Read POAC NoVA - NET Workshop 2.ppt text version

An Introduction to Developing Verbal Behavior in the Natural Environment

Amy McGinnis, M.S., OTR POAC NoVA November 20, 2006

What is Natural Environment Teaching (NET)?

· NET is unstructured and uses a learner's motivation and activities and not a teacher selected set of materials as the basis for the lesson.

NET Characteristics

· Learner initiated choice of activities (motivation is naturally strong) · Tasks and activities vary frequently · The preferred items and activities chosen by the learner serve as the basis for the teacher/learner interaction · Reinforcement is direct and specific to the activity · Loose structure and many examples of concepts support generalization of language

Understanding the Difference Between NET & ITT

Natural Environment · Talking about reinforcing activities · Occurs in the context of fun activities · Use reinforcing items and materials that are of interest to the learner to teach skills Intensive Teaching · Responding to earn an unrelated reinforcer · Often occurs at a table, but can occur in any setting · Often use flash cards, but incorporates other materials as needed to teach skills

Typical NET / ITT Progression

1. NET > ITT 2. NET < ITT 3. NET > ITT 4. NET < ITT

Steps to Effective Natural Environment Teaching

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Establish rapport (pair with reinforcement) Assess learner's skills Choose appropriate goals Choose appropriate teaching procedures Develop lesson plans Implement program and collect data Analyze data & make changes as needed

Getting Started: Pairing

· Pairing is an essential first step that must take place before any type of teaching can begin in any environment

Pairing

· Pairing is a process by which a neutral stimulus (person, place, activity, or object) becomes a conditioned reinforcer. · Pairing is important because it teaches the learner to associate his/her teachers, instructional area, and instructional materials with good things. · It is important for the learner to want to be around others in order to learn from them!

Common Pairing Mistakes

1. Placing demands on the learner.

­ Resist the urge to try to "teach" the learner by asking questions or making the learner "work" for reinforcers. It is necessary to first build rapport with the learner before teaching. Pairing may feel slow, but you should not rush through it. Time spent pairing is time well spent!

­ ­

Common Pairing Mistakes

2. Lack of active interaction with the learner.

­ Pairing is an active process on the part of the therapist. ­ The therapist must constantly be giving reinforcers to the learner. ­ Pairing will not be effective if the therapist just sits in the room while the learner does his/her own thing. ­ The therapist must continually act as the "giver" and the learner should function as the "taker."

Common Pairing Mistakes

3. Infrequent or weak reinforcement. ­ If strong reinforcers are not given frequently, the pairing will be less effective. ­ Find as many opportunities to reinforce the learner as possible (several per minute).

Has pairing been effective?

· Questions to ask:

­ Does the learner run to you or away from you? ­ Does the learner follow you when you leave the room?

· Once the learner is frequently and willingly approaching you to obtain reinforcement, you are ready to begin teaching verbal behavior in the natural environment

Assessment

· Initially, may complete Behavioral Language Assessment Form or a quick screening of skills · As soon as possible, complete ABLLS / ABLLS-R · The ABLLS provides a comprehensive look at the learner's performance across 25 skill areas · The assessment should provide you with a profile of your learner's skills in the natural environment, so that you may program appropriately

Overview of Basic Verbal Operants

· Mand · Echoic/mimetic (duplic) · Tact · Intraverbal ---------------------------* Receptive language = non-verbal

Mand

· The verbal response of requesting (i.e. saying "juice" because you want juice) · Teaching someone to mand items, activities, or objects will lead to a higher rate of self-initiated talking and will support the development of the other classes of verbal responses (i.e. tacts, intraverbals, etc.)

