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6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

A Gravel Management System For Management Of Operations For The Construction And Maintenance Of Gravel Roads

Henderson MG1, van Zyl GD2 1. Chief Engineer, Transport & Public Works Department, Western Cape Provincial Administration, Cape Town, South Africa 2. Director, PD Naidoo & Associates, Cape Town, South Africa In the Western Cape Province, South Africa, poorly performing gravel roads were the norm. This was due to poor quality wearing course gravels and a low standard of construction, resulting in short regravelling frequencies, excessive oversize aggregate, abundant loose stones, rapid loss of gravel and poor riding quality. Strict environmental legislation has also impacted on the availability and rehabilitation of borrow pits, increasing lead times and reducing available sources of gravel. A systematic approach was adopted to identify and address all processes and standards in the provision and maintenance of unsurfaced roads. This led to the development of an operations level Gravel Management System (GMS) that is fully integrated with strategic and tactical level systems, such as Gravel Road Management, Traffic Counting, Road Network Information, Maintenance Management and Pavement Quality Management. The objective of the GMS is to address the dynamic nature of gravel roads by providing the tools for rapid and informed decisions on appropriate maintenance actions. The GMS is based on Internet technology to facilitate the flow of information between all parties involved, namely, head office, district offices, district municipalities and consultants. The scope of the processes incorporated into the GMS is as follows: · Management of borrow pits · Investigation and design of scheduled maintenance projects · Acceptance control · Project control · Blading optimisation The paper describes the processes incorporated in the GMS and its integration with strategic and tactical level systems and highlights the benefits obtained from the new and improved processes.

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

INTRODUCTION

The road infrastructure in the Western Cape, excluding the urban areas and the national roads, is owned and managed by the Roads Infrastructure Branch of the Provincial Administration of the Western Cape. 10 500 km of the 18 909 km of trunk, main and divisional roads are unsurfaced and known as gravel and earth roads. The Provincial Administration, through agency agreements with the five District Municipalities (DM), manages the major portion of the unsurfaced road network. The District Municipalities carry out routine maintenance and the bulk of periodic maintenance (regravelling). Recently, periodic maintenance projects have also been carried out on contract. The Branch is under continuous pressure to provide and maintain a safe and economic road network with limited funds. Approximately 16 to 20% of the Branch's annual budget is spent annually on routine and periodic maintenance. Currently only 15 to 25% of the gravel loss per annum can be replaced with the available funds. The result of this under-funding is that the average gravel thickness on the road network has decreased since 1990 from 75 mm to 34 mm in 2003. It is, therefore, imperative that the Branch uses its available funding in the most effective manner through application of the best processes and technology for the maintenance of the unsurfaced road network. The Branch's objective is thus to maintain and build high performance and cost effective gravel roads that will · last much longer; · give a good riding quality for users; · have a safe riding surface; and · reduce & optimise costs for the road user and the Branch. The Roads Infrastructure Branch has progressed significantly in the development and implementation of an integrated road management system over the past decade. Until recently, the emphasis for system development in respect of unsurfaced roads was mainly directed at planning and information systems to assist in the identification and prioritisation of scheduled maintenance projects (regravelling projects) for gravel roads. With the development of the Gravel Management System (GMS), the emphasis changed to the actual operations and processes involved in the periodic and normal maintenance of unsurfaced roads. A systems approach was followed to identify and to address all processes in the provision and maintenance of unsurfaced roads, and the GMS was designed to fully integrate with the roads management system. Various factors have contributed to poor performance of the unsurfaced roads. Due to staff shortages in the Branch and District Municipalities, the design and construction of regravelling projects deteriorated to an unacceptable situation where many gravel roads had very poor riding quality and needed to be regravelled as frequently as once in every three years. The existing, often unsuitable borrow pits were utilized without a formal materials design and approval process. The road was not investigated before regravelling and no design was provided, leaving the District Municipality to decide what was required as the project was constructed. Usually no attention was given to geometric improvements and only the most serious drainage deficiencies were addressed, if at all. Regravelling operations in many cases consisted of placing the gravel material without first shaping and adequate compaction of the roadbed. This was followed by inadequate breakdown of the gravel material and poor compaction, usually without sufficient moisture. A trial section was not first constructed to test the gravel material and plant before proceeding with production. Layer thickness and compaction were not measured and enforced as part of process control, and no formal acceptance of the layer for thickness, grading and compaction was done. The final product generally had the incorrect cross section with insufficient cross fall and camber, and also had excessive oversize aggregate. Rapid loss of gravel resulted in abundant loose stones and poor riding quality. The success of a regravelling team was measured only by the speed of progress in laying down the wearing course layer. These problems were compounded by construction plant that was inappropriate (such as a vibratory roller set on a high amplitude and low frequency), ineffective (such as a grid roller with worn down knuckles), or just not available for the job. There was often an inappropriate combination of plant (trucks, loaders, graders, water bowsers, rollers). These problems resulted in low and inefficient production and a poor end product. An additional factor was that the human resource complement making up the regravel teams was poorly trained and many operators and foremen did not understand the basics elements of gravelling. Many areas in the Western Cape do not have suitable materials and roads often traverse through environmentally sensitive areas, such fynbos and arid areas containing a high percentage of endangered plant species. Nature conservation authorities and other landowners are reluctant to provide gravel materials for regravelling of roads. There has been an increased emphasis on environmental issues and the conservation of natural resources. This is reflected in legislation enacted over the last few years that has

