Read Microsoft PowerPoint - Survey of American Literature (Premodern).ppt text version

Survey of American Literature (Premodern) 18th and Early 19th Centuries Charts for LIT 211 Mary F Clifford, Instructor

The Literature of Early America

Colonists did not call themselves "Americans" before mid-18th Century Enormous displacement of Native American civilizations across the continent

French settled along the St. Lawrence River Swedes settled along the Delaware River Dutch settled along the Hudson River Germans and Scots-Irish settled in New York and Penn Spanish settled in Florida Africans (mostly slaves) were in New England, Middle Colonies and throughout the South

Native American Civilizations and Cultures

Except for Central American natives' documents, no writings from North America before colonization With Europeans came slaughter, slavery, diseases lethal to Natives

Between 1492 and 1617, Native American population was reduced to 10% of original numbers By the end of the 17 Century, Native population in Southern colonies went from 200,000 to less than 60,000

Iroquois formed an alliance to try to counter colonial takeover of lands Cherokees became agricultureal in an attempt to assimilate Tribes aligned with French during French and Indian War (1754-1763) to stop the British move westward

Exploration and Colonization

First European to North America = Leif Ericson, 1000 Columbus landed on Hispaniola (now island of Haiti and Dominican Republic), 1492 Sir Walter Raleigh landed on Roanoke Island, NC, 1580s First British permanent colony = Jamestown, VA, 1607 led by Captain John Smith Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, Mass, 1620 Puritans formed Mass Bay Colony, 1630-43

Colonization (cont'd)

Reformation in Europe set the stage for colonization to North America

Henry VIII established Anglican Church, separated from the Roman Catholic Church control Martin Luther denounced the Pope as infallible--Protestant religions flourished--Calvinism, Lutheranism, Anabaptists, Presbyterians/Episcopalians, Quakers As religious control diminished, capitalism grew radically in England, France, Spain Columbus, Ponce de Leon, Cabeza de Vaca, Coronado, and Pizarro sailed under Spanish flag

Colonization (cont'd)

British colonies fell into 3 cultural and economic groups

Southern = from West Indies to Virginia

Most difficult to settle due to malaria, but ultimately the most prosperous with the introduction of African slaves During 17, 18 & 19 Centuries, 300,000 slaves were sold in North America

Middle = between Chesapeake and Massachusetts Bay

Most ethnically and religiously diverse Dutch (New York) and Quakers (Penn) promoted freedom and tolerance Quakers first to denouce slavery (1688)

New England

Settlement lagged behind other colonies due to bitter cold

The Renaissance, The Reformation, and Cultural Change

Renaissance began in Italy in 14 and 15 Centuries

Advances in art, government, philosophy, science Reformation = separation of various monarchs from Roman Catholic control and establishment of "protest" religions = Protestantism Two great technical achievements = gunpowder and printing press

Firearms made armor obsolete Books educated the masses, and weakened the power of kings and priests Development of multiple-masted ships advanced global trade

Two scientific inventions = microscope (1590) and telescope (1606) encouraged scientific and geographic exploration

The Separatists and the Puritans

Puritans and Pilgrims were members of the Church of England Pilgrims = Separatists moved to Holland in 1608 to practice a "pure and unspotted" Christianity Eventually Pilgrims became disenchanted with Holland and sailed to the Colonies = 102 pilgrims left Holland and about 50 landed at Plymouth, Mass., in 1620 Puritans came to New England to establish a colony based on "Bible law" = continued as official members of the Church of England Puritans were worldly, did not practice as a cloistered group Both Puritans and Pilgrims read the Geneva Bible (written by English scholars in Geneva, Switzerland, center of Protestant learning and theology in Europe)

Separatists and Puritans (cont'd)

Doctrines of both groups were shaped by teachings of Martin Luther and John Calvin

Martin Luther (1483-1546), a German monk, professor of theology at U of Wittenberg Claimed the Bible should be the final word of God, not the Pope John Calvin (1509-1564), a French theologian, lived and taught in Geneva, Switzerland Calvin's The Institutes of the Christian Religion, detailed Puritans' beliefs of original sin, limited atonement, grace only from God, perseverance of saints, predestination Central idea was covenant theology = Adam and Eve made covenant with God, then broke it

Puritans (cont'd)

Puritans were dedicated to self-determination, independence and freedom, strong tradition of preaching, and thus education Sermons were most popular literary form Mass Bay Colony became cultural center of colonies

Harvard founded at Cambridge in 1636 First colonial press established in 1638 at Cambridge First book printed in colonies in 1640 First colonial newspaper published in Boston in 1690

