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soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

rati SavguliZe

20 maisi, 2010 weli

Sejameba

bolo 15 wlis ganmavlobaSi soflis meurneobis seqtori damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg Seqmnili krizisidan neli tempiT gamodioda. miuxedavad krizisidan gamosvlis procesis meryeobisa, saqarTvelos mravalferovani klimaturi pirobebi da bunebrivi resursebi iZleva sxvadasxva saxis sasoflo sameurneo kulturis, saqmianobisa da konkurentunariani seqtoris ganviTarebis SesaZleblobas. rogorc adgilobriv, aseve saerTaSoriso bazarze soflis meurneobisa da sursaTis seqtoris konkurentunarianobis mTavari xelisSemSleli faqtorebia: (1) makro doneze ­ seqtoris ganviTarebis strategiis uqonloba, susti sajaro momsaxureba, fragmentuli miwodebis jaWvi, SezRuduli xelmisawvdomoba finansebze, maRali saprocento ganakveTebi da SezRuduli konkurencia; (2) mwarmoeblis doneze ­ saqmianobis organizaciuli da teqnikuri marTvis susti unari, saerTaSoriso standartebis SezRuduli codna da gamoyeneba, warmoebis moZvelebuli teqnologia da saqmianobis ekonomikurad araefeqturi masStabi. konkurentunariani seqtoris ganviTareba unda ganxorcieldes importis Canacvlebis politikis gatarebis gziT. xelSemwyobi politikisa da Sesabamisi instituciuri da samarTlebrivi garemos pirobebSi, adgilobriv mwarmoeblebs eqnebaT sakmarisi SesaZlebloba, rom warmatebulad Caanacvlon importi. importis Canacvlebis politika unda gatardes Semdegi damatebiTi RonisZiebis gziT: fermerTa marketinguli jgufebis CamoyalibebisTvis xelSemwyobi garemos Seqmna soflad arasasoflo-sameurneo SesaZleblobebis SeqmnisTvis mxardaWera xelisSemwyobi sainvesticio garemos Seqmna sakonsolidacio centrebis Camoyalibebisa da saerTaSoriso sacalo vaWrobis kompaniebis adgilobrivi bazriT dainteresebis mizniT sursaTis uvneblobis, veterinariisa da mcenareTa dacvis maregulirebeli institutebisa da kanonmdeblobis harmonizacia EU acquis-Tan 2 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

statistikuri monacemebis sainformacio sistema

Segrovebis

gaumjobeseba

da

bazris

arsebuli situacia

marTalia, soflis meurneobis seqtori naklebad ganviTarebulia, magram is kvlav warmoadgens saqarTvelos ekonomikis erT-erT yvelaze perspeqtiul seqtors erovnul ekonomikaSi wvlilis Setanis, sagareo vaWrobidan miRebuli wminda Semosavlis, dasaqmebisa da siRaribis Semcirebis TvalsazrisiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom ukanasknel periodSi soflis meurneobis seqtoris warmoeba klebis tendenciiT xasiaTdeboda, bolo cxra wlis ganmavlobaSi misma saSualo wilma erovnul ekonomikaSi 16 procenti Seadgina (naxazi 1).1 naxazi 1. soflis meurneobis wili mSp-Si, procenti

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

soflis meurneobis produqciisa da sursaTis eqsportidan Semosavali meryeobda 84 mln. aSS dolaridan 316.5 mln. aSS dolaramde da saSualod, eqsportidan miRebuli mTliani Semosavlebis daaxloebiT 28 procenti modioda masze (naxazi 2).

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nadirobis, satyeo meurneobis, TevzWerisa da meTevzeobis CaTvliT

3 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

naxazi 2. soflis meurneobis produqtebisa da sursaTis wili mTliani eqsportidan miRebul SemosavalebSi, procenti

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri, gamoTvlebi

miuxedavad imisa, rom soflis meurneoba ZiriTadad, kvlav saarsebo saSualebad rCeba, soflad mosaxleobis umravlesobisTvis mniSvnelovani socialuri daculobis garantias iZleva da misi ganviTareba siRaribis dasaZlevad mniSvnelovania. seqtorSi dasaqmebulia mTlianad dasaqmebuli mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 54%. saxelmwifos mxridan soflis meurneobis seqtoris mxardaWera 1997 wlidan 2007 wlamde daaxloebiT eqvsjer gaizarda. bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi sabiujeto resursebi mimarTuli iyo Semdegi prioritetuli RonisZiebebis ganxorcielebaze: msxvilfexa saqonlis jiSobrivi Semadgenlobis gaumjobeseba, sasoflo-sameurneo manqana-danadgarebis ganaxleba, samelioracio sistemebis reabilitacia, mxardaWera da falsifikaciis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli zomebi mevenaxeobasa da meRvineobaSi, sursaTis uvneblobisa da uzrunvelyofis gaumjobeseba. gegmiuri RonisZiebebis garda mniSvnelovani resursebi iqna mobilizebuli soflad sxvadasxva gauTvaliswinebeli araxelsayreli faqtorebis Sesamcireblad (naxazi 3).2

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sawvavis, xorblis fqvilis, sasuqisa da sursaTis ufaso ganawileba soflad da raionul centrebSi mcxovreb mosaxleobaze

4 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

naxazi 3. saxelmwifo wliuri xarjebi soflis meurneobaSi, mln. lari (mimdinare da mudmivi fasebi; mSp deflatori 2000=100)

wyaro: soflis meurnebobis saministro, finansTa saministro, saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi, gamoTvlebi

marTalia, am mxardaWeram sasurveli Sedegi gamoiRo arsebuli araxelsayreli faqtorebis Semcirebis TvalsazrisiT, magram sasoflosameurneo saqmianobaze misi gavlena moklevadiani aRmoCnda da saqmianobis mdgradobis gaZlierebis TvalsazrisiT gaumjobeseba ar gamouwvevia. gazrdili danaxarjebi, seqtorisTvis finansuri mxardaWerisa da sajaro momsaxurebis gawevis naTeli da detaluri samoqmedo gegmis3 ararsebobis pirobebSi, ar iyo sakmarisi soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTarebis gaumjobesebisTvis. damatebiT, bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi, soflis meurneobis seqtors didi ziani miayena rigma araxelsayrelma faqtorebma: gvalva, cxovelTa da mcenareTa daavadebebi da mavneblebi, savaWro embargo da omi. 1997 wlidan 2007 wlamde mSp (mudmivi fasebi) daaxloebiT 92 procentiT gaizarda da 2003-2007 wlebSi misma saSualo wliurma zrdam daaxloebiT 9 procenti Seadgina. amave periodSi, soflis meurneobis Sida produqtis (mudmivi fasebi) zrda iyo uaryofiT ­ (_ 36) procenti da 2003-2007 wlebSi misi saSualo wliurma vardnam Seadgina (_ 9) procenti (naxazi 4).4

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warmoebis SesaZleblobebisa da konkurentunarianobis gaZlierebisadmi mimarTuli. mSp da soflis meurneobis Sida produqtis maCveneblebi 2009 wlisTvis winaswari monacemebia.