Teaching Mands (Sign)

· Teaching mands with sign:

­ ­ ­ ­ ­ Establish MO (learner WANTS reinforcer) Model the sign Physically prompt sign (if necessary) Give the reinforcer Be sure to say the word at least 3x

­ Gradually fade prompts with reinforcer present ­ Fade the reinforcer from sight

Teaching Mands (Vocal)

· Teaching vocal mands:

­ ­ ­ ­ Establish MO (learner WANTS reinforcer) Model the vocal mand Learner repeats vocal mand Give the reinforcer

­ Gradually fade prompts with reinforcer present (phonemic prompt) ­ Fade the reinforcer from sight

Teaching First Mands

· Do NOT teach these first:

More Yes/No Help Bathroom All done Carrier phrases ("I want...") My turn

Motor Imitation

· The ability to imitate or do what others do during play or other activities is an important skill to acquire · During NET it will be important to teach this skill (i.e. teacher demonstrates how to play with toys appropriately)

Teaching Mimetics

PROMPTED TO UNPROMPTED TRANSFER: · Therapist: "Do this." [signs juice] (Verbal SD & 0-sec. delay physical prompt) · Learner: [signs juice] IMMEDIATE TRANSFER TRIAL: · Therapist: "Do this." [signs juice] · Learner: [signs juice] Therapist reinforces

Echoic (Vocal Imitation)

· Vocally imitating what others say is an important skill that leads to increased vocal verbal behavior · During NET the teacher will provide a vocal model for the learner so that certain sounds and words become paired with reinforcement and can then be reinforced directly when the learner repeats them

Tact

· The verbal response that resembles expressive labeling (i.e. saying "juice" because you see juice) · When a learner says or signs what s/he sees, hears, touches, tastes, smells, etc., s/he is tacting. · The reinforcement for this response is not specific to the speaker's verbal behavior

Teaching Tacts (Vocal)

ECHOIC TO TACT TRANSFER: · Therapist: "What's this? Juice."(Verbal SD & 0-sec. delay prompt) · Learner: "Juice" (echoic) IMMEDIATE TRANSFER TRIAL: · Therapist: "What's this?" · Learner: "Juice." Therapist reinforces

Teaching Tacts (Sign)

MIMETIC TO TACT TRANSFER: · Therapist: "What's this? Juice" [signs juice](Verbal SD & 0-sec. delay mimetic prompt) · Learner: [signs juice] (mimetic) IMMEDIATE TRANSFER TRIAL: · Therapist: "What's this?" · Learner: [signs juice] Therapist reinforces

Intraverbal

· The verbal response to someone else's verbal response (i.e. When someone asks what you had for breakfast, "juice" is an intraverbal) · This class includes answering "wh" questions and filling in the blanks (i.e. "Twinkle, twinkle little __" · Intraverbal skills, along with manding skills, are essential to carrying on a conversation

Teaching Intraverbals (Vocal)

ECHOIC TO IV TRANSFER: · Therapist: "Ready, set...go."(Verbal SD & 0sec. delay prompt) · Learner: "Go." (echoic) IMMEDIATE TRANSFER TRIAL: · Therapist: "Ready, set, __." · Learner: "Go." (Intraverbal) Therapist reinforces

Teaching Intraverbals (Sign)

MIMETIC TO IV TRANSFER: · Therapist: "1, 2, ___ [signs 3 and says "3" while signing it] (Verbal SD & 0-sec. delay prompt) · Learner: [signs 3] (mimetic) IMMEDIATE TRANSFER TRIAL: · Therapist: "1, 2, ___" · Learner: [signs 3] (Intraverbal) Therapist reinforces

Teaching Intraverbals (Vocal)

TACT TO IV TRANSFER: · Therapist: "Something you drink is __."(Verbal SD & tact stimulus) · Learner: "Juice." (tact) IMMEDIATE TRANSFER TRIAL: · Therapist: "What do you drink?" (removes juice from sight) · Learner: "Juice." (Intraverbal) Therapist reinforces

Teaching Intraverbals (Sign)

TACT TO IV TRANSFER: · Therapist: "Something you bounce is a __."(Verbal SD & tact stimulus) · Learner: [signs ball] (tact) IMMEDIATE TRANSFER TRIAL: · Therapist: "What do you bounce?" (removes ball from sight) · Learner: [signs ball] (Intraverbal) Therapist reinforces

Receptive

· The receptive response class refers to understanding what someone else says · Non-verbal behavior, per Skinner's analysis · During NET this might include delivering requests to:

