Read Syllabi for TAMU PETE Graduate courses text version

PETE 602 ­ Well Stimulation

Instructor: HOURS: Grader: TEXT: to: -

H.A. Nasr-El-Din, Professor, Texas A & M University T: 12:45-3:35 AM, Room 302 Several text books will be used, including, but not limited

Petroleum production Systems, Economides et al., 1993 Acidizing Fundamentals, Williams et al., 1979 Hydraulic Fracturing, SPE Reprint Series, 1990 Reservoir Stimulation, Economides and Nolte, 3rd Ed., 2000 Well Construction, Economides et al., 1998 Multilateral Wells, Hill et al., 2008 Reservoir Formation Damage, Civan, 2000 Recent Advances in Hydraulic Fracturing, Gidley et al., 1989 Homework Project Final Exam 20% 40% 40%

GRADING:

Work during the semester will consist of homework assignments, a class project, and a final exam. Homework must be turned to me at the start of the class at which it is due. SUBJECT MATTER: The course is designed for engineers who deal with well performance enhancement. The course will go through various techniques that can be used to enhance productivity of oil and gas wells. This is followed by overview of acid and hydraulic fracturing, matrix treatments for carbonate and sandstone formations. Issues related to candidate selection, treatment design, selection of acid additives, lab testing, acid placement, QA/QC, job execution, and treatment evaluation will be discussed in detail. The course will end with introducing new technologies for carbonate and sandstone acidizing. Field cases will be given to highlight problems and how lab testing was used to find cost effective solutions to these problems.

COURSE OUTLINE:

Introduction

Mineralogy of oil and gas reservoirs Well types based on function Well types based on completion Matrix versus fracture acidizing Formation damage issues

Acid Types and their Reaction with Various Rocks a. Carbonates ­ Chemistry Issues Inorganic and organic acids Reaction kinetics Acid Retarders: Emulsified acids In-situ gelled acids Viscoelastic surfactant-based acids In-situ generated acids Chelates as stimulation fluids Carbonates ­ Physics Issues - Acid flow in carbonate rocks - Wormhole patterns - Optimum injection rate Modeling of matrix acidizing b. Sandstone Formations ­ Chemistry Issues - Chemistry and mineralogy of clays and feldspars - Mud acids and their reactions with silica and silicates - Retarded HF-based acids - Chelating agents - Impact of mineralogy on acid selection - Field cases Sandstone Formations ­ Physics Issues - Flow of HF-based acids in sandstone rocks - Models to predict acid propagation in sandstones - Impact of acidizing on rock strength Acid Additives Criteria used for selecting acid additives Corrosion inhibitors Corrosion inhibitors for organic acids Corrosion inhibitors for CRA

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Iron control agents Hydrogen sulfide scavengers Low-surface tension surfactants Drag reducing agents Mutual solvents Scale inhibitors Anti-sludge agents Clay Stabilizers Damage due to acid additives

Reaction Kinetics - Methods to measure reaction rate - Surface reaction kinetics - Mass transfer kinetics - Impact of additives - Effect of clays - Temperature effects Acid Placement Techniques Bull heading Drill pipe Coiled tubing Methods to extend CT reach in long horizontal wells Entry into various laterals in multilateral wells Field cases

Acid Fracturing What is acid fracturing? Candidate selection Fluid selection Rock and fluid properties Lab testing before the job Fracture conductivity Field testing Simulation Job execution Field examples

Hydraulic Fracturing What is hydraulic fracturing? Rock mechanics Proppant characteristics Fluid selection Lab and field testing Methods to control proppant flow back

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Damage due to polymer residue Field cases

ADA Policy Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) The following ADA Policy Statement (part of the Policy on Individual Disabling Conditions) was sub-mitted to the UCC by the Department of Student Life. The policy Statement was forwarded to the Faculty Senate for information. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal antidiscrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe that you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room 126 of the Koldus Building, or call 845-1637.

Coursework Copyright Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) Suggested for Inclusion in Your First Day Handout or Syllabus The handouts used in this course are copyrighted. By "handouts," this means all materials generated for this class, which include but are not limited to syllabi, quizzes, exams, lab problems, in-class materials, review sheets, and additional problem sets. Because these materials are copy-righted, you do not have the right to copy them, unless you are expressly granted permission. As commonly defined, plagiarism consists of passing off as one's own the ideas, words, and writings, etc., that belong to another. In accordance with this definition, you are committing plagiarism if you copy the work of another person and turn it in as your own, even if you should have the permission of that person. Plagiarism is one of the worst academic sins, for the plagiarist destroys the trust among colleagues without which research cannot be safely communicated. If you have any questions about plagiarism and/or copying, please consult the latest issue of the Texas A&M University Student Rules, under the section "Scholastic Dishonesty." Aggie Honor Code "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." Upon accepting admission to Texas A&M University, a student immediately assumes a commitment to uphold the Honor Code, to accept responsibility for learning and to follow the philosophy and rules of the Honor System. Students will be required to state their commitment on examinations, research papers, and other academic work. Ignorance of the rules does not exclude any member of the Texas A&M University community from the requirements or the processes of the Honor System. For additional information please visit: www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/.

Petroleum Engineering 603 -- Basic Reservoir Simulation Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Fall 2009 Instructor: Instructor: Dr. Robert Wattenbarger Office: RICH 619 Lecture: MWF 8:00-9:00 a.m. RICH 302 (see schedule) Office Hours: tba (or by appointment) Phone: (979) 845-0173 e-mail: [email protected] Texts: 1. PETE 603 notes, chapters 1-8 ["Class Notes"] 2. Chapter 11 of SPE Gas Reservoir Engineering by Lee & Wattenbarger ["Class Notes"] 3. SPE Monograph 13, Reservoir Simulation Reference Materials: 1. Course materials for this semester (including old exams, etc) are located in the Shares folder at: Y:\ Classes\pete603 2. Plus other handouts in class. Basis for Grade: Homework, including special project ..........................................25% Exams A & B...............................................................................40% Exam C................. ..................................................................25% Class Participation/attitude/Pop Quizzes .....................................10% total = 100% Grade Cutoffs: (Percentages) A: < 90 B: 89.99 to 80 C: 79.99 to 70 D: 69.99 to 60 F: < 59.99 Policies and Procedures: 1. Students are expected to attend class every session. 2. Students are expected to take notes 3. Policy on Grading a. It shall be the general policy for this course that homework, quizzes, and exams shall be graded on the basis of answers only -- partial credit, if given, is given solely at the discretion of the instructor. b. All work requiring calculations shall be properly and completely documented for credit. c. All grading shall be done by the instructor, or under his direction and supervision, and the decision of the instructor is final.

2 3. Policy on Regrading a. Only in very rare cases will exams be considered for regrading; e.g., when the total number of points deducted is not consistent with the assigned grade. Partial credit (if any) is not subject to appeal. b. Work which, while possibly correct, but cannot be followed, will be considered incorrect -- and will not be considered for a grade change. c. Grades assigned to homework problems will not be considered for regrading. d. If regrading is necessary, the student is to submit a letter to the instructor explaining the situation that requires consideration for regrading, the material to be regraded must be attached to this letter. The letter and attached material must be received within one week from the date returned by the instructor. 4. The grade for a late assignment is zero. Homework will be considered late if it is not turned in at the start of class on the due date. If a student comes to class after homework has been turned in and after class has begun, the student's homework will be considered late and given a grade of zero. Late or not, all assignments must be turned in. A course grade of Incomplete will be given if any assignment is missing, and this grade will be changed only after all required work has been submitted. 5. Each student should review the University Regulations concerning attendance, grades, and scholastic dishonesty. In particular, anyone caught cheating on an examination or collaborating on an assignment where collaboration is not specifically allowed will be removed from the class roster and given an F (failure grade) in the course.

3 Course Description This course includes basic equations, derivations and underlying priciples used in developing reservoir simulators. The chapters in the class notes will be followed. Prerequisites by Topic Differential and integral calculus. Ordinary and partial differential equations. Fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Reservoir fluid properties. Reservoir petrophysics.

Petroleum Engineering 604 -- Advanced Reservoir Simulation Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Spring 2006 Instructor: Instructor: Dr. Robert Wattenbarger Office: RICH 619 Lecture: MWF 8:00-9:00 a.m. RICH 302 (see schedule) Office Hours: tba (or by appointment) Phone: (979) 845-0173 e-mail: [email protected] Texts: 1. PETE 604 notes, chapters 1-6 [on web page] 2. Chapter 11 of SPE Gas Reservoir Engineering by Lee & Wattenbarger [on web page] 3. SPE Monograph 13, Reservoir Simulation Reference Materials: 1. Course materials for this semester (including old exams, etc) are located at: http://www.pe.tamu.edu/wattenbarger/public_html/ 2. Plus other handouts in class. Basis for Grade: Homework, including special project ..........................................25% Exams A & B...............................................................................40% Exam C................. ..................................................................25% Class Participation/attitude/Pop Quizzes .....................................10% total = 100% Grade Cutoffs: (Percentages) A: < 90 B: 89.99 to 80 C: 79.99 to 70 D: 69.99 to 60 F: < 59.99 Policies and Procedures: 1. Students are expected to attend class every session. 2. Students are expected to take notes 3. Policy on Grading a. It shall be the general policy for this course that homework, quizzes, and exams shall be graded on the basis of answers only -- partial credit, if given, is given solely at the discretion of the instructor. b. All work requiring calculations shall be properly and completely documented for credit. c. All grading shall be done by the instructor, or under his direction and supervision, and the decision of the instructor is final.

2 3. Policy on Regrading a. Only in very rare cases will exams be considered for regrading; e.g., when the total number of points deducted is not consistent with the assigned grade. Partial credit (if any) is not subject to appeal. b. Work which, while possibly correct, but cannot be followed, will be considered incorrect -- and will not be considered for a grade change. c. Grades assigned to homework problems will not be considered for regrading. d. If regrading is necessary, the student is to submit a letter to the instructor explaining the situation that requires consideration for regrading, the material to be regraded must be attached to this letter. The letter and attached material must be received within one week from the date returned by the instructor. 4. The grade for a late assignment is zero. Homework will be considered late if it is not turned in at the start of class on the due date. If a student comes to class after homework has been turned in and after class has begun, the student's homework will be considered late and given a grade of zero. Late or not, all assignments must be turned in. A course grade of Incomplete will be given if any assignment is missing, and this grade will be changed only after all required work has been submitted. 5. Each student should review the University Regulations concerning attendance, grades, and scholastic dishonesty. In particular, anyone caught cheating on an examination or collaborating on an assignment where collaboration is not specifically allowed will be removed from the class roster and given an F (failure grade) in the course. Course Description This course includes basic equations, derivations and underlying priciples used in developing reservoir simulators. The chapters in the class notes will be followed. Prerequisites by Topic Differential and integral calculus. Ordinary and partial differential equations. Fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Reservoir fluid properties. Reservoir petrophysics.

PETE 606 EOR Methods-Thermal Processes in Petroleum Engineering Fall 2012 Instructor: Dr. Berna Hascakir Office: Room 401N, Richardson Building E-mail: [email protected] Office Hours: Friday 10:00 to 12:00 Class Schedule: Monday 10:20 to 11:10 and Wednesday 9:10-11:10 Texts - PETE 606 class notes - Michael Prats, Thermal Recovery, SPE Monograph, Volume 7, 1982. - Jacques Burger, Pierre Sourieau, Michel Combarnous, Thermal Methods of Oil Recovery, 1985. - Related technical papers Grading Summary Homework & Quizzes Mid-term exams Final Exam 40% 30% 30%

Course Description Fundamentals of thermal enhanced oil recovery methods in to low API gravity oil reservoirs.

Course Outline

Introduction o Unconventional Low API Gravity Oil Resources - Heavy Oil, Oil Shales, Tar Sands, Oil Sands o Thermal Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes - Current Thermal EOR Projects - History of Thermal EOR Heat transfer o Mechanisms of Heat Transfer o Thermodynamic Properties of Reservoir Fluids and Rocks o Heat Losses Hot-Water Drives Steam Injection o Steam Drives o Cyclic Steam Injection o Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) In-Situ Combustion o Dry Forward Combustion o Wet Combustion o Reverse Combustion Other Thermal Methods o Retort o Electrothermic Process Numerical and Analytical Modeling of Thermal EOR o Challenges o 1D, 2D, and 3D

PETE 609-ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES

Miscible, Chemical, and Thermal Instructor Dr. Maria A. Barrufet Petroleum Engineering Department Texas A&M University e-mail: [email protected] Contact Information: Office: Office Hours: 979.845.0314 Rooms 407B Richardson Building By appointment and Chat Hour TBD

Course Description: Fundamentals and theory of enhanced oil recovery; polymer flooding, surfactant flooding, miscible gas flooding and steam flooding; application of fractional flow theory; strategies and displacement performance calculations. Prerequisites: PETE 323. ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES Class Schedule TBD

Grading: Your final grade in PETE 609 is based on your individual performance and your participation as a team member. All students are expected to participate in class. Your participation is important to the success of the course as much of the learning will occur in collaboration with your classmates. The homework assignments and threaded discussions are ways you can demonstrate you have mastered lesson objectives, and will help prepare you for the exam. All assignments should be completed on schedule. The following is the grading policy GRADING SUMMARY PETE 609 Assessment Paper Reviews Participation & Homework Mid-Term Examination ­ TBA Final Project ­ Written Report @ Oral Presentation Total Percentage 10% 10% 40% 40% 100%

GUIDELINES FOR PAPER REVIEW

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It should take no more than one page to summarize a typical paper. Some papers may require more; use your own judgment. Learn to be concise and to state briefly the essential ideas communicated. USUAL ORGANIZATION OF A REVIEW (adapted from Dr. John Lee) · · · · · · · · · Authors, title. Use the SPE standard reference style. (You can find it in the SPE Guide to Publications, which is on the web at http://www.spe.org) Problem. Briefly, describe the problem the authors are trying to solve. Solution. Describe the solution the authors propose. Did they propose a specific method to recover additional oil, do they discuss data required, limitations, do they analyze performance? What is it? Value. Describe the value of the authors' solution to the petroleum industry. Conclusions. Describe the conclusions the authors reached as a result of their analysis Approach. Describe what the authors did to validate their proposed solution. Limitations. List the limitations of the work. Is it applicable to only a certain type of reservoir or field? Application. How would you apply the knowledge provided in this paper? Critique. What questions did the authors leave unanswered? What could the authors have done to make the paper better?

OBJECTIVES FOR REVIEWING PAPERS IN THIS CLASS · · · · To learn how to learn from papers (harder than textbooks, but more important in the long run) To learn how to identify the really important ideas in papers To learn how to summarize ideas concisely To learn how engineers with vastly different points of view think and how they approach problems and their solutions

ACCESSING AND DOWNLOADING PAPERS Students on campus: · Go to library.tamu.edu · Search for SPE. · Click the link to SPE. · Look for your ID and Password in the lower part of the page. · Follow the instructions for logging into the SPE library. If/when the password changes, the change will be posted on the library's SPE link. Distance-learning students: · Log into My Portal on the library.tamu.edu Web site using your NetIDs (the same ID and password you use for WebCT). · Any student can use My Portal to access the TAMU library---and the SPE library---from anywhere. · In My Portal, you can set up My Journals so you do not have to search for SPE every time. All you have to do is click the book icon next to the link; this works for all the resources in the library. Once you link to SPE, it works the same as on campus.

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Academic Integrity Syllabus Statement "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." All syllabi shall contain a section that states the Aggie Honor Code and refers the student to the Honor Council Rules and Procedures on the web http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor It is further recommended that instructors print the following on assignments and examinations: "On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work." __________________________________ Signature of Student Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Policy Statement The following ADA Policy Statement (part of the Policy on Individual Disabling Conditions) was submitted to the UCC by the Department of Student Life. The policy statement was forwarded to the Faculty Senate for information. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal antidiscrimination statue that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe that you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room 126 of the Koldus Building, or call 845-1637.

4 Course Contents General Module 1: General EOR - Reservoir Engineering

Course Overview Definition of Reserves Environmental and Economics Aspects of EOR Methods Displacement Fundamentals Reservoir Engineering Concepts for EOR Introduction to Enhanced Oil Recovery Methods (EOR) Factors Affecting Oil Recovery Comparative Performance of Different EOR Methods Screening Criteria and Technical Constraints Definitions: Mobility Ratios, Sweeping Efficiencies, Recovery Efficiencies, Trapped Oil Saturation Phase Behavior and Fluid Properties Exercises Suggested Reading [1]: L, MAB [1] key for references at the end of the syllabus

Module: 2

Miscible Processes

General Overview of Solvent Methods Phase Behavior Fundamentals from: Pressure/Temperature and Pressure/Composition Diagrams Quantitative Representation of Phase Equilibria Processes: Gas Injection and Production Ternary Diagrams to Represent Gas Injection Processes: Miscible and Immiscible Processes Mechanisms of Oil Displacement. Diffusion and Dispersion Hydrocarbon Miscible Displacement First Contact Miscible Processes The Condensing-Gas Process The Vaporizing-Gas Process Minimum Miscibility Pressure (MMP) Carbon Dioxide Flooding Dissipation in Miscible Displacements Instability Phenomena (viscous fingering) Simulation Models as Reservoir Management Tools. Exercises Suggested Reading: L, S, MAB, R8, R18, AC, SPE

Module 3: Chemical and Polymer Flooding

Fractional Flow Theory Dissipation in Immiscible Displacements Applications of Fractional Flow in Oil Recovery Calculations Homogeneous Reservoirs: Buckley-Leverett. One-dimensional displacement Layered Reservoirs: Styles, Dykstra-Parsons and Johnson Methods. Improved Waterflooding Processes: Polymer Flooding Rheology of Polymer Solutions Polymer Adsorption and Retention Micellar-Polymer or Microemulsion Flooding Properties of Surfactants and Cosurfactants Surfactant-Brine-Oil Phase Behavior Performance Evaluation

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Determination of Residual Oil Saturation-Tracers Laboratory Tests for Chemical Floods Exercises Suggested Reading: L, D, MAB, R24, AC, SPE

Module 4: Thermal Processes

Steam Injection Processes Cyclic and Continuous Steam Injection Thermal Properties of Fluids and Solids Steam Properties: Flow Rate and Quality Measurements. Temperature Effect on Reservoir and Fluid Properties Viscosity Reduction Thermal Expansion Oil Characterization for Thermal Reservoir Simulation Evaluation of Heat Losses Prediction of Steam Flood Performance Cyclic Steam Performance: Marx-Langenheim model. Steamflood Performance: Gomaa's Method. Correlations. Exercises Suggested Reading: MAB, MP, SPE Key to Main References: AC D IOCC MAB MP L R8 R18 R24 S SPE = = = = = = = = = = = Applied Enhanced Oil Recovery, Aurel Carcoana (1992) ­ Prentice Hall Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering, L. P. Dake (1978) - Elsevier Improved Oil Recovery , Interstate Oil Compact Commission Class notes from Maria Antonieta Barrufet Thermal Recovery, Michael Pratts, SPE Monograph #7 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Larry Lake (1989) ­ Prentice Hall SPE Reprints No 8, Miscible Processes SPE Reprint No 18, Miscible Flooding SPE Reprints No 24 (I, and II) , Surfactant/Polymer Chemical Flooding Miscible Displacement , Stalkup SPE Monograph #8 Various SPE papers to be announced

COURSE SYLLABUS PETE 611 ­ Application of Petroleum Reservoir Simulation Texas A&M University - Summer 2008 Instructor: Office: Phone: Fax: Email: Website: Lecture: Dr. Bryan Maggard 501-U RICH (979) 845-0592 (979) 862-1272 [email protected] http://people.tamu.edu/~bmaggard/PETE611_08B TR, 2:00-3:35 p.m., 313 RICH; and Web Based Distance Learning

COURSE DESCRIPTION Use of simulators to solve reservoir engineering problems too complex for classical analytical techniques. TEXTS PETE 611 Web Site ­ Lecture Notes and Supplemental Papers from Literature

OPTIONAL TEXTS

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Mattax and Dalton: Reservoir Simulation, SPE Monograph 13, 1990. Ertekin, Abou-Kassem and King: Basic Applied Reservoir Simulation, SPE Textbook 7, 2001.

COURSE POLICIES Class attendance is important. If an illness or unexpected event prevents 1. Attendance: attendance, the student should notify the instructor as early as possible. Students should read reference material in advance and be prepared for in class discussion. 2. Assignments: Assigned work is due at the beginning of class on due date, unless otherwise specified. Late assignments may be penalized. Neat, legible, systematic and complete presentation is required in assignments. 3. Work Quality: Units (for example, Newton-meters) must be documented wherever appropriate, especially tables and chart axes. 4. Grading System: The course will be graded as follows: Projects (Approx. 6-8) Homework (Approx. 6-8) 75 % 25 %

No "extra credit" opportunities will be available after course grades are announced. 5. Academic Integrity: There is no tolerance for cheating in any form. Review http://student-rules.tamu.edu; Aggie Code of Honor Review http://student-rules.tamu.edu; Part 1, Section 20.

Aggie Code of Honor: "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." "Upon accepting admission to Texas A&M University, a student immediately assumes a commitment to uphold the Honor Code, to accept responsibility for learning and to follow the philosophy and rules of the Honor System. Students will be required to state their commitment on examinations, research papers, and other academic work. Ignorance of the rules does not exclude any member of the Texas A&M University community from the requirements or the processes of the Honor System. For additional information please visit: www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/." On each project report cover page there shall be printed and signed by the student(s): "On my(our) honor, as an Aggie(s), I(we) have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work." Collaboration on assignments is forbidden except when explicitly instructed. If you are not sure whether collaboration is allowed on a particular assignment, confer with the course instructor. 6. Accomodation for Disabilities: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal antidiscrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room B118 of Cain Hall or call 845-1637. 7. Accomodation for Religious Observance: Texas HB256: "An institution of higher education shall excuse a student from attending classes or other required activities, including examinations, for the observance of a religious holy day, including travel for that purpose. A student whose absence is excused under this subsection may not be penalized for that absence and shall be allowed to take an examination or complete an assignment from which the student is excused." A sincere effort will be made to accommodate students' needs for religious observance. Students are instructed to contact the instructor during the first week of class in order to make arrangements. 8. Class Topics: Week ­ First Class of Week 1 ­ May 27 2 ­ June 3 3 ­ June 10 4 ­ June 17 5 ­ June 24 6 ­ July 1 7 ­ July 8 8 ­ July 15 9 ­ July 22 10 ­ July 29 11 ­ August 5 Topic Course Introduction; Intro. to Conventional Simulation Intro. to Conv. Sim; Type Curve Matching History Matching Scale-Up Pseudo-Functions Modeling Well Performance / Coning EOS Compositional Fluid Models Compositional Simulation Introduction to Streamline Simulation Comparison of Conventional/Streamline Simulation Last Project Due

UNCONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS RESERVOIRS

PETE 612

Tentative Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Fall 2009 Class Meetings: T,TH; 9:35 ­ 10:50 a.m., RICH 302 Instructor: Walter B. Ayers, Ph.D., CPG RICH 401M (979) 458-0721 [email protected] Office Hours: M: 3:30-4:30 p.m.; Th.: 3:30-4:30 p.m.; other hours by appt. or when door is open As we deplete conventional oil and gas reserves, "unconventional" energy resources are increasingly important to US and international energy supplies. Today, for example, coal beds, shales, and low-permeability (tight) sandstones, combined, account for more than 40% of the U.S. natural gas supply. Moreover, in 2006, U.S. production of coalbed methane, alone, exceeded 1.7 trillion cubic ft (Tcf), which was 9.5% of the total dry gas production, and coalbed methane reserves were 19.9 Tcf, which was 9.8% of the total U.S. dry gas reserves. Internationally, there are tremendous heavy oil resources in Eastern Venezuela, Western Canada, and other areas, and we are just beginning to exploit these resources. While resources of unconventional hydrocarbons are very large, economically recoverable volumes (reserves) are much smaller, because the greater costs and additional technology required for production. Many unconventional reservoirs have low matrix permeability, and natural fractures may be necessary for economic production rates. Therefore, optimal development of many unconventional reservoirs requires knowledge of the optimal completions and stimulation methods for low-permeability reservoirs, as well as understanding of the role of natural fractures in fluid flow. Finally, the increased dependence on natural gas for generation of electricity in the U.S. necessitates increased storage capacity near consumers to meet peak demands. Thus, understanding of the geologic and engineering aspects of gas storage reservoirs is vital for optimum resource management. The objectives of this course are to familiarize students with the unique aspects of unconventional gas and oil reservoirs, including their (1) economic significance (2) geologic occurrences, (3) controls on production, (4) drilling and completion practices, (5) reservoir management, and (6) present activity. Text and Materials: There is no assigned textbook. Materials will come from a variety of current reports, published texts, and papers. Reference materials and reading assignments will be handed out, placed on a website, or referred to by location. Selected References: "Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs," 2nd ed., Gulf Publishing Company, Boston, 2001. "A Guide to Coalbed Methane Operations," Gas Research Institute, GRI, Chicago, 1992. "Hydrocarbons from Coal," American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology #38, Tulsa, 1993. "Geology of Tight Gas Reservoirs," American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology #24, Tulsa, 1986. "Gas Hydrate Resources of the United States," U.S. Geological Survey, Denver. "Underground Storage of Fluids," Ulrick Books, Inc., Ann Arbor.

UNCONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS RESERVOIRS

Petroleum Engineering 612 Syllabus and Administrative Procedures

Fall 2009

Basis for Grades: Report (20%) and Presentation (10%) (includes, peer evaluations)...............30 percent Homework, Quizzes, Critiques, and Other Assignments ...............................25 percent Midterm Examination (October 22; in class) .................................................20 percent Final Examination (December 11, 12:30-2:30 p.m.)......................................20 percent Participation .................................................................................................. 5 percent Total = 100 percent Grade Cutoffs: (Percentages) A: 90 B: 89.99 to 80 C: 79.99 to 70 D: 69.99 to 60 F: 59.99

Student Papers and Presentations (SUBJECT TO REVISION) Working in teams, students will write reports and make presentations on topics covered in the course. Topics will be assigned by 24 September, and preliminary outlines are due 13 October. Reports will be submitted in both paper and digital formats, following either SPE or AAPG publication guidelines. Text of reports will be 10-20 double-spaced pages; tables and figures may be either embedded in the text or placed at the end, following the references. Reference papers used to prepare reports will be submitted as pdf files. All reports will be due by 5 p.m. on 8 December. Peer reviews will be done at the time that you submit the reports. Presentations will be made using PowerPoint software, and students will submit presentations for posting on the class share drive. All reports and presentations will be posted and will be available to you. Homework, Quizzes, Critiques, and Other Assignments There will be several quizzes and homework exercises during the semester. Also, you may be asked to write one-page critical reviews of published articles pertinent to the class material. Policies and Procedures 1. Students are expected to attend every class. 2. All work shall be done in a professional manner; work shall be as complete as possible. 3. Policy on Grading a. Homework and exams will be graded on the basis of answers only -- partial credit, if given, is given solely at the discretion of the instructor. b. All work requiring calculations shall be properly and completely documented for credit. c. All grading shall be done by the instructor, or under his direction and supervision, and the decision of the instructor is final.