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5 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

naxazi 4. mSp da soflis meurneobis Sida produqti, mln. lari (mudmivi fasebi; mSp deflatori 2000=100)

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri, saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi, gamoTvlebi

ekonomikurma zrdam, romelic sxva seqtorebma ganicades da rac, ZiriTadad, ucxoeTidan pirdapiri investiciebiT iyo ganpirobebuli, soflad siRaribis gaRviveba gamoiwvia. pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebi soflis meurneobaSi sakmaod umniSvnelo iyo. 2007, 2008 da 2009 wlebSi misma wilma saqarTvelos ekonomikaSi ganxorcielebuli mTliani pirdapiri ucxouri investiciebis 0.8, 0.5 da 1.2 procenti Seadgina Sesabamisad.5 2003-2008 wlebSi soflad mcxovrebTa kategoria, romelTa sakuTrebaSic aris maqsimum 0.5 ha farTobis sasoflosamurneo miwa, daucveli iyo siRaribisgan. am kategoriaSi Semavali mosaxleoba soflad mTeli mosaxleobis 35-55 procents Seadgenen am periodis ganmavlobaSi (cxrili 1).6 cxrili 1. daucveloba siRaribis mimarT soflad

Kmosaxleobis kategoria erTeuli 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 mosaxleobis ganawileba sxvadasxva kategoriebis mixedviT <0.5 ha da 0-1.5 Zroxa <0.5 ha da >=1.5 Zroxa jami procenti procenti procenti 24 11 35 30 9 39 30 7 37 36 7 43 41 9 50 47 8 55

mosaxleobis medianuri samomxmareblo xarjebi (1998 wlis fasebi) <0.5 ha da 0-1.5 Zroxa <0.5 ha da >=1.5 Zroxa qveynis maCvenebeli lari/Tve/suli lari/Tve/suli lari/Tve/suli 32 37 44 37 35 48 34 32 45 38 40 45 36 32 44 37 38 47

wyaro: sasursaTo uzrunvelyofis mdgomareoba, # 38 statistikuri biuleteni, saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

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saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri mosaxleobis jgufs siRaribisagan daucvelad ganixilavs, Tu am jgufis medianuri samomxmareblo xarjebi qveynis maCveneblis qvemoT 10 procentiT an metadaa gadaxrili.

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6 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

finansuri institutebi nakleb dainteresebas iCenen soflis meurneobisa da sursaTis seqtoris mimarT da saprocento ganakveTebi 16-20 procentze mniSvnelovnad maRalia. SesaZloa iTqvas, rom seqtorSi dazRvevis praqtika ar arsebobs da moklevadiani xelSekrulebebis praqtikidan gamomdinare, warmoebis procesis ganaxlebis xelSemwyobi lizingis instrumentis gamoyeneba sakmaod SezRudulia. soflis meurneobaSi finansuri seqtoris gaaqtiurebisTvis ZiriTadi Semaferxebeli faqtorebia maRali riskebi, qarTuli produqciis realizaciis SezRuduli SesaZlebloba da dabali momgebianoba. soflis meurneobis produqciasTan dakavSirebul ZiriTadi riskis faqtorebs warmoadgens araxelsayreli bunebrivi pirobebi ­ gvalva7 da cxovelTa da mcenareTa daavadebebisa da mavneblebis gavrcelebisgan daucveloba. memcenareoba da mexileoba (sxvadasxva xili da bostneuli Ria gruntSi, marcvlovani kulturebi, yurZeni, citrusebi) miCneulia, rogorc maRali riskis mqone saqmianobebi, xolo meTevzeoba, mefrinveleoba, mecxoveleoba da sasaTbure meurneobebi, daRmavali qronologiiT, moiazreba rogorc naklebad sarisko saqmianobebi. amas garda, finansuri institutebi sesxis gacemis TvalsazrisiT naklebad sariskod miiCneven im saqmianobis dafinasebas, romelic produqcias awvdis adgilobriv da ara saeqsporto bazars. miCneulia, rom adgilobriv bazarze moTxovna da fasebi ufro metad stabiluria da, Sesabamisad, ufro prognozirebadia, vidre saeqspoto bazrebze.8 soflis meurneobis miwis farTobi (maT Soris saZovrebi da mdeloebi) mTliani farTobis daaxloebiT 44 procents Seadgens. danarCeni farTobi dafarulia tyeebiT, wyliTa da dasaxlebuli adgilebiT. soflis meurneobis warmoeba mravalferovania da moicavs mevenaxeobas, memarcvleobas, mebostneobas, mexileobas, mesaqoneleobasa da merZeveobas, mecitruseobasa da meCaieobas. klimaturi zonebis Sesabamisad gansxvavdeba meurneobebis specializacia. bunebrivi pirobebi moiTxovs farTobebis gasarwyavebas qveynis aRmosavleT nawilSi da drenaJs dasavleTSi. gausarwyavi farTobebi gamoiyeneba mecxovelobis sakvebisa da marcvleulis warmoebisTvis, xolo gasarwyavebul farTobebSi misdeven xilisa da bostneulis warmoebas. dasavleTis subtropikuli klimati xels uwyobs mravalferovani produqtis warmoebas, maT Soris Cais da citrusisas. amavdroulad, mevenaxeoba da mexileoba farTod aris gavrcelebuli qveynis aRmosavleT nawilSi. mecxoveleobas misdeven yvela regionSi. soflis meurneobas axasiaTebs dualuri sistema da warmodgenilia SinameurneobebiTa da komerciuli meurneobebiT. produqciis ZiriTadi nawili, 90 procentze meti, maRal fragmentaciis mqone mcire zomis SinameurneobebSia koncentrirebuli. Sinameurneobebis zoma saSualod 1.22 ha-ia, romelic, rogorc wesi, warmodgenilia, saSualod, 0.45 ha farTobis mqone 2-3 miwis

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arasaTanadod ganviTarebuli sairigacio infrastruqturidan gamomdinare. oqsfamisa da elkanas (Oxfam and Elkana) 2010 wlis kvleva dafinansebasa da dazRvevaze soflis meurneobaSi

7 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

nakveTiT. Sinameurneobebis daaxloebiT 82 procenti soflis meurneobis produqtebis warmoebas sakuTari moxmarebisTvis misdevs, xolo danarCeni 18 procentisTvis soflis meurneoba Semosavlis wyaros warmoadgens.9 memcenareoba, mecxoveleobis msgavsad, dabali produqtiulobiT gamoirCeva da eqstenciuri xasiaTisaa. am qve-seqtorebis wili mTliani soflis meurneobis warmoebaSi cvalebadia. memcenareobis wilis TvalsazrisiT Semcirebis tendencia SeiniSneboda, xolo mecxoveloebis wilis TvalsazrisiT ­ zrdis (naxazi 5). naxazi 5. soflis meurneobis mTliani warmoebis struqtura, procenti

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi memcenareobis warmoeba klebis tendenciiiT xasiaTdeboda. es, ZiriTadad, savargulebis gamoyenebuli farTobis SemcirebiT iyo gamowveuli (naxazi 6).

