no longer be neglected in India and hence a Parliamentary Committee1 was appointed to survey the educational progress in India. The Woods Dispatch under the able Chairmanship of Mr Adam Wood was appointed in 1854. The dispatch emphasized on gradation of schools like- primary schools, middle schools, high schools, colleges and universities. It also introduced Grants-in-aid, teacher's training, women education and vocational education. The education system was then upgraded through various reforms based on the recommendations of many such dispatches and commissions. The Gokhale's Resolution on Indian Education (1911 and 1913) which emphasized free and compulsory elementary education for all children between the age group of 6 to 10 years was one such resolution. The Post Second World War period witnessed a change in the administrative responsibilities of the British government. The closer India came towards independence, the British Government started moulding the Government of India by transferring powers of running the various depatments. It was then that the respective provinces had their own Education Ministers as a part of the Diarchy introduced in the provinces in1921. Various schemes of educational expansion and administration were undertaken. The `Compulsory Education Act' was one such scheme which was passed to enforce primary education. In Bengal it was passed in 1930. The local authorities at the provincial level were first entrusted with the charge of primary education and later permitted to develop other educational programmes at their discretion. The private educational institutes evolved during the British India period and played an important role in secondary and tertiary education. With independence in 1947, came the realization of entrusting responsibilities of education largely on the state Government and local authorities, especially to encounter the vast diversities of the country. Article 45 of our Constitution states that the State shall endeavour to provide free and compulsory education for all children until they are 14 years of age. The 83rd Amendment of our Constitution approves Education as a Fundamental Right. In addition, the National Policy on Education, 1986 ensures free and compulsory Elementary Education with better quality. In West Bengal now, schools are run by the State Government or the Municipal 2 Corporations or by private organizations, including religious institutions, which continuously try to bring all children between the age group of 5 to 14 years under the purview of elementary education.

1 2

. History Of Indian Education, By Prof. B.C Rai Sector Research: India- Education, May 2007, Internal Reference Document, By Copal Partners

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School Education in West Bengal India's educational development is a mixed bag of remarkable successes and glaring gaps. In the postindependence period, the pace of educational development was unprecedented by any standards. At the same time, perhaps, the policy focus and public intervention in the provisioning of educational services was not adequately focused or, even misplaced, to the extent that even after over five decades of planned effort in the sector, nearly one-third of the population or close to 300 million persons in age-group 7 years and above are illiterate. There are critical gaps in the availability of infrastructural facilities and qualitative aspects of education including, teachers training, educational curricula, equipments and training materials, particularly, in the publicly funded schooling system of the country. The attainments, and the failures have not been uniform across all regions. Though the regional differences are indeed striking, there has been a significant reduction in inequalities in educational attainments across gender and population segments by income levels and the rural-urban divide. West Bengal, one of the most densely populated states in the country with a population density of 904 persons per sq. km. (as per the 2001 census) is severely affected by very low literacy rates. There are various historical, sociological and economic factors that can be credited for such high population density. Therefore making provision of basic infrastructure such as health and education a very challenging task since high population tends to affect per capita resource allocation which in turn affects the effectiveness and efficacy of the use to which this allocated resource is put. Inspite of the population pressure, West Bengal has made considerable progress in the field of literacy and school education. The present literacy rate is 68.2% as per the 2001 census; it was 57.7% in 1991 and 48.6 % in 1981, showing an increase in the rate of literacy. Between 1981 and 1991 the increased rate of literacy was 5.1%, while it almost doubled between 1991 and 2001, to 10.5%. A significant share of the credit goes to the campaign on total literacy and to schooling for all children to achieve the goal of `education for all'. The school education system in West Bengal tries to ensure education for all children, reduce the drop-out rate and provide qualitative education. However, inspite of the significant improvements in the enrolment ratios and dropout rates it is estimated that almost 10 lakh children in West Bengal are out of school. An article on a study conducted all over India revealed that West Bengal tops the list of school drop outs. The article specified that, of the 19 districts in West Bengal, 9 have a drop out rate of over 50,000 children in the age group of 6-14 years. The article also highlights the glaring 9.61 lakh out of school children (in the same age group) in comparison to Bihars 6.98 lakh children.

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Times of India, Kolkata

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The break up of the number of drop-outs in the 9 most vulnerable districts is as follows: SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 NAME OF THE DISTRICT MALDA NORTH 24 PARGANAS SOUTH 24 PARGANAS BURDHWAN UTTAR DINAJPUR PURULIA BANKURA BIRBHUM MURSHIDABAD TOTAL NO. OF DROP OUTS 1,59,597 1,40,147 72,611 1,07,512 1,03,086 70,971 62,671 60,573 1,84,103 9,61,271

The following table highlights the total number of districts in West Bengal and their lietracy rates viz a viz the total poulation and number of institutions: Total Population of the Districts with Literacy Rate and Number of Schools Sl.No. Districts Total Population Number of Schools 72.9 1429 63.6 2285 67.2 2073 48.6 1622 64.5 1364 50.7 2222 55.0 3687 62.2 2780 71.0 4883 66.6. 3042 78.5 4834 75.6 3618 63.8 3912 56.1 3311 75.2 9269 ** 77.6 2636 81.3 2218 70.2 4354 Report 2005-06, Dept. of School Literacy Rate

1 Darjeeling 1,605,900 2 Jalpaiguri 3,403,204 3 Koch Behar 2,478,280 4 Uttar Dinajpur 2,441,824 5 Dakshin Dinajpur 1,502,647 6 Maldah 3,290,160 7 Murshidabad 5,863,717 8 Birbhum 3,012,546 9 Bardhaman 6,919,698 10 Nadia 4,603,756 11 North 24 Parganas 8,930,295 12 Hoogli 5,040,047 13 Bankura 3,191,822 14 Purulia 2,535,233 15 Medinipur * 9,638,473 16 Howrah 4,274,010 17 Kolkata 4,580,544 18 South 24 Parganas 6,909,015 Source: Census Report, 2001 and Annual Education, Govt. of West Bengal. * Both, East and West Medinipur ** Combined

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The table below shows the number of schools in West Bengal in the different categories: SN District Primary Schools Upper Primary Schools 115 128 83 64 30 107 88 117 68 74 71 236 117 117 155 203 113 194 72 2152 Secondary Schools Higher Secondary Schools 117 261 113 68 42 92 177 183 93 262 81 192 140 164 387 172 97 204 55 2900 Total Number of Schools 3904 4876 2779 2006 1337 1423 2636 3617 2285 2183 2221 5385 3687 3035 4832 3882 3308 4350 1622 59368 Degree Colleges having XI & XII 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 2 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 TOTAL

Bankura Burdhwan Birbhum Cooch Behar Dakshin Dinajpur Darjeeling Haora Hoogly Jalpaiguri Kolkata Maldah Paschim Mednipur Murshibad Nadia North 24Parganas Purba Medinipur Purulia South 24 Parganas Uttar Dinajpur WEST BENGAL

3452 4004 2368 1756 1164 1132 2090 2962 1968 1531 1880 4612 3163 2551 3795 3205 2958 3562 1424 49577

220 483 215 118 101 92 281 355 156 316 189 345 267 203 495 302 140 390 71 4739

The table above clearly indicates that the numbers of upper primary, secondary and higher secondary schools are insufficient to cater to the number of children passing out from nearly 50,000 primary schools. It also indicates that a large number of children are bound to drop out of the formal schooling system after class IV due to the lack of adequate upper primary schools. The figures in the table also reflect that those children who are able to raech the secondary level are at high risk of dropping out due to the insufficient numbers of higher secondary schools.

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School Education in Kolkata Being the capital of West Bengal, Kolkata has always been a densely populated district with 24760 persons per sq. km. (as stated by the 2001 census.) The city is spread over 187 sq. km. and has the largest municipal corporation, in comparison to other cities (the Kolkata Municipal Corporation) as its local body. It is divided into 141 municipal wards. With the highest literacy rate of 81.31% among the nineteen districts of West Bengal, Kolkata has spearheaded in the field of education. 15484 primary schools run by the West Bengal Board of Primary Education (WBBPE), 2425 Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) run primary schools, 746 upper primary schools, 3307 Secondary schools and 2828 Higher Secondary schools cater to the school education field. In addition, there are 1079 schools affiliated to the ICSE Board, 1110 schools affiliated to the CBSE and 911 Kendriya Vidyalaya schools also under the CBSE. Several Montessori schools have mushroomed which address school education at the preprimary level. Eight High Madarasas and one Senior Madarasa facilitate school education to many minority students in the city. II Overall Structure of School Education 2.1 Different Departments of Education:

Mass Education Extension & Library Science _____________________________________________________________ Minister-in-Charge Minister-in-Charge Minister-in-Charge Minister-in-Charge Additional Chief Secy Principal Secretary Principal Secretary Principal Secretary Director of Public Director of School Director of Technical Director of Mass Instruction Education Education Education

Higher Education

School Education

Technical Education And Training

4

According to Annual Report of Dept. of School Education, Govt.of WB, 2005-06 As per the official document of KMC 6 As per the Annual Report of Dept. of School Education, Govt. of WB, 2005-06 7 As per the Annual Report of Dept. of School Education, Govt. of WB, 2005-06 8 As per the Annual Report of School Education Dept, Govt.of WB,2005-06 9 As per the Annual Report of School Education Dept., Govt. of WB, 2003-04 & 2005-06 10 As per the Annual Report of School Education Dept., Govt. of WB, 2003-04 & 2005-06 11 As per the Annual Report of School Education Dept., Govt. of WB, 2003-04 & 2005-06

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2.2 Educational Administration in the State The Minister-in-Charge of School Education along with the Secretary and Secretariat is responsible for planning and policy-making in all matters pertaining to School Education, while the Directorate of School Education implements the policies of the government through Inspectorates located at various tiers- districts, sub-divisions and circles.

Minister-in-Charge of School Education Principal Secretary _________________________________________________ Secretariat Directorate of School Education

The School Education Department, formed in 1977, by the division of the erstwhile Education Department of the State into School Education Department and Higher Education Department, is responsible for the formal school education system including Primary Education, Secondary Education, Higher Secondary Education, Madarasa Education, Sanskrit, Anglo-Indian Education and other minorities' education.