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

mandated environmental impact assessments (EIA) and environmental management programmes (EMP) for the rehabilitation of borrow pits. The time taken to complete an EIA and EMP and have them approved can easily take up to six months, and this can delay the commencement of a project. Evaluation of alternative solutions, such as upgrading to low volume, surfaced roads, has now becomes the norm in environmentally sensitive areas and where gravel resources are scarce.

ACTIONS TAKEN

A number of far reaching actions were initiated to improve the delivery of the regravel projects and routine maintenance. These included the following actions: · Revision of materials specifications · Prospecting for new borrow pits · Formal design procedures · Environmental impact assessment and rehabilitation plans for borrow pits · Revised construction methods and trial sections · Formal acceptance control procedures · Formal progress meetings · Making cost, progress and quality statistics available · Performance monitoring of selected test sections · Development of a computerised operations level Gravel Management System · Improvement of routine maintenance strategies · Improvement of performance monitoring · Creation of policy and standards manuals The resultant all round improved performance of the gravel roads since the introduction of the actions listed above has been documented elsewhere. Further details on the first eight actions listed above and their successful impact on the performance of unsurfaced roads can be found in the paper by van Zyl, G.D., Henderson, M.G. and Fourie, H.G. (2003a). Aspects of monitoring performance are detailed in the paper by van Zyl, G.D., Henderson, M.G. and Fourie, H.G. (2003b). The paper gives details of how the improved performance can be modelled. The development of a computerised, operations level Gravel Management System is the subject of this paper.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE GMS Rationale

Once the complexity of the processes for the provision of periodic and routine maintenance for gravel roads became better understood, it was realised that the biggest challenge was to sustain all the actions listed above. It became clear that a computerised system that could be accessed anywhere in the Western Cape by all business partners was essential. Such a system would assist in achieving the Branch's objective of maintaining and building high performance and cost effective gravel roads.

Roles

Figure 1 shows the complexity of communication lines between the Branch business units, district offices, district municipalities and consulting engineers that form a partnership in their endeavours to achieve the objective mentioned above. There are three district offices and five district municipalities and five or more consulting engineers involved in the maintenance of unsurfaced roads. The level of responsibility of each business partner is also a variable for which the system must cater. The roles of each business partner are listed in Table 1. It soon became clear that an Internet based system is the only feasible method of implementing a computerised system that could cope with business partners that are widely dispersed over the Western Cape and that belong to different organisations.

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Pavement Engineering

Systems

District Roads Engineer

Maintenance

District Roads Engineer Materials Testing

District Municipality

Pavement Technology (Materials Laboratory)

Consulting Engineer

Lines of communication

Figure 1 Communication lines between the Branch business units, district offices, district municipalities and consulting engineers Table 1 Roles of each business partner PARTNER District Roads Engineer (DRE) ROLES · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Approve design standard certificate Approve DM programme DM oversight and approval of completed work Maintain GMS and GRMS Provide prioritised programme of periodic maintenance Provide reports on condition of unsurfaced roads Provision of budget to DMs Monitor construction progress and expenditure Perform routine tests for borrow pits Acceptance control tests Approval of the quality of competed work Perform routine tests Acceptance control Scheduling of periodic and routine maintenance projects Execution of periodic and routine maintenance projects Process control Investigation of borrow pits for gravel materials Provide the materials design Evaluate trial sections Maintain the GMS and other Road Management systems