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UNCONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS RESERVOIRS

Petroleum Engineering 612 Syllabus and Administrative Procedures

Fall 2009

4. Policy on Regrading a. Only in very rare cases will work be considered for regrading; e.g., when the total number of points deducted is not consistent with the assigned grade. Partial credit (if any) is not subject to appeal. b. Work that, while correct, cannot be followed, will be considered incorrect and will not be considered for a grade change. 5. The grade for a late assignment is zero. Homework will be considered late if it is not turned in at the start of class on the due date. Late or not, all assignments must be turned in. A course grade of Incomplete will be given if any assignment is missing, and this grade will be changed only after all required work has been submitted. 6. Each student should review the University Regulations concerning attendance, grades, and scholastic dishonesty. Anyone caught cheating on an examination or collaborating on an assignment where collaboration is not specifically allowed may be removed from the class roster and given an F (failure grade) in the course.

Course Description

Introduction to Unconventional Energy Resources · What are unconventional resources? · Where do they occur? · Economic significance of each · Technical, economic, political, and environmental constraints on development Petroleum Systems (review) · Systematic approaches to resource assessment · Hydrocarbon origin · Hydrocarbon migration · Hydrocarbon entrapment Natural Fractures (review) · Importance in unconventional reservoirs · Origin, occurrence, and predictability · Fracture effects on HC storage, porosity, and permeability o Permeability anisotropy o Coning o Breakthrough o Boundaries · Roles in exploration · Roles in reservoir management - primary and enhanced recovery · In-situ stress - importance in unconventional reservoir performance · Classification of fractured reservoirs

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UNCONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS RESERVOIRS

Petroleum Engineering 612 Syllabus and Administrative Procedures

Fall 2009

Low-permeability (Tight) Sands · Occurrences, resources, reservoir characteristics · Drilling and completion methods · Facilities, reservoir management, limitations on development, present activity Coalbed Gas · Occurrences, resources, reservoir characteristics · Drilling and completion methods · Facilities, reservoir management, limitations on development, present activity · Water and environmental issues Shale Reservoirs (Gas and Oil) · Occurrences, resources, reservoir characteristics · Drilling and completion methods · Facilities, reservoir management, limitations on development, present activity · Water and environmental issues Heavy Oil · Occurrences, resources, reservoir characteristics · Drilling and completion methods · Facilities, reservoir management, limitations on development, present activity · Environmental issues Gas Hydrates · Occurrences, resources, reservoir characteristics · Recovery methods · Limitations on development, present activity · Environmental issues Gas Storage · Types and locations of gas storage reservoirs · Technical issues and terminology · Gas storage volumes and economics Other Unconventional Energy Resources and Issues That May be Addressed · Geothermal Energy · Coal ­ Conversion to Gas o Coal-to-gas o In-situ gasification

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Policy Statement

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Disability Services in Room B118 of Cain Hall, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu

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UNCONVENTIONAL OIL AND GAS RESERVOIRS

Petroleum Engineering 612 Syllabus and Administrative Procedures

Fall 2009

Coursework Copyright Statement (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) The handouts used in this course are copyrighted. By "handouts," this means all materials generated for this class, which include but are not limited to syllabi, quizzes, exams, homework, lab problems, in-class materials, review sheets, and additional problem sets. Because these materials are copyrighted, you do not have the right to copy them, unless you are expressly granted permission. As commonly defined, plagiarism consists of passing off as one's own the ideas, words, writing, etc., that belong to another. In accordance with this definition, you are committing plagiarism if you copy the work of another person and turn it in as your own, even if you should have the permission of that person. Plagiarism is one of the worst academic sins, for the plagiarist destroys the trust among colleagues without which research cannot be safely communicated. If you have any questions about plagiarism and/or copying, please consult the latest issue of the Texas A&M University Student Rules, under the section "Scholastic Dishonesty. "Aggie Honor Code" "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." Upon accepting admission to Texas A&M University, a student immediately assumes a commitment to uphold the Honor Code, to accept responsibility for learning and to follow the philosophy and rules of the Honor System. Students will be required to state their commitment on examinations, research papers, and other academic work. Ignorance of the rules does not exclude any member of the Texas A&M University community from the requirements or the processes of the Honor System. For additional information please visit: www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/ On all submitted course work, assignments, and examinations in this class, recognition and acceptance of the following Honor Pledge is implicit in the student's signature on the class materials: "On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work."

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Petroleum Engineering 613 -- Natural Gas Engineering Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Spring 2010

Instructor(s): Instructor: Dr. Tom Blasingame Office: *RICH 815 + Lecture: MWF 17:45-18:35 RICH 302 Office Hours: Please use e-mail -- [email protected] (or use [email protected] for attachments >5MB). * This is a remote course (I live in New Zealand), I will NOT have office hours. I will be online-- please use e-mail. + This is a remote class and is NOT actually scheduled to meet -- I did reserve this time and a classroom for times when I am in town and we may need to meet. We will only actually meet when you are notified in writing by the Instructor -- do not attend class unless you are instructed to do so. Texts: 1. Lee, W.J. and Wattenbarger, R.A.: Gas Reservoir Engineering, SPE (1996). [Available at MSC Bookstore, can also be ordered directly from SPE (probably at reduced rates), you must be an SPE member -- SPE +1.800.456.6863) Reference Materials: 1. Course materials for this semester are located at: http://pumpjack.tamu.edu/~t-blasingame/P613_10A/ 2. Journal articles (to be made available in electronic formats) 3. Other text materials: a. Katz, D. L., Cornell, R., Kobayashi, R., Poettmann, F. H., Vary, J. A., Elenblass, J. R., & Weinaug, C. G.: Handbook of Natural Gas Engineering (McGraw­Hill, New York) (1959)................................................................................................................. (electronic format) b. Rawlins, E. L. and M. A. Schellhardt, Backpressure Data on Natural Gas Wells and Their Application To Production Practices, Monograph 7, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Washington, D C, (1936). ...................................................................................... (electronic format) c. Energy Resources and Conservation Board, 1975, Theory and Practice of the Testing of Gas Wells, third edition, Pub. ERCB-75-34, ERCB, Calgary, Alberta. ..................................................................................................................................................... (electronic format) Basis for Grade: Homework/Projects ........................................................................................................................................................................90% Participation (timeliness, demonstrated interest, etc.) ................................................................................................................. 10%

total = 100%

Grade Cutoffs: (Percentages) A: < 90 B: 89.99 to 80 C: 79.99 to 70 D: 69.99 to 60 F: < 59.99 Policies and Procedures: 1. Students are expected to keep pace in the course -- DO NOT FALL BEHIND IN THE LECTURES OR YOUR ASSIGNMENTS. 2. Policy on Grading a. All work in this course is graded on the basis of answers only -- any partial credit is at the discretion of the instructor. b. All work requiring calculations shall be properly and completely documented for credit. c. All grading shall be done by the instructor, or under his direction and supervision, and the decision of the instructor is final. 3. Policy on Regrading a. Only in very rare cases will exams be considered for regrading -- partial credit (if any) is not subject to appeal. b. Work which, while possibly correct, but cannot be followed, will be considered incorrect. c. Grades assigned to homework problems will not be considered for regrading. d. If regrading is necessary, the student is to submit a letter to the instructor explaining the situation that requires consideration for regrading, the material to be regraded must be attached to this letter. The letter and attached material must be received within one week from the date returned by the instructor. 4. The grade for a late assignment is zero. Homework will be considered late if it is not turned in at the start of class on the due date. If a student comes to class after homework has been turned in and after class has begun, the student's homework will be considered late and given a grade of zero. Late or not, all assignments must be turned in. A course grade of Incomplete will be given if any assignment is missing, and this grade will be changed only after all required work has been submitted. 5. Each student should review the University Regulations concerning attendance, grades, and scholastic dishonesty. In particular, anyone caught cheating on an examination or collaborating on an assignment where collaboration is not specifically authorized by the instructor will be removed from the class roster and given an F (failure grade) in the course.

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Petroleum Engineering 613 -- Natural Gas Engineering Course Description, Prerequisites by Topic, and Course Objectives Spring 2010

Course Description Graduate Catalog: Flow of natural gas in reservoirs and in wellbores and gathering systems; deliverability testing; production forecasting and decline curves; flow measurement and compressor sizing. Translation: From the reservoir through the sales line--we will try to study every aspect of natural gas systems. PVT properties, flow in porous media, flow in pipes and thermodynamic properties will be studied. We will use the Lee and Wattenbarger and the ERCB texts as guides -- as well as numerous technical papers that go into much more depth of detail for a particular problem. We will focus on well testing, deliverability analysis, and decline curve analysis, as well as wellbore flow phenomena. Prerequisites by Topic: Differential and integral calculus, Ordinary and partial differential equations, Thermodynamics, Fluid dynamics and heat transfer, Reservoir fluid properties, and Reservoir petrophysics. Course Objectives The student should be able to: Estimate oil, gas, and water properties pertinent for well test or production data analysis using industry accepted correlations and laboratory data. Sketch pressure versus time trends and pressure versus distance trends for a reservoir system exhi-biting transient, pseudosteadystate, and steady-state flow behavior. Derive the steady-state and pseudosteady-state relations for gas flow (including rigorous and semi-analytical relations for boundary-dominated flow behavior). In addition, the student must be able to derive, in complete detail, the pressure, pressuresquared, and pseudopressure forms of the diffusivity equation for a real gas. Derive the material balance equations for a volumetric dry gas reservoir, an "abnormally-pressured" gas reservoir, and a waterdrive gas reservoir. The student should also be familiar with the generalized (i.e., compositional form) of the material balance equation for a gas condensate reservoir. Derive and apply the conventional relations used to calculate the static and flowing bottomhole pressures for the case of a dry gas. The student should also be familiar with proposed techniques for wet gases. Derive/present models for wellbore storage and phase redistribution (gas systems). Derive the "skin factor" variable from the steady-state flow equation and be able to describe the conditions of damage and stimulation using this skin factor. The student should also be familiar with models for "variable" skin effects due to non-Darcy flow, well cleanup, and gas condensate banking (radial composite model). Analyze and interpret flow-after-flow (4-point) and isochronal flow tests. Derive the analysis and interpretation methodologies (i.e., "conventional" plots and type curve analy-sis) for pressure drawdown and pressure buildup tests (liquid or gas reservoir systems). Also, be able to apply dimensionless solutions ("type curves") and field variable solutions ("specialized plots") for the analysis and interpretation of well test data. Design and implement a well test sequence, as well as a long-term production/injection surveillance program. This includes the design of single and multipoint deliverability tests. Analyze production data (rate-time or pressure-rate-time data) to obtain reservoir volume and esti-mates of reservoir properties for gas and liquid reservoir systems. The student should be able to use "decline curves," "decline type curves," and other techniques of analysis for production data. The student should be familiar with the reservoir engineering tools used to analyze/interpret the perfor-mance of the following gas reservoir types: -- Gas condensate reservoir systems -- Low permeability/unconventional reservoirs -- Low pressure gas reservoirs

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Petroleum Engineering 613 -- Natural Gas Engineering Course Description, Prerequisites by Topic, and Course Objectives Spring 2010 (Spring Break: 15-19 March 2010)

Date Module 1 Introductory Concepts January 18 20 22 25 27 29 M W F M W F University Holiday Course Introduction/Review of Syllabus Introduction: historical perspectives, types of tests, etc. Reservoir performance behavior (introduction) Properties of reservoir fluids Properties of reservoir fluids Topic

LW = ERCB = Katz = Hnd =

Lee and Wattenbarger Text Energy Res. and Conservation Board Text Katz, et al text Electronic Handout Reading

(Syllabus -- Spring 2010) ERCB Ch. 1, Katz Ch 1-2,9 ERCB Ch. 2, LW Ch. 5 ERCB App. A, LW Ch. 1, Katz Ch 3-5,12, Hnd ERCB App. A, LW Ch. 1, Katz Ch 3-5,12, Hnd

Module 2 Gas Material Balance and Boundary Dominated Flow Behavior February 01 03 05 08 10 12 15 M W F M W F M Fundamentals of fluid flow in porous media (general) Fundamentals of fluid flow in porous media (gas) Gas material balance (simple case) Gas material balance ("abnormal" pressure case) Gas material balance (water influx case) IPR concepts for gas wells Semi-analytical performance equation (q(t) vs. t) for gas wells ERCB Ch. 2, LW Ch. 5, Katz Ch 2, Hnd ERCB Ch. 2, LW Ch. 5, Katz Ch 2, Hnd LW Ch. 10, Katz Ch 12, Hnd LW Ch. 10, Hnd LW Ch. 10, Hnd ERCB Ch. 3, LW Ch. 4, Hnd Hnd

Module 3 Wellbore Phenomena and Near-Well Reservoir Behavior 17 19 22 24 26 W F M W F Wellbore phenomena: Calculation of static/flowing bottomhole pressures (gas) Wellbore phenomena: Calculation of static/flowing bottomhole pressures (gas) Wellbore phenomena: Wellbore storage/phase redistribution models (gas) Near-well impediments to flow -- the skin factor and condensate banking Near-well impediments to flow -- the skin factor and condensate banking ERCB App. B, LW Ch. 4, Hnd ERCB App. B, LW Ch. 4, Hnd LW Ch. 5, Hnd ERCB Ch. 2, LW Ch. 5, Hnd ERCB Ch. 2, LW Ch. 5, Hnd

Module 4 Well Test Analysis March 01 03 05 08 10 12 M M F M W F Deliverability testing of gas wells (Introduction) Hnd (Rawlins/Schellhardt), Katz Ch 9,11 Deliverability testing of gas wells ERCB Ch. 3, LW Ch. 7, Katz Ch 9,11, Hnd Well test analysis: Fundamentals (solutions, plots, simple analysis, etc.) ERCB Ch. 4-5, LW Ch. 6, Katz Ch 10 Well test analysis: Fundamentals (solutions, plots, simple analysis, etc.) Well test analysis: Model-based analysis (Unfractured wells) Well test analysis: Model-based analysis (Fractured Wells) ERCB Ch. 4-5, LW Ch. 6, Katz Ch 10 ERCB Ch. 7, LW Ch. 6, Hnd ERCB Ch. 7, LW Ch. 6, Hnd

Spring Break: 15-19 March 2010 22 24 26 M W F Well test analysis: Model-based analysis (etc.) Well test analysis: Well test design Analysis of production data: Data acquisition, cataloging, and retrieval ERCB Ch. 7, LW Ch. 6, Hnd ERCB Ch. 4-5, LW Ch. 8, Hnd LW Ch. 9, Hnd

Module 5 Analysis and Modelling of Production Data 29 31 02 05 07 09 M W F M W F Analysis of production data: Conventional decline curve analysis Analysis of production data: EUR analysis Reading Day (No Classes -- Good Friday) Analysis of production data: Model-based analysis Analysis of production data: Model-based analysis Analysis of production data: Model-based analysis LW Ch. 9, Hnd Hnd LW Ch. 9, Hnd LW Ch. 9, Hnd LW Ch. 9, Hnd

April

Module 6 Special Topics in Gas Reservoir Engineering 12 14 16 19 21 23 26 28 30 May May 03 04 07 M W F M W F M W F M T F Performance of gas condensate reservoir systems Low permeability/unconventional gas reservoirs (characterization) Low pressure gas reservoir systems Underground storage of natural gas Underground storage of natural gas Special topics (analysis of well performance data from low permeability gas reservoirs) Special topics (analysis of well performance data from low permeability gas reservoirs) Special topics (analysis of well performance data from low permeability gas reservoirs) Special topics (TBA) (dead day) Software for the analysis of well test data (redefined day ("Friday")) Software for the analysis of production data Final Exam/Project is due by 09:30 a.m. for classes held MW 5:45­7 p.m. (http://admissions.tamu.edu/registrar/General/FinalSchedule.aspx#_Spring_2010) Katz Ch 12, Hnd Hnd Hnd Katz Ch 18, Hnd Katz Ch 18, Hnd Hnd Hnd Hnd Hnd Hnd Hnd

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Petroleum Engineering 613 -- Natural Gas Engineering Homework Format Guidelines Spring 2010

Homework Topics: (These are intended topics, addition and/or deletion Multiple assignments from each topic are possible.) Reservoir fluids -- analysis/prediction of phase behavior. Gas material balance. -- Normally-pressured dry gas reservoirs. -- Abnormally-pressured dry gas reservoirs. -- Water Influx/Encroachment. -- Gas condensate reservoirs. Wellbore storage/phase redistribution models (gas). Skin factor/impediments to flow. of certain problems may occur as other problems become available. Deliverability testing (single point, multipoint, and isochronal tests). Analysis and interpretation of gas well test data. Well test design: Analysis and interpretation of gas well production data. Special topics. -- Gas condensate reservoir systems (PTA/PA). -- Low permeability/unconventional reservoirs. -- Low pressure gas reservoirs.

Computing Topics: In general, some programming (spreadsheet/Visual Basic) assignments may be required. Students must develop their own codes unless otherwise instructed. Homework Format Guidelines: I. General Instructions: You must use engineering analysis paper or lined notebook paper, and this paper must measure 8.5 inches in width by 11 inches in height 1. You must only write on the front of the page. 2. Number all pages in the upper right-hand corner and staple all pages together in upper left hand corner. You must also put your name (or initials) in the upper right corner of each page next to the page number (e.g. John David Doe (JDD) page 4/6). 3. Fold inward lengthwise. 4. Place the following identification on the outside: Name: (printed) Course: Petroleum Engineering 613/Spring 2010 Date: 25 February 2010 Assignment: (Specific) II. Homework Format 1. Given: (Statement of Problem and Problem Data) 2. Required: (Problem Objectives) 3. Solution: (Methodology) A. Sketches and Diagrams B. Assumption, Working Hypotheses, References C. Formulas and Definitions of Symbols (Including Units) D. Calculations (Including Units) 4. Results 5. Conclusions: Provide a short summary that discusses the problem results.

Instructor Responsibilities The instructor is responsible for 1. A learning environment where students of all skills levels are appropriately challenged. 2. Showing respect and consideration to the students. 3. Being prepared for class and keeping on schedule with the syllabus. 4. Preparing exercises that follow the course objectives. 5. Covering the material that will be tested on exams. The instructor is not responsible for 1. Work missed by absent students (unless a University-excused absence is provided to the instructor). 2. Poor performance by unattentative or uninterested students. This is a fundamental course in Reservoir Engineering, one that you will use actively in your career as a reservoir or production engineer. 3. Personal issues -- if you have personal issues that impair your performance in this course, you are encouraged to discuss these problems with your instructor for possible remedies. However, the instructor is responsible for assigning your grade based solely on your performance and is not at liberty to allow personal appeals to influence your grade. Student Responsibilities The student is responsible for 1. Class attendance. Students should attend all scheduled class meetings. 2. Being prepared for class. In-class quizzes will be given. Always bring your books, course notes, and calculator to each class meeting. 3. Being prepared for exams. The instructor or TA may choose to review materials prior to exams, but do not rely on this review as your only exam preparation--nor should you rely on old exams for your exam preparation. The best preparation for exams is to stay current with the class, rework assignments, and get plenty of rest the night before the exam. 4. Showing respect and consideration to his classmates and the instructor. Do not talk excessively with your neighbors during class. Do not take up class time for discussions with the instructor that should be held outside of class. Students who disrupt the class will be asked to leave.

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Petroleum Engineering 613 -- Natural Gas Engineering Required University Statements -- Required by Texas A&M University Spring 2010 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Statement: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room B118 of Cain Hall, or call 845-1637.. Aggie Honor Code: (http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/) "An Aggie does not lie, cheat or steal, or tolerate those who do." Definitions of Academic Misconduct: 1. CHEATING: Intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, notes, study aids or other devices or materials in any academic exercise. 2. FABRICATION: Making up data or results, and recording or reporting them; submitting fabricated documents. 3. FALSIFICATION: Manipulating research materials, equipment or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. 4. MULTIPLE SUBMISSION: Submitting substantial portions of the same work (including oral reports) for credit more than once without authorization from the instructor of the class for which the student submits the work. 5. PLAGIARISM: The appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. 6. COMPLICITY: Intentionally or knowingly helping, or attempting to help, another to commit an act of academic dishonesty. 7. ABUSE AND MISUSE OF ACCESS AND UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS: Students may not abuse or misuse computer access or gain unauthorized access to information in any academic exercise. See Student Rule 22: http://student-rules.tamu.edu/ 8. VIOLATION OF DEPARTMENTAL OR COLLEGE RULES: Students may not violate any announced departmental or college rule relating to academic matters. 9. UNIVERSITY RULES ON RESEARCH: Students involved in conducting research and/or scholarly activities at Texas A&M University must also adhere to standards set forth in the University Rules. For additional information please see: http://student-rules.tamu.edu/. Coursework Copyright Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) The handouts used in this course are copyrighted. By "handouts," this means all materials generated for this class, which include but are not limited to syllabi, quizzes, exams, lab problems, in-class materials, review sheets, and additional problem sets. Because these materials are copyrighted, you do not have the right to copy them, unless you are expressly granted permission. As commonly defined, plagiarism consists of passing off as one's own the ideas, words, writings, etc., that belong to another. In accordance with this definition, you are committing plagiarism if you copy the work of another person and turn it in as your own, even if you should have the permission of that person. Plagiarism is one of the worst academic sins, for the plagiarist destroys the trust among colleagues without which research cannot be safely communicated. If you have any questions about plagiarism and/or copying, please consult the latest issue of the Texas A&M University Student Rules, under the section "Scholastic Dishonesty."

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Petroleum Engineering 613 -- Natural Gas Engineering Assignment Coversheet -- Required by University Policy Spring 2010

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Petroleum Engineering Number -- Course Title Assignment Number-- Assignment Title Assignment Date -- Due Date

Assignment Coversheet

[This sheet (or the sheet provided for a given assignment) must be included with EACH work submission] Required Academic Integrity Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) Academic Integrity Statement All syllabi shall contain a section that states the Aggie Honor Code and refers the student to the Honor Council Rules and Procedures on the web. Aggie Honor Code "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." Upon accepting admission to Texas A&M University, a student immediately assumes a commitment to uphold the Honor Code, to accept responsibility for learning and to follow the philosophy and rules of the Honor System. Students will be required to state their commitment on examinations, research papers, and other academic work. Ignorance of the rules does not exclude any member of the Texas A&M University community from the requirements or the processes of the Honor System. For additional information please visit: www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/ On all course work, assignments, and examinations at Texas A&M University, the following Honor Pledge shall be preprinted and signed by the student: "On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work."

Aggie Code of Honor: An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do. Required Academic Integrity Statement: "On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work." _______________________________ (Print your name) _______________________________ (Your signature)

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Engineering Near-Critical Reservoirs PETE 616

Course Outline Spring 2007

Instructor: Dr. Maria A. Barrufet [email protected]

Module 1: Overall Scope ­ Reservoir and Fluid Characterization Duration: 2 weeks The big picture: Near Critical Reservoirs Characteristics. Characteristic Phase Diagrams for Hydrocarbon Fluids: Pressure, Volume, Temperature and Composition Relations. Classification of Reservoir Fluids Using Phase Diagrams, Compositions, Production, and PVT Data. Fluid And Rock-Fluid Properties Required For Reservoir Simulation Studies. PVT And Core Analysis Data and Models In The Oil Industry: Reservoir Fluid Sampling Techniques. PVT Tests for Near Critical Fluids: Constant Volume Depletion. Constant Composition Expansion. Separator. Swelling. Viscosity and Interfacial Tension. Quality Control Tests. Oil and Gas viscosity correlations (LBC, Pedersen's Corresponding States Method).

References Class Notes. SPE papers.

Module 2: Material Balance Equation and Introduction to Simulation Duration: 2 weeks The Material Balance Equation (Review of Black Oil and Dry Gas systems). Estimation of reserves. Volatile and Condensate fluids. Evaluation of Oil and Gas in Place from Production Data. Conventional Approach. Development of a Semi-Compositional Material Balance Equation for Volatile and Condensate systems. Uses and limitations. Modeling Fluid Phase Behavior: Compositional vs. Black Oil Models.

References Class Notes. SPE papers.

Module 3 : Near Critical Reservoir Simulation ­ Special Compositional Needs Duration: 2 weeks Formulation of the Multiphase Multicomponent Reservoir Simulation Equations. Constitutive Relations. Fundamentals of VLE (Vapor-Liquid-Equilibria). VLE modeling approaches for hydrocarbon fluids. Cubic Equations of State (EOS): Peng-Robinson, Soave-Redlich-Kwong. Volume translation concepts for improved volumetric predictions using EOS. Characterization of undefined petroleum fractions. Lumping techniques. Criteria for lumping and characterizing hypothetical components. The need for splitting the C7+ fraction. Behrens - Sandler and Whitson's method.

References Class Notes. SPE papers. Volume Translation. Gravity Gradient. Whitson. Sandler papers.

Module 4: Compositional Gravitational Gradients - Condensate Banking - Production Strategies Duration = 2 weeks Equilibrium conditions under the influence of gravity. Compositional gradients and conditions for significant compositional variation. Condensate Banking Problems and Solutions. Effects of Reservoir Heterogeneity. Gas Processing Methods. Liquid Recovery. Separator Design. Dehydration Methods and Equipment. CO2 Removal. Separation Processes: Distillation, Membranes, Cryogenic Processes. Gas Sweetening (H2S removal).

References Class Notes. SPE papers Whitson. Ikoku Chapters. Internet Tutorial.

Module 5: Building a Fluid Model ­ Calibration of EOS Duration = 2 weeks Use of PVTi ­ Processing Data and Generating a Fluid Model for ECLIPSE 300 Calibration of EOS parameters to constant composition expansion (CCE), Swelling tests, and/or constant volume depletion data (CVD). Tuning to viscosity data.

References Class Notes. SPE papers. PVTi Manual.