The entire school education system has a dual control. The syllabus and the curriculum as well as the final evaluation are administered by the respective Boards. These Boards, namely the Indian Council for Secondary Education (ICSE) and the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) determine the syllabi and curriculum followed in affiliated schools. The Boards hold annual examinations nation-wide, and are in charge of systematic and correct evaluation; publication of results and issuing mark sheets and migration certificates. Examiners of the ICSE and CBSE Boards, follow a standardized system of evaluation and awarding marks. School recognition and affiliation related issues are also looked after by the said autonomous bodies under the overall guidance of the School Education Department. The financial aspects and service benefits of teachers and staff are administered by the Department of School Education through the Directorate and Inspectorate. The department, additionally emphasizes recognition of new schools, setting up of new schools, up-gradation of schools in case of Government funded schools and also setting up of Anglo-Indian schools through the issuance of `No Objection Certificates'.

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The Different Departments and Administrative structure of Education:

Minister-in-charge of School Education

Department of School Education

Directorate of School Education

WB Board of Primary Education

WB Board of Secondary Education

WB Council of Higher Secondary Education

WB Board of Madrasah Education

Rabindra Mukta Vidyalaya

Directorate of accounts

District inspector of schools (Sec. Edu) District Schools Council & Siliguri Primary Schools Council

State Council of Educational Research & Training

DPEP/SSM State Project Office

District Inspector of Schools (primary Educ)

District inspector of schools (Sec. Edu)

The Districts of Siliguri, Tamluk and Barrackpore are treated as educational Districts. The Barrackpore District Office has been decentralized into three sub divisions (Salt Lake, Naihati and Barrackpore) since 1998-1999, to ensure smooth office administration.

The Directorate of School Education in West Bengal is entrusted with the responsibility of administration and to bring about improvement in the field of school education. To ensure qualitative and quantitative output, the function of the Directorate has been decentralized. Inspection and supervision of the schools are carried out at the district level, sub-division level and at the Circle level. The Directorate is further divided into two Inspectorates at the district level ­ District Inspectorate (Primary Education) and District Inspectorate (Secondary Education). Since the commencement of the SSA (presently called Sarva Shiksha Mission, SSM) and the publication of the National Curriculum Framework of School Education in 2005, the role of the Inspectors has evolved into that of getting to know the public. Apart from inspection and supervision, Inspectors now serve as facilitators, extending their support from improving school infrastructure to enhancing the learning process of children. They are also entrusted with the task of improving the quality of education. The Inspectorate is also accountable for recording the finest

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practices and the failures of schools, making assessments and accordingly proposing suggestions.

Directorate of Education Director Joint Directors Deputy Directors Asst. Directors Asst. Inspectors Sub-Inspectors

District Administration Secondary Education District Inspector of Schools Schools Additional DI of Schools Asst. Inspector of Schools Sub-Inspector of Schools Primary Education District Inspector of Additional DI of Schools Asst. Inspector of Schools Sub-Inspector of Schools

Sub-Division Level (Secondary School) Asst. Inspector of Schools Sub-Inspector of Schools

Circle Level (Primary Education) Sub-Inspectors

The Circles are formed at the Panchayat level or at the Ward level in Kolkata. The jurisdiction of the Circle is decided by the District Primary School Council. The Circle depends on the number of students or occasionally on geographical locations.

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To minimize problems and for the smooth implementation of various Central and State level schemes in different districts, Joint Directors and Deputy Directors have been assigned as `Area Officers' of each district. They work in coordination with the District Magistrate, the Chairman of DPSC and the DI of Schools.

The Directorate is contemplating the formation of groups under the leadership of `Area Officers' along with the ADSEs, officers of Audit and Accounts, AIs of Schools and SIs of Schools. Similarly, groups will be formed at the District level and Circle level. The State level groups shall visit districts, inspect schools; discuss reports on audit and budget, the progress of ongoing schemes, problems related to administration, management and the progress of SSM. Similarly, the groups at the district level shall visit schools and circle offices regularly and groups of the subdivision level shall function in the same manner.

2.3 KMC Run Schools Elementary schools are also run by Kolkata Municipal Corporation. Five Model schools were established by Deshbandhu Chittaranjan Das in the 1930s under the supervision of the then Calcutta Municipal Corporation. Presently most of the schools run by KMC are up to the fourth standard, while very few up to the fifth standard. The Department of Education under KMC is in Charge of the overall administration and management of these schools. The structure of KMC run primary schools is given below.

Kolkata Municipal Corporation Mayor Member Mayor-in-Council (Education) Deputy Municipal commissioner (Education) Senior Education Officer Education Officer Deputy Education Officer Inspectors Head Teacher Asst. Head Teacher Teacher Junior

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Member Mayor-in-Council (MMIC) is an elected candidate, who is responsible for making decisions at the policy-making level, followed by the Deputy Municipal Commissioner (DMC), who executes the decisions of the MMIC, Education through his juniors. The DMC along with the Senior Education Officer and the Education Officer supervises the overall administration and management of the education department of the KMC. As per the KMC management structure, eight Deputy Education Officers and ten Inspectors are intended to supervise and inspect the functioning of schools. However, presently there are only two Dy.EOs and two Inspectors who are entrusted with the responsibility of 239 schools. In a few KMC run primary schools, there is no Head Teacher. The teachers are promoted as Teacher-in-Charge and perform the duties of the Head Teachers. Reduction in the number of students in these primary schools is one of the foremost cause of present management structure.

239 primary schools are run by the KMC. Very recently, 3 private schools were taken over, bringing the number to 242. 100 Shishu Shiksha Kendras are also run by the KMC to achieve the target of universal education for all. Post independence, there were both government and private institutions to impart education. However, over time, the demand for English medium education caused a considerable number of children to drop out from corporation schools. On the other hand, the compromised quality of education available in government schools has also produced an increased demand for private education. Nevertheless, efforts have been made by the KMC to revive the student strength and quality of education in these schools. The School Development Committees and the mother's group formed are functioning effectively in monitoring the administration of these schools. The School Development Committee is conceptually a unique institutional structure proposed to work at the Ward level to facilitate primary education in slums. The SDC is a formal democratic community structure headed by the Ward Councilor, two teacher members and four guardians from the slums. Of the four guardians, three should be mothers. The SDC is therefore a participatory community structure with parent-teacher-councilor's participation. The SDC forms the institutional linkage between the government, municipal and NGO-led educational programmes and the slum children's enrollment in primary education. It is a formal community structure, in that it has a bank account where the signatories are the Councilor (constitutional) and head teacher (institutional).

Children from Kolkata's slums, street children of pavement dwellers and the children of migrant labourers of nearby districts and states study in these corporation schools.

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Sarva Shiksha Mission Implementation Structure for Alternate Schooling

M inis try of Hum an Res ourc e Developm ent (M HRD) Dis tric t P rim ary E duc ation P rogram m e (DP E P ) P as c him B anga Rajy a P raram bhik S ik s ha Unnay an S ans tha (P B RP S US ) S arba S ik s ha A bhijan (S S A ) A lternative S c hooling

Cover 20 ac adem ic dis tric ts in W es t B engal

S ik s halay a P rak alpa run by NGOs 397 City Level P rogram m e of A c tion (CLP OA ) M onitoring 62 NGOs A lternative S c hool

S is hu S ik s ha K endra by K M C 100 Centres

Loreto Day S c hool (LDS )

Teac hers Training Teac hers Learning M aterial

Childre n from S lum (Buste e )

Fund Flow: EDUCATION DEPARTMENT KMC SARBA SIKSHA MISSION

2.4 Different Bodies in the Education System 2.4.1 West Bengal Board of Primary Education (WBBPE), Classes I to IV The West Bengal Board of Primary Education Act, 1973 right from its promulgation and through subsequent Amendments has vested in the West Bengal Board of Primary Education, the development, both in qualitative and quantitative terms,

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supervision, management and control of the entire primary education in West Bengal. The WBBPE is an autonomous body, established in 1990.

WBBPE is the only Board of its kind in the whole country entrusted with the sole authority to approve primary schools based on the recommendation of the State Government. It provides with the curriculum / syllabus to be studied in the primary schools, publishes text books to be used by the primary schools, teachers training and external evaluation. Powers and Function of the Board: · To prepare and maintain a register of schools. · To provide by regulations, after considering the recommendation, if any, of the Curriculum Committee, the syllabus, the courses of studies to be followed and the books to be studied in primary schools and for examination conducted by the Primary School Councils. · To maintain and publish, periodically, lists of books approved for use in primary schools and for examinations conducted by the Primary School Councils and to eliminate the name of any such book from any such list. · To institute, with the approval of the State Government such examinations as it may think fit, and to make regulations on all aspects associated with such examinations. · To make regulations regarding the conditions to be satisfied by candidates presenting themselves for examinations conducted by Primary School Councils. · To exercise general supervision and control over the work of the Primary School Councils and for that purpose, issue instructions to the Primary Schools Councils relating to primary education as it may think fit and call for reports from the Primary School Councils on matters relating to primary education. · To administer the West Bengal Board of Primary Education Fund. · To institute and administer such provident funds as may be prescribed. · To make regulations relating to the conduct, discipline and appeal in respect to the members of staff of the board. · To make regulations relating to the conduct and discipline in respect to the teaching and non-teaching staff of primary schools under the Primary School Councils and in respect to the staff of the Primary School Council. · To transfer any teaching or non-teaching staff from a primary school within the jurisdiction of one Primary School Council to a primary school within the jurisdiction of another Primary School Council. · To transfer any officer or employee, other than the Secretary and the Finance Officer, from one Primary School Council to another. · To make regulations determining the mode of teaching and the medium of instruction to be followed in Primary schools. · To make regulations for resolving any dispute relating to primary schools but not relating to teaching or non-teaching staff of such schools. · To determine, with the approval of the Director, the hours of instruction and the number and duration of vacations. · To advice the State Government on all matters relating to primary education referred to it by the State Government. To grant financial aids to Primary School Councils for the development of primary education or for any other purpose.