Pavement Engineering

Maintenance

Pavement Technology

DRE Materials Testing

District Municipality

Consulting Engineer Systems

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Development Of The Concept

The GMS is designed to be an operations level computerised system that integrates with the Branch's Road Management System as shown in Figure 2. The Road Management System integrates the following systems: · Road Network Information System (RNIS operates at strategic, tactical and operations levels) · Gravel Roads Management System (GRMS operates at strategic and tactical levels) · Traffic Counting System (TCS operates at strategic, tactical and operations levels) · Maintenance Management System (MMS operates at all levels, Internet version in development) · Provincial Accident System (PAS under development, operates at strategic and tactical levels) · Geographical Information System (GIS under development, operates at strategic and tactical levels) · Pavement Quality Management System (PQMS under development, operates at all levels) · Project Management System (PrMS--package purchased, customisation to follow, operates at strategic, tactical and operations levels)

Pavement Management System

Gravel Management System

Traffic Counting System

Gravel Road Management System

Road Network Information System Geographic Information System

Provincial Accident System

Maintenance Management System

Project Management System

Bridge Management System

Figure 2 Integrated Road Management System

The objective of the GMS is to address the dynamic nature of gravel roads by providing the tools for making rapid and informed decisions on appropriate maintenance actions. The main activities involved in gravel road maintenance are: · Replacing the gravel wearing course from time to time, lost or damaged due to traffic and environmental factors (this activity is referred to as regravelling); and · Frequent blading and/or reshaping of the road surface to maintain an acceptable riding quality and effective surface drainage. In order to support these activities, the GMS has seven modules, namely: · A Borrow Pit Information Module · A Project Investigation & Design Module · An Acceptance Control and As-built Information Module · A Project Control Module · A Blading Optimisation Module · A Query Module · A Communications (Coms) Module The GMS is also supported by a temporary Project Registration Database that is required until the PrMS becomes available. The Project Registration Database is essential for the GMS that is designed to be linked to projects that uniquely identify each job. Figure 3 shows the relationship of the GMS to other systems, the modules and data flow.

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Road Network Information System (RNIS) Pavement Quality Management System (PQMS)

Maintenance Management System (MMS)

Gravel Roads Management System (GRMS)

Traffic Counting System (TCS) Database

Provincial Accident System (PAS)

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Gravel Management System

Coms

Module Query Module RNIS outputs GRMS outputs MMS outputs TCS outputs PAS outputs PQMS outputs GMS outputs

Input Modules Exogenous inputs to the GMS Materials testing results from borrow pits & on layerworks Borrow Pit Project Information & Design Acceptance Control & As-built data Project Control Blading Optimisation

Project Management System (PrMS)

Approval of EIAs & EMPs

Figure 3 The relationship of the GMS to other systems, the modules and data flow

Processes

The broad processes involved in gravel road periodic and normal maintenance are shown in Figure 4. The GMS models all the processes shown on the operations level.

Project Identification & Prioritisation Programming & budget

Strategic and Tactical Levels

Review of Performance

Design ·EIA & EMP Programming & budget ·Materials Investigations ·Design Standard Certificate

Execution & Process Control of Regravel Projects

Acceptance Control

Operations Level

Maintenance Planning ·Blading strategies ·Rework ·Patching

Execution & Process Control of Maintenance Projects

Review of Performance & Strategies

Figure 4 Broad processes involved in unsurfaced road periodic and normal maintenance

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Details of these processes incorporated into the GMS are summarised as follows: · Management of borrow pits o Location and owner details o Gravel material properties and suitability o Environmental Impact Assessment and rehabilitation of borrow pits o Query facilities · Investigation and design of scheduled maintenance projects o Minimum standards o Investigation procedures and testing · Acceptance control o Trial sections and construction procedures o Testing and submission o Generating as-built information · Project control o Project scheduling per team/ contractor o Monthly physical and financial progress o Summaries of quality, expenditure and progress per team, District Municipality and totals · Optimised blading frequency using strategic and tactical level system results o Incorporation of district-specific constraints, variables and local road performance o User intervention to address emergencies, complaints and requests o Optimised work schedule per grader team