Module 6: Compositional Reservoir Simulator ­ Processing Input and Output Files Duration = 2 weeks Introduction to ECLIPSE 300 ­ Preparation of input files. Runspec and Grid options. Declaration of properties (PROPS). Solution, Summary, and Schedule Sections. Input/Output Controls. Pre-processing data. Evaluation of oil and gas in place from production data. EOS approach (comparison with earlier exercise in course). Introduction to basic UNIX and VI Commands. Post-processing data (output files). Module 7: Compositional Simulation ­ Special Features: Optimizing Oil Production Project Duration = 3 weeks Using Eclipse 300. Local Grid Refining. Relative Permeabilities as function of IFT. Simulation and evaluation of depletion and gas cycling strategies: Volatile and a Gas Condensate, examples. (Reservoir Properties from SPE Third Case Comparative Study) Extended and lumped compositional description Black oil and compositional model Evaluation of relative permeability models Local grid refining options Horizontal and vertical wells

References Class Notes. SPE papers. Eclipse 300 manual.

Performance Evaluation Paper Reviews and Homework Midterm Exam Simulation Project- Maximum Oil Recovery Competition (Max recovery from a condensate field under technical & economic constraints) Reference Materials Class notes downloadable from a WEB site TBA . Selected SPE papers Thermodynamics of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs ­ A. Firoozabadi 30% 30% 40%

Hydrocarbon Phase Behavior ­ Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Eclipse 300 and PVTi manuals

Ahmed Tarek Craft and Hawkins (Geoquest)

Petroleum Engineering 617 Petroleum Reservoir Management (3-0). Credit 3 W. John Lee Summer 2009 Revised 5/21/09 Studies of the principles of reservoir management and application to specific reservoirs based on case studies presented in the petroleum literature. Basis for grade 20% One final written review paper on management practices on a field on which there is a significant amount of published information (e.g., in SPE papers) on primary performance, secondary or enhanced recovery project planning, performance, surveillance, evaluation, modification, operating problems, solutions, etc. 20% Oral presentation of the findings on the field used for the written report. 30% Mid-term examination on papers read and discussed in Weeks 1 to 4. 20% Written reviews of papers. Reviews must be submitted by the beginning of the class or the grade will be zero. Late or not, all papers must be submitted or the grade at the end of the semester will be "I." 10% Attendance and participation. Participation, for both distance learning and resident students, will be based on responses to study guide questions posted in the class "discussion board." Please post your responses prior to start of class each class day. We will also have further discussion in class among resident students. References Reservoir Management, Reprint Series, SPE, Dallas (1998) 48. Thakur, G. C. and Satter, A.: Integrated Waterflood Asset Management, PennWell, Houston (1998) Satter, A. and Thakur, G.: Integrated Petroleum Reservoir Management, PennWell, Houston (1994).

Papers (mostly SPE) on field project planning, implementation, surveillance, evaluation, modification, problems, solutions. All are in SPE Reprint Series No. 48 unless indicated otherwise, but almost all can also be downloaded from the SPE Website.

Vista Account Because course information will be posted on Vista regularly, I ask that you please monitor at least once a day. To set up your Vista account for this course, please do the following: Go to http://elearning.tamu.edu. Find the link TAMU. Click the link. Use your NetID (Neo ID and password) to logon. Click on the course name. This should be all you need. If you have questions or problems accessing the course material in Vista, please contact Mary Lu Epps ([email protected]) or Ted Jones ([email protected]) or Darla Jean Weatherford ([email protected]) in the 407 office suite for help. If you experience problems with connecting to the Vista service, please contact support at [email protected]

Petroleum Engineering 617 Petroleum Reservoir Management (3-0). Credit 3 W. John Lee Summer 2009 Last Revised 5/21/2009 Tentative Course Schedule

PETE 617-09B - Tentative Course Schedule - Last revised 5/21.09 Week 1 Mon 1-Jun Sound Res Mgt Wed 3-Jun SPE 20747, 22350, 26289 SPE 19780, 20138; RichSneidner (non-SPE) Fri 5-Jun 2 Mon 8-Jun Geological Model SPE 6109, 20321; Roberston (non-SPE) SPE 14129,2928;Satter,Frizzell, Wed 10-Jun Reservoir Model Varnon (non-SPE) 3 Wed 17-Jun Data Management SPE 20749,23471,30442 Fri 19-Jun Prod Op, Economics SPE 26411, 37963, 9476 4 Mon 22-Jun Case Histories SPE 9361,22236, 20751 Principles of oral Wed 24-Jun Term Projects presentations 5 Mon 29-Jun Term Projects Principles of report writing Thurs 2-Jul Midterm exam Computer lab, time TBA 6 Mon 6-Jul Project preparation self-study Fri 10-Jul Project preparation self-study 7 Mon 13-Jul Term Projects Fri 17-Jul Term Projects 8 Mon 20-Jul Term Projects Wed 22-Jul Term Projects Fri 24-Jul Term Projects 9 Mon 3-Aug Term Projects Wed 5-Aug Term Projects Fri 7-Aug Term Projects 10 Mon 10-Aug Final exam if needed

Class meets at 10 AM in Richardson 302.

Petroleum Engineering 617 Petroleum Reservoir Management (3-0). Credit 3 W. John Lee Summer 2009 Revised 5/21/2009 Guidelines for Paper Reviews It should take no more than one page to summarize a typical paper. Some papers may require more; use your own judgment. Learn to be concise and to state briefly the essential ideas communicated. Usual organization of a review · Authors, title. Use the SPE standard reference style. (You can find it in the SPE Guide to Publications, which is on the web at http://www.spe.org.) · Problem. Briefly, describe the problem the authors are trying to solve. · Solution. Describe the solution the authors propose. Did they propose a specific method for part or all the reservoir management process? What is it? · Value. Describe the value of the authors' solution to the petroleum industry. · Conclusions. Describe the conclusions the authors reached as a result of their analysis · Approach. Describe what the authors did to validate their proposed solution. · Limitations. List the limitations of the work. Is it applicable to only a certain type of reservoir or field? · Application. How would you apply the knowledge provided in this paper? · Critique. What questions did the authors leave unanswered? What could the authors have done to make the paper better? Objectives of reviewing papers in this class · To learn how to learn from papers (harder than textbooks, but more important in the long run) · To learn how to identify the really important ideas in papers · To learn how to summarize ideas concisely · To learn how engineers with vastly different points of view think and how they approach problems and their solutions

Petroleum Engineering 617 Petroleum Reservoir Management (3-0). Credit 3 W. John Lee Summer 2009 Revised 5/21/09 Guidelines for Term Projects 1. Each person in the class will prepare a written report and an oral presentation for his/her project. 2. Each person will choose a field for discussion based loosely on these criteria: (1) significant number of papers (at least four) published on the field; (2) field has had, in addition to primary production, secondary and/or tertiary recovery projects; (3) published papers include information on geology, primary performance, secondary or enhanced performance, operating problems/solutions, special facilities; (4) clear evidence that reservoir management of some kind has been practiced; and (5) the final paper in the sequence will preferably have been published in the last five years (to ensure that modern technology is included in the reservoir management process). 3. Your purpose is to read the literature, focusing in particular on reservoir management decisions that have (or, sometimes, should have) been made and results of those decisions. Refer to the early papers in the course on reservoir management philosophy and determine whether sound, modern practices as recommended by the authors we have read were followed ­ and what the consequences were. 4. Prepare an oral presentation on your field requiring about 30 minutes. Be prepared to answer questions for another 15 minutes or so. Prepare hard copy originals of visual aids for your presentation. Please prepare PowerPoint files for your presentation. We will provide guidelines in class for organization and content of your oral presentation. 5. Prepare a written report on your topic, with a length about the same as a typical, published SPE paper. Length requirements are not rigid, but it is good to learn to be concise. We will provide guidelines in class for organization and content of your written report. 6. Select one paper (from those you find in your literature survey) and designate it a "key paper." Give your key papers to me one week before your oral presentation. I will have the paper placed on Vista (or give the class information on how to locate it on the SPE Web site) and will ask the class to read it in preparation for your presentation. The key paper should include information on reservoir description, primary production, secondary or otherwise enhanced recovery projects in the field, discussions of operating/facilities problems and, hopefully, solutions), and other fundamentally important issues that arose in the historical management of the field. Your talk and written paper are not limited to these key papers, of course. All members of the class will prepare a review of each key paper and submit (as required homework) the review on the day of the presentation of that topic.

Petroleum Engineering 619 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Fall 2010

Course Description: Natural fractures are increasingly recognized as dominant permeability paths in many reservoirs. Unfortunately, there are few guidelines available for geologists and engineers characterizing and engineering naturally fractured reservoirs. This course is intended as an up-to-date summary of an integrated reservoir study including characterization, experimentation and integration of information in determining the most suitable process option in naturally fractured reservoirs. Most of the information originates from a CO2 pilot in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. Information presented from this project in this course include: core results from several wells including a horizontal core; measurement of fracture populations and spacings from core data; investigation of diagenesis in natural fractures; evaluation of fracture detection logs; detailed study of matrix porosity; evaluation of shaly-sand algorithms for calculation of net pay; measurement of in-situ oil saturation with sponge cores; laboratory measurement of imbibition, capillary pressure and wettability at reservoir conditions, history matching laboratory measurements for up-scaling to reservoir geometry, wettability data for prediction of waterflood performance; reservoir performance analysis during water injection, and laboratory experiments of forced and free-fall gravity drainage with CO2 and use of commercial simulators to match reservoir performance using precisely measured lab and field data Credit Hours: 3 Instructor: Dr. David Schechter, Associate Professor 401Q Richardson, 845-2275, [email protected] Office hours: by appointment

Class hours: Lecture TR 12:45 ­ 2:00 (RICH 208) Text:

Instructor D.S. Schechter

Naturally Fractured Reservoir Characterization

Author: Wayne Narr, David S. Schechter, Laird B. Thompson Format: softcover Pages: 115 ISBN: 978-1-55563-112-3 Publisher: Society of Petroleum Engineers Year Published: 2006 Item Number: 100-1723

01/08/10

Course Policies: · Attendance: Attendance in class is expected. If an illness or unexpected event prevents attendance, the student should notify the instructor before class. Students should read assigned reference material in advance and be prepared for exams and class discussions. · Late Work: Laboratory reports are due at the beginning of class on the assigned due date, unless otherwise stated. Late work turned in within one week after the due date and time will be assessed a 30-point penalty. Thereafter, a 15-point penalty per week will be assessed. · Work Quality: Neat, legible, systematic and complete presentation is required in assignments, quizzes and examinations for full credit. Units (for example, Newton-meters) must be written wherever appropriate for the answers. Reports should be free of spelling and grammatical errors. Plots should contain properly-labeled axes (quantity and units) as well as a legend to distinguish between multiple curves. · Grading: The regular university grading scale will be used. Weights will be assigned as follows: Quizzes 30% Research Project 60% Participation, professionalism 10% · Academic Dishonesty: Collaboration on examinations and assignments is forbidden except when specifically authorized. Students violating this policy may be removed from the class roster and given an F in the course or may be assessed other penalties as outlined in the Texas A&M University Student Rules. Team Exercises: The course may include some team exercises. Collaboration within teams is required; collaboration between teams is forbidden except when specifically authorized. Team reports will be assigned a team grade. Each team member will receive the team grade, multiplied by a Participation Factor. The Participation Factor will be determined by a combination of peer reviews and instructor assessment.

·

Course Schedule Week

1

Topic

Introduction to naturally fractured reservoirs 2 - 3 Fracture Characterization: Geophysical and Geological Aspects, Petrophysical and logging evaluation of naturally fractured reservoirs 4 - 5 Modelling of fractured reservoirs: Defining the fracture system, static characterization of fracture system, well test analysis in fractured reservoirs 5 - 6 Reservoir Engineering: Issues in reservoir engineering in naturally fractured reservoirs, material balance, fracture vs. matrix porosity, relative permeability and capillary pressure,

01/08/10

transfer mechanisms 7 - 8 Simulation of naturally fractured reservoirs: Issues in simulation, single vs. dual porosity simulation, input parameters from static model and fracture characterization, sensitivity of simulation to fracture parameters 9 -10 Case Histories: Case history of primary, secondary and enhanced oil recovery projects world-wide 11 Project Management: Development of project management strategies for naturally fractured reservoirs Final Presentations

12

01/08/10

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Fall 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620 Texas A&M University College of Engineering TR 08:10.-09:15 RICH 208 *1. *2. # 3. # 4. # 5. # 6. # 7. 1. 2. # 3. # 4. + 5. + 6. + 7. + 8. + 9. + 10. + 11.

# #

Instructor: Office: TL: EM:

Dr. Tom Blasingame Richardson 815/TBA +1.979.845.2292 [email protected]

Co-Instructor: Office: TL: EM:

Dilhan Ilk Richardson 821/TBA +1.979.845.4064 [email protected]

Required Texts/Resources: (*Book must be purchased. #Out of Print/Public Domain -- Electronic file to be made available by instructor.) Advanced Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists, M.R. Spiegel, Schaum's Series (1971). Conduction of Heat in Solids, 2nd edition, H. Carslaw and J. Jaeger, Oxford Science Publications (1959). Handbook of Mathematical Functions, M. Abramowitz and I. Stegun, Dover Pub. (1972). Table of Laplace Transforms, G.E. Roberts and H. Kaufman, W.B. Saunder, Co. (1964). Numerical Methods, R.W. Hornbeck, Quantum Publishers, Inc., New York (1975). Approximations for Digital Computers: Hastings, C., Jr., et al, Princeton U. Press, Princeton, New Jersey (1955). Handbook for Computing Elementary Functions: L.A. Lyusternik, et al, Pergamon Press, (1965). Calculus, 4th edition: Frank Ayres and Elliot Mendelson, Schaum's Outline Series (1999) Differential Equations, 2nd edition: Richard Bronson, Schaum's Outline Series (1994) Laplace Transforms, M.R. Spiegel, Schaum's Outline Series (1965) Numerical Analysis, F. Scheid, Schaum's Outline Series, McGraw-Hill Book Co, New York (1968). The Mathematics of Diffusion, 2nd edition, J. Crank, Oxford Science Publications (1975). Table of Integrals, Series, and Products, I.S. Gradshteyn and I.M. Ryzhik, Academic Press (1980). Methods of Numerical Integration, P.F. Davis and P. Rabinowitz, Academic Press, New York (1989). An Atlas of Functions, J. Spanier and K. Oldham, Hemisphere Publishing (1987). Adv. Math. Methods for Eng. and Scientists, 2nd edition, C.M. Bender and S.A. Orsag, McGraw-Hill (1978). Asymptotic Approximations of Integrals, R. Wong, Academic Press (1989). Asymptotics and Special Functions, F.W.J. Olver, Academic Press (1974). (Remedial text) (Remedial text) (Remedial text) (Remedial text) (important/historical) (very important/historical) (perhaps useful for research) (perhaps useful for research) (excellent text) (perhaps useful for research) (perhaps useful for research)

Optional Texts/Resources: (+Special order at MSC Bookstore or check TAMU library. #Local bookstores)

Course and Reference Materials: The course materials for this course are located at: http://www.pe.tamu.edu/blasingame/data/P620_09C/ Basis for Grade: [Grade Cutoffs (Percentages) A: < 90 B: 89.99 to 80 C: 79.99 to 70 D: 69.99 to 60 F: < 59.99] Assignments .................................................................................................................................................................................. 90 percent Class Participation ....................................................................................................................................................................... 10 percent Total = 100 percent Policies and Procedures: 1. Students are expected to keep pace in the course -- DO NOT FALL BEHIND IN THE LECTURES OR YOUR ASSIGNMENTS. 2. Policy on Grading a. All work in this course is graded on the basis of answers only -- any partial credit is at the discretion of the instructor. b. All work requiring calculations shall be properly and completely documented for credit. c. All grading shall be done by the instructor, or under his direction and supervision, and the decision of the instructor is final. 3. Policy on Regrading a. Only in very rare cases will exams be considered for regrading -- partial credit (if any) is not subject to appeal. b. Work which, while possibly correct, but cannot be followed, will be considered incorrect. c. Grades assigned to homework problems will not be considered for regrading. d. If regrading is necessary, the student is to submit a letter to the instructor explaining the situation that requires consideration for regrading, the material to be regraded must be attached to this letter. The letter and attached material must be received within one week from the date returned by the instructor. 4. The grade for a late assignment is zero. Homework will be considered late if it is not turned in at the start of class on the due date. If a student comes to class after homework has been turned in and after class has begun, the student's homework will be considered late and given a grade of zero. Late or not, all assignments must be turned in. A course grade of Incomplete will be given if any assignment is missing, and this grade will be changed only after all required work has been submitted. 5. Each student should review the University Regulations concerning attendance, grades, and scholastic dishonesty. In particular, anyone caught cheating on an examination or collaborating on an assignment where collaboration is not specifically authorized by the instructor will be removed from the class roster and given an F (failure grade) in the course. Course Description Graduate Catalog: Analysis of fluid flow in bounded and unbounded reservoirs, wellbore storage, phase redistribution, finite and infinite conductivity vertical fractures, dual-porosity systems. Translation: Development of skills required to derive "classic" problems in reservoir engineering and well testing from the fundamental principles of mathematics and physics. Emphasis is placed on a mastery of fundamental calculus, analytical and numerical solutions of 1st and 2nd order ordinary and partial differential equations, as well as extensions to non-linear partial differential equations that arise for the flow of fluids in porous media.

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Outline/Topics Fall 2009 Course Outline/Topics: Advanced Mathematics Relevant to Problems in Engineering: (used throughout assignments) Approximation of Functions Taylor Series Expansions and Chebyshev Economizations Numerical Differentiation and Integration of Analytic Functions and Applications Least Squares First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations The Laplace Transform Fundamentals of the Laplace Transform Properties of the Laplace Transform Applications of the Laplace Transform to Solve Linear Ordinary Differential Equations Numerical Laplace Transform and Inversion Special Functions Petrophysical Properties: Porosity and Permeability Concepts Correlation of Petrophysical Data Concept of Permeability -- Darcy's Law Capillary Pressure Relative Permeability Electrical Properties of Reservoir Rocks Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media: Steady-State Flow Concepts: Laminar Flow Steady-State Flow Concepts: Non-Laminar Flow Material Balance Concepts Pseudosteady-State Flow in a Circular Reservoir Development of the Diffusivity Equation for Liquid Flow Development of the Diffusivity Equations for Gas Flow Development of the Diffusivity Equation for Multiphase Flow Classical Reservoir Flow Solutions: Dimensionless Variables and the Dimensionless Radial Flow Diffusivity Equation Solutions of the Radial Flow Diffusivity Equation -- Infinite-Acting Reservoir Case Laplace Transform (Radial Flow) Solutions -- Bounded Circular Reservoir Cases Real Domain (Radial Flow) Solutions -- Bounded Circular Reservoir Cases Linear Flow Solutions: Infinite and Finite-Acting Reservoir Cases Solutions for a Fractured Well -- High Fracture Conductivity Cases Dual Porosity Reservoirs -- Pseudosteady-State Interporosity Flow Behavior Direct Solution of the Gas Diffusivity Equation Using Laplace Transform Methods Convolution and Concepts and Applications in Wellbore Storage Distortion Advanced Reservoir Flow Solutions: (Possible Coverage) Multilayered Reservoir Solutions Dual Permeability Reservoir Solutions Horizontal Well Solutions Radial Composite Reservoir Solutions Models for Flow Impediment (Skin Factor) Applications/Extensions of Reservoir Flow Solutions: (Possible Coverage) Oil and Gas Well Flow Solutions for Analysis, Interpretation, and Prediction of Well Performance Low Permeability/Heterogeneous Reservoir Behavior Macro-Level Thermodynamics (coupling PVT behavior with Reservoir Flow Solutions) External Drive Mechanisms (Water Influx/Water Drive, Well Interference, etc.). Hydraulic Fracturing/Solutions for Fractured Well Behavior Analytical/Numerical Solutions of Various Reservoir Flow Problems. Applied Reservoir Engineering Solutions -- Material Balance, Flow Solutions, etc.

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Tentative Course Schedule Fall 2009 Date September 01 T 03 R 08 T 10 R 15 T 17 R 22 T 24 R October 29 T 01 R 06 T 08 R 13 T 15 R 20 T 22 R 27 T 29 R November 03 T 05 R 10 T 12 R 17 T 19 R 24 T 26 R December 01 T 03 R 08 T 14 M 16 W 21 M Topic Course Introduction -- Review of the Syllabus Course Introduction -- Review of the Syllabus Lecture 01: [Mod1_ML_01] Lecture 02: [Mod1_ML_02] Lecture 03: [Mod1_ML_03] Lecture 04: [Mod1_ML_04] Lecture 05: [Mod1_ML_05] Lecture 06: [Mod1_ML_06] Lecture 07: [Mod2_PtrPhy_01] Lecture 08: [Mod2_PtrPhy_02] Lesson 09: [Mod2_PtrPhy_03] Lesson 10: [Mod2_PtrPhy_04] Lesson 11: [Mod2_PtrPhy_05] Lesson 12: [Mod2_PtrPhy_06] Review of Functions Approximation of Functions First Order Ordinary Differential Equations Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations The Laplace Transform Introduction to Special Functions Introduction to Porosity and Permeability Concepts Correlation of Petrophysical Data Empirical Development of Permeability: Darcy's Law Capillary Pressure Relative Permeability Electrical Properties of Reservoir Rocks

Lesson 13: [Mod3_FunFld_01] Single-Phase, Steady-State Flow in Porous Media Lesson 14: [Mod3_FunFld_02] Non-Laminar Flow in Porous Media Lesson 15: [Mod3_FunFld_03] Material Balance Concepts Lesson 16: [Mod3_FunFld_04] Pseudosteady-State Flow in a Circular Reservoir Lesson 17: [Mod3_FunFld_05] Development of the Diffusivity Equation for Liquid Flow Lesson 18: [Mod3_FunFld_06] Development of the Diffusivity Equations for Gas Flow Lesson 19: [Mod3_FunFld_07] Development of the Diffusivity Equation for Multiphase Flow Lesson 20: [Mod4_ResFlw_01] Dimensionless Variables/Radial Flow Diffusivity Equation Lesson 21: [Mod4_ResFlw_02] Solutions of the Radial Flow Diffusivity Equation Lesson 22: [Mod4_ResFlw_03] Linear Flow Solutions: Infinite and Finite-Acting Reservoir Cases Lesson 23: [Mod4_ResFlw_04] Solutions for a Fractured Well -- High Fracture Conductivity Cases Lesson 24: [Mod4_ResFlw_05] Dual Porosity Reservoirs -- PSS Interporosity Flow Behavior Lesson 25: [Mod4_ResFlw_06] Direct Solution of the Gas Diffusivity Equation Lesson 26: [Mod4_ResFlw_07] Convolution Lesson 27: [Mod4_ResFlw_08] Wellbore Storage Any/all remaining assignments due on 14 December 2009 -- by 5 p.m. (Final Exam date per University Calendar (for classes on TR 8-9:15 a.m.)) Final grades for all students GRADUATING in Fall 2009 term. Final grades for all students.

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Homework Topics and Format Guidelines Fall 2009 Homework Topics: (These are intended topics, addition and/or deletion of certain problems may occur as other problems become available. Multiple assignments from each topic are likely.)

Analytical and numerical problems in calculus. Laplace transform methods -- analytical and computational considerations. Special functions -- analytical and computational considerations. Development of steady-state flow equations from physical principles. Development of pseudosteady-state flow equations from the diffusivity equation. Development and solution of diffusion-type partial differential equations. Development and application of various well/reservoir/production solutions.

Computing Topics: Students will be asked to make numerical computations for certain problems -- in such cases the student will generally be allowed to select the computational product for their work. Homework Format Guidelines: 1. General Instructions: You must use engineering analysis paper or lined notebook paper, and this paper must measure 8.5 inches in width by 11 inches in height

a. You must only write on the front of the page! b. Number all pages in the upper right-hand corner and staple all pages together in upper left-hand corner. You must also put your name (or initials) in the upper right corner of each page next to the page number (e.g. John David Doe (JDD) page 4/6). c. Place the following identification on a cover page: (Do not fold) Name: (printed) Course: Petroleum Engineering 620 Date: Day-Month-Year Assignment: (Specific)

2. Outline of Assignment Format

a. Given: (Base Data) b. Required: (Problem Objectives) c. Solution: (Methodology) Sketches and Diagrams Assumption, Working Hypotheses, References Formulas and Definitions of Symbols (Including Units) Calculations (Including Units) d. Results e. Conclusions: Provide a short summary that discusses the problem results.

3. Guidelines for Paper Reviews

For each paper you are to address the following questions: (Type or write neatly) Problem: -- What is/are the problem(s) solved? -- What are the underlying physical principles used in the solution(s)? Assumptions and Limitations: -- What are the assumptions and limitations of the solutions/results? -- How serious are these assumptions and limitations? Practical Applications: -- What are the practical applications of the solutions/results? -- If there are no obvious "practical" applications, then how could the solutions/results be used in practice? Discussion: -- Discuss the author(s)'s view of the solutions/results. -- Discuss your own view of the solutions/results. Recommendations/Extensions: -- How could the solutions/results be extended or improved? -- Are there applications other than those given by the author(s) where the solution(s) or the concepts used in the solution(s) could be applied?