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To consider and recommend the budget estimate of the Primary School Councils to the Director. · To perform such other functions and discharge such other duties as may be prescribed. The Board constitutes of four committees ­ the Curriculum Committee, the Evaluation Committee, the Development Committee, and the Finance Committee. · 2.4.1.1 District Primary School Council For effective functioning of the Board and to meet all the requirements of the districts of the State, the functioning of the Board has been decentralized at the district level, forming the District Primary School Council.19 District Primary Schools Councils, all democratically elected bodies work for the betterment of the primary education. The District Primary School Council consists of the following members: 1. The District Inspector of Schools (DI), in charge of primary education. The DI is the Secretary of the Council. 2. The District Special Officer, Scheduled Castes and Tribes Welfare or where no such officer is posted, the District Tribal Welfare Officer. 3. The District Social Education Officer. 4. One member for each sub-division, elected in the prescribed manner by the members of the Panchayat Samitis within the sub-division from amongst themselves. 5. Three members, elected by the Councilors of the municipal areas within the districts from amongst themselves. 6. Three members, elected by the members of the Zilla Parishad of the District from amongst themselves. 7. One teacher of a Primary Teachers' Training Institute in the district, elected in the prescribed manner by the teachers of such institute in the district. 8. One member from the staff of the Primary School Council elected in the prescribed manner by the members of the staff of the District Primary School Council from amongst themselves. 9. Six persons interested in the education field, nominated by the State Government. 10. The Chairman is to be appointed by the State Government. The Chairman of the DPSC is an elected representative of the State Government. 1. The Chairman is responsible for carrying out and giving effect to the decisions of the Primary School Council and of any committee. 2. The Chairman may, in an emergency, discharge any of the duties of the Primary School Council, provided, that he shall not act contrary to any decision of the Primary School Council and, within one month, report to the Primary School Council of the action taken by him, along with reasons for doing so. 3. The Chairman: · exercises general supervision and control over the Secretary, the Finance Officer and the staff appointed by the Primary School Council and the posting and transferring of members of the staff, · sanctions all claims of traveling allowances ,and

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takes such other action as he considers necessary for the proper functioning of the Primary School Council under the Act, which is not inconsistent with any decision of the Primary School Council. The Secretary of the District Primary School Council is appointed by the State Government. Subject to the general control and supervision of the Chairman, the Secretary shall be the principal administrative officer of the Primary School Council. The main duties of the DPSC are as follows: · To establish new primary schools subject to the fulfillment of the terms and conditions of the State Government or amalgamate two or more schools into one. · To maintain the service record of the teaching and non-teaching staff. · To care for the welfare of the children attending the primary schools. · To construct, repair and manage either directly or through any local authority, all the primary schools under public management under its jurisdiction. · To make grants for scholarships and stipends. · The DPSC is also responsible to create a report, indicating the name of the schools under its jurisdiction, name and amount of the grant received by the school along with the date. This is further submitted to the Board. To maintain the quality of primary education, the DPSC works in close coordination with the District Inspectorate. · Fund Flow: DISTRICT PRIMARY SCHOOL COUNCIL GOVERNMENT PRIMARY SCHOOLS 2.4.1.2 State-KMC Education Department Linkage- Both education departments of the State Government and KMC share the responsibility of catering educational services to the children, the majority of whom are from the slums, less privileged backgrounds, early drop-outs, or those who have never been to schools before, with primary education. The linkage of KMC education department with that of the State Government is structured below: State and KMC Education Department Linkage SARVA SHIKSHA MISSION

District Inspector of S chools (P rim a ry Educa tion) A dditional Dis tric t Ins pector of S c hools B orough Office B orough Office B orough Office B orough Office

A ss istant Inspec tor of S chools S ub Inspector of S c hool at Circle level

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An overview of School Education in West Bengal (Draft)

2.4.2 West Bengal Board of Secondary Education (WBBSE), Classes V to X The West Bengal Board of Secondary Education was established under the West Bengal Secondary Education Act, 1963 and was amended intermittently. The Board is a state administered autonomous body having the power to advice the State Government on all matters relating to Secondary Education to lay down the general policy for the development of Secondary Education in the state. The Board is headed by the President. The major activities of the Board are undertaken through many statutory committees: · Executive Committee · Examination Committee · Finance Committee · Recognition Committee · Syllabus Committee · Appeal Committee · There are two other committees, one dealing with disciplinary matters of the teaching/non-teaching staff of the aided schools and the other dealing with requests for correction of records. Major Activities of the Board: · · · · · · · · · · Holding the 10th standard examination called the Madhyamik Pariksha including publication of results and merit lists. Granting or refusing recognition to institutions. Withdrawing recognition granted to an institution on the recommendation of the Recognition Committee. Preparing and reviewing syllabi. Publication of text books for Classes VI-X. To arrange for the training and orientation of in-service Secondary school teachers. To appoint committees of experts for guidance on the syllabi curricula for the different courses of study. To frame courses of study on the recommendation of the expert committees. To constitute panels of question paper setters, moderators, Head Examiners, Scrutinizers and Examiners. Any other administrative job.

WBBSE conducts Madhyamik Examination annually and simultaneously all over the state of West Bengal and also in affiliated schools of the Board located outside West Bengal, elsewhere in India. More than 750 million students appear for the examination each year. Types of schools under WBBSE: (i)There are very few State Government-run Secondary schools in West Bengal. (ii) Most of the schools under WBBSE are non-Government but government-aided. Some of the Anglo-Indian schools too come under this category. There is no tuition fee levied by the aided or Government schools in the state up to Class XII. The salaries of the teachers of these schools including the post retirement benefits are borne by the State Government.

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(iii) There are a few schools which charge tuition fees from the students, and are not provided with the salary component by the Government. The schools generate salaries by charging fees. They obtain aid in the form of Dearness Allowance (DA) from the government. (iv) Some schools do not take any support from the State Government. They support themselves through generating funds by charging tuition fees. (v) The other type of school, known as the Government Sponsored schools possess a distinguishing feature relating to the management structure of the school. These schools are run by a management which is partly nominated and partly elected. Ashram-type residential schools for boys and girls of the SC/ST communities fall under this category.

Fund Flow: DEPARTMENT OF SCHOOL EDUCATION GOVT. OF WEST BENGAL _____________________________________________ GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS DA AIDED SCHOOLS GOVERNMENT SPONSORED SCHOOLS

2.4.3 West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education The word `Madarasa' means educational institute where education is imparted irrespective of caste, creed and religion, in Arabic. The history of the Madarasa can be traced to the medieval period. The Madarasas serve as primary educational institutions for many rural Indian children. They were founded with the donations of resourceful local persons of the village. In course of time they came under the Board. Most of the students of these Madarasas are first generation learners from socioeconomically backward families. West Bengal is the only state where Madarasas get recognition from the State Government. The West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education was established as an autonomous body under the West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education Act, 1994. While the Board is under a separate ministry, it is still controlled by the School Education Department. The Honorable Minister of State, Minorities Development & Welfare & Madarasa Education, Govt. of West Bengal is in charge of the West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education. In one of the press reports given by the Honorable Minister for Minority Affairs, Govt. of West Bengal, to The Hindu, states, giving an outline of the Madarasas in West Bengal, that 12% of the total 329,000 Madarasa students are Hindus, in some cases the figure goes up to almost 33%. Since the fee is nominal, poor non-Muslim parents too prefer to send their children to Madarasas. Furthermore it is a distinguishing feature that all Madarasas in West Bengal are co-educational. The provision of Gender Equity has been fairly balanced; about 95% of the Madarasas including the Senior Madarasas are co-educational.

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The syllabus followed is the same as in regular Government schools and the certificates are recognized all over India. Arabic and Islamic studies are the additional subjects taught in these institutions. The Madarasas are equally equipped with science laboratories, computers and qualified teachers are appointed through the school service commission. The West Bengal Board of Madarasa enjoys the same power as that of the other Boards. It has the power to direct, supervise and control all types of Madarasas and control the total Madarasa education in the state. The Madarasas are divided into three levels Junior High Madarasas (Class V to Class VIII), High Madarasas (Class VI to Class X) and Senior Madarasas. The system of education under the Senior Madarasa Education system has some distinct levels: Primary Level - Classes I-V Junior Level - Classes VI- VIII Alim Level - Classes IX-X (Alim Examination is equivalent to the Madhyamik examination or Secondary Examination) Fazil Level - Classes XI- XII Kamil Level - Two years M.M. Level - Two years After passing the High Madarasa (Class X) Board Examination the students can get admission into other educational institutions to complete their Higher Secondary Education. These institutions however, do not offer theological subjects. Students passing Class X examination from Senior Madarasa which is known as Alim are at a liberty to get admission in mainstream courses of High Secondary standard or they can opt for theological study ­ Fazil, Kamil and M.M. A study shows that 75 to 85% Senior Madarasa students take admission into general (10+2) courses under West Bengal Council for Higher Secondary Education after passing Alim and 15 to 20% students pursue theological studies. Fund Flow: The School Education Department, Govt. of West Bengal spends Rs.125 crore annually for the Madarasa Education. (Source: Annual Report of the Department of School Education, Govt. of West Bengal, 2005-06.)

DEPARTMENT OF SCHOOL EDUCATION GOVT. OF WEST BENGAL ________________________________________________ JUNIOR MADARASA HIGH MADARASA SENIOR MADARASA

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List of Different Types of Madarasa District wise Senior Junior High Madarasa Madarasa Madarasa Bankura 4 5 1 Birbhum 10 15 4 Burddhaman 12 19 3 Koch behar 14 7 2 Dakshin Dinajpur 3 9 4 Darjeeling 2 1 Nil Hooghly 9 17 9 Howrah 9 16 3 Jalpaiguri 2 5 1 Kolkata Nil 8 1 Malda 8 47 14 Murshidabad 12 44 16 Nadia 5 9 4 North 24 Parganas 8 20 17 Purulia 2 2 1 Medinipore East 5 9 2 Medinipur West 5 8 3 South 24 Parganas 13 25 12 Uttar Dinajpur 7 8 5 Total 130 274 102 Source: Annual Report, Dept. of School Education, Govt. of West Bengal, 2005-06 Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. District

2.4.4 Rabindra Mukta Vidyalaya Synthesis of different data reveals that the major portion of our population is less privileged. Though the State Government tries its best to ensure `education for all', a vast population is deprived from the right to education especially due to socioeconomic reasons and other social hurdles. With the objective of extending education amongst all sections of men, women and children of the society irrespective of their different age groups, the State government made a great effort in setting up State Open Schools under the State Education Department. It was named Rabindra Mukta Vidyalaya in 1998 (RMV), and subsequently became a statutory organization from 1st August, 2001 under the Rabindra Mukta Vidyalaya Act, 2001, passed by the West Bengal State Legislature. RMV imparts learning through its study-materials which are provided to their registered students. In addition, they have numerous study centers scattered all over the districts of West Bengal. Procedure and rules are flexible as they were formulated, bearing in mind the need and circumstances of the target group of learners. RMV imparts education to its students through its study centers on a wide range of subjects, conducts examination and certification at the Secondary and Higher Secondary level. It has as many as 168 study centers for the secondary level and 64 study centers for the Higher Secondary level. Madhyamik and Uchcha Madhyamik (Higher Secondary) certificates are awarded by the RMV to its students. The students of RMV are primarily neo-literates, school drop-outs, un-employed and self-employed young men and women, elderly people, challenged persons or any other person from the weaker section of society.

