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Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service

ANSI-3400

Home Slaughtering and Processing of Beef

HaroldR.HedlickandWilliamC.Shingel

DepartmentofFoodScienceandNutrition

MauriceAlexander

DepartmentofAnimalHusbandry,CollegeofAgriculture

OklahomaCooperativeExtensionFactSheets arealsoavailableonourwebsiteat: http://osufacts.okstate.edu

Abeefanimalselectedforslaughtershouldbehealthy andinthriftycondition.Keeptheanimalofffeed24hours beforeslaughter,butprovidefreeaccesstowater. Donotrunorexcitetheanimalpriortoslaughterbecause thismaycausepoorbleedingandgivethecarcassabloody appearance. The weather, especially expected temperatures the fewdaysfollowingslaughter,isextremelyimportant.Night temperaturesshouldbe32°Forlowerforthecarcasstochill properlywithoutrefrigeration. Themeatwillspoilifimproperlychilledandstoredduring warmweather.Also,duringextremelycoldweather,themeat shouldbeprotectedfromfreezingbycoveringitwithaclean cover.

Equipment Needed for Slaughter

The minimum required items of equipment for home slaughteringareasfollows. · Stunningdevicesuchas22caliberrifle. · Blockandtackle,chainhoist,ortractorequippedwith hydrauliclift. · Beefspreader(singletreeequippedwithhooksonboth endsandaringinthecenterwilldo). · 24-or28-inchmeatsaw. · 6-inch sharp skinning knife, 6-inch boning knife, and 8-inchbutcherknife. · 10- or 12-inch steel bucket to hold water for washing hands. · Amplecleanwaterandcleanhandtowels.

Preparing for Slaughter

Slaughtershouldbedoneinadry,clean,dust-freearea. Awell-drainedgrassyareaisrecommended. Takeprecautionsduringslaughter,chilling,andprocessing tokeepthecarcassandcutscleanandfreefromcontamination.Usecleanequipment,keephandsclean,wearclean clothing,andkeepworkandstorageareasclean. The carcass can be chilled without refrigeration by hanging it ina dry, clean building. Freedom from odorsor contaminationisessential. Most meat spoilage and off-odors and flavors can be attributedtooneormoreofthefollowingcauses: 1. Improperchillingofthecarcass.Theinternaltemperature oftheroundandotherthickpartsshouldbeloweredto 40-45°Fwithin24hoursafterslaughter. 2. Adsorptionofoff-odors.Whenthecarcassischilledand agedinanareawithanyodor(manure,gasoline,paint, mustyodor,etc)thecarcasswillabsorbit. 3. Poorsanitationduringslaughter,chilling,andprocessing. This contamination with microorganisms causes offodors,off-flavors,andspoilage. 4. Improper freezing and storage of frozen meat. Packagedmeatshouldbequick-frozenandstoredat0°to 5°F.Homefreezersareforstorageofproductsalready frozen,notforquick-freezinglargequantitiesofmeat. Small quantities, preferably less than 25 pounds, can besatisfactorilyfrozenathomebyplacingmeatinthe freezer with at least one inch of space between each package.

How to Stun Animal

Killtheanimalashumanelyaspossible.Ifarifleisused, exerciserecommendations forsafeuseoffirearms.The properplaceforthebullet tostrikeisattheintersectionoftwoimaginarylines extending from the right hornoranima,edgeofpoll tothelefteyeandfromthe lefthornoredgeofpollto therighteye(Figure1).A Figure 1. Proper point for sharp blow at this point stunning animal. withasledgehammerwill alsostuntheanimal.

How to Bleed Animal

Assoonastheanimalisdown,bleeditwithoutdelay. StandbehindtheanimalasinFigure2andwiththesharp skinningknifemakeanincisionthroughthehideinthemiddle ofthedewlapimmediatelyinfrontofthebreastbone. Holdtheknifesothepointisdirectedtowardtherear oftheanimal,inserttheknifeunderthebreastbonetoward therumpoftheanimalandcuttowardthebackbone.This willcutthearteriesthatcrossjustbeneaththepointofthe breastbone. Becarefulnottosticktoodeepintothechestcavity. Cutstraightwiththebackbone.Pumptheforelegbackand forthafewtimestohelpbleeding.

Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

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Oklahoma State University

Figure 2. Bleed the animals without delay following stunning.