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Learning Objectives The student should be able to demonstrate mastery of objectives in the following areas: Module 1 -- Advanced Mathematics Relevant to Problems in Engineering Module 2 -- Petrophysical Properties Module 3 -- Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media Module 4 -- Reservoir Flow Solutions Module 5 -- Applications/Extensions of Reservoir Flow Solutions Considering these modular topics, we have the following catalog of course objectives: Module 1: Advanced Mathematics Relevant to Problems in Engineering Fundamental Topics in Mathematics: Work fundamental problems in algebra and trigonometry, including partial fractions and the factoring of equations. Perform elementary and advanced calculus: analytical integration and differentiation of elementary functions (polynomials, exponentials, and logarithms), trigonometric functions (sin, cos, tan, sinh, cosh, tanh, and combinations), and special functions (Error, Gamma, Exponential Integral, and Bessel functions). Derive the Taylor series expansions and Chebyshev economizations for a given function. Derive and apply formulas for the numerical differentiation and integration of a function using Taylor series expansions. Specifically, be able to derive the forward, backward, and central "finite-difference" relations for differentiation, as well as the "Trapezoidal" and "Simpson's" Rules for integration. Apply the Gaussian and Laguerre quadrature formulas for numerical integration. Numerical Differentiation and Integration of Analytic Functions: Be able to recognize, develop, and apply the Taylor series (finite-difference) formulas for numerical differentiation of an analytic function. -- The O(x)4 derivatives are expressed as: First Derivative, f'(x): 1 f ' ( x) = ( f ( x - 2x) - 8 f ( x - x) + 8 f ( x + x ) - f ( x + 2x)) + (x) 4 12x Second Derivative, f''(x):

f ' ' ( x) = 1 12(x)

2

(- f ( x - 2x) + 16 f ( x - x) - 30 f ( x) + 16 f ( x + x) - f ( x + 2x)) + (x) 4

Third Derivative, f'''(x):

f ' ' ' ( x) = 1 8(x) 3 ( f ( x - 3x) - 8 f ( x - 2x) + 13 f ( x - x) - 13 f ( x + x) + 8 f ( x + 2x)

- f ( x + 3x)) + (x) 4

Fourth Derivative, fiv(x):

f iv ( x) = 1 6(x) 4 (- f ( x - 3x) + 12 f ( x - 2x) - 39 f ( x - x)

+ 56 f ( x) - 39 f ( x + x) + 12 f ( x + 2x) - f ( x + 3x)) + (x) 4

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued) Module 1: Advanced Mathematics Relevant to Problems in Engineering (continued) Be able to recognize and apply the following formulas and methodologies for numerical integration. -- Trapezoidal rule: (with correction) (be able to develop -- see Hornbeck):

xn

I ( x) =

x0

f ( x)dx

x [ f ( x0 ) + f ( xn )] + x 2

n -1

f ( xi ) -

i =1

(x) 2 [ f ' ( xn ) - f ' ( x0 )] 12

x - x0 where x = n n -- Simpson's rule: (with correction) (be able to develop -- see Hornbeck):

xn

I ( x) =

x0

f ( x)dx

x [ f ( x0 ) + f ( xn ) + 4 3

n -1

i =1 i odd

n-2

f ( xi ) + 2

i=2 i even

f ( xi )] -

(x) 4 ( xn - x0 ) f iv ( x) 180

x - x0 x + x0 where n must be even. Also x = n and x = n . n 2 -- Gaussian quadrature: (weights and abscissas from Abramowitz and Stegun: Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Table 25.4, pgs. 916-919):

xn x0

x - x0 f ( x) dx n 2

wi f ( zi ) where z i (

i =1

n

x n - x0 x + x0 ) xi + ( n ) 2 2

-- Laguerre quadrature: (weights and abscissas from Abramowitz and Stegun: Handbook of Mathematical Functions, Table 25.9, pgs. 923):

0

e - x f ( x) dx =

i =1

n

wi f ( xi ) or

0

g ( x) dx =

wi e x ig ( xi )

i =1

n

Solution of First and Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations: First Order Ordinary Differential Equations: -- Classify the order of a differential equation (order of the highest derivative). -- Verify a given solution of a differential equation via substitution of a given solution into the original differential equation. -- Solve first order ordinary differential equations using the method of separation of variables (or separable equations). -- Derive the method of integrating factors for a first order ordinary differential equation. -- Apply the Euler and Runge-Kutta methods to numerically solve first order ordinary differential equations. Solution of First Order Ordinary Differential Equations: -- Be able to derive the method of integrating factors for a first order ordinary differential equation. -- Be able to determine the solution of a first order ordinary differential equation using the method of integrating factors. Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations: -- Develop the homogeneous (or complementary) solution of a 2nd order ordinary differential equation (ODE) using y=emx as a trial solution. -- Develop the particular solution of a 2nd order ordinary differential equation (ODE) using the method of undetermined coefficients.

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued) Module 1: Advanced Mathematics Relevant to Problems in Engineering (continued) Application of the Runge-Kutta Method: -- Be able to apply the Runge-Kutta methods to numerically solve 1st order ordinary differential equations given a general 1st order relation of the form: dy + a1 y = r (t ) , we must rearrange to yield the following form: 1. Given a 0 dt

dy 1 = [r (t ) - a1 y ] dt a 0

2. We also require the "initial" conditions: ti and yi=y(ti), where ti is usually set equal to zero (but does not have to be set to zero). -- Be able to apply the Runge-Kutta methods to numerically solve 2nd order ordinary differential equations given a general 2nd order relation of the form: 1. Given a 0

d2y = d2y dt 2 + a1 dy + a 2 y = r (t ) , we must rearrange to yield the following form: dt

dy dy d2y 1 1 - a 2 y ] or = [r (t ) - a1 [r (t ) - a1v - a 2 y ] , where v = 2 2 a0 dt a0 dt dt dt 2. For 2nd order equations, we again require "initial" conditions, but now we include a first derivative term. In this case we require: ti, yi=y(ti), and vi=v(ti) where again, ti is usually set equal to zero (but

The Laplace Transform: Fundamentals of the Laplace Transform: -- Be able to state the definition of the Laplace transformation and its inverse. Definition of the Laplace Transform:

f ( s ) = L( f (t )) = e

0

- st

1 -x x f (t )dt or e f ( )dx (using x=st) s s

0

Definition of the Inverse Laplace Transform: (Mellin Inversion Integral)

1 f (t ) = L ( f ( s )) = 2i

-1 y + i st y - i

e

f ( s )ds

-- Be able to prove that the Laplace transform is a linear operator. -- Be able to derive the Laplace transforms given on page 98 of the Spiegel text. -- Be familiar with, and be able to derive, the operational theorems for the Laplace transform as given on pages. 101-102 of the Spiegel text. Properties of the Laplace Transform: -- Be familiar with the "unit step" function shown below

1 u(t-a)

The unit step function is given by:

u (t - a) = 0 u (t - a) = 1

f (u ) =

t<a

0

t>a

And its Laplace transform is:

-1 a t

1 - as e s

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued) Module 1: Advanced Mathematics Relevant to Problems in Engineering (continued) -- Be able to develop and apply the Laplace transform formulas for the discrete data functions shown below. + Step Data Function:

f (s) = 1 s

( fi - fi -1)e - sti -1

i =1

n

where (t0=0 and f0=0)

+ Piecewise Linear Data Function: (Roumboutsos and Stewart Method)

f (u ) = 1 s2 m1 (1 - e - st1 ) + 1 s2

n -1 i=2

mi (e- sti -1 - e- sti ) + s 2 mne - stn -1

1

where the slope terms (mi's) are taken as backward differences given by

f - f i -1 mi = i ti - ti -1 + Piecewise Log-Linear Data Function: (Blasingame Method) a a a f ( s ) = 1 (v1, st1 ) + 2 (v2 , st 2 ) - 2 (v2 , st1 ) v1 v2 s s s v2 a a a a + ... + n -1 (vn -1, st n -1 ) - n -1 (vn -1, st n - 2 ) + n (vn ) - n (vn , st n -1 ) vn -1 vn -1 vn s s s s vn The slope and intercept terms ('s and 's) are shown graphically in the attached notes. Also, (x) is the Gamma function and (a,x) is the first incomplete Gamma function.

Applications of the Laplace Transform to Solve Linear Ordinary Differential Equations: -- Be able to develop the Laplace transform of a given differential equation and its initial condition(s). This requires the Laplace transform of each time-derivative, then substitution into the differential form, the result is an algebraic expression in terms of s and f (s ) . + Laplace Transform of a Generic Time Dependent Derivative:

L( dn dt n f (t )) = s n f ( s ) - s n-1 f (t = 0) - s n -2 f ' (t = 0) - ... - sf n -2 (t = 0) - f n -1 (t = 0)

where

c 0 = f (t = 0), c1 = f ' (t = 0), c 2 = f ' ' (t = 0)...c n - 2 = f n -2 (t = 0), c n -1 = f n -1 (t = 0) -- Be able to resolve the algebra resulting from the Laplace transform of a given differential equation and its initial condition(s) into a closed and hopefully, invertible form. -- Be able to invert the closed form Laplace transform solution of a given differential equation using the fundamental properties of Laplace transforms, Laplace transform tables, partial fractions. Numerical Laplace Transform and Inversion: -- Be able to use the Gauss-Laguerre integration formula for numerical Laplace transformation. Laguerre quadrature weights, wk, and abscissas, xk, can be obtained from Abramowitz and Stegun.

f ( s ) = e - st f (t )dt

The

0

1 s

k =1

wk f ( sk )

n

x

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 1: Advanced Mathematics Relevant to Problems in Engineering (continued) -- Be familiar with the development of the Gaver formula for numerical Laplace transformation, and note its similarity to the Widder inversion formula given in the Cost (AIAA Journal) paper.

f ( s ) = e - st f (t )dt

0

1 s

k =1

wk f ( sk )

n

x

-- Be able to use the Gaver and Gaver-Stehfest numerical inversion algorithms for the inversion of Laplace transforms. + The Gaver formula for numerical Laplace transform inversion is

f Gaver (t ) = ln(2) (2n)! t (n - 1)!

k =0 n

n

(-1) k ln(2) f( [n + k ]) (n - k )! k! t

The Gaver-Stehfest formula for numerical Laplace transform inversion is

f Gaver - Stehfest (t ) = ln(2) t

Vi f (

i =1

ln(2) i) t

and the Stehfest extrapolation coefficients are given

n n n Min(i, 2 ) k (2k )! +i 2 2 Vi = (-1) n i +1 ( - k )! k!(k - 1)!(i - k )!(2k - i )! k =[ ] 2 2

Introduction to Special Functions:

Special Functions in Petroleum Engineering Applications -- Be familiar with and be able to compute the following special functions which have applications in petroleum engineering: + Exponential Integral (Ei (x) and E1 (x)= -Ei (-x)) + Gamma and Incomplete Gamma Functions ((x), and (a,x), (a,x) and B(z,w)) + Error and Complimentary Error Functions (erf(x) and erfc(x)) + Bessel Functions: J0(x), J1(x), Y0(x), and Y1(x) + Modified Bessel Functions: I0(x), I1(x), K0(x), and K1(x), as well as the integrals of I0(x) and K0(x). Bessel Functions -- Be familiar with the following Bessel functions: + Bessel Functions: Jn(x) and Yn(x), where Bessel's differential equation is given as: (Abramowitz and Stegun; Chapter 9, Eq. 9.1.1)

z2 d2y dz 2 +z dy + ( z 2 - n 2 ) y = 0 and has the solution y = c1J n ( z ) + c2Yn ( z ) dz

+ Modified Bessel Functions: In(x) and Kn(x), where Bessel's "modified" differential equation is given as: (Abramowitz and Stegun; Chapter 9, Eq. 9.6.1)

z2 d2y dz 2 +z dy - ( z 2 + n 2 ) y = 0 and has the solution y = c1I n ( z ) + c2 K n ( z ) dz

Be able to use the Bessel functions in numerical problem solving efforts and theoretical developments; especially recurrence relations, integral definitions, and Laplace transforms.

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 2: Petrophysical Properties Introduction to Porosity and Permeability Concepts:

Be able to recognize and classify rock types as clastics (sandstones) and carbonates (limestones, chalks, dolstones) and be familiar with the characteristics of porosity that these rocks exhibit. Be able to distinguish between effective and total porosity and be familiar with the meanings of primary (or depositional) porosity and secondary (or post-depositional) porosity. Be familiar with factors which affect porosity. In particular, the shapes, arrangements, and distributions of grain particles and the effect of cementation, vugs, and fractures on porosity. Be familiar with the concept of permeability for porous rocks and be aware of the correlative relations for porosity and permeability. Be familiar with "friction factor"-"Reynolds Number" plotting concept put forth by Cornell and Katz for flow through porous media. Be aware that this plotting concept validates Darcy's law empirically (the unit slope line on the left portion of the plot, laminar flow).

Development of a Semi-Empirical Concept of Permeability: Darcy's Law:

Be able to develop a velocity/pressure gradient relation for modeling the flow of fluids in pipes (i.e., the Poiseuille equation).

vavg = r2 1 p q where k p = is considered to be a "geometry" factor. = kp Ax x 8

Be familiar with the general assumptions and limitations of the Poiseuille equation. Be able to derive the "units" of a Darcy (1 Darcy = 9.86923x10-9 cm2). Be able to derive the field units form of Darcy's law. Be familiar with "friction factor"-"Reynolds Number" plotting concept put forth by Cornell and Katz for flow through porous media. Be aware that this plotting concept validates Darcy's law empirically (the unit slope line on the left portion of the plot, laminar flow). Be able to recognize, develop, and apply the Taylor series (finite-difference) formulas for numerical differentiation of an analytic function.

Introduction to Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability:

Be familiar with the concept of "capillary pressure" for tubes as well as for porous media--and be able to derive the capillary pressure relation for fluid rise in a tube: 1 pc = 2 ow cos( ) r Be familiar with and be able to derive the permeability and relative permeability relations for porous media using the "bundle of capillary tubes" model as provided by Nakornthap and Evans. The permeability result is given by:

k = *3

2ow

2

dSw * 2 n pc

0

1

1

Be familiar with the concept of "relative permeability" and the factors which should and should not affect this function. Also, be familiar with the laboratory techniques for measuring relative permeability.

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 2: Petrophysical Properties (continued) Development of the Brooks-Corey-Burdine Equation for Permeability and the Development of a Type Curve Analysis Approach for Capillary Pressure Data:

Be able to derive the "field units" form of the Purcell-Burdine permeability equation (k in md, ow in dyne/cm and, pc in psia). The Purcell-Burdine permeability equation as provided by Nakornthap and Evans is given in terms of absolute (i.e., metric) units. The "field units" result is given by:

2 k = 10.66 *3 ow 2 n

pc2 dSw * where * = (1 - S wi )

0

1

1

Be familiar with and be able to derive the Brooks-Corey-Burdine equation for permeability based on the Purcell-Burdine permeability equation (as given above). This result is given by: 2 1 2 1 [ ] or k = 10.66 *3 ow [ ] (field units) k = *3 ow 2 +2 2 +2 n n p p

d d

Be able to discuss the possible applications for the Brooks-Corey-Burdine permeability equation. Be familiar with and be able to derive a type curve matching approach for capillary pressure data based on the Brooks-Corey model for capillary pressure and saturation given below. p -1 1 - Sw p D = (1 - S wD ) where p D = c and S wD = = 1 - Sw* 1 - S wi pd

Electrical Properties of Reservoir Rocks: Be familiar with the definition of the formation resistivity factor, F, as well as the effects of reservoir and fluid properties on this parameter. Be familiar with and be able to use the Archie and Humble equations to estimate porosity given the formation resistivity factor, F. Be familiar with the definition of the resistivity index, I, as well as the effects of reservoir and fluid properties on this parameter and also be familiar with the Archie result for water saturation, Sw. Be familiar with the "shaly sand" models given by Waxman and Smits for relating the resistivity index with saturation and for relating formation factor with porosity. Development of a Type Curve Analysis Approach for Relative Permeability Data

Be familiar with and be able to derive the Burdine relative permeability equations (this derivation is provided in detail by Nakornthap and Evans). These relations are

Sw*

k rw = ( S w *) 2 0

1

2 pc

dS w *

pc2 dS w *

0

1

1

S * and k rn = (1 - S w *) 2 w 1 0

1

1

2 pc

dS w *

pc2 dS w *

1

Be familiar with and be able to derive the Brooks-Corey-Burdine equations for relative permeability based on the combination of the Burdine relative permeability equations (shown above) and the Brooks and Corey capillary pressure model. These results are given by:

o o k rw = k rw S w *(3+ 2 / ) and k rn = k rn (1 - S w *) 2 [1 - S w *(1+ 2 / ) ] -1

where the Brooks and Corey capillary pressure model is given by pc = pd S w *

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 2: Petrophysical Properties (continued)

o o and k rw and krn are the "endpoint" relative permeability values.

Be familiar with and be able to derive a type curve matching approach for relative permeability data based on the Brooks-Corey-Burdine relative permeability models. The "dimensionless" variables for this development are given below. -- Dimensionless wetting phase relative permeability: k = (1 - S ) (3+ 2 / )

rwD wD

-- Dimensionless non-wetting phase relative permeability: k = S 2 [1 - (1 - S ) (1+ 2 / ) ]

rnD wD wD

-- Dimensionless relative permeability ratio function:

k rnD S wD 2 = [(1 - S wD ) - (1+ 2 / ) - 1] k rwD (1 - S wD ) 2

-- Dimensionless saturation functions: 1 - Sw S - S wi * * S wD = = 1 - S w and S w = w = 1 - S wD 1 - S wi 1 - S wi

Module 3: Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media Steady-State Flow Concepts: Laminar Flow

Derive the concept of permeability (Darcy's Law) using the analogy of the Poiseuille equation for the flow of fluids in capillaries. Be able to derive the "units" of a "Darcy" (1 Darcy = 9.86923x10-9 cm2), and be able to derive Darcy's Law in "field" and "SI" units. Derive the single-phase, steady-state flow relations for the laminar flow of gases and compressible liquids using Darcy's Law -- in terms of pressure, pressure-squared, and pseudopressure, as appropriate. Derive the steady-state "skin factor" relations for radial flow.

Steady-State Flow Concepts: Non-Laminar Flow

Demonstrate familiarity with the concept of "gas slippage" as defined by Klinkenberg. Derive the single-phase, steady-state flow relations for the non-laminar flow of gases and compressible liquids using the Forchheimer equation (quadratic in velocity) -- in terms of pressure, pressure-squared, and pseudopressure, as appropriate.

Material Balance Concepts:

Be able to identify/apply material balance relations for gas and compressible liquid systems. Be familiar with and be able to apply the "Havlena-Odeh" formulations of the oil and gas material balance equations.

Pseudosteady-State Flow Concepts:

Demonstrate familiarity with and be able to derive the single-phase, pseudosteady-state flow relations for the laminar flow of compressible liquids in a radial flow system (given the radial diffusivity equation as a starting point). Sketch the pressure distributions during steady-state and pseudosteady-state flow conditions in a radial system.

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 3: Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media (continued) Development of Diffusivity Equation: Pressure and Pseudopressure Forms, General and Radial Flow Geometries:

Be able to describe in words and in terms of mathematical expressions the mass continuity relation for flow through porous media. Be able to develop the "diffusivity" equations for the flow of a slightly compressible liquid in porous media-"pressure" form, general flow geometry. -- "Gradient-Squared" Case: General form for a slightly compressible liquid. ct p c(p ) 2 + 2 p = k t -- "Small and Constant Compressibility" Case: Base relation for all developments in reservoir engineering and well testing.

2 p =

ct p

k t

Be able to derive the pseudopressure/pseudotime forms of the diffusivity equation for cases where fluid density and viscosity are functions of pressure for a general flow geometry. "Pseudopressure-Time" Form "Pseudopressure-Pseudotime" Form p p ct p p 2 p p = ( ct ) n 2 p p = k t k t a where the "pseudopressure" function, pp, is given by:

pp = (

p p

B

k

)n

pbase t

k dp or p p = ( B) n B

pbase

1 dp B

and the "pseudotime" function, ta, is given by:

t a = ( ct ) n

( p)ct ( p)dt

0

1

Development of Diffusivity Equations for the Flow of a Real Gas: Pressure and Pressure-Squared and Pseudopressure Forms:

Be familiar with and be able to derive the single-phase diffusivity equations in terms of formation volume factors (Bo or Bg) for both the oil and gas cases. These results are given as: Single-Phase Oil Equation: Single-Phase Gas Equation: kg k ·[ o p] = ( ) ·[ ]= ( ) t Bo t B g o Bo g Bg p Be able to develop the general form of the diffusivity equation for single-phase gas flow in terms of pressure (and p/z) -- starting from the density formulation. These relations are given by: Density Formulation: General Form: Single-Phase Gas Equation: c p ( ) k · [ p ] = · [ p ] = t t z k z t Be able to develop the diffusivity equation for single-phase gas flow in terms of the following: pseudopressure, pressure-squared, and pressure.

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 3: Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media (continued)

-- "Pseudopressure" Formulation:

2 p

pg =

ct p pg

k t

where p pg = (

z

p

p

)n

pbase

p dp z

-- "Pressure-Squared" Formulation:

2 ( p2 ) - p

2

[ln( z )]( p 2 ) 2 =

ct

k

t

( p 2 ) if z constant then 2 ( p 2 ) =

ct

k

t

( p2 )

-- "Pressure" Formulation:

2 p -

ct p ct p z p [ln( )](p) 2 = if constant then 2 p = p p k t z k t

Development of Diffusivity Equations for the Multiphase Flow:

Be able to develop the continuity relations for the oil, gas, and water phases in terms of the fluid densities. Assume that the gas phase includes gas liberated from the oil and water phases. Oil Continuity Equation: Water Continuity Equation: · ( wvw ) = - ( w ) · ( o vo ) = - (o ) t t Gas Continuity Equation: v v · ( g v g ) tot = · [ p g v g + o R so gsc + w R sw gsc ] = - [( g ) tot ] Bo Bw t Be able to write Darcy's law velocity relations for each phase. The general form is given by: k vi = - i pi where i = oil, gas, and water.

i

Be able to develop the mass flux relations for the oil, gas, and water phases in terms of the fluid formation volume factors. Again, assume that the gas phase includes gas liberated from the oil and water phases. Oil Flux Equation: Water Flux Equation: k k o vo = - osc o po wvw = - wsc w p w o Bo w Bw Gas Flux Equation:

( g v g ) tot = - gsc [ kg p g + Rso ko po + Rsw kw p w ]

g Bg

o Bo

w Bw

Be able to develop the mass relations for the oil, gas, and water phases in terms of the fluid formation volume factors. As before, assume that the gas phase includes gas liberated from the oil and water phases. Oil Mass Equation: Water Mass Equation: S S (o ) = o S o = osc o ( w ) = w S w = wsc w Bo Bw

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 3: Fundamentals of Flow in Porous Media (continued) Gas Mass Equation:

( g )tot = g S g + So Sg S Rso R S gsc + S w sw gsc = gsc [ + Rso o + Rsw w ] Bo Bw Bg Bo Bw

Assuming no capillary pressure forces (p = po = p g = p w ) , be able to develop the generalized diffusivity relations for each phase. (Martin Eqs. 1-3) "Oil" Equation: "Water" Equation:

·[ ko S p ] = ( o ) o Bo t Bo ·[ kw S p] = ( w ) w Bw t Bw So + Rsw Bo Sw )] Bw

"Gas" Equation: Sg kg kw k · [( + Rso o + Rsw )p] = [ ( + Rso t Bg g Bg o Bo w Bw

NEGLECTING the S op, S wp, and pp = p 2 terms -- be able to develop the diffusivity relations for each phase as shown by Martin (Eqs. 7-9) "Oil" Equation: "Water" Equation: ko So kw S ) 2 p = ( 2 p = ( w ) o Bo w Bw t Bo t Bw "Gas" Equation: Sg kg kw S S k + Rso o + Rsw ( ) 2 p = [ ( + Rso o + Rsw w )] g Bg o Bo w Bw t Bg Bo Bw

Development of Diffusivity Equations for the Multiphase Flow -- Martin's Saturation Equations and the Concept of Total Compressibility:

Be familiar with and be able to derive the Martin relations for total compressibility and the associated saturation-pressure relations (Eqs. 10 and 11). Oil Saturation Equation: Water Saturation Equation: dS o S o dBo o dS w S w dBw w = + ct = + c dp Bo dp dp Bw dp t t t Total Compressibility: S dBo S o B g dR so S w dB w S w B g dR sw S g dB g + - + - ct = - o Bo dp Bo dp B w dp Bw dp B g dp or,

ct = [- 1 dBo B g dR so 1 dB w B g dR sw 1 dB g + ]S o + [- + ]S w + [- ]S g Bo dp Bo dp B w dp B w dp B g dp

or finally, ct = c o S o + c w S w + c g S g where,

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 4: Reservoir Flow Solutions

co = - 1 dBg 1 dBo Bg dRso 1 dBw Bg dRsw + , cw = - + , and c g = - B g dp Bo dp Bo dp Bw dp Bw dp

Total Pressure Equation:

k g kw c k 2 p = t where t = o + + o g w t t

Dimensionless Variables and the Dimensionless Radial Flow Diffusivity Equation:

Be able to develop the dimensionless form of the single-phase radial flow diffusivity equation as well as the appropriate dimensionless forms of the initial and boundary conditions, including the developments of dimensionless radius, pressure, and time. -- The Dimensionless Diffusivity Equation:

2 pD

2 rD

+

1 p D p D = rD rD t D

-- Dimensionless Initial and Boundary Conditions: + Dimensionless Initial Condition p D (rD , t D 0) = 0 (uniform pressure in reservoir) + Dimensionless Inner Boundary Condition p D [rD ] r =1 = -1 (constant rate at the well) rD D + Dimensionless Outer Boundary Conditions a. "Infinite-Acting" Reservoir p D ( rD , t D ) = 0 b. "No-Flow" Boundary p [rD D ]rD = reD = 0 rD (No flux across the reservoir boundary)

c. Constant Pressure Boundary p D (reD , t D ) = 0 (Constant pressure at the reservoir boundary) Be able to derive the conversion factors for dimensionless pressure and time, for both SI and "field" units.