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Figure1.

Increase in the Num ber of Students for Madhyam ik Under RMV 24433 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 2004-05 2005-06 18011 Series1

Figure 2.

Increase in the Num ber of Students for Uchcha Madhyam ik under RMV

4000 3000 2000 1000 0 2004-05 1879

3558

Series1

2005-06

2.4.5 DPEP & SSM For the universalisation of elementary education for children between the age group of 6 to 14 years by 2010, the Government of West Bengal is implementing the twin projects- District Primary Education Programme and Sarba Siksha Abhiyan. These projects are being executed under the rubrics of Paschim Banga Sarva Siksha Mission in West Bengal under the guidance of the School Education Department, Government of West Bengal. 2.4.5.1 District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) DPEP is a seven year programme launched by the State Government. DPEP Phase I was first introduced in five districts of West Bengal ­ Kooch Behar, Murshidabad, Birbhum, Bankura and South 24 Parganas in 1997-98.DPEP Phase II was introduced in Dakshin Dinajpur, Jalpaiguri, Malda, Purulia and Uttar Dinajpur in West Bengal, and slated to be complete by March, 2007.

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Objective: To support the public education system through interventions designed to enhance student enrollment, reduce dropout rate, provide enhanced access and better facilities for primary education. Paschim Banga Rajya Prarambhik Siksha Unnayan Sanstha, an autonomous body has been entrusted to ensure successful implementation of the programme. For implementation of this programme there are ten District Project Offices who further decentralize there working at different levels. At the state level, the project is headed by the State Project Director supported by an Additional Project Director and an Administrative Officer. The district office has one District Project Coordinator who is an ex-officio supported by a fulltime Additional Project Coordinator. Apart from other administrative staff there is a Women's Development In charge and a Teacher Training In charge.

Project Office Circle Resource Centre (at Block level) Cluster Resource Centre (at Gram Panchayat Level) _____________________________ Village Education Committee Ward Education Committee Under this project, 7527 Shishu Shiksha Kendras (alternate schooling) were established in the ten districts. Fund Flow:

District

Percentage of Fund for DPEP Education Dept. Govt. of WB, 15%

DFID Education Dept. Govt. of WB

DFID, 85%

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2.4.5.2 Sarva Shiksha Mission (SSM) The SSM was launched country wide in 2001 with the same purpose of universalisation of elementary education and to further strengthen the DPEP. It is functional in all the educational districts of West Bengal. Keeping pace with the existing structure and programmes of the department of primary education of the State Government, the SSM was launched with an objective to enroll all students between the age group of 5 to 14 years. SSM targets the primary and the upperprimary schools in the State. Objectives of SSM: · To enroll all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years in school, education guarantee centers, alternative and innovative schools by 2003. · To ensure five years' primary education to all children by 2007. · To focus on the quality of elementary education, emphasizing holistic education. · To bridge gender and social category gaps at the primary stage by 2007 and at the elementary education level by 2010. · To ensure that all children accomplish eight years of elementary schooling by 2010. Paschim Banga Rajya Prarambhuk Siksha Unnayan Sanstha (Sanstha), a society registered under the West Bengal Societies Registration Act, 1962, implements the SSM in West Bengal. The General Council (GC) of the Sanstha under the chairmanship of the Chief Minister is responsible for the overall policy guidance and review of the implementation of the SSM in the state. The Minister-in-Charge of the School Education Department is the working President of the GC. An Executive Committee under the chairmanship of the Principal Secretary of the School Education Department is responsible for administering the implementation of the SSM. The State Project Director (SPD) is the Member- Secretary of the GC and the EC. The responsibility of the SSM is decentralized at the district level. There are 20 District Project Offices headed by the District Project Officer (DPO) who supervises and implements the SSM at the district level. The DPOs implement the SSA through the Circle Resource Centre (CLRC) at the circle/block level and the Cluster Resource Center (CRC) at the Gram Panchayat Level. Each CLRC is headed by a Sub-Inspector of Schools (Primary) called the Circle project Co-coordinator (CPC), assisted by two Resource teachers (RT), one for primary and the other for upper-primary. The DPO is accountable to the district committee. The Zilla Shabhadipati is the Chairman of the committee and the District Magistrate (DM) is the District Project Director. Usually, an Additional District Inspector (ADI) of the district Inspectorate is deputed as the DPO. The post of the DPO is at par with that of the DI. Sub Inspectors of the District Inspectorate have additional charges of the SSA. Implementation of the SSM at the school level is supervised by the Village Education Committee (VEC), Ward Education Committee (WEC) and the School management Committee.

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State Level Organizational Structure of SSM Paschim Banga Rajya Prarambhuk Siksha Unnayan Sanstha General Council Executive Committee

General Council Executive Committee Chairman (Chief Minister) Chairman (Principal Secretary, School Working President Education Department) (Minister-in- Charge School Education Department) __________________Member Secretary____________ (State Project Director)

District Administration of SSM Chairman District Project Director District Project Officer Additional District Project Officer Sub Inspector (Circle level) Or Circle Project Coordinator Resource Teachers (Shikasha Bandhu) Fund Flow: As stated by the Ninth Five Year Plan of Government of India (i.e. till 2002), the ratio of fund flow was 85:15 between the Central and State Government. In the current Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-2007) the ratio is 75:25. In the Eleventh Plan it is projected to be in the ratio of 50:50.

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2.4.5.3 Link between DPEP and SSM The programmes implemented under DPEP for universalisation of elementary education at primary level is the same as the programmes implemented under SSM but for primary and upper-primary level. There are some basic differences between the two projects. The following table depicts it. Difference between DPEP and SSM Sl.No. i DPEP To universalize primary education no target was set in case of DPEP. DPEP is a supportive programme to universalize primary education. DPEP is a 7 year programme. The programme is implemented under the financial assistance of non-government sources (85% DFID & 15% State Govt.) SSM Must universalize elementary education by 2010 ­ is the set target by SSM. To universalize elementary education, SSM is a holistic mission. SSM is a 9 year programme. The programme is implemented under the financial assistance from the 9th, 10th and 11th Five Year Plan and the State Govt. The share of the State Govt. increases with inverse decrease from the Five year plan from 9th to 11th plan. SSM is implemented in all 20 educational districts.

ii

iii iv

v

DPEP is districts.

implemented

in

10

2.4.6 Structure of Education in Other Urban Local Bodies(ULBs) ULBs directly monitor Municipal Primary Schools by appointing a LD Clerk with additional charges. The LD Clerk works under the Head Clerk. The District Primary Education Programme & the SSM has implemented and is monitoring the School Health Programme through ULB and the Ward Education & Health Committee. The Ward Education & Health Committee approved by DPEP, consists of 15 to 22 members as follows: · Ward Councillor as President · The eldest Headmaster/Headmistress as member · One Representative from the Guardian's Forum as member · One representative from the Mother-Teacher Association as Member · One Headmaster/Headmistress from the nearest Upper Primary School as member · One Managing Committee Member from the nearest Upper Primary School as member · One Educationist from the Ward as Member · One representative from ULB nominated by Mayor/Chairman as Member · One representative fro Minority Committee as Member The President and Secretary Jointly open the Account of Ward Education& Health Committee.

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Functions of the Ward Education & Health Committee : · · · · School Infrastructure Development Work, supervision & Maintenance Liaison with ULB Liaison with the School Inspector (Primary School) Monitoring the Quality of Education in schools

The flow chart of the Municipality (ULB) managed schools would be like the following: · · · · · · · · Municipality Board of Councilors CIC member Ward Education Committee Standing Committee Executive Officer Head Clerk Lower Division Clerk

2.5

The Domain of Private Schools

Running parallel to, and along with the Government-run schools are private schools. There are approximately 5200012 schools under the Government education structure, yet it proves insufficient to the proportion in which the population is increasing in the State. This is where private schools serve the community and extend education to all the children right from the under privileged to those children whose parents have the ability to choose the type of schools their wards would attend. Most of the private schools in the state are affiliated to the ICSE or CBSE Boards. In West Bengal 6713 Church-based schools, under the aegis of Anglo-Indian schools, affiliated to the ICSE Board receive D.A. from the School Education Department of the state. Besides this, there are 19514 more schools affiliated to the ICSE Board which are self- sustainable. They generate their own funds through tuition fees. There are 8115 schools affiliated to the CBSE other than the 4416 Kendriya Vidyalayas (Central schools) in the entire state.

12 13

Source: Annual Report of School Edu. Dept. Govt.of WB, 2005-06 Source: Annual Report, School Edu. Dept, Govt.of WB,2005-06 14 Source: Annual Report, School Edu. Dept.,Govt of WB,2005-06 15 Source: Annual Report, School Edu. Dept.,Govt of WB,2005-06 16 Source: Annual Report, School Edu. Dept.,Govt of WB,2005-06

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The West Bengal Government has two Government Schools, one for boysVictoria Boys' School and one for girls- Dow Hill Girls School, both in Kurseong, affiliated to the ICSE council, New Delhi. 2.5.1 West Bengal Non-Government School Organizer's Association (WBNGSOA) is the only registered organization of its kind, established in 1992, to integrate all Non-government schools in the state. This organization was established with a felt need to organize private schools, provide support to each other and safeguard the common interests of this organization. The organization has its state headquarters in Kolkata and district offices in all the districts of West Bengal. Though the organization functions regularly, it has not yet established a strong foothold in the field of education. Shortage of funds is the main hurdle in its developmental process. The management committee of private schools decides for or against registering with this organization. Most private schools register with the WBNGSOA to resolve any problem with the state education department. As soon as the matter is resolved, they withdraw their membership or become a sleeping member. Had this organization been strong enough it would have proved more efficient. There are 24000 private schools registered with the organization in the entire state. Apart from the formal system of private schools there are many non-formal schools run by the NGOs for the underprivileged and differently abled children. Funding for Private Schools: Most of the private schools start up with their own funds. Later they generate funds through the tuition fees and other development fees and financial institutions. In rural areas two or more resourceful persons with resources put down their money to set up private schools. They charge nominal fees, keeping it at par with the capacity of the people to afford those fees, and run the schools.