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soflis meurneobis aRwera, 2005; gamoTvlebi

8 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

naxazi 6. gamoyenebuli soflis meurneobis savargulebis farTobi, aTasi ha

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

xorblis, qeris, simindis, lobios, mzesumziris, kartofilis da bostneulis saSualo mosavlianoba heqtarze Sesabamisad 1.7, 1.5, 2, 0.6, 0.6, 10 da 9 tonas Seadgenda. dabali saheqtro mosavlianobis garda, kulturebis (simindisa da qeris gamoklebiT) mosavlianoba klebadi dinamikiT xasiaTdeboda (naxazi 7). naxazi 7. xorblis, simindis, kartofilis da bostneulis warmoeba, aTasi tona

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

mexileobis seqtori, Txilis garda, aramdgradobiT xasiaTdeboda. SedarebiT ukeTesi mdgomareobaa vaSlis, yurZnisa da citrusebis qve-seqtorSi, gayidvebis moculobis TvalsazrisiT. am qve-setqorebma, saeqsporto da adgilobriv bazarze realizaciis xelSewyobis mxriv, saxelmwifos mxardaWera miiRes. 9 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

naxazi 8. vaSlis, yurZnisa da citrusis warmoeba, aTasi tona

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi mecxoveleobaSi produqtiuloba zrdis mcire tempiT xasiaTdeboda. furis wliuri wveladoba 935 kg-sa da 1,193 kg-s Soris meryeobda. dabali produqtiulobis garda, soflis meurneobis warmoeba daucvelia da mis efeqturobaze gavlenas axdens amindis araxelsayreli pirobebi da cxovelebisa da mcenareebis sxvadasxva daavadebebi da mavneblebi. 2000, 2004 da 2006 wlebSi gvalvebis Sedegad mniSvnelovnad Semcirda marcvleulis, bostneulisa da xilis warmoeba. 2005 wels gasarwyavebulma miwis farTobma 80-iani wlebis bolosTvis arsebuli morwyuli miwis farTobis 30 procenti Seadgina. analogiurad, 2005 wels drenaJirebuli miwis farTobma 80-iani wlebis Sua periodSi drenaJirebuli farTobis 10-20 procenti Seadgina. gauaresebuli sarwyavi infrastruqtura, morwyvis araefeqtur meTodebTan erTad, warmoebis donis aramdgradobis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizezia. sxvadasxva mavneblebi uaryofiT gavlenas axdenen mosavlis asaRebad vargisi farTobis moculobaze. Sesabamisad, yovelwliurad, daTesil da aRebul farTobebs Soris mniSvnelovani sxvaobaa. 2006 wels, amindis araxelsayrelma pirobebma mecxoveleobis qve-seqtorisTvis sakvebis ukamrisoba gamoiwvia, ris Sedegadac, mcire zomis bevri fermeri iZulebuli gaxda, sakuTrebaSi arsebuli saqonlis raodenoba Seemcirebina. 2005 da 2006 wlebSi frinvelis gripis da aseve, 2007 wels Roris Wiris gavrceleba, ZiriTadad, sazRvrebsa da qveynis SigniT veterinaruli, sanitaruli da fito-sanitaruli kontrolis minimalurma donem gamoiwvia. amis gamo, mniSvnelovnad Semcirda Sinauri frinvelisa da Roris suladoba da Sesabamisad meRorebisa da mefrinveleobis qve-seqtorebis warmoebis 10 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

moculoba. miuxedavad imisa, rom mefrinveleobis seqtorma jer kidev ver miaRwia daavadebis gavrcelebis wina periodis dones, masSi gaumjobesebisken svlis dinamika SeiniSneba. mefrinveleobisgan gansxvavebiT, meRorebis qveseqtorma, 2007 wlis mZime mdgomareobis Semdeg, aRdgena ver SeZlo (naxazebi 913).

naxazi 9. mewveli Zroxis, Roris, cxvrisa da Txis suladoba, aTasi erTeuli

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

naxazi 10. qaTmis raodenoba, aTasi frTa

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

11 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

naxazi 11. sxvadasxva saxis xorcis warmoeba, aTasi tona

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

naxazi 12. Zroxis rZis warmoeba, aTasi tona

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

12 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

nazaxi 13. kvercxis warmoeba, milioni erTeuli

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

gvalvebisa da daavadebebis gavrcelebis periodi Seesabameba im wlebs, rodesac soflis meurneobis Sida produqtSi yvelaze sagrZnobi Semcireba aRiniSneboda (cxrili 2).10 cxrili 2. soflis meurneobis Sida produqtis zrda (mudmivi fasebi) dafiqsirebuli SelisSemSlel faqtorebTan SedarebiT

1998 cvlileba soflis meurneobis Sida produqtSi xelisSemSleli faqtorebi 0% 1999 -3% 2000 -15% 2001 6% 2002 -4% 2003 11% 2004 -10% 2005 -1% Ffrinvelis gripi 2006 -17% gvalva; frinvelis gripi 2007 -8% Roris Wiri 2008 -10% 2009 -9%

gvalva

gvalva

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri, saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi, gamoTvlebi

sursaTis seqtori, garda Rvinis, mineraluri wylis, rZis, mefrinveleoba/kvercxis da rigi daxarisxeba/SefuTviTi saqmianobisa, savalalo mdgomareobaSia. adgilobriv bazarze mzardi moTxovnaa adgilobriv sursaTze da sursaTis miwodebis jaWvSi gamWvirvalobaze. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTveloSi gavrcelebulia saxlis pirobebSi saukeTeso xarisxis konservebis (jemebi, mwnilebi da sxva) damzadeba, TbilisSi arsebuli ZiriTadi savaWro wertilebi umetesad importirebuli produqciiT vaWroben. mizezi martivia ­ movaWreTa TvalTaxedviT ar arsebobs

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- 2008 wels soflis meureobis Sida produqtis negatiuri zrda, ZiriTadad, SeiZleba 2008 wlis omis Sedegebs davukavSiroT. vaSlis, xilisa da sxva qve-seqtorebSi warmoeba mniSvnelovnad Semcirda Sida qarTlis regionSi, romelic 2008 wlis omis Sedegad yvelaze metad dazaralda. _ ruseTis embargo kidev erTi faqtoria, ramac 2006 wels soflis meurneobis Sida produqtis negatiur zrdas Suewyo xeli. _ mniSvnelovani korelacia dadginda soflis meurneobis Sida produqtis dinamikasa (mudmivi fasebi) da sxvadasxva cxovelTa raodenobasa da xorcis warmoebas Soris.