Solutions of the Radial Flow Diffusivity Equation Using the Laplace Transform:

Be able to recognize that the Laplace transform of the dimensionless form of the single-phase radial flow diffusivity equation is the modified Bessel differential equation. Also, be able to write the general solution for this transformed differential equation. Dimensionless Diffusivity Equation: Laplace Transform of Diffusivity Equation:

p 2 pD 1 1 p D p D + [rD D ] = = 2 rD rD rD rD rD t D rD

dp 1 d [rD D ] = up D rD drD drD

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 4: Reservoir Flow Solutions (continued) General Solution:

p D (rD , u ) = Al0 ( u rD ) + BK 0 ( u rD ) Derivative of the General Solution: dp D = A u l1 ( u rD ) - B u K1 ( u rD ) drD

Be able to develop the particular solution (in Laplace domain) for the constant rate and constant pressure inner boundary conditions and the infinite-acting reservoir outer boundary condition. Also, be able to use the van Everdingen and Hurst result to convert the constant rate case to the constant wellbore pressure case. Constant Rate Solution: (infinite-acting reservoir)

p D (rD , u ) = 1 K 0 ( u rD ) 1 K 0 ( u rD ) u u K1( u ) u

Constant Rate-Constant Pressure Relation: (from van Everdingen and Hurst) 1 1 q D (u ) = 2 p (u ) u D Be able to develop the real domain (time) solution for the constant rate inner boundary condition and the infinite-acting reservoir outer boundary condition using both the Laplace transform and the Boltzmann transform approaches. Also be able to develop the "log-approximation" for this solution. Boltzmann Transform of the Diffusivity Equation: d 2 pD

2 d D

+ [1 +

1 p D ] =0 D D

(infinite-acting reservoir case only)

"Log Approximation" Solution for the Diffusivity Equation: 1 1 4 1 1 p D (rD , u ) K 0 ( u rD ) ln[ ] (=0.577216...Euler's constant) u 2u e r 2 u

D

Laplace Transform Solutions of the Radial Flow Diffusivity Equation for a Bounded Circular Reservoir:

Be able to derive the particular solutions (in Laplace domain) for a well produced at a constant flow rate in a homogeneous reservoir for the following initial condition, subject to the following initial and outer boundary conditions: -- Dimensionless Initial and Boundary Conditions: + Dimensionless Initial Condition p D (rD , t D 0) = 0 (uniform pressure in reservoir) + Dimensionless Inner Boundary Condition p [rD D ]rD =1 = -1 (constant rate at the well) rD + Dimensionless Outer Boundary Conditions a. Prescribed Flux at the Boundary p [rD D ]rD = reD = q Dext (t D ) rD

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 4: Reservoir Flow Solutions (continued)

b. Constant Pressure at the Boundary p D (rD = reD , t D ) = 0 (No flux across the reservoir boundary) -- Particular Solutions in the Laplace Domain: + "Infinite-acting" reservoir behavior

1 K 0 ( u rD ) u u K1( u ) Or the line source approximation 1 p D (rD , u ) = K 0 ( u rD ) (where u K1 ( u ) 1 , for u 0 ) u + Bounded circular reservoir -- "no-flow" at the outer boundary (i.e., q Dext (t D ) = 0 ) p D (rD , u ) = p D (rD , u ) = 1 K 0 ( u rD )l1 ( u reD ) + K1 ( u reD )l0 ( u rD ) (constant rate at the well) u u K1 ( u )l1 ( u reD ) - u l1 ( u ) K1 ( u reD )

+ Bounded circular reservoir -- "constant-pressure" at the outer boundary

1 K 0 ( u rD )l0 ( u reD ) - K 0 ( u reD )l0 ( u rD ) (constant rate at the well) u u K1( u )l0 ( u reD ) + u l1 ( u ) K 0 ( u reD ) + Bounded circular reservoir -- "prescribed flux" at the outer boundary p D (rD , u ) = p D (rD , u ) = 1 K 0 ( u rD )l1 ( u reD ) + K1( u reD )l0 ( u rD ) u u K1( u )l1 ( u reD ) - u l1 ( u ) K1 ( u reD ) + K ( u rD ) u l1 ( u ) + l0 ( u rD ) u K1 ( u ) 1 u q Dext (u )[ ] 0 u u reD u K1 ( u )l1 ( u reD ) - u l1 ( u ) K1 ( u reD )

Real Domain Solutions of the Radial Flow Diffusivity Equation for a Bounded Circular Reservoir:

Be able to derive the following particular solutions in the real domain from the appropriate Laplace transform solutions for an unfractured well produced at a constant flow rate in a homogeneous reservoir for the following outer boundary conditions: -- "Infinite-acting" reservoir behavior (line source solution)

p D (t D , rD ) = r2 1 E1 ( D ) 2 4t D

or the so-called "log approximation" 1 4 tD p D (t D , rD ) = ln( ) 2 e r 2

D

-- Bounded circular reservoir -- "no-flow" at the outer boundary

p D (t D , rD ) = r2 - r2 - r2 r2 r2 1 1 2t 1 E1 ( D ) - E1( eD ) + D exp( eD ) + ( D - ) exp( eD ) 2 2 2 4t D 2 4t D 4t D 4t D 2reD 4 reD

and its "well testing" derivative function, pD'=d/dtD[pD(rD,tD)] is given by

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 4: Reservoir Flow Solutions (continued)

p' D (t D , rD ) =

2 2 - r2 - r2 - r2 1 2t 1 rD reD exp( D ) + D exp( eD ) + ( ) exp( eD ) - 2 2 4t D 4t D 2t D 4 8 4t D reD

-- Bounded circular reservoir -- "constant pressure" at the outer boundary

p D (t D , rD ) = r2 - r2 r2 1 1 1 2 2 E1 ( D ) - E1 ( eD ) + (reD - rD ) exp( eD ) 2 4t D 2 4t D 8t D 4t D

2 - r2 - r2 - r2 1 1 1 2 2 r exp( D ) - exp( eD ) + (reD - rD )( eD - 1) exp( eD ) 2 4t D 2 4t D 8t D 4t D 4t D

and its "well testing" derivative function, pD'=d/dtD[pD(rD,tD)] is given by

p' D (t D , rD ) =

Solutions for the Behavior of a Fractured Well in a Bounded Circular Reservoir: Infinite and FiniteActing Reservoir Cases:

Be familiar with the concept of a well with a uniform flux or infinite conductivity vertical fracture in a homogeneous reservoir. Note that the uniform flux condition implies that the rate of fluid entering the fracture is constant at any point along the fracture. On the other hand, for the infinite conductivity case, we assume that there is no pressure drop in the fracture as fluid flows from the fracture tip to the well. Be able to derive the following real and Laplace domain (line source) solutions for a well with a uniform flux or infinite conductivity vertical fracture in a homogeneous reservoir. -- General Result: (cfracs subscript means Continuous Fracture Source)

p D, cfracs (| x D | 1, y D = 0, u ) = 1 2

+1 -1

p D,cls [( xD - x'wD ), u]dx'wD

u (1- x D ) u (1+ x D )

where the cls subscript means Continuous Line Source -- "Infinite-acting" reservoir behavior (line source solution)

1 1 p D, cfracs,inf (| x D | 1, y D = 0, u ) = [ 2u u

K 0 ( z)dz +

0

K 0 ( z)dz]

0

-- Bounded circular reservoir -- "no-flow" at the outer boundary

p D, cfracs, nfb (| x D | 1, y D = 0, u ) = p D, cfracs,inf (| x D | 1, y D = 0, u ) + 1 1 K1 ( u reD ) [ 2u u I1 ( u reD )

u (1- x D ) u (1+ x D ) 0

0

I 0 ( z )dz +

I 0 ( z)dz]

-- Bounded circular reservoir -- "constant pressure" at the outer boundary

p D, cfracs, cpb (| x D | 1, y D = 0, u ) = p D, cfracs,inf (| x D | 1, y D = 0, u ) 1 1 K 0 ( u reD ) - [ 2u u I 0 ( u reD )

u (1- x D ) 0 u (1+ x D ) 0

I 0 ( z)dz +

I 0 ( z)dz]

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Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 4: Reservoir Flow Solutions (continued) Dual Porosity Reservoirs -- Warren and Root Approach -- Pseudosteady-State Matrix Behavior:

Be familiar with the "fracture" and "matrix" models developed by Warren and Root. Be able to develop the Laplace and real domain results given by Warren and Root for pseudosteady-state matrix flow. These relations are -- Laplace domain results: + Warren and Root "Interporosity Flow Function": + (1 - )u f (u ) = + (1 - )u

Solutions in the Laplace domain:

p D (rD , u ) =

1 K 0 ( uf (u ) rD ) 1 1 4 1 1 K 0 ( uf (u ) rD ) ln( ) u uf (u ) K1 ( uf (u ) ) u 2u e 2 r 2 uf (u ) D

-- Line source solution in the real domain: 1 4 tD 1 1 p D (t D , rD ) = ln( ) - E1 ( t )+ E ( t )+S (1 - ) D 2 1 (1 - ) D 2 e r 2 2

D

Be able to develop the Laplace and real domain results given by Warren and Root for pseudosteady-state matrix flow. These relations are - 1 1 - 1 p' D (t D , rD ) = + exp( t D ) - exp( tD ) (1 - ) 2 2 2 (1 - )

Direct Solution of the Gas Diffusivity Equation Using Laplace Transform Methods:

Be familiar with the convolution form of a non-linear partial differential equation (with a non-linear righthand-side term), as shown below.

y = t

2 y = ( y)

g (t - )d

0

t

y

Where we assume that the (y) function can be re-cast as a unique function of time (i.e., (y) can be written as (t)). Using (t) requires assumptions as to flow regimes--we will demonstrate this assuming pseudosteady-state flow.

Taking the Laplace transform of this relation gives

2 y (u ) = [u y (u ) - y (t = 0)]g (u )

Be able to develop the generalized Laplace domain formulation of the non-linear radial gas diffusivity equation using the (t) approach. -- The real gas diffusivity equation (in radial coordinates) is given in dimensionless form by:

2 p pD

2 rD

+

p pD ct p pD 1 p pD = = (t D ) rD rD t D i cti t D

[ (t D ) =

ct ] i cti

r rw

where

p pD = kh 1 ( p pi - p p ) 141.2 qB

t D = 0.0002637

k

2 i cti rw

t

rD =

and the pseudopressure function is given by

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

21

Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 4: Reservoir Flow Solutions (continued)

p p = i B gi

p p

pbase

z 1 dp = i i B g pi

pbase

p dp z

-- Substituting the convolution formulation into the right-hand-side of the real gas diffusivity equation gives

tD p pD 2 p pD p pD 1 1 p pD [rD ]= + = g (t D - )d 2 rD rD rD rD rD rD

0

dp pD (u ) 1 d [rD ]= rD drD drD

tD

d2p

1 dp pD (u ) pD (u ) + = ug (u ) p pD (u ) (Laplace domain relation) 2 rD drD drD

Be familiar with and be able to develop the g(u) term. The g(tD) term is defined by:

(t D )

p pD t D

=

0

p pD

g (t D - )d

Convolution:

Be familiar with and be able to derive the convolution sums and integrals for the variable-rate and variable pressure drop cases. -- Variable-Rate Case:

p wD (t D ) =

(qDj - qDj -1) psD,cr (t D - t Dj -1)

j =1 tD

n

(discrete rate changes)

p wD (t D ) =

q' D ( ) psD,cr (t D - )d

0

(continuous rate changes)

-- Variable-Pressure Drop Case:

qtD (t D ) =

n (p - p i wf , j )

j =1

( pi - pr )

q Dcp (t D - t Dj -1)

(discrete rate changes)

Be able to derive the general convolution identity in the Laplace domain from the integral form of the variable-rate convolution identity. p wD (u ) = qqD (u ) p sD, cr (u ) Be able to derive the real and Laplace domain identities for relating the constant pressure and constant rate cases: (from van Everdingen and Hurst) -- Laplace domain result: 1 1 q D, cp (u ) = 2 p sD, cr (u ) u -- Real domain result:

tD tD 0

0

q D, cp ( ) p sD, cr (t D - )d = t D or

psD,cr ( )q D,cp (t D - )d = t D

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

22

Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Course Objectives Fall 2009 Course Objectives (Continued)

Module 4: Reservoir Flow Solutions (continued) Concepts and Applications in Wellbore Storage Distortion:

Be familiar with and, based on physical principles, be able to derive the relations to model the phenomena of "wellbore storage." In particular, you should be able to derive the following: -- General Rate Relation: dp wf dptf (q sf - q ) B = 24C s [ - ] dt dt -- Pressure Relations (for small times/wellbore storage domination): qB (for small times, i.e., wellbore storage domination) p wf = pi - t 24C s or

t p wD = D CD

(for small times, i.e., wellbore storage domination)

-- Laplace Domain Identity: 1 pwD (u ) = 1 + u 2C D psD (u )

(valid for all times)

Module 4: Reservoir Flow Solutions -- Under Consideration Multilayered Reservoir Solutions Dual Permeability Reservoir Solutions Horizontal Well Solutions Radial Composite Reservoir Solutions Various Models for Flow Impediment (Skin Factor) Module 5: Applications/Extensions of Reservoir Flow Solutions -- Under Consideration Oil and Gas Well Flow Solutions for Analysis, Interpretation, and Prediction of Well Performance. Low Permeability/Heterogeneous Reservoir Behavior. Macro-Level Thermodynamics (coupling PVT behavior with Reservoir Flow Solutions). External Drive Mechanisms (Water Influx/Water Drive, Well Interference, etc.). Hydraulic Fracturing/Solutions for Fractured Well Behavior. Analytical/Numerical Solutions of Various Reservoir Flow Problems. Applied Reservoir Engineering Solutions -- Material Balance, Flow Solutions, etc.

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

23

Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs General Advice for Study and Class Preparation Fall 2009 Faculty-Student Contract: The most important element of your education is your participation. No matter how hard we as faculty try (or don't try) to prepare you to learn, we cannot force you to work. We can only provide examples of how you should perform and we can only evaluate your performance -- not your intentions or your personality, nor can we make allowances for your personal problems or your lack of preparation. We can of course provide some pretty unpleasant alternatives as incentives (e.g., poor grades), but poor grades are a product of only two issues, a lack of subject mastery, or apathy. We as faculty can do much to prepare you for a rewarding career, not only as engineers, but also as productive members of society in whatever capacity you wish to serve. But -- we cannot make you care, we cannot make you prepare, and we cannot make you perform -- only you can do this. We have chosen our path in life to help you find yours, we want you to succeed (perhaps sometimes more than you do) and we will do our best to make your education fulfilling and rewarding. As we embark on what will likely be a tedious and challenging experience, we reaffirm our commitment to seeing that you get the most out of your education. When it seems as though we are overbearing taskmasters (and we may well be), remember that we are trying to prepare you for challenges where there is no safety net -- and where there may be no second chance. Our goal is to be your guide -- we will treat you with the respect and consideration that you deserve, but you must have the faith to follow, the dedication to prepare, and the determination to succeed -- it will be your turn to lead soon enough. General Procedures for Studying: (Adapted from Arizona State U., 1992) 1. Before each lecture you should read the text carefully, don't just scan topics, but try to resolve sections of the reading into a simple summary of two or three sentences, emphasizing concepts as well as methods. 2. During the lecture take careful notes of what your instructor says and writes, LISTEN to what is being said as well as how it is emphasized. Don't try to be neat, but do try to get every detail you can -- think of the lecture as an important story that you will have to tell again later. 3. As soon as possible after the lecture (and certainly the same day), reread the text and your "messy" lecture notes, then rewrite your lecture notes in a clear and neat format -- redrawing the figures, filling in missed steps, and reworking examples. You are probably thinking that no one in their right mind would do this--but the secret is that successful students always review and prepare well in advance of exams. 4. Prepare a list of questions or issues that you need clarified, ask your instructor at the start of the next class (so others can benefit) or if you need one-on-one help, see your instructor as soon as possible, do not assume that it will "come to you later." 5. Work one homework problem at a time, without rushing. You are not learning if you are rushing, copying, or scribbling. Spread the problems out in time and write down any questions you have. 6. ASK QUESTIONS. In class, during office hours, ANY chance you get. If you do not understand something you cannot use it to solve problems. It will not come to you by magic. ASK! ASK! ASK! 7. Practice working problems. In addition to assigned problems, work the unassigned ones. Where do you think faculty take exam questions? You should establish a study group and distribute the load -- but you should work several of each type of problem that you are assigned. 8. Before a test, you should go over the material covered by preparing an outline of the important material from your notes as well as the text. Then rewrite your outline for the material about which you are not very confident. Review that material, then rewrite the notes for the material about which you are still not confident. Continue until you think that you understand ALL of the material. 9. "Looking over" isn't learning, reading someone else's solution is insufficient to develop your skills, you must prepare in earnest -- work lots and lots of problems, old homework, old exams, and study guide questions. 10. Speed on exams is often critical. It is not just a test of what you know, but how well you know it (and how fast you show it). The point is not just to "understand" but to "get it in your bones." 11. Participate in class. The instructor must have feedback to help you. Force the issue if you must, it is your education.

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

24

Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Required University Statements -- Required by Texas A&M University Fall 2009 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Statement: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room B118 of Cain Hall, or call 845-1637.. Aggie Honor Code: (http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/) "An Aggie does not lie, cheat or steal, or tolerate those who do." Definitions of Academic Misconduct: 1. CHEATING: Intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, notes, study aids or other devices or materials in any academic exercise. 2. FABRICATION: Making up data or results, and recording or reporting them; submitting fabricated documents. 3. FALSIFICATION: Manipulating research materials, equipment or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. 4. MULTIPLE SUBMISSION: Submitting substantial portions of the same work (including oral reports) for credit more than once without authorization from the instructor of the class for which the student submits the work. 5. PLAGIARISM: The appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. 6. COMPLICITY: Intentionally or knowingly helping, or attempting to help, another to commit an act of academic dishonesty. 7. ABUSE AND MISUSE OF ACCESS AND UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS: Students may not abuse or misuse computer access or gain unauthorized access to information in any academic exercise. See Student Rule 22: http://student-rules.tamu.edu/ 8. VIOLATION OF DEPARTMENTAL OR COLLEGE RULES: Students may not violate any announced departmental or college rule relating to academic matters. 9. UNIVERSITY RULES ON RESEARCH: Students involved in conducting research and/or scholarly activities at Texas A&M University must also adhere to standards set forth in the University Rules. For additional information please see: http://student-rules.tamu.edu/. Coursework Copyright Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) The handouts used in this course are copyrighted. By "handouts," this means all materials generated for this class, which include but are not limited to syllabi, quizzes, exams, lab problems, in-class materials, review sheets, and additional problem sets. Because these materials are copyrighted, you do not have the right to copy them, unless you are expressly granted permission. As commonly defined, plagiarism consists of passing off as one's own the ideas, words, writings, etc., that belong to another. In accordance with this definition, you are committing plagiarism if you copy the work of another person and turn it in as your own, even if you should have the permission of that person. Plagiarism is one of the worst academic sins, for the plagiarist destroys the trust among colleagues without which research cannot be safely communicated. If you have any questions about plagiarism and/or copying, please consult the latest issue of the Texas A&M University Student Rules, under the section "Scholastic Dishonesty."

31 August 2009 Petroleum Engineering 620

25

Petroleum Engineering 620 -- Fluid Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs Assignment Coversheet -- Required by University Policy Fall 2009

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Petroleum Engineering Number -- Course Title Assignment Number-- Assignment Title Assignment Date -- Due Date

Assignment Coversheet

[This sheet (or the sheet provided for a given assignment) must be included with EACH work submission] Required Academic Integrity Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) Academic Integrity Statement All syllabi shall contain a section that states the Aggie Honor Code and refers the student to the Honor Council Rules and Procedures on the web. Aggie Honor Code "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." Upon accepting admission to Texas A&M University, a student immediately assumes a commitment to uphold the Honor Code, to accept responsibility for learning and to follow the philosophy and rules of the Honor System. Students will be required to state their commitment on examinations, research papers, and other academic work. Ignorance of the rules does not exclude any member of the Texas A&M University community from the requirements or the processes of the Honor System. For additional information please visit: www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/ On all course work, assignments, and examinations at Texas A&M University, the following Honor Pledge shall be preprinted and signed by the student: "On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work."

Aggie Code of Honor: An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do. Required Academic Integrity Statement: "On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work." _______________________________ (Print your name) _______________________________ (Your signature)

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Petroleum Engineering 622 Exploration and Production Evaluation Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Spring 2010

Instructor: John Lee Contact Information: Phone 979-845-2208; Email [email protected] Office: Rooms 407-C, 407-D Richardson Building Office Hours: Generally open Text: (1) Economic Evaluation and Investment Decision Methods, Twelfth Edition (2009), Stermole and Stermole, Investment Evaluation Corporation, ISBN 1-878740-18-0 (2) Selected publications from SPE, SPEE, AAPG on reserves estimation and evaluation methods Course Description: This course broadly deals with "selected topics in oil industry economic evaluations." (from current Texas A&M Graduate Catalog). During the spring 2010 offering of the course, the focal "selected topics" will include (1) traditional deterministic investment evaluation techniques, emphasizing evaluation of future cash flow from exploration and development projects, (2) methods of estimating future production, and (3) methods of estimating and evaluating project resources and reserves. Special emphasis will be placed on the SEC reserves reporting rules, modernized and effective January 1, 2010 and on the SPE Production Resources Management System (PRMS), adopted in 2007. Topics Covered: · Time value of money and cash flow analysis · Investment evaluation yardsticks · Before-tax and after-tax project evaluation · Resources definitions and classifications · Deterministic reserves estimation procedures · SPE Petroleum Resources Management System · SEC modernized reserves reporting rules Class Schedule: Basis for grade: Midterm exam ............................................. 30% Final examination ................................................... 50% Homework and class discussion......................................... 20% To be announced

Notes: 1. Homework is due at the start of class. Late homework will receive the grade zero. 2. Examinations will be open book. 3. Class discussions will include reading assignments and homework. Please come to class prepared to discuss the assigned topics for the day. 4. Assignments and other course materials will be posted on Vista. You will need to establish a Vista account for this class and monitor the web site regularly. Vista Account Because course information will be posted on Vista regularly, I ask that you please monitor at least once a day. Please set up your Vista account for this course. If you need help, please contact Mary Lu Epps or Ted Seidel in the 407 office suite. Academic Integrity Syllabus Statement "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." All syllabi shall contain a section that states the Aggie Honor Code and refers the student to the Honor Council Rules and Procedures on the web http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor < http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor> It is further recommended that instructors print the following on assignments and examinations: "On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work." ________________________________ Signature of student Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Policy Statement The following ADA Policy Statement (part of the Policy on Individual Disabling Conditions) was submitted to the UCC by the Department of Student Life. The policy statement was forwarded to the Faculty Senate for information. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal antidiscrimination statue that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe that you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room 126 of the Koldus Building, or call 845-1637.

Texas A&M University Department of Petroleum Engineering Rock Mechanics of Reservoirs (PETE 624) Fall 2009

Description: Reservoir rocks and their response to imposed loads encountered in reservoir development. Influence of stress, fluid pressure, temperature, and chemistry on rock properties and deformation in the context of wellbore stability, fracture propagation, fracture flow, and reservoir mechanics (3 Cr). Prerequisite: Consent of the Instructor. Instructor: Ahmad Ghassemi, Associate Professor Harold Vance Department of Petroleum Engineering 501-E Richardson Building; Office hrs: MWF 4:00-5:30 PM (979)-845-2206 [email protected] Course Objectives: · To learn the fundamental principles of rock mechanics to quantify rock deformation/fracture and fluid flow in response to variations in stress, pore pressure, temperature. To learn to apply rock mechanics to prediction of fracture gradient, hydraulic fracturing, borehole stability, and reservoir mechanics.

·

Textbook: Jaeger, J.C., Cook, N.G.W., and Zimmerman, R.W. (2007). Fundamentals of Rock Mechanic, 4th Edition, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA. ISBN-13: 978-0-63205759-7. Grading: · · · Homework (25%) Two Exams (50%) Project/Presentations (25%)

1

COURSE CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION

· · · Course objectives Overview of petroleum rock mechanics Inherent complexities in rock mechanics

2. ROCK MATERIAL · · · Reservoir rock properties; scale dependence and size effect Rock mass structure, discontinuities and their properties Collection and presentation of structural data; rock mass classification

3. ANALYSIS OF STRESS, STRAIN, AND STRENGTH · · · · · · Stress and strain tensors Rock deformation, strength & failure criterion Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion Effects of pore fluid, temperature, fractures Size and scale effects Determination of rock strength; static & dynamic laboratory tests

4. LABORATORY TESTING OF ROCKS · · · · Point Load/Brazilian test Uniaxial compression Triaxial tests Shear box test/others

5. LINEAR ELASTICITY & METHODS OF STRESS ANALYSIS · · · · Generalized Hooke's law Analysis of laboratory triaxial compression test Principles of classical stress analysis Closed-form solutions

6. IN-SITU STRESS · · · In-situ stress regimes; estimating the stress state Hydraulic fracturing; flat jack; overcoring Drilling induced cracks; wellbore breakouts

7. ELEMENTS OF THERMOELASTICITY & POROELASTICITY 8. APPLICATIONS IN PETROLEUM RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT · wellbore stability · Rock fracture & fluid flow · Reservoir mechanics

2

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Policy Statement: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity Statement and Policy: For many years Aggies have followed a Code of Honor, which is stated in this very simple verse: "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." The Aggie Code of Honor is an effort to unify the aims of all Texas A&M men and women toward a high code of ethics and personal dignity. For most, living under this code will be no problem, as it asks nothing of a person that is beyond reason. It only calls for honesty and integrity, characteristics that Aggies have always exemplified. The Aggie Code of Honor functions as a symbol to all Aggies, promoting understanding and loyalty to truth and confidence in each other. For additional information visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor Helpful Links: · · · · · Academic Calendar: http://admissions.tamu.edu/registrar/general/calendar.aspx Final Exam Schedule: http://admissions.tamu.edu/registrar/general/finalschedule.aspx On-Line Catalog: http://www.tamu.edu/admissions/catalogs/ Student Rules: http://student-rules.tamu.edu/ Religious Observances: http://dof.tamu.edu/faculty/policies/religiousobservance.php

3

PETE 625 ­ Well Control

Catalog Data: PETE 625. Well Control. (3.0). Credit 3. Theory of pressure control in drilling operations and during well kicks; abnormal pressure detection and fracture gradient determination; casing setting depth selection and advanced casing design; theory supplemented on well control simulators. Prerequisite: PETE 661 1. Advanced Well Control Manual, by David Watson, Terry Brittenham and Preston Moore. SPE Textbook Series, 2. Well Control, by Jerome J. Schubert, PE, Texas A&M University, 1995. 3. Class notes can be found at http://www.pe.tamu.edu/schubert/public_html/ Course Grade: Homework Project Quiz A Quiz B Quiz C 20% 20% 20% 20% 20%

Texts:

Instructor: Office: Phone: e-mail:

Dr. Jerome J. Schubert, PE 501 K Richardson 979/862-1195 [email protected]

Office Hours:

TR 10:00 ­ 11:30 am (or by appointment)

Topics:

Lesson 1.

Introduction to course Basic Concepts Read: Schubert, Chap. 1-2 Watson, Chap. 1-2 Gas Behavior and Fluid Hydrostatics Read: Schubert, Chap. 1-2 Watson, Chap. 1-2 Pore Pressure Prediction Read: Schubert, Chap. 9 Watson, Chap. 3 Formation Fracture Gradients Read: Schubert, Chap. 9 Watson, Chap. 4 Kick Detection and Control Methods Read: Schubert, Chap. 3-6 Watson, Chap. 5 Secondary Well Control Complications Read: Schubert, Chap. 6, 13 Watson, Chap. 6 Special Well Control Applications Read: Schubert, Chap. 13 Watson, Chap. 7 Well Control Equipment Read: Watson, Chap. 8 Offshore and Subsea Well Control Read: Schubert, Chap. 15 Watson, Chap. 9 Blowout Control Read: Watson, Chap. 10 Snubbing and Stripping Read: Schubert, Chap. 13 Adams, Chap. 6 Watson, Chap. 11

Lesson 2.

Lesson 3.

Lesson 4.

Lesson 5.

Lesson 6.

Lesson 7.

Lesson 8.

Lesson 9.

Lesson 10.

Lesson 11.

Lesson 12.

Casing Seat Selection Read: Schubert, Chap. 9 Watson, Chap. 12 SMD Well Control Well Workover/Well Completion Well Control Read: Watson, Chap. 7 Adams

Lesson 13. Lesson 14.

