Read Georgia_after_revolution!_1.pmd text version

saxelmwifoebrioba da usafrTxoeba

Tbilisi 2006

American Academy Studies in Global Security Carl Kaysen, John Steinbruner, and Martin B. Malin, editors Robert Legvold, ed. Thinking Strategically: The Major Powers, Kazakhstan, and the Central Asian Nexus Robert Legvold and Celeste A. Wallander, eds., Swords and Sustenance: The Economics of Security in Belarus and Ukraine Steven E. Miller and Dmitri V. Trenin, eds., The Russian Military: Power and Policy Bruno Coppieters and Robert Legvold, eds., Statehood and Security: Georgia after the Rose Revolution Èññëåäîâàíèÿ Àìåðèêàíñêîé àêàäåìèè ïî ïðîáëåìàì ãëîáàëüíîé áåçîïàñíîñòè Ðåäàêòîðû Êàðë Êåéçåí, Äæîí Ñòåéíáðþíåð è Ìàðòèí Á. Ìåéëèí Ñòðàòåãè÷åñêèå ïåðñïåêòèâû: âåäóùèå äåðæàâû, Êàçàõñòàí è öåíòðàëüíîàçèàòñêèé óçåë Ïîä ðåäàêöèåé Ðîáåðòà Ëåãâîëäà Ìå÷è è îðàëà: ýêîíîìèêà íàöèîíàëüíîé áåçîïàñíîñòè Áåëàðóñè è Óêðàèíû Ïîä ðåäàêöèåé Ðîáåðòà Ëåãâîëäà è Ñåëåñòû À. Óîëëàíäåð Ãîñóäàðñòâåííîñòü è áåçîïàñíîñòü: Ãðóçèÿ ïîñëå "ðåâîëþöèè ðîç" Ïîä ðåäàêöèåé Áðóíî Êîïïèòåðñà è Ðîáåðòà Ëåãâîëäà globaluri usafrTxoebis problemebis amerikuli akademiis gamokvlevebis wignebis seria gamoica humanitaruli da zusti mecnierebebis amerikuli akademiis mier da gamouSva masaCusetsis teqnologiurma institutma. wignis rusuli Targmani SegiZliaT naxoT humanitaruli da zusti mecnierebebis amerikuli akademiis veb gverdze: http://www.amacad.org/publications/books.aspx . wignis qarTuli Targmani gamoica mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri institutis mier.

humanitaruli da zusti mecnierebebis amerikuli akademiis misamarTi: 136 Irving Street Cambridge, MA 02138-1996 tel.: (617) 576-5000 faqsi: (617) 576 5050 eleqtronuli fosta: [email protected] veb gverdi: www.amacad.org

saxelmwifoebrioba da usafrTxoeba: saqarTvelo "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg

bruno kopitersis da robert legvoldis redaqciiT

humanitaruli da zusti mecnierebebis amerikuli akademia kembriji, masaCusetsi mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti Tbilisi, saqarTvelo

Tavdapirvelad gamoica MIT Press-is mier Semdegi saTauriT: "Statehood and Security: Georgia after the Rose Revolution" ("saxelmwifoebrioba da uSiSroeba: saqarTvelo vardebis revoluciis Semdeg"). © humanitaruli da zusti mecnierebebis amerikuli akademia, 2005 kembriji, masaCusetsis Stati © humanitaruli da zusti mecnierebebis amerikuli akademia, 2006 kembriji, masaCusetsis Stati yvela ufleba daculia. ra formiTac unda iyos eleqtronuli Tu meqanikuri saSualebebis daxmarebiT, fotoaslebis damzadebiT, CaweriTa Tu informaciis moZiebisa da Senaxvis CaTvliT _ gamomcemlis werilobiTi Tanxmobis gareSe. mocemuli wignis romelime nawilis gamoyeneba ar SeiZleba. am wignSi gamoTqmuli azrebi ekuTvniT statiebis avtorebs da aucileblad ar asaxaven humanitaruli da zusti mecnierebebis amerikuli akademiis Tanamdebobis pirebisa da mecnier muSakebis poziciebs.

ISBN 99928-37-05-5

sarCevi

winasityvaoba ...................................................................................................... vi Sesavali problemis dasma robert legvoldi ................................................................................................... 1 Tavi 1 saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi gia nodia ................................................................................................................... 53 Tavi 2 1989-1993 wlebi. siZneleebis xana saqarTvelos istoriaSi qristof ciurxeri ............................................................................................... 110 Tavi 3 saqarTvelos Tavdacvis politika da samxedro reforma daviT darCiaSvili ............................................................................................... 155 Tavi 4 saqarTvelo da ruseTi: rTuli gza urTierTgagebisaken jaba devdariani .................................................................................................... 203 Tavi 5 gayinuli gaurkvevloba: ruseTi da konfliqti afxazeTis irgvliv oqsana antonenko ................................................................................................. 270 Tavi 6 saqarTvelos usafrTxoeba da dasavleTis roli damien eli da giorgi gogia ............................................................................... 356 Tavi 7 saqarTvelo da misi Soreuli mezoblebi Tomas de vaali ...................................................................................................... 403 daskvna saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia" bruno kopitersi .................................................................................................. 445 avtorTa Sesaxeb .............................................................................................. 509 saZiebeli ............................................................................................................. 514

winasityvaoba

am monografiaSi gaanalizebulia usafrTxoebis problema, romlis winaSec dgas saqarTvelo da kavkasiis regioni. agreTve aRwerilia saqarTvelos susti saxelmwifo, romelic moucavs Sida konfliqtebs, xolo regionebSi aRzevebul Zaladobas veRar akavebs qveynis sazRvrebi. avtorTa azriT, saqarTvelos Sida da gare problemebi qmnis iseT dilemas usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT, romelic gamoiares yvelaze ufro saxifaTo mdgomareobaSi myofma qveynebma. wignSi mocemulia msjeloba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra SeuZliaT gaakeTon, an ra unda gaakeTon saqarTvelom, ruseTma, garemomcvelma regionebma da dasavleTis qveynebma imisaTvis, rom daculi iyos saqarTvelos axalaRmocenebuli demokratia da gaZlierdes saerTaSoriso usafrTxoeba. wigni warmoadgens yofil sabWoTa kavSirSi usafrTxoebis problemebze gamoqveynebuli oTxtomeulis bolo tomis Targmans. TiToeuli am tomTagani exeba am problemis gamovlenas romelime erT regionSi. am seriis pirveli tomi eZRvneboda centralur azias: "strategiuli azrovneba: mTavari Zalebi, yazaxeTi da centraluri aziis kavSirebi" ("Thinking Strategically: The Major Powers, Kazakhstan, and the Central Asian Nexus") gamoqveynda 2003 wels. 2004 wels mas mohyva Semdegi ori tomi, romelTagan erTi eZRvneboda im ekonomikur faqtorebs, romlebic gansazRvravs erovnuli usafrTxoebis dRis wesrigs: "xmali da sakvebi: usafrTxoebis ekonomika belorusiasa da ukrainaSi" ("Swords and Sustenance: The Economics of Security in Belarus and Ukraine"), xolo meore ruseTis samxedroebs: "ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi: Zala da politika" ("The Russian Military: Power and Policy"). seriis TiToeuli tomi gamoica inglisur enaze masaCusetsis teqnologiuri institutis gamomcemlobis mier da oTxive tomi iTargmna rusul enaze. am gamocemebis eleqtronuli versiebi gamoqveynebulia akademiis vebsaitze Semdeg misamarTze: http://www.amacad.org/projects/postsoviet.aspx.

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winasityvaoba

es seria gamoica amerikis mecnierebisa da xelovnebis akademiasTan arsebuli saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis problemebis Seswavlis komitetis egidiT. am monografiis da misi sami winamorbedis gamocema ver moxerxdeboda proeqtis mTavari sponsoris, niu iorkis karnegis korporaciis mxardaWeris gareSe. saerTaSoriso mSvidobisa da usafrTxoebis sferoSi programis xelmZRvaneli diana arseniani warmoadgenda proeqtis gansakuTrebiT yuradRebian, gulisxmier da kvalificiur mrCevels. proeqtze muSaoba mimdinareobda amerikis mecnierebisa da xelovnebis akademiis saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis sakiTxebis Seswavlis komitetSi. es, ra Tqma unda, Zalze mniSvnelovani garemoeba iyo, magram gacilebiT ufro mniSvnelovani iyo is didi daxmareba, romelic gagviwies komitetis TanamSromlebma. programis direqtori martin malini iseTive gulisxmierebiT da keTilganwyobiT xelmZRvanelobda am tomis gamocemas, rogorc proeqtis sxva danarCen tomebs. martinis ori kolega, lei nolani da Semdeg, misi Semcvleli helen kuri koordinacias uwevdnen Cvens saqmianobas da iazrebdnen samuSaos yovel wvrilmans. agreTve, gvinda madliereba gamovxatoT akademiis aRmasrulebeli oficris lesli berlovicis mimarT proeqtisadmi didi interesisa da mxardaWerisaTvis. proeqtis dasawyisidan dasasrulamde mxarSi gvedgnen komitetis TanaTavmjdomareebi karl keiseni da jon steinbruneri, romelTa erudiciam da Tanadgomam maT saxelebTan erTad bevri ram Semata proeqts. am wignis Targmna SesaZlebeli gaxda kolumbiis universitetis harimanis institutis, briuselis Tavisufali universitetisa da evraziis fondis grantis saSualebiT. Cven gansakuTrebiT madlierni varT evraziis fondis TanamSromlebis, juli giorgaZisa da ana jobavas mimarT maT mier gaweuli daxmarebisaTvis. agreTve gvinda gamovxatoT madliereba nino dadalauris, nana janaSias, lali gabunias, lela nanuaSvilis, efemia lorias da naTia nemsaZis mimarT, romelTac Targmnes dasavlel avtorTa monografiebis Tavebi, agreTve aleqsandre kuxianiZis mimarT, romelmac izruna qarTuli tomis gamocemaze.

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winasityvaoba

uaRresad madlierni varT Cveni avtorebis mimarT, romelTa mier gaweuli samuSaoc Seadgens am wignis safuZvels. maT ara mxolod gagviziares TavianTi codna da unari, aramed didi moTminebiT itandnen Cveni mxridan wayenebul dausrulebel moTxovnebs. 2004 wlis TebervalSi avtorTan Sexvedras brugsSi maspinZlobda UNU-CRIS - gaerTianebuli erebis universitetis SedarebiTi regionuli integraciis Seswavlis programa da Cven madlierni varT misi direqtorebis, luk van langenhovis da paskal vantores mimarT, romelTac SemogvTavazes aseTi sasiamovno garemo. brenda Saferma da oqsana antonenkom moamzades komentarebi am Sexvedraze warmodgenili Tavebis Sesaxeb, Semdeg ki proeqtis monawileni gaxdnen da TiToeul Cvengans didad exmareboda maTi intuicia da maxvili azrovneba. viaCeslav Cirikbam, jorj hiuitma da megali rodrigas garsiam waikiTxes da SeniSvnebi moamzades ramdenime Tavis Sesaxeb da Cven madlierni varT maT mier gaweuli daxmarebisTvis. xelnaweri gansakuTrebuli gulmodginebiT waikiTxa orma anonimurma recenzentma da Cven yvelas, proeqtis TiToeul monawiles didad dagvexmara maTi Tanmimdevruli da gonivruli rCevebi. agreTve gvinda, madloba vuTxraT ala raCkovas, romelmac didi rudunebiT Seamowma wignis sqolioebis siswore. da bolos, gvinda gamovxatoT gansakuTrebuli madliereba jon grenanis mimarT, romelmac udidesi ostatobiT Seasrula wignis redaqtirebis samuSao. misi Sesworebebi agreTve gansakuTrebiT sasargeblo iyo rusuli da qarTuli TargmanebisaTvis.

bruno kopitersi robert legvoldi 2006 wlis ianvari

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ruka 1. saqarTvelos administraciuli ruka

Map courtesy of the International Crisis Group (www.crisisgroup.org).

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ruka 2 . saqarTveloSi gaeros samxedro damkvirvebelTa misiis ruka

Map courtesy of the United Nations. UNOMIG, no. 3837 Rev. 43E, January 2005, The United Nations Cartographic Section, http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/english/htmain.htm.

Sesavali

problemis dasma

robert legvoldi

cnobilia, rom ruseTs problemuri mezoblebi hyavs. arsebobs imisi saSiSroeba, rom misi mosazRvre susti da arastabiluri saxelmwifoebi ruseTis teritoriaze an sakuTar problemebs gadaitanen, an avRaneTSi, iranSi, eraysa da axlo aRmosavleTSi aRmocenebul safrTxes. sxva postsabWouri qveynebic aranakleb SemaSfoTebel garemocvaSi cxovroben, romlis did nawilzec ruseTi mdebareobs. postsabWoTa saxelmwifoebidan arc erTs ara aqvs usafrTxo garemo. gamonakliss amJamad ukve evrokavSiris dacvis qveS myofi baltiispireTis sami respublika warmoadgens. magram safrTxe ara mxolod qveynis sazRvrebze, aramed xSirad TviT am qveynebis SigniTac aRmocendeba xolme. es qveynebi arastabiluria, maTi ekonomika vardnas ganicdis, maT aqvT sxva seriozuli problemebic, romlebic sabWoTa kavSiris nangrevebze maTi saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenas ukavSirdeba; bevr am qveyanaSi feTqebadi Sida konfliqtebi Rvivis, xolo oTx qveyanaSi meamboxe regionebi Tavs am saxelmwifoebis nawilad ar cnoben. zemoxsenebuli mxolod ramdenime postsabWour qveyanas rom exebodes, es ase Zlier ar SeaSfoTebda msoflio sazogadoebriobas. magram yofili sabWoTa kavSiris sxvadasxva nawilSi _ Sua aziaSi, kavkasiasa da "axal Sida miwebze" (belorusi, moldova da ukraina) _ ganlagebuli am qveynebidan arc erTi ar aris dazRveuli Sida gardaqmnebiT gamowveuli safrTxis, SesaZlo samoqalaqo konfliqtebisa da regionaluri Zala1

robert legvoldi

dobisagan.1 amas garda, erT-erTi qveregioni an yvela maTgani (ufro sworad, mTeli postsabWouri sivrce, rogorc aseTi) saerTaSoriso sistemis periferiaze rom iyos ganlagebuli, sxva qveynebi, maT Soris zesaxelmwifoebic, Tavs uflebas miscemdnen, yuradReba ar mieqciaT am problemebis gadaWris warumatebeli mcdelobebisaTvis. magram postsabWoTa sivrce warmoadgens Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso sistemis ori yvelaze mniSvnelovani strategiuli regionis _ aRmosavleT aziisa da evropis Sida nawils da musulmanuri samxreTidan wamosuli saSiSroebis wyaros. da bolos, postsabWoTa sivrceSi ganlagebuli yvela es qveregioni, ase Tu ise, eqceva msoflioSi arsebuli udidesi arastabilurobis ama Tu im zonebis gavlenis sferoSi. amrigad, saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis udidesi nawilisa da misi wamyvani saxelmwifoebisaTvis problemas warmoadgens (es yovelTvis ase iyo) ara ruseTi, rogorc aseTi, aramed ruseTi Tavisi geografiuli konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT. magram mTlianad arc amiT aixsneba qveynis am nawilSi arsebuli situacia. yoveli qveregioni SeiZleba areulobis wyaro gaxdes da safrTxe Seuqmnas momijnave regionebs an maT stabilurobas. yvela regionSi SeimCneva liberalizmis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli faruli Sida politikuri tendenciebi, romlebic dasavleTs imeds ukargavs, rom postsabWouri qveynebi Semdgomi demokratiuli talRis adgili gaxdeba. yvela es qveregioni iqca narkotikebis, iaraRisa da kontrabanduli saqonlis derefnad, sadac adamianebiT vaWrobasac aqvs adgili; SesaZloa, momavalSi am derefnebiT masobrivi ganadgurebis iaraRis dasamzadebeli elementebis gadatanac gaxdes SesaZlebeli. arc erT qveregionSi ar xdeba am safrTxeebis iseTi aSkara demonstrireba, rogorc kavkasiaSi; arc erTi qveyana ise ar aris

belorusTan, ukrainasa da moldovasTan mimarTebiT termini "Sida miwebi" mocemulia naSromSi: Robert Legvold and Celeste A. Wallander, eds. Swords and Sustenance: The Economics of National Security in Belarus and Ukraine (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2004).

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problemis dasma

Sewuxebuli am safrTxiT, rogorc saqarTvelo. garda amisa, saqarTvelos am safrTxis gansazRvraSi gacilebiT mniSvnelovani roli akisria, vidre qveregionis sxva qveynebs. swored es aris am wignis daweris mizezi. damoukidebeli saqarTvelos arsebobis mTeli istoriis manZilze qveynis mSvidoba da keTildReoba yovelTvis safrTxis winaSe idga. separatistebTan arsebuli konfliqtebi xSirad Zalis gamoyenebamdec midioda. afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis mudmivi problemebi pirdapir exeba erovnul usafrTxoebas da saSiSroebas uqmnis saxelmwifos teritoriul mTlianobas. situacia imanac gaarTula, rom qarTuli saxelmwifos pirveli liderebi meryevi nabijebiT uZRodnen qveyanas sabWoTa warsulidan ufro Tanamedrove politikuri da ekonomikuri wyobisaken, ris Sedegadac qveyana Zalze susti da moumzadebeli aRmoCnda usafrTxoebis sferoSi mis win wamoWrili problemebis winaSe. saqarTvelos Sida problemebs mis sazRvrebze arsebuli arastabilurobac emateba: samxreTiT, somxeTi da azerbaijani, faqtobrivad, saomar mdgomareobaSi imyofebian erTmaneTTan mTiani yarabaRis gadauWreli problemis gamo; CrdiloeTiT, CeCneTSi meamboxeTa mudmivi moqmedebebiT ruseTi, romelsac Tbilisi isedac agresiulad da arakeTilganwyobilad miiCnevs, sul ufro gaRizianebuli da zedmetad TviTdajerebuli xdeba. yvela es faqtori uaRresad rTul da Znelad gadasawyvet problemebs uqmnis saqarTvelos axal mTavrobas usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad. erT weliwadze meti gavida mas Semdeg, rac aSkarad gayalbebuli arCevnebis Semdeg politikuri opozicia quCaSi gamovida da eduard SevardnaZis mTavroba xelisuflebas CamoaSora. 2003 wlis noembris "vardebis revoluciisa" da mas Semdeg Catarebuli saprezidento da saparlamento arCevnebis Sedegad xelisuflebaSi axali liderebi movidnen, romlebmac marTvis warsul gamocdilebaze uari Tqves da sruliad axali gezi aiRes. qveynis axali prezidenti mixeil saakaSvili da misi mTavari partniorebi, yofili premier-ministri zurab Jvania da parlamentis Tavmjdomare nino burjanaZe umalve Seudgnen

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robert legvoldi

saxelmwifos gajansaRebas, aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis gaZlierebas, mTavrobaSi arsebul korufciasTan brZolas, kriminaluri qselebis saqmianobis aRkveTas, urC provinciaSi _ aWaraSi ­ centraluri mmarTvelobis aRdgenas, xalxis ndobiT aRWurvili Sinagan saqmeTa saministros Seqmnasa da gadasaxadebis akrefas, rac ase sWirdeboda saxelmwifos. magram axali mTavroba am amocanebis gadasaWrelad iseT meTodebs iyenebda, romlebsac am wignis erT-erTi avtori "gaxangrZlivebul revoluciur sindroms" uwodebs; mTavrobis mier gamoiyeneboda iseTi taqtika, romelmac "vardebis revoluciis" wlisTavze samoqalaqo sazogadoebis liderebi, romelTa umravlesobac Tavidan mxars uWerda axal xelisuflebas, daafiqra imaze, Tu ramdenad iqneboda misaRebi axali mTavrobisaTvis Ria da pluralistuli sazogadoeba.2 metic, afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis sakiTxebSi progresis misaRwevad, 2004 wlis gazafxulsa da zafxulSi axali liderebi mTeli rigi naCqarevi iniciativebiT gamovidnen: am iniciativebma gamoiwvia konfliqtebis xelaxali gaRviveba, ruseTTan urTierTobebis gauareseba da dasavleTis zogadad keTilganwyobili saxelmwifoebis wyroma. "vardebis revoluciidan" erTi wlis Semdeg erTi sakiTxi kvlav Riad rCeboda: ra imedismomcemic ar unda iyos axali mTavrobis ganzraxva da pirveli nabijebi, mainc rCeba upasuxo kiTxvebi: Seswevs Tu ara mTavrobas Zala, gadawyvitos saxelmwifos winaSe mdgari urTulesi problemebi? SeZlebs Tu ara igi saxelmwifosaTvis esoden mniSvnelovani usafrTxoebis mopovebas? rogorc Cans, gare Zalebi saRad ver afaseben TavianT rols saqarTvelos ganviTarebaSi (es ruseTs exeba) an ar SeuZliaT, es roli ufro mniSvnelovani gaxadon (aq igulisxmeba evropelebi da amerikelebi). qarTuli mxarisaTvis ki misi sisuste konceptualuria: gaurkvevelia, Tu rogor unda iyos ganxi2 es mosazreba ekuTvnis gia nodias da mocemulia jaba devdarianis statiaSi: "Georgia's Rose Revolution Grapples with Dilemma: Do Ends Justify Means?" Eurasia Insight, 26 October, 2004 w.)

4

problemis dasma

luli saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problema sxvadasxva aspeqtSi ise, rom gaTvaliswinebuli iyos misi rTuli urTierTkavSirebi. saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciaze sakmaod cota azria gamoTqmuli, yovel SemTxvevaSi, oficialur wreebSi, Tumca saubari yofila iseT sakiTxebze, rogorebicaa: damarcxebis Sinagani gancda, eTnikur niadagze aRmocenebuli regionaluri konfliqtebiT gamowveuli safrTxe, wina mTavrobebis uunaroba qveynis problemebis gadasawyvetad, muqara ruseTis mxridan (yvela es faqtori sakmaod realuria). 2000 wlis bolos eduard SevardnaZis mTavrobam moamzada oficialuri dokumenti saTauriT "saqarTvelo da msoflio: samomavlo xedva da strategia", rac warmoadgenda saerTaSoriso urTierTobebisa da usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos Sexedulebis Camoyalibebis mcdelobas. magram rTuli konceptualuri sakiTxebis gadawyvetis magivrad dokumentis avtorebi zogadi sabaziso principebisa da samomavlo survilebis formulirebiT Semoifarglnen, gansakuTrebiT evropasa da amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan saqarTvelos urTierTobis sferoSi. daviT darCiaSvili mis mier daweril nawilSi aRniSnavs, rom mixeil saakaSvilis mTavrobam samxedro reformas axali impulsi Semata da 2005 wlis gazafxulisaTvis igi mzad iyo, erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefcia parlamentisTvisac gaecno da farTo sajaro ganxilvazec gamoetana. momavali gviCvenebs, SeZles Tu ara avtorebma qveynis winaSe arsebul safrTxeTa sirTulis aRqma da mis dasaZlevad realisturi, sistemuri da konkretuli gzebis dasaxva. winamdebare naSromis Seqmnis meore mizezi saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis problematikis ganxilvis survilia. avtorebi ecadnen, ufro naTlad ganesazRvraT saqarTvelos winaSe mdgari safrTxis mTavari faqtorebi da maTi rTuli urTierTqmedeba. saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemas xSirad ganixilaven, rogorc mravalSrian sakiTxs, romelSic Sedis separatizmis saSiSroeba, saxelmwifo institutebis ngreva da ruseTis intrigebi. bevri aRniSnavda, magram xmamaRla ar ambobda, rom arsebobda kavSiri saqarTvelos Sida sisustesa

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robert legvoldi

da regionis arastabilurobas Sorisac. magram Tu mxolod usafrTxoebis problemis sxvadasxva aspeqtebis CamoTvliT SemovifarglebiT, ar ganvixilavT maTi urTierTgavlenis faqtorebs da ar SeviswavliT uSualo urTierTkavSirs arastabilurobis Sida da gare faqtorebs Soris, maSin rTuli iqneba erovnuli usafrTxoebis iseTi koncefciis SemuSaveba, romelic saSualebas mogvcems, srulad SevafasoT problemis sirTule. meore, da ufro mTavari, isaa, rom rodesac saubari Camovardeba msofliosaTvis saqarTvelosa da misi usafrTxoebis problemebis mniSvnelobis Sefasebaze, vaSingtonis, briuselisa da, albaT, moskovis politikosebi ver ganixilaven saqarTvelos problemebs ufro farTo regionalur konteqstSi. amis gamo isini jerovnad ver afaseben TavianT rols da arasworad esmiT sakuTari interesebi saqarTvelos winaSe mdgari problemebis saboloo gadawyvetaSi. is faqti, rom isini yuradRebiT akvirdebian saqarTveloSi ganviTarebul movlenebs, radganac am regionSi TavianTi interesebi gaaCniaT, ar niSnavs imis gagebas, Tu rogor urTierTqmedeben regionSi moqmedi Zalebi. aseve maTi gulwrfeli, magram zogadi survilebi, rom saakaSvilis axalma mTavrobam demokratiisa da evropasTan daaxloebis kursiT iaros, ar aris imis garantia, rom isini gaatareben im CaxlarTuli Sida da gare realobis Sesabamis politikas, romelSic saqarTvelo imyofeba. ase rom, winamdebare naSromSi sami amocana davsaxeT: pirveli, gvsurda, gveCvenebina saqarTvelos usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi, romlebic warmoiSveba mravali Sida da gare faqtoriT da gangvexila maTi urTierTgadakveTis gzebi da urTierTzegavlena. meore, gvindoda agvexsna, Tu ratom unda iyos am qveynis winaSe arsebuli problemebi mniSvnelovani ara marto saqarTvelosa da misi uSualo mezoblebisaTvis; ratom unda aRiqvan seriozulad es problemebi dasavleTis wamyvanma qveynebma da maTTan dakavSirebulma dawesebulebebma; ratom aris saWiro am problemebis gadasawyvetad ufro meti ram, vidre materialuri daxmareba, romelic axlandeli urTierTobebis birTvs warmoadgens. mesame, gvindoda, gagvego, Tu ra unda

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problemis dasma

gaakeTon am problemebis gadasaWrelad qarTvelebma, maTma uSualo mezoblebma da, saboloo jamSi, mTelma dasavlurma samyarom. mokled rom vTqvaT, gvsurda, gagverkvia, Tu rogor unda gamoasworon arsebuli situacia qarTvelebma, rusebma, evropelebma da amerikelebma ­ amis Sedegad gaZlierdeboda TiToeuli zemoCamoTvlili qveynis erovnuli usafrTxoeba, rac, Tavis mxriv, uzrunvelyofda urTierTusafrTxoebasac; da bolos, ra realuri politikuri nabijebis gadadgma SeiZleba am mimarTulebiT.

problemis arsi

ruseTisa da yvela postsabWoTa saxelmwifosaTvis, gamonakliss, albaT, baltiispireTis qveynebi warmoadgens, usafrTxoeba sakuTari saxlidan iwyeba _ es qveynebi seriozulad wuxan imis gamo, rom, miuxedavad maTi Zalisxmevisa, sabWoTa kavSiris dacemis Semdeg Zveli Tu axali Rirebulebebi politikurekonomikur sistemebad Camoayalibon, Sedegebi gaurkveveli da bundovania. saqarTvelos liderebs didi imedi aqvT TavianTi qveynis gardaqmnis, magram sanam isini urTules amocanebs ganaxorcieleben, qveyana SeiZleba mTlianobis dakargvis safrTxis winaSe aRmoCndes. aqedan gamomdinare, maTTvis usafrTxoeba ufro realuri amocanis gadawyvetiT iwyeba ­ es aris qveynis teritoriuli usafrTxoebis SenarCuneba an, Tundac, centraluri xelisuflebis aRdgena im farTo teritoriebze, sadac amJamad es xelisufleba ar vrceldeba. magram zemonaxsenebi miznis Sesruleba mxolod pirveli etapia saqarTveloSi usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad. qarTvelebs, visac kargad aqvT gacnobierebuli am problemis seriozuloba, awuxebT ara mxolod separatizmis saSiSroeba, aramed isic, Tu ramdenad eyofa qarTul saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebas am saSiSroebasTan gamklavebis neba da unari. maT aRelvebT, rom institutebi, maT Soris, iseTebic, romlebic specialurad usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad Seiqmna,

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naTesavebis, klanebisa da "gansakuTrebuli interesebis mqone jgufebis" zegavlenis qveS imyofeba da imdenad susti da korumpirebulia, rom ver SeZleben qveynisa da misi moqalaqeebis dacvas. qarTvelebi ukve im azrsac uSveben, rom problemis mizezi, SesaZloa, TviTonve iyvnen: is, rasac qarTvelebis erovnuli TviTSegneba hqvia, ufro farTo sazogadoebriobis rRvevis Sedegi SeiZleba iyos. aqedan naTeli xdeba, Tu ratom iyo "vardebis revolucia" aseTi mniSvnelovani ­ igi iyo qarTvelebis imedi, rom qveyana Tavs daaRwevs am marwuxebs da SeaCerebs vardnas. raoden seriozulic ar unda yofiliyo saqarTvelos arastabilurobis Sida mizezebi, xelsayreli garemocvis SemTxvevaSi problema gacilebiT martivi (Tumca ara ioli) iqneboda. magram saqarTvelos mezoblebi mas mxolod problemebs uqmnian. qveyanas aSkarad Tu farulad emuqreba garedan momavali safrTxe. saqarTvelos SigniT arsebuli araregionaluri konfliqtebi qveynis yofas arTulebs, xolo regionaluri _ mezoblebTan urTierTobas gansazRvravs. samxreT kavkasiaSi dialogisa da, metic, saqmiani da ekonomikuri urTierTobebis ararsebobis gamo saqarTvelos ara aqvs misi mezoblebis mxardaWera da, rac mTavaria, ara aqvs saSualeba, koncentrireba moaxdinos sakuTar problemebze. es iwvevs konfliqtebis erTi teritoriidan meoreze gavrcelebis saSiSroebas, mezoblebs Soris ki, romelTac uwevT dapirispirebul mxareTa Soris arCevanis gakeTeba _ daZabulobas. kerZod, CeCneTSi arsebuli Zaladobis gamo ruseTi ufro agresiulia da daundobeli sxva mezoblebis mimarTac. Tumca CeCneTSi rom mSvidoba yofiliyo da arc CrdiloeT kavkasiis danarCeni nawilidan wamosuliyo safrTxe, saqarTvelo ruseTis xels mainc igrZnobda, radgan moskovi Zalian nela da mtkivneulad egueba Tavisi kontrolis dakargvas regionze, romelic ori saukunis ganmavlobaSi mis strategiul placdarms warmoadgenda. zemoaRwerili faqtorebi saqarTvelos arastabiluri mdgomareobis uSualo da aSkara mizezebia. problemas ufro

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problemis dasma

kargad rom davakvirdeT, vnaxavT, rom istoriulma da geografiulma garemoebebma Tavidanve gansazRvra is dabrkolebebi, romelic saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis sferoSi eqneboda. saqarTvelo Savi zRvis auzis regionSi mdebareobs; am regionis qveynebis bedi saukuneebis manZilze, jer kidev berZnebisa da skviTebis droidan dawyebuli, imperiaTa aRmocenebasa da dacemaze iyo damokidebuli, iqneboda es romis, bizantiis, sparseTisa Tu TurqeTis imperiebi. xSirad ki regionis beds am imperiebis urTierTdapirispirebac gansazRvravda, magaliTad: sparseT-TurqeTis dapirispireba XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi, ruseTTurqeTisa _ XIX saukuneSi. droTa ganmavlobaSi momcro saxelmwifoebs an didi imperiebi STanTqavdnen, an, rac kavkasiis SemTxvevaSi moxda, isini buferul zonebad gardaiqmnebodnen (romsa da parTias, bizantiasa da arabeTs, sparseTsa da ruseTis imperias Soris).3 saqarTvelo damoukidebeli saxelmwifo mxolod erTi saukunis ganmavlobaSi gaxldaT ­ bagratovanTa dinastiis "oqros xanaSi", romelic 1122 wels Tbilisis seljukebisagan gaTavisuflebiT daiwyo da 1220 wels saqarTveloSi monRolebis SeWriT damTavrda. bolo ori saukunis ganmavlobaSi qveyana ruseTis, Semdeg ki sabWoTa imperiis SemadgenlobaSi imyofeboda. SedarebiTi Tavisuflebis periodebSi saqarTvelos mwiri arCevani hqonda: mas an damcveli unda moeZebna da damoukidebloba daekarga (rogorc es XVIII saukunis bolos moxda, rodesac erekle II ruseTs mimarTa), an TviTon qveyana unda daSliliyo (XV saukuneSi, aleqsandre I Svilebis dros) an gayofiliyo (rogorc XVI saukuneSi, TurqeTis mmarTvelobis dros). dRes, rodesac saqarTvelom kvlav moipova damoukidebloba, igi seriozul dabrkolebebs awydeba, rac Cveulebrivi ambavia im patara qveynebisaTvis, romlebic uzarmazari da naklebad keTilganwyobili mezoblis gverdigverd cxovroben, "gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac istoriul mexsierebas