­ Perform actions: "Stand up" (receptive commands) ­ Identify an object by touching it or giving it to the teacher "Give me the red ball" (receptive ID)

Teaching Receptive

MIMETIC TO RECEPTIVE TRANSFER: · Therapist: "Touch juice." (Verbal SD & mimetic prompt) · Learner: (touches juice) (mimetic) IMMEDIATE TRANSFER TRIAL: · Therapist: "Show me the juice." · Learner: (touches juice) (Receptive ID) Therapist reinforces

Receptive by Feature, Function & Class

· In addition, it is sometimes useful to ask the learner to respond receptively to the description of something (i.e. "give me the beverage," rather than, "give me the juice.")

­ RFFC ­ "Touch the one you drink." ­ TFFC ­ "Which one do you drink?" (item present) ­ IFFC ­ "What do you drink?" (no item present)

Overview of Common Learner Profiles

· Early learner · Intermediate learner · Advanced learner

Early Learner

· Requests a limited number of items/actions · Typically less than 300 mands per day · Intraverbal responses (if any) typically limited to a few fill-ins to songs or phrases · Often poor mimetic/echoic skills · Few tacts of items · Responds to minimal number of directions

Early Learner ABLLS

Student: Assessor Mom Early learner Date Feb. 03 Color Code C52 C51 C50 C49 C48 C47 C46 C45 C44 C43 C42 C41 C40 C39 C38 C37 C36 C35 C34 C33 C32 C31 C30 C29 C28 C27 C26 C25 C24 C23 C22 B21 B20 B19 B18 B17 B16 B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1 B Visual Performance C21 C20 C19 C18 C17 C16 C15 C14 C13 C12 C11 C10 C9 C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1 C Receptive Language F27 F26 F25 F24 F23 F22 F21 F20 F19 F18 F17 F16 F15 F14 F13 F12 F11 F10 F9 F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1 F Requests G42 G41 G40 G39 G38 G37 G36 G35 G34 G33 G32 G31 G30 G29 G28 G27 G26 G25 G24 G23 G22 G21 G20 G19 G18 G17 G16 G15 G14 G13 G12 G11 G10 G9 G8 G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1 G Labeling H42 H41 H40 H39 H38 H37 H36 H35 H34 H33 H32 H31 H30 H29 H28 H27 H26 H25 H24 H23 H22 H21 H20 H19 H18 H17 H16 H15 H14 H13 H12 H11 H10 H9 H8 H7 H6 H5 H4 H3 H2 H1 H Intraverbles

Asse ssm e nt of Ba sic La ngua ge a nd Le a rning Skills Skills Tra cking Syste m

ABLLS REGISTRATION #

A11 A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A Cooperation & Reinforcer Effectiveness

D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D Imitation

E9 E8 E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1 E Vocal Imitation

I9 I8 I7 I6 I5 I4 I3 I2 I1 I Spontaneous Vocalizations

Early Learner NET

· NET is a priority for early learners in order to establish basic communication skills, with an emphasis on manding · NET typically comprises 70 ­ 100% of an early learner's program

Target Mands: Probe Data

Target Mand: Mon.

Date: Initial:

Tues.

Date: Initial:

Wed.

Date: Initial:

Thurs.

Date: Initial:

Fri.

Date: Initial:

Ball Movie

PP Phy s

I PP

PP I

I I

I I

Key: MO ­ spontaneously asks for item when it is not present I = Item ­ asks for item when visible PP = partial model of sign or tap prompt FM = full model of sign (no physical prompting) Phys = full physical prompting X = learner not interested, could not contrive motivation for item

Graph: Mastered Mands

Sample Graph: Total Mastered Mands with Item Present (F3)

10 8 6 4 2 0 5/8/2005

Total mastered mands

5/15/2005

Week ending

5/22/2005

5/29/2005

Total Mands Per Day

Mon.

Date: Initial:

Tues.

Date: Initial:

Wed.

Date: Initial:

Thurs.

Date: Initial:

Fri.