The Rise of Pluralism

Puritanism declined before end of colonial period Religious and social unity gave way to diversity Early American literature, following the Puritan era, included

Biographies Secular poetry Political documents/speeches

William Bradford (1590-1657)

Original home in Yorkshire, England

Orphaned son of yeoman farmer Sickly but intelligent In 1606 Bradford joined a group of religious separatists that met secretly in nearby village of Scrooby In 1608 Bradford went to Amsterdam with the Separatists, then to Leyden, where he became a weaver, learned Dutch, French, Latin, Greek and Hebrew In 1617 Separatists decided to go to New World In 1620 Separatists obtained a charter from England (granting the right to settle on land in America owned by the Virginia Company of London) Merchant Adventurers (investors in London) financed the trip

In return Separatists agreed to ship furs, fish and minerals back to London

William Bradford (cont'd)

102 men, women and children crowded on Mayflower for America ­ only a few were Separatists

65 days later they landed at Cape Cod, Mass.

Because they were not in Virginia, they agreed to sign a Mayflower Compact, self-government document

Elected first governor, John Carver When Carver died, Bradford succeeded him, from 1621 to 1656

Bradford began writing history of Plymouth Plantation in 1630 ­ finally published in 1856 Remained pious, humble, and personally poor Died in 1657 at 67 years

Roger Williams (1603-1683)

Born in London to middle-class merchant family At Cambridge University, prepared for career in the church

In 1629 took a position as chaplain to a wealthy family Became a Separatist, and in 1630 left for Massachusetts

In New World Williams' unorthodoxy bloomed Settled in Salem, spoke out against Puritan leadership

Moved to Plymouth Colony In 1633 returned to Mass Bay Colony and became minister of Salem church

Continued to speak out against religious establishment

Argued for separation of church and state

In 1635 Williams banished from Colony as a heretic and threatened with deportation to England

Fled into wilderness, given refuge by friendly Indians Migrated to Rhode Island and established Providence Plantation

Roger Williams (cont'd)

Rhode Island Way established

Indian rights protected, church and state separated, religious tolerance maintained Colony prospered

Williams' writings were paradoxical = hearty and generous, but rash and destructive Williams honored freedom more than harmony, liberty more than order Since 19th Century, Williams honored as an American saint, political ancestor of Jefferson

His attacks on authority and orthodoxy have become part of the American ideal of popular democracy

Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)

First poet of English-speaking North America

Puritan who balanced her roles of wife and mother and published poet Born in England, raised in luxury on the estate of the Earl of Lincoln, where her father, Thomas Dudley, was steward At 16 she married Simon Bradstreet, Puritan and Cambridge University graduate Both families--Dudleys and Bradstreets--sailed on Arbella to Mass Bay Colony

In Mass Bay Colony Thomas Dudley succeeded John Winthrop as governor of Colony

Anne Bradstreet (cont'd)

Bradstreet and husband settled on farm near Andover, raised eight children, and she wrote poetry In 1647 Bradstreet's brother-in-law, John Woodbridge, pastor of Andover church, sailed to England, taking copies of her poems In 1650 poems were published ­ The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in American or Several Poems, Compiled with a Great Variety of Wit and Learning, Full of a Gentlewoman of Those Parts =

first volume of published poetry written by colonist Poems addressed vanity of worldly pleasures, brevity of life, resignation to God's will Poems published posthumously in 1678 show more doubts about Christian beliefs, skepticism, and poetry was simpler, more lyrical

Cotton Mather (1663-1728)

Grandfathers, Richard Mather and John Cotton ­ founders of New England church and state

Father, Increase Mather, president of Harvard

Cotton Mather was brilliant

By 12 he had learned Latin, read New Testament in Greek, studied Hebrew At Harvard, he was considered a bookworm, but graduated at 15 Stuttered as a child, but stuttering improved as an adult, and Mather was ordained in 1685 at Second Church of Boston, where he was its minister for the rest of his life.

Cotton Mather (cont'd)

Mather's life filled with trials and tribulations

Had 15 children, but only two survived him Married three times, first two died, third went insane Financial problems, public humiliations caused by a bad son Agonizing doubts about his calling to the ministry Has been linked to Salem witch trials, but he never actually participated in them, although he did believe in witchcraft Advocated inoculations against smallpox Author of > 400 works = essays, biographies, science, medicine, philosophy and theology studies, and thousands of sermons

Most didactic, attempts at reinvigorating waning Puritanism Mather's vision of New England was a theocratic Eden Ultimately Mather became a symbol of a declining religion

Elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London

Literature of the Eighteenth Century

18th Century = Age of Reason, Enlightenment

Profound changes took place in western world European and African populations in North America ­ from 250,000 in 1700 to 5,000,000 in 1800 Continuous westward expansion displaced Native Americans Iroquois Confederacy = Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora nations, aligned with French

British won the French and Indian war nevertheless and took control of most of the territory east of Mississippi

Ethnic diversity, economic strength, Enlightenment ideals laid foundation for the United States

Illuminating the Enlightenment

Age of Reason = began in 17th Century England, spread to France and Europe, and then colonies

Philosophy of Rene Descartes (1596-1650) = rejection of medieval authoritarianism Writings of Voltaire (1694-1778) = attack on dogma Founding of Royal Society of London in 1662 = for the "improvement of natural knowledge" Discoveries of Isaac Newton (1642-1727) = natural universe can be understood by any person; offered a single mathematical law that accounted for movement of tides, earth, stars; beginning of modern science, which also weakened faith in miracles, holy books, idea of divinity of kings

Enlightenment (cont'd)

Age of Reason (cont'd)

John Locke (1632-1704), English philosopher = morality is capable of demonstration as well as mathematics Benjamin Franklin = advocated reasonable "science of virtue" Thomas Paine = wrote The Age of Reason = attacked irrationality of traditional Christianity Theology became rational; religion became deistic

Deism = informal, unorganized religious movement among upper classes and intellectuals

Humanitarianism, natural philosophy, scientific observation Progress became dominant concept of the age Movements arose for social betterment, prison reform, sympathy for Native Americans, slaves, poor and oppressed

Enlightenment (cont'd)

John Locke wrote Treatises of Civil Government (1690) = governments resulted from agreements between people, not divinely ordained from God to kings to men

Enlightenment was an age of dissent, revolution Human mind is a tabula rasa = blank slate, thus man is born neither good nor bad, but the result of experiences

By end of 18th Century = faith in human perfectability at its apogee with writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) = "man is not merely free of evil--he is naturally good."

Enlightenment (cont'd)

Thomas Paine = wrote and spoke of the rights of man (and woman) Thomas Jefferson = "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" Writers used the idea of a new Rome/new Athens-- neoclassicism--in their works, with ideals of clarity, decorum, regularity; exhibited "clear sense" and "mathematical plainness"

Prose = rhythm of cultivated speech; poetry = measured cadence of heroic couplet; drama = unities of time, place, action John Dryden (1631-1700) = glorious founder of neoclassicism Alexander Pope (1688-1744) = splendid high priest of neoclassicism Idea of "noble savage" permeated writings of the wilderness, of primitive man

By mid-18th Century, neoclassicism gave way to romanticism = sentimentalism, extravagant feelings, emotionalism

An Emerging American Literature

Beginning of 18th Century, colonies had one newspaper; by 1800 there were 200

Benjamin Franklin began first American magazine = General Magazine, in Philadelphia in 1741; by 1800, 91 magazines

Franklin exemplified and wrote secular ideals, humanist concepts, scientific ideas, master of diplomacy; he was instrumental in starting libraries, schools, hospitals, urban fire stations, post office

American writing patterned on 18th Century English writing, but lagged behind slightly First American novel = The Power of Sympathy, by William Hill

Brown in 1789

Emerging American Literature (cont)

Penn law in 1700 prohibited stage plays; early colonists thought plays were indecent and corrupting, actors immoral and spread disease

First play in America = Thomas Godfrey's The Prince of Parthia, in 1767; Not performed again until 1915 First comedic play in America = Royall Tyler's The Contrast

American literature in 18th Century dominated by pamphlets, essay, journal articles, newspapers, and the political documents we use still

Enlightenment Contradictions

American Revolution was an upper-class rebellion

Not everyone benefited from "life, liberty, pursuit of happiness" Forcible removal of Native Americans became U.S. policy after the revolution "Science" and "reason" used to justify slavery and "inferiority of darker races" Slavery was the most divisive issue at Constitutional Convention = led to compromises that ultimately helped create the Civil War Nevertheless, founding documents have been interpreted in modern times to support freedoms and liberties for minorities, poor and women

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Perfect example of "poor boy makes good"

Born in Boston, fifteenth child of poor candlemaker Apprenticed to brother who was a printer ­ by 16 he was a master printer, writing for brother's newspaper

Used pen name Silence Dogood to write satirical commentary on Boston society, politics, religion

At 17 he went to Philadelphia, set up a printing business

In 1732 began publishing "Poor Richard's Almanack"

At 42, wealthy and famous, retired from business to devote his life to science and public service

Organized American Philosophical Society, University of Penn, first charity hospital, invented bifocal spectacles and lightning rod, made discoveries about electricity