3 mwyobrad Camoyalibebuli es istoriuli Teoria ixileT: Charles King, The Black Sea: A. History (New York: Oxfors University Press, 2004)

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or qveyanas Soris konfliqtamde mivyavarT", ­ aRniSnavs jaba devdariani am wignis erT-erT TavSi. saqarTvelo axal epoqaSi sando mokavSireebisa da kavSirebis gareSe Sedis. Tomas de vaali, romelsac ekuTvnis erT-erTi Tavi am wignSi, aRniSnavs, rom uzarmazar, moqiSpe qveynebs Soris mdebare saqarTvelos TiTqmis arasdros hqonia saSualeba, kavkasiel mezoblebTan erTad erTiani fronti Seeqmna. kavkasiaSi daqsaqsulobis xelSemwyob Setakebebsa da uTanxmoebebs didi xnis istoria aqvs. Tu de vaalis gamoTqmas moviSveliebT, saqarTvelos ar SeuZlia, hqondes "regionaluri usafrTxoebis sando sistema." miuxedavad istoriuli memkvidreobisa, es kidev ar niSnavs imas, rom ar SeiZleba am situaciidan gamosavlis povna. mTavaria arCevani: is arCevani, romelsac akeTeben saqarTvelos xelmZRvanelebi Sida problemebis gadasawyvetad, separatistul regionebTan urTierTobis gansasazRvrad, regionSi TanamSromlobis gasaZliereblad da gare Zalebis politikaze reagirebisaTvis ­ dRevandeli realobis gaTvaliswinebiT. samwuxarod, saqarTvelosa da misi partniorebis mier damoukideblobis periodis bolo TxuTmeti wlis ganmavlobaSi gakeTebuli arCevani Sors iyo optimalurisagan. rogorc Cans, dRemde istoriuli warsulis inercia sZalavs Tanamedrove tendenciebs. isev Riad rCeba kiTxva, SeZlebs Tu ara saakaSvilis mTavroba am tendenciebis gamijvnas. saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problema masStaburi, dramatuli da kompleqsuri xasiaTisaa, romelic ori ZiriTadi nawilisagan Sedgeba: usafrTxoeba saqarTvelosaTvis, pirvel rigSi, misi saxelmwifoebriobis SenarCunebas niSnavs, xolo es damokidebulia arausafrTxo qveynebis garemocvaSi arsebobis usiamovno realobaze. saxelmwifoebriobis simyife da arastabiluri garemocva usafrTxoebis im dilemas warmoSobs, romelic ukiduresad rTul mdgomareobaSi myofi qveynebis winaSe dgas. imis mtkiceba, rom usafrTxoeba saqarTvelosaTvis misi saxelmwifoebriobis SenarCunebas niSnavs, ver asaxavs am sakiTxs mTeli masStaburobiTa da siRrmiT. gareSe damkvirvebels (albaT, mkiTxvelic miaqcevs amas yuradRebas) yvelaze

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problemis dasma

metad aocebs, Tu raoden gansazRvravs saqarTvelos sinamdvile qarTvelebis usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebul Sexedulebebs. saqme is ki ar aris, rom qarTvel politikosebsa da politologebs ar esmiT TavdacviTi politikis mniSvneloba da ver iTvaliswineben am regionSi Zaladobis warmoSobis saSiSroebas, an ar ZaluZT, ganWvriton, Tu ra SeiZleba mohyves saxelmwifoTaSoris dapirispirebas da ruseTTan dauregulirebel urTierTobas, aramed saqme isaa, rom yvela es sakiTxi aqtualobas kargavs, roca saqme saqarTvelos momavals exeba afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTTan mimarTebaSi, radgan wuxili saxelmwifos uunarobaze, aRadginos saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianoba, Zalian didia. qveynebis umravlesoba, maT Soris, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, ruseTi da evropis saxelmwifoebi, erovnuli usafrTxoebis sakiTxze muSaobisas, pirvel rigSi, maT winaSe arsebuli safrTxeebis xasiaTsa da xarisxs aanalizeben. saqarTvelo sruliad sxvagvarad iqceva: igi safrTxis Temidan ki ar iwyebs muSaobas, aramed usafrTxoebis Temidan ­ anu gansazRvravs usafrTxoebas, rogorc aseTs. 1998 wlis noemberSi strategiuli kvlevis centris (Tbilisi) mier SemoTavazebuli "saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis" avtorebi koncefciis umTavres sakiTxad saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis arastabilurobis ganmsazRvrel faqtorebs miiCneven.4 isini amodian im debulebidan, rom saqarTveloSi safrTxe arsebobs, radganac dasustebulia misi saxelmwifo institutebi, sazogadoebam dakarga saerTo miznebis arsebobis

4 National Security Concept of Georgia (Tbilisi: Strategic Research Center, November 1998) http://www.src.ge/policy_papers/national_security.html. miuxedavad imisa, rom naSromis avtorebi miTiTebulni ar arian, cnobilia, rom centris damfuZnebelTa rigebSi Sedian finansTa yofili ministri daviT iakobiZe, sagareo saqmeTa yofili ministri irakli menaRariSvili, centris aRmasrulebeli direqtori niko meliqaZe da centris direqtori naTela saxokia. aq es naSromi misi politikuri Sedegebis gamo momyavs ­ Cemi azriT, man Zalze mcire gavlena moaxdina politikaze an saerTodac ar mouxdenia ­ rogorc saqarTvelos azrovnebis stilis nimuSi.

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SegrZneba, xolo erma ver moZebna sxvadasxva nacionaluri saTvistomoebis gamaerTianebeli idea. miuxedavad imisa, rom yvela oficialuri Tu araoficialuri Sexeduleba amgvarad ar aris Camoyalibebuli, umravlesoba, met-naklebad mainc, iziarebs am Sexedulebebs. zemoxsenebuli centris mier SemuSavebuli koncefciis Tanaxmad, usafrTxoeba damokidebulia ara imdenad imaze, aqvs Tu ara saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis strategiis SemuSavebis unari, aramed mis SesaZleblobaze, Seqmnas ganviTarebis strategia. usafrTxoebas, rogorc Sedegs, Segnebuli da nayofieri Sroma moitans, romelic mimarTuli iqneba qveyanaSi kanonmorCilebisa da konstruqciuli moZraobis damyarebisaken da qarTul kulturul TviTmyofadobasTan erTad globalizaciis gzaze myofi msoflio sazogadoebriobis cvalebad moTxovnebsac gaiTvaliswinebs. magram amisaTvis saqarTvelo suverenuli saxelmwifo unda iyos ­ anu man damoukideblad unda SeZlos arCevanis gakeTeba da unda gaTavisufldes gareSe Zalebis Carevisagan. msjelobaTa am jaWvSi rgolebi Semdegnairadaa ganawilebuli: "erovnuli ganviTarebis strategia" ­ saxelmwifoebrioba ­ suvereniteti ­ usafrTxoeba. aSkaraa, rom am argumentacias cikluroba axasiaTebs, radganac usafrTxoeba suverenitetis saSualebiT Sida gardaqmnebis safuZvels unda warmoadgendes; Tumca aSkaraa urTierTkavSiri saxelmwifoebriobasa da usafrTxoebas Soris: saxelmwifoebrioba uswrebs usafrTxoebas. winamdebare naSromis im nawilSi, romlis avtoric gia nodiaa, analogiuri argumentebia warmodgenili. misi azriT, usafrTxoeba aris xalxis Tavisufleba, ixelmZRvanelos warmodgeniT imis Sesaxeb, "Tu rad undaT yofna". igi amas "erovnul proeqts" uwodebs da yvelaferi, ramac SeiZleba CaSalos igi an gzidan gadaaxvevinos mas, iwvevs usafrTxoebis problemas. gia nodia miiCnevs, rom proeqtis asamuSaveblad saWiroa, igi gamoxatavdes pativiscemas _ "erTgvar unikalur erovnul TviTmyofadobas" ­ dafuZnebuls enaze, kulturasa Tu "sulierebaze", imavdroulad, igi metisaken unda iswra12

problemis dasma

fodes. avtoris azriT, saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi "meti" aris evropuli saxelmwifoebis liberalur-demokratiuli modelisaken swrafva, magram avtori imasac aRniSnavs, rogor unda vicodeT zustad, ra aris erovnuli proeqti da vin uWers mas mxars? ramdenime erovnuli proeqtis arsebobis pirobebSi romels aqvs kanonieri Zala? es SekiTxvebi problemis siRrmeebs exeba da cvlis urTierTdamokidebulebas usafrTxoebasa da saxelmwifoebriobas Soris. saqarTveloSi erovnuli proeqtis Seqmnas seriozuli dabrkolebebi eRobeba. gia nodias azriT, es dabrkolebebia: TviT qarTvelebis mier TavianTi Tavis "gansakuTrebul eTnikur" xalxad aRqma, sabWoTa institucionaluri sistemis memkvidreoba, romelic daqsaqsulobas uwyobs xels, gavleniani "alternatiuli erovnuli proeqtebi" da daZabulobis sxva mTeli rigi potenciuri wyaro ­ somxur da azerbaijanul saTvistomoebSi arsebuli iredentistuli ganwyobidan dawyebuli, araintegrirebuli eTnikuri jgufebiT damTavrebuli. es dabrkolebebi erovnuli usafrTxoebis problemis Sinagan aspeqts Seadgens da safrTxes uqmnis erovnul proeqtsa da saxelwifoebriobas. magram, gia nodias azriT, problemas ara mxolod es dabrkolebebi qmnis. Tu sakiTxs ufro Rrmad ganvixilavT, vnaxavT, rom qarTuli erovnuli proeqtis Seqmnas politikuri institutebis gaubedaoba uSlis xels da ara piriqiT. institutebis warumatebloba ar SeiZleba am dabrkolebebiT aixsnas, piriqiT, am dabrkolebebis masStabs institutebis sisuste gansazRvravs. Sesabamisad, gia nodias azriT, saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemis arsis gasacnobiereblad saWiroa saxelmwifos sisustis mizezebis axsna. igi Tvlis, rom mizezs is Tavdapirveli ormagi Rirebulebebi warmoadgens, romlebic saqarTvelos mosaxleobas gaaCnia: erTi mxriv, isini simpaTiiT uyureben liberalur-demokratiul models, meore mxriv ki, eWvi SeaqvT masSi, radgan antipaTiurad arian ganwyobili TviT saxelmwifos mimarT da cdiloben, igi sakuTari interesebisaTvis gamoiyenon. Tu ufro CavuRrmavdebiT, problema Semdegnairad

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SeiZleba aixsnas: qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis misaRebia dasavleTis demokratiuli modeli, mas surs, dasavleTis nawili iyos, radganac dasavleTis nawilad yofna mas ruseTisgan damoukideblobas ganumtkicebs. swored amitom, dasavluri liberaluri modelisadmi swrafva usafrTxoebis mizezebiTaa ganpirobebuli da ara am modelis Rirebulebebisadmi Rrma simpaTiiT.5 Tu davumatebT amas qarTveli xalxis instinqtur undoblobas zogadad saxelmwifosadmi, rogori tipisac ar unda iyos igi (demokratiuli Tu sxva), rac sabWoTa saxelmwifoebrivi gamocdilebidan modis, vnaxavT, rom demokratiis danergvis gziT saxelmwifos sisustis daZleva, faqtobrivad, SeuZlebelia, gansakuTrebiT im pirobebSi, rodesac bevri qarTvelisaTvis demokratiuli Rirebulebebi qarTuli sazogadoebis mier memkvidreobad miRebul Rirebulebebs ewinaaRmdegeba, rasac drodadro qarTuli eklesiac uWers mxars. amgvar sakiTxebSi kargad gaTviTcnobierebuli qarTvelebis Sexedulebebic, faqtobrivad, igivea. am wignis erT-erTi Tavis avtori, daviT darCiaSvilic miiCnevs, rom qarTuli "vardebis revoluciis'' momavali damokidebulia mis unarze, "gaaerTianos xalxi erovnuli ideis garSemo", rac miuRwevelia mxolod samoqalaqo sazogadoebaze gaTvliT.6 am amocanis ganxorcielebas esaWiroeba "emociuroba da romantizmic" ki. amitomac, misi azriT, warmatebis misaRwevad saqarTvelos "demokratiulma Zalebma" Tavisi gegmis gansaxorcieleblad qarTuli nacionalizmi unda gamoiyenon, magram im pirobiT, rom ­ da zustad amaSi mdgomareobs mTavari sirTule ­ mas moscildeba "saSiSi eTnikuri elferi". amisaTvis aucilebelia, dairRves

5 es Cemi interpretaciaa. gia nodia amtkicebs, rom qarTvelebis umravlesoba namdvilad iswrafvis liberaluri Rirebulebebisa da demokratiuli modelisaken, romelic maTTvis mxolod saSualeba araa ­ da Tanac bevrad ufro metad, vidre umetes postsabWour qveynebSi. 6 David Darchiashvili, `'Georgian Security Problems and Policies" in Dov Lynch, ed., The South Caucasus, A Challenge for the EU, Chaillor Papers no 65 (Paris: Institute for Security Studies, European Union, December 2003) p. 126, http://www.iss-eu.org/public/ content/chaile.html

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mankieri kavSiri qarTul nacionalizms, korumpirebul oficialur wreebsa da kriminalur elementebs Soris, xolo demokratiulma Zalebma qarTuli nacionalizmi iseTi saxelmwifos dasamkvidreblad gamoiyenon, romelic misgan gaucxoebuli moqalaqeebis mxardaWeras moipovebs. amrigad, daviT darCiaSvili imaT ricxvs miekuTvneba, vinc miiCnevs, rom saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemis Tavi da Tavi saxelmwifoebriobis simyifea, rac Tavis yvelaze saSiS gamoxatulebas saxelmwifo institutebis araefeqturobaSi povebs. mis koncefciaSi institutebis daknineba masStaburi korufciiT aixsneba, rasac sami saxis Sedegi moaqvs: pirvel rigSi, es aris "usafrTxoebis privatizacia", rodesac korumpirebul saxelmwifo Cinovnikebs emorCileba erovnul da sazogadoebriv usafrTxoebaze pasuxismgebeli saxelmwifo organoebi da isini maT pirad interesebs emsaxureba; meore, SeiaraRebuli dajgufebebis gavlenis aRdgena, romelTa moqmedebac TiTqos ukve aRkveTili iyo ramdenime wlis win; mesame ­ "politikis, danaSaulisa da klanurobis" Serwyma.7 saqarTvelos yvela donis oficialuri pirebi "aqtiurad arian CarTulni saeWvo komerciul maqinaciebSi, romliTac saxelmwifo sakuTrebis Ria Tu farul privatizacias axdenen"; amis gamo sazogadoeba kriminalur qmedebebs ukve normad aRiqvams. saqarTvelos problemebisadmi miZRvnil bevr analitikur naSromSi farTodaa gaSuqebuli urTierTkavSiri korufcias (maT Soris, misi yvelaze uaresi gamovlinebebiT), kriminalizebul saxelmwifos, institutebis sisustesa da erovnuli usafrTxoebis sistemis ngrevas Soris. magram daviT darCiaSvilisaTvis es problema yvelaze aqtualuria. pavel baevi ufro Sors midis da amtkicebs, rom "saqarTvelos yvela ubedurebis" mizezi, rarig mavnec ar unda iyos gareTa Zalebis zemoqmedeba, pirvel rigSi, mainc "TviT sazogadoebis, politikur institutebsa da elitebs SigniT arsebuli anomalia da deformaciaa"; es "ubedurebebi" ufro "gamowveulia yovlismomcveli Crdilo7

David Darchiashvili, ,"Georgian Security Problems and Policies", p. 113.

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vani ekonomikiTa da korufciiT, vidre erovnuli wyeniT, warsulSi momxdari usamarTlobiTa Tu komunisturi warsulis memkvidreobiT."8 amgvarad, damoukideblobis gariJraJze gasamxedroebuli formirebebis (erovnuli gvardia da "mxedrioni") zegavlenis gaZlierebas, 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisis samoqalaqo da afxazeTis omebs avtori sabWoTa periodSi Rrmad fesvgamdgar "klanur korufcias" ukavSirebs. sabWoTa epoqaSi dawyebuli saqme ufro saSiSi formiT sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg gamovlinda _ ekonomikis ngrevis, normaluri ekonomikuri urTierTobebis moSlisa da Crdilovani ekonomikis ayvavebis Sedegad. winamdebare naSromSi daviT darCiaSvili gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobs dasustebul saxelmwifos, korufciasa da SeiaraRebul Zalebs Soris arsebul destruqciul urTierTkavSirs. sxva yofili sabWoTa respublikebisagan, iseTebis, rogoricaa ukraina, belorusi da yazaxeTi, gansxvavebiT, saqarTvelom ver moaxerxa mis teritoriaze ganlagebuli sabWoTa armiis Zalebis ubralo nacionalizacia da maTi saqarTvelos axali armiis safuZvlad gamoyeneba. amis magivrad damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg pirveli prezidentis, zviad gamsaxurdias, mmarTvelobis periodSi arsebuli vakuumi am sferoSi mTeli rigi gasamxedroebuli dajgufebebiT amoivso. am dajgufebebidan mxolod ramdenime Tu iyo prezidentis erTguli, samagierod, yvela maTgani erTguli iyo sakuTari, umetes SemTxvevaSi, kriminali meTaurisa. amitomac eduard SevardnaZisaTvis, romelmac prezidentis postze zviad gamsaxurdia Secvala, umTavres amocanas warmoadgenda am TiTqmis ukontrolo SeiaraRebuli dajgufebebis damorCileba da saxelmwifo kontrols daqvemdebareba. daviT darCiaSvilis azriT, eduard SevardnaZem am amocanis Sesruleba strategiis

8

Pavel K. Baev, "Civil Wars in Georgia: Corruption Breeds Violence," in Jan Koehler and Christoph Zurcher, eds., Potentials of Disorde (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2003), p. 128 (baevi aRiarebs, rom korufcia da Crdilovani ekonomikac komunisturi memkvidreobis nawilebia).

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­ "dayavi da ibatone"-s gamoyenebiT daiwyo: igi TiTo-TiTod iSorebda am gasamxedroebuli formirebebis liderebs. magram amgvari strategia, Tavisi mxriv, xels uSlida axali qarTuli armiis srulyofas, mwyobri centralizebuli samxedro mmarTvelobis Camoyalibebas. daviT darCiaSvili dawvrilebiT ganixilavs im mtkivneul da usistemo zomebs, romelTa saSualebiTac jer zviad gamsaxurdia da Semdeg eduard SevardnaZe cdilobdnen, wesrigi daemyarebinaT im kriminalur dajgufebebSi, romlebic monawileobdnen saqarTveloSi warmoebul brZolebSi da gadaeqciaT isini saxelmwifo Zalauflebas daqvemdebarebul, samoqalaqo mmarTvelobisa da demokratiuli kontrolis qveS myof namdvil armiad. miuxedavad uamravi komisiisa, aTobiT "reformisa" da aSS-sa da Crdiloatlantikuri aliansis wevri sxva qveynebis mxridan mniSvnelovani daxmarebisa, eduard SevardnaZis epoqis bolo wuTebamde saqarTvelom ver SeZlo, odnav mainc waewia win samxedro reformis TvalsazrisiT. daviT darCiaSvili amaSi saqarTvelos mmarTvelobasa da, pirvel rigSi, eduard SevardnaZes adanaSaulebs, radganac igi ar endoboda armiasa da uSiSroebis Zalebs da maT mimarT, rogorc aRvniSneT, strategias "dayavi da ibatone" iyenebda; garda amisa, prezidenti Tvals xuWavda korufciis faqtebze yvela im sferoSi, romlis mesveurTa mxardaWerac sWirdeboda. metic, eduard SevardnaZes ar Seswevda unari an ar surda, yvelaferi gaekeTebina reformirebuli da kargad organizebuli armiis Sesaqmnelad; amas emateboda im masStaburi strategiuli koncefciis ararsebobac, romelic saWiro mimarTulebas miscemda mis qmedebebs. yovelive ki ganapiroba qveynis samxedro strategiis arasworma da viwro xedvam, moqmedebaTa araTanmimdevrulobam da avantiurizmma. ra gansxvavebuli TvalTaxedvac ar unda hqondeT qarTvel analitikosebs, TiTqmis yvela maTgani erTsulovnad miiCnevs, rom erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis problemis arsi TviT arasrulyofil saxelmwifoebriobaSi mdgomareobs. saqmes arTulebs is garemoeba, rom es problema mravali kompo17

robert legvoldi

nentisurTierTkavSirs warmoadgens. analitikosebi, romlebic saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis sferoSi arsebuli konkretuli problemebis gamovlenas cdiloben, xSirad Caketil wreSi moZraoben, ise, rogorc zemoT naxsenebi strategiuli kvlevis centris TanamSromlebi. es aris klasikuri problema, romelic qaTmisa da kvercxis dilemas warmoadgens _ ra unda gakeTdes Tavdapirvelad: Seiqmnas institutebi, romlebic SeZleben, moipovon ndoba sazogadoebaSi da daZlion nacionalizmis odiozuri formebi Tu jer gardaiqmnas nacionalizmi da amiT xeli Seewyos sayovelTao ndobiT gamsWvaluli institutebis Seqmnas? saxelmwifos aRdgena korufciasTan sabrZolvelad Tu korufciasTan brZola saxelmwifos aRdgenis mizniT? "erovnuli programis" an "ganviTarebis erovnuli strategiis" SemuSaveba saxelmwifoebriobis suverenitetisa da damoukideblobis gaZlierebisaTvis Tu suverenitetisaTvis brZola erovnuli proeqtis gansaxorcieleblad? amas garda, arsebobs Sida winaaRmdegobebi: qarTvelebi, gansakuTrebiT ki, prodasavluri sagareo kursis mxardamWeri inteligencia da politikosebi, rogorc wesi, im ideas emxrobian, rom mizani aucileblad miRweuli unda iqnes liberaluri demokratiuli sistemis SeqmniT, romelic, Tavis mxriv, daicavs saqarTvelos unikalur kulturul, socialur da istoriul TviTmyofadobas. magram liberaluri demokratiuli sistema dapirispirebul mxareTa Serigebasac gulisxmobs da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi dominanti erovnebebis mxridan daTmobebze wasvlasac. garda amisa, xSirad gamoiTqmis mowodeba, saxelmwifoebriobas safuZvlad daedos dapirispirebul erovnebaTa Serigebis faqti, Tumca sakiTxi ver gadawydeba, Tu romelime jgufi uars ityvis morigebaze. swored am sakiTxze zegavlenis gamo erevian gare Zalebi saqarTvelos saqmeebSi da, rogorc wesi, erevian Zalian cudad. keTilmosurneTa survili survilad rCeba. Tuki saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemis arsi saxelmwifoebriobaSia, saxelmwifoebriobis yvelaze mtkivneuli forma Sekvecili suverenitetia ­ dakargul regionebSi ar xorcieldeba nacionaluri

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mmarTveloba da, rogorc daviT darCiaSvili aRniSnavs, arc maT mimdebare teritoriebze.9 erovnuli usafrTxoebis problema yvelaze naTlad samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis magaliTebze Cans. isini dRes saqarTvelos sazRvrebSi mdebare minisaxelmwifoebs warmoadgenen, romlebic saqarTvelos mTavrobis gadawyvetilebebs ar asruleben, qveynis mmarTvelobas ki situaciis Secvla ar ZaluZs. rogorc cnobilia, ruseTi Tavdapirvelad afxazeTis separatizmis momxred gvevlineboda, Semdeg ki _ problemad qarTul-afxazuri urTierTobebis daregulirebisas. bolo dros igi rusul-afxazur urTierTobebs Tbilisze zewolisaTvis iyenebs, amitom saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemis Sida aspeqts TavisTavad eZleva saerTaSoriso da sakmaod feTqebadi xasiaTi. saqarTvelosaTvis ruseTi saerTaSoriso garemocvaSi yvelaze saSiS faqtors warmoadgens. amis mizezi araerTia: saqarTvelo Tvlis, rom ruseTi ar Cqarobs Tavisi samxedro bazebis saqarTvelodan gayvanas, raTa daaSinos qarTveli liderebi, yovel SemTxvevaSi, cdilobs, bazebis teritoriebi da infrastruqtura aSS-s an Crdiloatlantikur kavSirs ar Cauvardes xelSi; igi pativs ar scems arc saqarTvelos suverenitets da mzad aris, daarRvios kidec igi, Tu amas CeCneTSi mimdinare omi moiTxovs; amboben, rom saqarTvelos yofili prezidentis, eduard SevardnaZis winaaRmdeg ganxorcielebuli Tavdasxmebis ukanac ruseTi dgas; ruseTi yvelaferze wamsvlelia ­ gazis miwodebis SewyvetiT dawyebuli, amJamindeli mmarTvelobis mowinaaRmdegeTadaxmarebiT damTavrebuli ­ oRond ki saqarTvelos Tavisi survilebi moaxvios Tavze. yvela zemonaxseneb Sexedulebas amtkicebs da maT gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobasac aniWebs ruseTis savaraudo mzadyofna, xeli Seuwyos afxazur da osur separatizms, sul mcire, es konfliqtebi saqarTvelos mmarTvelobis dasasusteblad an masze zewolisaTvis gamoiyenos.

9

David Darchiashvili, "Georgian Security Problems and Policies", p.109

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regionSi arsebuli konfliqti da saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoeba

saqarTveloSi myofi damkvirveblebi ar SeiZleba, ar amCnevdnen im niuansebs, romlebiTac ruseTidan momdinare safrTxe iniRbeba. maT esmiT, rom drodadro ruseTTan dakavSirebuli problemebi garkveul TavzexelaRebul pirebs ukavSirdeba da ara moskovis mTavrobas. Tumca imasac amboben, rom arakeTilganwyobasa da daZabulobas mxolod ruseTis mxare ar unda iCendes.10 damkvirveblebma ician, rom rusebs SeuZliaT iseTi sakiTxi, rogoric saerTaSoriso terorizmia, romliTac isini marTlac SeSfoTebulebi arian, saqarTvelos saxelis gasatexad gamoiyenon. miT ufro, rom am sakiTxSi igi (ruseTi) sxva qveynebis mxardaWeriTac sargeblobs, magaliTad, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis, romlis keTilganwyobac saqarTvelosTvis esoden mniSvnelovania. ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebis damamZimebeli garemoebebis ufro siRrmiseul Sefasebas gvaZlevs jaba devdariani am wignis erT-erT nawilSi. 11 igi saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis problemis rusul aspeqts rTul movlenad miiCnevs, romlis fesvebic qarTul erovnul fsiqologiaSia saZiebeli. misi ganmartebiT, arsebuli winaaRmdegobebi gacilebiT did rezonanss iwvevs (vidre es SeiZleboda gamoewvia) sxvadasxva "erovnuli miTebis" gamo da Tanac maSin, rodesac orive qveyana miiswrafvis axleburad gaazrebuli erovnuli TviTmyofadobis dasamkvidreblad. is Sefaseba, rom saqarTvelo didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ruseTis imperializmis Cagvris qveS iyo, qarTvelebze emociur gavlenas axdens, rusebs ki Seuracxyofas ayenebs. am TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelo ar gansxvavdeba sxva yofili sabWoTa respublikebisagan. magaliSee the interview with Tedo Japaridze, "Georgia's Interin Foreign Minister: Russian Security Depends on Georgian Stabilization, '' by Giga Chilhladze, Eurasianet, January 6, 2004 w. http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav010604.shtml 11 See Also Jaba Devdariani, "Georgia on a Fault Line", Prespective, vol.13, no.3 (JanuaryFebruary 2003), pp.1,6-8.

10

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Tad, gansxvaveba saqarTvelosa da ukrainas Soris mxolod imaSi SeiZleba gamoixatebodes, Tu ramdenad erTgvarovani Sexeduleba aqvs TiToeulis mosaxleobas am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT.12 ukrainis mosaxleobis nawils, gansakuTrebiT qveynis dasavleT nawilSi, qarTvelebis msgavsi Sexeduleba aqvs; magram sxva regionebSi, ufro metad qveynis aRmosavleTiT, am azrs ar iziareben. aqedan gamomdinare, ruseTTan mimarTebaSi arsebuli pozicia politikuri kursis erTianobis garanti ki ara, piriqiT, ukrainis Sida politikis gaxleCis mizezi gaxda. urTierTdapirispirebuli erovnuli miTebi gansazRvravs saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris arsebul daZabulobas, Tumca TviTon es miTebi daZabulobas ar qmnis. daZabuloba garkveul garemoebebs ukavSirdeba, magaliTad, iseT sakiTxebs, rogoricaa: samxedro bazebis gayvana, axali savizo reJimi da sxva imgvari qmedebebi, romelic ruseTis arakeTilganwyobil ganzraxvas gamoxatavs _ magaliTad, afxazeTisa da CeCneTis konfliqtebi, sadac erTi mxare meorisadmi sruliad mtruladaa ganwyobili. jaba devdariani ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis gafuWebas mxolod ruseTs ar abralebs. igi miiCnevs, rom rodesac ruseTi agresiulad moqmedebs, es nawilobriv saqarTvelos bralicaa. misi azriT, rodesac saqarTvelo konkretul sakiTxSi myar pozicias ikavebs da gaazrebulad moqmedebs, ruseTi TavSekavebulad iqceva. amis aSkara magaliTia 2004 wlis aprilis krizisi aWaraSi, rodesac saakaSvilis mTavrobam ruseTis daxmarebiT xelisuflebas CamoaSora centrisgan gandgomili adgilobrivi politikuri lideri. amrigad, jaba devdarianic ubrundeba saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis problemas. isic miiCnevs, rom saqarTvelos usafrTxoeba ­ am SemTxvevaSi ukve ruseTTan misi urTierTobis aspeqtSi danaxuli ­ gauaresda qarTuli mxaris ususurobis gamo: arastabiluri sagareo politika; liderebis mier ruseTis qmedebebis sakuTari

12 aq vgulisxmob umravlesobaSi myof eTnikur jgufs. saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi zogi erovnuli umciresoba ar iziarebs qarTvelebis am azrs ruseTis Sesaxeb im saxiT, ra saxiTac igi devdarians aqvs warmodgenili.