Borrow Pit Information Module

The purpose of this module is to provide the latest information on borrow pits. The module provides the facility to capture borrow pit information emanating from the investigation for suitable gravel materials required for regravelling projects and to analyse and display the data on maps, standard forms and graphs. Once captured, one of the business units approves the data. The module models part of the design process shown in Figure 4. The main functions of the module are summarised as follows: · Capture borrow pit data pertaining to position, ownership, layout, etc. · Capture test results of materials investigations from test holes in borrow pits · Compile borrow pit reports · Approval of borrow pit reports · Status of environmental issues · Capture test results of stockpiled materials · Approval of stockpile materials test results Figure 5 shows part of the program interface for the input of borrow pit details.

Project Investigation & Design Module

The purpose of this module is to assist with design, provide the facility to store design standard certificates and facilitate the approval of the certificates. The certificate includes general information on the road and project, such as design standards, traffic data, pavement design, and problems identified that will need attention such as fence repairs, additional culverts, raising of existing formation level, re-alignment, and width of formation. This module models part of the design process shown in Figure 4. The main functions of the module are summarised as follows: · Display relevant data from RNIS to the designer · Add, edit or delete data as required for the compilation of Design Standard Certificates · Import design drawings, sketches and pictures · Generate Design Standard Certificates · Approval of Design Standard Certificates · View and print Design Standard Certificates Figure 6 shows one of the screens of the program for input of design standard certificate details. Integration of the GMS with the Traffic Counting System facilitates the automatic import of relevant traffic volumes for each road section as the input screen is filled in. Figure 7 shows the first page of the Design Standard Certificate generated by the module.

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Figure 5 GMS interface for input of borrow pit details

Figure 6 Input screen for the Design Standard Certificate

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Figure 7 First page of the Design Standard Certificate generated by the GMS

Acceptance Control and As-built Information Module

After each section of the road has been constructed, the District Roads Engineer Materials Testing, or Pavement Technology, or the consulting engineer, depending on availability of human resources, carries out acceptance control tests on the layer(s). The purpose of this module is to provide the facility for acceptance control of gravel layers for trial sections and construction lots and reporting of as-built information. The main functions of the module are summarised as follows: · Determine test positions for density, grading samples and thickness measurements for trial sections and construction lots · Capture and process test results · Approval of gravel layers · Report on as-built data Figure 8 shows the flow chart of activities involved in the acceptance control process.

Determine Lot sizes and sampling positions Sample & test constructed road lots Compile test request form & submit samples for laboratory testing Laboratory testing of sampled material Reject Capture laboratory test results for pavement layers Analyze test results Submit Acceptance Control data to Pavement Technology for approval Approve

Figure 8 Flow chart of activities involved in the acceptance control process

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Figure 9 shows the program input screen for calculating the sampling positions (Materials Manual, 2003). Figure 10 shows the acceptance control form output from the module.

Figure 9 Input screen for calculating sampling positions

Project Control Module

The Maintenance and Pavement Engineering business units work in co-operation with the District Roads Engineers to control the planning and execution of all projects at a strategic level. The District Municipalities are responsible for the scheduling and execution of the projects, except for those projects that are constructed on contract. The main purpose of the module is to combine and summarise existing detailed information on current projects regarding funds, schedules, progress, costs, quality control and materials. The summarized data can then be used as a management tool by Maintenance and Pavement Engineering business units, District Roads Engineers and District Municipalities to provide information relevant for project control and management. The main functions of the module are as follows: · Schedule and re-schedule projects to meet user defined needs · Capture progress and as-built data · Link borrow pit information to projects · Display progress in Gantt chart format · Summarise costs and as-built data Figure 11 shows the functional diagram for the module.

