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PCI2619

Writing Step-By-Step

By Janie Hohlt

This product is available through PCI Education at 1-800-594-4263.

Author

Janie Hohlt

Executive Editor

Leslie Buteyn

Editor

Mary Oliver

Creative Director

Deborah Kubecka

Cover Illustrator

Vanessa Langton

Permission to Reproduce Permission is granted for the user to reproduce the designated blackline masters. Reproducible pages are indicated by the symbol on the left side of the bottom margin. The reproduction of any part of this program for commercial use or for an entire school system, hospital system, or institutional system is strictly prohibited. © 2008 PCI Education, San Antonio, Texas. All rights reserved, including translation. 1-800-594-4263 www.pcieducation.com ISBN 1-58804-652-4

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction Research and Standards iv vi

UNIT 1:

Three Kinds of Paragraphs Teaching Instructions The Parts of an Essay Introductory Paragraphs Body Paragraphs Concluding Paragraphs 1 2 3 7 11

UNIT 2:

Three-Paragraph Writing Teaching Instructions Writing Checklist Student Prompts Four-Paragraph Writing Teaching Instructions Writing Checklist Student Prompts Five-Paragraph Writing Teaching Instructions Writing Checklist Student Prompts

15 17 18

UNIT 3:

48 50 51

UNIT 4:

81 84 85

INTRODUCTION

Multi-Paragraph Practice: Writing Step-By-Step is a program designed to prepare students to respond to essay questions and writing prompts on standardized tests. Writing can be especially challenging for students with learning differences. Many students become anxious when faced with a multi-paragraph writing task because they have difficulty deciding what to write, how much to write, and in what order to write. Multi-Paragraph Practice addresses each of these issues by dividing the components of an essay into smaller, more manageable parts. Through a series of lessons, students learn the separate components of an essay. First, the essay is introduced as a collection of three kinds of paragraphs. Then, students discover that each kind of paragraph is a group of three to five sentences that are all related to the same topic. As students learn the purpose of each sentence within a paragraph, they gain confidence in their ability to construct sentences. Paragraph construction then grows out of the ability to transition one sentence into the next. Students are supported throughout the process with a uniquely designed graphic organizer. Using a graphic organizer to plan an essay gives students a visual sense of the content needed and how the separate sentences and paragraphs all fit together to form an essay. On the graphic organizer, large geometrical shapes are used to represent each paragraph of an essay. The shapes are further divided into sections that represent the individual sentences that make up a paragraph. These sections are labeled with key words to help students recall the specific function of the sentence within the larger paragraph. By applying the knowledge acquired, students begin to create essays by assembling the separate components. Students first construct three-, then four-, and finally five-paragraph essays. The ultimate goal of this program is for the students to become so familiar and comfortable with the writing of essays that they are able to plan for and execute thoughtful essays confidently.

Program Components

Research and Standards Multi-Paragraph Practice: Writing Step-By-Step uses methodology that is both research-based and standards-based. Applicable quotes from the research and a list of standards addressed in this binder can be found on page vi. Teaching Instructions Instructions for the teacher are located at the beginning of each unit. Each teaching instruction page begins with a summary of the unit content. A lesson presentation is included in Units 2­5 to assist the teacher in introducing three-, four-, and five-paragraph essays. Additional activities for pre- and post-program evaluation are suggested in Units 1 and 4.

iv

INTRODUCTION

Student Lesson Pages

(continued)

The student lesson pages are in Unit 1. Teachers should become familiar with the student lesson pages before introducing the program to students. The lessons in Unit 1 are ordered sequentially. The students should begin the program with Lesson 1 on page 2 and complete each remaining lesson in order. After completing the lessons in Unit 1, students will be prepared to move on to the construction of three-paragraph essays using the student prompts in Unit 2. Student Prompt Pages Units 2­4 contain writing prompts and graphic organizers for three-, four-, and five-paragraph essays, respectively. Each unit offers 30 prompts for a total of 90 student prompt pages in the binder. A student should become proficient in writing a three-paragraph essay before attempting to write a four-paragraph essay, but a student may not need to complete all 30 three-paragraph prompts to demonstrate mastery. The teacher should use professional judgment to determine how much practice each individual student requires. Writing Checklists Checklists for writing three-, four-, and five-paragraph essays are provided in Units 2­4, on pages 17, 50, and 84. Each checklist presents an inventory of skills necessary for the development of an essay. As the students progress through the program, the inventory list increases to reflect a forward progression of learning. The checklists are reproducible and can be used by the teacher for evaluation purposes or by the students for self- or peer-evaluations. The writing checklists can easily be made into scoring rubrics by assigning each skill a numerical value or by associating each set of skills with a range of values.

v

RESEARCH AND STANDARDS

Writing is a challenging cognitive process. Research has scientifically documented the expository writing needs of students with learning differences. Graham reports that the "writing difficulties of students with learning disabilities result from problems with basic text production skills, scant knowledge about writing, and difficulties with planning and revising text" (1991). Due to the variety of writing problems, "the treatment of these difficulties requires that teachers at all levels allocate instructional time for writing combined with a systematic program for teaching writing" (Mercer & Mercer, 2001). Research on teaching students with writing difficulties has shown that modified instructional strategies are critical to improvements in performance. "Chief among the instructional recommendations is an emphasis on direct instruction of the expository text structures, together with the use of teaching methods and tools that highlight the organization of ideas into patterned relationships" (Englert et. al., 2007). Sousa states that one useful modification for students with writing disorders is to "encourage [the use of] graphic organizers. Preorganization strategies such as the use of graphic organizers will help students get their main ideas in order before tackling the writing process" (2001). Building students' confidence in their writing skills is as important as honing the skill. Hallenbeck states that graphic organizers can "improve adolescents' self-perception of themselves as empowered writers" (2002). Bruning concludes that "four clusters of conditions are proposed as keys to developing motivation: nurturing functional beliefs about writing, fostering engagement using authentic writing tasks, providing a supportive context for writing, and creating a positive emotional environment" (2000). Multi-Paragraph Practice:Writing Step-by-Step meets both state and national standards (including the Standards for the English Language Arts, sponsored by the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association) regarding writing instruction. As students complete the activities in this binder, they will: · learn an effective, visual strategy for writing coherent paragraphs. · learn to clearly communicate a main idea and support it with appropriate details. · write for the purpose of answering given questions. · produce cohesive multi-paragraph essays.