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warumateblobebis SesaniRbad gamoyeneba; mTavrobis korumpirebuloba; mTavrobaSi mtkice poziciis ararseboba _ es is sisusteebia, rasac ruseTi Tavis sasargeblod iyenebs. daskvniT nawilSi jaba devdariani, rogorc qarTvelebis umravlesoba, wuxs imis gamo, rom ruseTi bolomde mainc ver Seegua Tavisi imperiuli Zalauflebis dakargvas da cdilobs, rac SeiZleba meti gavlena SeinarCunos saqarTvelosa da kavkasiaze. saqarTvelos usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebuli arc erTi sakiTxi ar aris iseTi mwvave da mtkivneuli, rogoric separatistebis mier mitacebuli teritoriebis problema, gansakuTrebiT es exeba afxazeTs. qarTvelebs esmiT, rom afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis daumorCileblobis fesvebi eTnikur, kulturul da politikur gansxvavebaTa siRrmeebSi Zevs. isini acnobiereben, rom saqarTvelos liderebis mier gatarebulma politikam _ gansakuTrebiT ki zviad gamsaxurdias moqmedebebma 1990-1991 wlebSi ­ kidev ufro gaamwvava es uTanxmoebebi. isic marTalia, rom movlenaTa spirali, rogorc amas gia nodia da qristof ciurxeri weren, romelmac centralur mTavrobasa da regionebs Soris Ria ganxeTqileba gamoiwvia, orive mxaris qmedebebma ganapiroba. SeuZlebelia davadginoT, Tu ram misca biZgi regionSi Zaladobis eskalacias: 1988 wels afxazeTis liderebis mier TavianTi teritoriis saqarTvelos sabWoTa socialisturi respublikis Semadgenlobidan gayvanis mcdelobam Tu 1989 wels qarTuli mxaris mier miRebulma mkacrma zomebma. magram rac unda yofiliyo amis mizezi, erTi mxriv, Tbilissa da, meore mxriv, soxum-cxinvals Soris urTierTobebi imdenad swrafad daiZaba, rom ramdenime TveSi situacia kontrols ukve aRar eqvemdebareboda (es procesebi detalurad aris aRwerili ciurxeris mier amave naSromis Sesabamis nawilSi). qarTvel liderebs iseve Zlier aSinebdaT afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis "arakeTilganwyoba", rogorc afxazebsa da osebs _ qarTuli represiebi. afxazeTisa da oseTis elitas ki eSinoda regionebSi privilegirebuli mdgomareobis dakargvis. magram samxedro moqmedebebis dawyeba, yovel SemTxvevaSi, afxazeTSi, ciurxeris azriT, sul

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problemis dasma

sxva ramem gamoiwvia: qarTuli dramis saTaveSi is samxedroebi da mebrZolebi idgnen, romlebic sargeblobdnen saxelmwifos sisustiT da Zaladobas sCadiodnen TavianTi momgebiani kriminaluri saqmianobis dasacavad. ciurxeri am jgufebs "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelebs" uwodebs. ruseTis roli saomari moqmedebebis dasawyisidanve Zalian mniSvnelovani iyo. saqarTveloSi TiTqmis yvela darwmunebulia, rom 1992-1993 wlebis omSi ruseTi afxazebs uWerda mxars. qarTvelebi dRemde fiqroben, rom swored aman ganapiroba movlenebis saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg Semotrialeba. maTTvis mxolod erTia gaugebari: miTiTebebi moskovidan modioda Tu es rusuli samxedro meTaurobisa da afxazeTSi dislocirebuli nawilebis TviTneburi gadawyvetilebebi iyo. oqsana antonenko Tavis naSromSi gacilebiT rTul istorias mogviTxrobs, romlisac arc qarTvelebs sjeraT, rasac saocrad emociurad gamoxataven da arc winamdebare wignis avtorebs. konfliqtSi namdvilad monawileobdnen rusi samxedroebi, magram, antonenkos azriT, ara erTiani frontiT. zogi samxedro piri afxazeTis meamboxeebs iaraRs awvdida an hyidda, xolo samxedro sahaero Zalebi sahaero Setevebs axorcielebdnen qarTuli jaris winaaRmdeg. imavdroulad, 1992 wlis agvistoSi, saqarTvelos afxazeTze Tavdasxmis win amierkavkasiis samxedro olqis (romelic ruseTs memkvidreobiT ergo sabWoTa periodidan) meTaurobam qarTvel meomrebs didZali iaraRi, maT Soris, sakmao raodenobiT tanki gadasca. samxedro moqmedebebis sawyis etapze saqarTvelos SeiaraRebul jarebs Sav zRvaze daxmarebas ruseTis samxedro sazRvao flotic uwevda. niSandoblivia, aRniSnavs antonenko, rom moskovis elitis politikuri simpaTiebi orad gaiyo: misi nawili (maT Soris, prezidenti, sagareo saqmeTa da Tavdacvis ministrebi) mxars "Zlieri da erTiani saqarTvelos" ideas uWerdnen, sxvebs (jarisa da uSiSroebis Zalebis nawils, Crdilokavkasiis regionalur liderebsa da politikosebs) "promoskovuri ganwyobis" afxazeTis arseboba surdaT.

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antonenkos azriT, ruseTi afxazeTis problemas arTulebs ara avi zraxvebiT, aramed misi saSuamavlo rolis saTanadod Seusruleblobis gamo. damoukidebel qveyanaTa Tanamegobrobis (sadac ruseTs lideris roli akisria) Zalebze afxazeTSi samSvidobo misiis dakisrebiT, moskovma, pirvel rigSi, miznad daisaxa, ar dauSvas Zaladobis afeTqeba, ramac saqarTvelosaTvis esoden arasasurveli Sedegebi gamoiwvia _ afxazeTis sazRvrebis gaZliereba da misi avtonomia. isic marTalia, rom ruseT-CeCneTis meore omis gamo ruseTis roli saqarTveloSi 1999 wlidan ufro uaryofiTi gaxda. rusebi, putinidan dawyebuli, miiCneven, rom qarTvelebi zedmet TanagrZnobas iCenen CeCneTis mimarT da, sul mcire, ar TanamSromloben ruseTTan CeCeni mebrZolebisaTvis daxmarebis arxebis gadaketvaSi. amis gamo ruseTi qarTvel liderebs mwvaved akritikebda da CeCnuri safrTxis Tavidan asacileblad prevenciuli zomebiT imuqreboda sazRvris qarTuli mxridan. xandaxan ruseTis samxedro aviacia Tavs uflebas aZlevda, demonstratiulad mietana ieriSi saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebul samizneebze. 1999 wlidan ruseTma afxazeTTan Tavisi kavSirebis ganmtkiceba daiwyo. man gaxsna sazRvari, moxsna 1992 wlidan sakmaod pirobiTad moqmedi blokada, afxazeTis mcxovrebTaTvis ruseTis moqalaqeobis miniWebasTan erTad saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs savizo reJimi dauwesa. Tumca Zneli saTqmelia, risi gamoxatuleba iyo es aqciebi: Tbilisze zewolis survilis Tu ruseTis Sidapolitikuri konfliqtebis arsebobis. yovelive aman kidev ufro daarwmuna qarTvelebi, rom ruseTs ar ZaluZs an ar surs, saqarTveloSi arsebul eTnokonfliqtebSi miukerZoebeli momrigeblis roli iTamaSos. mis saxelze aseve cudad moqmedebs is faqti, rom man xeli ar Seuwyo sxva mxareebis, maT Soris, arc saerTaSoriso organizaciebis rolis gaZlierebas mSvidobis mxardasaWerad da dasamkvidreblad. Tu antonenkos mier gamoTqmul azrs ganvavrcobT, ruseTis mier saqarTvelosaTvis Seqmnili problema imaze bevrad Rrma da rTulia, vidre es saqarTveloSi warmoudgeniaT. es problema imdenad ruseTis aSkara agresiuli miznebisaken swrafvaSi ki

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ar gamoixateba, aramed misi surviliT, erTsa da imave mdinareSi orjer Sevides. afxazeTis SemTxvevaSi ruseTis mizani ara romelime mxarisaTvis upiratesobis miniWeba, aramed orive maTganze gavlenis SenarCunebaa. oficialurad (da, albaT, gulwrfeladac) igi mzad aris, daicvas saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianoba, magram, imavdroulad, yvelafers akeTebs afxazeTTan kavSirebis gansamtkicebladac. cxadia, mas surs, rom stabiluri saqarTvelo stabiluri amierkavkasiis nawilad ixilos, magram amave dros Zalze zrunavs sakuTar zegavlenaze regionSi da ukuagdebs sxva mxareebis (iseTebis, rogorebicaa: aSS, TurqeTi, Crdiloatlantikuri aliansi, gaero, euTo) Carevis ideas im sferoSi, romelsac igi Tavisi usafrTxoebis sferod miiCnevs. metic, antonenko ambobs, rom ruseTis erTi SexedviT mtrul da arakeTilganwyobil qmedebebs _ saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisaTvis savizo reJimis SemoRebas; afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis mosaxleobisaTvis ruseTis moqalaqeobis miniWebas da maTTvis savizo moTxovnebis moxsnas; afxazeTTan sarkinigzo mimosvlis aRdgenasa da saqarTvelo-afxazeTis urTierTobebis dasaregulireblad saerTaSoriso iniciativebis arasaTanado mxardaWeras ­ ufro rTuli safuZveli aqvs. Tumca antonenko da devdariani imis niSnebsac xedaven, rom saakaSvilis xelisuflebaSi mosvlis Semdeg ruseTica da saqarTveloc mzad arian, daiviwyon warsulSi arsebuli zogi uTanxmoeba. devdariani im mniSvnelovan pragmatul miznebzec (ZiriTadad, ekonomikuri xasiaTis) saubrobs, romlebic orive mxares warsuli uTanxmoebebis daviwyebisa da ufro stabiluri urTierTobebis damyarebisaken ubiZgebs. antonenko eTanxmeba am azrs da miuTiTebs, Tu romel sferoebSia SesaZlebeli ekonomikuri TanamSromloba. igi miiCnevs, agreTve, rom 2004 wlis gazafxulze afxazeTTan da samxreT oseTTan daZabulobis gamwvavebisas moskovi SedarebiT naklebad ewinaaRmdegeboda kavkasiaSi ruseTisa da natos TanamSromlobas da saqarTveloSi dsT-s samSvidobo Zalebsa da gaeros damkvirveblebs Soris TanamSromlobis gafarToebas. Tumca, miuxedavad saimedo niSnebisa, ori qveynis mmarTvelebs Soris arsebuli undobloba

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robert legvoldi

momdevno TveebSi ki ar Semcirda, piriqiT, gaizarda kidec. 2005 wlis dasawyisSi saakaSvili ukve sakmaod daufaravad miuTiTebda, rom saqarTvelos saqme aqvs "msoflioSi yvelaze Zlier da yvelaze agresiul ­ SesaZloa, ara yvelaze Zlier, magram udavod yvelaze agresiul ­ ZalasTan".13 drois TiTqmis imave periodSi putinis garemocvasTan daaxloebuli piri aRniSnavda, rom saakaSvili putinSi daaxloebiT igive mtrul ganwyobas aRZravs, rasac "fidel kastro aRZravda amerikel politikosebSi."14

sagareo situacia: cxovrebiseuli morevi da koncentruli wreebi

qarTvelebs, raRa Tqma unda, ar sjeraT saswaulis, rom odesme maTi geografiuli mdebareoba Seicvleba da saqarTvelo dedamiwis sxva kuTxeSi aRmoCndeba, amitom isini acnobiereben Crdiloel mezobelTan Tanacxovrebis aucileblobas. qarTvelebs imedi aqvT, rom rusebsac esmiT an droTa ganmavlobaSi gaigeben, rom maTi usafrTxoeba "saqarTveloSi arsebuli situaciis stabilurobazecaa damokidebuli"15, ­ aRniSna erTxel sagareo saqmeTa yofilma ministrma, Tedo jafariZem. magram am or qveyanas Soris arsebuli rTuli urTierTkavSiri Semdeg dilemas warmoSobs: SesaZloa Tu ara arsebuli dabrkolebebis fonze ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebis daregulireba Tu amisaTvis saWiro gaxdeba ufro farTo struqturuli erTeulis Seqmna? jaba devdariani am ukanasknel azrs iziarebs da saubrobs aSS-is monawileobiT konstruqciuli

13

mixeil saakaSvilis es gancxadeba mocemulia mis yovelwliur moxsenebaSi qveynis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb, romelic man 2005 wlis 10 Tebervals parlamentSi gaakeTa. http://www.kvali.com/kvali/index.asp?obiektivi=show&n=126 14 2005 wlis 24 marts moskovSi aRebuli interviu. 15 Chikhladze, ''Georgia's Interim Foreign Minister: Russian Security Depends on Georgian Stabilization."

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samkuTxedis Seqmnis SesaZleblobaze Tu evrokavSiris rolis gaaqtiurebaze an suamis msgavsi gaerTianebis (romlis wevrebic arian saqarTvelo, ukraina, azerbaijani da moldova, xolo 2005 wlis gazafxulisaTvis mis SemadgenlobaSi uzbekeTic Seva) Seqmnaze. Tumca jaba devdariani miiCnevs, rom arc erT zemoCamoTvlil variants raime farTo perspeqtiva ar gaaCnia. swored amaSi mdgomareobs dilemac: ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebi, SesaZloa, waagavdes sxva qveynebis urTierTdamokidebulebasac, magaliTad: israel-palestinis; samxreT da CrdiloeT koreis; bolo dromde _ indoeTpakistanis. es is SemTxvevebia, rodesac or qveyanas Seqmnili situaciidan gamosavlis povna damoukideblad ar ZaluZs. jaba devdarianis sityvebiT, "mravalSrian" gadawyvetilebebs struqturuli sirTuleebic emateba, ris gamoc isini naklebad ganxorcielebadia. saqarTvelo-ruseTis urTierTobebis Cixidan gamosayvanad aSS-is, ruseTisa da saqarTvelos sammxriv molaparakebebs warmatebis Teoriuli Sansi gaaCnia, magram realurad aSSruseTis strategiuli urTierTqmedeba kavkasiaSi bolo aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi ufro Sejibrs hgavs, vidre TanamSromlobas.16 amrigad, imis magivrad, rom saqarTvelos esargebla am regionSi amerika-ruseTis qmediTi urTierTobebiT, igi am urTierTobebs msxverplad Seewira. daZabuli momentebis dros, magaliTad, saqarTvelos teritoriaze ruseTis SeWrasTan dakavSirebiT 2002 wlis seqtemberSi putinma sruliad usafuZvlo gancxadeba gaakeTa saqarTveloSi ruseTis uflebebis Sesaxeb; is, aseve aWianurebs saqarTvelodan samxedro bazebis gayvanas. orive am faqtis gamo vaSingtoni moskovs TavSekavebisaken mouwodebda, magram aSS-is amgvari Careva ufro Sejibrs hgavda, vidre TanamSromlobas, amitom ruseTs sulac ar gasCenia survili, gadaefasebina saqarTvelosTan urTierToba. piriqiT, ruseTis

ruseTs dRemde aqvs postsabWoTa sivrceSi aSS-is samxedro rolis gaZlierebis SiSi. amis Sesaxeb saubaria statiaSi: Svetlana Babaeva, Ekaterina Grigoreva and Nikolai Khorunzhii, "oni Uzhe nikogda ne uydut ottuda," Izvestiya, January 25, 2004

16

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im politikosebma, romlebic kavkasiaSi aSS-is qmedebebs pirdapir safrTxed miiCneven, ufro Seupovrad daiwyes TavianTi Sexedulebis mtkiceba. realurad ki saqarTvelo amerika-ruseTis urTierTobebis orbitaSi moeqca, magram am urTierTobebs Tavisi interesebisTvis ver iyenebs. es usiamovno faqti saqarTvelos garTulebuli strategiuli mdgomareobis erT-erTi magaliTia. am problemis arsi ori metaforiT SeiZleba gamoixatos ­ cxovrebiseuli morevi da koncentruli wreebi. es ori metafora imis gagebaSic gvexmareba, Tu ratomaa fsonebi ase maRali ara mxolod saqarTvelosTvis, aramed sxva qveynebisTvisac. pirveli metaforis arsi isaa, rom konfliqti kavkasiis CrdiloeTidan ­ samxreTis, aRmosavleTidan ki dasavleTis mimarTulebiT seriozul dabrkolebebs uqmnis konstruqciul TanamSromlobas regionSi. bruno kopitersi aRniSnavs, rom mTiani yarabaRis, afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis konfliqtebis gadaWramde SeuZlebelia regionaluri integraciis miRweva.17 metic, yofili sabWoTa kavSiris sxva regionebisagan gansxvavebiT, am konfliqtebs ara mxolod politikuri gaxleCisa da satuaciis daZabvisaken mivyavarT, aramed igi regionis qveynebs Soris arsebuli urTierTobebis yvela mxares gansazRvravs. sxva avtorebis azriT, amierkavkasiis urTierTobebisaTvis amorfuloba, daqsaqsuloba da arakeTilganwyobaa damaxasiaTebeli. dov linCis sityviT, amierkavkasia politikurad sakmaod amowurulia.18 sazRvrebTan dakavSirebuli uTanxmoebebi, ekonomikuri blokada, darRveuli sarkinigzo da saavtomobilo mimosvla da sasjelis mizniT amuSavebuli savizo reJimi aramcTu xels uwyobs konfliqtis damaregulirebel savaWro Tu sxva tipis kontaqtebs, aramed TviTonve warmoadgens regionSi daZabulobis zrdis wyarosa da mizezs. Tqma

17

Bruno Coppieters, EU Policy on the Southern Caucasus, Policy Paper for the committee on Foreign Affairs, Human Rights, Common Security, and Defense Policy of the European Parliament (January 20, 2004), p.7,. http://www.europarl.eu.int/meetdocs/ committees/afet/20040120/wider%20europe%20caucasus.pdf. 18 Dov Lynch, "A Regional Insecurity Dynamic," in Lynch, The South Caucasus, pp.9-21.

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mxolod imisa, rom regioni moklebulia im instituciebs, romlebic arsebobs msoflios sxva nawilebSi ­ samxreTaRmosavleT aziidan dawyebuli dasavleT evropiT damTavrebuli _ warmoadgens araswor Sefasebas imisas, Tu ramdenad ararsebulia institucionalizebuli Tu arainstucionalizebuli sazogadeobis nebismieri forma somxeTSi, azerbaijansa da saqarTveloSi. sxva postsabWouri qveynebis msgavsad, am regionis samive saxelmwifo ibrZvis, raTa damkvidrdes axal politikur, ekonomikur da erovnul erTeulad da warmatebis miRwevas samive am mimarTulebiT cdilobs. magram sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT, am saxelmwifoebs metad axasiaTebT politikuri institutebis sisuste da korumpirebuloba, rac maT seriozul problemebs uqmnis. aSkaraa, rom Sida stabilurobis arsebobis SemTxvevaSic ki saqarTvelos mainc Seeqmneboda safrTxe konfliqtur garemocvaSi myofi erTnairad susti saxelmwifoebisagan. magram ramdenadac mdgomareoba saqarTvelos SigniTac arastabiluria, garefaqtorebi masze gacilebiT did gavlenas axdens da arsebuli kataklizmebi qveyanas SeiZleba did safrTxed moevlinos. de vaali aRniSnavs, rom yovelive zemoTqmulis mizezi ara marto kavkasiaSi arsebuli politikuri daqsaqsulobaa, aramed isic, rom saqarTvelo bevrs arafers akeTebs mdgomareobis gamosasworeblad. avtoris azriT, saqarTvelo, somxeTi da azerbaijani ise arian erTmaneTisagan daSorebulni da imdenad ara aqvT ekonomikuri urTierTkavSiri, rom Znelad Tu SeiZleba maTi aRqma erTian regionad. de vaali wers, rom "amierkavkasiis es sami respublika bevri sakiTxis gamo Zalian mtkivneuladaa daSorebuli erTmaneTs". maT ara aqvT ekonomikuri kavSirebi, risi erT-erTi mniSvnelovani mizezic "mmarTveli wreebis maRali kriminalizaciaa", swored amis gamo ver xerxdeba "kavkasiuri saerTo bazris" magvari erTobis Seqmna. mTeli am xnis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelom cota ram gaakeTa situaciis gamosasworeblad. de vaalis sityvebiT, gamsaxurdias mmarTvelobis periodSi fexs ikidebda azri _ "am gamorCeul evropul qveyanas mesianuri daniSnuleba gaaCnia". maSin igi Zalze Sors

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iyo regionis dramatizmiT aRsavse cxovrebidan da ruseTisagan distanciaze yofnas cdilobda. eduard SevardnaZem, romelmac prezidentis postze gamsaxurdia Secvala, Zalisxmeva aSS-sTan ufro mWidro urTierTobis dasamyareblad mimarTa da, de vaalis azriT, igi "TiTqmis ar iCenda saqarTvelos mezoblebTan politikuri da ekonomikuri integraciis gaZlierebis interess." amgvarad, imis magivrad, rom Tavis mezoblebs, somxeTsa da azerbaijans, mTiani yarabaRis problemis daregulirebaSi daxmareboda da Suamavlis roli Seesrulebina, saqarTvelom am mimarTulebiT erTi nabijic ki ar gadadga da es roli euTosa da ruseTis mTavrobas miando. saqarTvelo uaRresad daZabuli regionis centrSi mdebareobs da imis magivrad, rom stabilurobis birTvad iqces, rac misi bunebrivi daniSnulebis Sesabamisi iqneboda, igi, garkveulwilad gamiznuladac, SeiZleba arastabilurobis morevadac gadaiqces. Tuki stabilurobis procesi Seferxda da areuloba daiwyo, maSin "saqarTvelos krizisSi" SeiZleba misi mezoblebic aRmoCndnen CarTulni, Tundac im mizeziT, rom daicvan TavianTi Tanamemamuleebi da materialuri interesebi an Tavidan aicilon am krizisis negatiuri gavlena TavianT Sida problemebze. meore mxriv, qveynis daSla ara marto saqarTvelos Sida politikaSi arsebuli warumateblobebiT SeiZleba iyos gamowveuli; saqarTvelos sazRvrebze arsebuli areuloba, SesaZloa, qveynis Sida teritoriebzec gavrceldes ­ aseT faqts adgili aqvs ruseTis CrdiloeT sazRvarze. amgvarad, isev rCeba saSiSroeba imisa, rom saqarTvelo am regionSi stabilurobis ganmsazRvrelad ki ar mogvevlineba, piriqiT, sruliad sapirispiro rols Seasrulebs. amas garda, Tu kavkasiis romelime regionSi, maT Soris CrdiloeT kavkasiaSic, movlenaTa ganviTarebam feTqebadi saxe miiRo, maSin qveynis SigniT situaciis gauaresebis yvelaze didi safrTxe saqarTvelos emuqreba. mixeil saakaSvilis xelisuflebaSi mosvlidan am weliwadnaxevris Semdegac yvela es safrTxe isev aqtualuria. mTiani yarabaRis konfliqtSi zogjer gaielvebda xolme imedi imisa,

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rom somxebsa da azerbaijanelebs ormxriv molaparakebebze progresisTvis mieRwiaT, rac euTos minskis jgufs axali iniciativebiT gamosvlis saSualebas aZlevda. Tumca xandaxan imis niSnebic Cndeboda, rom baqoSi am problemis mosagvareblad Zalis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobasac ixilavdnen. CeCneTSi omi gaxangrZlivda, Sesabamisad, misi Tanmdevi problemebic SenarCunda da sakiTxavia, Tu sad iCens igi SemdgomSi Tavs, ra Tanmdev movlenebs gamoiwvevs da ras moimoqmedebs ruseTi sapasuxod. 2004 wlis zafxulSi saqarTvelos xelisuflebam samxreT oseTSi arsebuli mdgomareobis Secvlis warumatebeli mcdeloba ganaxorciela. 2005 wlis ianvarSi evrosabWos saparlamento asambleaze mixeil saakaSvilis mier wardgenili axali da, bevris azriT, sakmaod loialuri samSvidobo gegma erTmniSvnelovnad iqna uaryofili oseTis liderebis mier, romelTac zurgs moskovis pozicia umagrebdaT. am faqtma kidev ufro gaamZafra arsebuli imedgacrueba. arastabiluri kavkasia da saqarTvelo potenciurad areulobis morevs ufro warmoadgens, vidre stabilurobis centrs da qmnis sruli regionaluri suraTis mxolod nawils. isini gamoxataven regionSi Semaval qveyanaTa Soris arsebul danawevrebul da arastabilur urTierTobebs. magram yvelaferi regionis politikuri geografiiT ar Semoifargleba, radgan kavkasiis problema sxvaTa teritoriuli mmarTvelobis garemocvaSi yofna ki ar aris, aramed is, rom igi aris arena sxva saxelmwifoebis moqmedebisaTvis; amas ki meore metaforamde mivyavarT: saqarTvelo, rogorc koncentruli wreebis centri. istoriulad kavkasia sxvadasxva imperiaTa Sejaxebis mizezs warmoadgenda. es imperiebi (sparseTis, osmaleTis, ruseTis) axla aRar arsebobs, magram maT adgilas aRmocenebuli memkvidre-saxelmwifoebi ­ irani, TurqeTi da ruseTi ­ kvlavac eqiSpebian am teritoriebisaTvis erTmaneTs, zogjer Riad, xSirad ki ­ farulad. ruseTi ufro metad ewinaaRmdegeba kavkasiis saqmeebSi iranisa da TurqeTis Carevas, vidre irani da TurqeTi ­ ruseTis dominirebas regionSi; magram, rogorc wesi, Teirani da ankara fxizlad adevneben Tvalyurs ruseTis

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moqmedebebs kavkasiaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki energetikis sferoSi arsebul politikas da xSirad garkveul berketebsac iyeneben moskovis zegavlenis Sesasusteblad. TurqeTisa da iranis realur gavlenas kavkasiaSi ufro konkretuli xasiaTi aqvs. igi erTdroulad dadebiTicaa da uaryofiTic, Tumca aris safuZveli, vifiqroT, rom negatiuri gavlena Warbobs. miuxedavad amisa, orive saxelmwifo kavkasiis zogierT qveyanas garkveul perspeqtivebs usaxavs: TurqeTi exmareba azerbaijans da saqarTvelos garkveul ekonomikur TanamSromlobas sTavazobs; irani ki somxeTis politikuri da fizikuri izolaciis dones amcirebs. magram iranisa da TurqeTis mniSvnelovani gavlena kavkasiaSi gamowveulia imiT, rom am qveynebs garkveuli problemebi aqvT sxva saxelmwifoebTan urTierTobebSi. ruseTisa da somxeTis Semdeg irani mesame qveyanaa, romelic azerbaijanis usafrTxoebas emuqreba. arif iunusovis azriT, arsebobs potenciuri daZabulobis ramdenime wyaro: iranis mravalricxovani azerbaijanuli mosaxleobis vnebaTaRelva, kaspiis zRvis gazis sabadoebze xelmisawvdomoba da azerbaijanis Siitebis (umravlesobaSi myofi religiuri jgufi19) mimarT iranis mier gatarebuli politika, Tumca irani ar cdilobda, regionSi momxdari areuloba, maT Soris, mTian yarabaRSic, Tavis sasargeblod gamoeyenebina da 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi somxeT-azerbaijanis konfliqtis daregulirebaSic ki monawileobda.20 magram azerbaijanelebs imdeni problema aqvT, rom iranelebis es TavSekavebuloba bevrs arafers niSnavs. somxeTisaTvis amgvari aforiaqebis mizezs TurqeTi warmoadgens: misi roli yarabaRis konfliqtSi umniSvnelo

19 Arif Yunusov, "Azerbaijan's Security Problems and Policies, " in Lynch, The South Caucasus, p.146 20 mTiani yarabaRis konfliqtis daregulirebis mizniT iranma erTaderTxel ganaxorciela warumatebeli mcdeloba, konfliqtis monawile ori mxare molaparakebis magidasTan daesva 1992 wlis maisSi. ixileT: Thomas de Waal, Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War (New York: New York University Press, 2003), p. 180

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gavleniT ar Semoifargleba; TurqeTi azerbaijanis mokavSirea, somxeTis blokadaSi mTavar rgols warmoadgens da daJinebiT amtkicebs, rom yarabaRis problemis gadawyveta mxolod TurqeT-somxeTis urTierTobebis normalizebis Sedegad gaxdeba SesaZlebeli. miuxedavad damoukideblobis mopovebis pirvel wlebSi somxeTis mcdelobisa, daeviwyebina mZime istoriuli warsuli (1915 wels Turqebis mier somxebis masobrivi Jletac ki), mTiani yarabaRis Semdeg somxeTis aRSfoTeba kvlav gaZlierda da xelaxali ZaliT wamoiWra azri, rom TurqeTs kavkasiaSi Tavisi batonobis aRdgena surs da somxeTis ganadgurebazec ar ityvis uars, Tuki amiT Tavis mizans miaRwevs.21 situacias arTulebs im qveynebis mtruli urTierTobebi, romlebic kavkasiaSi arsebul masStabur konfliqtebsa da dapirispirebebSi monawileoben. saqme is ki ar aris, rom azerbaijansa da TurqeTs Soris mWidro urTierToba amZimebs maT damokidebulebas iranTan da iwvevs iransa da TurqeTs Soris uTanxmoebas, arc is, rom somxeTsa da irans Soris urTierTobebi ganapirobebs TurqeTTan damokidebulebas, aramed is, rom samxreTsa da dasavleTSi mdebare isedac arastabiluri regionebi maTi gavlenis qveS eqcevian. azerbaijan-TurqeTis kavSirebi moqmedebs israelze, iran-somxeTis urTierTobebi ki _ saberZneTze. amgvar dinamikas kavkasiis saerTaSoriso politika saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis Semdgom koncentrul wreSi Sehyavs da Cndeba saSiSroeba, rom axlo aRmosavleTisa da balkaneTis politika, SesaZloa, kavkasiasac moedos. Sesabamisad, kavkasiis sisuste da arastabiluroba mimdebare regionebis arastabilurobas erwymis. ukanaskneli gare koncentruli wre ufro politikuri xasiaTisaa, vidre geografiuli. es aris kavkasiis saqmeebSi udidesi saxelmwifoebis monawileobis xarisxi. aSS, evropuli saxelmwifoebic da evrokavSiric miiCneven, rom regionSi maTac aqvT TavianTi interesebi. dainteresebis yvelaze did mizezs

21

De Waal, Black Garden, pp.274-75.

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kaspiis zRvasa da mis sanapiroze arsebuli navTobisa da gazis maragi warmoadgens. evropul bazrebze am maragis gatanis gzebis SerCeva ki qmnis garepolitikur da savaWro problemebs. kaspiis navTobsa da gazTan dakavSirebuli politika umTavresad maT transportirebas exeba da ara warmoebas, amitomac am politikis Sedegebi yvelaze metad ainteresebs aSS-s, Tu ar CavTvliT ruseTs, es faqti ki am or qveyanas Soris qiSpobis kidev erT mizezi xdeba. ruseTis mxridan Sesabamisi reaqcia gamoiwvia bil klintonis prezidentobis dros aSS-is mTavrobis gadawyvetilebam, uzrunveleyoT navTobisa da gazis transportireba aRmosavleTis mimarTulebiT ­ TurqeTis gavliT da ara samxreTiT (radganac es iranis reJimis ganmtkicebas Seuwyobda xels) anda CrdiloeTiT (amis Sedegad moskovs am regionis energomwarmoebel qveynebze zegavlenis Zlieri berketebi Seeqmneboda). Sedegad, baqodan saqarTvelos gavliT TurqeTis port jeihanSi mimavali axali navTobsadenis mSenebloba (riskenac didi xnis ganmavlobaSi ase iswrafoda aSS) vaSingtonsa da moskovs Soris dapirispirebis sagnad iqca da ara TanamSromlobis safuZvlad. kaspiis zRvis regionis navTobsa da gazTan dakavSirebuli saerTaSoriso politika ganxilulia am wignis damien helisa da giorgi gogias mier Sedgenil nawilSi; Cvens amocanas ar warmoadgens am sakiTxis ufro Rrma kvleva, aRvniSnavT mxolod erTs, rom saTamaSo moedani aq ufro farToa da centralur aziasa da kavkasiasac moicavs. am moedanze mesame mxaris yvelaze mniSvnelovan moTamaSeebs evropuli qveynebi, irani, TurqeTi, CineTi da navTobis yvelaze didi mwarmoeblebi warmoadgenen, xolo TamaSis dros iyeneben rogorc konkurenciis, ise TanamSromlobis wesebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom xSirad politikuri TvalsazrisiT winaaRmdegobriv sakiTxs navTobsadenis gayvanis Taobaze Tavisi dadebiTi mxarec gaaCnia, xolo xandaxan, kaspiis navTobsadenis konsorciumis SemTxvevaSi, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi da ruseTi SeTanxmebuladac ki moqmedebdnen. magram baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis, saqarTvelos teritoriaze gamavali umsxvilesi navTobsadenis, SemTxvevaSi saqmis viTareba sul

34

problemis dasma

sxvagvarad iyo: es navTobsadeni Tavidanve aRizianebda ruseTs, gansakuTrebiT ki qveynis sagareo saqmeTa saministros, rac ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebis gauaresebis kidev erTi sababi gaxda. bunebrivia, kavkasiaSi aSS-is interesTa sferoSi ara mxolod navTobi Sedis da bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi es sfero mniSvnelovnad gafarTovda kidec. brenda Saferi da sxva mkvlevrebi aRniSnaven, rom 11 seqtembris Semdeg saqarTvelom da azerbaijanma (ufro metad, am ukanasknelma) gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SeiZines vaSingtonisaTvis terorizmTan brZolis konteqstSi.22 amrigad, buSis administraciis mier ganxorcielebuli brZola, gaeuqmebinaT kongresis mier dawesebuli SezRudvebi azerbaijanisaTvis daxmarebis gamoyofis Taobaze, gamowveuli iyo ara navTobTan dakavSirebuli interesebiT, aramed saerTaSoriso terorizmis problemiT; amave mizezis gamo pentagonma ufro yuradRebiT ganixila am qveynebis roli aSS-is strategiul gegmebSi. magram, miuxedavad imisa, rom aSS da ruseTi erTnairad arian Sewuxebuli saerTaSoriso terorizmis problemiT da masTan brZolis sferoSi bevri mimarTulebiT TanamSromloben kidec, maTi warmodgenebi kavkasiaSi arsebuli safrTxis faqtorebsa da maTTan brZolis meTodebze naklebad emTxveva erTmaneTs. miuxedavad xsenebul sakiTxze aSS-sa da ruseTis msgavsi poziciebisa, maT aqvT gansxvavebuli Sexeduleba terorizmis wyaroebsa da kavkasiis konfliqtebze, rac saqarTvelos ar aZlevs saSualebas, garkveuli urTierToba Camoayalibos erT-erTTan ise, rom Tavi aaridos meoris zewolas. Sedegad, terorizmTan brZola ar uqmnis saqarTvelos arc aSS-sTan urTierTobebis ganmtkicebis myar safuZvels da arc ruseTTan saqmis daWeris xelsayrel pirobebs. rogorc wesi, saqarTveloc, azerbaijanica da somxeTic ruseTsa da SeerTebul Statebs regionSi mTavar figurebad Tvlian. regionSi arsebuli krizisuli situaciis, mosaxleobis gaRizianebisa da arsebuli qaosis gamo bunebrivi iqneboda,

22

Brenda Shaffer, ''U.S. Policy, " in Lynch, The South Caucasus, pp. 58-59.