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

626

Offshore Drilling

(3-0). Credit 3 Course Description: Offshore drilling from fixed and floating drilling structures; directional drilling including horizontal drilling; theory of deviation monitoring and control. PETE 405 or 661; or approval of instructor. Floating Drilling: Equipment and Its Use, by Riley Sheffield. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas, 1982. Applied Drilling Engineering, by Adam T. Bourgoyne Jr., Martin E. Chenevert, Keith K. Millheim and F.S. Young Jr. Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX, 1991. Selected Technical Papers. Basis for Grading: Homework Quiz A Quiz B Project FINAL 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% Hours Topics: Drilling a well from a floating vessel; station keeping Wellheads; casing program; blowout preventers The drilling riser; riser tensioning; drilling hydraulics Motion compensation; formation testing; shallow water flows Dual gradient drilling; subsea mudlift drilling Directional drilling; wellbore surveying techniques; Wellbore trajectory control The kick-off, drilling with mud motors and turbines The bottomhole assembly Horizontal drilling; torque and drag Hydrates and potential problems in deepwater drilling 3 3 3 4 6 4 4 6 4 3 2

Prerequisites: Texts:

Quizzes: (3 hours) Total: 45 hours Computer usage: Required for homework

SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 627 - Well Completion and Workover Fall 2010 N/A; distance learning group only

Course Description and Prerequisites This course provides an overview of completions and workover equipment and methods in the oil and gas industry. It is designed to complement the courses on drilling and production engineering which are already offered by the department. The students will learn about the design options to meet deliverability, safety and integrity requirements in completions and workover operations. The main components of a well are described and analyzed by their function and design criteria. The workover systems and procedures are presented and discussed. Case studies will be provided and a group project will help the students understand the hands-on aspects of completions and workovers. Prerequisite: Graduate classification. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Gain an overall understanding of completions and workover equipment and methods in the oil and gas industry. 2. Learn about design options available for completions and workover operations. 3. Understand the main components, function and design criteria of a well, and workover systems and procedures. 4. Understand the hands-on aspects of completions and workovers via case studies and a group project. Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Dr. Catalin Teudoriu (979) 845-6164 [email protected] 501J Richardson Building

Textbook and/or Resource Material D. Perrin, Well Completion and Servicing, Edition Technip, 1999 References Selected papers Grading Policies Final Exam........................................................................................................(60%) Group Projects/Homework....................................................................................(40%) Total................................................................................................................(100%) Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

-1-

Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates Week 1 Topic Well completion: types of wells, completion functions, types of completion Mechanical aspects of well testing, cased hole logging equipment and application, and perforation methods and perforating equipment Packers: function, application, proper selection; includes water/gas shot off, horizon separation, etc. Completion equipment (SSD, SSSV, mandrels, locks, etc.) Data acquisition in wells; Fibre optics, permanent gauges, memory gauges, SCADA systems; Intelligent completion equipment Tubing string design (dimension, materials, connections,..) based on pressure, temp. operating conditions, media, safety requirements HPHT and horizontal well completions; Workover equipment: WireLine, Snubbing Unit, Coil Tubing Completion and Workover design and execution Special Topic: industry people are invited to give presentations on specific topics Class Project

2

3

4 5

6-7

8-9

10 11

12-14

Other Pertinent Course Information Some classes will be delivered in collaboration with: Dr. Gloria Falcone Tel. (979) 847-8912 Office: Room 401 Richardson Building Email: [email protected] Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

-2-

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

628

Horizontal Drilling

(3-0). Credit 3 Course Description: Changing a wellbore from vertical to horizontal; long- and short-radius horizontal wells; bottomhole assemblies for achieving and maintaining control of inclination and direction; drilling fluids; torque and drag calculations; buckling of tubulars: transport of drilled solids. PETE 405, 661 or approval of instructor. Horizontal Wells - Formation Evaluation, Drilling, and Production, by R. Aguilera, J. S. Artindale, G. M. Cordell, M. C. Ng, G. W. Nicholl and G.A. Runions. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, 1991. Class Notes Selected Technical Papers. Basis for Grading: Homework Quiz A Quiz B Project FINAL 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% Hours Topics: Introduction; overview Production incentives; applications; case histories Horizontal well planning; long- medium- and short-radius wells Build curve design; target planning; tangent build curves Drillstring design; torque and drag Buckling of drillpipe and coiled tubing Pipe bending; bending stresses Bottom-hole assemblies for controlling hole inclination and direction; drilling in sliding and rotating modes More BHA's; mud motors; angle of attack; geosteering 5 Multilaterals, hydraulics; pressure drops; cuttings transport 4 Horizontal well completions; cost estimating 2 4 3 3 6 6 3 4 2

Prerequisites: Texts:

Quizzes: (3 hours) Total: 45 hours Computer usage: Required for homework

PETE 629 Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing

Spring 2009 MWF 12:40PM-01:30PM RICH 208 Peter P. Valkó, professor office: 501E Richardson Building mail: 3116 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3116 phone: (USA)-(979)-862 2757 e-mail: [email protected] office hours: M 4:00 pm - 5:00 and R 11:00 am ­ 12:00

Course Description:

The purpose of this course is to integrate the necessary fundamentals from flow in porous media, elasticity theory, fracture mechanics and fluid mechanics in order to understand, design, optimize and evaluate hydraulic fracturing treatments. Our goal is to establish a unified design and analysis methodology for propped fracturing. Starting from the reservoir engineering description of the performance of a fractured well, we provide a firm basis for determining the optimum fracture dimensions based on the effective Proppant Number concept. Technical constraints will be satisfied in such a way that the design will depart from the theoretical optimum only to the necessary extent. We discuss fluid, proppant and rock properties, data gathering, design models of various complexity, on-site calibration, real-time and post-job data evaluation, in addition to deriving and solving models of fracture propagation. In this course we put special emphasis on using the computer not just as a number-crunching device but rather to do all kind of mathematical derivations and advanced algorithms. Therefore, approximately one third of the course will be devoted to the use of the Mathematica (MMA) software.

Textbooks:

· · Economides-Oligney-Valkó: Unified Fracture Design, ORSA Press, TX, 2002 Haneberg, W. C.: Computational Geosciences with Mathematica, Springer, New York , 2004

Grading Policy:

Exam 1 Exam 2 Exam 3 In-class work, quizzes, homeworks Final Examination / Project Academic Integrity Statement:

"An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." Collaboration on examinations and assignments is forbidden except when specifically authorized. Students violating this policy may be removed from the class roster and given a grade F in the course or other penalties as outlined in the Texas A&M University Student Rules.

20 % 20 % 20 % 10 % 30 %

ADA Policy Statement:

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities, in Cain Hall or call 845-1637.

1

PETE 629

Course Schedule

Week 1 Date 01/19 01/21 01/23 2 01/26 01/28 01/30 3 02/02 02/04 02/06 4 02/09 02/11 02/13 5 02/16 02/18 02/20 6 02/23 02/25 02/27 7 03/02 03/04 03/06 8 03/09 03/11 03/13 9 03/16 03/18 03/20 10 03/23 03/25 03/27 11 03/30 04/01 04/03 12 04/06 04/08 04/10 13 04/13 04/15 04/17 14 04/20 04/22 04/24 15 04/27 04/29 05/01 16 05/04 05/05 05/08 Day M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M W F M T Topics MLK Day no class F1- Introduction: history, equipment and materials MMA - Introduction, H_Ch_1; Special plots, H_Ch_2 F1 cont'd F2 - Production Forecast: Theoretical calculations of PI; Optimum Fracture Dimensions MMA - Symbolics and equation solving, H_Ch_3; Statistics, Probabilistic simulations, H_Ch_4-5 F3 - Linear Elasticity and Rock Mechanics: Stresses in formations, Ideal Crack Shapes MMA - Interpolation and Regression, H_Ch_6; Visualizing and analyzing surfaces, H_Ch_7 F3 cont'd F4 - Rheology, Fluid Flow in Fractures; Bulk Fluid Loss Concepts; Proppant Transport MMA - Digital image and signal processing, H_Ch_8 F4 cont'd F5 - Coupling of Elasticity, Flow and Material Balance; 2D Design MMA - Derivation of G-function, Width equations, 2D Design EXAM 1 F6 - Modeling Height Containment MMA - Height, 3D Design F6 cont'd F7 - On-Site Injection Test MMA - Leakoff analysis F7 cont'd F8 - Modeling Fracture Propagation in 3D Software - FracPro, MFRAC F8 cont'd Spring Break Spring Break Spring Break F9 - Treatment Analysis, Diagnostics F10 - Post Job Analysis, Well testing, Production Analysis F11 - Frac & pack, Slopes analysis EXAM 2 F12 - Staging strategies, Perforation strategies. Near wellbore tortuosity. Proppant and high-viscosity slug techniques. F13 - Fracturing horizontal wells; Tight/Unconventional MMA - PSS performance: Boundary element model of finite conductivity fracture MMA - Transient performance: Laplace transform inversion Reading day ­ no class MMA - Transient performance: the method of Distributed Volumetric Sources (DVS) MMA - DVS and Gas material balance F14 - Acid fracturing F15 ­ Current trends in fracturing EXAM 3 Discussion of exam 3 Project Presentations; MMA - programming overview Project Presentations; MMA - symbolics overview Project Presentations; MMA - numerics overview Project Presentations;MMA - visualization overview (F schedule) Project Presentations; MMA dynamics overview 10:00-12:00: Final Exam (if not waived)

January 26 Monday. 5 p.m. Last day for adding/dropping courses for the spring semester. April 6 Monday. 5 p.m. Last day for all students to drop courses with no penalty (Q-drop).

2

Texas A&M University -- Department of Petroleum Engineering Proposed Course Syllabus Number and Name of Course: PETE 635 Underbalanced and Managed Pressure Drilling Practice 0 Total 3 Hours: Theory 3 Prerequisites: Graduate enrollment or approval of instructor Curricula Requiring this course: [] 1. 2. 3.

Credits

3

Description of Course: (Concise Statement of purpose of design) This course provides an introduction and application of techniques utilized in underbalanced and managed pressure drilling. Topics covered are equipment, types of drilling fluids used (air, mist foam, etc.), flow drilling, mud cap drilling and hydraulics calculations. Text Materials: "Underbalanced Drilling Manual", Gas Research Institute, GRI, Chicago, 1997. "Gas Volume Requirements for Underbalanced Drilling", Guo, Boyun and Ghalambor, Ali, PennWell Corporation, Tulsa, OK, 2002 References: "A project Management Approach To Underbalanced Operations", Signa Engineering Corp., Houston, 1998. "Mudlite Air/Mist/Foam Hysraulics Model", Maurer Engineering Inc., Houston, 1988 "Air and Gas Drilling Manual", Lyons, William C., Guo, Bayum, and Seidel, Frank, A., McGraw Hill, New York, NY, 2001 Course Outline: (by major topics, and approximate time for each topic) Topic 1 2 Description Introduction to Underbalanced Drilling: What is UBD? Why drill underbalanced? Techniques and Limitations. Historical prospective. Benefits of UBD Underbalanced Drilling Techniques: Air, Nitrogen, and Natural gas drilling. Mist, Foam and Gasified Liquids. Flow Drilling, Mudcap Drilling, and Snub Drilling, Closed Systems Selecting an Appropriate Candidate and Technique: Geophysical and Geological Aspects, Reservoir Characteristics, and Feasibility. Wellbore construction constraints, and fluid selection. Economics Well Engineering: Circulation programs and calculations. Wellhead, casing, and completion design. Bit selection, Underbalanced perforating, and drillstring design Special Considerations: Safety, regulatory requirements, and environmental issues. Directional, percussion, and high pressure drilling. Cementing, formation evaluation Blowout Preventer Equipment: Primary control, rotating heads, diverters, and RBOPs. UBD well control procedures. Sour wells and other special well control considerations Risk Management for Underbalanced Operations: Risk identification, analysis, and mitigation Downhole Problems and Troubleshooting: Wellbore instibility, vibration, fluid influxes, stuck pipe and fishing, corrosion. Introduction to Managed Pressure Drilling? What is MPD? Why MPD? Techniques Dual Gradient Drilling Microflux Drilling Well Control, drilling problems, safety and environmental issues Subtotal: In-class Exams: Time 3 hrs 4 hrs

3

3 hrs

4 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 9 10

6 hrs 4 hrs 6 hrs 4 hrs 3 hrs 3 hrs 2 hrs 1 hr 4 hrs 43 hrs 2 hrs

Total:

45 hrs

Course grading: Midterm Exam.................................................................................................................................. (25%) Final Exam........................................................................................................................................ (25%) Homework ........................................................................................................................................ (25%) Project............................................................................................................................................... (25%) Course Instructor/Supervisor: Dr. Jerome J. Schubert Tel. (979) 862-1195 Office: Rm. 501K Richardson Building e-mail: [email protected]

Miscellaneous:

ABET Classification: Science: Laboratory Requirements: Yes: Equipment Required: Design: x No: X Math: Other:

ADA Policy Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Policy Statement The following ADA Policy Statement (part of the Policy on Individual Disabling Conditions) was submitted to the UCC by the Department of Student Life. The policy Statement was forwarded to the Faculty Senate for information. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal antidiscrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe that you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room 126 of the Koldus Building, or call 845-1637. Coursework Copyright Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) Suggested for Inclusion in Your First Day Handout or Syllabus The handouts used in this course are copyrighted. By "handouts," this means all materials generated for this class, which include but are not limited to syllabi, quizzes, exams, lab problems, in-class materials, review sheets, and additional problem sets. Because these materials are copy-righted, you do not have the right to copy them, unless you are expressly granted permission. As commonly defined, plagiarism consists of passing off as one's own the ideas, words, writings, etc., that belong to another. In accordance with this definition, you are committing plagiarism if you copy the work of another person and turn it in as your own, even if you should have the permission of that person. Plagiarism is one of the worst academic sins, for the plagiarist destroys the trust among colleagues without which research cannot be safely communicated. If you have any questions about plagiarism and/or copying, please consult the latest issue of the Texas A&M University Student Rules, under the section "Scholastic Dishonesty." Aggie Code of Honor

An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do.

Texas A&M University -- Department of Petroleum Engineering Proposed Course Syllabus Number and Name of Course: PETE 637 Streamline Simulation Hours: Theory 3 Practice 0 Total Prerequisites: Graduate Classification Curricula Requiring this course: [x] None, this course will be an elective.

3

Credits

3

Description of Course: (Concise Statement of purpose of design) This course is designed to cover introductory and advanced concepts in streamline simulation and its applications. The theory of streamlines/streamtubes in multidimensions is reviewed. The specific topics include: Streamline, Streamtubes, Streamfunctions. Transport Along Streamlines. Spatial Discretization and Material Balance. Time Stepping and Transverse Fluxes. Impact of Cell Geometry. History Matching and Production Data Integration. Comparison with Finite Difference. Text Materials: Textbook : `Streamline Simulation: Theory and Practice', A. Datta-Gupta and M. J. King, SPE Textbook Series #11 (2007). Available from the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Course Outline: (by major topics, and approximate time for each topic) Introduction ( 1 Week) · The Role of Streamline Simulation · Historical Precedents · Chronological development

· · · · · · · ·

Basic Governing Equations (1 Week) General Conservation Equations Pressure Equation Treatment of Sources and Sinks

Streamline, Streamtubes, Streamfunctions ( 2 Weeks) Streamfunctions & Complex Potential Streamtubes Streamlines & Time of Flight: · Transformation to the -coordinate · Rectangular Cells: The Pollock Approach · Compressible Flow · Pathline Construction · Diffusive time of flight

·

Transport Along Streamlines (1 Weeks) · Analytical Solutions · Semianalytic Solutions - Flexistream Approach · Numerical Solutions - Lagrangian Approach - Eulerian Approach - Front Tracking Spatial Discretization and Material Balance (1 Week) · Saturation Interpolation · Cells to Lines, · Lines to Cells

· · ·

Wells Compressible Flow Streamline Updating: Unsteady State & Gravity

· · · ·

Time Stepping and Transverse Fluxes (1 Weeks) Concepts of Operator Splitting Modeling Gravity Modeling Capillarity and Transverse Dispersion Modeling fractured Reservoirs

Impact of Cell Geometry (2 Weeks) · Corner-Point Extension - Faulted cells - Unstructured grids (triangles and tetrahedra) · Impact on Displacement Calculations History Matching and Data Integration (2 Weeks) · Assisted History Matching · Automatic History Matching · Streamlines and Asymptotic Ray Theory · Sensitivity Computations Using Streamline Models · Production Data Integration into High-Resolution Models Field Studies 1: Basic (1 Week)

· · · · · · · ·

Pattern Management (Bubble Plot/Flood Front Management) Allocation Factors (Bundles)/Injector Efficiency Swept Volume Calculations ­ Tracer Interpretation Fast Runs : Speed up issues Early Field Life Surveillance: Primary Depletion Fractured Reservoirs: Explicit Fracture and Dual Porosity Assisted History Matching Understanding Reservoir Mechanisms

Field Studies 2: Advanced ( 2 Weeks) Flow Visualization/sector models Fast Runs Ranking and Uncertainty Assessment Upgridding/grid design Upscaling QC Pseudoization - Generalized Dykstra-Parsons: Hewett and Yamada - Reformulation in time of flight coordinates · History Matching

· · · · · ·

Course grading: Midterm Exam.................................................................................................................................. (20%) Final Exam........................................................................................................................................ (30%) Class Projects.................................................................................................................................... (35%) Homework/class presentation ................................................................................. (15%) Total.................................................................................................................................................. (100%)

Course Instructor/Supervisor: Dr. Akhil Datta-Gupta Tel. (979) 847-9030 Office: Rm401G Richardson Building e-mail: [email protected] Miscellaneous: ABET Classification: Science: Laboratory Requirements: Yes: Equipment Required: None

Design: No: x

Math:

Other:

ADA Policy Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Policy Statement The following ADA Policy Statement (part of the Policy on Individual Disabling Conditions) was submitted to the UCC by the Department of Student Life. The policy Statement was forwarded to the Faculty Senate for information. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal antidiscrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe that you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room 126 of the Koldus Building, or call 845-1637. Coursework Copyright Statement: (Texas A&M University Policy Statement) Suggested for Inclusion in Your First Day Handout or Syllabus The handouts used in this course are copyrighted. By "handouts," this means all materials generated for this class, which include but are not limited to syllabi, quizzes, exams, lab problems, in-class materials, review sheets, and additional problem sets. Because these materials are copy-righted, you do not have the right to copy them, unless you are expressly granted permission. As commonly defined, plagiarism consists of passing off as one's own the ideas, words, writings, etc., that belong to another. In accordance with this definition, you are committing plagiarism if you copy the work of another person and turn it in as your own, even if you should have the permission of that person. Plagiarism is one of the worst academic sins, for the plagiarist destroys the trust among colleagues without which research cannot be safely communicated. If you have any questions about plagiarism and/or copying, please consult the latest issue of the Texas A&M University Student Rules, under the section "Scholastic Dishonesty." Academic Integrity Statement and Policy The Aggie Honor Code and the Honor Council Rules and Procedures can be found in http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat or steal, or tolerate those who do"

SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 638 - Production Logging Spring 2010 11:10 a.m. ­ 12:25 p.m. TR, RICH 302

Course Description and Prerequisites This course will cover fluid flow in pipes, the theoretical basis of production logging techniques, production log interpretation techniques, and operational considerations. Production Logging has been described as "that area of well logging concerned with two general goals: (1) problem well diagnosis, and (2) reservoir surveillance." Production logging refers to a suite of logs that are run normally on completed injection or production wells to evaluate the performance of the well itself or of the reservoir as a whole. Many of these logs measure properties of the fluid in the wellbore, rather than formation properties as in openhole logging. An understanding of the fluid dynamics in a wellbore is an important part of understanding production logs. Graduate classification. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Gain an overall understanding of the fluid flow in pipes, the theoretical basis of production logging techniques, production log interpretation techniques, and operational considerations. 2. Learn about the fluid dynamics in a wellbore as an important part of understanding production logs. 3. Understand production logging as that area of well logging concerned with two general goals: (1) problem well diagnosis, and (2) reservoir surveillance. Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Dr. A.D. Hill (979) 845-2278 [email protected] TR 9:30-11:00 a.m.; MF 1:30-3:00 p.m. 501F Richardson Building

Textbook and/or Resource Material Production Logging: Theoretical and Interpretive Elements, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 1990 References Selected papers Grading Policies Homework........................................................................................................(20%) Mid-term Exam..................................................................................................(25%) Class Project.....................................................................................................(20%) Final Exam........................................................................................................(35%) Total................................................................................................................(100%) Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

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Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates

Week 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Topic Single Phase Flow Production LogsSingle Phase Flow in Pipes Temperature Logs Radioactive Tracer Logs Spinner Flowmeters Multiphase Flow Production LogsMultiphase Flow in Pipes ­ flow regime, holdup correlations Spinner Flowmeters in Multiphase Flow Packer, Basket Flowmeters Density Logs Capacitance Logs Pipe Inclination Effects Noise Logging Completion Evaluation Logs-Cement Bond Logs Cement Evaluation (Pulse-Echo) Logs Specialty Logs

Required Reading

Other Pertinent Course Information

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 640 - Models for Simulation of Flow and Transport of Fluids and Heat in Porous Media Fall 2009 M, RICH 301, 7:30-10:00 a.m. and 4:10-7:45 p.m. and T, RICH 313, 7:309:15 a.m. Course Description and Prerequisites Beginning from basic principles and based on a "starter" code that will be provided by the instructor, the students in this course will design and build numerical simulators that describe the flow of reservoir fluids and the transport of heat through porous media. At the end of this course the non-osothermal multidimensional models that will be developed will be capable of handling single mass components (gas, oil or water) in single phases (liquid or vapor). Prerequisites: 1. Graduate classification. 2. PETE 603 or instructor approval. 3. Programming experience in FORTRAN95, C, C++ or another programming language (NOTE: The extensive coding efforts will be conducted using FORTRAN95/2003. Experience in FORTRAN or another programming language is a MUST for this course. Experience with MatLab or Mathematica programming will be useful, but generally will not be adequate preparation for the needs of this course (extra effort to master FORTRAN programming will be necessary). 4. A solid understanding of (a) the physical processes of flow and transport through porous media, (b) numerical analysis and (c) linear algebra. 5. Access to a FORTRAN95/2003 compiler on a PC or workstation. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Design and build numerical simulators that describe the flow of reservoir fluids and the transport of heat through porous media. 2. Develop non-osothermal multi-dimensional models capable of handling single mass components in single phases. Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Dr. George Moridis (510) 486-4746 [email protected] M, 10:00-Noon; 1:00-4:00 p.m.; T, 7:00 a.m.-Noon TBD Textbook and/or Resource Material Textbook: 1. Fortran 95/2003 for Scientists & Engineers, by Stephen J. Chapman (2007): This book will be the basic FORTRAN 95/2003 reference used in the class.

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2. Class notes and copies of appropriate scientific publications on relevant subjects will be distributed by the instructor.

Reference Materials: 1. Petroleum Reservoir Simulations: A Basic Approach, by M.R. Islam, S.M. Farouq Ali, J. H. Abou Kassem, and Jamal H. Abou-kassem (2005) 2. Petroleum Reservoir Simulation, by Khalid Aziz and Antonin Settari (1979) 3. The Properties of Petroleum Fluids, by W. D. McCain 4. The Properties of Gases and Liquids, by Bruce E. Poling, John M. Prausnitz and John O'Connell (2000) 5. Fortran 95/2003 Explained (Numerical Mathematics and Scientific Computation), by Michael Metcalf, John Reid, and Malcolm Cohen (2004) 6. Object-Oriented Programming via Fortran 90/95, by Ed Akin (2003)

Grading Policies Homework (daily assignments; quality and logical thoroughness of code)..................... (100%) Policy on homework: o All homework is due (even if late); otherwise, an "Incomplete" grade will be given until homework is submitted Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59% Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Topic Fundamental equations of flow and transport of mass and heat through porous media; the Integral Final Difference (IFD) method Brief overview of simulation approaches in the analysis of coupled non-linear processes Discussion of the fully implicit method (Jacobian and Newton-Raphson method) Brief overview of programming in FORTRAN 95/2003 ­ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). Simulator design ­ modular OOP approach Domain discretization (Cartesian and cylindrical) Process description: o Fluid flow (Darcy and non-Darcy flow, diffusive flow) o Heat transport (conduction, advection) o Equation of state (PVT relationships, no phase changes) o Thermophysical properties (phase density, viscosity, solubility, thermal conductivity, etc.) Initial and boundary conditions ­ primary and secondary variables Treatment of sources and sinks (wells) Setting up the Jacobian matrix Solution of the matrix equation (linear algebra, direct and iterative solvers) Solution of 1D, 2D and 3D problems (Cartesian or cylindrical ) of isothermal/nonisothermal gas flow Solution of 1D. 2D and 3D problems (Cartesian or cylindrical) of isothermal/nonisothermal oil flow

8 9 10 11 12 13

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14

Solution of 1D. 2D and 3D problems (Cartesian or cylindrical) of isothermal/nonisothermal water flow

Other Pertinent Course Information

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 641 - Models for Simulation of Advanced Coupled Processes in Geologic Media Summer 2010 TBA Course Description and Prerequisites The single-component, single-phase simulators developed in PETE 640 are expanded to include advanced multi-phase flow processes and more complex geologic media. At the end of this course, the non-isothermal multi-dimensional models that will be developed will be capable of handling complex geologic media (porous and fractured, with matrix-fracture interactions), structured and unstructured grids, multiple mass components (gas, oil and water) in multi-phase (liquid, vapor and/or liquid-vapor) states, and phase changes. Prerequisites: 1. Graduate classification. 2. PETE 640. 3. Programming experience in FORTRAN95, C, C++ or another programming language (NOTE: The extensive coding efforts will be conducted using FORTRAN95/2003. Experience in FORTRAN or another programming language is a MUST for this course. Experience with MatLab or Mathematica programming will not be adequate preparation for the needs of this course. 4. A solid understanding of (a) the physical processes of flow and transport through porous media, (b) numerical analysis and (c) linear algebra. 5. Access to a FORTRAN95/2003 compiler on a PC or workstation. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Develop expanded multi-phase flow processes and more complex geologic models. 2. Design and build non-isothermal multi-dimensional models that will be capable of handling complex geologic media (porous and fractured, with matrix-fracture interactions), structured and unstructured grids, multiple mass components (gas, oil and water and water) in multi-phase (liquid, vapor and/or liquid-vapor) states, and phase changes. Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Dr. George Moridis (510) 486-4746 [email protected] TBD TBD Textbook and/or Resource Material Textbook: 1. Fortran 95/2003 for Scientists & Engineers, by Stephen J. Chapman (2007): This book will be the basic FORTRAN 95/2003 reference used in the class.