13 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

aseTi sursaTis adgilobrivad mimwodebeli sando wyaro da aseve problemas warmoadgens produqtis meryevi xarisxi. adgilobrivi produqciis fasebze, rogorc wesi, gavlenas axdens amindiTa da cxovelebisa da mcenareebis daavadebebiTa da mavneblebiT gamowveuli meryeobebi warmoebis isedac dabal doneze, cvalebadi fasebi energomatareblebze, inflacia, SezRuduli xelmisawvdomoba produqciis Sesanax adekvatur infrastruqturaze,11 politikuri viTareba ZiriTad importior qveynebSi12 da movlenebi saqonlis saerTaSoriso bazrebze. amitom importirebuli soflis meurneobis produqti da sursaTi fasiTa da xarisxiT warmatebul konkurencias uwevs adgilobriv produqcias, am ukanasknelis gayidvebis normalur periodSic ki. damatebiT, organizebis gareSe formalur anda araformalur jgufebSi mcire mwarmoeblebi awydebian siZneles, rom erTdroulad koncentrireba gaakeTon warmoebasa da gayidvebze da Zlieri pozicia moipovon nedleulisa da produqciis bazarze, rac arasamarTliani konkurenciiT xasiaTdeba. 90-iani wlebis Sua periodidan saqarTvelo soflis meurneobis produqtebisa da sursaTis wminda importiori qveyanaa (naxazi 14). naxazi 14. soflis meurneobis produqtebisa da sursaTis savaWro balansi, procenti

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri

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2006 wels uCveulo yinvebma gamanadgurebeli zegavlena iqonia Senaxuli kartofilis xarisxze samxreT saqarTveloSi. es adekvaturi Semnaxveli infrastruqturis arqonam gamoiwvia. Sedegad, sanam es Cavardna importis saSualebebiT ar Seivso, fasebma kartofilze sagrZnoblad aiwia. 12 somxeTi saqarTvelos bazarze stafilos mniSvnelovani mimwodebelia. 2007 wels somxeTSi politikuri arastabilurobis Sedegad, stafilos mowodeba Semcirda, ramac adgilobriv bazarze stafilos fasis mniSvnelovani zrda gamoiwvia.

14 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

soflis meurneobis produqtebisa da sursaTis eqsportisa da importis masStabi zrdadi tendenciiT xasiaTdeboda, magram imports ufro maRali zrdis dinamika axasiaTebda. ZiriTad saeqsporto bazars dsT-sa da evrokavSiris wevri qveynebi warmoadgenen (cxrili 3). cxrili 3. saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis eqsporti partniori savaWro qveynebis jgufebis mixedviT

weli UerTeuli dsT evrokavSiri danarCeni evropa Crdilo amerika samxreT amerika & karibis kunZulebi 21 0,03% 2 0,00% 1 0,00% 18 0,02% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 5 0,00% 11 0,00% 181 0,08% 12 0,005% 1,362 1% 591 0% aRmosavleT azia & wynari okeanis auzis qveynebi 472 1% 495 1% 492 1% 542 1% 1,103 1% 1,128 1% 1,926 1% 1,518 1% 2,274 1% 1,229 1% 1,537 1% 1,621 1% 3,450 1% axlo aRmosavleTi &aRmosavleT Afrika 337 0,4% 1,394 2% 816 1% 627 1% 1,766 2% 1,407 1% 1,305 1% 1,362 1% 4,526 1% 2,863 1% 7,334 3% 11,355 5% 64,437 20% danarCeni afrika dazustebuli ar aris

1997

aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan

70,250 89% 51,189 73% 43,801 66% 58,278 63% 58,351 74% 79,826 83% 114,027 78% 128,986 77% 206,880 68% 136,268 60% 134,609 54% 176,119 70% 173,923 55%

5,263 7% 13,515 19% 15,574 24% 26,836 29% 12,281 16% 9,493 10% 23,912 16% 27,326 16% 85,422 28% 80,761 36% 100,288 40% 54,980 22% 67,680 21%

2,514 3% 2,362 3% 2,288 3% 2,874 3% 2,345 3% 1,360 1% 1,768 1% 3,880 2% 442 0% 718 0% 831 0,33% 601 0.2% 1,780 1%

340 0,43% 636 1% 2,613 4% 2,504 3% 3,034 4% 2,660 3% 3,951 3% 3,597 2% 4,286 1% 4,089 2% 4,680 2% 4,330 2% 4,526 1%

105 0,13% 292 0,42% 0 0% 83 0,09% 65 0,08% 72 0,08% 64 0,04% 703 0,42% 23 0,01% 4 0,00% 57 0,02% 139 0.1% 83 0%

68 0,09% 0 0% 639 1% 16 0,02% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 3 0,00% 17 0,01% 15 0,01% 0 0%

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

17 0%

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri, gamoTvlebi

miuxedavad imisa, rom eqsporti dsT-sa da evrokavSiris bazrebze zrdis tendenciiT xasiaTdeboda, saerTo dinamika dsT-s bazarze klebas ganicdida, xolo evrokavSiris bazarze zrdis tendenciiT gamoirCeoda. bolo dekadis ganmavlobaSi, saSualod, eqsportis daaxloebiT 68 procenti miewodeboda dsT-s, xolo 23 procenti evrokavSiris bazars (naxazi 15).

15 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

naxazi 15. soflis meurneobis produqciis da sursaTis mTliani saeqsporto miwodebebis wili dsT-sa da evrokavSiris bazrebze, procenti

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri, gamoTvlebi

dsT-s wevr qveynebs Soris yvelaze did saeqsporto bazrebs warmoadgenda ukraina da yazaxeTi, romlebmac nawilobriv Caanacvles produqciis eqsporti ruseTSi. ruseTis mier eqsportis akrZalvamde, saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis eqsportis daaxloebiT 50 procenti ruseTis bazars miewodeboda, ZiriTadad Rvino da sxva alkoholuri sasmelebi.13 evrokavSiris savaWro partnior jgufSi eqsportis yvelaze didi bazari germania iyo. ZiriTadi eqsportirebuli produqcia aris Txili, mineraluri wyali, Rvino da alkoholuri da araalkoholuri sasmelebi. evrokavSiris bazrebze ZiriTad saeqsporto saqonels warmoadgens Txili.14 eqsportis msgavsad, soflis meurneobis produqtebisa da sursaTis ZiriTadi importiorebi dsT-sa da evrokavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebi iyvnen (cxrili 4).