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daxmareba da civ gonebaze miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi gare pirebisgan modiodes. magram radganac arc moskovi da arc vaSingtoni ar aRiqmeba erTnairad keTilganwyobil partniorad, Tbilisi, baqo da erevani iZulebulni arian, maT Soris arCevani gaakeTon da Semdeg arCeuli qveynis keTilganwyoba moipovon. magram is faqti, rom aSS-sTan srulyofili aliansi SeuZlebelia, xolo analogiuri aliansi ruseTTan _ arasasurveli (somxeTisTvisac ki), amierkavkasiis am qveynebs aiZulebs, SeinarCunon urTierTobebi orive ZalasTan. vimeorebT: realoba mkacria da sifrTxiles moiTxovs. amgvarad, saqarTvelos winaSe mdgari usafrTxoebis problemis ormag bunebas _ "saxelmwifoebriobis simyife" da "arastabiluri garemocva" _ urTierTdakavSirebul sakiTxTa urTulesi kompleqsi udevs safuZvlad. imis gamo, rom saxezea saxelmwifoebriobis problemis mravali CaxlarTuli aspeqti _ rTulia, magram ara SeuZlebeli _ aixsnas, Tu ratom gaakeTa saqarTvelom ase cota ram mis winaSe mdgari problemis gadasawyvetad saWiro strategiuli doqtrinis gaazrebisa da formulirebisaTvis. mis mier damuSavebul nawilSi daviT darCiaSvili ganixilavs am mimarTulebiT gadadgmul ramdenime warumatebel nabijs ­ Tavdacvis doqtrinis msgavsi dokumentis SemuSavebis sxvadasxvagvar mcdelobas. arc erT maTgans ­ 1997 wels saqarTvelos parlamentis mier miRebuli e. w. "samxedro doqtriniT" dawyebuli, 2003 wels mTavrobis mier ganxorcielebuli unayofo mcdelobiT damTavrebuli ­ praqtikuli Sedegi ar mohyolia. yvela es dokumenti, maT Soris, 2002 wels samxedroebis mier gamocemuli "TeTri wigni" da 2000 wlis oficialuri dokumenti "momavlis xedva da strategia" an ar iyo saTanadod momzadebuli politikuri maRali wreebis mier imisaTvis, rom maT sayovelTao aRiareba moepovebinaT, an sakmaod arazusti iyo da ar miesadageboda saqarTvelos mkacr realiebs. 2000 wlis dokumentSi "momavlis xedva da strategia" zogadadaa saubari saqarTvelos moqalaqeebSi "konstituciis erTgulebisa da saerTo moqalaqeobis" grZnobis ganmtkicebaze

36

problemis dasma

da "regionebsa da xalxSi erovnuli erTianobis grZnobis gaZlierebiT saxelmwifos konsolidaciaze".23 am dokumentSi miTiTebulia, agreTve, rom aucilebelia "grZelvadiani erovnuli programis" miReba. yovelive es problemas ki ayenebda, magram ar aanalizebda mas; gamoyofda amocanas, magram ar aRwerda mis Semadgenel nawilebs. zogadi principebis _ teritoriuli mTlianobis pativiscema, adamianis uflebebis dacva, blokadebis moxsna da garemos dacva ­ Camoyalibeba kargia, magram es, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, mxolod orientiria da ara safrTxis analizisa da masze reagirebis strategiis SemuSavebisaTvis saWiro amosavali wertili daviT darCiaSvili aRniSnavs, rom prezidenti saakaSvili da misi gundi Seudgnen usafrTxoebis erovnuli koncefciis SemuSavebas, romelic ganixilavs saqarTvelos winaSe mdgar konkretul problemebs. 2005 wlis gazafxulisaTvis igi TiTqmis dasrulebuli iyo. SeZleben Tu ara qveynis liderebi TavianTi winamorbedebis SezRudulobis daZlevas, damokidebulia imaze, Tu ramdenad moaxerxeben isini miznis miRwevas da gardasuli wlebis apaTiisa Tu biurokratiuli indiferentulobis daZlevas. daviT darCiaSvili miiCnevs, rom am sferoSi ZiriTadi mamoZravebeli principebis ararsebobis pirobebSi Zalze Znelia qmediTi samxedro strategiis SemuSaveba, samxedro Zalebis aucilebeli raodenobis dadgena da amocanebis gadanawileba. 2000 wlis koncefcia "momavlis xedva da strategia" strategiis sakiTxebs calke nawilSi ganixilavs, sadac ufro naTladaa naCvenebi kavSiri moTxovnilebasa da dakmayofilebas Soris. dokumentSi weria, rom saqarTvelos unda gaaCndes unari, daicvas mis teritoriaze arsebuli milsadenebi, "gansazRvruli ZalebiT gaumklavdes Setevas", Tavidan aicilos "sasazRvro zonebSi mcire jgufebis SeRweva" da aRmofxvras "mezobel qveynebSi Zaladobis afeTqebis Sedegad warmoSobili SesaZlo areulobebi da vnebaTaRelva sasazRvro zonebSi". dokumentSi gakvriTaa naxsenebi, rom

23

Georgia and the World: A Vision and a Strategy for the Future", October 10, 2000.

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robert legvoldi

qveyanas aucileblad unda hyavdes iseTi jari, romelic "win aRudgeba nebismieri saxis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis Setevas, romlis mizansac saqarTvelos dayofa, misi politikuri sistemis an mmarTvelobis formis Zalismieri gziT Secvla warmoadgens"; magram dokumentis sxva nawilebSi ufro realisturi saubaria: qveyanas unda "SeeZlos, gaumklavdes safrTxes saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriobisagan daxmarebis miRebamde."24 Tumca daviT darCiaSvili aRniSnavs, rom jer kidev bevria gasakeTebeli Tavdacvis sferoSi praqtikuli da kargad Camoyalibebuli poziciebis SesamuSaveblad.

garesamyaro

Tuki qarTvelebis mcdeloba, garkveuliyvnen maTi qveynis winaSe mdgari usafrTxoebis rTul amocanebSi, marcxiT damTavrda, SeZles Tu ara gare Zalebma, daedginaT saqarTvelosadmi TavianTi interesi da epovaT optimaluri gzebi mis dasacavad? _ rogorc damien heli da giorgi gogia TavianT nawilSi amtkiceben, bolo dromde maT bevri veraferi SeZles. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlidan karga xnis manZilze evropelebma da amerikelebma araTu mTeli sisruliT ver aRiqves saqarTvelosa da regionis problemebi, aramed, qarTvelebisagan gansxvavebiT, didi xnis ganmavlobaSi jerovnad verc ki afasebdnen aq arsebul interesebs. amerikelebisa da evropelebis gasamarTleblad unda iTqvas, am interesebis Sefaseba sakmaod Zneli iyo. erTi SexedviT, navTobi rom ara, gare ZalebisaTvis upriani iqneboda, gasclodnen regionSi arsebul qaoss, daZabulobasa da CamorCenilobas da rogorc es Cernobilis reaqtorTan dakavSirebiT moxda, politikuri "sarkofagi" aeSenebinaT. miuxedavad imisa, rom irani da TurqeTi kavkasias esazRvreba, maT aqvT mizezi, yuradReba am regionis gareT mdebare, sxva, ufro mniSvnelovan

24

"Georgia and the World".

38

problemis dasma

politikur sakiTxebze gadaitanon. evropelebs ki sakmao problemebi aqvT TavianT saxlTan axlos Tu TviT saxlSi. aSS-s naklebad sWirdeba, msoflios kidev erT regionSi gaataros cvlilebebi da daamyaros wesrigi. iqneb, arc rusebisTvis yofiliyo cudi, gaurkvevel mdgomareobaSi myofi kavkasiisagan Sors daeWiraT Tavi da yuradReba sxva qveynebsa da regionebze gadaetanaT, iseTebze, rogoricaa: ukraina, belorusi da centraluri azia _ es regionebi ekonomikuri, strategiuli da politikuri TvalsazrisiT bevrad mniSvnelovania maTTvis. faqtia, rom arc erTi es qveyana msgavss arafers gaakeTebs, upirveles yovlisa, warsuli umoqmedobis gamo ­ sxvadasxva varaudis, araswori midgomisa Tu miswrafebis, simxdalis da im moqmedebebis gamo, romlebmac isini am situaciamde miiyvana. ase rom, savaraudoa, moqmed pirTa umravlesoba da, maT Soris, ruseTic, momavalSic igive politikas gaatarebs kavkasiasTan mimarTebaSi, rasac adre ­ Tu, ra Tqma unda, regionSi ganviTarebuli movlenebi radikalurad ar Seicvala an, rogorc es ruseTSi moxda, 2004 wlis zafxulsa da Semodgomaze CeCneTis omTan dakavSirebuli terorizmis axali talRa ar aiZulebs putinis administracias, uecrad ufro mkacr politikaze gadavides. amas mowmobs putinis axleburi gancxadeba, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi CeCen an sxva qveynis teroristebTan brZolis ruseTis sazRvrebs gareT warmoebis Sesaxeb da ruseTis politikuri elitis warmomadgenlebis gaufrTxilebeli gancxadebebi afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi ruseTis poziciebis gaZlierebis Taobaze am teritoriebis de faqto statusis oficialuri aRiarebiT. magram dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kavkasiis regionis gareT myofi arc erTi qveyana, maT Soris, ruseTic, ar aris dResdReobiT mzad, mkveTri zomebi miiRos kavkasiaSi Tavisi interesebis dasacavad. imavdroulad, Cans, rom arc erTi maTgani arc kavkasiis datovebas apirebs. amgvarad, erTi mxriv, maT ar SeswevT Zala, Secvalon dRevandeli urTierTobebi, daaCqaron cvlilebebi an xeli Seuwyon mSvidobis damyarebas. meore mxriv, isini imisTvis ar arian mzad, rom riskze wavidnen da arsebuli arastabiluroba TavianT

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robert legvoldi

sasargeblod gamoiyenon: gaaZevon konkurentebi da Seqmnan strategiuli sayrdeni punqtebi. meore mizezi, Tu ratom ver daiviwyeben sxva qveynebi saqarTvelosa da kavkasias ­ rac, TavisTavad, dadebiTi faqtia ­ aris politikosebisa da analitikosebis argumentebi, riTac isini cdiloben, TavianTi mTavrobebi daarwmunon, yuradReba miaqcion am regions. ra adgilic unda eWiros kavkasias msoflios saerTo sistemaSi, iq ganviTarebulma movlenebma ­ dadebiTmac da uaryofiTmac ­ SeiZleba iseTi masStabebi miiRos, rom briuselis, berlinis, parizis, vaSingtonisa da sxvebis interesi namdvilad gaamarTlos. Cveulebriv, interesTa siis saTaveSi navTobi da gazi dgas. gazi ufro evropelebisTvisaa mniSvnelovani, navTobi ­ amerikisTvis, iranis, TurqeTisa da ruseTisaTvis ki ­ orive erTad.25 siaSi Semdgom ukve SeSfoTebis mizezebia CamoTvlili: narkotikebis, iaraRisa da sxva msgavsi nakadebi, gansakuTrebiT gandgomil teritoriebze da maT garSemo; afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis gadauWreli konfliqtebis ganaxlebis riski da teroristebis mier am teritoriebis placdarmad gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba. irans, TurqeTsa da ruseTs saSualeba aqvT, Tvalyuri adevnon, Tu rogor SeaRwevs regionSi aRmocenebuli arastabiluroba maT saerTo sazRvrebSi, xolo 2007 wels bulgareTisa da rumineTis evrokavSirSi Sesvlis Semdeg evropelebic kavkasiis uSualo mezoblebi gaxdebian. rogorc damien heli da giorgi gogia aRniSnaven, evropa arasdros igrZnobs sruliad usafrTxod Tavs, Tu kavkasia misi usafrTxoebis zonis miRma aRmoCndeba. amerikelebs 11 seqtembris Semdeg sxva safiqrali gauCndaT: isini am regions, gansakuTrebiT ki azerbaijans, terorizmis

25 xSirad amtkiceben, rom aSS sinamdvileSi didad ar aris am regioniT dainteresebuli, mas arc misi navTobi ainteresebs, radganac amerikis bazarze am regionidan Semosuli navTobis raodenoba amerikis mier importirebuli navTobis mTliani raodenobis Zalze mcire nawils Seadgens. magram am dros yuradRebis miRma rCeba is faqti, rom realurad aSS-s ainteresebs, msoflio bazars navTobis maqsimaluri raodenoba miewodebodes.

40

problemis dasma

winaaRmdeg warmoebul axal omSi bastionis rols aniWeben. aSS-s arcTu ise bevri saxelmwifo hyavs mokavSired, sadac mosaxleobis umravlesoba musulmania. aseT saxelmwifoebs vaSingtoni did mniSvnelobas ara mxolod maTi placdarmad gamoyenebisaTvis aniWebs, aramed sxva qveynebisaTvis magaliTis misacemad. cxadia, ruseTi am regions Tavisi Sida interesebis ganuyofel nawilad miiCnevs ­ CeCneTis omiT dawyebuli, misi SeiaraRebuli Zalebis ganTavsebiT damTavrebuli; ruseTisaTvis es regioni misi saxelmwifo monopoliebis, telekomunikaciaSi, energetikasa da sxva sferoebSi moqmedebis korporaciebis potenciuri arealia. damien helisa da giorgi gogias miaCniaT, rom mTeli rigi iniciativebisa da mniSvnelovani daxmarebis miuxedavad, bolo aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi arc evropelebi da arc amerikelebi saTanadod ar afasebdnen saqarTvelos problemebs. marTalia, aSS da evropa saqarTvelos ufro met daxmarebas uwevdnen (erT sul mosaxleze gaangariSebiT), vidre romelime postsabWoTaqveyanas, magram isini ar Cqarobdnen, mtkiced daeyenebinaT sakiTxi, es daxmareba uSualod institucionalur gardaqmnebsa da korufciasTan seriozul brZolas moxmareboda. isini TanaugrZnobdnen saqarTvelos dakarguli teritoriebis gamo, magram ar surdaT, Tavis Tavze aeRoT damkvirvebelTa saerTaSoriso jgufis Seqmnis iniciativa, romelic saqarTvelos ruseTze damokidebulebas Seamcirebda. mTel rig SemTxvevebSi da, maT Soris, xelaxali daZabulobis warmoqmnisas 2004 wels, isini cdilobdnen, ekontrolebinaT samxreT oseTis feTqebadi situacia, magram ar surdaT, konfliqtis gadawyvetaSi ufro aqtiurad CasarTavad euTos iniciativebisaTvis daeWiraT mxari. evrokavSirSi Tavidan "amierkavkasiisaTvis strategiis" SemuSavebis Taobaze saubrobdnen, magram Semdeg es sakiTxi Riadve datoves. aSS mxars uWerda saqarTvelos moskovsa da Tbiliss Soris urTierTobebis gamwvavebis momentebSi, magram ar cdilobda, Suamavlis roli ekisra am ori qveynis samomavlo urTierTobebis daregulirebaSi. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg sagrZnoblad gaizarda aSS-is, evrokavSirisa da Crdiloatlantikuri aliansis aqtivoba.

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SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis bolo periodisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli "donorebis daRlilobis" sindromi ekonomikuri daxmarebis axalma talRam Secvala: ase magaliTad, 2004 wels briuselSi gamarTul donorebis konferenciaze saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriobam saqarTvelosaTvis 1 miliardi aSS dolaris gadacemis valdebuleba ikisra. amas garda, Crdiloatlantikurma aliansma da evrokavSirma ufro aqtiuri qmedebebi daiwyo am qveyanasTan mimarTebaSi. am orive organizaciam daCqarebul reJimSi SeimuSava Tanmimdevruli samoqmedo gegma, romlis ganxorcieleba saqarTvelos maTi organizaciebis moTxovnebsa da praqtikul saqmianobas miuaxloebda. 2005 wlis maisSi prezident jorj buSis (pirveli amerikeli prezidenti, romelic saqarTvelos estumra) vizitma naTlad gausva xazi vaSingtonis survils, gamoxatos simpaTia axali reJimisadmi da imavdroulad _ Tavisi SeSfoTeba Tbilisisadmi moskovis mkacri poziciis gamo. masStaburia samomavlo amocanebi da Tu evropasa da aSS-s namdvilad surT cvlilebebis ganxorcieleba, maT mouwevT bevrad metis gakeTeba, vidre gaakeTes. dasavleTis daxmareba, upirveles yovlisa, unda moxmardes saxelmwifoebriobis Senebasa da iseTi institutebis Camoyalibebas, romlebic SeZleben korufciasTan brZolas da mTavrobisadmi xalxis ndobis aRdgenas; magram aseve saWiroa, afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis gayinuli konfliqtebis gadawyvetisaken swrafvac. damien helisa da giorgi gogias azriT, dasavleTi acnobierebs: garesamyaros aq raimes Secvla mxolod mravalmxrivi ZalisxmeviT Tu SeuZlia ­ anu Tu yvela mxaris, maT Soris, ruseTis, resursebi da gavlena iqneba gamoyenebuli. isini aRniSnaven, rom, samwuxarod, ruseTi, faqtobrivad, arasdros uWerda mxars aseT mravalmxriv midgomas, dasavleTma ki Zalze cota ram gaakeTa imisaTvis, rom mravalmxrivi midgomis efeqturoba daemtkicebina. situaciis gamosworeba ver SeZlo 2005 wlis ianvarSi saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier SeTavazebulma samxreT oseTis konfliqtis mSvidobiani daregulirebis, uprecedento daTmobebis Semcvelma gegmamac. am gegmas dadebiTad Sexvdnen evropac da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebic, magram moskovSi vizitiT myofma samxreT oseTis

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liderma eduard kokoiTma es gegma calsaxad uaryo da misi moskoveli maspinZlebi arc ki Seecadnen mis gadarwmunebas. saqarTvelos dasavleTTan urTierTobisas kvlav rCeba erTi mtkivneuli momenti, razec am wignis bevri avtori amaxvilebs yuradRebas: saqarTvelo meryeobs dasavlur samyaroSi integraciis imedsa da dasavleTis (romelsac ver gadauwyvetia, mtkiced aRuTqvas saqarTvelos, rom es namdvilad moxdeba) arausafuZvlo yoymans Soris. dasavleTze orientirebul saqarTvelos axal xelisuflebas araTu mxolod surs, saqarTvelo natosa da evrokavSiris wevri gaxdes, aramed imedi aqvs, rom es uaxloes momavalSi moxdeba. vaSingtonsa da briusels ar surT, civi wyali gadaasxan saqarTvelos da Seumciron reformebis gatarebis stimuli, magram isini jer kidev ar arian mzad, sabolood gansazRvron saqarTvelos momavali. amgvari ormagi damokidebuleba aisaxeba iseT pozitiur wamowyebebSic, rogoricaa saqarTvelo-natos urTierTTanamSromlobis gegma da evrokavSiris mier SemuSavebuli keTilmezoblobis axali evropuli politika. es dokumentebi dasavleTis damokidebulebis Sida gaorebaze metyvelebs. amgvar daurwmuneblobas is riskic axlavs, rom saqarTvelo aRmoCndeba uSedegod momlodine ­ im mdgomareobaSi, romelSic imyofeboda ukraina didi xnis ganmavlobaSi natosa da evrokavSirTan mimarTebaSi da romelmac mxolod "narinjisferi revoluciis" Semdeg daiwyo Secvla. ra mniSvnelovanic unda iyos yvela es Sexeduleba, maTSi jerovnad ar aris Sefasebuli garesamyaros, maT Soris aSS-isa da evropis, daintereseba saqarTvelosa da misi mezoblebis bediT. maTi dainteresebulobis xarisxis Sesafaseblad mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT postsabWoTa sivrceSi mimdinare procesebi. is, rac odesRac sabWoTa kavSirs warmoadgenda, axla aRar aris erTiani organizmi. es aris mudmivad daSlis procesSi myofi sivrce, sadac saxelmwifoebs TavianTi qveregionebi problemebs uqmnian, Sordebian ruseTis birTvs da xSirad mSfoTvare samezoblos erwymian. postsabWoTa sivrceSi arsebuli tendenciebi Zalze hgavs erTmaneTs da amgvari

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daSlis miuxedavad es nawilebi urTierTqmedeben da saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriobisaTvis erTian rTul SenaerTs qmnian. am TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelosa da misi mezoblebis problemebs ufro didi mniSvneloba aqvT, vidre es gareSe damkvirveblebis umravlesobas hgonia; es mniSvneloba sam rameSi gamoixateba: pirvel rigSi, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg evropasa da aSSSi usafuZvlod miiCnies, rom axladaRmocenebuli saxelmwifoebis umravlesoba male "demokratizaciis mesame talRas Seerwymeboda", anu maT sabazro ekonomikaze dafuZnebuli Ria, demokratiuli politikuri reJimebis Seqmnis survili gauCndebodaT. bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi gare damkvirveblebs TiTqos Tvali aexilaT postsabWoTa qveynebis Secdomebsa da merye obebze. magram verc erTma mZlavrma saxelmwifom, postsabWoTa sivrcesTan yvelaze axlos mdebaremac ki, ver gaacnobiera is safrTxe, rom axladwarmoqmnili saxelmwifoebis umravlesoba am axali saukunis mijnaze ara WeSmariti (Tundac arasrulyofili) demokratiis formebs irCevda, aramed mis araliberalur da yalb variants. vaSingtonSi, briuselsa Tu tokioSi (da, gasakviri arcaa, rom arc pekinsa da moskovSi) bevri politikosi arc dafiqrebula imaze, Tu ra safrTxe SeiZleba moutanos maT qveynebs postsabWouri qveynebis demokratiul relsebze gadasvlis warumatebelma mcdelobebma. "vardebisa" Tu "narinjisfer" revoluciebamde da 2005 wlis martSi yirgizeTSi momxdar areulobamde suraTi naklebad saimedo iyo. qveynebma, romlebmac Zveli politikuri saxe SeinarCunes ­ belorusma, TurqmeneTma da uzbekeTma ­ aranairi reforma ar gaatares, magram amis gamo isini ara Tu warsulis gadmonaSTebiT savse izolirebul wreSi aRmoCndnen, piriqiT, maT bevri sxva saxelmwifoc SeuerTda, romelTac mTlianad Tu ara, nawilobriv mainc surdaT maTi mibaZva. praqtikulad, mTeli centraluri azia, maT Soris yirgizeTic, romlis saxelmwifo meTauric Tavdapirvelad demokratiis gulwrfeli mimdevari iyo, TandaTanobiT CamoSorda am gzas: uaryo Ria politikuri konkurencia, qmediTi politikuri partiebi; politikuri gadawyvetilebis miRebisas gamWvirvaloba da sityvis Tavi-

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sufleba. 2004 wlis saprezidento arCevnebis pirveli turis Catarebisas ukraina araTu miuaxlovda, aramed kidev ufro daSorda demokratias. xelisufleba yovelgvar zRvars gadavida, ramac sazogadoebis mxridan saqarTvelos 2003 wlis msgavsi reaqcia gamoiwvia, magram kidev ufro dramatuli SedegebiT. ruseTis SemTxvevaSi cota Tu SeeZlo aexsna, Tu rogor SeZles rusebma "marTuli demokratiis" damkvidreba liberaluri demokratiis niRbis qveS. kavkasiaSi _ somxeTSi da azerbaijanSi (da ara saqarTveloSi) _ 2003 wels Catarebuli saprezidento da saparlamento arCevnebi araswori mimarTulebiT warimarTa. SesaZlebelia, saqarTvelos, ukrainisa da yirgizeTis revoluciebi im istoriul tendencias warmoadgendnen, romelsac SeuZlia, SeaCeros an Semoatrialos demokratiuli reformebisagan daSorebuli procesebi. magram amisaTvis am revoluciebis meTaurebma unda daamtkicon, rom isini kvlav adganan demokratizaciis gzas da maT ZaluZT maT qveyanaSi arsebuli problemebis nawilobrivi gadaWra mainc. miuxedavad imisa, rom jer kidev ar viciT, moaxerxebs Tu ara saakaSvilis mTavroba mis winaSe mdgari kolosaluri sirTuleebis daZlevas da SeZlebs Tu ara igi, SeinarCunos pluralizmi, Ria politika, gamWvirvaloba da konkurentuli ekonomikuri garemo ­ xelisuflebaSi iseTi liderebis mosvla, romelTac swamT, rom aseTi RirebulebebiT unda ixelmZRvanelon, angrevs postsabWoTa saxelmwifoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel zogad aramarTebul tendenciebs. gulubryviloba iqneboda, gveTqva, rom saqarTvelosa da ukrainaSi ganviTarebul movlenebs (rom aRaraferi vTqvaT yirgizeTze) ZaluZs, suli STaberos sxva qveynebis sazogadoebriobas da daafrTxos maTi avtoritari liderebi. Tundac imitom, rom jer kidev ar viciT, ramdenad myaria ama Tu im qveyanaSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebi. 26 da mainc, Tuki

26 Tu belorusis, yazaxeTis, tajikeTis, azerbaijanisa da ruseTis liderebs surT, Tavidan aicilon movlenaTa ganviTarebis qarTuli varianti, maT unda izrunon, rom opoziciam ver SeZlos quCis demonstraciebis organizeba, Tumca, aman ar gaamarTla yirgizeTSi politikuri qaosisas, biSkekSi 2005 wlis martis movlenebis dros.

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postsabWoTa sivrceSi progresuli cvlilebebi xorcieldeba, amas didi mniSvneloba aqvs stabilurobis SenarCunebisaTvis rogorc am teritoriaze, ise mTel msoflioSi. maSin imedis yoveli gamobrwyineba ­ pozitivizmis yoveli gamomJRavnebuli elementi ­ garedan Zalian Zlier mxardaWeras saWiroebs. kidev imitomac, rom postsabWoTa sivrceSi Sida kavSirebis moSlis gamo erT saxelmwifos meoreze zegavlena SeuZlia moxdinos mxolod uSualo mezoblobaSi. am sivrceSi cvlilebebi, metwilad, qveregionebis doneze mimdinareobs da yoveli qveregionisaTvis Tavisi sakuTari saxelmwifos konstruqciulobis magaliTi mniSvnelovani iqneboda ­ iseTi saxelmwifosi, romelmac ar gadauxvia liberalizmis gzidan da gaagrZela svla WeSmariti demokratiisaken. idealur SemTxvevaSi, centralur aziaSi aseTi saxelmwifo, SesaZloa, yazaxeTi (da ara yirgizeTi) yofiliyo, dasavleTSi ­ ukraina, kavkasiaSi ki ­ saqarTvelo. magram msoflios udidesi qveynebis dedaqalaqebSi amgvari SesaZlo variantic ki jer ar ganxilula. meore, postsabWoTa sivrceSi arsebobs centridanuli Zalebis Semaferxebeli mniSvnelovani faqtori ­ es aris ruseTi. ruseTi kvlavac rCeba im gare Zalad, romelic udides zegavlenas axdens yoveli postsabWoTaqveynis politikur da ekonomikur cxovrebaze ­ baltiispireTis qveynebis garda. miuxedavad imisa, rom ruseTi yofil sabWoTa kavSirTan (rom aRaraferi vTqvaT sxva wamyvan saxelmwifoebze) SedarebiT susti saxelmwifoa, mas Tavisi axladqmnili mezoblebis daxmarebisa Tu xelis SeSlis gacilebiT meti ekonomikuri, politikuri Tu samxedro saSualeba aqvs, vidre sxva saxelmwifoebs. igi kvlavindeburad miiCnevs, rom mas yofil postsabWoTa saxelmwifoebSi meti interesi aqvs, vidre romelime sxva qveyanas. amitomac, rodesac CineTi, indoeTi, pakistani da aSS TavianT interesebs axorcieleben centralur aziaSi (da maT es interesi namdvilad aqvT), irani, TurqeTi, evrokavSiri da aSS _ kavkasiaSi, xolo aSS da evrokavSiri ­ ukrainaSi, moldovasa da belorusSi ­ maT aucileblad unda gaiTvaliswinon ruseTis faqtori, Tuki surT, rom ganaxor46

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cielon efeqturi politika. arc erT dainteresebul mxares ar SeuZlia, ignorireba gaukeTos ruseTis TvalTaxedvas an miiCnios, rom esa Tu is sakiTxi TavisTavad gadawydeba. aranakleb mniSvnelovania meore mxarec: miuxedavad imisa, rom axali damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebis arsebobas ruseTi Tavdapirvelad ugulebelyofda, aSkara iyo, rom misi politika da damokidebuleba maT mimarT gansazRvravda ruseTis sagareo politikis zogad mimarTulebebs da aucileblad iqoniebda zegavlenas ruseTis urTierTobebze sxva wamyvan saxelmwifoebTan. "civi omis" droindeli sayovelTao metoqeobis dros sabWoTa kavSiris aSS-sTan, evropasTan, CineTsa da iaponiasTan dapirispireba elbaze, axlo aRmosavleTsa da birTvul SeiaraRebaze gadioda. "civis omis" dasrulebis Semdeg, didi areulobis dros, zemoxsenebuli dapirispireba iribma konfliqtebma Secvala, romelic dakavSirebuli iyo ruseTis survilTan, SeenarCunebina gavlena damoukidebel mezoblebze, dasavleTs ki am qveynebTan sakuTari miznebi gaaCnda. amitomacaa, rom Tu aSS-s, evropas, CineTs an iaponias ruseTTan winaaRmdegobebis daregulireba da farTo TanamSromloba surT, maSin maT mxedvelobaSi unda miiRon, rom zemoxsenebuli regionebis gamo maT ruseTTan rTuli urTierToba eqnebaT. igive SeiZleba iTqvas ruseTis damokidebulebaze sxva saxelmwifoebis mimarT. 1990-ian wlebSi izrdeboda daZabuloba ruseTsa da dasavlur samyaros, gansakuTrebiT ki aSS-s, Soris. TandaTanobiT postsabWour sivrceSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma strategiuli dapirispirebis xasiaTi miiRo. es dapirispireba exeboda milsadenebs, natos programis "partnioroba mSvidobisaTvis" farglebSi ganxorcielebul samxedro wvrTnebs, ormxrivi urTierTobebis ZiriTad sakiTxebsa da natos politikis saerTo mimarTulebas. 11 seqtembris Semdeg putinis mSvidi reaqciis gamo, romliTac igi Tavdapirvelad Sexvda aSSisa da sxva qveynebis samxedro Zalebis ganlagebas centralur aziaSi da aSS-is specialuri daniSnulebis Zalebis ganlagebas saqarTveloSi, iseTi STabeWdileba Seiqmna, TiTqos dapi47

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rispireba dasrulda. magram dRevandeli gadmosaxedidan sxvagvarad Cans. putini da misi gundi bolo ori wlis ganmavlobaSi migvaniSneben, rom isini ar apireben, dauTmon aSS-s an romelime sxva gaerTianebul Zalebs Tavisi gabatonebuli poziciebi kavkasiaSi, centralur aziaSi an sabWoTa kavSiris dasavleTiT mdebare yofil saxelmwifoebSi. xandaxan samxedro Zalis an mkacri diplomatiis saSualebiT, ufro xSirad ki ekonomikuri berketebis gamoyenebiT moskovi gviCvenebda, rom mzadaa, konkurencia gauwios nebismier gare moTamaSes, gansakuTrebiT aSS-s, romelic, rogorc miCneulia, ruseTs am teritoriaze gavlenasa da yofnas ecileba. amrigad, Tu aSS-sa da evropas surT, ruseTsa da dasavleTs Soris saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi arsebuli problema gadaiWras, xolo ruseTi dasavleTis samyaroSi integrirebul saxelmwifod ixilon (Tu ruseTi amas Tavadac moisurvebs), am or mxares postsabWouri sivrcis konstruqciuli (da ara destruqciuli) urTierTqmedebis zonad gardaqmnis gzebis Zieba mouwevs. arsad postsabWoTasivrceSi ar dgas es sakiTxi ise mwvaved, rogorc kavkasiaSi da arc erT qveyanaSi ar miuRia mas iseTi mtkivneuli forma, rogorc saqarTveloSi. ukraina, uzbekeTi da yazaxeTi, albaT, ufro sasurvel monapovrad aRiqmeba, magram aSS-is SesaZlo yofna arc erT am qveyanaSi (ukrainis garda) ar iwvevs moskovis iseT Zlier gaRizianebas, rogorc saqarTveloSi. ruseTis zraxvebi kavkasiis regionSi, sxva regionebTan SedarebiT, yvelaze damafiqrebelia vaSingtonisaTvis. arc erTi sxva qveyana ar iwvevs ruseTis iseT gaRizianebasa da mkacr qmedebebs, rogorc saqarTvelo. aqedan gamomdinare, imis dadgena, Tu rogor unda iTanamSromlon (da ara piriqiT) amerikam da ruseTma saqarTveloSi, mniSvnelovania ara marto saqarTvelos winaSe mdgari usafrTxoebis problemis mosagvareblad, aramed im umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxis gadasawyvetad, Tu rogori tipis urTierToba SeiZleba damyardes moskovsa da vaSingtons Soris. miuxedavad imisa, rom ruseTisa da evrokavSiris urTierTobebi ufro mravalmxriv da Rrma Sinaarsisad gvesaxeba, es problema garkveulwilad aqac dgas.