III School Regulations 3.1 West Bengal Board of Secondary Education Act, 1963 The West Bengal Board of Secondary Education Act, 1963, under the West Bengal Act V, 1964 and later modified in 2004, states that its authority extends to the whole state and any outside state or union territory institution wanting to function within West Bengal must apply to the board for recognition. Further, the board, with the approval of the State Government, could impose restrictions and grant recognition to such institutions. The Board has different rules and regulations related to the electoral process of the different committees under it, regulations related to appeal, managing committee, rules related to appointment, approval and confirmation of teachers, service rules and rules about the benefit of the teaching and non-teaching staff among others.

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3.1.1 Code of Regulations for Anglo-Indian and Other Listed Schools The code of regulations for the Anglo-Indian school and any Other Listed schools may be altered or modified by the State government in consultation with the State Board. The code is applicable to any type of `aided school' meaning, a recognized school receiving aid of any kind whatsoever on a recurring basis, whether in the form of Government Grant or DA or a non-aided Anglo-Indian school or a Listed school, meaning an English Medium school which does not come under the purview of the definition of Anglo-Indian schools. (i) A sum of money shall be granted annually for the Anglo-Indian schools by the State Government for maintaining an efficient school conduct. The grant shall be administered by the Department of Education in consultation with the State Board. The Deputy Director will be the officer responsible to the Department of Education in respect to all Anglo-Indian schools and Other Listed schools to which this code applies. Recognition of schools: A list of recognized schools shall be maintained by the Department of Education. No school shall be recognized as an Anglo-Indian school or Listed School unless it satisfies the State Board and the Department of Education that · it is financially stable; · its Managing Committee is properly constituted by the Founder; · it is not run for personal profit; · it has suitable and adequate accommodation and sanitary arrangements with regard to the number, age and sex of the pupils attending it; · for the purpose of public examination, it prepares and presents pupils for one or more of the examinations conducted by the council or a similar and equivalent examination approved by the State Board; · it provides for such courses of study and instructions through the medium of English as approved by the State Board or the Council; · it has adequate number of qualified teachers; · it has proper facilities for physical education, library services, laboratory work, craft work and co-curricular activities; · it will make available up to 50% annual admissions to eligible pupils whose parents/guardians are prepared to pay the full fees. · it will offer free studentship or partly free studentship to indigent Anglo-Indian pupils numbering not less than 5% of the total enrolment of the school. (This is applicable for the Anglo-Indian schools only.) Application for Recognition: · When a school desires recognition, an application has to be made to the DDSE in the prescribed form: · The application, along with supporting documents will be put before the State Board for consideration. Should the State Board consider that a good prima facie case exists for such recognition, it will nominate a team of three members of the State Board including the DDSE to visit the school and submit a report to the State Government as to whether recognition should be granted or not.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

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·

·

Every applicant for recognition will be entertained and considered by the appropriate authority and the decision therein shall be communicated to the applicant within a period of four months from the date of receipt of the application and where recognition is not granted, the reasons for it is cited . Where recognition to a school is refused, the applicant can appeal within a period of thirty days from the date of communication of refusal, to the Secretary, Department of School Education, Govt. of West Bengal, whose decision thereon shall be final and the State Board shall be informed accordingly.

(v)

(vi)

(vii) (viii)

(ix) (x)

(xi)

(xii) (xiii)

(xiv)

Schools recognized under this code are eligible to send their students to appear for the examination recognized under this code or for receiving Government Scholarships. Conduct of the Schools: o No student shall be required to participate in any religious activity, instruction or worship that may be imparted in the recognized school within its premises, unless the parent/guardian of the student has given `no objection' in writing. o It shall not be a part of the Dy. Director's duty to enquire about any instruction related to religious subjects. No grant shall be made on account of religious subjects. Withdrawal of Recognition: o If, at any time, the DDSE considers, on account of any deficiencies or defects that a school no longer fulfils the conditions for recognition laid down by the Code, he may after, giving an opportunity to the school to offer its explanation, if any, recommend the State Board to withdraw recognition of the school, giving reasons. o Any Managing Committee aggrieved by the withdrawal of recognition of the school may, within thirty days from the date of communication to it of the withdrawal, appeal against such withdrawal to the Secretary of the Department of School education, Govt. of West Bengal. All departments of the school shall be open for inspection by the Dy. Director at all reasonable times, with or without notice. Managing Committee: All schools approved and recognized under this Code should be managed by a Managing Committee formed by the Founder maintaining the specifications which the Department of School Education may require. The Managing Committee is formed for a period of three years and a change in the Managing Committee should be duly notified to the DDSE. The Managing Committee shall have the powers to create rules, in consistence with the provisions of this Code, intermittently, for its guidance, to deal with all matters in respect of the authority delegated to it by the Founder, to appoint the Principal/Head master/Headmistress and Vice-Principal, if so empowered by the Founder. The Managing committee shall be responsible for internal management. Payment and Benefits of the teaching and non-teaching staff: all schools recognized under this Code shall pay their teaching and non-teaching staff salaries, allowances and other benefits at par with the Government Service Rule. Appointment of all categories of staff shall be made as per the rules framed by the Founder.

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3.1.2 The Merits and Demerits of these Codes Putting all the Anglo-Indian Schools and the Other Listed schools under one code has enabled homogeneity and an equal standard among all the schools. The code has brought all the educational institutes to the same platform. There are certain demerits of these codes also. Though it is mentioned that the internal management is controlled by the Founder, the Board has interferes in the administration. Teachers can be appointed by the founder directly as per the code, and the School service Commission is not applicable, but a prior approval is required from the School Education Board before appointing a teacher. Approval of teachers is a great problem faced by the Government­aided schools. As a result most schools are short of teachers. The school authorities solve this problem by employing temporary teachers. 3.2 Private Schools Seeking Affiliation to the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education without Government Aid.

Any Private School seeking affiliation to the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education without any assistance or government aid, has to fulfill certain conditions. The application form for affiliation which is to be purchased from the WBBSE costs Rs.2000. The conditions are as follows: · To make a sale or lease deed of the land on which the school is going to come up, to the Department of School Education, Govt. of West Bengal. · The Managing Committee must consist of 2 or 3 members - the Founder, 4 to 5 representatives from Guardians/Parents and 3 representatives from the School Education Department. · To provide salaries, allowances and other benefits to the teaching and nonteaching staff as per the service rules of the Government of West Bengal for the School Education department. · To follow the other rules as per the Code of regulations set by the Board. · A chalan of Rs.10000 from the Reserve Bank of India is to be submitted along with the application form for affiliation. · A copy of an Affidavit of an agreement stating that the school shall never ask for any aid from the School Education Department. 3.2.1 Analysis of the Codes of the WBNGSOA According to the WBNGSOA, the first impression that an organizer of a private school gets from the State Government is the question of what necessitates opening another private school when there are so many government run schools in this system. The first basic hindrance private school organizers receive from the government is the mind set towards private schools. Secondly, the clause that the school has to lease out or make a sale deed of the land on which the school is going to come up to the Board, prevents the private school authority to go to any financial institutions for assistance for constructions and other developments of the school, along with the purchasing of necessary apparatus. At the same time, the WBBSE will also not provide any aid. This restricts the avenues for development for the school authority. Thirdly, it is difficult for any private school authority to pay salaries and other benefits to its teaching and non-teaching staff as per the government structure, on the basis of tuition fees. It is furthermore difficult at the initiation

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stage. Fourthly, the chances of receiving affiliation after fulfilling these norms are low. Therefore, more and more private schools are opting for ICSE/CBSE affiliation.

3.2.2 Private Schools applying for Affiliation under ICSE/CBSE have to obtain a `No Objection' certificate from the Directorate of School Education, Government of West Bengal. The matter related to issuance of NOC is processed in the Anglo-Indian School section. Under the supervision of the DDSE (AIS) West Bengal the schools seeking NOC have to fulfill some requisites, apart from fulfilling the conditions laid down by the respective ICSE/CBSE Boards. The Primary Requisites are: (i) The school must be run by a registered Trust or Society and must have a duly constituted Managing Committee for the school, including 2 secondary teachers. Memorandum of Association and Receipt for Registration (if not yet registered) of the society should be submitted. (ii) Suitable accommodation either owned by the school or leased with a clear agreement duly registered, along with rent receipts in the name of the school for at least 20 years. School accommodation including that of classrooms, laboratory, library and other rooms and the campus area of the school should be adequate. (iii) The head of the school should be suitably qualified, with at least an Honors Graduate (Regular/ Master's Degree holder) with Teachers Training and five years' teaching experience in a recognized school or in a school seeking recognition for the secondary level. By the ICSE guidelines it is Graduate with B.Ed. for ten classes' schools. At least 80 percent of the teachers must be trained. (iv) Enrolment should not be less than 30 per class with a minimum of 100 for the school for the secondary section. (v) The school must have at least Rs.60,000 as reserve fund in fixed deposit in a Nationalised Bank or Post Office. (vi) The pay-scales and allowance of the teaching and non-teaching staff must be commensurate with the pay scales and allowances prescribed by the State Government for the aided schools. These should be indicated in the appointment letters issued by the Secretary/ MC of the school and duly received by the staff. (vii) There should be accepted Service Rule and Leave Rule (duly accepted by the staff) for the teaching and non-teaching staff, as per provision in the Code of Regulations for the Anglo-Indian and other listed schools, 1993. (viii) The schools must conduct regular audits of school funds and submit Audited Statement of accounts for the last year ending on 31st March, prior to the date of application. (ix) Mother tongue of at least 50 percent of the students should be other than Bengali. Adequate facility to teach a language other than Bengali, should be provided. (x) There must be adequate arrangement for a library and laboratories. (xi) Names of three of the nearest High/ Juniour High Schools, if any, must be mentioned, along with the distance from the school applying for affiliation. (xii) Year wise roll strength, number of students sent for examination in the last three years(if specially permitted to do so), and pass/failure numbers must be furnished along with the affiliation form.