Date: Initial:

Total mands per day:

188

207

245

200

282

Graph: Mands Per Day

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

06

06

06

06

20

20

20

20

3/

4/

5/

6/

/1

/1

/1

/1

11

11

11

11

11

/1

7/

20

06

Intermediate Learner

· Many mands for items, some mands for actions · Emerging mands for assistance, removal of aversives, and attention · Mands several hundred times per day · Generalizes tacts and intraverbals taught in the context of intensive teaching · Follows many 1-2 step directions

Intermediate Learner ABLLS

Student: Assessor Teacher Intermediate Learner Date Sept. 06 Color Code

Asse ssm e nt of Ba sic La ngua ge a nd Le a rning Skills Skills Tra cking Syste m

C52 C51 C50 C49 C48 C47 C46 C45 C44 C43 C42 C41 C40 C39 C38 C37 C36 C35 C34 C33 C32 C31 C30 C29 C28 C27 C26 C25 C24 C23 C22 C21 C20 C19 C18 C17 C16 C15 C14 C13 C12 C11 C10 C9 C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1

C Receptive Language

ABLLS REGISTRATION #

A 11 A 10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1

A Cooperation & Reinforcer Effectiveness

B21 B20 B19 B18 B17 B16 B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1

B Visual Performance

D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1

D Imitation

E9 E8 E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1

E Vocal Imitation

F27 F26 F25 F24 F23 F22 F21 F20 F19 F18 F17 F16 F15 F14 F13 F12 F11 F10 F9 F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2

F1 F Requests

G42 G41 G40 G39 G38 G37 G36 G35 G34 G33 G32 G31 G30 G29 G28 G27 G26 G25 G24 G23 G22 G21 G20 G19 G18 G17 G16 G15 G14 G13 G12 G11 G10 G9 G8 G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1

G Labeling

H42 H41 H40 H39 H38 H37 H36 H35 H34 H33 H32 H31 H30 H29 H28 H27 H26 H25 H24 H23 H22 H21 H20 H19 H18 H17 H16 H15 H14 H13 H12 H11 H10 H9 H8 H7 H6 H5 H4 H3 H2 H1

H Intraverbals

I9 I8 I7 I6 I5 I4 I3 I2 I1

I Spontaneous Vocalizations

Intermediate Learner NET

· ITT is usually a priority for intermediate learners, since they have established a basic manding repertoire · NET focuses on generalizing skills · NET typically comprises 30 ­ 50% of an intermediate learner's program

Data: Prompted, Unprompted & Spontaneous Mands

Date Teacher Setting Time Spent Manding

P

U

S

Mands per Minute

Graph: Prompted, Unprompted, Spontaneous Mands

300 250 200 150 100 50 0

06

06

06

06

20

20

20

20

3/

4/

5/

6/

/1

/1

/1

/1

11

11

11

11

11

/1

7/

20

06

Advanced Learner

· Mands for information · Answers novel WH- questions about past events · Begins to initiate and maintain conversation with others · Tells stories · Describes steps of activities · Follows multi-step directions

Advanced Learner ABLLS

Student: Assessor Therapist Advanced Learner Date Oct. 2006 Color Code

Asse ssm e nt of Ba sic La ngua ge a nd Le a rning Skills Skills Tra cking Syste m

ABLLS REGISTRATION #

A 11 A 10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1

A Cooperation & Reinforcer Effectiveness

B21 B20 B19 B18 B17 B16 B15 B14 B13 B12 B11 B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 B1

B Visual Performance

C52 C51 C50 C49 C48 C47 C46 C45 C44 C43 C42 C41 C40 C39 C38 C37 C36 C35 C34 C33 C32 C31 C30 C29 C28 C27 C26 C25 C24 C23 C22 C21 C20 C19 C18 C17 C16 C15 C14 C13 C12 C11 C10 C9 C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 C1