13

2006 wlis ruseTis eqsportis embargom saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis produqtebisa da sursaTis savaWro balansze mniSvnelovani gavlena iqonia. ZiriTadad, akrZalvam Rvinis eqsportis masStabze iqonia gavlena. ruseTis Rvinis bazari nawilobriv Caanacvla adgilobrivma mzardma bazarma, dsT-s sxva wevrma qveynebma (ukraina, yazaxeTi da belorusi) da evrokavSiris axali wevrma saxelmwifoebma. ruseTis savaWro sanqciebi, ZiriTadad, saqarTvelodan ruseTSi produqciis eqsportze gavrcelda, xolo Tavad ruseTi kvlav sursaTis mniSvnelovani importioria. 14 Tumca, Txilis miwodebis moculobaze xSirad gavlenas axdens movlenebi Txilis saerTaSoriso bazrebze. damatebiT, bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi, saqarTvelodan gatanili Txilis ramdenime partia mas Semdeg daiwunes, rac dadgenil iqna aflatoqsinis miuRebeli done. es ZiriTadad gamowveulia mosavlis aRebis Semdgomi araadekvaturi damuSavebiT.

16 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

cxrili 4. saqarTvelos soflis meurneobis produqtebisa da sursaTis importi partniori savaWro qveynebis jgufebis mixedviT

Weli UerTeuli dsT Evro kavSiri danarCeni evropa Crdilo amerika samxreT amerika & karibis kunZulebi 59,893 18% 3,451 2% 4,733 3% 6,322 4% 4,923 3% 19,456 13% 14,174 8% 29,562 8% 41,423 10% 30,636 5% 48,074 6% 89,054 9% 84,485 11% 5% 53,987 6% 51,293 7% 4% 41,742 10% 92,226 10% 69,620 9% 2% 23,857 10% 78,317 0% 617 0.1% 378 0% 0 2% 9,293 12% 58,965 0% 564 0% 5% 9,127 19% 51,697 0% 275 1% 0 5% 8,539 17% 68,389 1% 1,237 3% 3,554 5% 7,030 16% 30,993 0% 3,586 0% 11,184 3% 7,213 38% 24,139 1% 16 0% 0 3% 4,683 34% 59,015 1% 1,142 0% 0 2% 4,689 31% 54,428 0% 1,432 0% 0 1% 3,929 30% 42,659 0% 156 0% 9 aRmosavleT azia & wynari okeanis auzis qveynebi 1,649 25% 50,239 0% 0 0% 2 axlo aRmosavleTi &aRmosavleT afrika 82,637 0% 707 0% 8 danarCeni afrika dazustebuli ar aris

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007

aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan aSS dol. % mTl.Tan

41,860 13% 26,159 16% 24,004 17% 29,357 18% 27,855 18% 50,050 32% 72,950 40% 171,377 47% 192,436 44% 317,014 52% 450,844 59% 525,711 56% 423,277 55%

90,178 28% 33,472 20% 26,318 19% 31,992 20% 28,667 18% 23,207 15% 17,984 10% 29,255 8% 101,669 23% 124,728 21% 103,956 14% 126,464 13% 99,092 13%

12,308 4% 17,953 11% 13,119 9% 8,765 5% 12,574 8% 13,160 9% 12,453 7% 19,785 5% 10,085 2% 14,013 2% 4,912 1% 8,571 1% 6,396 1%

38,344 12% 32,461 19% 23,176 17% 26,281 16% 13,866 9% 16,262 11% 25,755 14% 36,370 10% 14,692 3% 34,927 6% 33,685 4% 45,435 5% 41,397 5%

1 0%

23 106

2008

aSS dol. % mTl.Tan

2009

aSS dol. % mTl.Tan

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri, gamoTvlebi

bolo dekadis ganmavlobaSi mTliani importis daaxloebiT 42 procenti Semodioda dsT-dan, xolo daaxloebiT 16 procenti evrokavSiridan. dsT-dan mowodebul imports mzardi tendencia axasiaTebda, xolo evrokaSiridan ­ klebadi (naxazi 16).

17 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

naxazi 16. soflis meurneobis produqtebisa da sursaTis mTliani importis wili dsT-sa da evrokavSiris bazrebidan, procenti

wyaro: saqarTvelos statistikis erovnuli samsaxuri, gamoTvlebi

ZiriTadi importiori qveynebi iyvnen TurqeTi, ukraina, yazaxeTi, ruseTi da brazilia, xolo ZiriTadi importirebuli produqti da sursaTi ­ marcvleuli, fqvili, sxvadasxva saxis xorci, Saqari, tkbileuli da sigareti.

problemis gadaWris gzebi

miwodebis mastimulirebeli adekvaturi infrastruqturis, warmoebaSi xarisxis kontrolisa da xarisxisa da uvneblobis aRiarebuli standartebis arqonam gamoiwvia bazarze cvalebadi xarisxis adgilobrivi produqciis miwodeba, arasakmarisi warmoeba, importirebuli produqtisa da sursaTis upiratesoba da qveynidan mniSvnelovani odenobiT ucxouri valutis gadineba.15 soflis meurneobis seqtors gaaCnia warmoebisa da Semosavlebis zrdis potenciali, Tumca, amisTvis fermerebs ar aqvT Sesabamisi resursebi, SesaZleblobebi an stimuli, an am sami faqtoris erToblioba. komerciuli warmoeba finansur, nedleulisa da produqciis bazrebze aqtiur monawileobas moiTxovs, rac ganuviTarebeli instituciuri da fizikuri infrastruqturis gamo, araefeqturi rCeba. garda amisa, fermerebs damoukideblad aqvT

15

analizis periodis ganmavlobaSi soflis meurneobis produqtebisa da sursaTis importis bazari 157 - 942 mln. aSS dolaris farglebSi meryeobda da yovelwliurad saSualod 22 procentiT izrdeboda.

18 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

SezRuduli sabazro pozicia da SesaZlebloba, damoukideblad da warmatebiT miiRon monawileoba am ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT mzard bazrebze. cxadia, adgili eqneba miwis konsolidacias ufro did da metad ekonomikur erTeulebad, magram, rogorc Cans, es iqneba xangrZlivi procesi, romelic, ZiriTadad, ekonomikis sxva seqtorebSi zrdis masStabebiT iqneba gansazRvruli. marTalia, bolo wlebSi sxva seqtorebSi zrda arsebiTi iyo, magram omisa da msoflio finansuri krizisis Sedegad zrdis dinamikam cvlileba ganicada. amasobaSi, soflad macxovreblebi TavianTi Semosavlebis gaumjobesebas sxva saqmianobiT cdiloben, magram soflad formaluri dasaqmebis SesaZlebloba SezRudulia, rac soflidan mosaxleobis migraciis mizezi xdeba. bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi, soflad mosaxleoba umniSvnelod, magram yovelwliurad mcirdeboda da 2009 wels soflad mosaxleobam mTliani mosaxleobis 47,3 procenti Seadgenda. arsebuli struqturuli problemebis miuxedavad, efeqturi mxardaWeris politikisa da xelisSemwyobi instituciuri da iuridiuli garemos pirobebSi adgilobrivi mwarmoeblebisTvis arsebobs mravali SesaZlebloba, rom TavianTi produqciiT warmatebulad Caanacvlon importi. agreTve, adgilobrivi mwarmoeblebi ufro aqtiuri monawileobiT adgilobriv bazarze SeiZenen unar-Cvevebs da gaiumjobeseben SesaZleblobebs, rom samomavlod saeqsporto bazrebze ifiqron. arsebuli problemebi soflis meurneobisa da sursaTis seqtorSi kargad gansazRvruli importis Canacvlebis politikis ganxorcielebiT unda gadaiWras. am politikis ZiriTadi komponentebi Semdegia: (a) mwarmoebelTa uzrunvelyofa marketingis jgufebis Seqmnis mxardamWeri garemos