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3.3

West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education, 1994

The West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education Act, 1994 under the West Bengal Act, XXXIX of 1994 passed by the West Bengal Legislature states that, the West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education extends to the whole of West Bengal. The Act establishes the West Bengal Board of Madarasa Education which is entrusted with Junior Madarasa, High Madarasa and Senior Madarasa to impart instructions in Arabic language and literature, Islamic theology and other general subjects with a view to qualify the students with a certificate or diploma of the Board or a University or a Government or any other statutory body. There are both aided and un-aided Madarasas apart from government-run Madarasas. 3.4 West Bengal Board of Primary Education Act, 1973 The West Bengal Primary Education Act, 197 under West Bengal Act XLIII of 1973 passed by the West Bengal Legislature, makes a better provision for the development, expansion, management and control of primary education with a view to making it universal, free and compulsory. This Act extends to the whole of West Bengal. A Board is established in the name of West Bengal Board of Primary Education under this Act to ensure universal, free and compulsory education for all children. IV Incentive Schemes To bring all the children between the age group of 5 to 14 years into the fold of education under the elementary education by 2010, to strengthen schooling facilities for higher education, to reduce the drop-out rate and to ensure quality education, the State Education Department had undertaken various incentive schemes under different programmes and different departments of Government.

4.1 Projects under DPEP & SSA · At the Upper Primary Level ­ Textbook banks at each of the upper primary schools have been supplied with the requisite books for upper primary students procured by SSA funds. Approximately 5063 schools have been provided with this fund. (i) Civil Works: SSA/DPEP carries out civil work in the form of new or additional school building, drinking water facilities and sanitation and toilet facilities. Beneficiaries are identified as per the DISE data and the work is carried out in convergence with other agencies. For areas inhabited by the SC/ST and other backward classes, fund from Backward Classes Welfare Dept. was utilized.

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List of Funding Source for the Civil Works Sl.No. 1. Type of Civil Work New School Building Additional Classrooms Funding Loan from NABARD under RIDF scheme, XIth Finance Commission, Zilla Parishad, MPLADS and MLALADS PHE Dept. and UNICEF School Sanitation Programme under Total Sanitation programme (TSC) and UNICEF BADP

&

2. 3.

Drinking water Facilities Sanitation and Toilet Facilities

4.

Boundary Walls

(ii)

Alternate Schooling: To establish universal access, enrollment and retention, there is a need for academic institutions within the schooling system. Alternate Schools have come into the picture to cater to the exceeding number of children who fail to get enrolled into the formal system. Majority of students in these schools have never enrolled before or have never been to school or, are drop-outs. The two main components of Alternate Schooling are the Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) and the Alternate and Innovative Education (AIE). The · · · · EGS component is covered through the following: Sishu Shiksha Kendra (SSK) Sishu Shisha Prakalpa (SSP) Madhyamik Shiksha Kendra (MSK) NGO run EGS

The AIE component is covered through the following: · Bridge Course · Learning Centers under Rabindra Mukta Vidyalaya Shikshalaya Prakalpa (SSP) The SRGEDUC has launched the SSA in the KMC area through a gigantic project aiming at imparting primary education by an alternative education mode to deprived urban children of Kolkata, residing in slums. CLPOA, an NGO working as project management unit (PMU) at the apex level monitors the services of 70 NGOs who run 427 Sikshalaya Centers to accommodate 26,420 slum children who are taught by 827 trained sevak and sevikas. Sikshalaya Prakalpas are administered through an established set of organizational structure linking the State Government, NGOs and individual academicians as shown in chart given below.

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Implementation structure of Shikshalaya Prakalpa

(CLPOA)

(LDS)

(iii)

In order to increase the overall status of the number of girls' education in Educationally Backward Blocks, a special programme like National Programme of Education for Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) was taken up in 57 blocks distributed amongst 11 districts in West Bengal. The programme under the SSA focuses on providing an opportunity for improving the capabilities of the girl child. This programme is funded in a ratio of 75:25 between the Central and State Government. The NPEGEL is designed in a manner, so that the interventions are community owned and cater to the need of the community, so that the learning requirements of the girl child are addressed and accommodated as a part of mainstream education. 1064 17model cluster schools run under this programme.

17

As per the Appraisal Note on the Annual Work Plan & Budget (2007-08) for SSA, NPEGEL and KGBV in West Bengal.

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(iv)

The Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidayala (KGBV) is an initiative for the girl students. In an attempt to reduce gender disparities through educational opportunities, the Government of India initiated this programme. The scheme provides residential school facilities for girl students. 54 such schools run in 10 backward districts of the state with preference to SC, ST, OBC and other minorities. Number of Girls Enrolled: SC - 446 ST - 592 Minorities - 153 Others - 260 Source: As per Appraisal Note on Annual Work Plan & Budget (200708) for SSA, NPEGEL and KGBV in West Bengal

(v)

Education for Children with Special Needs: The SSA ensures that every child with special needs, irrespective of the kind, category and degree of disability, is provided meaningful and quality education. With a belief that special children should be taught in an environment best suited to them, SSA provides special schools, EGS/AIE or home-based education facilities. 1073818 schools were made impediment free for children with special needs with provision of ramps and handrails. 814319 children with special needs, with different levels of disabilities were provided with home-based education owing to their inability to attend school regularly. 1200020 special children were provided homebased education to provide remedial teaching. Teaching Learning Materials (TLM) is an effective tool for classroom teaching. TLM is also used to address the multi-grade situation. These materials help to evoke the interest of children. The grant for this is made at the primary level and upper-primary level to the teachers.1137421 primary teachers and 5230722 upper primary teachers have received this grant. Rs.500 per annum is granted to all teachers under the TLM scheme.

(vi)

4.2 Department of School Education, Govt. of West Bengal (i) School Uniform: All girl students studying in recognized primary and Jr. Basic schools irrespective of their caste, creed, religion and pecuniary condition are provided with school uniforms, free of cost. (ii) Text Books: About 5.86 crore text books comprising of 96 titles in five languages- Bengali, Hindi, Urdu, Nepali and Santhali have been distributed free of cost among the students studying

18 19

According to the Annual Report of SSA, 2005-06 Source, Annual Report,SSA, 2005-06 20 Source, Annul Report, SSA, 2005-06 21 Source, Annual Report, SSA, 2005-06 22 Source, Annual Report, SSA, 2005-06

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in Classes I to V in recognized schools including students of Shishu Siksha Kendra, Madhyamik Siksha Kendras and Shikshalaya Prakalpa through the decentralized system of administration. Rs.460,744,17523 was expended for this purpose in the year 2005-06. (iii) Schools sports are an important incentive programme initiated by the Govt. of West Bengal in the Primary Education sector. It plays a vital role in the physical and mental development of the primary students. The school sports are organized in six different tiers viz. School level Anchal/ Zonal, Circle, Sub-division, District and finally at the State level. The successful competitors of State Level Sports Meets are awarded scholarships and acquire the opportunity to participate in the National Level Sports Meets. School Grant for primary and upper-primary schools. 3919424 primary Schools and 9173 25upper-primary schools received this grant this year. School grant @ Rs2000 per year is being provided to primary and upper primary schools. Rs.105,432,541 was expended for the purpose of school grant in the year 200506 as per the Annual Report of SSA. Maintenance Grant @ Rs.5000 per year is given to the primary schools. As per the Annual Report of the School Education Department, 2005-06, 49577 primary schools received this fund. Mid-day Meal: The National programme of Nutritional support to primary education popularly known as the mid-day meal was launched in August 1995 in West Bengal. Cooked food is provided to all the primary schools run by the SSA, Panchayat, and Municipality.9126 lakh students in 6899627 institutions receive this facility.

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

4.3 The Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India The Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidayala (KGBV) is an initiative for the girl students. The gap in the enrolment of SC/ST girls, especially in the upper primary level is very low. The scheme provides residential ashram-type Govt. sponsored school facilities for the girl students predominantly in the SC, ST, OBC and minority areas. 54 such schools run in the 10 backward districts of the state. Rs.15 lakh is sanctioned for the construction of school hostels.

23 24

According to the Annual Report of SSA, 2005-06 Source, Annual Report, SSA, 2005-06 25 Source, Annual Report, SSA,2005-06 26 Source, Annual Report ,Dept of School Edu.,2005-06 27 Souce, Annual Report, Dept.of School Edu., 2005-06

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4.4 Ministry of Women & Child Development and Social Welfare, Govt. of India (i) Balika Samriddhi Yojana (BSY) is a Centre-sponsored scheme to extend assistance to the States and Union Territories to provide benefits to girl students. The objective of this scheme is to change the negative attitude of the family and community towards a girl child and her mother, to improve retention and enrolment, to raise the age of marriage and to assist the girl to undertake income generating activities. The fund is provided to cover all girl children in the BPL families. Under this scheme when a girl, born on or after 15.08.1997 and covered under the BSY, starts attending the school, she will be entitled to annual scholarships for each successfully completed year of schooling.

Scholarship Received by a Girl Student under the BSY Scheme Class I ­ III IV V VI ­ VII VIII IX ­ X Source: Annual Report, Amount of Annual Scholarship Rs.300 per annum for each class Rs.500 per annum Rs.600 per annum Rs.700 per annum for each class Rs.800 per annum Rs.1000 per annum for each class WCD&SW, Govt. of West Bengal, 2005-06

(ii) Under the child protection programme, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has a scheme for Street Children, where non-formal education is a component including vocational training. Rs.250 per child per month is allotted for this. (iii) General Grant-in-Aid scheme for the welfare of the children of sex workers in need of care and protection. The objective of this scheme is to provide opportunities including non-formal education, vocational training, and nutrition to the children of sex workers to facilitate their entry into mainstream education. (iv) Special Schools (Deen Dayal Rehabilitation Programme) are operated mainly by NGOs for the education and rehabilitation of children with disabilities. On the recommendation of the State Government, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Govt. of India, sanctions grant-in-aid to the NGOs in the State for running special schools for students with disabilities. (v) Scholarships for the Persons with Disability (PWD): Students with disabilities are provided with Rs.60 per month, for their education till their promotion to Class IX.