C Receptive Language

D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1

D Imitation

E9 E8 E7 E6 E5 E4 E3 E2 E1

E Vocal Imitation

F27 F26 F25 F24 F23 F22 F21 F20 F19 F18 F17 F16 F15 F14 F13 F12 F11 F10 F9 F8 F7 F6 F5 F4 F3 F2

F1 F Requests

G42 G41 G40 G39 G38 G37 G36 G35 G34 G33 G32 G31 G30 G29 G28 G27 G26 G25 G24 G23 G22 G21 G20 G19 G18 G17 G16 G15 G14 G13 G12 G11 G10 G9 G8 G7 G6 G5 G4 G3 G2 G1

G Labeling

H42 H41 H40 H39 H38 H37 H36 H35 H34 H33 H32 H31 H30 H29 H28 H27 H26 H25 H24 H23 H22 H21 H20 H19 H18 H17 H16 H15 H14 H13 H12 H11 H10 H9 H8 H7 H6 H5 H4 H3 H2 H1

H Intraverbals

I9 I8 I7 I6 I5 I4 I3 I2 I1

I Spontaneous Vocalizations

Advanced Learner NET

· NET is usually a priority for advanced learners, who are working to develop reciprocal conversation skills · NET typically comprises 70 ­ 100% of an advanced learner's program

Planning NET Lessons

· Planning NET sessions in advance prepares the teacher to teach and generalize targeted skills while following the learner's motivation · It is often necessary to customize lesson plans to follow each learner's unique MO & teach target skills

NET Lesson Plans

Step 1: Potential Reinforcer Profile

1. Look at the learner's reinforcer profile to get some ideas regarding what s/he might enjoy doing in the NET. (download from: www.establishingoperationsinc.com )

Potential Reinforcer Profile

Step 2: Brainstorming Activity Ideas

· Select one reinforcing item/activity from the list. Try to brainstorm as many creative and fun things possible to do with that item/activity. Example: Water play

Step 2: Brainstorming Activity Ideas

o Mix food dye with water to create different colors o Filling squirt bottle with water and squirting paper or other target taped vertically on the wall o Play with wind-up pool toys in bathtub or sink o Create "ocean in a bottle" by placing small boat or fish toys in bottle filled with water o Create sparkle water bottles by mixing food dye, glitter, and water in bottle, then shaking bottle for visual effect o Play with sponges o Play with funnels, cups, watering can o Bring snow/ice inside house to play with, sculpt, etc. o Play with sponges o Add soap into basin of water. Use eggbeater to make bubbles.

· Determine which behaviors you will target

­ What will you do/say? ­ What will the learner do/say?

Step 3: Incorporate Targets into Activity

NET Lesson Plan Template

What you will do: What you will say: What the learner will say: Skill:

Lesson Plan Exercise: Elefun

· Activity: Elefun game · Goals:

­ Basic receptive commands ­ Manding for items ­ Manding for actions

Elefun

What you will do: Allow butterflies to fall on floor What you will say: "Pick up the butterflies." What the learner will say: (pick up butterflies) Skill: Rec. Com.

Elefun

What you will do: Block access to button and wait Reinforce by turning on What you will say: Avoid speaking. Prompt if necessary. What the learner will say: Skill:

"On"

Mand for Action

Elefun

What you will do: Withhold butterfly net Reinforce by giving him a net What you will say: Avoid speaking. Prompt if necessary. What the learner will say: Skill:

"Net"

Mand for Item

Lesson Plan Exercise: Scooter Board

· Activity: Scooter board · Goals:

­ Intraverbal WH- Question (When..?) ­ Mand for information: How

Scooter Board

What you will do: What you will say: What the learner will say: "When I was in the gym." Skill:

Help learner "When did onto scooter you ride on the scooter?"