How to Skin Animal

Turntheanimalonitsbackandplaceashortprop(square post)oneithersidetoholditthere.Removetheforefeetand shanksatthekneeasinFigure3bylocatingandcuttingthrough theflatjointwithaknife.Skinoutthehindlegsandremove thehindfeetandshanksby sawingasinFigure4. Next,splitthehidefrom the opening in front of the brisketdownthemidlineof thebellytothebung.Hold theskinningknifeataslight angleasinFigure5. Then split the hide at the rear of each hind leg beginning where the shank wasremoved,movingtothe udderorscrotum.Donotskin theoutsideofthehindlegs Figure 3. To remove the fore- norfrontlegsuntilthecarcass feet and shanks, cut through isbeinghoisted.Theintact hide will keep the shanks the flat joint. cleanduringhoisting. Thenextpartofskinning isknownas"siding."Beginthesidingbyslidingtheknife undertheskin thathasbeencutoverthebelly.Graspthe loosenedhidewithhand(hairsideiseasiesttohold)andpull itupandoutward.Placetheknifefirmlyagainstthehidewith thecuttingedgeturnedslightlytowardthehideasinFigure 6. Use long, smooth strokes of the knife, to remove the hidedownoverthesides.Thisisoneofthemostdifficult tasksinskinning.

Figure 4. Saw off the hind feet and shanks after skinning out the hind legs.

Opening the Carcass

Aftersidingisdone,cutthroughthecenterofthebrisket withaknifeandsawthroughthebreastboneasinFigure7. Insertthehandleoftheknifeintheabdominalcavitywiththe bladeleaningbackwardtoopenthebellycavityasinFigure 8.Incaseofamale,removethepenisbeforeopeningthe carcass.

Figure 5. Split the hide by holding the skinning knife at a near flat angle.

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Figure 8. To open the belly cavity, insert the knife, handle first, with the blade leaning back. This avoids cutting the stomach. Theinsideofeachroundmuscleoverthepelvisiscovered with a thick white membrane. Follow this membrane andavoidcuttingintothemuscle.Theknifecanbeforced between the soft cartilage that joins the pelvic bone. See Figure9.Inolderanimals,thepelvismustbesawed. Thecarcassisnowreadyforhoisting.Insertthehooks ofabeefspreaderorsingletreeinthetendonsofthehind legsasinFigure10.Afterthecarcassispartiallyhoisted, completeskinningtheroundsandthebackofthecarcass.

Figure 6. Use long, smooth strokes with the knife when skinning. Keep the knife firmly against the hide with the cutting edge slightly toward the hide.

Figure 7. Sawing through the breastbone trior to opening the belly cavity. Figure 9. To spearate the rounds, cut along the thick white membrane at the pelvis. 3400-3

Continuehoistingthecarcassuntiltheheadclearsthe groundasinFigure12.Removetheheartandlungsbyfirst cuttingoutthediaphragm,thewhiteconnectivetissuethat separates the abdominal and thoracic cavities. Grasp the heart and lungs, pull forward and downward, and cut the largebloodvesselattachedtothebackbone.Removethe heart,lungs,andesophagusasoneunit. Completeskinningthecarcassandremovethehead. Theheadisremovedbycuttingacrosstheneckabovethe pollandthroughtheatlasjointasillustratedinFigure13. Carefullyexaminealltheinternalorgansandthedressed carcass for any abnormalities or conditions (such as abscessesorinflammation)thatmightaffectthewholesomeness ofthemeat.

Figure 10. Carcass ready for hoisting with singletree hooked in the tendons of the hind legs. Removethebungbycuttingarounditonthetwosides andbackandpullingthroughtheopeningofthepelviccavity.Continuepullingthebungandintestinesandcuttingthe ligamentsthatattachtheintestinestothebackasinFigure 11.

Figure 11. Removing the bung by cutting along the two sides and back and pulling it through the pelvic opening. Pulldownonthepaunchtotearitloosefromthecarcass, cuttheesophaguswhereitgoesthroughthediaphragm,and allowtheintestinesandpaunchtodropintoacontaineroron theground.Thelivershouldstillbeattachedtothecarcass andcannextberemoved.Removethegallbladderfromthe liver.

Figure 12. Carcass hoisted with head clearing the ground, ready to complete skinning and to remove the head.

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Figure 13. Head is removed by cutting across the neck above the poll and through the atlas joint at the base of the skull.

Figure 15. When the pelvic area has been split, sawing is more easily done from the backside of the carcass.

Splitting the Carcass

The carcass should be split into two sides. Start the splittingbyfirstsawingthroughthesacralvertebraefromthe insideasinFigure14.Assoonasthecutismadethroughthe pelvicarea,sawingcanbedoneeasierfromthebackasin Figure15.Makethesplitdownthecenterofthebackboneto theneck.LeavetheneckattachedasinFigure16tobalance thesidesonthesingletree.