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Figure 10 Acceptance control form

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Funds allocated from Branch budget

Borrow Pit Module

MMS

Acceptance Control Module

Scheduling / Programme

Material Sources

Progress & Production

Project Costs

Quality Control

Road

Material Sources

·Summary ·Summary ·Scheduled ·Scheduled date for use date for use

·Capture progress ·Capture progress data data ·Display progress to ·Display progress to date (tables, date (tables, graphs, statistics) graphs, statistics) ·Projected progress ·Projected progress & production & production

DM

Contract

·Prospecting ·Prospecting status status ·Expropriation ·Expropriation status status ·EIA and EMP ·EIA and EMP Report status Report status ·Rehabilitation ·Rehabilitation status status

·Display actual vs. ·Display actual vs. budget cost budget cost (tables, graphs, (tables, graphs, statistics) statistics) ·Projected annual ·Projected annual cost cost ·Cost per km ·Cost per km ·Cost per m3 ·Cost per m3

·Summary ·Summary ·Highlight out-of·Highlight out-ofspecification cases specification cases ·Flag critical ·Flag critical situations (e.g. situations (e.g. testing behind testing behind schedule schedule ·Graphical display ·Graphical display (TRH20, densities) (TRH20, densities)

·Capture progress ·Capture progress data (daily, weekly, data (daily, weekly, monthly) monthly) ·Gantt bar chart ·Gantt bar chart display display

Figure 11 Functional diagram for the Project Control Module

Blading Optimisation Module

The need exists for optimal scheduling of maintenance graders in the District Municipalities. At present, blading is scheduled without regard to optimising costs or the riding quality of the network and is based on local experience and on demand due to complaints of unacceptable riding quality by local residents. The type of maintenance strategy also needs to be incorporated, i.e., light or heavy blading. Currently the GRMS predicts the blading frequency (Draft TRH20, 1990) of each road, but this is only loosely followed or ignored. The purpose of this module will be to assist the District Municipality with scheduling and route planning of the maintenance grader fleet in order to achieve optimal usage of maintenance graders and the lowest total transport costs while incorporating the constraints, such as a finite number of available graders and working from fixed base stations. It is envisaged that the Blading Optimisation Module functionality will include: · Importation of data from the WCPA Integrated Road Management System: this will include: o The surfaced and unsurfaced road network per district and regions as well as link lengths o Calculated optimum blading frequencies per road segment o Maintenance history · Allowing the manual entering of constraints and variables: constraints are considered known factors that might influence the optimum blading programme and include: o Number of graders available per district o Productivity of graders o Base stations (Location) o Funding allocation Variables are considered uncontrollable factors and include: o Rainfall and distribution throughout the District o Emergency road repairs due to, e.g. washaways o Community requests, e.g., blading required on specific roads due to community activities such as auctions · Determining the required number of graders for the network incorporating given constraints · Optimising the use of available graders through appropriate methodologies by providing a schedule and route plan for each grader when required · Allowing user intervention: in order to ensure that the system is utilised it is essential that the manager works directly on an interactive screen, e.g. o The system should show the daily route and optimised programme for each grader o Based on complaints/ emergencies, which must be entered into the system on a daily basis and displayed, the manager reorganises the programme by selecting a location,

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

·

activity, priority, resources and time requirement. The system should then re-optimise the grader programme. Comparing and reporting on the actual versus the required blading frequency

The methodology for this module is being researched at the time of writing and is the subject of a masters thesis.

Query Module

The purpose of this module is to allow operational managers at the District Municipality, the District Roads Engineer and the consultants to view and print information generated by other systems. Functions of the Query Module are to extract and display: · Summary reports o Retrieve detail of a selected road network, e.g. Road number, start km and description, end km and description from RNIS o Retrieve road condition, priorities, layer thickness, Dynamic Cone Penetrometer readings, etc. from the GRMS o Retrieve traffic information from TCS o Display summary reports generated through the GMS (verified information) o Retrieve costs and progress for projects (Total, per DRE, per DM and individual projects) · Statistics and graphical displays o Comparisons of production between construction teams o Cost distribution of activities per project and/or DM o Road network summaries · Map viewer indicating o Road network o Borrow pits o Projects o Blading programmes and routes

Communications Module

The purpose of this module is to provide the backbone of communications for five of the modules, namely, the Borrow Pit Information Module, the Project Investigation & Design Module, the Acceptance Control and As-built Information Module, the Project Control Module, and the Blading Optimisation Module. The communication lines shown in Figure 1 are achieved by using electronic mail (email). The module has a list of actions to be performed that generate standard temples for the two message types, a `notification' or `approval'. Figure 12 shows a list of some actions that can be performed. The standard template generated by the system for approval of the creation of a new borrow pit is shown in Figure 13. The template provides for automatic reminders that will send an email when the time allowed for the required approval has expired. The time allowed can be changed to suit the urgency of the request. The recipients of electronic mail are configured in the Email Notification Register. The originator of any action is stored and thus provides traceability for important decisions.