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4.5 Central Government (i) Scholarship Scheme: National Talent Search Examination: To identify brilliant students at the end of Class X and to grant financial assistance for obtaining quality education, to further development of talent. · National Scholarship for the talented students in rural areas: This examination is held in the month of February every year. Students of Class VIII in recognized Secondary and Higher-Secondary Schools of the rural areas of the State can appear for this examination. Scholarships Rs.30 per month for the day scholar and Rs.100 per month for Boarders are granted for three years to successful candidates. · Central and Middle Scholarship Examination: The examination is held in the month of February every year. Students of recognized Jr. High schools of the state can appear for the examination. The awardees are granted Rs.5 per month for four years in recognition of their meritorious performances and top position in the examination. Grant from 12th Finance Commission for the development of library and laboratories. ·

(ii)

4.6 National Child Labour Project, Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India The National Policy on Child Labour undertaken by the Government of India, initiated the National Child Labour Project. With the objective of mainstreaming the child labourers to formal schools, the National Child Labour Project allots funds. The project is implemented through the District Child Labour Project Society, a registered body under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, under the Chairmanship of the District Magistrate, with the involvement of the concerned line department representatives. At the state level, the project is entrusted to the Project Director. The actual implementation is executed by NGOs. Under this programme, target children are educated in special rehabilitation schools through a bridge course for three years to facilitate mainstreaming to formal schools. Children are equipped with skills to enable them to be productive members of society. The main focus is rehabilitating children and simultaneously preventing re-entry to work and also preventing the entry of other children to work. Strengthening existing Government Schools is another important role of this project. The teachers of local Government schools are sensitized to provide extra help required by the children of the NCLP schools. Children from special schools are mainstreamed to formal schools as soon as they are able to appear for the entry test required for entering formal schools. In West Bengal there are 27728 special schools in 8 districts catering to 1384129 children. Source: National Conference on Child Labour- Response & Challenges, Agend, Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India. 29 Source: National Conference on Child Labour- Response & Challenges, Agend, Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India.

28

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4.7 Schemes provided by Anglo-Indian Schools The Anglo-Indian schools provide concession to its students with economically backward families on tuition fees, or on boarding charges or full concession (tuition fees, food and boarding fees) or partial concession. The amounts spend by some of the Schools of Kolkata on concession ranges from Rs.15 -35lakhs. (Data collected from a sample survey) V Cost of Education

5.1 Cost of Education in Private School The cost of education can be divided into two categories in the city of Kolkata ­ (i) cost of education in Private-Aided schools and (ii) cost of education in Private UnAided schools. Further difference in the cost of education per child is found between the city and the district towns. The cost of education per child in district towns is found to be lower than the cost of education per child in the city. To determine the per child education cost, a random sample survey was conducted in the five district towns of West Bengal including Kolkata. The districts towns included ­ Purulia, Howrah, Berhampur in the district of Murshidabad, Dinajpur and Diamond Harbour in South 24 Parganas. The cost of per student was divided under six broad headings ­ Annual School Charges, Monthly Tuition Fees, Text Books and other Stationeries, Traveling Expenses, School Uniform and Expenses on Private Tuitions. The survey revealed that the fee structure of private schools in Kolkata includes Tuition fees, Development fees, Games fees, Infrastructure fees, Computer fees, Science fees (applicable to senior students who opt for Science the Secondary level) - these comes under the monthly fee structure along with Annual fees . Added to this, is the expenditure incurred by parents for school uniforms, traveling to school by bus or pool car and private tuition. Cost of Education in Private-Aided School per Child Sl.No. Description Expenditure of Primary Classes/ Amount in rupees 2625 400 200 650 50 (monthly) 1200 800 1350 7275 Secondary Classes/ Amount in rupees 3000 450 200 600 800 (50 monthly + 200 yearly) 1650 800 1450 800-1000 9950

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Annual fee Tuition fee (monthly) Development fee (monthly) Examination fee (yearly) Computer fee Text Book and other Stationeries (yearly) Traveling (monthly) School Uniform (yearly) Expenses on Private Tuitions Total

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Source: As per the Fee structure of a Private-Aided school and synthesis of survey done Cost of Education in Private Un-Aided School per Child Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Description Expenditure of Primary Classes/ Amount in rupees 1500 1175 950 127 157 100 (either from Class III or Class IV) 600 1380 800 1350 Secondary Classes/ Amount in rupees 1500 940 950 127 157 100 (up to Class VIII) 600 1700 800 1450 800-1000

Session Fee (yearly) Tuition Fee (monthly) Development Fee (yearly) Infrastructure Dev. & Electricity (monthly) Games and Co-curricular (monthly) Computer fee (monthly)

Examination Fee (yearly) Text Book and other Stationeries 9. Traveling expenses (monthly) 10. School Uniform 11. Expenses on Private Tuition (monthly) Total Source: As per the Mean value of three survey

7. 8.

8139 9324 Private Un-Aided schools and the conducted

The per student cost in Private-Aided Schools is lower than the per student cost in Private Un-Aided schools. The tables above clearly reflect the difference in the fee structure of an Aided Private School to that of a Private Un-Aided School. The per student cost at the primary level of an Aided Private School is approximately Rs.23225 per annum and that of a Private Un-Aided School, approximately Rs.34088 per annum. Per student cost at the secondary level in a Private Aided School is approximately Rs.35700 per annum and in a Private Un-Aided School, approximately Rs.42488 per annum. Private un-aided schools charge on each and every component of the fee structure. In addition to this, there is a huge cost of private tuitions at the Secondary level. Sometimes, the cost of private tuition goes up to Rs.1500 per month, with private tutors charging Rs.250 to Rs.400 per subject, in a coaching center. In case of individual tuition at home, the rates per subject might be Rs.500 to Rs.700 per month.

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Figure 4.

Com parison of Cost at Prim ary Level betw een PrivateAided Schools & Private Un-Aided Schools

40000 30000 20000 10000 0 23335

34088

Series1

Private-Aided Private Un-Aided Schools (in Rs) Schools (in Rs)

Figure 5.

Com parison of Cost at Secondary Level betw een Private-Aided Schools & Private Un-Aided Schools

45000 40000 35000 30000

42488

35700 Series1

Private-Aided Private Un-Aided Schools (in Rs) Schools (in Rs)

Per child Cost in Private Schools in the Districts. Calculated Annually Description of Expenditure Amount in Rupees Annual School Fee 1360 Tuition Fee 2490 Text Book and Other Stationeries 1225 Traveling Expenses* 3775 School Uniform 580 Expenses on Private Tuition 2600 Total 12030 Source: Sample Survey conducted in five districts of West Bengal at the elementary level. Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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It has been observed that the difference in the per capita cost of education per child between the city and other district towns is influenced by the per capita income of the people in Kolkata to that of the per capita income in district towns. The difference in cost causes the difference in the facilities a school provides for its students. The rate of private tuition is lower in district towns in comparison to Kolkata. Similarly, the cost of traveling is also lower in district towns. Per Capita Income Ranking of the Districts of West Bengal Sl.No. Districts Rank in Per Capita Income 2 4 13 18 12 10 15 17 3 1 6 11 5 7 16 9 8 14

1. Darjeeling 2. Jalpaiguri 3. Koch Behar 4. Uttar Dinajpur 5. Dakshin Dinajpur 6. Malda 7. Murshidabad 8. Birbhum 9. Bardhaman 10. Kolkata 11. Nadia 12. North 24 Parganas 13. Hooghly 14. Bankura 15. Purulia 16. Medinipur 17. Howrah 18. South 24 Parganas Source: Census 2001

5.2 Per Child Cost incurred by parents of Children Studying in Government Schools Per Child Cost Incurred by Parents of children studying in Govt. Sponsored Schools. Calculated Annually Sl.No. 1. 2. 3. Description of Expenditure Amount Rupees 265 720 in

Annual Fee Tuition Fee Text Books and other Stationeries 4. Traveling Expenses 2300 5. School Uniform 515 6. Expenses on Private Tuition 2000 Total 5800 Source: Based on the Sample Survey conducted in five Districts of West Bengal

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The survey further reveals that the expenditure on private tuitions for children studying in Government Schools at the Secondary level is around Rs.4000 to Rs.6000 per annum per child. The cost of school uniform is approximately Rs.1000 per student per annum. The yearly expenditure on textbooks is around Rs.2000. The private cost incurred by parents of children studying in Government-Sponsored Schools and Government Schools are more or less same because the expenses on school uniform, traveling and private tuition is more or less same for all the students in both the type of schools. The cost of private tuition is the same for private schools too, as the rate for private tuition is charged subject wise in upper classes for both the type of students. (Due to unavailability of data, the government cost for per student could not be provided) KMC spent Rs.13.96 crore in the year 2006-07 in the education field. VI Quality of Education 6.1 Indicators to Assess Quality of Education The quality of schooling is a relative factor. Any understanding of the term `quality' might vary from person to person. To define quality of school education we might consider some indicators like drop-out rates, total enrolment, school infrastructure, teacher-student ratio, pass out rate and results. Such detailed data is not available on private schools. It could be made possible only if a survey of the private schools is conducted, considering all the above mentioned indicators. It would then provide a clear picture of the quality of education in private schools as compared to that in Government-run schools. The following Case study will reveal the total enrolment, drop-out rate and teacher student ratio. 6.1.1 Case study: A Murshidabad based NGO conducted a survey to assess the status of children in 4 vulnerable blocks of the districts covering 13 panchayats, 97 samsad and 9 CBOs Total Children: (i) Between the age group : 36729 of 0 to 6 years (ii) Between the age group of 6 to 18 years : 49799

List of Educational Institutes along with number of Students: Sl.No. I Ii Iii Type of School Government run Schools Private Schools Schools under SSA No. of Schools 122 9 35 No. of Students 27890 1272 2652

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Number of Drop-out Children as per data collected from the schools: 5 to 6 years : 450 7 to 9 years : 288 10 t 13 years : 861 13 to 18 years : 743 Total :2342

Percentage of Drop-out, Enrollm ent & Children Never Been to School

31%

Number of school going Children Number of Drop-out from School

5%

64%

Number of Children never been to School

Total Number of Teachers in Government School : 465 Teacher Student Ratio in Govt. Schools : 1:60 Total Number of Teachers in Private Schools : 55 Teacher Student Ratio in Private Schools : 1:23 6.2 School Infrastructure The education imparted in schools is more effective and qualitative, when provided in a suitable atmosphere, i.e., proper school building with facilities of electricity, drinking water and toilets. Comparatively low attendance in schools of West Bengal has been credited to the sheer lack of basic infrastructural facilities in schools. Even now in West Bengal, there are a number of primary, upper-primary and secondary schools which operate in open spaces and tents, though the percentage is low. The following table reflects the infrastructural availability of government-run schools.