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2. Class notes and copies of appropriate scientific publications on relevant subjects will be distributed by the instructor.

Reference Materials: 1. Petroleum Reservoir Simulations: A Basic Approach, by M.R. Islam, S.M. Farouq Ali, J. H. Abou Kassem, and Jamal H. Abou-kassem (2005) 2. Petroleum Reservoir Simulation, by Khalid Aziz and Antonin Settari (1979) 3. The Properties of Petroleum Fluids, by W. D. McCain 4. The Properties of Gases and Liquids, by Bruce E. Poling, John M. Prausnitz and John O'Connell (2000) 5. Fortran 95/2003 Explained (Numerical Mathematics and Scientific Computation), by Michael Metcalf, John Reid, and Malcolm Cohen (2004) 6. Object-Oriented Programming via Fortran 90/95, by Ed Akin (2003)

Grading Policies Homework (daily assignments; quality and logical thoroughness of code)..................... (100%) Policy on homework: o All homework is due (even if late); otherwise, an "Incomplete" grade will be given until homework is submitted Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59% Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates Week 1 2 3-4 Topic Complex geologic media: matrix-fracture interactions in fractured media, and the Multiple Interacting Continua (MINC) concept Domain discretization (Mixed Cartesian/cylindrical grids, unstructured grids) Process description: o Wettability (relative permeability and capillary pressure, various models) o Equation of state with phase changes (PVT relationships, vapor pressure, phase enthalpies and latent heats of vaporization/condensation) o Thermophysical properties (phase density, viscosity, solubility, thermal conductivity, etc.) o Phase changes (boiling, vaporization), solution and exsolution Initial and boundary conditions ­ primary and secondary variables, primary variable change Treatment of sources and sinks (wells) Setting up the Jacobian matrices; change of primary variables Solution of 2D and 3D problems (Cartesian or cylindrical) of single-component (CH4), single-phase gas flow in fractured media (application to shale gas) Solution of 2D and 3D problems (Cartesian or cylindrical) of single-component (water), two-phase flow with phase changes (geothermal reservoir problem) Solution of 1D, 2D and 3D problems (Cartesian, cylindrical, mixed, Voronoi or unstructured grids) of two-component, two-phase isothermal flow (water+oil, oil+gas, water+gas) Solution of 1D, 2D and 3D problems (Cartesian, cylindrical, mixed, Voronoi or unstructured grids) of three-component, three-phase isothermal flow (water+oil+gas)

5 6 7 8 9 10

11

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12

Solution of 1D, 2D and 3D problems (Cartesian, cylindrical, mixed, Voronoi or unstructured grids) of three-component, three-phase non-isothermal flow with heat and phase changes (water+oil+gas, steam injection) Advanced problems (discussion of approach, coding only if time permits): o Coalbed methane o Solute/reactive transport Other Pertinent Course Information

13-14

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 642 - Formation Damage: Mechanisms and Remediation Summer 2010 ­ 1st session TR, 10:00 a.m.- 1:45 p.m., RICH 302 Course Description and Prerequisites Identification and development of solutions for mechanisms of formation damage that can occur during drilling, completion, and following chemical treatments; includes interaction of cleaning fluids with the formation brines, rock and oil. Prerequisite: Graduate classification. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Highlight the importance of formation damage and how it impacts well performance. Oil, gas and waters supply wells are damaged during their lifetime. Various types of damage can occur during drilling, completion and production. 2. Identify damage type and location which is the first step in designing chemical treatment to remove formation damage. Well completion, bottomhole conditions, and type of fluids in the wellbore should also be considered. Failure to consider these parameters will result in more damage than originally thought. 3. Discuss field cases reinforcing the importance of problem identification and fluid selection that take into account downhole pumps and well tubulars.

Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location H.A. Nasr-El-Din (979) 862-1473 [email protected] TR, TBD 610 Richardson Building

Textbook and/or Resource Material Several Textbooks will be used, including, but not limited to: Reservoir Formation Damage, F. Civan, 2000 Emulsions: Fundamentals and Applications in the Oil Industry, L.L. Schramm, 2000 Technology for Cleaning Industrial Equipments, W.W. Frenier, 2001

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Grading Policies Homework.........................................................................................................(40%) Class Project.....................................................................................................(30%) Final Exam.........................................................................................................(30%) Total................................................................................................................(100%) Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates Week 1-2 Topic Introduction Required Reading Definitions, impact of well performance, skin damage, and how to measure it in the field Structures and chemical composition of various clays and feldspars, types of clays and how they impact well performance Fines migration and permeability decline, coreflood experiment to determine critical salt concentration, impact of pH on migration and swelling of clays, cationic polymers as clay stabilizers Types of drilling and completion fluids, filter cake characteristics, and various methods to remove it, water blockage, surface tension of completion fluids, surfactants to reduce surface tension. How to perforate various wells, perforation and its impact on well performance, damage due to perforation Asphaltenes, Waxes, and Naphtanantes, Mechanisms of Organic Deposition, Removal, and Mitigation. Damage due to suspended solids and bacteria Types of scales encountered in oilfield. Mechanisms of scale formation. Scale Removal Methods, Radioactive Tracer Logs, and Scale Mitigation Treatments Damage due to alkaline flooding, damage due to CO2 flooding, damage due to polymer flooding, damage due to steam flooding Damage due to scale squeeze treatment, damage due to mud acid treatments, damage to due to additives

Clays and Feldspars

3-5

Fines Migration, Clay Swelling and Clay Stabilizers

Damage due to Drilling and Completion Fluids and Injection Waters

6-8

Damage due to Perforation

Formation Damage due to Organic Deposition

9-12

Formation Damage due to Inorganic Scale

Formation Damage due to EOR

13-15

Formation Damage due to Chemical Treatments

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Damage Removal

Various chemical treatments available to remove various types of damage. Chemicals used in damage removal will be discussed, including acids, oxidizers, chelating agents, enzymes and combinations of these chemicals.

Other Pertinent Course Information

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 643 - Oil Field Chemistry Spring 2011 TBD Course Description and Prerequisites The role of chemistry in well stimulation, water shut-off treatments, scale removal, mitigation, downhole corrosion issues, organic deposition, dementing, drilling fluids and various aspects of formation damage; includes problem identification as the first step in designing chemical treatment to remove formation damage. Prerequisite: Graduate classification

Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of this course are for students to: 1. Highlight the importance of chemistry in well treatments. Oil, gas and water supply wells are damaged during their life time. Various types of damage can occur during drilling, completion and production. 2. Identify problems as the first step in designing chemical treatment to remove formation damage Well completion, and type of fluids in the wellbore should be also considered. Failure to consider these parameters will result in more damage than originally thought. 3. Discuss field cases to reinforce the importance of problem identification and fluid selection that takes into account downhole equipment and well tubulars.

Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location H.A. Nasr-El-Din (979) 862-1473 [email protected] TBD 610 Richardson Textbook and/or Resource Material Several textbooks will be used, including, but not limited to: Corrosion and Scale Handbook, J.R. Becker, 1998 Technology for Cleaning Industrial Equipment, W. W. Frenier, 2001 Chemicals for Oil Field Operations, J. I. DiStasio, 1981 Well Treatments and Water Shut-off by Polymer Gels, L.J. Zitha, 2000 Oil-Field Chemistry, Enhanced Recovery and Production Stimulation, J.K. Borchardt and T.F. Yen, 1988 Surfactants Fundamentals and Applications in the Oil Industry, L.L. Schramm, 2000

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Grading Policies Homework.........................................................................................................(40%) Class Presentations.............................................................................................(30%) Final Exam.........................................................................................................(30%) Total................................................................................................................(100%)

Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates Week 1-2 Topic Inorganic Scale Required Reading Types of scales encountered in oilfield, Mechanisms of scale formation, Scale Removal Methods Radioactive Tracer Logs, and Scale Mitigation Treatments Asphaltenes and Waxes, Mechanisms of Organic Deposition, Removal of Organic Deposition, and Mitigation of Organic Deposition Review of corrosion theory, Corrosion protection during well stimulation, Corrosion protection in sour wells, Protection of Cr-based tubulars, Corrosion of organic acids, Microbial corrosion, and Removal of corrosion products Emulsified Acid, In Situ Gelled Acids, Viscoelastic Surfactant-Based Acids, Cement Bond Logs, and Foamed Acids Mud acids, Retarded HF-based acids, and Chelating Agents Sodium Silicate Gels, Inorganic scale as a means for water shut-off, Gelling Polymers using metal cross-linkers, and Relative permeability modifiers Light weight cements, Flexible cements, Acid Resistant cement, New weight material for drilling fluids, Emulsifiers used in oil-based mud, and techniques to remove various filter cakes

3-4

Organic Deposition

5-7

Corrosion in the Oil Field

8-9

Acids Used in Carbonate Formations

10-11 12-13

Acids Used in Sandstone Formations Water Shut-Off Using Chemical Means

14-15

Recent Advances in Cementing and Drilling Fluids

Other Pertinent Course Information

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Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 644 - CO2 Capture and Uses: Sequestration, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Fall 2011 TR, 9:35 -10:50 a.m., RICH 208 Course Description and Prerequisites Understanding the need and potential of CO2 captures and uses, including sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery (CCS-EOR), the scientific, technological and economic aspects of identifying and implementing a CCS-EOR; overview of safety, environmental and legal aspects. Prerequisite: Graduate classification. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Understand CO2 capture and uses, including Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery (CCSEOR). 2. Be provided with the methodology and tools to evaluate and quantify potential uncertainties and risks involved in CCS or EOR. 3. Overview the safety, environmental and legal aspects of CO2 capture and uses. Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Gioia Falcone (979) 847-8912 [email protected] TBD 407H Richardson Building

Textbook and/or Resource Material Selected publications from the literature; industry and governmental reports; handouts. "Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage", Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Grading Policies Assignments......................................................................................................(40%) Final Project (40% final report, 20% final presentation)...............................................(60%) Total................................................................................................................(100%)

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Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates

Week 1 2

Topic Course Overview ­ Review of course objectives, assignments and expectations, schedule The Need for CO2 Sequestration & CO2 Properties · Background Introduction · Market for course knowledge, i.e. global warming, improved oil recovery, economics · Important physical/chemical/thermodynamic properties of CO2 Geological Screening, Reservoir Characterization · Storage options for CO2 · Types of geological storage projects · Screening reservoirs for suitability of CO2 storage · Potential of CO2 sequestration and storage in US (World) Basins Separation Aspects, Design Calculations, Efficiencies · Overview of Power Plants, Gasification and IGCC · Post-combustion flue gas separation: physical absorption of CO2 · Chemical absorption · Membrane separation · Energy integration and its implication on reduction of CO2 emissions · ASPEN Lab workshop on Compressors · ASPEN Lab workshop on Absorption · ASPEN Lab workshop on Cryogenic System Production Aspects, Transportation, Compression · CO2 compression and transportation to storage reservoir · Compressor design and efficiency · Pipeline needs, costs · Production issues · Transportation/recycling Injectivity Problems, Well Design · Well integrity · Corrosion · Remediation · Scaling issues · Asphalthene precipitation EOR Uses, Material Balance Approaches · Performance assessment: Planning for and mitigating potential leakage and remediation issues · EOR case studies · Volumes injected/recovered ­ stored

3-4

5-6

7-8

9

10

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11

Geologic Storage Modeling: Tools and Techniques · CO2 storage mechanisms and modeling · Analytical and numerical models for CO2 migration · Leakage: Potential pathways and quantitative assessment · Storage performance prediction and uncertainties Economic, Regulations · Economic considerations of CO2 storage · Regulatory/legal aspects and public policy associated with CO2 storage. · Summary of key steps involved in developing and implementing a CO2 capture and storage project: carbon credits/trading. · Health, safety and environmental issues associated with CO2 storage Course Recap & Evaluation · Review and integration of covered material · Current and future research direction · Evaluation forms Student Paper/Project Presentations

12

13

14-15

Other Pertinent Course Information

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 645: Upscaling of Geologic Models for Flow Simulation Fall 2011 2:20 ­ 5:10 p.m., Thursday, RICH 302 Course Description and Prerequisites This is an advanced reservoir engineering course which covers the upscaling of 3D geologic models for reservoir flow simulation. It is based on published papers and supplemented by research topics. The students will be expected to develop upscaling solvers as part of this course. Graduate classification. Attendance will be limited to a maximum of 15 students. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Acquire an in-depth understanding of current approaches to upscaling of geologic models for flow simulation. 2. Develop tools that are more advanced than those available within any commercial application

Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Prof. Michael J. King (979) 845-1488 [email protected] W, 3:00-5:30 p.m. 401E Richardson Building

Textbook and/or Resource Material Streamline Simulation: Theory and Practice, A. Datta-Gupta and M.J.King, SPE textbook No.11 (2007) Additional readings will be supplied with the course.

Grading Policies Presentations & Class Participation........................................................................(10%) Homework........................................................................................................(15%) Major Project.....................................................................................................(25%) Mid-Term Exam..................................................................................................(25%) Final Exam........................................................................................................(25%) Total................................................................................................................(100%) Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

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Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates Details may be Varied During the Semester Week 1 Topic Introduction to geologic modeling and flow simulation o Uses of geologic models and reservoir simulators o Understanding the overall iterative workflow o Streamline flow visualization Basic multi-phase flow equations in porous media o Black oil equations o Derivation of the pressure equation o Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions Finite difference/Finite element discretizations/flow visualization and solver projects o Five point discretization (2D) o Peaceman Well Indices (2D) o K/O/U methods (2D) o Development of student projects Upscaling of Flow o Permeability Upscaling o Analytic Approaches o Flow Based Upscaling o Local / Non-Local / Global Upscaling o Transmissibility Upscaling o Near Well Upscaling o Diagnostics o Recommendations Upscaling of Static Properties o Stratigraphic Grids o Bulk Rock Volume / Net Rock Volume / Pore Volume / Fluid Volumes o Facies o Well Blocking o Diagnostics o Recommendations Grid Upscaling o Corner Point Grids o Multiscale Grid Mapping o Error Analysis & Simulation Grid Design o Faults and Fault Blocks o Unstructured Grids o Recommendations Multiphase Flow Relative Permeability End-points and Capillary Pressure Steady State Upscaling Pseudoization and Unsteady State Upscaling Multiscale Simulation Recommendations Class Projects Student Presentations

2

3-4

5-6

7-8

9-10

11-12 o o o o o 13-15 o

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Other Pertinent Course Information

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 646 - Reservoir Characterization and Forecasting Fall 2010 T, 5:15-7:45 P.M., RICH 302 Course Description and Prerequisites This graduate level course in reservoir characterization and forecasting integrates three important aspects of reservoir development and management: i) Stochastic reservoir description, ii) Reservoir model updating; and iii) Model-predictive reservoir control and management. Each of these three components will be discussed in detail and state-of-the-art methodologies and practices will be introduced. The emphasis of the course is on combining various data sources with geological knowledge through geostatistical estimation/simulation and advanced mathematical inversion methods to construct predictive reservoir models that are consistent with all sources of information that can be used to facilitate and improve future reservoir development and management. The course covers a broad range of topics, including modeling spatial variability, two-point and multi-point geostatistics, spatial and transforms domain reservoir parameterization (model reduction), sequential (Kalman filtertype) and iterative (adjoint-based) production data integration, deterministic and robust production optimization and model-predictive reservoir control. Prerequisites: Graduate classification. The material in this course requires familiarity with basic linear algebra, probability, statistics, differential and integral calculus, and general reservoir engineering. Computational assignments of this course will require familiarity with a programming language. The programming language of choice is MATLAB. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Cover statistical modeling of spatial uncertainty used for stochastic reservoir identification. 2. Combine various data sources and geological knowledge with conceptual models of geological continuity to construct predictive reservoir models for future reservoir development and management. 3. Overview a broad range of topics including spatial variability modeling, two-point and multi-point geostatistics, reservoir parameterization, production data integration and model-predictive reservoir control and management.

Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Dr. Behnam Jafarpour (979) 845-0666 [email protected] Wednesday, 4:00-6:00 P.M. or by appointment 401F Richardson Building

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Textbook and/or Resource Material There is no required textbook for this course, however, a few main texts are listed as suggested references. Course handouts and reading material will be posted to the class shared folder on the PE server and the web for distance learning. In addition to lectures, there will be a few computational lab sessions for hands-on introduction to required geostatistical software packages, i.e. SGeMS, ECLIPSE, MATLAB and other software packages that are needed in this course.

Grading Policies Homework..........................................................................................................(30%) Midterm Exam.....................................................................................................(30%) Class Project......................................................................................................(40%) Total................................................................................................................(100%)

Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates

Week 1 2

Topic Course Introduction and Review Material Geostatistical Reservoir Description and Modeling; Review of Spatial Statistics, Linear Algebra Linear Estimation and Kriging Stochastic Simulation Beyond Two-Point Geostatistics Reservoir Model Updating Through Production Data Integration Parameterization and Model Reduction Reservoir Control and Management; Model Predictive Control (MPC) MPC Formulations and Solutions Project Presentations Final Project Report

3 4 5-6 7-9 10-11 12 13 14 15

Other Pertinent Course Information

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Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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Petroleum Engineering 648 Pressure Transient Testing Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Spring 2008 Catalog Course Description: Diffusivity equation and solutions for slightly compressible liquids; dimensionless variables; type curves; applications of solutions to buildup, drawdown, multi-rate, interference, pulse and deliverability tests; extensions to multiphase flow; analysis of hydraulically fractured wells. Prerequisites: PETE 324 and 620; approval of graduate advisor. Instructor: Prof. Christine Ehlig-Economides Office: RICH 710 Office Hours: By appointment Phone: 979 458-0797 Email: [email protected] Textbook: John Lee, John B. Rollins, and John P. Spivey: Pressure Transient Testing, SPE Textbook Series Vol. 9, by, 2003. Recommended Reading: · Kamal, M.M.: Transient Well Testing, SPE Monograph Series No. 23, 2009. · R. Raghavan: Well Test Analysis, Prentice Hall Petroleum Engineering Series, 1993 · C.S. Matthews and D.G. Russell: Pressure Buildup and Flow Tests in Wells, SPE Monograph Vol. 1, 1967 · R. Earlougher, Jr.: Advances in Well Test Analysis, SPE Monograph Vol. 5, 1977 · Energy Resources Conservation Board, Theory and Practice of the Testing of Gas Wells, Alberta, Canada, 1975. · SPE Reprint Series, No. 9: Pressure Analysis Methods, 1967. · SPE Reprint Series, No. 57: Pressure Transient Testing, V. I and II, 2004 · Abramowitz, M, and Steegan, I.A.: Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series 55, 1972. · Economides, M.J., Hill, A.D., and Ehlig-Economides, C.A.: Petroleum Production Systems, PTR Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1994. Course Requirements: Homework/Teamwork 30% Exams 40% Team Project 30% Typically homework is assigned every week. Students will present homework solutions in class according to a random selection. Failure to be prepared to present when asked will reduce homework grade by 10%. Students must indicate ahead of time when they have a reason to miss class. Collaboration on homework is encouraged, and the class will be divided into teams. DL students must post their homework solutions by the homework due date. There will be 2 in-class exams. Each DL student will need to return the completed exam by5 pm on the following Monday according to instructions provided with the exam.

Each team will do a final project. The project will be assigned at the time of the first exam. Each team will present the project during the week following the last lecture class. The final project report is due the week after the project presentations. Course Objectives: 1. Experience how well test models are derived and computed 2. Experience how to simulate pressure transient test behavior and how to design well tests* 3. Experience how to process, quality check, diagnose, and analyze pressure transient data 4. Understand the behavior of well and reservoir response patterns observed in well tests, what well and reservoir parameters can be quantified, and how to quantify them from pressure transient data* *Using commercial software Course Outline

Week Lecture Topic [Lecture Number]

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Introduction - Overview of the Course [1,2] Modeling ­ Diffusivity Equation Derivation, Solutions; PTT Ch. 1, App. A, B [3]* Modeling ­ Solution Implementation, Type Curves; PTT Ch. 4, App. F [4]* Superposition; PTT Ch. 1-2, App. E [5] Wellbore Storage and Skin; Index PTT wellbore storage, skin [6] Flow Regimes; PTT App. G [7] Test Design; PTT Ch. 8-11, App. K [8] Exam I - In class Spring Break Gas Well Testing, Multiphase Testing; PTT Ch. 3, App. C [9,10] Naturally Fractured Reservoirs; PTT Ch. 7 [11] Partial Penetration/Limited Entry; PTT Ch. 2 Sec. 2.4.5 [12] Hydraulically Fractured Wells; PTT Ch. 6 [15] Reservoir Limits [13] Horizontal Wells; PTT Ch. 12 [14] Final Exam - In class

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Policy Statement

The following ADA Policy Statement (part of the Policy on Individual Disabling Conditions) was submitted to the University Curriculum Committee by the Department of Student Life. The policy statement was forwarded to the Faculty Senate for information. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities, in Cain Hall or call 845-1637.

Academic Integrity Statement

"An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do."

Definitions of Academic Misconduct http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/acadmisconduct.htm

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Cheating Intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, notes, study aids or other devices or materials in any academic exercise. Fabrication Making up data or results, and recording or reporting them; submitting fabricated documents. Falsification Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. Multiple Submissions Submitting substantial portions of the same work (including oral reports) for credit more than once without authorization from the instructor of the class for which the student submits the work. Plagiarism The appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. Complicity Intentionally or knowingly helping, or attempting to help, another to commit an act of academic dishonesty.

Honor Council Rules and Procedures http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

661

Drilling Engineering

(3-0). Credit 3 Course Description: Introduction to drilling systems; wellbore hydraulics; casing design; identification and solution of drilling problems; well cementing drilling of directional and horizontal wells; wellbore surveying; abnormal pore pressure; fracture gradients; well control; offshore drilling; underbalanced drilling. Approval of instructor Applied Drilling Engineering, by Adam T. Bourgoyne Jr., Martin E. Chenevert, Keith K. Millheim and F.S. Young Jr., Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX, 1991. Selected Technical Papers. Suggested Basis for Grading: Homework Quiz A Quiz B Project Quiz C >89.5 79.5 ­ 89.4999 69.5 ­ 79.4555 59.5 ­ 69.4999 <59.5 20% 20% 20% 20% 20% =A =B =C =C =F Hours 4 3 3 5 4 4 3 4 6 6

Prerequisites: Text:

Grading Policy:

Topics:

The drilling rig, drilling fluids, rig selection, drilling problems Wellbore hydraulics and design of circulation system Casing design procedures; collapse, burst, tension Abnormal pressure prediction, fracture gradients Kick tolerance and well control Primary and secondary cementing, cement plugs Directional drilling, wellbore surveying techniques Horizontal drilling, coiled tubing drilling Offshore drilling, including dual-gradient drilling Underbalanced drilling

Quizzes: (3 hours)

Total:

45 hours Required for homework and project

Computer usage:

Academic Integrity Statement: "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." Collaboration on examinations and assignments is forbidden except when specifically authorized. Students violating this policy may be removed from the class roster and given a F in the course or other penalties as outlined in the Texas A&M University Student Rules. See http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor ADA Policy Statement: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities, in Cain Hall or call 845-1637.

PETE 662 Production Engineering Texas A&M University Fall 2009 TTh 11:10-12:25pm RICH 302

Instructor: Dr. A. D. Hill Office: RICH 501F Office Hours: Th 2:00-5:00 Phone: 845-2278 e-mail: [email protected] COURSE SYLLABUS

Description:

This course is a survey course in petroleum production engineering, beginning with the material in the textbook, and going beyond this level with the aid of other material from the literature. I will review basic undergraduate production engineering material at a fairly rapid pace. The primary topics that will be covered include reservoir inflow, skin effects and formation damage, well completion performance, multiphase flow in pipes, and well stimulation. A course outline is given below.

Objectives: · Learn engineering methods to evaluate and optimize oil and gas well performance. Text: Petroleum Production Systems, by M. J. Economides, A. D. Hill, and C. Ehlig-Economides +

supplemental papers Course Schedule Week 1-2 3-5 6-9 10-13 14 15 topic chapter(s) covered 1-4 5 13-15 7, 10 19-20

introduction to production engineering; review of reservoir inflow skin effects and formation damage, well completion performance well stimulation, formation damage, matrix acidizing multiphase flow in pipes artificial lift class project presentations; overview

COURSE POLICIES 1. Attendance: Class attendance is important. I will supplement the material in the textbook with additional published and unpublished material, some of which may be presented only during class time. I encourage you to attend class regularly. 2. Examinations: Examinations are not optional. Make-up of major examinations will be given only for university excused absences. 3. GRADING:

Homework & Projects Mid-term Exam Final Exam

30% 30% 40%

The course grade will be based on homework assignments, a mid-term exam, and a final examination. The final exam will be given at the regularly scheduled time. One or more of the homework assignments will be projects of larger scope than the usual homework assignments; these projects will comprise half of the homework grade.

4. Academic Integrity Statement: "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." Collaboration on examinations and assignments is forbidden except when specifically authorized. Students violating this policy may be removed from the class roster and given a F in the course or other penalties as outlined in the Texas A&M University Student Rules. See http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor 5. ADA Policy Statement: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal antidiscrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities, in Cain Hall or call 845-1637.