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mesame, postsabWoTa sivrceSi arsebuli bevri qveynis momavali jer kidev kiTxvis niSnis qveS rCeba. jerjerobiT Znelia, viwinaswarmetyveloT, SeZlebs Tu ara am axali qveynebis umravlesoba an Tundac zogierTi maTgani Tavis teritoriaze stabiluri politikuri da ekonomikuri wesrigis damyarebas, eqnebaT Tu ara qveyanaSi Tu mis gareT aRmocenebuli mtrobis kerebis CaxSobis unari, daZleven Tu ara sxvadasxva problemebs, moaxerxeben Tu ara damoukideblobis periodSi damkvidrebuli Rirebulebebisa da institutebis rRvevis SeCerebas, aarideben Tu ara Tavs araswor politikas, ris gamoc bevri regioni qaossa da ngrevaSi aRmoCnda. bunebrivia, rom zogierT qveyanas am safrTxeebTan gamklavebis ukeTesi Sansi aqvs; mTeli postsabWoTa regionisaTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania, rom ruseTi iyos amgvari qveyana, Tumca, rogorc Cans, isic araTanmimdevrulad viTardeba. Tu postsabWoTa sivrceSi aris kidec iseTi regioni, romlis momavalic Rrma SeSfoTebas iwvevs, es isev kavkasiaa. am SemTxvevaSi saqme Zalze mZimedaa. amrigad, Tuki wamyvani saxelmwifoebi, ara mxolod aSS da evropa, aramed CineTi, iaponia da, am SemTxvevaSi, ruseTic, aRiareben im gaurkveveli situaciis daregulirebis mniSvnelobas, romelSic postsabWoTa saxelmwifoebi imyofebian (am daregulirebiT xeli Seewyoba mTeli msoflios sicocxlisunarianobasa da stabilurobas), maSin maT msoflios am nawilSi TavianT daqsaqsul, araTanmimdevrul da dausrulebel moqmedebebs Tanamimdevruloba, Zala da intensivoba unda Sematon.27 Tu isini gaacnobiereben (wesiT, asec unda iyos), postsabWoTa sivrceSi arsebuli daZabulobisa da konfliq27 evropis, CineTisa da iaponiis politikisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia is, rom arc erTi am qveyanaTagani ar miiCnevs, rom misi interesebi postsabWoTa sivrcis yvela nawilze vrceldeba. aqedan gamomdinare, CineTisa da iaponiisaTvis kavkasia gamosulia maTi interesebis sferodan. am seriiT gamosul erT-erT wina wignSi me davasabuTe, Tu ratom aris araSorsmWvreteluri amgvari midgoma. ix. Robert Legvold, ed., Thinking Strategically: The Majot Powers, Kazakhstan, and the Central Asian Nexus (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2003), ixileT, pirvel rigSi, Sesavali.

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tebis likvidaciis aucileblobas, maSin aseTi muSaoba kavkasiidan unda daiwyos. am teritoriaze yvelaze meti ubedureba datrialda: omebiT gaxleCili sazogadoebebi da gayofili qveynebi, eTnikuri qiSpoba, korumpirebuli politikuri reJimebi, reformebis mkveTri kritika, ekonomikis ngreva, narkotikebisa da iaraRis ukanono brunva, teroristebi; kavkasiaSi arsebul bunebriv resursebze sxva regionebsac uWiravT Tvali, magram vinc flobs am resursebs, mzadaa, mimarTos igi maT winaaRmdeg, vinc ar flobs mas. aseT rTul saqmeSi progresis miRweva problemaTa mogvarebis swavlis yvelaze kargi saSualebaa. es garesamyaros saSualebas miscems, yuradReba saqarTvelosa da kavkasiisaken mimarTos, rac oden regionis mniSvnelovnobaze metia. axla ar SevudgebiT im sakamaTo argumentis ganxilvas, rom saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemis gadaWra _ kerZod, kavkasiaSi mSvidobisa da stabilurobisaTvis separatizmis problemis mogvareba ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre mTian yarabaRSi arsebuli situaciidan gamosavlis Zieba. orive es sakiTxi realurad warmoadgens am regionSi arsebuli arastabilurobis birTvs. saerTaSoriso politika am regionTan mimarTebaSi ar Seicvleba iqamde, vidre ar gadaiWreba es ori sakiTxi; am kvanZis gasaxsnelad saWiroa misi jer erTi bolos gamoweva, Semdeg ki _ meoresi. kavkasiaSic igive meTodis gamoyeneba SegviZlia. magram arc erTi meTodi ar iqneba sakmarisad Sedegiani, Tu Tavidanve ar ganvmartavT, raoden rTuli da mravalmxrivia saqarTvelosa da misi mezoblebis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis sferoSi arsebuli situacia. amisaTvis mkiTxvels vTavazobT avtorTa koleqtivis mier Sedgenil am wigns. pirveli Tavis avtori gia nodia am problemis ufro Rrma, "Sida" ganzomilebas gviCvenebs: kavSirs warsulis tvirTsa da saxelmwifoebriobis mSeneblobas, reformebis gzaze arsebul problemebsa da Cavardnebs Soris; ras iTvaliswineben erTmaneTis Semcvleli reJimebi erovnuli usafrTxoebis problemis gadawyvetisas. avtorisaTvis mTavar koncefcias warmoadgens "erovnuli proeqtis" koncefcia, rac misTvis

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normatiuli idealia, romelic gansazRvravs saxelmwifo suverenitetisa da sasurveli politikuri wyobis wyaroebs. igi miiCnevs, rom "saqarTveloSi usafrTxoebis ararsebobis" mTavari mizezebia: dapirispirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebis gaerTianebis uunaroba, ekonomikis kriminalizacia da araefeqturi konstituciuri da institucionaluri reforma. naSromis meore Tavis avtori, qristof ciurxeri, ganixilavs saqarTvelos mTavrobis warumatebel mcdelobas, xeli SeeSala Zaladobis aRmocenebisaTvis damoukideblobis Camoyalibebis dros, rac, pirvel rigSi, 1991 wels samxreT oseTisa da 1993 wels afxazeTis dakargviT dasrulda. Semdeg daviT darCiaSvili aanalizebs saqarTvelos samxedro strategiis SemuSavebis sxvadasxva etapebs. igi, upirvelesad, ganixilavs erovnuli usafrTxoebis problemis samxedro aspeqts ­ maT Soris, SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mSeneblobas, strategiuli doqtrinis SemuSavebas, samxedro da samoqalaqo struqturebs Soris urTierTobebis daregulirebas da meamboxe samxedro pirebis damSvidebas. naSromis meoTxe TavSi jaba devdariani ganixilavs saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemis rusul aspeqts; mexuTe Tavis avtori, oqsana antonenko, qarTul-afxazur konfliqtSi ruseTis rols aSuqebs. meeqvse Tavis avtorebi damien heli da giorgi gogia aanalizeben aSS-isa da evropis politikas saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi, rogorc maTi kavkasiis usafrTxoebis problemis gadaWrisadmi midgomis erT nawils, maT Soris saxelmwifoebriobis Senebisa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saqmeSi daxmarebis gawevas. naSromis meSvide TavSi tom de vaali saubrobs imaze, rasac SeiZleba iribi regionaluri faqtorebi ewodos. es faqtorebi arTulebs saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis problemas: saqarTveloSi navTobisa da gazsadenebis mSeneblobis proeqtebSi sxvadasxva monawileTa interesebi devs da es ganxilulia energetikisa da usafrTxoebis aspeqtSi; regionaluri konfliqtebi, romelSic saqarTvelo SeiZleba pirdapir arc monawileobdes, magram romelTa Sedegic masze aisaxeba (mTiani yarabaRi, somxeT-TurqeTi da

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azerbaijan-irani); usafrTxoebis problemasTan dakavSirebuli regionaluri organizaciebi ­ iseTebi, rogoricaa, saqarTvelos, ukrainas, azerbaijansa da moldovas Soris arsebuli meryevi kavSiri (suami).28 da bolos, winamdebare wignis daskvniT nawilSi Cemi Tanaavtori bruno kopitersi saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemas axali kuTxiT ganixilavs ­ im WrilSi, romelic centrsa da periferias Soris arsebuli urTierTobebis cvalebad dinamikas asaxavs, Semdeg ki avtori momavlis miseul xedvas gvTavazobs.

28 suuami isev suamad mas Semdeg gadakeTda, rac saqarTvelosa da ukrainaSi momxdari revoluciebis gamo uzbekeTi aRar ganixilavs am qveynebs sasurvel partniorebad.

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

gia nodia

saqarTvelo faTerakian da arastabilur qveynad Camoyalibda mas Semdeg, rac 1991 wels damoukidebloba moipova. man ori sisxliani da xangrZlivi secesionisturi omi gamoiara da orive centraluri xelisuflebis damarcxebiT damTavrda. amis Sedegad Seiqmna gadauwyveteli konfliqtis ori zona afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis TviTgamocxadebuli respublikebis saxiT, romlebic erTad qveynis teritoriis daaxloebiT 15 procentamde Seadgens. es zonebi politikuri gaurkvevlobis, safrTxisa da danaSaulis inkubatorebad iqca, xolo maTi omamdeli mosaxleobis didma nawilma "iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa" statusi miiRo.1 2004 wlis maisamde aWarac qveynis SigniT gaurkveveli iurisdiqciis zonas warmoadgenda. Tumca damoukidebloba arasodes gamoucxadebia, is arc saqarTvelos konstituciur wesrigs emorCileboda. amas emateba is, rom mas Semdeg, rac komunistebma 1990 wlis arCevnebi waages, saqarTveloSi Zalauflebis konstituciuri gadacema ar momxdara. samagierod, qveyanam gamoiara ori ajanyeba, revolucia Tu saxelmwifo gadatrialeba (terminis arCevani pirovnebazea damokidebuli): pirveli sisxliani, meore ki mSvidobiani da SedarebiT mowesrigebuli. pirvelma epizodma qveyanaSi ramdenime wliT lamis anarqia moitana; meorem Tbilissa da aWaras Soris krizisi gamoiwvia. im regionebSic ki,

1

saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 2002 wlis aRweriT, saqarTveloSi 264 aTasi iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piri iyo, Tumca zog komentators es monacemi gazviadebuli hgonia.

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gia nodia

sadac xelisuflebis politikur kontrols aSkarad ar upirispirdebian, misi unari, elementaruli wesrigi daamyaros da usafrxoeba uzrunvelyos, eWvqveSaa. magaliTad, pankisis xeobam garkveul periodSi teroristebisa da kriminalebis namdvili TavSesafris reputacia SeiZina. saqarTvelos yvelaze Zlier mezobelTan da yofil imperiul batonTan, ruseTTan urTierToba uaRresad arastabiluri rCeba da ramdenjerme miaRwia samxedro konfrontaciis zRvars. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo xazinis Semosavali metad mcirea (Tundac misi arsebiTad disfunqciuri ekonomikis fonze), xolo xelfasebi saxelmwifo seqtorSi, rogorc wesi, sasicocxlo minimumze dabalia. raRa gasakviria, Tu saqarTvelos xSirad "sust" an "arSemdgar" saxelmwifos uwodebdnen. am TavSi CamoTvlilia saqarTvelos arastabilurobisa da mowyvladobis ZiriTadi wyaroebi, maT Soris "obieqturi" muqarebi da gamowvevebi. am obieqtur safrTxeebSi is realobebi igulisxmeba, romelTac saqarTvelo sabWoTa kavSiris nangrevebze saxelmwifos mSeneblobis procesSi Seejaxa. am realobaTa arseboba ar iyo qarTuli saxelmwifos, misi politikuri elitis an sazogadoebis mier gakeTebul arCevanze damokidebuli _ aq igulisxmeba iseTi faqtorebi, rogoricaa saqarTvelos geografia, qveynis sidide da resursebi, misi eTnikuri mravalferovneba, eTnikur umciresobaTa gansaxlebis Taviseburebebi, sabWoTa eTnikuri kvazi-federalizmis memkvidreoba. magaliTad, eTnikuri secesionisturi konfliqtebis mizezi iseT winaswar arsebul faqtorTa kombinacia iyo, rogoricaa eTnikuri umciresobebis arseboba, romlebic ara mxolod sasazRvro regionebSi iyvnen Tavmoyrilni, aramed TavianTi nacionalisturi politikuri programebis ganxorcielebisas eTnikuri principiT Seqmnili institutebis gamoyeneba SeeZloT da mezobeli ruseTisgan seriozuli mxardaWerac hqondaT. magram aq Sevecdebi "subieqtur" faqtorebsac gavuwio angariSi ­ imas, Tu rogori reaqcia moaxdina saqarTvelom am safrTxeebsa da gamowvevebze. aq igulisxmeba rogorc politikuri strategia, ise am strategiis safuZvelze moqmedebis unari: mokled, swored is sfero, raSic

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

saqarTvelom "susti" Tu "arSemdgari" saxelmwifos iarliyi daimsaxura. am SemTxvevaSi yuradRebis centrSi eqceva ara winaswar arsebuli viTarebebis analizi, aramed is, Tu rogor miudgnen maT saqarTvelos moqmedi pirebi. saqarTvelos winaSe mdgomi safrTxeebis analizi SeiZleba sagareod da saSinaod gaiyos. sagareo safrTxeTagan yvelaze TvalsaCino saqarTvelosTvis mis yofil imperiul batonTan, ruseTTan urTierTobaa. saqarTvelos damoukideblobis Semdeg gasuli wlebis manZilze es urTierTobebi ZiriTadad cudi, xolo raRac periodebSi metad mwvave iyo. raki saqarTvelo-ruseTis urTierToba am gamocemis sxva nawilebSia ganxiluli,2 aq ruseTis faqtors mxolod imdenad ganvixilav, ramdenadac is saqarTvelos saSinao safrTxeebs ukavSirdeba.

saqarTvelos erovnuli proeqti

rodesac safrTxeebsa Tu usafrTxoebaze vsaubrobT, yovelTvis romelime subieqtis usafrTxoebas vgulisxmobT: es SeiZleba iyos individi, jgufi an politikuri erTeuli. politikuri analizisas usafrTxoebaze ufro xSirad saxelmwifosTan mimarTebaSi saubroben. Ceulebriv igulisxmeba, rom saxelmwifoebs met-naklebad msgavsi insteresebi aqvT, xolo maTi gansxvaveba am mxriv metwilad obieqtur faqtorebzea damokidebuli: iseTze, rogoricaa saxelmwifos sidide, geografiuli mdebareoba an resursebi. Tumc am faqtorebs garkveuli mniSvneloba aqvT saxelmwifos usafrTxoebis problematikis ganxilvisas, isini maT bolomde mainc ver gansazRvraven. saxelmwifoebi adamianTa erTobliobebs ­ "erebs", "xalxebs", "mosaxleobebs" (an maT "elitebs") ekuTvnis. sxvadasxva xalxebma an elitebma SeiZleba sxvadasxvagvarad gansazRvron, Tu rogori sazogadoebrivi wesrigi undaT an ra Seadgens maTi qveynis "erovnul interess". erovnuli interesis gansazRvris am procesTan dakavSirebiT

2

ix. jaba devdarianis da oqsana antonenkos mier dawerili Tavebi amave wignSi.

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gia nodia

Semovitan "erovnuli proeqtis" cnebas _ normatul ideas, romelic im sazogadoebrivi wesrigis bunebas gamoxatavs, romlis gansazRvra da dacvac saxelmwifo institutebs evaleba; igi agreTve adgens, Tu vin marTavs zemoxsenebul institutebs. is, rasac Cveulebriv erovnul interesebs uwodeben, swored am proeqtis garkveuli gagebidan momdinareobs. erovnuli proeqti gamoxatavs sxvadasxva adamianis (an maTi saxeliT moqmedi elitebis) warmodgenebs, iseve rogorc sazogadoebaSi an mis romeliRac nawilSi gavrcelebul Rirebulebebs, ideologiebsa Tu orientaciebs. adamianebs SeiZleba imgvari saxelmwifos Seqmna undodeT, romelic cdilobs, aqtiuri gavlena moaxdinos maTi qveynis sazRvrebs gareT arsebul samyaroze, an maT SeiZleba erCivnoT, saerTaSoriso wesrigis, rogorc erTgvari faseulobis, pasiuri momxmareblebi iyvnen. maT SeiZleba surdeT Seqmnan "erovnuli saxelmwifo" garkveuli xalxisTvis (anu erisTvis) ­ an maTi saxelmwifos amocanad sxvadasxva eris gaerTianebas saxavdnen; SeiZleba undodeT, maTi saxelmwifo liberalur da demokratiul, an patriarqalur, komunitarul an sulac romelime sxva Rirebulebebze iyos dafuZnebuli. maTi arCevanidan gamomdinare, saxelmwifoebs da maT qvemdebare sazogadoebebs metad gansxvavebuli problemebi eqmnebaT usafrTxoebis dargSi: garkveuli faqtorebi, romlebsac esa Tu is eri erovnul safrTxed aRiqvams, aseTad iqneb arc CaTvliliyo, erovnuli proeqti sxvagvarad rom iyos formulirebuli. magaliTad, Tu adamianTa jgufis mizani eTnikuri TviTgadarCena, anu sakuTari identobis SenarCunebaa, sulac araa aucilebeli, mas igive prioritetebi hqondes, rac sxva mxriv msgavs jgufs, romlis survilic srulfasovani, gaero-Si wevrobis mqone erovnuli saxelmwifos Seqmnaa; amitom mas safrTxeebisa da gamowvevebis sxva erToblioba eqneba. eri, romelsac zesaxelmwifos ambicia aqvs, "erovnul safrTxed" aRiqvams iseT procesebs, romelTa am niSniT moxsenieba TavSic ar mouva nakleb ambiciur saxelmwifos (magaliTad, ruseTi nato-s gafarToebas erovnul safrTxed ganixilavs, magram imaves Tqma ar SeiZleba ukrainaze). ers, romelic demokratiuli

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

wesrigis Seqmnas apirebs, safrTxeTa sxva wyeba eqneba, vidre ers, romelsac tradiculi Tu modernizirebuli avtokratiis Seqmna surs. sapirispirod imisa, rasac lordi palmerstoni ambobda, britaneTs (iseve rogorc nebismier sxva qveyanas) ara marto mudmivi mtrebi da megobrebi ara hyavs: arc misi (Tu nebismieri sxva qveynis) interesebia maradiuli.3 bunebrivia SekiTxva: es erovnuli proeqtebi saidan modis? erebi Sedgebian individebisagan, romelTac sxvadasxva azri aqvT mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze da romelnic ­ gansakuTrebiT, demokratiebSi ­ TavianT uTanxmoebebs xmamaRla gamoxataven. cxadia, erovnuli proeqtebi xeebze ar izrdeba da arc "erovnuli niadagidan" jejiliviT ar amobibindeba. maT qmnian ­ an ageben, rogorc postomodernisti sociologebi ityodnen ­ adamianebi, vinc sakuTar Tavze iReben erovnuli proeqtebis Camoyalibebas, Cveulebriv, elitebs ganekuTvnebian ­ ufro metad, politikurs da inteleqtualurs.4 Tumca, erovnuli proeqtis Camoyalibeba inteleqtualTa TviTnebobaze rodia damokidebuli. ideaTa bazarze sxvadasxva koncefcia manamde ejaxeba erTmaneTs, vidre normatiul mosazrebaTa raRac erToblioba aRiarebis kritikul zomas ar miaRwevs. isic marTalia, rom eris SigniT arasodes aris sruli konsensusi imaze, Tu raSi unda mdgomareobdes erovnuli proeqti, magram misi ZiriTadi ideebis garSemo, Cveulebriv, xalxis didi umravlesoba irazmeba. politikosebs, gansakuTrebiT, Tu isini xelisuflebaSi arian, uyvarT mravali sakiTxis usafrTxoebis WrilSi warmoCena, radgan iseT sakiTxebze, sadac Zireuli erovnuli interesebia CaTreuli, xalxis mobilizeba (da masTan erTad xelisuflebis popularobis da gavlenis gazrda) ufro advilia.

am Temaze metad sayuradRebo mosazrebebisTvis ix. Robert Cooper, The Breaking of Nations (London: Atlantic Books, 2003), gv. 127-138. 4 kuperi wers: "politikur liderTa amocanaa daadginon, ra unda xalxs, jer kidev manamde, vidre xalxi Tavad gaigebdes amas: magaliTad, [uinston] CerCilis politika interesTa gaTvlas ki ar emyareboda, aramed britaneli xalxisa da misi istoriis Rrma gaazrebas (The Breaking of Nations, gv. 133). mraval qveyanaSi aseT liderebad inteleqtualebi gvevlinebian.

3

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gia nodia

erovnuli proeqtis formulirebaze mravali faqtori axdens gavlenas, magram erT-erTi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania: esaa misabaZi modeli. erTa umravlesoba gvian ganviTarebulTa ricxvs miekuTvneba: maT Tanamedrove erebad Tavis ageba daiwyes mas Semdeg, rac sxva erebs ukve dadgenili hqondaT, ras niSnavs iyo ganviTarebuli da mowinave, da msoflio wesrigis ZiriTadi parametrebic ukve ganmtkicebuli iyo. gvian ganviTarebulTa erovnuli proeqtebi, rogorc wesi, ufro win wasuli erebis miRwevebs baZaven, Tumca amave dros cdiloben, ipovon niSa, romelic maT politikur Taviseburebas Seesabameba. misabaZ modelebs Cveulebriv eZeben (1) im saxelmwifoTa Soris, romlebic globaluri masStabiT yvelaze warmatebulia (Tanamedrove samyaroSi aseTi e. w. "dasavleTia"), (2) yofil imperiul batonebSi, romlebmac garkveuli modernizaciuli siaxleebi Semoitanes, Tundac ZalmomreobiT (xandaxan es isev dasavleTis qveynebia, xandaxan ki ­ ara); (3) "Cvennair" qveynebSi, romlebTanac kulturulad da/an geografiulad axlos varT, magram romlebic mniSvnelovan sferoebSi Cvenze win arian wasulebi (aseTia, magaliTad, espaneTi da portugalia laTinuri amerikis qveynebisTvis). misabaZi modelebi SeiZleba erTmaneTs avsebdnen an upirispirdebodnen. evropisa da Crdilo amerikis ganviTarebuli qveynebi SeiZleba ganviTarebis zogad modelebs gvawvdidnen, magram, Tu isini kulturulad Sors arian Cvengan, dagvianebul modernizatorTa mxridan maTi bibaZvis mcdeloba SeiZleba sakmarisad legitimuri ar aRmoCndes, radgan xalxisTvis faseulia ara mxolod ganviTareba, aramed maTi kulturuli TviTmyofadobac. amitom, Tu misabaZi modeli kulturulad relevanturia, anu Tu is "Cvennairi qveyanaa", misi mibaZvac ufro advili xdeba. qarTvelebis misabaZi magaliTi erTaderTi araa: ar arsebobs konkretuli kulturulad axlobeli qveyana, romelic aseT modelad gamodgeboda (magaliTad, azerbaijanisTvis aseTad SeiZleba TurqeTi miviCnioT). SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTvelosTvis misabaZ modelad zogadad evropa warmodgeba, Tumca, aq isic unda davsZinoT, rom modeli evropuli erovnuli saxelmwifoa da ara evrokavSiri. ufro axlobel modelebad SegviZlia CavTvaloT aRmosavleT evropis warmatebuli

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

postkomunisturi qveynebi, rogoricaa baltiis saxelmwifoebi, poloneTi, Tundac serbeTi (roca 2003 wlis noemberSi saqarTveloSi politikuri reJimi Seicvala, qarTvelebi Segnebulad baZavdnen serbeTidan slobodan miloSeviCis gaZevebas). es zogadi orientacia imas niSnavs, rom saqarTvelos didi proeqti "normalur" evropul qveynad qceva da aseTad aRiarebaa. erovnuli proeqtis am martivi da arcTu originaluri normatiuli modelis ganxorcieleba moiTxovs ramdenime winapirobas, romelTa uzrunvelyofa sulac araa ioli. upirveles yovlisa, eri unda arsebobdes _ maSasadame, unda arsebobdes politikuri erTeuli, romelic erovnuli proeqtis met-naklebad erTiani xedvis irgvliv aris gaerTianebuli. meore, is unda arsebobdes rogorc aRiarebuli damoukidebeli saxelmwifo da metnaklebi pativiscemiT sargeblobs erTa TanamegobrobaSi. mesame, mas unda hqondes normaluri evropuli qveynis Sesabamisi politikuri wesrigi, ­ martivad rom vTqvaT, is liberaluri demokratia unda iyos. meoTxe, mas unda hqondes ekonomikuri wesrigi, romelic misi moqalaqeebis keTildReobis met-naklebad misaReb dones uzrunvelyofs da saSualebas aZlevs qveyanas, saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri sistemis nawili iyos; amave dros, man unda SeinarCunos is, rac misi erovnuli TviTmyofadobisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli: ena, erovnuli kultura, Tundac "suliereba". kanonieri iqneba, vikiTxoT: "saidan viciT, rom marTlac swored es ideebi gansazRvravs qarTveli xalxis miswrafebebs? ramdenad farTodaa gaziarebuli es prioritetebi? xom ar aris es mxolod elitis fantazia?" marTlacda, namdvilad araswori iqneboda imis Tqma, rom qarTvelebs eWvic ar eparebaT Tavis "evropulobasa" Tu "dasavlurobaSi". sazogadoebis raRac nawilSi sabWoTa kavSiris mimarT nostalgiasac wavawydebiT, garkveuli movlenebis Tu incidentebis ukan anti-dasavluri ganwyobebi SeiZleba davinaxoT. amas emateba isic, rom eTnikuri umciresobebi5 aucileblobiT sulac ar iziareben qarTvelTa

mosaxleobis 1989 wlis aRweriT, eTnikuri umciresobebi saqarTvelos mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 30 procents Seadgenda. 2002 wlis aRweriT (romelic afxazeTsa da samxeT oseTis did nawils ar moicavs) umciresobebi saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 16.3 procentia.

5

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gia nodia

Soris gavrcelebul ZiriTad ideebs. magram, Tundac Tu CavTvliT, rom arsebobs alternatiuli xedvebi: vTqvaT, ruseTTan mWidro integracia Tu marTlamadideblobaze an raime sxvaze damyarebuli ganumeorebeli "qarTuli gza", da maT momxreebic hyavT, am ideebma veranairad ver daikaves metnaklebad mniSvnelovani adgili qarTul politikur cxovrebasa da sazogadoebriv diskursSi. saqarTvelos problemebi erovnuli usafrTxoebis sferoSi am fonis gaTvaliswinebiT unda ganvixiloT. safrTxeebi am SemTxvevaSi is tendenciebi da Zalebia, romlebic erovnuli proeqtis ganxorcielebas emuqreba. yovelive is, rac seriozulad aferxebs proeqtisaTvis arsebiTi miznebis miRwevas, erovnuli usafrTxoebis mniSvnelovani problemaa. saqarTvelos mowyvladobis kidev erTi sagulisxmo wyaroa daZabulobac, romelic qveynis normatiul modelsa da arsebul realobebs Soris arsebobs.

erTian erad Camoyalibeba: eTnikuroba, avtonomia da konfliqtebi

erTian erad Camoyalibeba yvelaze didi gamowvevaa, romelic saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dRidan win daxvda. aseTi gamowveva tipiuria erebisTvis, romlebic eris mSeneblobas mravalerovani imperiebis nangrevebze iwyeben. erebi cariel adgilze ar igeba: maTi sawyisi wertilia Zveli reJimidan memkvidreobiT miRebuli Sereuli mosaxleoba da instituciuri wyoba. magram Camoyalibebis procesSi myofi erebi erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba imiT, Tu ramdenad rTuli problemebi xvdebaT da imiTac, ramdenad SeswevT unari, gaumklavdnen maT. saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi problemebi ufro meti iyo, vidre sxva postkomunistur qveynebSi; amave dros, samwuxarod, qarTuli sazogadoebisa da politikuri elitis qmedebebi arcTu adekvaturi aRmoCnda, gansakuTrebiT _ damoukideblobis pirvel wlebSi.