Bruning, R. and C. Horn (2000). Developing motivation to write. Educational Psychologist, 35, 25­37. Englert, C. S.,Y. Zhao, K. Dunsmore, N.Y. Collings, and K. Wolbers (2007). Scaffolding the writing of students with disabilities through procedural facilitation: using an Internet-based technology to improve performance. Learning Disability Quarterly. (Jan 2007). Retrieved May 21, 2008, from http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-29773380_ITM. Graham, S., Kr. R. Harris, C.A. MacArthur, and S. Swartz (1991). Writing and writing instruction for students with learning disabilities: Review of a research program. Learning Disability Quarterly, 14, 89­114. Hallenbeck, M. J. (2002). Taking charge: Adolescents with learning disabilities assume responsibility for their own writing. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 227­246. Mercer, Cecil D., and Ann R. Mercer (2001). Teaching students with learning problems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Sousa, D. A. (2001). How the special needs brain learns. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.

vi

Name LessoN 1

date

Work that at first seems complicated can be simplified if it is broken down into smaller, more manageable tasks. Such is the case when writing a multi-paragraph essay. An essay has just three parts: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. You can remember the parts of an essay by picturing the layers of a hamburger. The top bun of a hamburger represents the introduction. A hamburger's filling of tomato, lettuce, and meat represents the body of an essay. The bottom bun of a hamburger represents the conclusion. Look at the diagram of the hamburger below.Think about how the three parts of an essay are represented by the layers of a hamburger. On the lines below, write the name of the part of an essay that corresponds to each layer of a hamburger.

PARTS Of An ESSAY

LAYERS Of A HAmBuRgER

P C I

R E P R O D U C I B L E

Multi-Paragraph Practice

Name LessoN 4

date

It is helpful to do some planning before you begin to write a paragraph. A graphic organizer, like the one pictured below, gives you a simplified way to see the parts of an introductory paragraph. Its shape is similar to that of a wedge taken from a dartboard target, and each part is labeled with a key word to help you remember the purpose of each sentence. The process of completing the graphic organizer makes you think deeply about the topic. This exercise is an important step in organizing your ideas because it will help you pinpoint a main idea. It will also help you determine which of your ideas to include or exclude. Read the prompt below. Then complete the graphic organizer by writing down key words or phrases in each section.

ProMPT:

What do you think is the cause of school violence?

INTrodUcTIoN

general

focused

Topic

Write a topic sentence for this introductory paragraph. ___________________________________________________________________________________

P C I R E P R O D U C I B L E

Multi-Paragraph Practice

Name LessoN 9

date

Read the prompt. Complete each section of the graphic organizer. Then write a body paragraph on the lines below.

ProMPT:

Write a paragraph about your favorite song.

BodY

Topic

Detail 1

Detail 2

Detail 3

Closing

_______________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

P C I

R E P R O D U C I B L E

0

Multi-Paragraph Practice

Name ProMPT

What is your favorite kind of candy?

date

geTTINg sTarTed

Consider a variety of candies (e.g., sweet, sour, hard, soft). 2) Think about what kind of candy you buy most often. 3) Identify several things you like about the candy you picked as your favorite.

1)

INTrodUcTIoN

general

focused

Topic

BodY

Supporting Topic Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3

Closing/Transition

coNcLUsIoN

Restated Topic

Review

Closing

sTarT WrITINg use the notes in the graphic organizer above to write your essay on your own

paper. Remember to indent each paragraph.

P C I

R E P R O D U C I B L E

Multi-Paragraph Practice

Name ProMPT

What are two advantages of living in a desert?

date

geTTINg sTarTed

Consider the climate of deserts. 2) Think about the locations of deserts. 3) Imagine yourself living in a desert. What might you do there?

1)

INTrodUcTIoN

general focused Topic

BodY

Supporting Topic 1 Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 Closing/Transition Supporting Topic 2 Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 Closing/Transition

coNcLUsIoN

Restated Topic Review Closing

sTarT WrITINg use the notes in the graphic organizer above to write your essay on your own

paper. Remember to indent each paragraph.

P C I

R E P R O D U C I B L E

Multi-Paragraph Practice

Name ProMPT

date

Reality TV shows are popular these days. Why do you think people enjoying watching reality shows?

geTTINg sTarTed

about the themes of the reality shows you have seen. 2) Consider the similarities among reality shows. 3) Determine three reasons people like watching reality shows.

1) Think

INTrodUcTIoN

general focused Topic

BodY

Supporting Topic 1 Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 Closing/Transition Supporting Topic 2 Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 Closing/Transition Supporting Topic 3 Detail 1 Detail 2 Detail 3 Closing/Transition

coNcLUsIoN

Restated Topic Review Closing

P C I

R E P R O D U C I B L E

Multi-Paragraph Practice

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