2

Petroleum Engineering 663

Formation Evaluation and the Analysis of Reservoir Performance Tentative Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Summer 2009 Course Instructor/Supervisor: (Class Meetings: T,Th 8:00-9:50 a.m., RICH 302)

(Geoscience) (Formation Evaluation) (Analysis of Reservoir Performance)

Dr. Walter Ayers Tel. (979) 458-0721 Office: Rm. 401M RICH Office Hours: tba/appointment e-mail: [email protected] Text Materials:

Dr. David Schechter Tel. (979) 845-2275 Office: Rm. 401Q RICH Office Hours: tba/appointment e-mail: [email protected]

Dr. Tom Blasingame Tel. (979) 845-2292 Office: 815 RICH Office Hours: tba/appointment e-mail: [email protected]

Geosciences (Ayers) -- Morton-Thompson and Woods, eds.: Development Geology Manual, 1992, AAPG, Tulsa (Optional; available at AAPG (800-364-2274) or www.aapg.org); -- Selley, R.C., 1998, Elements of Petroleum Geology, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, 470 p. (Optional) -- All Assigned reading will be provided as pdf files Formation Evaluation (Schechter) (.pdf version will be provided) -- Openhole Log Analysis and Formation Evaluation, Halliburton (.pdf version will be provided) Analysis of Reservoir Performance (Blasingame) -- Lee, W.J., Rollins, J.B., and Spivey, J.P.: Pressure Transient Testing, SPE (2003). -- Lee, W.J., and Wattenbarger, R.A: Gas Reservoir Engineering, SPE (1996). Reference Materials: Will be handed out or placed on an accessible website as needed. 1. Reference notes. 2. Journal articles. 3. Presentation materials. Basis for Grade: (components given as percentage of total grade average) Geology: Hwk/Quizzes/Projects (13.3333 percent), Exam 1 (20 percent) ........ 33.33 percent Formation Evaluation: Hwk/Quizzes/Projects (13.3333 percent), Exam 2 (20 percent) ........ 33.33 percent Reservoir Performance: Hwk/Quizzes/Projects (13.3333 percent)......................................... 33.33 percent Total = 100.00 percent Grade Cutoffs: (Percentages) A: < 90 B: 89.99 to 80 C: 79.99 to 70 D: 69.99 to 60 F: < 59.99 Policies and Procedures: 1. Students are expected to attend class every session. 2. Always bring your textbook, notes, homework problems, and calculator to class. 3. Homework and other assignments will be given at the lecture session. All work shall be done in an acceptable engineering manner; work done shall be as complete as possible. Assignments are due as stated. Late assignments will receive a grade of zero. 4. Policy on Grading a. It shall be the general policy for this class that homework and exams shall be graded on the basis of answers only -- partial credit, if given, is given solely at the discretion of the instructor. b. All work requiring calculations shall be properly and completely documented for credit. c. All grading shall be done by the instructor, or under his direction and supervision, and the decision of the instructor is final. 5. Policy on Regrading a. Only in very rare cases will exams be considered for regrading; e.g., when the total number of points deducted is not consistent with the assigned grade. Partial credit (if any) is not subject to appeal. b. Work which, while correct, cannot be followed, will be considered incorrect -- and will not be considered for a grade change. c. Grades assigned to homework problems will not be considered for regrading. d. If regrading is necessary, the student is to submit a letter to the instructor explaining the situation that requires consideration for regrading and the material to be regraded must be attached to this letter. The letter and attached material must be received within one week from the date returned.

2 Petroleum Engineering 663 Formation Evaluation and the Analysis of Reservoir Performance Syllabus and Administrative Procedures (Continued) and Course Description Summer 2008 Policies and Procedures: (Continued) 6. The grade for a late assignment is zero. Homework will be considered late if it is not turned in at the start of class on the due date. If a student comes to class after homework has been turned in and after class has begun, the student's homework will be considered late and given a grade of zero. Late or not, all assignments must be turned in. A course grade of Incomplete will be given if any assignment is missing, and this grade will be changed only after all required work has been submitted. 7. Each student should review the University Regulations concerning attendance, grades, and scholastic dishonesty. In particular, anyone caught cheating on an examination or collaborating on an assignment where collaboration is not specifically allowed will be removed from the class roster and given an F (failure grade) in the course. Specifically, you are NOT AUTHORIZED to collaborate any individual assignment, exam, quiz, etc.; this includes discussions, sharing materials, etc. You are expressly FORBIDDEN from such actions on any and all assignments. You are only permitted to collaborate on assignments if the instructor specifically authorizes such collaborations, and then for only for the assignment where such collaboration is authorized. Failure to abide by this guideline will invoke an F (failure grade) in the course or on the assignment, at the discretion of the instructor, based on the severity of the infraction. Course Description The purpose of this course is to provide the student with a working knowledge of the current methodologies used in geological description/analysis, formation evaluation (the analysis/interpretation of well log data), and the analysis of well performance data (the design/analysis/interpretation of well test and production data). The overall course objective is to provide the student with the ability to assess field performance and to optimize hydrocarbon recovery by analyzing/interpreting/integrating geologic, well log, and well performance data. Course Objectives The student should be able to perform the tasks given below for each course module. Course Module 1: Geosciences (Ayers) Identify components of a petroleum system; name and describe the organic sources of hydrocarbons. Describe the processes of thermal maturation, primary and secondary migration, and hydrocarbon trapping; name and describe 2 types of self-sourcing reservoirs. Describe the origin and significance of structural features, including folds, fractures, and traps; describe unconformities; describe the methods and tools used for structural evaluations and modeling. Explain and give examples of in-situ stress effects on absolute permeability and permeability anisotropy. Characterize clastic and carbonate reservoirs by describing the geometry, orientation, and continuity of sedimentary facies and their relations to flow units and reservoir quality. List examples of diagenetic effects on clastic and carbonate reservoir quality. Describe porosity-permeability relations in clastic and carbonate reservoirs; give examples of scalar effects on permeability determination. Explain/describe stratigraphic traps. Describe the methods, tools, and workflow for developing a reservoir model. Course Module 2: Formation Evaluation (Schechter) Describe and explain the following operational aspects: Logging operation surface and downhole equipment. Logging operation procedures. Explain and apply the principles of operation and interpretation of the following logs: Density Spontaneous Potential Sonic Neutron Gamma Ray Resistivity Estimate porosity and lithology for the following cases: Monomineral Binary Mixtures Apply the following to evaluate saturation: Archie's laws Pickett plot

3 Petroleum Engineering 663 Formation Evaluation and the Analysis of Reservoir Performance Course Objectives Summer 2009 Course Module 3: Analysis of Reservoir Performance (Blasingame) Derive and apply the analysis and interpretation methodologies for pressure drawdown and pressure buildup tests -- for liquid, gas, and multiphase flow systems (i.e., "conventional" plots and type curve analysis). Specifically, the following cases: Apply dimensionless solutions ("type curves") and field variable solutions ("specialized plots") for the follow-ing well test analysis case cases: -- Unfractured and fractured wells in infinite and finite-acting, homogeneous and dual porosity reservoirs, for constant rate and constant pressure cases. -- Variable-rate convolution (specialized plots). -- The pseudopressure and pseudotime concepts for the analysis of well test data for dry gas reservoir systems. Analyze production data (rate-time or pressure-rate-time data) to obtain reservoir volume and estimates of reservoir properties for gas and liquid reservoir systems. The student should also be able to make performance forecasts for such systems. Demonstrate the capability to integrate, analyze, and interpret well test and production data to characterize a reservoir in terms of reservoir properties and performance potential (field study project).

Date

Topic Tentative Schedule ­ may be revised

Reading

Module 1: Geosciences (Ayers) Assignments, homework and reading materials will be posted in WebCT

June June June 2 4 9 11 16 18 T Th T Th T Th (Geol) Introduction; petrol. systems; source rocks; therm. mature; HC migration (Geol) Geologic time and principles, trapping mech; seals; struct. styles and features (Geol) Structural assessment and traps; folds and fractures; unconformities (Geol) Geophysical methods in petroleum evaluation (Geol) Res. Characterization; stratigraphic analysis; clastic and carbonate depositional systems; stratigraphic traps (Geol) Reservoir properties and diagenesis WebCT, pdf WebCT, pdf WebCT, pdf WebCT, pdf WebCT, pdf WebCT, pdf

23 T

June July July 25 30 2 07 09 14 Th T Th T Th T

Geoscience Examination

(FrmEvl) Logging procedures and format; Basic lithology measurements: SP and GR (FrmEvl) Nuclear tools and interpretation basics; Acoustic tools (FrmEvl) Crossplots I -- Lithology-related functions (FrmEvl) Resistivity methods I -- Principles FrmEvl) Resistivity methods II -- Advanced measurements; Crossplots II -- Saturation-related functions (FrmEvl) Shaly-sand evaluation -- Causes and effects; interpretation Hall. Ch. 1-7; 9-10 Hall. Ch. 16-18 Hall. Ch. 20,22-23 Halliburton Ch. 11-14 Halliburton Ch. 15 Halliburton Ch. 21,24,25 Hall. Ch. 27; Handout

Module 2: Formation Evaluation (Schechter)

16 Th

21 23 28 30 August 04 06 July T Th T Th T Th

Formation Evaluation Examination

(ResPrf) Analysis/Interpretation of Well Test Data -- "Conventional" Analyses (ResPrf) Analysis/Interpretation of Well Test Data -- "Type Curve" Analyses (ResPrf) Analysis/Interpretation of Well Test Data -- Design/Integration/Analysis (ResPrf) Analysis/Interpretation of Prod. Data -- Introduction; "Decline" Analyses (ResPrf) Analysis/Interpretation of Production Data -- "Type Curve" Analyses (ResPrf) Analysis/Interpretation of Production Data -- Integration/Forecasting Lee Ch. 1-3; Lee-Wat. Ch. 1,6 Lee Ch. 4; Lee-Wat. Ch. 6 Lee Ch. 4; Lee-Wat. Ch. 6 Lee Ch. 5; Lee-Wat. Ch. 7,9 Lee Ch. 5; Lee-Wat. Ch. 7,9 Lee Ch. 5; Lee-Wat. Ch. 7,9

Module 3: Analysis of Reservoir Performance (Blasingame)

August 11 T

Due date for submission of remaining project/homework materials.

There is no comprehensive final examination for this course -- the timeslot for the final examination will be used as the final due date for assignments related to the Analysis of Reservoir Performance (Module 3).

4 Petroleum Engineering 663 Formation Evaluation and the Analysis of Reservoir Performance Required University Statements -- Texas A&M University, Summer 2009 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Statement: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room B118 of Cain Hall, or call 845-1637. Aggie Honor Code: (http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor/) "An Aggie does not lie, cheat or steal, or tolerate those who do." Definitions of Academic Misconduct: 1. CHEATING: Intentionally using or attempting to use unauthorized materials, information, notes, study aids or other devices or materials in any academic exercise. 2. FABRICATION: Making up data or results, and recording or reporting them; submitting fabricated documents. 3. FALSIFICATION: Manipulating research materials, equipment or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record. 4. MULTIPLE SUBMISSION: Submitting substantial portions of the same work (including oral reports) for credit more than once without authorization from the instructor of the class for which the student submits the work. 5. PLAGIARISM: The appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit. 6. COMPLICITY: Intentionally or knowingly helping, or attempting to help, another to commit an act of academic dishonesty. 7. ABUSE AND MISUSE OF ACCESS AND UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS: Students may not abuse or misuse computer access or gain unauthorized access to information in any academic exercise. See Student Rule 22: http://student-rules.tamu.edu/ 8. VIOLATION OF DEPARTMENTAL OR COLLEGE RULES: Students may not violate any announced departmental or college rule relating to academic matters. 9. UNIVERSITY RULES ON RESEARCH: Students involved in conducting research and/or scholarly activities at Texas A&M University must also adhere to standards set forth in University Rule 15.99.03.M1 Responsible Conduct in Research and Scholarship. For additional information please see: http://rules.tamu.edu/urules/100/159903m1.htm. Plagiarism Statement: The materials used in this course are copyrighted. These materials include but are not limited to syllabi, quizzes, exams, lab problems, in-class materials, review sheets, and additional problem sets. Because these materials are copyrighted, you do not have the right to copy the handouts, unless permission is expressly granted. As commonly defined, plagiarism consists of passing off as one's own the ideas, words, writings, etc., which belong to another. In accordance with this definition, you are committing plagiarism if you copy the work of another person and turn it in as your own, even is you should have the permission of that person. Plagiarism is one of the worst academic sins, for the plagiarist destroys the trust among colleagues without which research cannot be safely communicated. If you have any questions regarding plagiarism, please consult the latest issue of the Texas A&M University Student Rules, http://student-rules.tamu.edu, under the section "Scholastic Dishonesty."

Petroleum Engineering 664 Deterministic Petroleum Economics and Reserves Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Fall 2009

Instructors: George Voneiff, Peter Bastian Contact Information: Email [email protected]

Description: Deterministic evaluation techniques for oil & gas properties focusing on economic analyses, reserves classifications and decision making. Objectives: · Compute net present value, rate of return and payout for a cash flow stream. · Construct and run a decline curve history matching and forecasting model. · Construct and run a before-tax economic model utilizing a production forecast · Apply depreciation schedules to an after-tax economic evaluation. · Use economic outputs to make a business decision. · Assign reserves to a deterministic reserves classification system. · Present the recommendations, conclusions and results of an economic evaluation in a well-organized report. Text: Cronquist, C., Estimation and Classification of Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Condensate, SPE (2001) (available from SPE for a member price of about $62.85) Mian, M. A., Project Economics and Decision Analysis, Volume I: Deterministic Models, PennWell (2002) (available from SPE for a member price of about $67.50) Class Schedule: Friday 1:50 ­ 5:25 PM, 302 Richardson Prerequisite: While there is no prerequisite, it is assumed you have a basic understanding of reservoir engineering principles and are proficient with MS Excel. If you are lacking either of these traits, then you may need to supplement this class with reservoir engineering study and/or spreadsheet training. Basis for grade: Homework and class discussion......................................... 20% Mid Project ................................................................ 30% Final Project ............................................................... 50%

Notes: 1. Homework is due at the start of class and should be turned in electronically. Word documents, Excel spreadsheets and .PDF files are acceptable. Late homework will receive a grade of zero.

2. Mid-Term and Final Projects will be turned in electronically. In-Class students will also turn in a printed version of those projects. 3. Class discussions will include reading assignments and homework. Please come to class prepared to discuss the assigned topics for the day. 4. Assignments and other course materials will be posted on Vista. You will need to establish a Vista account for this class and monitor the web site regularly.

Vista Account Because course information will be posted on Vista regularly, I ask that you please monitor at least once a day. To set up your Vista account for this course, please do the following: Go to elearning.tamu.edu. Find the link to Vista Logon. Click the link. Use your NetID (Neo ID and password) to logon. Click on the course name. This should be all you need. If you think you can't get there from here, please contact Mary Lu Epps or Ted Jones in the 407 office suite for help.

Academic Integrity Syllabus Statement "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." All syllabi shall contain a section that states the Aggie Honor Code and refers the student to the Honor Council Rules and Procedures on the web http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor < http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor> It is further recommended that instructors print the following on assignments and examinations: "On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work." ________________________________ Signature of student

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Policy Statement

The following ADA Policy Statement (part of the Policy on Individual Disabling Conditions) was submitted to the UCC by the Department of Student Life. The policy statement was forwarded to the Faculty Senate for information. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal antidiscrimination statue that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe that you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room 126 of the Koldus Building, or call 845-1637.

Petroleum Engineering 667 Probabilistic Petroleum Economics and Reserves Syllabus and Administrative Procedures Spring 2009

Instructors: George Voneiff, Peter Bastian Contact Information: Email [email protected]

Description: Probabilistic evaluation techniques for oil & gas properties, including reservoir descriptions, economic analyses, reserves classifications and decision making. Objectives: · Compute and graph mean, median, standard deviation, percentile and distribution type for a population and use those parameters in a probabilistic analysis · Construct and solve expected value trees for oil & gas applications · Load and run the @Risk Excel add-in module · Construct and run Monte Carlo simulations for oil & gas applications · Use probabilistic outputs to make a business decision · Assign reserves to a probabilistic reserves classification system · Present the recommendations, conclusions and results of a probabilistic evaluation in a well-organized report Text: Cronquist, C., Estimation and Classification of Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Condensate, SPE (2001) (available from SPE for a member price of about $62.85) Mian, M. A., Project Economics and Decision Analysis, Volume II: Probabilistic Models, PennWell (2002) (available from SPE for a member price of about $67.50) Prerequisite: PETE 664 (no exceptions), you should be proficient with MS Excel and you will need to load and use Palisade's @Risk Excel add-in. A temporary copy of @Risk is included with Mian Vol II. You will also need two spreadsheets you built in PETE 664, a decline curve production forecasting spreadsheet and a 40-yr monthly before-tax petroleum economics spreadsheet. Class Schedule: F, 2-5 PM, 302 Richardson Basis for grade: Homework and class discussion......................................... 20% Mid-Term Project......................................................... 30% Final Project ............................................................... 50%

Notes:

1. Homework is due at the start of class and should be turned in electronically. Word documents, Excel spreadsheets and .PDF files are acceptable. Late homework will receive a grade of zero. 2. Mid-Term and Final Projects will be turned in electronically. In-Class students will also turn in a printed version of those projects. 3. Class discussions will include reading assignments and homework. Please come to class prepared to discuss the assigned topics for the day. 4. Assignments and other course materials will be posted on Vista. You will need to establish a Vista account for this class and monitor the web site regularly.

Vista Account Because course information will be posted on Vista regularly, I ask that you please monitor at least once a day. To set up your Vista account for this course, please do the following: Go to elearning.tamu.edu. Find the link to Vista Logon. Click the link. Use your NetID (Neo ID and password) to logon. Click on the course name. This should be all you need. If you think you can't get there from here, please contact Mary Lu Epps, Ted Jones or Darla-Jean Weatherford in the 407 office suite for help.

Academic Integrity Syllabus Statement "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal or tolerate those who do." All syllabi shall contain a section that states the Aggie Honor Code and refers the student to the Honor Council Rules and Procedures on the web http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor < http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor> It is further recommended that instructors print the following on assignments and examinations: "On my honor, as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work." ________________________________ Signature of student

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Policy Statement The following ADA Policy Statement (part of the Policy on Individual Disabling Conditions) was submitted to the UCC by the Department of Student Life. The policy statement was forwarded to the Faculty Senate for information. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal antidiscrimination statue that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe that you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact the Department of Student Life, Services for Students with Disabilities in Room 126 of the Koldus Building, or call 845-1637.

SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location Energy and Sustainability ­ PETE 689 Fall 2011 TBD Course Description and Prerequisites Overview of energy resources and use with special attention to their long term sustainability; considers fossil, nuclear, and alternative energy sources, electricity and transportation, energy conversions, energy efficiency, energy security, energy policy, and environmental impact. Graduate classification. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to be able to: 1. Find and use scholarly information about energy and the environment. 2. Apply energy conversions to comparing energy resource and use options. 3. Quantify energy and environment costs and benefits for fossil fuels and alternative energy sources. 4. Quantify the potential energy security implications of various energy options. 5. Quantify the potential costs and benefits of carbon constraints.

Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Dr. Christine Economides (979) 458-0797 [email protected] By apppointment 710F Richardson Building

Occasional guest lecturers

Textbook and/or Resource Material Tester, Jefferson W. et al.: Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options, The MIT Press (July 1, 2005).

Grading Policies Examinations (2).................................................................................................(30%) Project..............................................................................................................(30%) Homework/Other.................................................................................................(20%) Class Participation...............................................................................................(20%) Total................................................................................................................(100%) The class project will require a report suitable for journal publication.

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Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates

Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Topic Energy and the economy Energy and the environment Fossil fuels Nuclear energy Biomass Hydroelectric and geothermal Wind and solar Energy storage Electricity transmission and distribution Energy and transportation Industrial energy usage Energy efficiency Carbon concerns and constraints Informed energy choices

Other Pertinent Course Information This course is an approved elective for the proposed graduate level Energy Sustainability Engineering Certificate. It is open to students with graduate standing. Although math and science skills will be applied in homework assignments, these and the project assignment will be done in teams, and the course is intended to be accessible to non-science and non-engineering majors. Certificate students will be given enrollment preference.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides

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comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location Advanced Drilling Engineering ­ PETE 689 Spring 2010 Distance Learning Course Course Description and Prerequisites This is a special topics course which covers underbalanced drilling, offshore drilling, horizontal, extended reach, multi-lateral drilling and fishing operations, geothermal drilling, and high pressure high temperature drilling. Prerequisites: Graduate classification; PETE 405 or equivalent basic drilling engineering. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Become familiar with the latest technology developments in order to optimize drilling processes. 2. Get an overview of advanced drilling technology such as pressure drilling, casing drilling, and dual gradient drilling. 3. Understand underbalanced drilling techniques, benefits, and well engineering. 4. Discuss and analyze non-conventional drilling methods and environmental aspects of drilling activities. 5. Meet with industry experts to talk about special advanced drilling engineering topics.

Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Dr. Catalin Teodoriu, Ph.D. 05323-722239 [email protected] TBD TBD

Textbook and/or Resource Material SPE papers will be distributed during lectures.

Grading Policies Final Exam.......................................................................................................(2040%) Major Project.....................................................................................................(60%) Total...............................................................................................................(100%)

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Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates Week 1 2-3 Topics Introduction to class; review of important topics of previous classes Advanced drilling technology topics: o Managed pressure drilling o Dual gradient drilling o Special well control issues Mechanized drilling operations: o Makeup of tubular, mechanized drilling rigs Underbalanced drilling (UBD): o Introduction to UBD o UBD techniques o Benefits of UBD equipment o Selecting an appropriate candidate o UBD well engineering Advanced Drilling Technologies: o Casing drilling o HPHT o Introduction to horizontal/extended reach and multilateral drilling fishing operations Non-conventional drilling methods and equipment including environmental aspects of drilling activities Special topics covered by industry experts

4-5

6-7

8-9

10-11

12-14

Other Pertinent Course Information Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location Advanced Numerical Methods for Reservoir Simulation Spring 2010 MWF, 11:30 a.m. ­ 12:20 p.m., RICH 208 Course Description and Prerequisites This is a special topics course which covers the numerical simulation of flow in porous media. It is based on textbooks related to numerical methods for partial differential equations and on published papers and supplemented by research topics. The students will be expected to develop a reservoir simulator as part of this course. Graduate classification. Attendance will be limited to a maximum of 15 students. Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of the course are for students to: 1. Develop an in-depth understanding of current approaches to building models of flow in porous media and its numerical simulation.

Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Dr. Eduardo Gildin (979) 862-4578 [email protected] TBD 401J Richardson Building

Textbook and/or Resource Material The main source of material for the course will be a series of notes and slides handed out to the students. Complementary textbooks are: Understanding and Implementing the Finite Element Method by Mark S. Gockenbach, SIAM, 2006. Theory and Practice of Finite Elements by Alexandre Ern and Jean-Luc Guermond, Springer, 2004 Computational Methods for Multiphase Flow in Porous Media, Chen, Zhangxin SIAM, 2006 Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems, Randall LeVeque, 2004

Grading Policies Presentations & Class Participation.......................................................................(10%) Homework........................................................................................................(15%) Major Project.....................................................................................................(25%) Mid-Term Exam..................................................................................................(25%) Final Report......................................................................................................(25%) Total...............................................................................................................(100%)

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Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates Week 1-3 Topic Introduction to reservoir simulation and partial differential equations o Research issues o Understanding the overall iterative workflow o Introduction to partial differential equations o Pde's solution methods Flow and transport Equation o Single-phase flow o Two-phase flow o Rock and Fluid Properties o Black-oil model Numerical Methods o Finite difference methods o Standard Finite Element Methods o Control Volume Finite Element Methods o Mixed Finite Element Methods Conservation laws and differential equations o Linear Hyperbolic equations o Finite Volume Methods o Upwind and Godunov's Methods High Resolution Methods o Total Variation o TVD o Convergence, Accuracy, and Stability

4-5

6-8

9

10-11

12-13 Solution to Linear and Nonlinear Systems o Gaussian Elimination o CG o GMRES o Preconditioning

14-15

Class Projects o Simulator Results

Other Pertinent Course Information Since general reservoir simulation concepts will be discussed with no emphasis on specific areas, all engineering majors are welcome to attend the class. Also, mathematics and applied mathematics students are well suited to attend this course, although there will be no specific emphasis on the numerical algorithms and theorems proofs. The prerequisites for the class are the following: Basic Reservoir Simulation or equivalent class; Linear Algebra and Matrix Computations of equivalent class; Advanced Calculus or equivalent class; Programming experience. Although Matlab will be emphasized

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in this class, any other language that the student is familiar with (Fortran, C, C++, etc) will be fine as well.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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SYLLABUS

Course title and number Term (e.g., Fall 200X) Meeting times and location PETE 689 - Special Topics in Horizontal Well Completion and Stimulation Spring 2010 TR, 9:35-10:50 a.m. Course Description and Prerequisites This course will discuss the integrated drilling, completion and stimulation issues in horizontal well development. The topics of the course include well orientation for drilling, completion and stimulation consideration, well completion design, completion performance, horizontal well hydraulic fracturing and acid stimulation. Intelligent completion will also be discussed. Field examples will be used to illustrate the applications of the theories and models presented in the course. Prerequisites: Graduate classification Learning Outcomes or Course Objectives The objectives of this course are for students to: 1. Discuss drilling, completion and stimulation issues in horizontal well development. 2. Review well orientation, well completion design, completion performance, horizontal well hydraulic fracturing, acid stimulation and intelligent completion. 3. Review field cases to demonstrate the applications of the theories and models presented. Instructor Information Name Telephone number Email address Office hours Office location Dr. Ding Zhu 979-458-4522 [email protected] TR, 11:00 a.m.-12:00 p.m. 401K Richardson Building Textbook and/or Resource Material · · Multilateral Wells, A. Daniel Hill, D. Zhu and M.J. Economides, SPE, 2009 Supplemental papers from the literature Grading Policies Midterm Exam........................................................................................................30% Final Exam............................................................................................................40% Class Projects/Homework.........................................................................................30% Total....................................................................................................................100% Grading Scale A....................................................................................................................90-100% B.....................................................................................................................80-89% C.....................................................................................................................70-79% D.....................................................................................................................60-69% F.......................................................................................................................0-59%

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Course Topics, Calendar of Activities, Major Assignment Dates Week 1 2 3-5 Topic Introduction: Application of Horizontal Wells Overview of Reservoir, Production and Stimulation of Horizontal Wells Stress Field Effect on Horizontal Drilling and Completion -Bore hole stability of horizontal wells -Well orientation for perforation design -Well orientation consideration for fracturing Multilateral Well Performance Prediction -Reservoir Inflow Performance Analytical models of horizontal wellbore inflow Point/Line source methods Reservoir simulation approach Gas reservoir performance -Wellbore flow behavior p in laterals Main wellbore pressure profile -Multilateral well deliverability Coupling of reservoir and wellbore flow behavior Wellhead performance prediction Determining crossflow conditions Intelligent (Smart) Wells -Downhole monitoring Temperature Pressure Flow rate Fiber optic measurements -Downhole control Sliding sleeves Downhole chokes -Downhole separation ­ simultaneous production and injection Optimization of multilateral well performance Complex or Multiple Well Exploitation Economics -Economics of complex wells versus multiple well exploitation -Risk analysis in complex well capital investment Other Pertinent Course Information

6-7

8 9-10

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Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities be guaranteed a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. If you believe you have a disability requiring an accommodation, please contact Disability Services, in Cain Hall, Room B118, or call 845-1637. For additional information visit http://disability.tamu.edu Academic Integrity For additional information please visit: http://www.tamu.edu/aggiehonor "An Aggie does not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do."

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Syllabi for TAMU PETE Graduate courses

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