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis periodisTvis saqarTvelos sazogadoeba daserili iyo gammijnavi xazebis mTeli qseliT, romelic eTnoss, religias da sub-eTnikur regionul identobebs eyrdnoboda, xSirad ki teritoriul-administraciuli struqturebiTac iyo gaZlierebuli. yvelaze mniSvnelovani mainc eTnikuri sakiTxi gamodga: saqarTveloSi eTnikur umciresobaTa ramdenime jgufia, romlebic erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba raodenobiT, gansaxlebis TaviseburebebiT da qarTuli saxelmwifos proeqtis mimarT damokidebulebiT. yvelaze mniSvnelovania is, rom saqarTveloSi damoukideblobis momentisTvis arsebobda ori eTnikuri principiT Camoyalibebuli (afxazeTi da samxeT oseTi) da erTi religiuri principiT Seqmnili (aWara) avtonomiuri teritoria. sabWoTa periodSi maT garkveuli administraciuli privilegiebi hqondaT. Tu ramdenad problemuria saqarTvelos eTnikuri siWrele, didwilad erovnuli proeqtis centralur ideazea damokidebuli; kerZod imaze, Tu rogor ganvsazRvravT cnebas "qarTveli". sxva aRmosavleT evropelebis msgavsad, qarTvelebic erisadmi kuTvnilebas gamorCeviT eTnikuri mikuTvnebulobis wesiT adgenen.6 qarTvelTa didi umravlesobisTvis

6 nacionalizmis samoqalaqo anu politikur (inkluziur) da eTnikur (eqskluziur) versiebs Soris gansxvavebaze didZali literatura arsebobs, magram avtorTa umetesoba Tanxmdeba, rom safrangeTidan aRmosavleTisken rom mivdivarT, nacionalizmi ufro eqskluziuri xdeba. magram aRsaniSnavia, rom lord eqtonma mijna did britaneTsa da safrangeTs Soris gaavlo da amtkicebda (Tanamedrove terminebi rom vixmaroT), eris franguli koncefcia eTnikuria, xolo britanuli ­ ufro samoqalaqoo. aqedan Cans, rom Tumca or idealur tips Soris gansxvaveba met-naklebad cxadia, konkretuli SemTxvevebisadmi maTi miyeneba SeiZleba saproblemoc iyos. ix. John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, Essays on Freedom and Power (Boston, MA: The Beacon Press, 1948); Eugene Kamenka, "Political Nationalism--The Evolution of the Idea," in Eugene Kamenka and John Plomenatz, eds., Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of the Idea (London: Edward Arnold, 1973), gv. 2- 20; da Rogers Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992). sagulisxmoa jek snaideris azri, rom eTnikuri nacionalizmis samoqalaqoze mZlavroba dagvianebul ganviTarebas ukavSirdeba. ix., Jack Snyder, From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000), gv. 77

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"qarTveli" imas hqvia, vinc saerTo (miTosur) warmomavlobas atarebs (anu "sisxliTaa" qarTveli), da amave dros qarTul kulturas (gansakuTrebiT, qarTul enas) aris naziarebi. bevri (magram ara yvela) qarTvelisTvis es cneba marTlmadidebel qristianobasac moicavs. maSasadame, qarTuli politikuri nacionalizmi amave dros eTnikuricaa: is gulisxmobs, rom, qarTvelebi, rogorc eri, sakuTar erTian da ganuyofel saxelmwifos imsaxureben, magram am eris srulfasovani wevrebi mxolod eTnikuri qarTvelebi arian. es, bunebrivia, saqarTveloSi eTnikuri umciresobebis statusis sakiTxs wamowevs. qarTvelebis umravlesobas sjera, rom maTi eri gamorCeulad tolerantulia, da arcTu usafuZvlod. marTalia, zogierTi radikali umciresobebs samSobloSi gamgzavrebas urCevda, qarTvelTa umravlesobas eWvqveS ar dauyenebia umciresobaTa ufleba, maT qveyanaSi ecxovraT. latviisa Tu estoneTisgan gansxvavebiT, eTnikuri umciresobebisTvis saqarTvelos moqalaqeobis uflebis miniWeba seriozuli eWvis qveS arasodes damdgara da yvela is, vinc sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis momentisTvis saqarTveloSi cxovrobda, uproblemod gaxda misi moqalaqe.7 qarTvelTa umravlesoba ar aris imis dakanonebis winaaRmdegi, rasac dasavleTSi "umciresobis uflebebs" uwodeben. magaliTad, aravin ewinaaRmdegeba imas, rom saqarTvelos saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi umciresobis enebs aswavlian. magram demokratiis epoqaSi, Sua saukuneebisgan ganxvavebiT, sxvisi Sewynareba aRar aris sakmarisi; saxelmwifom unda SeZlos "sxvisi" integracia, anu is erovnuli proeqtis nebayoflobiT monawiled unda aqcios. sanam umciresobebi am azriT integrirebulebi ar arian, TviT maTi arseboba saxelmwifos mimarT gamowvevad rCeba. yovelive es gvexmareba gavigoT eTnikuri problemebisadmi is sakmaod gaurkveveli da araTanmimdevruli damokidebuleba, rac qarTuli politikisTvis dResacaa damaxasiaTebeli. Tumca eTnikuri nacionalistis ideali eTnikurad wminda eria,

7 samagierod, problemebi SeeqmnaT eTnikur qarTvelebs, romlebic damoukideblobis droisTvis sabWoTa kavSiris sxva nawilebSi aRmoCndnen da Semdeg saqarTveloSi dabrundnen.

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yvelaze radikalur qarTvel nacionalistebsac ki aseTi ramis SeuZlebloba imTaviTve esmodaT. umravlesoba amodioda iqidan, rom eTnikur umciresobebs ufleba aqvT, saqarTveloSi darCnen da kulturuli TavisTavadoba SeinarCunon, magram im pirobiT, rom erovnuli proeqtis erTguli damcvelebi iqnebian. am logikiT, umcirebobaTa mxridan orgulobis nebismieri gamovlena sakmarisi gamarTleba iyo maT mimarT damsjeli RonisZiebebis, maT Soris gaZevebis, gasatareblad. raki umciresobaTa umetesi nawilis erTguleba eWvis qveS idga, isini mudmivi zewolis qveS grZnobdnen Tavs, rom Tavisi sandooba daedasturebinaT. amgvari ganwyoba sazogadod tipiuria postkomunisturi samyaros eTnikuri nacionalizmebisTvis, xolo balkaneTsa da kavkasiaSi, cvlilebebis adreul periodSi, is gansakuTrebiT dominanturi iyo. saqarTvelos SemTxevaSi es midgoma damoukidebeli saqarTvelos pirveli lideris (1990-92 ww.), zviad gamsaxurdias mmarTvelobis periodTanaa asocirebuli.8 mis politikur leqsikonSi umciresobebi xSirad "stumrebad" moixseniebodnen. Tu wesierad moiqceodnen, maT darCena SeeZloT, magram, rogorc ki qarTuli erovnuli proeqtis ZiriTad principebSi Seitandnen eWvs, an sakuTar nacionalistur midrekilebebs gamoavlendnen, maSinve wamoaZaxebdnen: Sens "istoriul samSobloSi" dabrundi da eg azrebi mand ganaviTareo. Tu romelime eTnikuri umciresobis elitebi sakuTar eqskluzivistur nacionalistur ideologiebs daicaven da maT garSemo xalxis darazmvasac SeZleben, es ukve centralur xelisuflebasTan maTi ZalmomreobiTi konfliqtis sawindaria. saqarTvelos ori aseTi konfliqti hqonda (afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi), da qarTuli mxare orive am SemTxvevaSi damarcxda. samxedro marcxma da saerTo daqcevam, rac mas saqarTveloSi mohyva, 1990-iani wlebis SuaxanebisTvis gamsaxurdias stilis agresiuli eTnikuri nacionalizmis diskreditacia

gamsaxurdia 1990 wlis noemberSi gaxda saqarTvelos uzenaesi sabWos Tavmjdomare, ramac mas erovnuli lideris statusi mianiWa. prezidentad is mxolod 1991 wlis maisSi iqna arCeuli, magram amas misi realuri Zalauflebis xarisxi arsebiTad ar Seucvlia.

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gamoiwvia. eduard SevardnaZis reJimis ideologebma dagmes gamsaxurdia, rogorc "provincieli faSisti". eTnikur umciresobebs moscildaT "stumrebis" iarliyi, rac maTi gaZevebis SesaZleblobas gulisxmobda. aman daasrula aSkara eTnikuri dapirispirebis periodi, magram es jer kidev ar niSnavda, rom qarTuli nacionalizmis ufro inkluziurma, samoqalaqo versiam saboloo gamarjveba izeima eTnikuri yaidis nacionalizmze. ufro zusti iqneba imis Tqma, rom am mtkivneuli sakiTxis ganxilva ukeTesi droisTvis gadaido. SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis sawyis periodSi aravis Seutevia eTnikuri umciresobebisTvis da arc eWvis qveS dauyenebia maTi erTguleba, magram arc is ucdia vinmes, isini samoqalaqo cxovrebaSi SemoeyvanaT da maTi realuri samoqalaqo monawileobis gasazrdelad pirobebi SeeqmnaT. rac Seexeba afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTs, isini "gayinuli konfliqtis" zonebad iqcnen ­ omi gaCerda, magram arc myari mSvidobis momtani gadawyveta Canda Tvalsawierze. metic, sajaro diskusiebi, romlebic saqarTveloSi gaimarTa garkveuli kanonproeqtebis garSemo ­ magaliTad, saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa piradobis damadasturebel sabuTebSi "erovnebis" grafis Setanis sakiTxze ­ sakmaod naTlad aCvenebda, rom eris eTnikuri gageba kvlavac dominanturi rCeboda. 2000 wels, rodesac xelisuflebis "reformatoruli" nawilis iniciativiT SemoRebulma axalma kanonmdeblobam gaauqma sabWouri stilis "erovnebis grafa" pirovnebis damadasturebel oficialur dokumentebSi, amas farTo ukmayofileba mohyva. prodasavluri elita, romelic eris araeTnikuri gagebis damkvidrebas cdilobda, Setevis qveS aRmoCnda.9 magram man, mcirericxovamasTan dakavSirebiT ix. Oliver Reissner, "`Testground for Cosmopolitanism' or `Ethnic Zoo'?: The Debate about the Item `Ethnicity' in the IDs for Georgia's Citizens" (statia, warmodgenili komferenciaze "Potentials of (Dis-)Order: Former Yugoslavia and Caucasus in Comparison," berlini, 1999 wlis 11-13 ivnisi). ix. agreTve David Losaberidze, "Citizenship Regimes in the South Caucasus," wignSi Carine Bachmann, Christian StaerklÁ, and William Doise, eds., Reinventing Citizenship in the South Caucasus: Exploring Dynamics and Contradictions between Formal Definitions and Popular Conceptions (Zurich: Scientific Cooperation between Eastern Europe and Switzerland (SCOPES), Swiss National Science Foundation, 2003), gv. 50, http:// www.cimera.org/en/research/citizenship.htm.

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nobis miuxedavad, mainc moaxerxa, eris gamokveTilad eTnikur gagebaze damyarebuli kanonmdeblobis miReba gadaedo. rodesac SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis bolo periodSi misi popularoba daeca, xelisuflebam scada, eTno-nacionalisturi grZnobebi sakuTar interesebSi gamoeyenebina. kerZod, 2003 wlis saparlamento saarCevno kampaniis dros mmarTveli partiis oficialuri warmomadgenlebi xSirad miuTiTebdnen ZiriTadi opoziciuri liderebis farul somxur Zirebze: amiT isini calsaxad mianiSnebdnen, rom somxuri warmomavlobis SemTxevaSi pirovneba ar unda acxadebdes pretenzias, politikuri lideri iyos saqarTveloSi.10 problemebi, rasac saqarTvelos erTianobas eTnokulturuli faqtorebi uqmnis, mis erT-erT ZiriTad gamowvevad rCeba. eris eTnikurad eqskluzivisturi gageba kvlavac am problemis gulisgulia. amas emateba isic, rom aseTi eqskluzivisturi damokidebuleba umciresobebs aranakleb, an iqneb kidev ufro metad axasiaTebs, vidre qarTul umravlesobas. ase rom, Tundac Tu dominant qarTul mosaxleobaSi eris samoqalaqo gageba gaimarjvebs, es TavisTavad jer kidev ar mogvcems sazogadoebis warmatebuli politikuri integraciis garantias. magram raki eris aseTi gageba tipiuria postkomunisturi erebis umetesobisTvis, saWiroa davaxasiaToT is eTnonacionaluri faqtorebic (rogoricaa warmoSobis miTi, ena, religia an sxvadaxva jgufis formaluri statusi politikur sivreSi), romlebic specifikuria saqarTvelosTvis da gagvagebinebs, ratom gaurTulda mas ase Zalian erTianobis miRweva. pirveli relevanturi faqtoria kavSiri eTnikur siWrelesa da instituciur memkvidreobas Soris _ saxeldobr, saqarTveloSi avtonomiuri warmonaqmnebis arseboba. sabWoTa kavSiri

magaliTad, irine sariSvili, pro-SevardnaZiseuli "erTiani saqarTvelos" blokis spikeri, zurab Jvaniasa da mixeil saakaSvilis somxur warmomavlobaze saubrobda da imasac ki ambobda, rom riCard mailzi, aSS elCi saqarTveloSi, SeerTebul StatebSi arsebuli somxuri lobis interesebs warmoadgenda. ix. "Georgian Government-backed Bloc Spokeswoman Takes Swipe at U.S. Envoy," BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union, August 12, 2003.

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agebuli iyo, rogorc samdoniani eTnikuri federacia (ufro swored, kvazi-federacia) - bevri mas rusul matrioSkas adarebda. umaRlesi, sakavSiro done formalurad zeerovnuli iyo, Tumca gare samyaroc da ararusi mosaxleobac mas "rusulad" aRiqvamda. meore doneze idga sakavSiro respublikebi, anu zeerovnuli struqturis SigniT myofi kvazi-eri-saxelmwifoebi. mesame dones Seadgenda eTnikuri niSniT Seqmnili avtonomiuri respublikebi, anu meore rangis kvazi-erisaxelmwifoebi, romlebic ukve sakavSiro respublikebSi Sediodnen. es avtonomiuri respublikebi Tavis mxriv rangiT aRematebodnen avtonomiur "oblastebs" (olqebs), am ukanasknelebze dabla idgnen nacionaluri "okrugebi". amdenad, zog eTnikuri principiT Seqmnil avtonomiur warmonaqmns sxvaze meti formaluri Zalaufleba da saxelmwifo struqturebis ufro ganviTarebuli sistema hqonda. terminebze ("federalizmi" da "eri-saxelmwifo") "kvazi"-s damateba ukeT gamoxatavs saqmis arss, radgan gansxvaveba fasads (anu formalur instituciur struqturasa) da Zalauflebis realur meqanizmebs Soris sabWouri politikuri sistemis arsebiT da (dasavleTSi) saTanadod Seufasebel elements warmoadgenda.11 fasads Seadgenda konstitucia ­ kvazi-federaluri, kvazi-demokratiuli dokumenti, romelic umaRles Zalauflebas arCeul parlamentebs (umaRles sabWoebs) aniWebda da sabWoTa respublikebs gamoyofis uflebasac ki utovebda, rasac namdvili federaciebi naklebad uSveben. amasobaSi, realur xelisuflebas axorcielebda komunisturi

11 am gansxvavebis dafiqsireba arsebiTia agreTve postkomunisturi politikuri sistemis funqciobisa da sazogadoebis mier misdami damokidebulebis gasagebad. sxva yvelaferTan erTad, komunisturi sistemis memkvidreobas Seadgens farTed gaziarebuli warmodgena, rom sxvaoba saCvenebel fasadsa da politikuri da ekonomikuri Zalauflebis realur meqanizmebs Soris sruliad normaluria. sakvirveli araa, rom bevri dasavleli politologi laparakobs "fasadur demokratiebze" an "potiomkinis demokratiebze" post-sabWoTa qveynebSi. ix., magaliTad, Charles King, "Potemkin Democracy: Four Myths about Post-Soviet Georgia," The National Interest, no. 64 (summer 2001), gv. 93­104.

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partia da misi iZulebis aparati, romelic moicavda uSiSroebis samsaxurs, armiasa da policias. eseni ki mkacrad centralizebulni iyvnen da emyarebodnen ara demokratiul wesebs, aramed represias. konstitucia SedarebiT demokratiulad gamoiyureboda, radgan komunistur partias ganusazRvreli vadiT SeeZlo Zalauflebis SenarCuneba. sabWoTa kavSirSic ki fasads sinamdvilisgan mTlianad ver gamoyofdi. dRevandeli gadasaxedidan aSkarad Cans, rom sabWourma konstituciurma struqturam didwilad gansazRvra is, Tu ra saxiT Camoyalibda nacionalisturi moZraobebi da maTi programebi sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis momentisTvis. rac ginda fiqtiuri yifiliyo sabWoTa federalizmi Zalauflebrivi struqturebis realuri funqciobis TvalsazrisiT, man xeli Seuwyo erovnuli biurokratiuli da inteleqtualuri elitebis, iseve rogorc erovnuli saganmanaTleblo, samecniero da kulturuli institutebis Camoyalibebas ­ yovelive aman ki udidesi gavlena moazdina post-sabWoTa erebis mSeneblobaze. amgvarad, sabWourma kvazi-federalurma fasadma gacilebiT metad Seuwyo xeli nacionalizmis ganviTarebas, vidre misi Semoqmedebi gegmavdnen.12 amitomac, rogorc ki sabWoTa sistemis dasusteba daiwyo, axalma politikurma moZraobebma swored sabWoTa konstituciaSi ipoves myaro iuridiuli safuZveli, am kvazi-erovnulisaxelmwifoebisTvis damoukidebeli qveynebis statusi moeTxovaT. saqarTvelos saubedurod, igive Seexo meore rigis qvazi-saxelmwifoebsac: avtonomiur warmonaqmnebsac aRmoaCndaT instituciuri niadagi secesionisturi moZraobis

12 ix. Rogers Brubaker, "Nationhood and National Question in the Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Eurasia: An Institutionalism Account," Theory and Society, vol. 23, no. 1 (1994), gv. 47-78; Rogers Brubaker, Nationalism Reframed: Nationalism and the National Question in the New Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); Yuri Slezkine, "The USSR as a Communal Apartment, Or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism," Slavic Review, vol. 53, no. 2 (summer 1994), gv. 414-452. es avtorebi Zalian kargad gviCveneben, faqtobrivad rogor waaxalisa nacionalizmis ganviTareba sabWourma institutebma, magram ver gvixsnian, ratom Seqmnes saxelmwifos komunistma mamebma maTi interesebisa da ideologiis aSkarad sawinaaRmdego sistema.

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dasawyebad. im dros saqarTveloSi sami amgvari erTeuli gaxldaT da or maTganSi, afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi, saqme gamoyofis moTxovnamde mivida. eTnikuri principiT Seqmnili avtonomiuri warmonaqmnebi metad mosaxerxebeli instituciuri formebi aRmoCnda saimisod, rom eTno-nacionalisturi programebi arsebuli teritoriuli erTeulebis da ara amorfuli eTnikuri jgufebis saxeliT aefrialebinaT. isic unda gvaxsovdes, rom sabWoTa sistemaSi avtonomia (sityvis pirveladi mniSvnelobis miuxedavad) Tavisuflebas ki ara, privilegias gulisxmobda. is rogorc adgilobriv biurokratiul da inteleqtualur elitas, ise xalxs gansakuTrebuli statusis SegrZnebas aRuZravda. magram, amave dros, igive statusi daCagrulobis Segnebas aRvivebda im eris mimarT, visac sakuTari sakavSiro respublika hqonda. ase rom, rogorc ki sabWoTa kavSiris es ierarqiuli struqtura moiSala, konfliqtebis Tavidan acileba SeuZlebelic ki iyo: avtonomiur respublikebs TavianTi statusis amaRleba moundaT, magram sakavSiro respublikebi amas maTgan gamoyofis survilad aRiqvamdnen.

alternatiuli erovnuli proeqtebi: afxazeTi da samxreT oseTi

sabWoTa eTnikurma federalizmma Seqmna konfliqtebis winapiroba, Tumca TavisTavad es jer kidev ar iyo sakmarisi. Ria konfliqtebis gasaCaReblad saWiro iyo alternatiuli eTno-nacionalisturi programebic. isini wamoayenes afxazebma da osebma (Tumca, aWaraSi es ar momxdara). afxazebi da osebi calke eTnikuri jgufebia, romlebic enobrivad ar enaTesavebian qarTvelebs, maSin rodesac aWarlebi qarTulad metyveleben da eTnikurad qarTvelebad miiCneven Tavs. gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom afxazebi da osebi Crdilokavkasiel xalxebs enaTesavebian, romlebsac agreTve hqondaT avtonomia. magaliTad, osebis umravlesoba ruseTis

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federaciis SemadgenlobaSi myof Crdilo-oseTis avtonomiur respublikaSi cxovrobs.13 afxazebi enobrivad axlos dganan Crdilokavkasiel xalxebTan, rogorebic adiReleebi, Cerqezebi da yabardoelebi arian. ase rom, osebis da afxazebis erovnuli proeqtebis postulatebi daaxloebiT ase JRerda: "Cven qarTvelebi ara varT da erTaderTi avtoqtonuri mosaxleoba varT sakuTar teritoriebze. sxvebi _ maT Soris qarTvelebic _ CvenTan "Camosaxlebulebi" arian (an uaresi _ "okupantebis" statusi aqvT); Sesabamisad, es teritoriebi saqarTvelos ar ekuTvnis da unda gamoeyos mas, xolo Cvens TanamoZme Crdilokavkasiel xalxebTan erTianoba ki sworedac rom sasurvelia".14 yvela es debuleba, pirvelis gamoklebiT, zustad imis sapirispiroa, rasac qarTvelebi fiqroben. maTTvis es regionebi mSobliuri miwaa da sakuTari Tavic mis ZirZvel mosaxleobad miaCniaT.15 jer kidev 1918-21, qarTvelebis mier damoukidebeli respublikis Seqmnis wlebSi, orive es mxare sisxliani konfliqtebis arenad iqca. Tumca, es imas rodi niSnavs, TiTqos qarTvelebis, afxazebisa da osebis erovnul proeqtebs uciloblad amgvar konfliqtebamde mivyavdeT. vTqvaT, afxazebis SemTxvevaSi, Zalismieri Sexlis Tavidan acileba savsebiT SesaZlebeli iyo.16 magram omi mainc orivegan atyda,

samxreT oseTs ki avtonomiis ufro dabali xarisxi ­ avtonomiuri "oblasti" anu olqi hqonda. es gansxvaveba, qarTvelebisaTvis mainc, imas usvamda xazs, rom osebis "namdvili" samSoblo CrdiloeTi oseTia. 14 osebis SemTxvevaSi es, ubralod, CrdiloeT oseTTan mierTebas gulisxmobda, maSin roca afxazebs Crdilokavkasiuri konfederaciis Camoyalibeba surdaT. 15 qarTvelebs swored osebi miaCniaT "stumrebad" _ amitomacaa, rom cneba "samxreT oseTi" maTTvis miuRebeli iyo. rac Seexeba afxazebs, aq viTareba ufro rTuladaa: qarTvelebis umravlesoba Tvlis, rom isinic am kuTxis avtoqtonuri mosaxleobaa; Tumca erovnuli moZraobis dros sxva Teoriam moipova popularoba, romlis Tanaxmadac afxazebi Crdilo kavkasiidan SedarebiT axali Camosaxlebulebi arian. 16 Ghia Nodia, "The Conflict in Abkhazia: National Projects and Political Circumstances," in Bruno Coppieters, Ghia Nodia, and Yuri Anchabadze, eds., Georgians and Abkhazians: .. .. The Search for a Peace Settlement (Koln: Sonderveroffentlichung des Bundersinstituts .. fur Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, 1998), gv. 14-48, agreTve http:/ /poli.vub.ac.be.

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qarTvelebis samxedro marcxiT damTavrda, Semdeg ki situacia "gayinuli konfliqtebis" rangSi gadavida. dResdReobiT, es viTareba umZimesi strategiuli gamowvevaa saqarTvelos usafrTxoebisaTvis. mas Semdeg, rac 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi zemoxsenebulma regionebma kvazidamoukideblobas miaRwies, iq saqarTvelosagan gamijnuli sazogadoebebi Camoyalibda da maTi reintegraciis perspeqtiva yovel wels sul ufro saTuo xdeba. magram, meores mxriv, qarTvelebi mZimed gamicdian teritoriebis dakargvas da maTze xelis Caqnevas ar fiqroben. iZulebiT gadaadgilebul pirTa simravle mZime tvirTad awevs qveynis ekonomikas da destabilizaciiT emuqreba xelisuflebas, xolo sanam konfliqtebi gadamwydara, Zaladoba nebismier dros SeiZleba ganaxldes _ miuxedavad imisa, rom saerTaSoriso sazogadoebam warmatebiT daado tabu adgilobrivi politikosebis mxridan omis enaze saubars. am problemebis garda, gayinuli konfliqtebi saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso imijsac did zians ayenebs. maTi arseboba garkveuli (Tumca ara erTaderTi, da iqneb sulac aramTavari) argumentia saqarTvelos nato-sa da evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis sawinaaRmdegod. gadauwyveteli problemebi ruseTTan urTierTobasac gansakuTrebiT amwvavebs: maT gamo saqarTvelos praqtikulad dablokili aqvs satransporto gzebi ruseTTan, romelic bunebrivadaa misi mTavari ekonomikuri partniori: kerZod, afxazeTTan mosazRvre regionebs gasaRebis bazarze gasasvleli aRara aqvT. dabolos, sadavo teritoriebi kriminalebisa da kontrabandistebis saTareSo gamxdara, rac gansakuTebiT aferxebs saqarTveloSi saxelmwifo institutebis gamyarebas. afxazeTisa da samegrelos sazRvarze qarTuli partizanuli dajgufebebi, anu kerZo samxedro SenaerTebi moqmedebda, romlebic kontrabandisa da gamoZalvisaTvis gamoiyeneboda da problemebs ara marto afxazur, aramed qarTul mxaresac uqmnida. gasakviri ar aris, rom prezidentma saakaSvilma imTaviTve maTi aRkveTa scada. igive suraTia samxreT oseTSic, romelic kontrabandis buded iqca.

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

orivegan _ yovel SemTxvevaSi, vidre saakaSvilis xelisuflebam xeli ar gamoiRo amgvar danaSaulebaTa aRsakveTad, korumpirebul qarTvel samarTaldamcavebs gvariani wili edoT am saqmianobaSi. saakaSvilma ramdenimegzis mianiSna, rom amgvari viTareba sruliad Seuwynarebeli iyo da is yovel Rones ixmarda konfliqtebis gadasaWrelad. 2004 wlis maisSi, rogorc ki aWaris krizisi moTavda (ix. qvemoT), xelisuflebis yuradReba samxreT oseTze gadavida (raki, saerTo azriT, es ufro ioli mosavleli iyo, vinem afxazeTis sakiTxi). saqarTvelos xelisuflebis strategia aq ramdenime komponentisagan Sedgeboda: 1. keTili nebis gamoxatva osebis mimarT iseTi RonisZiebebiT, rogoricaa maTTvis pensiebis gadaxdis dawyeba, osur enaze gadacemebis momzadeba, sxvadasxva saqvelmoqmedo aqciebis Catareba; aseve, wina xelisuflebis zogierTi nabijis gakritikeba, rogoric iyo, magaliTad, 1990 wels samxreT oseTis avtonomiis gauqmeba.17 2. separatistuli xelisuflebisaTvis ekonomikuri sayrdenis gamocla kontrabandis aRkveTis meSveobiT. 3. Zalis demonstrireba regionSi samxedro kontingentis SeyvaniT; Tumca xelisufleba acxadebda, rom is formalurad jdeboda qarTvel mSvidobisdamcvelTaTvis gacemul kvotaSi. 4. rusebTan da sxva saerTaSoriso subieqtebTan diplomatiuri da sazogadoebrivi arxebiT urTierTobis gaaqtiureba.18 samwuxarod, yvelaferma aman mxolod regionSi saerTo daZabuloba, calkeul SemTxvevebSi ki msxverplic gamoiwvia, rasac Tbilissa da moskovs Soris ormxrivi braldebebis gacvlagamocvla mohyva. Tumca saqarTvelos xelisufleba sakmaod

ix. "Georgian Leader Says It was `Mistake' to Abolish Breakaway Region's Autonomy," ITAR-TASS, June 12, 2004. 18 saqarTvelos strategiaze am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ix interviu parlamentis gavlenian wevr giga bokeriasTan: "Tbilisi Wants to Regain South Ossetia through Pro-Georgian Campaigning," Civil Georgia, UNA-Georgia Online Magazine, http://www.civil.ge/eng/detail.php?id=7489.

17

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moqnili aRmoCnda saimisod, rom viTareba axal, srulmasStabian samxedro konfliqtSi ar gadazrdiliyo, es mainc pirveli aSkara Cavardna aRmoCnda misTvis.

aWaris sakiTxi: avtonomiuri magram ara Tavisufali

aWaris sakiTxi sakmaod uCveuloa. garegani damkvirveblis TvaliT, es TiTqos waagavs afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis problemebs, magram es Sedareba qarTvelebs sakmaod aRizianebT. erTis SexedviT, saerTo bevria: aWara avtonomiuri respublika iyo saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi, xolo 2004 wlis maisamde centralur xelisuflebas mcire roli Tu hqonda mis marTvaSi. magram aWarlebi, afxazebisa da osebisagan gansxvavebiT, Tavs qarTvelebad Tvlian. arc calke aWaris erovnuli proeqtis sakiTxi wamoWrila odesme. maSinac ki, roca aWaris xelmZRvaneloba kriWaSi Caudga Tbiliss, separatistuli lozungebi mas arasodes aufrialebia. piriqiT _ aslan abaSiZe Tavs saqarTvelos erTianobis mebairaxtredac ki saxavda. aWaris avtonomia pirvelad saqarTvelos 1921 w. konstituciiT gamocxadda da imave wels erTi mxriv TurqeTs, meore mxriv ki ­ bolSevikebis mier marTul saqarTvelos, somxeTsa da azerbaijans Soris dadebul yarsis SeTanxmebaSic aisaxa. amis mizani qarTvel muslimTa sarwmunoebrivi uflebebis dacva iyo: saqarTvelos damoukideblobis periodSi (1918-21) aWaras xSirad "samahmadiano saqarTvelosac" uwodebdnen. Tumca, komunistur saxelmwifoSi sarwmunoebriv niadagze dafuZnebuli avtonomiis arseboba aSkara winaaRmdegobaSi modioda gabatonebul ideologiasTan. 1991 wlis Semdgom, rac saqarTvelom damoukidebloba moipova, religiur faqtors arasodes hqonia raime zegavlena Tbilissa da aWaras Soris urTierTobebze. maSinac ki, roca daZabulobam piks miaRwia, am kartis gaTamaSeba aslan abaSiZes arasodes ucdia. Tu mis sasargeblod raimis Tqma SeiZleba, es

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

isaa, rom religiuri Semwynareblobis TvalsazrisiT aWaraSi ukeTesi mdgomareoba iyo, vidre saqarTvelos bevr sxva regionSi. isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom 2002 wlis aRweris mixedviT, muslimanebi aWaris mosaxleobis umciresobas Seadgendnen.19 ase rom, aWaris konfliqti politikuri da instituciuri gaxldaT da ara eTnikuri. afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis msgavsad, konfliqtis fesvebi aqac avtonomiuri erTeulebis sabWour sistemaSi unda veZioT. aWaris SemTxvevaSi, abaSiZem avtonomiuri erTeulebis sistemis bundovaneba sakuTari safaSos Sesaqmnelad gamoiyena. centraluri xelisuflebis mimarT misi daumorCilebloba gansakuTrebiT sabaJosa da baTumis portis erTpirovnuli kontroliT gamoixata (rac misi reJimis Semosavlebis ZiriTad wyaros Seadgenda). is sagadasaxado Semosavlebs ar uricxavda centralur xelisuflebas da nelnela pirad armiasac agebda. SevardnaZis dros saxelmwifo susti iyo, rasac samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTSi samxedro kampaniebis katastrofuli SedegebiT gaCenili sindromi emateboda. "aWaris lomi" mSvenivrad sargeblobda amiT da separatistuli blefis TamaSs TamaSobda: is TiTqos aSinebda Tbiliss, Tu aWaris saqmeebSi cxvirs CayofT, namdvil separatistad viqcevio. raki aWara ugulebelyofda centralur xelisuflebas, qveyanaSi ori sxvadasxvagvari politikuri reJimis Tanaarseboba seriozulad aferxebda saxelmwifos mSeneblobas da konfliqtis kidev erT keras warmoSobda. Tumca saqarTvelo myari demokratiuli institutebiT ver daikvexnida, magram politikuri pluralizmiTa da samoqalaqo Tavisuflebis xarisxiT gacilebiT win iyo wasuli. aWara ki erTpirovnuli avtokratiuli mmarTvelobis nimuSs warmoadgenda, sadac politikur pluralizms aravin gaaWaWanebda. maSin roca saqarTveloSi arCevnebi mudam konkurenciis (Tumca ara yovelTvis patiosani konkurenciis) pirobebSi tardeboda,

19 am aRweris mixedviT aWaris mosaxleobis mxolod 30.6%-ia mahmadiani, xolo 54.0% marTlmadideblebs akuTvneben Tavs.