IV/Tact When

Scooter Board

What you will do: Wait for motivation to build. Reinforce by showing him how What you will say: Avoid speaking first. Prompt if necessary. What the learner will say: "How?" Skill:

Mand for Info: How

Lesson Plan Exercise: Vending Machine

· Activity: Getting water from machine · Goals:

­ Manding for information using what, why, how, where, and which

Vending Machine

What you will do: What you will say: What the learner will say: Skill:

Continue to Create Novel Activities

· Continually generating novel activities helps to keep the learner engaged and creates new teaching opportunities Examples:

­ Water + balloons = water balloons ­ Water + music = fill glasses with water to produce different tones when struck with a spoon ­ Water + vehicles = playing car wash

Overcoming the Challenges of NET

NET Challenges

· Establish, maintain, and expand motivation · Control the environment · Limit demands, increase mands · Balance priorities · Prevent "rote" responding

· Plan & teach fluently · Multiply-controlled responses · Consistency across staff/parents · Generalization · Learner initiation · Data collection

Challenge: Establishing Motivation

· Contrive situations that will make stimuli more valuable (manipulate motivating operations) · Deliver valuable stimuli noncontingently to boost motivation to ask for more

Challenge: Expanding Motivation

· Change some aspect of the activity to create novel opportunities · Explore a wide range of activities · Pair weak activities with additional reinforcement

Challenge: Maintaining Motivation

· Limit number of demands · Present frequent choices · End activity and switch to another activity before learner loses interest · Recognize the signs that MO is dying:

­ Volume ­ Latency

Challenge: Limiting Demands

· Need to balance the value of the reinforcer with the number and difficulty of demands that you place · Focus on manding · It may be helpful to set a ratio:

­ Example: Ask 1 question for every 4 mands ­ Example: Ask 3 questions per minute

Challenge: Preventing Rote Responses

· Vary the demands you place and the responses you require so that the learner's responses do not become chained/rote · NEVER prompt a mand in the absence of an MO

Challenge: Balancing Priorities

· Trying to target too many goals at once may kill the value of NET and detract from verbal behavior development · Limit the number of non-verbal skills that you are teaching until basic communication skills are adequately developed

­ Motor skills ­ Self-help skills ­ Play skills

Challenge: Competing Reinforcement

· Have a wide variety of positive reinforcers available that are strong enough to compete with the value of automatic positive reinforcement ("stimming") · In some cases, it may be helpful to analyze the reinforcing properties of self-stimulatory behaviors to help identify powerful reinforcers

Challenge: Planning & Teaching Fluently

· NET may be more difficult than ITT because there is no "script" to follow and therapists need to be able to think and teach "on the fly" as MO's change · Plan NET lessons and include alternatives if necessary · Practice teaching procedures prior to working with learner

Challenge: Multiply-Controlled Responses

· Responses emitted in the natural environment are likely to be multiply controlled (i.e. part mand, part tact, part intraverbal, etc.) · Need to carefully analyze behavior and teaching procedures so that behavior is brought under correct stimulus control

Challenge: Controlling the Environment

· Sanitize the environment so that you have control over delivery of reinforcers · Prepare activities/materials in advance · May need to clean up after the learner so that you are able to continuously deliver positive reinforcers

Challenge: Consistency Across Staff

· Ensure that all staff are consistent in the teaching procedures they use and the responses that they reinforce · May be beneficial to create "cheat sheets", posters, etc., as prompts to staff

Challenge: Generalization

· · · · · · Use multiple exemplars of stimuli Train across environments Modify environment as necessary initially Train across staff Reinforce generalization when it does occur Remember the role of motivating operations!

Challenge: Learner Initiation

· Learner-initiated language is likely to develop through the MAND repertoire · Allow time for MO to build prior to prompting · Differentially reinforce spontaneous verbal behavior

Challenge: Data Collection

· Take enough data to make programming decisions, but do not allow data collection to interfere with the quality of teaching

­ Probe data ­ Frequency data

· Consider creating an "all-in-one" NET data sheet that lists all goals on a single page

NET Challenges

· Establish, maintain, and expand motivation · Control the environment · Limit demands, increase mands · Balance priorities · Prevent "rote" responding

· Plan & teach fluently · Multiply-controlled responses · Consistency across staff/parents · Generalization · Learner initiation · Data collection

For more information...

· Visit www.poac-nova.org for:

­ Information on POAC NoVA and upcoming events and workshops

· Visit www.establishingoperationsinc.com for:

­ ­ ­ ­ Potential Reinforcer Profile Data sheets Teaching ideas Information on DVD's, workshops & consultations

· Email: [email protected] for a copy of this presentation

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