saSualod, sasoflo sameurneo nakveTis farTobi da soflis meurneobis saqmianobis masStabi TiTo ojaxze Zalian mcirea. es iwvevs araefeqturobas da miwodebis jaWvSi sxvadasxva monawileebisTvis qmnis sirTuleebs, rom erTdroulad iqonion saqmiani urTierToba geografiulad gafantul mraval mcire mwarmoebelTan. mcire mwarmoebelTa gaerTianebam jgufebSi xeli unda Seuwyos am problemis gadaWras, radgan koleqtiur saqmianobas da socialur gaerTianebas SeuZlia produqtiulobis stimulireba, xarisxis aucileblobis gacnobireba da miwodebis jaWvSi mcire mwarmoeblis poziciis gaumjobeseba. aucilebelia, rom fermerTa jgufma kerZo kompaniis msgavsad warmarTos saqmianoba komerciul safuZvlebze. marketingis kooperativebs SeuZliaT am funqciis kargad Sesruleba. organizaciis aseT formas mravali sargebeli aqvs rogorc materialuri, aseve aramaterialuri TvalsazrisiT. igi sargeblis momtania: 19 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

wevrebisTvis ­ mflobeloba da demokratiuli kontroli, gazrdili

Semosavlebi, gaumjobesebuli momsaxureba, nedleulisa da produqciis xarisxi, nedleulis garantirebuli wyaro, gaumjobesebuli konkurentunarianoba, gazrdili realizacia, warmoebis gaumjobesebuli menejmenti, sakanonmdeblo mxardaWera da adgilobrivi liderebis ganviTareba; soflad adgilobrivi sazogadoebisTvis ­ damatebiTi Semosavlebi, soflad sazogadoebis gaZliereba da arafermerTaTvis saqonlisa da momsaxurebis miwodeba; momxmareblisTvis ­ gazrdili xelmisawvdomoba xarisxian produqtebze, sxvadasxva saxis momsaxurebis gaweva, axali produqtebis SeTavazeba, produqciis warmoebis dabali xarjebi da gaumjobesebuli sazogadoebrivi keTildReoba. xelSemwyobi garemos ganviTarebisTvis

mwarmoebel jgufTa formirebis aucilebeli winapirobaa:

yvela sagadasaxado valdebulebis gauqmeba, romelic mwarmoebelTa jgufebis Camoyalibebisa da saqmianobis dawyebis Semdgom warmoiSoba saerTo miznis misaRwevad erToblivi Zalisxmevis koncefciis stimulireba

Camoyalibebul mwarmoebelTa jgufebisTvis SeTavazebuli mxardaWeris paketi unda Sedgebodes finansuri da teqnikuri mxardaWeris komponentebisagan. imisTvis, rom riskis gamarTlebul doneze, Camoyalibebuli jgufebisTvis mxardamWeri paketi xelmisawvdomi gaxdes, sxva zogad moTxovnebTan erTad, ZiriTadi pirobebi gulisxmobs Semdegs: saqmianoba iZleva importis Canacvlebis SesaZleblobas mcire mwarmoebelTa mniSvnelovani warmomadgenloba produqtiulobis gzrda "globaluri soflis meurneobis warmoebis kargi praqtikis" danergva (Global GAP) mflobeloba da demokratiuli kontroli. finansuri da teqnikuri mxardaWeris saxe da moculoba unda efuZnebodes Rirebulebis daricxvis jaWvebis Sefasebis Sedegebs, sadac dafuZnebul mwarmoebelTa jgufebs surT saqmianoba, anda jgufSi gaerTianebamde damoukideblad saqmianobdnen. Rirebulebis daricxvis jaWvis Sefaseba unda awarmoos kerZo seqtoris damoukidebelma, kargi reputaciis mqone warmomadgenelma. Tumca, Zalian mniSvnelovania, rom mTavrobas hqondes sakuTrebis ufleba Catarebul Sefasebaze.

20 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

Rirebulebis daricxvis jaWvebis Sefaseba jaWvis monawileebisTvis arsebuli dabrkolebebis identificirebisa da raodenobrivi monacemebis gansazRvris saSualebas iZleva. miuxedavad imisa, rom problemebi zogadad cnobilia, isini ar aris saTanadod gagebuli da dokumentirebuli. Rirebulebis daricxvis jaWvis Sefaseba monawileebisTvis arsebul SesaZleblobebisa da SezRudvebis srulad gagebisa da dokumentirebis saSualebas iZleva. arsebuli SezRudvebis SesaZlo gadawyvetilebebis identificireba da prioritetebis gansazRvra Zalian mniSvnelovania konkretuli mwarmoebeli jgufis ganviTarebis strategiis SemuSavebisTvis, raTa maTi da mTlianad jaWvis konkurentunarianoba amaRldes da identificirebul SezRudvebTan dakavSirebuli problemebi gadaiWras safuZvlianad. sabazro urTierTobebze dafuZnebuli gadawyvetilebebis Sefaseba unda efuZnebodes sam sakiTxs: gadawyvetilebis mimwodebeli kerZo seqtoris warmomadgenlis SerCeva ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT gamarTlebuli gadawyvetilebis SesaZleblobis gansazRvra gadawyvetilebis miwodebasa da moTxovnasTan dakavSirebuli SezRudvebis dadgena

alternatiuli gadawyvetilebebidan prioritetebis gamoyofisa da klasifikaciis safuZvelze unda SeirCes sabazro urTierTobebze dafuZnebuli optimaluri gadawyvetileba, rac mTavrobis, donori institutebisa da kerZo seqtoris erTobliv Zalisxmevas moiTxovs. monawileebma erToblivad unda miiRon gadawyvetileba optimalur, sabazro urTierTobebze dafuZnebul RonisZiebebze da movaleobebi da pasuxismgebloba gadawyvetilebis miwodebis mixedviT unda gadanawildes.