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baTumis reJimis mier Catarebuli arCevnebi, ubralod, fiqcia gaxldaT: mosaxleobis aqtivoba 99%-s uaxlovdeboda xolme, xolo maTgan 95-98% abaSiZis partias aZlevda xmas. amgvari viTareba mxolod samoqalaqo uflebebis kuTxiT rodi aCenda problemas. raki saqarTvelos saparlamento arCevnebi proporciuli wesiT tardeboda, is adgilobrivi lideri, visac SeeZlo amomrCevelTa ricxvis, maTi gamocxadebis da xmis micemis monacemTa totaluri gayalbeba, saerToerovnul donezec araproporciulad mniSvnelovan moTamaSed iqceoda. 1999 wlis saparlamento arCevnebis dros abaSiZe mTavar opoziciur koalicias edga saTaveSi (sadac TbilisSi Seqmnili partiebic Sedioda) da gamarjvebis kandidatadac ki iTvleboda. aman SevardnaZis "moqalaqeTa kavSirs" saSualeba misca, Tavisi saarCeno kampania xalxis daSinebaze aego: Tu abaSiZem gaimarjva, mmarTvelobis aWaruli stili sruliad saqarTveloze gavrceldebao. argumentma gaWra. 2003 wlis arCevnebSi aWaris faqtori (saerTo gayalbebebis fonze) krizisis erTi umTavres mizezTagani Seiqmna, uromlisodac "vardebis revolucia", SesaZloa, arc momxdariyo. arCevnebis oficialuri Sedegebis Tanaxmad abaSiZis "aRorZinebis partiam" xmebis 20% miiRo,20 riTac is SevardnaZis aucilebel partniorad iqceoda saparlamento umravlesobis misaRwevad. abaSiZis TbilisSi mzardi gavlenis garduvaloba mTeli saqarTvelos politikuri "aWarizaciis" perspeqtivas qmnida, ramac cecxlze navTis dasxmis efeqti gamoiwvia da gaaZliera saprotesto moZraoba, rac, sabolood, SevardnaZis gadadgomiT damTavrda. rogorc saqarTvelos yvela sxva krizisul regionSi, ruseTis faqtorma aWaraSic iTamaSa mniSvnelovani roli. ruseTs sakuTari samxedro baza gaaCnda iq da abaSiZes Tavis sakvanZo mokavSired miiCnevda saqarTveloSi. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT samxeT kavkasiaSi mimdinare movlenebis paranoidul aRqmas rusi geostrategosebis mier, maTTvis aWara saqarT20 aRsaniSnavia, rom es xmebi ZiriTadad aWaraze modioda, Tumca, 2002 wlis aRweris mixedviT, misi mosaxleoba saqarTvelos mxolod 8.6% Seadgens.

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

veloze zewolis mTavari instrumenti iyo, raTa am ukanasknels TurqeTisken ar gaqceoda Tvali. meore mxriv, Tavad abaSiZes ruseTis samxedro baza sakuTari politikuri reJimis usafrTxoebis garantad miaCnda. saakaSvilma imTaviTve ganacxada, rom abaSiZis amgvar gamowvevebs ver moiTmenda da moqmedeba or frontze daiwyo: abaSiZis mimarT adgilobrivi opoziciis gaZlierebas daexmara, meore mxriv ki centraluri xelisuflebis yvela SesaZlebloba gamoiyena masze ekonomikuri da politikuri zewolis mosaxdenad. saakaSvilis xelisufleba SiSobda, rom abaSiZe SevardnaZeze ufro Sors wavidoda da arc samxedro Zalis gamoyenebas daerideboda sakuTari taxtis dasacavad. 2004 wlis 2 maiss, abaSiZem aWaris danarCen saqarTvelosTan damakavSirebeli xidebis afeTqebis brZaneba gasca. savaraudod, igi imedovnebda, rom amgvari qmedeba TbilisTan samxedro dapirispirebas gamoiwveva, ris Sedegadac ruseTi Caereoda aWaris dasacavad. Tu es marTlac ase iyo, misi imedebi ar gamarTlda. igi qveynidan Tavad aWaris macxovreblebma gandevnes da ara Tbilisidan Casulma jariskacebma. bedis ironiiT, swored ruseTis despanma, igor ivanovma daarwmuna abaSiZe imaSi, rom saboloo nabiji gadaedga da aWara daetovebina. rogorc ki krizisma gadaiara, saqarTvelos xelisuflebam piroba dado, rom SeinarCunebda aWaris avtonomiur statuss, Tumca opoziciuri partiebis nawili mis gauqmebas iTxovda.21 magram, faqtobrivad, saqarTvelos konstituciis cvlilebebma da 2004 wlis pirvel ivliss ZalaSi Sesulma kanonma aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis statusis Sesaxeb arsebiTad Sekveca avtonomiis uflebebi da is arsebiTad centralur xelisuflebas dauqvemdebara.22 imave wlis ivnisSi, aWaris umaRlesi

aRsaniSnavia, rom statusis Secvlas isini Tavad aWaris mosaxleobaSi Catarebuli plebiscitis gziT iTxovdnen da ara centraluri xelisuflebis gadawyvetilebiT. ix.: "Party of New Rights Started Gathering of Signatures among Achara Residents for Plebiscite on Status of Achara," Black Sea Press, June 14, 2004. 22 "Georgian Parliament Defines Autonomous Status of Ajara," Prime-News, July 1, 2004.

21

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sabWos arCevnebSi, saprezidento partiam didi upiratesobiT (72.1%) gaimarjva. axladarCeulma sabWom "prezidentis kaci" _ levan vaSalomiZe airCia aWaris premierad da avtonomiuri respublikis konstituciaSic Seitana cvlilebebi saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobasTan mis srul SesabamisobaSi mosayvanad. SeiZleba, aWaris avtonomiis axleburi gansazRvra metismetad centralisturad CavTvaloT. magram Tundac ase iyos, mTavari isaa, rom Tavad aWaris mosaxleobas amis gamo protesti ar gamouTqvams. maT SeiZleba ar moswondeT, rom xelisuflebas Tbilisidan uniSnaven ­ magram es saqarTvelos nebismier regions exeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Tu aWaris sakiTxi safrTxes uqmnida saqarTvelos erTianobas, dRes is erTxel da samudamod gadaWrili Cans. es ar niSnavs, rom aranairi kiTxvis niSnebi ar arsebobs imis Taobaze, Tu praqtikulad rogor imuSavebs avtonomiis axali reJimi. zogi Tvlis, rom momaval, ufro demokratiul aWaraSi sarwmunoebis faqtorma SeiZleba ufro metad iCinos Tavi da daZabuloba gamoiwvios. saqarTveloSi iseTebic arian, visTvisac qarTvel mahmadianTa arseboba TavisTavad miuRebelia, radgan qarTveloba marTlmadidebeli eklesiis gareT ver warmoudgeniaT. es aWareli mahmadianebis yursac wvdeba da samomavlod garkveuli usiamovnebebi SeiZleba gamoiwvios.

javaxeli somxebi da qvemo qarTlis azerbaijanelebi: politikuri iredentizmis axali safrTxe?

arc afxazebi da arc osebi saqarTveloSi yvelaze didi eTnikuri umciresobani arasodes yofilan: rodesac ssrk daiSala, yvelaze mravalricxovan eTnikur umciresobas aq somxebi (8.1%), rusebi (6.3%) da azerbaijanelebi (5.7%) Seadgendnen. 2002 wlisaTvis viTareba Seicvala: rusebis migraciisa da afxazeTis de faqto gamoyofis Sedegad (aq ki bevri rusi da somexi saxlobda) azerbaijanelebi yvelaze did

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

eTnikur umciresobad iqcnen (saerTo mosaxleobis 6.5%). Semdeg modian somxebi (5.7%). TiToeuli am jgufis didi wili azerbaijanisa (qvemo qarTli) da somxeTis (samcxe-javaxeTi) mosazRvre teritoriebzea Tavmoyrili. maTgan Zalze mcire nawili Tu metyvelebs qarTulad. maT sustad aqvT ganviTarebuli saqarTvelosadmi kuTvnilebis grZnoba da emociurad ufro Tavis eTnikur samSoblosTan aigiveben Tavs. aqedan gamomdinare, arsebobs Teoriuli SesaZlebloba, rom es ori regioni mTiani yarabaRis msgavsi konfliqtebis zonad gadaiqces. saqarTveloSi xandaxan SfoTavdnen amis gamo, Tumca, raki yvelaferi mSvidobianad midis, SiSic Senelda. ratomaa, rom SesaZlebeli konfliqtebi aq ar ganviTarebula? mizezi ramdenimea. upirveles yovlisa, avtonomiebis mqone eTnikuri jgufebisgan gansxvavebiT, saqarTvelos somxebsa da azerbaijanelebs administraciuli sayrdeni ar hqoniaT sakuTari eTnonacionalisturi proeqtebis gansaviTareblad. meore mxriv, afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis gamocdilebam qarTvelebi zogadad ufro frTxili gaxada eTnikur umciresobebTan mimarTebaSi; da mesame _ Tundac mTiani yarabaRis sisxliani konfliqtis gamo, somxeTica da azerbaijanic eridebian saqarTvelosTan urTierTobis gafuWebas da aq separatistul moZraobebs ver dauWeren mxars. Tumca viTareba javaxeTsa Tu qvemo qarTlSi erTmaneTis msgavsia, somxuri umravlesobis mqone javaxeTi mainc met yuradRebas iqcevs, vidre azerbaijanelebiT dasaxlebuli qvemo qarTli. javaxeTi patara regionia, romelic axalqalaqisa da ninowmindis raionebs moicavs, mosaxleobis daaxloebiT 95% aq eTnikurad somexia.23 saqarTveloSi ar aris sxva kuTxe, sadac eTnikuri umciresoba amdenad dominirebdes. qarTuls aq

javaxeTi Sedis samcxe-javaxeTSi, samxreT saqarTvelos administraciul regionSi, romelic eqvs raions moicavs. misi mosaxleobis 54.6% somexia, xolo 43.4% - qarTveli. saxeli "javaxeTi" Cveulebriv mieyeneba or raions, axalqalaqsa da ninowmindas, sadac somxuri mosaxleoba srulad dominirebs, magram formalurad aseTi administraciuli erTeuli ar arsebobs.

23

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Znelad gaigonebT, xolo 2004 wlamde aq, qveynis kanonmdeblobis sapirispirod, rusuli rubli jabnida mimoqcevaSi qarTul lars. qarTuli nacionalizmis talRis agorebisa da 1992-Si prezident gamsaxurdias gaZevebis Semdgomi areulobis sapasuxod, adgilobrivi nacionalisturi organizaciis, "javaxkis" TaosnobiT, somxuri laSqaric ki Seiqmna javaxeTSi. 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi qarTvel xelisufalT Zalze uWirdaT regionSi SeRweva, Tumca aTwleulis SuaxanebisTvis maT es moaxerxes imiT, rom biznesis yvelaze momgebian seqtorebSi gabatonebul adgilobriv klanebs gaurigdnen. organizacia "javaxkic" ramdenime nawilad gaiyo (maTgan erTerTia araregistrirebuli partia "virqi") da misi gavlena sagrZnoblad Sesustda. "javaxkis" programa _ javaxeTis somexTa teritoriuli avtonomia _ avtonomiur erTeulebTan warsuli gamocdilebidan gamomdinare, sruliad miuRebelia qarTvelebisaTvis. amgvari moTxovna dro da dro isev gaismis xolme, magram masobrivi mobilizaciis safuZvlad is ar qceula. rac Seexeba azerbaijanelebiT dasaxlebul kuTxeebs, iq msgavsi aqtivoba ar SeiniSneba da avtonomiis moTxovnac arasodes gaJRerebula. or regions Soris gansxvaveba SeiZleba aixsnas rogorc eTnikur Temebs Soris gansxvavebiT, ise imiTac, rom javaxeTi geografiulad ufro mowyvetilia qveynis sxva nawilebs, vidre qvemo qarTli. gare geopolitikuri faqtorebic TamaSobs garkveul rols: adgilobriv somexTa da azerbaijanelTa qceva bevradaa ganpirobebuli maTi eTnikuri samSobloebis moqmedebiT. saqarTvelosa da azerbaijans bevri saerTo interesi aqvs, orives daZabuli urTierToba aqvs ruseTTan, xolo TurqeTsa da amerikis SeerTebul Statebs strategiul partniorebad miiCneven. amis sawinaaRmdegod, somxeTi ruseTTanaa daaxloebuli, xolo TurqeTs "istoriul mtrad" racxavs. sagareo politikis sakiTxebSi aseTi Zireuli gansxvaveba garkveul undoblobas iwvevs saqarTvelosa da somxeTs Soris, rac saqarTveloSi mcxovreb somxobasac garkveul daRs aCens. am konteqstSi, axalqalaqis rusuli samxedro bazis arseboba gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis sakiTxi gaxda. javaxeli

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

somxobisaTvis es baza Semosavlis mniSvnelovani wyaroa: 2004 wlamde mainc, bevri maTgani msaxurobda iq, xolo rus samxedroebs sxva mxrivac udevT wili adgilobriv ekonomikaSi. kidev ufro mniSvnelovania is, rom somxebi am bazas uyureben, rogorc erTgvar fars, romelic daicavs maT rogorc TurqeTis eqspansiisagan, ise qarTuli nacionalizmis SesaZlo Semotevisagan. amis sawinaaRmdegod, qarTvelebis umravlesoba da maTi xelisufleba amgvari bazis arsebobas maTi saxelmwifosTvis safrTxed miiCnevs. ase rom, baza xels uwyobs somex mosaxleobasa da qarTul saxelmwifos Soris urTierTobis daZabvas.

pankisis xeoba: importirebuli konfliqti

pankisi momcro xeobaa saqarTvelos Crdilo mTianeTSi, sadac daaxloebiT 7,000 qistia kompaqturad dasaxlebuli. isini mahmadianebi arian da CeCnebs enaTesavebian. amave dros, isini SedarebiT kargad arian integrirebulni qarTul mosaxleobasTan, Tavisuflad laparakoben qarTuls, da maTi gvarsaxelebic qarTulad JRers. sanam CeCneTSi omebi daiwyeboda, bevr qarTvels arc ki smenia pankisis xeobaze. sayovelTaod cnobili is 1999 wels gaxda, roca oms gamoqceuli aTasobiT CeCeni ltolvili miawyda iqaurobas. 24 Cveulebriv ltolvilebTan erTad daucvel sazRvars iolad kveTdnen CeCeni mebrZolebic. aman saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris urTierToba mkveTrad daZaba: moskovma Tbiliss teroristebis mfarveloba daabrala.25 garda amisa, qveyanas Seeqmna mwvave saSinao problemac: sul male pankisis xeoba faqtobrivad xelisuflebis kontrolidan gamovida da iaraRiT aralegaluri vaWrobis, narkotikebis

24

CeCneTis pirveli omis dros, 1994 wels, ltolvilTa da daWril mebrZolTa raodenoba Seudareblad naklebi iyo. 25 ix. jaba devdarianis Tavi amave wignSi.

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tranzitisa da gamosasyidis mizniT gatacebebis kerad iqca. pankisis xeoba, SeiZleba iTqvas, saqarTvelos arSemdgari saxelmwifoebriobis Tu misi rRvevis Taviseburi simbolo gaxda.26 arsebiTad, qarTvel samarTaldamcavebs iqaurobis gakontrolebis mcdelobazec ki aRebuli hqondaT xeli da politikosebic acxadebdnen _ pankisis xeobaSi wesrigis damyarebas saqarTvelos CeCneT-ruseTis omSi CaTreva SeiZleba mohyveso; jobs, jer-jerobiT mainc, yvelaferi TviTdinebaze mivuSvaT da xeoba izolirebul arealad vaqcioTo. magram, Tundac adamianTa gaxSirebuli gatacebebis gamo, pankisis danarCeni saqarTvelosagan izolacia SeuZlebeli aRmoCnda: mezobel axmetis raionSi sakuTari laSqari Camoayalibes da imuqrebodnen, Cven Tavad davamyarebT wesrigso. es laSqaric TavisTavad iqca problemad. 2001 wlis oqtomberSi CeCen mebrZolTa mTeli SenaerTi, raRac idumali gzebiT (maSin ambobdnen, rom es qarTveli samarTaldamcavebis xelSewyobiT moxda) pankisidan afxazeTSi gadavida da warumateblad scada, brZoliT Sesuliyo afxazeTSi. pankisSi Seqmnili viTareba nawilobriv aixsneboda saqarTvelos centraluri xelisuflebis uunarobiT, magram gamoikveTa korumpirebul samarTaldamcavTa interesic, SeenarCunebinaT ukontrolo viTareba, rom regionSi ganviTarebuli kriminaluri biznesidan Tavisi wili mieRoT. 2001 wlis 9 seqtembers SeerTebul StatebSi ganxorcielebuli terorostuli aqtebis Semdeg terorizmTan globaluri omis konteqstma pankisis xeobisa Tu misi msgavsi regionebis mimarT damokidebuleba mkveTrad Secvala. arastabilur qveynebSi amgvari ukontrolo anklavebis arsebobac ki (gansakuTrebiT, Tu isini muslimanebiT arian dasaxlebulni) imTaviTve terorizmis savaraudo wyarod ganixileba. rodesac saqarTveloSi aSS-s saelCos warmomadgenelma filip remlerma

26 aman dasavlur mediaSi iseTi gamoxmaurebebic ki gamoiwvia, rogoric mag.: Patrick Cockburn, "Collapse of Georgia is Ignored by the World," ("msoflio ugulvebelyofs saqarTvelos kolafss"), The Independent, January 14, 2002.

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saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

ganacxada, al-qaidas fesvi aqvs pankisSi gadgmulio, saqarTvelo erdoulad SeerTebuli Statebisa da ruseTis zewolis qveS aRmoCnda, ramac sul male moitana Sedegi.27 qarTveli samarTaldamcavebis formirebebma ramdenime operacia ganaxorcieles xeobaSi da garkveul warmatebebsac miaRwies, oRond mxolod mas Semdeg, rac Sinagan saqmeTa da uSiSroebis saministroTa korumpirebuli xelmZRvaneloba Seicvala. swored pankisis problemam gadaawyvetina SeerTebul Statebs, saqarTveloSi wvrTnisa da aRWurvis programa ganexorcielebina, ris farglebSic man Tavisi specnawilebis orasamde oficeri gaagzavna qarTuli jaris qvedanayofebis gadasamzadeblad.

politikuri integraciis problema

pankisSi, saqarTvelos sxva konfliqturi zonebis msgavsad, mTavari safiqrali erTiani saqarTvelos danawevrebis safrTxea. yvela am wertilSi eTnikuri Tu sarwmunoebrivi faqtori iCens Tavs, oRond TavisTavad eTnikuri siWrele problemis mizezebs ver xsnis: konfliqtebis winapirobad ufro metad sabWoTa periodis instituciuri struqturebi da am mravalsafexuriani kvazifederalizmidan damoukidebel erovnul saxelmwifoTa sistemaze gadasvlis procesi iqca. danawevrebis xifaTi aseve Zlier korelaciaSia rusi samxedroebis yofnasTan rogorc uSualod (afxazeTi, samxreT oseTi, aWara, javaxeTi), ise arapirdapir (pankisis xeoba). iq, sadac ar arsebobs danawevrebis instituciuri safuZveli an negatiuri garegani zegavlena (qvemo qarTli), safrTxec proporciulad klebulobs. ra Tqma unda, aqedan ar unda gamovitanoT martivi daskvna, TiTqos saqarTvelos yvela Sida problemis gasaRebi mxolod

27 ix.: Ariel Cohen, "Moscow, Washington, and Tbilisi Wrestle with Instability in the Pankisi," Eurasia Insight, February 19, 2002, http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/ insight/articles/eav021902.shtml.

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da mxolod ruseTsa Tu sxva gare faqtorebSi unda veZioT. arsebobs sxva, nakleb TvalSisacemi problemebi, rac safrTxes uqmnis saqarTvelos an mas ufro mowyvlads xdis. amaTgan yvelaze mniSvnelovani eTnikuri sakiTxebia. faqtobrivad gamoyofili afxazeTi da samxreT oseTic rom ar CavTvaloT, saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 16.3%-s eTnikuri umciresobebi Seadgens. maT Soris yvelaze did jgufebs somxebi da azerbaijanelebi Seadgenen.28 marTalia, maTgan iredentobis realuri safrTxe ar Cans, maTi marginaluroba qarTul sazogadoebaSi mainc problemad rCeba. umetesi maTgani ver flobs qarTuls _ qveynis erTaderT saxelmwifo enas.29 aseve, maTi umravlesoba sakuTari, adgilobrivi interesebiTaa dakavebuli da qveynis saerTo problemebs naklebad aRiqvams. marTalia, isini warmomadgenili arian parlamentSi, magram amas ufro ceremoniuli datvirTva aqvs; sxvadasxva politikur partiaSi umciresobaTa aqtiur wevrebs Znelad Tu ipoviT. saxelmwifo enis verfloba somxebisa da azerbaijanelebis pasiurobisa da marginalurobis mxolod erTi mizezTagania _ umTavresi mainc qarTul sazogadoebaSi maTi statusis gaurkvevlobaa. mainc, ris safuZvelze SeiZleba moxdes maTi integracia? saWiroa maTi gvartomobis sruli ignorireba, oficialuri Tu araformaluri eTnikuri qvotebis daweseba, Tu raime sxva? afxazeTisa da oseTis konfliqtebis Semdeg saxelmwifo liderebica da farTo sazogadoebac problemis wayruebas cdilobs, TiTqos is sakuTar Tavs Tavadve mouvlides. magram ase albaT ar moxdeba... bolo wlebis viTareba rom SevajamoT, erTis mxriv, saxelmwifo ufro "qarTuli" gaxda, meore mxriv ki inerciiT gagrZelda sabWoTa drois eTnikuri politika. eTnikur umciresobebs ueWvelad aqvT TavianTi kulturuli identobis SenarCunebis

28 es 2002 wlis aRweris mixedviT, romelSic afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis mosaxleoba araa gaTvaliswinebuli. 29 afxazur enas afxazeTis teritoriaze agreTve eniWeba saxelmwifo enis statusi, oRond konfliqtis gadawyvetamde amas wmindad simboluri mniSvneloba aqvs.

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meqanizmebi ­ magaliTad, mSobliur enaze ganaTlebis miRebis saSualeba ­ magram swored es meqnizmebia, rac maT "eTnikur getoSi" gamoketvas uwyobs xels. integraciis adekvaturi formulis moZiebas xels uSlis rogorc umravlesobis moumzadebloba, umciresobani eris srulfasovan nawilad miiRos, ise integraciis SiSi umciresobebis mxridan, radgan isini mas asimilaciis pirvel safexurad Tvlian. kidev erTi Teoriuli SesaZleblobaa arsebuli eTnikuri anklavebis institucionalizacia eTnikuri federalizmis safuZvelze. magram es politikurad SeuZlebelia, radgan qarTvelebis TvalSi aseTi eTno-federaluri erTeulebis Seqmna separatizmis pirveli safexuria. aseTi gza albaT integraciis imedzec ki xelis aReba iqneboda. sanam raRac formula moinaxeba, gariyuli eTnikuri umciresobebis arseboba qveynisTvis potenciuri safrTxis Semcvelad darCeba. saakaSvilis xelisuflebis mier gadadgmuli zogierTi nabiji mianiSnebs, rom mTavrobas gaazrebuli aqvs saqarTveloSi eTnikur umciresobaTa problemebis arseboba da cdilobs kidec raRac nabijebis gadadgmas. male maTi mosvlis Semdeg aRdga gadacemebi umciresobaTa enebze. 2005 wlis Tebervals, saqarTvelos parlamentisadmi yovelwliur mimarTvaSi prezidentma umciresobaTa integracia qveynisTvis erT-erT umTavres problemad CaTvala da gamoacxada, rom daiwyebda umciresobis samasi warmomadgenlis qarTul universitetebSi wvrTnis programas im angariSiT, rom isini saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi imuSavebdnen.30 es ar niSnavs, rom am problemebs marTlac prioriteti mieniWeba, an rom xelisuflebas mwyobri gegma aqvs maT gadasawyvetad. magram axal xelisuflebas problemis ugulebelyofac ar SeuZlia. sakuTar gamokvlevebze dayrdnobiTac SemiZlia vTqva, rom eTnostabilurobis misaRwevad SevardnaZis xelisuflebis ZiriTadi meTodi eTnikur umciresobaTa elitebis ("klanebis") korum30

"Georgian President Delivers Annual Address to Parliament," BBC Monitoring Newslife, February 10, 2005.

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pirebul patronaJul qselebSi CarTva iyo. amgvari midgomis SenarCuneba SeewinaaRmdegeba axali xelisuflebis mier deklarirebul reformistul miswrafebebs, magram xelis erTi mosmiT maTze uaris Tqma _ ise, rom isini arc aqtiuri, umciresobaTa wuxilebze pasuxebis Semcveli saintegracio politikiT Secvalo _ destabilizaciis winapirobad SeiZleba iqces. daqucmacebis kidev erTi tradiciuli faqtori saqarTveloSi TviT eTnikur qarTvelTa Soris kuTxuroba da enobriv umciresobaTa arsebobaa. kuTxurobas saqarTveloSi xangrZlivi istoria aqvs. XI-XII saukuneebis "oqros xanasa" da ruseTis imperiaSi Sesvlas Soris periodSi, qarTvelebi sxvadasxva samTavroebsa da samefoebSi cxovrobdnen, romelTac zogadi erTobis met-naklebad bundovani Segneba hqondaT, magram arc erTmaneTTan konfliqti akldaT. XIX saukuneSi, roca liberalurad ganwyobilma inteligenciam saerTo-erovnuli mikuTvnebulobis idea wamowia win, eris mSeneblobis ZiriTad winaRobad mas swored kuTxuroba miaCnda. paradoqsia, magram saqarTvelos sabWoTa socialisturi respublika aRmoCnda is instituti, romelmac qarTvelebSi erTiani erovnuli kuTvnilebis SegrZneba ganamtkica. kuTxurobis arseboba dResac ki iwvevs garkveul SfoTvas. Tumca amaze sajarod laparaki karg tonad ar iTvleba, bevri fiqrobs, rom garkveul pirobebSi, kuTxurobam vinZlo erovnul erTianobasac ki gauCinos bzari.31 magaliTad, es qveteqsti aqvs diskusiebs imis Sesaxeb, gaxdes Tu ara saqarTvelo federaluri mowyobis qveyana. 1993-94 wlebSi prezidentma SevardnaZem Seqmna axali msxvili administraciuli regionebi _ mxareebi, da es statusi saqarTvelos istoriul provinciebs mianiWa, rogoricaa kaxeTi, imereTi, guria, samegrelo da sxv. magram am ideam sakmaod bevri winaaRmdegoba gamoiwvia. 1995 wlis sakonstitucio diskusiis

31 magaliTad, qarTveli analitikosebi weren kuTxurobis gavlenaze biurokratiul sistemaSi patronaJuli qselebis Seqmnisas. ix.: koba kikabiZe da daviT losaberiZe, "institucionalizmi da klientelizmi saqarTveloSi", sadiskusio naSromi, (Tbilisi, sadiskusio naSromebis seria, 2000), gv. 40-41.

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dros qveynis axleburi teritoriuli mowyobis Taobaze SeTanxmeba ver iqna miRweuli. saxelmwifo mowyobis es umniSvnelovanesi komponenti jerac Riadaa datovebuli saqarTvelos konstituciaSi, xolo samxareo administracia mxolod saprezidento brZanebulebiT funqciobs.32 bevrs isev eSinia, rom istoriuli mxareebis administraciul erTeulebad qceva kuTxurobas aaRorZinebs da erTian erovnul TviTSegnebas gamouTxris Zirs. am kuTxeebidan ori _ samegrelo da svaneTi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs, radgan mosaxleobis es ori jgufi sakuTar, qarTulis monaTesave, magram sxva qarTvelebisTvis gaugebar enebze metyvelebs. megrelebi bevrad mravalricxovanni arian33 da zog dasavlel mimomxilvels isic ki ukvirs, damoukideblobas ratom ar iTxoveno.34 magram saqme piriqiTaa: rogorc 1918-21 wlebis, ise post-sabWoTa damoukideblobis periodebSi qarTuli nacionalizmi swored samegreloSi iyo gansakuTrebiT Zlieri. zviad gamsaxurdia, saqarTvelos pirveli prezidenti, warmoSobiT samegrelodan iyo. gamsaxurdias Camogdebis mere SevardnaZis reJimisaTvis erT-erT sakvanZo problemad swored samegrelo iqca: gamsaxurdias momxreebi aq gamagrdnen, am mxareze kontrolis damyarebis mcdeloba ki adgilobrivi mosaxleobis winaaRmdeg sadamsjelo operaciebSi gadaizarda. garda amisa, afxazeTSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa umetesoba, vinc konfliqtis Sedegad Tavisi saxlebidan gandevnes, swored megrelia. aqedan gamomdinare, megrelebs miaCniaT, rom yvelaze didi dartyma miiRes 1990-iani wlebis samoqalaqo omebis Sedegad, da, rac kidev uaresia, maTi es gansacdeli qveynis danarCenma nawilma sakmarisad gulTan axlos

32 teritoriuli mowyobis konstituciur gansazRvraze droebiT uaris Tqmis oficialuri axsna is iyo, rom jer afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTSi unda moegvarebinaT konfliqti; sinamdvileSi, Tavad qarTvelebs Soris am sakiTxze erTiani azris Camoyalibeba qmnida gadaulaxav problemas. 33 sxvadasxva kuTxuri identobis matareblebze mosaxleobis aRwera arafers ambobs, Tumca varaudoben, rom megrelebi naxevar milionamde unda iyvnen, maSin rodesac svanebis ricxvi 40,000-s ar aRemateba. 34 Neal Ascherson, Black Sea (New York: Hill and Wang, 1995).