Trimanysoiled,bruised,orbloodypiecesofmeat.Wash thecarcasswithcoldwatertoremoveanyremainingblood anddirt.Pumptheforelegsupanddownafewtimestoaid indrainingbloodfromtheforequarters. To improve the appearance of the carcass, shroud it tightlywithwet,cleanwhitemuslintosmooththeexteriorfat duringchilling.Useskewersortiestotightentheshroud.

Cutting Beef

Beef should be aged a few days before cutting. The amountofagingwilldependontheamountoffatcovering, desiredflavor,andtemperature. Carcassesthathaveonlyathinfatcoveringshouldbe agedthreetofivedays;thosewithmorefat,fivetoseven days.Verylittletenderizationoccursafterfivetosevendays. Longeragingmayresultinoff-flavorsandodorsduetomicrobialgrowth. Ifthetemperatureofthecarcassrisesabove40°F,the timerequiredforagingisreduced.Also,chancesofspoilage areincreased. Thesidesofthecarcassarequarteredbycuttingbetween the 12th and 13th rib (Figure 17). Following is a common procedureforcuttingthequartersintowholesalecuts.

Forequarter

Removetheribandplatefromthechuckandbrisketby cuttingbetweenthefifthandsixthrib.Cutperpendicularto thetoplineofthecarcass.Separatetheribcutfromtheplate atapoint11/2inchesbelowtheribeyemuscleontheend wherethesidewasquartered,andcutparalleltotheback. Theribmaybecutintoribsteaksbycuttingthedesired thickness.Thelargerpartmaybemadeintoaroast,orthe entirecutbonedintobonelessribsteaksorroasts.Therib cutsarerathertenderandmaybebroiledordryroasted.

Figure 14. Begin splitting the carcass by first sawing through the sacral vertebrae. Also see Figure 15.

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Figure 16. Split the carcass to the neck, but leave the area attached to balance the two sides on the singletree. The plate may be processed by cutting two or three rows(11/2-2inches)ofshortribsandtheremainingboned forgroundbeef. Toremovethebrisketandforeshankfromthechuck,first locatethearmbonejointnearthesurfaceofthecarcass.Cut about1inchabovethetopofthejoint,perpendiculartothe cutmadewhenthequarterwasfirstdivided(Figure17). Thebrisketmaybeseparatedfromtheshankbycutting throughthenaturalseamthatjoinsthem.Theshankisusuallybonedforgrindingbutcross-cutshankorsoupbones maybemade.Thebrisketshouldbebonedforaroastorfor grinding. Thebladeendofthesquare-cutchuckmaybecutinto steaksorroast. The arm end of the chuck may be cut into steaks or roasts.Theneckportioncanbestbeusedforgroundbeef. 3400-6

Figure 17. Wholesale cuts of a beef side in reference to the skeleton.

Hindquarter

Thehindquartershouldbeplacedonthecuttingtable withtheoutsidedown. Theflankisremovedbystartingthecutontheround nearthecodareafollowingtheroundmuscle.Cutcloselyto avoidcuttingintotheleanontheroundnearthestiflejoint. Continuethecutforwardonalinetoapoint2or3inches belowtheloineyemuscleatthe13thrib. Theflanksteak,theprominentmuscleontheinsidenear thecenteroftheflank,maybestrippedoutforasteakand theremainingleantrimmedforgrinding. Separatetheloinfromtheroundbycuttingbetweenthe fourthandfifthsacralvertebraeatapointapproximately1 inchinfrontoftheaitchbone.Theloinshouldthenbecut

intosteaks.Begincuttingatthesirloinendandcuttoward thesmallendoftheloin. Removetherumpbycuttingparalleltothetwoendsof theaitchboneandjustbehindtheaitchbone.Therumpis usuallybonedandtiedforroasts.Thesirlointipisremoved byfollowingtheroundbonedtothekneecap.Thetipcan beusedasaroastsorsteaks. Theremainderoftheroundmaybecutintosteaksor roastsmosteasilybyseparatingthetopandbottomround. Thehindshankshouldbebonedforgroundbeef.

For easier separation of steaks when frozen, place a doublethicknessofwaxedorfreezerpaperbetweeneach piecewithplasticsidestothemeat.Beforepackagingremove orcoversharpboneedgeswithdoublethicknessoffreezer papersotheywillnotpuncturethewrappingpaper.

Labeling

Labeleachpackageclearlywithacrayonorgreasepencil. Includethenameofthecut,thequantity,andthepackaging date.