mTavrobis

SesaZlo roli SeiZleba iyos mwarmoebelTa jgufebisTvis finansuri daxmarebis gaweva, arsebuli kanonmdeblobis Secvla anda axali kanonebis SemuSaveba da sajaro organizaciebisTvis dafinansebis gazrda, raTa maT gadawyvetilebis miwodeba uzrunvelyon. donor institutebs am erTobliv saqmianobaSi wvlilis Setana SeuZliaT teqnikuri daxmarebis gaweviT, SerCeuli sajaro da kerZo momsaxurebis mimwodeblebis instituciuri gaZlierebiT da Camoyalibebuli mwarmoebeli jgufebisTvis kerZo seqtoridan gadawyvetilebis mimwodeblebis subsidirebiT. kerZo seqtoris warmomadgeneli gadawyvetilebis mimwodeblebis instituciuri gaZlierebis mxardaWera Zalian mniSvnelovani iqneba im mxriv, rom momavalSi maT SeZlon msgavsi gadawyvetilebebis miwodebis gagrZeleba Camoyalibebuli mwarmoebelTa jgufebisTvis. (b) arasasoflo-sameurneo SesaZleblobebis Seqmnis mxardaWera soflad saqarTveloSi arsebobs ojaxuri warmoebis Zalian Zlieri tradicia. adgilobriv bazarze mzardi moTxovnaa adgilobriv sursaTsa da 21 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

gamWvirvalobaze sursaTis miwodebis jaWvSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTveloSi gavrcelebulia saxlis pirobebSi xarisxiani konservebis (jemebi, wnilebi da sxva) damzadeba, TbilisSi arsebuli ZiriTadi savaWro wertilebi umetesad importirebul produqcias yidian. mizezi martivia ­ movaWreTa TvalTaxedviT ar arsebobs aseTi sursaTis adgilobrivad mimwodebeli sando wyaro da aseve problemas warmoadgens produqtis meryevi xarisxi. tradiciuli sawarmoebi, aseve, moicavs iseT sferoebs, rogoricaa bunebrivi balaxebisa da mcenareebis gamoyeneba medicinaSi, xelovnebasa da rewvaSi. tradiculi sawarmoebi mniSvnelovania amJamad soflad, magram isini soflad Semosavlis mniSvnelovan wyaros ar warmoadgenen. amis mizezia nebismieri saxis marketinguli gamocdilebis nakleboba da mwarmoebelTa mier saqarTveloSi momxmareblis bazris mniSvnelovani ganviTarebis Sedegad warmoSobili SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebis uunaroba. garda amisa, mniSvnelovani problemaa mwarmoeblebs Soris an regionebSi TanamSromlobis nakleboba, rac SesaZlebels gaxdida regionis an produqtis brendis popularizacias. aseTi saxis midgoma, agreTve, xels uwyobs soflad macxovreblebSi saerTo miznis misaRwevad TanamSromlobis koncefciis stimulirebas. es daaCqarebs im problemis mogvarebas, rom mwarmoeblebi orientirebuli arian calkeuli produqtebis gayidvaze (marketingze) da ara mTlianad regionis marketingze. adgilobrivi brendebis ganviTareba xels Seuwyobs adgilobrivi produqciis warmatebul marketings produqtis cnobadobis Seqmnis, xarisxis uzrunvelyofis sistemis danergvisa da saTanado distribuciis arxebis ganviTarebis saSualebiT.16 soflad Sinameurneobebs, romlebic CarTuli arian an msgavs saqmianobaSi CarTva surT, xeli unda SeewyoT sawarmos Senobebisa da aRWurvilobis modernizirebasa da warmoebis procesis gaumjobesebaSi xarisxis adgilobrivi uzrunvelyofis sqemebis danergvis saSualebiT. wevrebma, sxva zogad moTxovnebTan erTad, unda daakmayofilon konkretuli moTxovnebi, riskis misaReb doneze, rom daxmarebis paketi moipovon: xarisxis kontrolis programis danergva saukeTeso saqmianobis kodeqsis danergva valdebuleba adgilobrivi nedleulis gamoyenebaze valdebuleba SefuTvisa da etiketirebis saukeTeso praqtikaze xelSemwyobi garemos

mwarmoebelTaTvis brendis irgvliv organizebis ganviTarebisTvis aucilebeli winapirobaa:

16

soflad mcxovrebTa dasaxmareblad regionuli brednirebis saSualebiT ojaxuri sawarmoebis ganviTarebis xelSewyobis irlandiuri gamocdileba Zalian warmatebuli aRmoCnda da is SesaZloa saqarTvelosTvis sanimuSod miviCnioT.

22 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

yvela sagadasaxado valdebulebebis gauqmeba, romelic operatorebis brendis irgvliv organizebis Sedegad warmoiSoba brendirebis (regionaluri) da saerTo miznis misaRwevad erToblivi saqmianobis konceficiebis popularizacia

sasurveli da mizanSewonilia, rom mwarmoebelTa dafuZnebuli jgufebis mxardaWeris saxisa da masStabis gansasazRvrad gamoyenebuli iqnas zemoT ganxilulis (mwarmoebelTa marketingis jgufebi) msgavsi midgoma (meTodebi, pasuxismgeblobis gadanawileba).

(g) xelisSemwyobi sainvesticio garemos Seqmna sakonsolidacio centrebis Camoyalibebisa da saerTaSoriso sacalo vaWrobis kompaniebis adgilobrivi bazriT dainteresebis mizniT kontrolirebadi garemo pirobebis mqone sakonsolidacio centrebisa da produqciis mimRebi sistemebis ganviTareba sasawyobo funqciis garda, Seasrulebs sabiTumo bazris rols, xels Seuwyobs adgilobrivi produqciis realizaciis periodis gaxangrZlivebas da fermerebsa da momxmareblebs Soris urTierTobis ganviTarebas. es centrebi SeiZleba miCneuli iqnas, rogorc produqciaze Rirebulebis damatebis sawarmoebi, sadac danergilia xarisxisa da standartebis sistemebi da sadac uzrunvelyofilia standartebTan Sesabamisoba. sakonsolidacio centrebis Seqmna mwarmoebelTa Soris warmoebisa da miwodebis stimulirebas gamoiwvevs da maTTvis bazris funqcias Seasrulebs. garda imisa, rom sakonsolidacio centrebi mwarmoebelTa produqciis bazris funqcias itvirTaven, isini agreTve eqstenciis funqciasac Seasruleben. sakonsolidacio centrebis interesSi iqneba fermerebis teqnikuri mxardaWera da nedleuliT uzrunvelyofa, rom maT kargi soflis meurneobis praqtikisa da mavneblebis integrirebuli marTvis ganxorcieleba SeZlon. aseve, sakonsolidacio centrebi Seqmnian perspeqtivas mcire zomis mwarmoeblebisTvis, rom ekonomikuri zrdis procesSi CaerTon da mdgradobas miaRwion.17 investiciis xelSewyobisTvis sasurvelia investorisTvis komerciulad mizanSewonili teritoriis sakuTrebaSi ufasod gadacema, Sesabamisi infrastruqturis ganviTarebis mizniT.