Figure 12 List of actions that can be performed

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Figure 13 Standard template used for communicating borrow pit approval

Help Facility

A help facility is accessed from each module and consists of cue cards giving detailed instructions on how it works. Figure 14 shows and example of a cue card for borrow pits.

Figure 14 Cue card help facility on the right side of the screen

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

Development Process and Progress

The development process has followed a standard development methodology used by the Branch--see Figure 15 that illustrates the system development life cycle. The system is currently in the system modelling and implementation phase and the Borrow Pit Information Module, the Project Investigation & Design Module and the Acceptance Control and As-built Information Module have undergone both alpha and beta testing. The specifications of these modules have been revised to improve functionality. Many of these changes have been completed and implementation of the system is proceeding. The Project Control and Query Modules and the map viewer are scheduled for completion in the second phase. Several methodologies for the Blading Optimisation Module have been compiled and a pilot study has commenced in order to test the practicality and effectiveness of what appears to be the best method. A final specification will be drawn up on completion of the pilot study.

Feasibility Study Feasibility Study User Requirement User Requirement Specification Specification Functional Design Functional Design Phase Phase

Technical Design Technical Design Phase Phase

System modelling Modelling System & Implementation & Implementation Post Post Implementation Implementation Audit Audit

Business Process Future Integration Redesign for RMS Redesign

Figure 15 System development life cycle

CONCLUSIONS

There have been significant improvements to the performance of gravel roads resulting from the changes made to the processes, specifications, quality control and plant (documented elsewhere). This has taken significant energy and perseverance from all concerned. Many of these initiatives would be lost in the medium to long term without the implementation of a computerised system that consolidates the changes introduced and ensures sustainability through changing the way people work and think about periodic and normal maintenance of gravel roads. Several benefits are already apparent at this early stage of the implementation of the GMS, namely: · · · · System development has facilitated re-evaluation of each activity and process. The integration of strategic, tactical and operations level processes, data and information, and thus leveraging the value of the data and information already available at the strategic level. The streamlining of processes. The reduction of paperwork that should lead to higher efficiency.

Further benefits should also accrue once the GMS has been fully implemented, such as a higher degree of discipline and the rapid, wide availability of management information for effective decision-making. During the implementation of the GMS it is anticipated there will be several barriers to overcome. One of the barriers relates to the DM managers who are not all computer literate. This will be addressed with extensive training and by providing the cue card help system on line. Some constraints relating to the choice of software tools for programming for the Internet environment have also become apparent, making the GMS not as user friendly and fast as originally expected. Solutions to these problems will be implemented at a later stage.

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

6th International Conference on Managing Pavements (2004)

REFERENCES

Draft TRH20, 1990, The structural design, construction and maintenance of unpaved roads, Committee of State Road Authorities (1990), Department of Transport, Pretoria, South Africa, pp51-52. Materials Manual, Volume 2 Chapter 4, Sampling Methods, Department of Transport and Public Works (2003), Cape Town, South Africa, pp23-24. http://projects.shands.co.za van Zyl, G.D., Henderson, M.G. and Fourie, H.G. (2003a), Optimising low volume road network performance through improved management, design and construction, Transportation Research Record No. 1819, volume no. 2, Eighth International Conference on Low-Volume Roads 2003, Transportation Research Board, Washington DC, 2003, pp299-305. van Zyl, G.D., Henderson, M.G. and Fourie, H.G. (2003b), High performance gravel roads: gravel road specifications in South Africa and their impact, 21st AARB Transport Research and 11th REAAA Conference, Cairns, 2003.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Committee of State Road Authorities (1990), Draft TRH20, 1990, The structural design, construction and maintenance of unpaved roads, Department of Transport, Pretoria, South Africa. Unsealed Roads Manual: Guidelines to Good Practice, Revised August 2000, ARRB Transport Research Ltd, Vermont South, Victoria, Australia.

TRB Committee AFD10 on Pavement Management Systems is providing the information contained herein for use by individual practitioners in state and local transportation agencies, researchers in academic institutions, and other members of the transportation research community. The information in this paper was taken directly from the submission of the author(s).

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