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Percentage of Type of School Building Mostly Government Run Schools Sl.No. 1. 2. Type of School Pucca SemiPucca 24 28.20 Kuchcha Tent 0.21 0.18 0.21 2003-04 Open Space 1.32 1.02 0.042

Primary Schools 68 6.44 Upper-Primary 62.45 8.13 Schools 3. Secondary 81.64 17.19 1.09 Schools Source: Annual Report, Dept. of School Education, Govt.of WB,

Private schools have access to more resources and are able to provide children with the required infrastructural facilities. As a result, parents, children and the communities are prepared to invest in private schools in preference to government school education. 6. 3 Result of Madhyamik Examination Over the years the total number of students appearing for the Madhyamik Examination has decreased. This has an inverse effect on the State-run education system. More and more children are opting for the ICSE/CBSE examination due to the curriculum followed by these Boards. The curriculum of the ICSE/CBSE Boards is more knowledge based while that of Madhyamik is application based. It becomes easier for the ICSE/CBSE students to take the national level competitive examinations. The pass-out rate of the Madhyamik examination has decreased over the years. Year Pass out Rate 2004 71.61 2005 70.51 2006 64.95 6.4 Enrolment in Schools Enrolment in schools tries to explain the quality of education imparted in the institutes. There is a general tendency observed among the parents to get their wards admitted to those educational institutes, where they feel their children receive maximum and optimum input which maybe reflected in examination results. However, enrolment in schools of their choice is a far reaching factor for most parents in India as a majority of the population is not so privileged. They have no option, but to send their children to the nearest Government schools as it is free of cost. Progress in literacy and education depends on the propensity of children to attend school and also to complete at least the primary level of education. It is well known that the enrolment ratios of children in primary schools tend to be strongly related to the educational level among adults in the family. In West Bengal the correlation between enrolment and attendance with parental literacy and parents' education level is high in the primary and secondary level of education both in rural and urban areas. (Nagi Reddy 2003) The enrolment data is prone to inaccuracy for varied reasons. Official data based on school records tend to inflate enrolment because of the pressure on school

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authorities to indicate high levels of enrolment, as the figures of Class I are typically taken as the relevant data for assessing the performance of the school authority as well as the resource requirement of the school. The enrolment rate in WBBPE run schools is inconsistent over the last three years. In 2003-04 total enrolments were 20742030 which dropped to 17132331 in 2004-05 and again increased to 20537632 in 2005-06. This may be the impact of the SSM reaching every corner of the state. It is observed that enrolment of girls have shown considerable increase. This may be due to the high demand to educate girl children. Enrolment to the KMC run primary schools demonstrated a downward trend till 200506. The enrolment increased in 2006-07 due to the implementation of the SSM. Total Enrolment in KMCP Run Schools Year Male Female 2003-04 15240 16226 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 13783 14360 Source: Document from KMC, Education department and Ghosh on Primary Education Total 31646 25802 21967 28018 the report of Aushmita

The enrolment rate of the KMCP-run schools in the Garden Reach area of Kolkata is higher than the rest of the schools all over Kolkata. The reason behind it is the type of population of this area. The population in Garden Reach is predominantly Muslim. The general family size is larger, so children from even economically sound families enroll into KMCP schools to reduce the cost of education. Children from Kolkata slums, street children of pavement dwellers and the children of the migrant labourers from neighboring districts and states study in these KMCP run schools. Lack of adequate funds is the reason for sending their children to these schools, which sometimes lack basic infrastructural facilities.

6.5 Teacher Student Ratio Teacher student ratio is a very important indicator for the quality of education imparted in a school. A higher ratio would imply low effectiveness. It is an obvious logical conclusion that a single teacher teaching a large number of students cannot meet the requirements of all the students. At the same time, a single teacher in a school comprising fewer students is an improper use of manpower. There are five KMCP-run schools, with a single teacher for 15 to 22 students. An outstanding case is the Basudevpur KMCP, school code 212/126/BD, in ward number 126. This school, with a student capacity of 2, is run by a single teacher. The teacher student ratio in KMCP-run schools is presently 1:42 (the total number of students / total number of teachers in a particular year). Though the ratio appears very

Source: An Analysis of the Primary Education in West Bengal by Aushmita Ghosh Source: An Analysis of the Primary Education in West Bengal by Aushmita Ghosh 32 Source: An Analysis of the Primary Education in West Bengal by Aushmita Ghosh

31

30

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proportionate when calculated overall, there are some cases of disproportionate ratio in these schools. The above mentioned case study reveals that teacher student ratio in Government school is higher than in private schools. 6.6 Drop-out Rate India recorded 209.98 million child populations (5-14 years). Out of these children, 105.72 million children (50.35%) were drop-outs from schools in 1991. Whereas the estimated children population in 2000 was 242.11 million, the estimated drop-outs in 2000 was 72.63 million, constituting 30% of the children in the proportion of dropouts from 50% to 30% during 1991 -2000 (NSSO 52nd Round Survey). In a significant field study conducted by IIM, Kolkata revealed that the number of drop-outs of rural children from primary schools is insignificant, which was less than 3% in comparison to the 27% of children who were never enrolled in this age group to school. The reasons for drop-out may vary from lack of interest in education, to inability to meet the expenses, to distance of the school from home, to attend to household work, etc. In urban West Bengal, the most important reason cited in the survey has been highlighted as the inability to meet the expenses associated with schooling. Drop-out rates tend to be higher in the 10 to 14 years of age group, at around 18%. This is because of the shift from primary schools to secondary schools and because of the lesser likelihood of the existence of secondary schools in the vicinity. Moreover, children in this age group are at a high risk of being absorbed into the labour force. The girls in this age group drop out as most of them are made to shoulder the responsibility of domestic chores and sibling care. 6.7 Quality of Primary Education The quality of primary education continues to be a matter of serious concern in both rural and urban West Bengal. The 1992 Report of the State Education Commission made a number of comments about the delivery of public education, which were echoed in a report by the Pratichi Trust in 2002. Some of the areas of concern identified in both reports include: poor infrastructure and inadequate equipment in schools; sporadic and irregular attendance of some teachers; lack of accountability of teachers; and inadequate school inspection. The District Inspectorate has such an enormous task, that it is impossible for it to accomplish its responsibilities adequately. There is an average of 90 schools per SubInspector, in addition to which they are responsible for a large number of other administrative tasks, such as enforcing service and leave rules of teachers. This suggests that there may be a need to restructure the organization and administration of the schools, to make them amenable to greater local community control.

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VII Conclusion Education is of fundamental importance to all as it opens manifold avenues for future citizens of the country. Increase in awareness among the people about human rights, legal rights and protection, democratic rights, employment, issues relating to health, gender equality are some of the vital issues that are addressed when education flourishes. Education is one of the vital factors that have a direct impact on the growth of a country and thus engender an increase in the per capita income of the country. With the concerted efforts of the Centre and State Governments, NGOs, local bodies and international organizations, the overall scenario of education sector in West Bengal has improved considerably over recent years. While availability of elementary schools within a reasonable distance from habitations is now fairly universal, same cannot yet be said in regard to Secondary Schools and Colleges. Pockets still exist in many remote parts of the State where the nearest Secondary School or College is much too far for everyone to be able to attend. In spite of improvements in the enrolment ratios and dropout rates, participation rates at various levels of education are undoubtedly low, and need to be raised very substantially. Participation rates in Education are poor largely because students from disadvantaged groups continue to find it difficult to pursue it. Even when they manage to participate, students suffering from disadvantages of gender, socioeconomic status, physical disability, etc. tend to have access to education of considerably lower quality than the others, while the education system needs to provide them access to the best possible education so that they are able to catch up with the rest. There is also the challenge of quality in Indian education, which has many dimensions such as providing adequate physical facilities and infrastructure;Making available adequate teachers of requisite quality;Effectiveness of teaching-learning processes;Attainment levels of students, etc The geographic vastness and the huge population in West Bengal as well as huge diversity in socio-economic conditions makes it difficult for the top tier of the Government to effectively administer all the programs and policies pertaining to education. Therefore, the management of education could build in greater decentralization, accountability, and professionalism, so that it is able to deliver good quality education to all, and ensure optimal utilization of available resources.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS · · · · Headmaster's Manual by B.B. Kundu Secondary School Administration by S.K. Kochhar History of Indian Education by Prof. B.C. Rai A Hand Book on Primary Education by West Bengal Board of Primary Education

JOURNAL ARTICLE · Annual Report, Department of School Education, Govt. of West Bengal, 2003-04 · Siksha-Sanghati, Journal of West Bengal Non- Government Schools Organizers Association, Special Edition,2nd April, 2006 · · · Annual Report, DPEP & SSA, West Bengal, 2005-06 Annual Report, Department of Women & Child Development and Social Welfare, Govt. of West Bengal, 2005-06 Annual Report, Department of School Education, Govt. of West Bengal,2005-06

DISSERTATION · An Analysis of Primary Education in Kolkata by Ausmita Ghosh, CCS Working Paper No. 149, CCS Summer Research Internship 2006, Center for Civil Societies POPULAR MAGAZINE ARTICLE · Interview with the Minister in Charge of School Education, Government of West Bengal, India Today dated 16 July, 2007 · Sokoler Janne Shiksha O Panchayeter Bhumika, Rajjo Panchayat O Gram Unnayan Sanstha, Panchayat O Gram Unnayan Bibhag, Paschim Bango Sarkar PAPER PRESENTED AT A CONFERENCE · National Conference on Child Labour ­ Response & Challenges (New Delhi: January 22, 2001) Agenda, Ministry of Labour, Govt. of India

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