Packaging Beef for the Home Freezer

Successful freezing depends on proper packaging to protectfoodsinfreezers. Ordinarily Kraft or waxed papers do not adequately protectfoodsinfreezers.Usemoisture-vapor-proofmaterial, designedespeciallytowrapfoodsforfreezing.Thesematerialsarestrong,easytohandle,resistgrease,aremoisture proof,andwillnottransferodors.PlasticandKraftlaminated materialisprobablythemosteconomicalandiseasiestto useinmostcases.

Freezer Storage Time

Themaximumrecommendedperiodoffreezerstorage forbeefisninemonths.

Thawing Frozen Meat

Forbestresults,thawinoriginalpackageintherefrigerator. Allowapproximatelythreehoursperpoundforsmallroasts andsteakpackages,andfourtofivehoursforlargerroasts. Ifthawedatroomtemperatureallowonehourperpound.

Cooking Frozen Meat

Frozen meat may be cooked satisfactorily either by thawingpriortoorduringcooking.Whencookingsteaksor roastsfromthefrozenstate,allowadditionalcookingtime. Frozen roasts require approximately a third longer for cookingthanroaststhathavebeenthawed.Allowadditional timeforcookingsteaksorgroundbeefpattiescomparedto thawedcuts.Whenbroilingplacefrozensteaksandground beefpattiesfurtherfromtheheatoratalowertemperature thanthawedcutssothemeatwillbecookedtothedesired degree of doneness without becoming too brown on the out-side.

How to Wrap

Thedrugstorefoldistheapprovedmethodtosealthe moistureinandairout.Tomakethedrugstorefold: 1. Placethemeatinthecenterofthepaper. 2. Bringthetwohorizontalendstogetherandfoldoveruntil tightagainstthemeat. 3. Tightlyfoldoneend,thentheother,turneachendunderneath,andsecurewithtape.

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The Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Bringing the University to You!

The Cooperative Extension Service is the largest, mostsuccessfulinformaleducationalorganization intheworld.Itisanationwidesystemfundedand guidedbyapartnershipoffederal,state,andlocal governmentsthatdeliversinformationtohelppeople help themselves through the land-grant university system. Extension carries out programs in the broad categories of agriculture, natural resources and environment; family and consumer sciences; 4-H and other youth; and community resource development. Extension staff members live and work amongthepeopletheyservetohelpstimulateand educate Americans to plan ahead and cope with theirproblems. SomecharacteristicsoftheCooperativeExtension systemare: · The federal, state, and local governments cooperativelyshareinitsfinancialsupportand programdirection. · Itisadministeredbytheland-grantuniversityas designatedbythestatelegislaturethroughan Extensiondirector. Extensionprogramsarenonpolitical,objective, andresearch-basedinformation. · Itprovidespractical,problem-orientededucation forpeopleofallages.Itisdesignatedtotake theknowledgeoftheuniversitytothosepersons whodonotorcannotparticipateintheformal classroominstructionoftheuniversity. Itutilizesresearchfromuniversity,government, andothersourcestohelppeoplemaketheirown decisions. Morethanamillionvolunteershelpmultiplythe impactoftheExtensionprofessionalstaff. Itdispensesnofundstothepublic. Itisnotaregulatoryagency,butitdoesinform people of regulations and of their options in meetingthem. Localprogramsaredevelopedandcarriedoutin fullrecognitionofnationalproblemsandgoals. The Extension staff educates people through personal contacts, meetings, demonstrations, andthemassmedia. Extensionhasthebuilt-inflexibilitytoadjustits programsandsubjectmattertomeetnewneeds. Activitiesshiftfromyeartoyearascitizengroups and Extension workers close to the problems advisechanges.

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MissouriScienceandTechnologyGuideNo.2208,reproducedbypermission.

OklahomaStateUniversity,incompliancewithTitleVIandVIIoftheCivilRightsActof1964,ExecutiveOrder11246asamended,TitleIXoftheEducationAmendmentsof1972,Americans withDisabilitiesActof1990,andotherfederallawsandregulations,doesnotdiscriminateonthebasisofrace,color,nationalorigin,gender,age,religion,disability,orstatusasaveteranin anyofitspolicies,practices,orprocedures.Thisincludesbutisnotlimitedtoadmissions,employment,financialaid,andeducationalservices. IssuedinfurtheranceofCooperativeExtensionwork,actsofMay8andJune30,1914,incooperationwiththeU.S.DepartmentofAgriculture,RobertE.Whitson,DirectorofCooperative ExtensionService,OklahomaStateUniversity,Stillwater,Oklahoma.ThispublicationisprintedandissuedbyOklahomaStateUniversityasauthorizedbytheVicePresident,Dean,andDirectoroftheDivisionofAgriculturalSciencesandNaturalResourcesandhasbeenpreparedanddistributedatacostof42centspercopy.0404

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