Benjamin Franklin (cont'd)

Between 1757-1775, represented colonies in England Returned to Philadelphia, was named delegate to Second Constitutional Congress and member of committee to write the Declaration of Independence In 1776 Congress sent him to be Minister to France, to seek aid for faltering Revolution

Played the noble rustic, wore fur cap Negotiated Treaty of Alliance in 1778 = joined France and America against England

Returned to America in 1783, named as delegate to Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, worked to gain ratification of the Constitution

Benjamin Franklin (cont'd)

Only American to sign all four documents that created the Republic: Declaration of Independence, Treaty of Alliance with France, Treaty of Peace with England, US Constitution

At his death, he was considered the Father of the US Helped create cult of self-reliance = beginnings of transcendentalism and industrial society Europeans thought he was greater than Voltaire, wiser than Rousseau Master of satire and political journalism With his autobiography, he set the form for autobiography Remains most influential and most read of American writers

Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

Born in Thetford, England, son of Quaker farmer and corset maker

After attending grammar school, worked as staymaker for his father, than served as sailor, schoolteacher, government tax collector By 37, he had failed at variety of professions, declared a bankrupt Met Franklin in London; left for America with Letter of Introduction from Franklin In Philadelphia he wrote for Pennsylvania Magazine Published Common Sense in January 1776 = filled with rhetoric of revolution, called for independence from England

Within 5 months 100,000 copies had been distributed in Colonies

Thomas Paine (cont'd)

In 1776 he published first of Crisis papers = "These are the times that try men's souls"

Fifteen more Crisis papers over the next 7 years = argued for revolution, independence

After Revolution, Paine devoted time to designing an iron bridge, returned to England in 1787 to find financial backing

In England Paine wrote a reply to Edmund Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution (1790), which supported monarchies and condemned revolutions = The Rights of Man (1791-2) = defended revolution and insisted man not bound to hereditary rulers

Thomas Paine (cont'd)

British government charged Paine with sedition, order him to trail

He fled to France, given French citizenship and seat in National Assembly Opposition to execution of Louis XVI angered Jacobins, he was arrested and imprisoned for ten months James Monroe, Ambassador to France, gained Paine's release on grounds that Paine was American citizen Paine completed The Age of Reason in Paris, 1794-6 = attack on irrationality of religion and support of deism; vilified by clerics and journalists

Thomas Paine (cont'd)

In 1802 Paine returned to America, poor and ill

His illusions about man's innate goodness were shattered

He died in 1809 ­ request for burial in a Quaker cemetery was refused

Buried on his farm in New Rochelle, New York Ten years later, his remains were exhumed and taken to England--and lost. Final resting place is unknown

He preached doctrines of natural rights, equality of men, social contract

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

Man of encyclopedic knowledge and accomplishments

Politician, statesman, artist, scientist, inventor, patron of eduction, literary stylist, servant of the Republic Governor of Virginia ­ 1779-1781 American Minister to France ­ 1797-1801 Secretary of State ­ 1790-1793 Vice President ­ 1797-1801 President ­ 1801-1809 Commissioned the Lewis and Clark Expedition ­ 1801-1803 Founded University of Virginia Founded Democratic Party Louisiana Purchase ­ 1803 (doubled size of U.S.)

Thomas Jefferson (cont'd)

Born in central Virginia

At 17, sent to College of William and Mary, where he started the library that grew to >10,000 volumes, ultimately started the Library of Congress After graduation, studied law In 1769 was elected to Virginia House of Burgesses

He was sent with delegation to Second Constitutional Congress in Philadelphia

Selected to draft Declaration of Independence

He was an egalitarian, opposed limelight, supported aristocracy ­ "rule of the best", poor military leader, no orator, but ranks with Lincoln for brilliant political prose

Thomas Jefferson (cont'd)

He left voluminous correspondence (>18,000 letters) Notes on the State of Virginia (1785) = most important American political and scientific book of the age

Started as statistical survey and commentary on America, but contains his beliefs, ideas on art, education, slavery, science, nature

Today he is vilified as racist hypocrite Died on July 4, 1826 ­ he wanted on his tomb stone:

Author of Declaration of Independence Author of Statute of Virginia for religious freedom Father of the University of Virginia

The Federalist (1787-1788)

In Spring 1787 Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia to amend Articles of Confederation

Delegates decided to create a Constitution Mid-September Constitution was adopted and sent to states for ratification Many opposed a new Constitution = too much power to central government, lacked a bill of rights to protect citizens against powers of state, too general

Alexander Hamilton (1757-1804) New Yorker, lawyer, statesman, decided to write a series of article for publication in New York newspapers

Wanted to generate support for ratification and convince people of the need for a strong central government = political propaganda

Federalist (cont'd)

John Jay (1745-1829) and James Madison (1751-1836) agreed to collaborate

Jay = New York jurist, president of the Continental Congress, to become first Chief Justice of Supreme Court Madison = Virginian, fourth President of the U.S.