17

dasavleT saqarTveloSi mwvanilis sakonsolidacio centris saqmianoba sakmaod warmatebulia. bolo dros Camoyalibebuli sakonsolidacio centri moqmedebs, rogorc mza bazari bostneulis mcire mwarmoeblebisTvis quTaisis mimdebare teritoriaze. gaweuli momsaxureba moicavs finansur resursebze xelmisawvdomobis gaumjobesebas (sakonsolidacio centri mwarmoebelTa jgufisTvis garantoris funqcias asrulebs finansuri institutebis winaSe), adgilobrivi infrastruqturis gaumjobesebas, mwarmoeblebis momaragebas nedleuliT, produqciis transportirebas da marketings saeqsporto bazarze. agreTve, bazris diversificirebis stimulirebisa da ufro maRali fasebis segmentSi saqmianobis mizniT, sakonsolidacio centri gegmavda "globaluri soflis meurneobis warmoebis kargi praqtikis" danergvas (Global GAP).

23 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

saqarTveloSi sacalo vaWrobis seqtori fragmentirebulia da naklebi konkurenciiT da miwodebuli saqonlisTvis mwarmoeblebis droulad anazRaurebis valdebulebis SeusruleblobiT xasiaTdeba. xarisxze gacxadebuli moTxovnebisa da kontrolis miuxedavad, xSirad SeTavazebuli produqtis xarisxi saeWvoa. konkurenciis dasanergad da, zogadad, efeqturobis gasaumjobeseblad sacalo vaWrobis seqtorSi mTavrobam unda waaxalisos investiciebi saerTaSoriso sacalo vaWrobis kompaniebisTvis. saerTaSoriso sacalo vaWrobis kompaniisTvis ZiriTadi piroba unda iyos adgilobriv mwarmoeblebTan grZelvadiani urTierTobis CamoyalibebaSi investireba, raTa kompaniam maqsimalurad Seisyidos adgilobrivi produqcia (rogorc pirveladi prdouqti, aseve sursaTi) imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom adgilobrivi mwarmoeblebi akmayofileben moTxovnilebebs miwodebis xarisxsa da raodenobaze gansazRvrul vadebSi. investiciis xelSewyobisTvis sasurveli RonisZiebaa investorisTvis komerciulad mizanSewonili teritoriis sakuTrebaSi ufasod gadacema, Sesabamisi infrastruqturis mowyobis mizniT.

(d) EU acquis Sesabamisi sursaTis uvneblobis, veterinariisa da mcenareTa dacvis kanonmdeblobisa da institutebis ganviTareba zemoT ganxiluli xarisxis uzrunvelyofis sxvadasxva sqemebisa da kargi warmoebis praqtikis mwarmoeblis doneze danergva xels Suwyobs mwarmoeblebs, rom sursaTis kanonis moTxovnebi daakmayofilon, mas Semdeg, rac igi ZalaSi Seva. sursaTis kanoni moiTxovs bevrad did standartebs yvela doneze sursaTis miwodebis jaWvSi da maRali albaTobaa imisa, rom gare daxmarebis gareSe, am standartebis dakmayofilebisas mwarmoeblebs SeeqmnebaT sirTuleebi da sabolood iZulebuli iqnebian, rom saqmianoba miatovon.18 Tumca, zogadad, qveyanaSi veterinaruli, sanitaruli da fitosanitaruli keTilsaimedoobis uzrunvelsayofad da adgilobriv bazarze dabalfasiani da saeWvo xarisxis importis mzardi miwodebis SezRudvisTvis xarisxisa da uvneblobis sxvadasxva sqemebis da standartebis miReba mwarmoeblis doneze ar aris sakmarisi. mwarmoebelebi kvlav aRmoCndebian sxvadasxva daavadebebisa da mavneblebis gavrcelebis da Sesabamisi Sedegebis maRali riskisa da ufro metad gazrdil importTan konkurenciis problemis winaSe. Sesabamisad, sursaTis uvneblobis, veterinariisa da mcenareTa dacvis instituciuri ganviTareba da EU acquis-Tan

18

sfk-is (IFC) mier 2009 wels sxvadasxva masStabis biznesis seqtorSi gamokiTxvis mixedviT, sursaTis Sesaxeb kanonis ZalaSi Sesvlisas dadebiTi molodini aWarbebda uaryofiTs; Tumca, gamokiTxuli sawarmoebis mxolod daaxloebiT 30-ma procentma icoda kanoni detalurad an zogadad, xolo 70 procenti saerTod ar icnobda am kanons.

24 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

kanonmdeblobis harmonizacia Zalian mniSvnelovania soflis meurneobisa da sursaTis seqtoris ganviTarebisa da xangrZlivvadiani mdgradobisTvis. (e) statistikuri monacemebis sainformacio sistema Segrovebis gaumjobeseba da bazris

imisaTvis, rom mTavrobam gaaumjobesos soflsi meurneobis politikis SemuSaveba da xeli Seuwyos mwarmoeblebs Soris informirebuli gadawyvetilebis miRebas, donori institutebis teqnikuri mxardaWeriTa da kerZo seqtorTan koordinirebiT unda gadaidgas Semdegi konkretuli nabijebi: statistika ­ arsebobs imis saWiroeba, rom gaumjobesdes xelmisawvdomi informacia warmoebaze (konkretuli bostneuli kulturebi, sursaTi da a.S.), fasebze, maT Soris cocxal cxovelebze (diferencirebuli xarisxis, warmoSobis, bazrebis, da a.S. mixedviT), transportirebis xarjebze (saerTaSoriso da qveynis SigniT diferencirebuli meTodisa da saxeobis mixedviT da a.S.), vaWrobaze (qveynis SigniT miwodebuli adgilobrivi produqciis, diferencireba importsa da re-eqsports Soris), Sinameurneobebis keTildReobaze, sasursaTo uzrunvelyofaze da Catarebuli kvlevebis gaumjobesebaze respondentTa SerCevis zomis gazrdiT. bazris sainformacio sistema ­ sistema unda ganviTardes, raTa yvela dainteresebul pirs regularulad miewodos informacia bazris viTarebis Sesaxeb (produqtis xelmisawvdomoba, fasebi, warmomavloba, gayidvis adgili da a.S.) da informaciis gavrcelebis formati xelmisawvdomi unda iyos yvela dainteresebuli pirisTvis ­ magaliTad, specialuri radio programa kargad unda emsaxuros am mizans.

25 soflis meurneobis seqtoris ganviTareba

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