First 77 essays appeared in New York papers 3 or 4 times a week from October 1787 to April 1788

In May 1788 eight essays were added Total of 85 essays published as The Federalist Jay became ill and wrote only 5; Madison and Hamilton wrote the rest Articles consist of ideas of John Locke, concepts of social contract, natural rights of man

Sojourner Truth (1797-1883)

One of very few African-American women to attain legendary status in 19th Century

Born a slave in Hurley, New York, to Dutch-speaking parents, and named Isabella, youngest of 12 children, all sold to various slave owners By age of 10, she was serving a second family Forced to marry an older slave; between 1815 and 1826, she gave birth to 5 children In September 1828, Isabella and two youngest children moved to New York City, became active in Zion African Church

She claims to have had a revelation from God to change her name and go about preaching

Sojourner Truth (cont'd)

She joined Northampton Association, utopian society focused on equality and justice

She met Frederick Douglass there, and William Lloyd Garrison, who would help her publish her autobiography,

Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave

She never learned to read or write ­ her autobiography was actually written by her friend, Olive Gilbert

Her speeches made her a celebrated orator

Also worked at Freedman's Hospital in Washington, D.C. Traveled to Kansas and Wisconsin to campaign for free land for former slaves in summer of 1879 She died at her home in Battle Creek, Michigan

Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865)

Born in a log cabin in Kentucky of uneducated parents

When he was 7 family moved to southern Indiana Lincoln had some formal schooling by frontier schoolmasters He read avidly biographies, history, poetry, Bible

At 21, in 1830, Lincoln's family moved to Illinois

He worked as a farmhand, rail splitter, store clerk, mill manager, village postmaster During Black Hawk Indian War (1831-32) he was made captain of a company of volunteers Ran for Illinois legislature, was defeated; two years later, ran again and was elected, four terms (1834-1842) While in legislature, he began the study of law, and in 1837, at 28, was admitted to the bar and began law practice in Springfield, Ill.

Abraham Lincoln (cont'd)

Lincoln was adroit politician and effective stump speaker

In 1846 Illinois sent him to US Congress ­ his support for abolition of slavery cost him politically; he lost bid for second term Joined the Republican party ­ in 1858 he was chosen as the Republican candidate for US Senate against Stephen Douglas

Debates between Douglas and Lincoln around slavery got Lincoln national attention ­ he lost to Douglas In 1860 he was nominated for Presidency ­ did not win the popular vote, but was elected 16th President of the US Before his inauguration the South seceded from the Union, Confederate government formed, and nation headed toward Civil War

Abraham Lincoln (cont'd)

Lincoln's conduct of war and efforts to preserve the Union = greatest achievement in American history

He was reelected President in 1864 Little more than a month after inauguration, and four days after General Lee surrendered, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth on April 14, 1865 His enemies thought he was a crude provincial lawyer History tells us he was among the greatest two or three United States Presidents, and a brilliant orator and prose stylist

Frederick Douglass (1818-1895)

He was born in Tuckahoe, Maryland, but didn't know what date ­ few slaves knew their birth dates

Around 9, he was sent to Baltimore and became a house servant, and was taught to read by his mistress At 15, he returned to work on plantation, but was so rebellious, he was sent to "slavebreaker" for a year In 1838, when he was 21, he escaped to Massachusetts

In 1841 he joined the Mass Anti-Slavery Society, was asked to speak, and was so eloquent, he was hired as a lecturer In 1845 he published Narrative of the Life of F.D.

For 2 years he toured Great Britain, lecturing on evils of slavery In 1847, after his freedom had been purchased, he returned to America, continued to lecture and write articles

Frederick Douglass (cont'd)

He founded and edited antislavery journals ­ North Star and Douglass' Monthly Revised and republished his autobiography During Civil War, he recruited troops for Union army After War, he was appointed to political office in D.C. Became US Minister to Haiti One of 19th Century's foremost spokesmen for American Negro, for equal rights; a writer and orator of international fame

His autobiography was wholly written by himself


Microsoft PowerPoint - Survey of American Literature (Premodern).ppt

46 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate


You might also be interested in

New England Colonies tg.qxd
Microsoft Word - 5aans.doc
Microsoft Word - 2006 APUSH Web Study Kit.doc
Enlightenment Bls.qxd