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ar miitana. es ar niSnavs, rom megrelebs raime separatistuli ideebi gauCndaT, magram am konfliqtebma, garkveulwilad, xazi gausves maT gansakuTrebul adgils saqarTvelos danarCen mosaxleobasTan SedarebiT. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom "vardebis revoluciam" didad Seuwyo xeli aiarebis gamTelebas. saakaSvilma swored samegreloze gaakeTa aqcenti prezident SevardnaZis reJimis sawinaaRmdego kampaniis agorebisas, da swored am mxarisgan miiRo gansakuTrebuli mxardaWera noembris dReebSi. revoluciis Semdeg saakaSvilma garkveuli nabijebi gadadga gamsaxurdias reabilitaciis mimarTulebiT, rac megrelTa umravlesobisTvis sasiamovno iyo. saakaSvilTan daaxloebuli adamianebis mowmobiT, samegrelos aqtiuri "CarTva" politikur procesebSi imTaviTve Seadgenda eris gamTlianebis saakaSviliseuli strategiuli Canafiqris nawils. Tanamedrove erebisTvis savsebiT bunebrivia, arsebobdnen Zlieri regionuli identobebi, romlebic garkveul konkurencias uweven saerTo-erovnul TviTSegnebas: es TavisTavad sulac ar uTxris Zirs erovnul erTianobas. 1990-iani wlebis areulobis gamocdileba yvelaze naTlad aCvenebs, rom kuTxurobis gamovlineba (maT Soris megrelebis SemTxvevaSi) saqarTvelos erTianobas aranairad ar emuqreba. Tu sadme arsebobdnen centraluri xelisuflebisagan gamoyofis mosurne jgufebi, saxelisuflebo struqturebis sruli kraxi damoukideblobis miRwevis periodSi saamisod saukeTeso dro iyo. swored maSin gaxldaT saqarTvelos politikuri institutebi yvelaze myife da aramdgradi. maSin rodesac SevardnaZis mcdeloba iqiTken iyo mimarTuli, 1990-iani wlebis eTno-politikuri konfliqtebis Sedegebi gaeneitralebina da qveyana Semdgomi rRvevisagan exsna, saakaSvilma saqarTvelos sruli gaerTianeba gamoacxada Tavisi politikuri programis qvakuTxedad. jer-jerobiT man TiTqos moaxerxa megrelebis erTgvari gaucxoebiT gamowveuli fsiqologiuri tramvis daZleva da aWaris problemis pirovnuladministraciuli problemebis moxsna. magram separatistuli

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regionebis SemoerTeba da eTnikuri umciresobebis realuri integracia kvlavac rTul gamowvevad rCeba.

axali saxelmwifo wesrigi: anarqiuli Tavisufleba, neo-patrimonializmi da socialuri kontraqti

saxelmwifos sisustes ori ganzomileba SeiZleba hqondes: instituciuri uunaroba da xelisuflebis ukmarisi legitimuroba. imis garkveva, Tu romelia maTgan umTavresi, kvercxisa da qaTmis sakiTxs hgavs.35 Znelia qmediTunariani saxelmwifo institutebis mSenebloba, Tuki jer ar gagirkvevia, ra tipis saxelmwifos aSeneb, an vis ekuTvnis igi (vin aris politikuri eri?). garda amisa, rogor unda moxdes eris mSenebloba, Tu amas ar ikisrebs politikuri elita, da isev saxelmwifo institutebs ar gamoiyenebs? saxelmwifo institutebis efeqturi moqmedeba TavisTavad zrdis misi legitimurobis xarisxs. meore mxriv, saxelmwifoobis moSlaa sisxlian omebSi gadazrdili secesionisturi konfliqtebis mizezi da ara piriqiT. saqarTvelos saxelmwifos simyare orgvarad SeiZleba SevafasoT: 1) misi institutebis stabilurobisa da mdgradobis mixedviT da 2) am institutebis produqtiulobiT, anu maTi unariT, maTze dakisrebuli funqciebi Seasrulon.36 orive am

dav linCi, samxreTkavkasiasTan mimarTebaSi, swored am or aspeqtze amaxvilebs yuradRebas. ix.: Dov Lynch, "A Regional Insecurity Dynamic," The South Caucasus: A Challenge for the EU, Chaillot Papers no. 65, (Paris: Institute for Security Studies, European Union, December 2003), gv. 12-15. 36 saxelmwifos sisustis gansazRvris ori gza arsebobs: legitimuri Zaladobis gamoyenebaze monopoliis veberiseuli kriteriumi minimalistur moTxovnad SegviZlia CavTvaloT. joel migdali, mis xSirad citirebul wignSi, saxelmwifos unarTa ufro farTo sias gvTavazobs, sadac Sedis: "unari, mTlianad moicvas sazogadoeba, sazogadoebriv urTierTobaTa mowesrigebis unari, saxsrebis mopovebis unari da imave saxsrebis saTanadod anu gamarTulad gamoyenebis unari". ix.: Joel S. Migdal, Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988), gv. 4.

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kriteriumiT, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo sustia _ Tundac imitom, rom qveynis mTlian teritorias ver akontrolebs. garda amisa, centralurma xelisuflebam ver uzrunvelyo Zalis legitimuri gamoyenebis monopolia qveynis SigniT _ anu saxelmwifos minimalur veberiseul moTxovnasac ver akmayofilebs. es sisuste yvelaze mZafrad gamovlinda periodSi, romelic daiwyo 1991-92 ww. gadatrialebiT da gagrZelda 1995 wlamde, roca xelisuflebam "mxedrionis" TareSs mouRo bolo. Tumca, 1995 wlis Semdegac saxelmwifo iguebda paramilitaruli dajgufebebis arsebobas _ amis magaliTia samegreloafxazeTis regionSi moqmedi partizanuli jgufebi, an pankisis xeobis problemis konteqstSi Seqmnili "saxalxo laSqari." saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sisustes mxolod Zalis legitimur gamoyenebaze monopoliis verdamyareba rodi warmoaCens. erT-erTi mniSvnelovani indikatoria xelisuflebis konstituciuri gziT gadacemis uunaroba. gamsaxurdiac da SevardnaZec ZaliT gadaayenes da ara legitimuri saarCevno procesis gziT. sisusteze mianiSnebs saqarTvelos xelisuflebis sakuTar samxedro formirebebze arasakmarisi kontrolic. 1991 wels swored samxedro formirebebma gaaZeves gamsaxurdia, xolo erovnuli gvardiis sardals, Tengiz kitovans bralad sdeben 1992 wlis agvistoSi afxazeTSi samxedro moqmedebebis wamowyebas. 1994 wlis aprilSi, roca saqarTvelos Tavdacvis ministrad yofili sabWoTa generali dainiSna, jari gverdze gadga politikisagan, oRond 1998-2001 wlebSi sazogadoeba seriozulad SeaSfoTa SeiaraRebul ZalebSi momxdarma ramdenime janyma. rac Seexeba policiasa da uSiSroebis samsaxurebs, isini saxelmwifos winaaRmdeg gamoxdomebSi arasodes SemCneulan, magram, sayovelTao azriT, CarTulni iyvnen sxvadasxva kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebebSi, rogoricaa kontrabanda, narkotikebiT vaWroba Tu adamianTa gatacebebi. aqve davamatebT, rom SevardnaZis periodSi samarTaldamcav organoebs uyurebdnen rogorc biznesisgan da moqalaqeebisgan fulis gamoZalvis awyobil meqanizmebs.

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sisustis Semdgomi ganzomilebaa saxelmwifos uunaroba, mokribos saxazino Semosavlebi da jerovnad daafinansos saxelmwifo institutebi. miCneulia, rom saqarTveloSi Crdilovan ekonomikas yvelaze didi wili uWiravs postsabWoTa qveynebs Soris (sxvadasxva SefasebiT, 40-70%).37 Sedegad, saxelwifo xazinis Semosavlebi Zalian mcirea. 2003 wels maT saerTo erovnuli produqtis mxolod 11,2% Seadgines (evrokavSiris qveynebSi maTi wili daaxloebiT 50%-s udris).38 amis Sedegi iyo uaRresad dabali xelfasebi da pensiebi, romlebic, rogorc wesi, bevrad CamorCeboda sacxovrebel minimums.39 saxelmwifo organizaciebi ver izidavdnen patiosan da kompetentur personals: SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis bolo wlebSi ministris xelfasic ki nebismieri saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciis ubralo mdivnis xelfass ver gautoldeboda. amis gamo, Zalian bevri Tanamdebobas mxolod piradi gamorCenisTvis iyenebda. dabolos, saxelmwifos sisustis yvelaze TvalsaCino maCveneblad da farTo ganxilvis sagnad iqca korufcia, romelsac zogierTi saqarTvelos mravali sxva warumateblobis ZiriTad mizezad Tvlis. 2003 wels, organizacia "saerTaSoriso gamWvirvalobis" mier Seqmnil

statistikis saxelmwifo departamentis oficialuri monacemebis mixedviT, Crdilovani (aRunusxavi) ekonomikis wili 2000 wlidan 2003 wlamde 32-sa da 34% Soris meryeobda. ix.: (Georgian Economic Trends, Quarterly Review, no. 2-3, 2003, p. 10). nikolai hajiiski, evropuli bankis rekonstruqciisa da ganviTarebis eqsperti miiCnevs, rom "es cifri aSkarad 50%ze naklebi ar unda iyos". ix.: Daan van der Schriek, "Illicit Traders Work the Georgia­Turkey Shuttle," Eurasia Insight, August 6, 2003, www.eurasia.net. 38 ix.: Galt and Taggart Securities, Georgia: Weekly Stock Market Commentary, January 26, 2004. isic unda iTqvas, rom es cifrebi mainc Crdilovani ekonomikis wilis oficialur (savaraudod, Semcirebul) monacemebs eyrdnoba. Tu CavTvliT, rom Crdilovani ekonomikis wili sinamdvileSi metia, saxelmwifo xazinis Semosavlebis procentuli Sefardeba erTian erovnul produqtTan mimarTebaSi kidev ufro dabali gamova. 39 saq. statistikis sax. departamentis monacemebiT, 2002 wels saxelmwifo moxelis saSualo Tviuri anazRaureba 104,9 lari iyo, maSin roca sasicocxlo minimumi 127,9 lariT iyo gansazRvruli. ix.: Georgian Economic Trends, Quarterly Review, no. 2-3 (2003), gv. 50-51.

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korufciis aRqmis indeqsSi saqarTvelos 133 qveynidan 124-e adgili ekava.40 oRond aq unda davZinoT, rom korufciis maRali done da saxelmwifos sisuste avtomaturad ar ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs. bevr qveyanaSi korufcia yvavis, magram saxelmwifo kontrolic mtkicea. patiosani xelisufleba rom korumpirebuls sjobs, amaze aravin davobs, Tumca zogan qrTami saxelmwifo meqanizmis "SezeTvis" efeqturi saSualebaa. saqme Tavad korufciis xasiaTSia: SevardnaZis dros xelisufleba korufciul Semosavlebze iyo damokidebuli, magram ar arsebobda erTiani centri, romelic maT nakadebs gaakontrolebda. anu, erTi qarTveli eqspertis TqmiT, "ekonomikuri kapitali saqarTveloSi ar aris struqturirebuli erTian patrimonialur piramidad". 41 faqtobrivad, Tanamdebobebis saxiT xelisufleba Tavis moxeleebs korufciuli qmedebebisTvis licenziebs urigebda. maRalCinosnebi yiddnen Tanamdebobebs pirebze, vinc maT fulis gamosaZalad gamoiyenebda da mere wils gauyofda. aseTi korufciuli piramidebis mTeli qseli gaCnda, magram maT Soris koordinacia ar arsebobda. prezidenti SevardnaZe Suamavlis rols asrulebda sxvadasxva interesTa jgufs Soris, raTa sazogado stabiloba SeenarCunebina, magram raime sayovelTao wesebis gatarebas ar cdilobda. araformaluri wyaroebis mowmobiT, amgvari korufciuli sistema gansakuTrebiT arawinaswarmetyvelebadi da, Sesabamisad, destruqciulic gaxldaT. metic, calkeuli mcdelobebi korufciis winaaRmdeg araTu uSedego iyo, aramed sistemas kidev ufro daxlarTulad da arawinaswarmetyvelebadad aqcevda. mainc ratomaa saxelmwifo ase susti saqarTveloSi? qarTveli inteleqtualebi xandaxan "arasaxelmwifoebriv mentalitetsa" da individis saxelmwifo institutebis mimarT

40 am mxriv mxolod maianmari, paragvai, haiti, nigeria da bangladeSi idga saqarTveloze dabla ix.: http://www.transparency.org/cpi/2003/cpi2003.en.html. 41 ix.: marina musxeliSvili, ana axvlediani, demokratizacia ekonomikuri gardaqmnebis fonze, sadiskusio masala 8, (stokholmi: saerTaSoriso ideas gamocema, 2003 wlis maisi, gv. 40..

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gaucxoebaze saubroben. 42 zogis azriT, raki modernuli saxelmwifos institutebi saqarTvelos ruseTis imperiam moaxvia Tavs, maT imTaviTve "ucxos" iarliyi daedo. komunisturi mmarTvelobis xanam es gaucxoeba kidev ufro gaaRrmava. saxelmwifo aRiqmeba rogorc akrZalvebis, represiis da tyuilis sawyisi da ara moqalaqeTa dacvis meqanizmi. am gamocdilebis fonze qarTvelisaTvis "saxelmwifo" isaa, rasac Tavi unda aarido. saxelmwifos dadgenili wesebisTvis Tavis aridebis erT-erTi meqanizmia pirovnul urTierTobebze agebuli qselebis ganviTareba, es ki klientilizmis, korufciis da neopatrimonializmis Ziria. Tumca yovelive zemoTqmuli SeiZleba swori iyos, es argumentebi saqarTvelosTvis specifikuri ver iqneba. modernul wesrigs aradasavluri samyaros did nawilSi ucxoobis damRa adevs, radgan is gare Zalebis Tavmoxveulia da tradiciul Rirebulebebsa da cxovrebis wess arRvevs. Tu es asea, arsebobs korelacia modernulobis gamaucxoebel efeqtsa da saxelmwifos sisustes Soris. aqedan gamomdinare, saxelmwifos sisuste zogadi problemaa ganviTarebad qveyanaTa umetesobisaTvis. 43 garda amisa, saqarTvelosnair qveynebSi antipolitikur ganwyobas aZlierebs komunisturi reJimis istoriuli gamocdileba, romelic korufciaze, represiasa da sicrueze iyo damyarebuli.44 magram saqarTvelos politikuri institutebi gansakuTrebiT aramdgradia sxva postsabWoTa qveynebTan SedarebiTac ki. ratom? martivi pasuxi SeiZleba is iyos, rom saqarTvelo, ubralod, ufro mravalgvari gamowvevebis winaSe

42 ix., mag: mamuka biWaSvili, "krizisi da misi cnobierebis modifikaciebi (krebulSi "Wkua vaisagan", gia WumburiZis SedgeniTa da redaqciiT); Tbilisi, mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti, 1994, gv. 23-108. 43 ix.: Mark R. Beissinger and Crawford Young, eds., Beyond State Crisis?: Postcolonial Africa and Post-Soviet Eurasia in Comparative Perspective (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2002). 44 ix.: George Konrad, Antipolitics (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984).

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idga, vidre sabWoeTis nangrevebze Seqmnili sxva qveynebi. iqneb asec iyos, oRond sxvadasxva savaraudo gamowvevis gazomva da urTierTSedareba umaduri saqmea. SegviZlia vidavoT, rom baltiis sam saxelmwifoSi aranaklebi safuZveli iyo eTnikuri konfliqtebisTvis, magram isini ar momxdara, radgan politikuri liderebi ufro moqnilad moqmedebdnen. ufro damajerebeli meCveneba, saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi mouwesrigebloba dagvekavSirebina im gansvlasTan, rac arsebobs, erTis mxriv, qarTvelebis mier aRiarebul liberaluri demokratiis normatiul models, meore mxriv ki, realur socialur gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT Camoyalibebul gadarCenis strategiebs Soris. rogorc Cans, saqarTvelos arCevani dasavluri liberalur-demokratiuli modelis sasargeblod arsebiTad mis identobas ukavSirdeba: qarTvelebi Tvlian, rom evalebaT, demokratia hqondeT, radgan sxvagvarad dasavleTis nawilad ver iqnebian aRiarebuli. amave dros, saqarTvelos realur socialur da istoriul gamocdilebaSi "dasavlurobis" komponenti sakmaod mcirea: dasavleTTan axlo kontaqtSi saqarTvelo arasodes yofila. Sua saukuneebSi misi socializaciis sfero ZiriTadad bizantiasTan kavSirebiT ganisazRvreboda (xolo Tanamedrove dasavleTi bizantiis memkvidreobas naklebad iCemebs), mogvianebiT ki otomanTa imperiasa da sparseTTan urTierTobiT. dasavlurma modernulobam mxolod XIX saukuneSi, isic ruseTis gavliT Semoabija saqarTveloSi. modernulobis rusuli versia ki TavisTavad meoradi iyo. raRa gasakviria, Tuki qarTvelebi dRes "naRdi," sakuTrivi dasavleTisken, anu uSualod evropisa da SeerTebuli Statebisken xidis gadebas cdiloben. qarTuli erovnuli proeqtic swored dasavlur civilizaciasTan mierTebis survilidan modis. 1917 w. ruseTis imperiis kolafsma da 1991-Si ssrk-is rRvevam saqarTvelos orjer misca Sansi, uSualod dasavluri modernizaciis gzaze gasuliyo. magram vesternizaciis proeqtis ganxorcielebas socialuri kapitalic sWirdeba, romelic saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi SezRudulia, kerZod, Tavisuflebis

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rogorc gare SezRudvebis ararsebobis anarqiuli gagebiT, saxelmwifo institutebis mimarT undoblobiTa Tu saqmis pirovnul urTierTobebze agebis CveviT. es ganwyoba daexmara qarTvelebs, avtokratul mmarTvelebs ar Segueboda (aq gamsaxurdias personalistur-populisturi variantic da SevardnaZis oligarqiuli versiac igulisxmeba); oRond mdgradi da efeqturi saxelmwifos asaSeneblad es mentaliteti naklebad aris gamosadegi. "vardebis revoluciis" mTavari maxasiaTebeli is araa, rom qarTvelebma kidev erTi arademokratiuli xelisufleba moiciles Tavidan. misi yvelaze didi miRwevaa misi araZaladobrivi, mowesrigebuli, usisxlo buneba, is faqti, rom am movlenam minimaluri ziani miayena konstituciur wesrigs. xelisufleba iyo da ara opozicia, vinc pirvelma xelyo demokratiuli institutebi, xolo xalxma, piriqiT, daicva konstituciuri wesrigi imiT, rom prezidenti aiZula, gadamdgariyo. SevardnaZis gadadgomis Semdgom procesebi maleve daubrunda konstituciis CarCoebs. swored revoluciis araZaladobrivi da mowesrigebuli xasiaTi iyo, ramac qarTvelebsac da ucxo damkvirveblebsac afiqrebina _ vinZlo am qveynis evropuli ambiciebi arc ise usafuZvloao. farTod gavrcelebuli azriT, vardebis revoluciam ubiZga evrokavSirs 2004 wels gadaesinja Tavisive 2003 wlis gadawyvetileba da CaerTo samxreT kavkasiis qveynebi evropis samezoblo politikaSi. qarTulma sazogadoebam gamoiyena periodi 1992-dan 2003 wlamde xelisuflebis or arakonstituciur Secvlas Soris imisTvis, rom gaeZlierebina Tavisi socialuri kapitali, romelic saWiroa samoqalaqo sazogadoebis institutebis mSeneblobisTvis. axla, daagrova Tu ara saqarTvelom sakmarisi sazogadoebrivi kapitali im myari da qmediTunariani saxelmwifo institutebis Sesaqmnelad, romelTa wyalobiT momavalSi arc xaverdovani da arc raime sxva saxis revoluciebi aRar dasWirdeba _ jer kidev sakiTxavia. pasuxi am kiTxvaze bevradaa damokidebuli imaze, Tu ramdenad moaxerxebs qarTuli politikuri elita iseTi socialuri kontraqtis

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formulirebas, romelic misaRebi iqneba saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa umravlesobisTvis. "korufciasTan brZolas", axali xelisuflebis safirmo niSans, mxolod am ufro didi sakiTxis konteqstSi aqvs azri. is, rasac dasavleli mrCevlebi Tu adgilobrivi demokratiuli aqtivistebi da politikosebi "korufcias" eZaxian, qarTvelTa umetesobisTvis saqmis keTebis Cveuli xerxia. aseTi midgoma emyareba im wanamZRvars, rom saxelmwifo moqalaqis mowinaaRdegea. bevri sxva postsabWoTa lideris msgavsad SevardnaZec cdilobda, axali viTarebisaTvis moergo is, rasac zogi amerikeli sovetologi "breJneviseul socialur kontraqts" uwodebda:45 xelisufleba Tvals xuWavda masobriv korufciaze sakuTar moxeleTa Tu moqalaqeTa Soris, sanacvlod ki maTgan politikur loialobas iTxovda. misi mmarTveloba myari iyo, sanam amgvari faruli SeTanxmeba ZalaSi rCeboda. da piriqiT, am breJnev-SevardnaZiseul sazogadoebrivi kontraqtis uaryofa Seadgenda `vardebis revoluciis" ideologiur safuZvels. saakaSvilis xelisuflebam Tavisi pirveli nabijebiT dagvanaxa, rom saxelmwifos gaZliereba da korufciis aRmofxvra misi upirvelesi amocanaa. ukanono SeiaraRebuli formirebebi ­ partizanebi samegreloSi da Tu aslan abaSiZis piradi gvardia aWaraSi _ daSlilia. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom, Tu ar CavTvliT separatistul regionebs, saqarTvelo ukve akmayofilebs saxelmwifoobis veberiseul kriteriums _ Zalis legitimur gamoyenebaze monopolias. mas Semdeg, rac saakaSvili xelisuflebaSi movida, araerTi maRalCinosani Casves cixeSi korufciis braldebiT, xolo gadasaxadebis akrefam saxelmwifo Semosavali, sul raRac ramdenime TveSi, naxevarze metiT gazarda.46 saxelmwifo moxeleTa Soris meqrTameobis aRmoix. George Breslauer, Five Images of the Soviet Future: A Critical Review and Synthesis (Berkeley, CA: University of California Institute of International Studies, 1978); and Linda Cook, The Soviet Social Contract and Why it Failed (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993). 46 Galt and Taggart Securities, Georgia: Weekly Stock Market Commentary, October 11, 2004.

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safxvrelad mTavrobam Seqmna fondi, saidanac damatebiT xelfass uxdis daaxloebiT 11,000 sajaro moxeles. fondma Semowirulebani miiRo rogorc adgilobrivi, aseve saerTaSoriso sponsorebisagan. am ukanasknelTa Sorisaa gaero-s ganviTarebis proeqti da amerikeli filantropi jorj sorosi. dagegmilia, rom sami wlis vadaSi am xarjebis gaRebis pasuxismgebloba saqarTvelos saxelmwifo xazinaze gadava.47 axalma mTavrobam saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi mosamsaxureTa mkveTri Semcirebac iwyo. es aCens imeds, rom is, vinc ramdenime wlis Semdeg darCeba, saxelmwifo biujetidan adeqvatur anazRaurebas miiRebs. gansakuTrebiT STambeWdavi iyo Semcirebebi policiaSi (SevardnaZis dros es struqtura xelSeuxebeli gaxldaT). amave strategiaSi jdeba privatizaciis metad Tamami programa, romelic "sindisis garda yvelafris" gayidvas iTvaliswinebs.48 jerjerobiT naadrevia imis winaswarmetyveleba, es yvelaferi ramdenad warmatebul Sedegs gamoiRebs saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa da saxelmwifos Soris axali urTierTobebis Camosayalibeblad. moklevadiani gaTvliT, aseTma RonisZiebebma iqneb destabilizaciac ki gamoiwvios, radgan korufciasTan brZola im socialur wesrigs uTxris safuZvels, romelsac qarTvelebi aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi SeeCvivnen. tradiciuli wesrigis imgvari socialuri urTierTobebiT Secvlis mcdeloba, gamWvirvalobisa da angariSvaldebulebis dasavlur moTxovnebs rom akmayofilebs, sxvebsac hqondaT, magram xSir SemTxvevaSi aqedan araferi gamosula destabilizaciis garda. aseT SemTxvevebSi gardamaval periodSi xelisufleba gansakuTrebiT rTuli dilemis winaSe dgeba: garkveulwilad Seiwynaros Tu ara korufciis misaRebi done _ oRond ise, rom Tavad ar Caeflos masSi. meore mxriv, erovnuli ganwmendis da saxelmwifo institutebis nulidan Tavidan aSenebis revoluciur-iakobinuri enTuziazmic aranakleb

fondis direqtor kote kublaSvilTan intervius Canaweri, 2004 w. ivlisi. es programa axalma ministrma, kaxa benduqiZem gaaxmovana. masze ix.: "A Different Sort of Oligarch," The Economist, July 27, 2004.

48 47

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safrTxes Seicavs.49 xelisuflebas uCndeba cTuneba, liberaluri demokratiis damyarebis mizniT avtokratiuli modernizaciis meTodebi gamoiyenos. am SemTxvevaSi demokratiuli politikuri institutebi sxvadasxva sazogadoebriv interess Soris wonasworobas ki ar emyareba, aramed ganaTlebuli da "progresuli" elita cdilobs, sazogadoebas sakuTari wesebi moaxvios Tavs. swored am struqturul problemas asaxavs farTod gavrclebuli braldebebi saakaSvilis mTavrobis winaaRmdeg, rom man daarRvia ZalTa balansi aqtivisturi aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis sasargeblod, riTac sxva saxelisuflebo Stoebi da politikuri Zalebi daasusta, da xSirad midis miRebuli demokratiuli procedurebis daRvevebze.50 problema ver gadawydeba, Tu ar moinaxa raRac "oqros Sualedi" adamianebisTvis misaReb sazogadoebriv praqtikebsa da liberaluri saxelmwifos Tanamedrove idealur tips Soris.

"kulturis usafrTxoeba": erovnuli tradiciebi da dasavluri Rirebulebebi

axali sazogadoebrivi xelSekrulebis warmatebiT dasamkvidreblad da masze dayrdnobiT Tanamedrove liberaluri

sainteresoa, rom 1998 wlis Catarebuli gamokiTxvis analizis Sedegad, germanelma sociologma Teodor hanfma qarTuli sazogadoebis demokratiuli Rirebulebebis mimarT erTguli nawili "RvTismosav iakobinelebad" monaTla (radgan isini religiurobis uCveulod maRal xarisxs amJRavnebdnen); ix.: Theodor Hanf and Ghia Nodia, Lurching to Democracy: From Agnostic Tolerance to Pious Jacobinism: Societal Change and People's Reactions (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2000). 50 ix. amaze, magaliTad: Honouring of Obligations and Commitments of Georgia, Resolution 1415 (2005) of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, http:/ /assembly.coe.int/Mainf.asp?link=http://assembly.coe.int/documents/adoptedtext/ta05/ eres1415.htm, nanaxia 2005 wlis 10 maiss; Tinatin Khidasheli, "The Rose Revolution Has Wilted Georgia," International Herald Tribune, December 8, 2004; gia nodia, "avtoritaruli modernizacia laiT Tu demokratiuli institutebi?" 24 saaTi, 2005 w. 28 ianvari; Irakly Areshidze, "Bush and Georgia's Faded `Rose,'" Christian Science Monitor, May 9, 2005.

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demokratiis institutebis asaSeneblad sxva yvelaferTan erTad aucilebelia, es xelSekruleba erovnuli identobis gagebasTan iyos ideologiurad Tavsebadi. igulisxmeba tradiciul RirebulebebTan garkveuli kavSiri, radgan aseTi Rirebulebebis aRiarebis gareSe erovnuli identobebi ver Sendeba. Tundac is faqti, rom demokratia sxvadasxva civilizaciaSi araTanabradaa fesvgamdgari (mahmadianur qveynebSi misi nakleboba gansakuTrebiT mtkivneuli da farTo diskusiis sagnad gamxdari magaliTia), gvaCvenebs, rom liberaluri demokratiis gasamarjvelad ar aris sakmarisi imis racionaluri argumentebiT mtkiceba, rom misi institutebi ukeTesia (an, uinston CerCils Tu davesesxebiT, nakleb cudia), vidre nebismieri sxva. xalxma unda daijeros, rom es institutebi SeiZleba misi gaxdes, anu rom isini misi kulturis normebTan Tavsebadia. am TvalsazrisiT niSandoblivia garkveuli daZabuloba qarTuli erovnuli proeqtis or sxvadasxva ganzomilebas Soris. erTi mxriv, saqarTvelos miswrafeba liberaluri demokratiisaken didwilad misi erovnuli TviTSegnebiTaa gapirobebuli, anu mas surs, liberalur demokratiad iqces, raTa yvelas daumtkicos, rom dasavluri qveyanaa da ZaluZs, ruseTze damokidebulebis gareSe Camoayalibos Tanamedrove tipis erovnuli saxelmwifo. meoris mxriv, aq Zalze Znelia ise ganaxorcielo liberaluri demokratiis proeqti, rom winaaRmdegobaSi ar moxvide damkvidrebul sazogadoebriv praqtikebTan, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, ucxo da represiul reJimTan mravalwliani urTierTobidan amoizarda. am procesSi saWiroa, damkvidrdes axali normebi da institutebi, raSic wamyvani roli ganaTlebulma elitebma unda Seasrulon. magram Tu es asea, igive elitebi aseT gardamaval periodSi Tavis oponentebs maTzeve ideologiur ieriSs uadvileben: oponentebs saSualeba eZlevaT, Zveli socialuri praqtikebi erovnuli Rirebulebebisa da tradiciebis gamoxatulebad warmoadginon, rasac ucxo modernizaciuli proeqti amoZirkviT emuqreba. amitomacaa, rom modernizaciul proeqtebs xSirad adgilobrivi nativistebis winaaRdegoba mohyveba xolme. sakuTari

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poziciebis gasaZliereblad "modernistebs" marTebT yvelas daumtkicon, rom isini ki ar asusteben, piriqiT, icaven da aduRabeben erovnul TviTSegnebas. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, modernizaciis proeqti ideologiurad Cafesvebuli unda iyos adgilobriv politikur tradiciaSi. modernizaciulma elitebma maTi proeqti adgilobrivi politikuri tradiciis gagrZelebad da ganviTarebad unda warmoaCinon ­ an, rogorc minimumi, daarwmunon sazogadoeba, rom is safrTxes ar uqmnis erovnul Rirebulebebs. es problema agreTve sociologuri da politikuri kuTxiTac SegviZlia ganvixiloT. normatiul modelsa da mocemul sazogadoebriv kapitals Soris disbalansi Tavs iCens im socialur-kulturul napralSi, rac erTmaneTs aSorebs, erTi mxriv, Tanamedrove yaidaze ganaTlebul axalgazrda modernizaciul elitebsa da, meore mxiv, "CamorCenil" mosaxleobas da Zvel elitebs. saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi, am axal elitebs miekuTvneba politikuri jgufebi (rogoricaa, vTqvaT, mixeil saakaSvilisa da zurab Jvanias jgufebi, romelnic Tavdapirvelad Camoyalibdnen rogorc "axalgazrda reformatorebi" SevardnaZis "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" SigniT), arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, media, zogierTi mecnieri, xelovnebisa da kulturis warmomadgeneli, axali Taobis biznesmenebi. swored es xalxi iyo "vardebis revoluciis" ideologiis Semoqmedi, misi STamagonebeli da maorganizebeli Zala, Tumca maTma umciresobam uaryo revolucia liberaluri konstitucionalizmis mkacri interpretaciis moSveliebiT. TavianT mowinaaRmdeged maT miaCndaT saxelmwifo biurokratiis da Zveli yaidis saqmosnebis is elituri qselebi, visac reformatorebis mier "korucfiulad" Seracxuli praqtikebis SenarCunebis interesi hqonda. ideologiuri brZola am "modernistul" da "konservatul" elitebs Soris, ZiriTadad, swored zemoxsenebuli socialurkulturuli ganxeTqilebis garSemo mimdinareobs. rogor unda gavigoT qveyanaSi mimdinare politikuri brZolebi da reformatoruli nabijebi: aris Tu ara maTi mizani koruciis winaaR98

saqarTvelo: mowyvladobis ganzomilebebi

mdeg brZola, anu ucxo qveynis mier Tavsmoxveuli komunisturi reJimisgan SemorCenili gadmonaSTebis aRmofxvris mcdeloba? Tu es sinamdvileSi qarTuli identobisa da Rirebulebebis winaaRmdeg brZolaa, romelic emyareba dasavleTis farul Canafiqrs, marTlmadidebluri kultura daasamaros? vin arian es "reformatorebi": axali erovnuli liderebi, visac sakuTari qveynis gaZliereba unda, Tu ucxo gavlenis agentebi, visac, nebsiT Tu uneblied, qarTuli erovnuli sulierebis dasavluri (Tu globaluri) RirebulebebiT Canacvlebisken mihyavT saqme? saqarTvelos Tavisebureba isaa, rom am or TvalTaxedvas reformatorul da konservatul banakebad ar Camouyalibebia politikuri partiebi. qveyanaSi ar Seqmnila arc ultramemarjvene eTno-nacionalisturi partiebi modernizaciis sawinaaRmdego nativisturi reaqciis gamosaxatavad. es SeiZleba nawilobriv avxsnaT imiT, rom saqarTveloSi politikuri partiebi RirebulebaTa garkveuli sistemis, anu ideologiis mixedviT ki ar iqmneba, aramed ufro garkveuli pirebisa Tu mcire jgufebis interesTa gasatareblad.51 sxva axsna SeiZleba isic iyos, rom demokratiul reformebze orientacia saqarTveloSi metad Zlieria. es ukanaskneli debuleba SeiZleba gaizomos sociologiuri kvlevebis monacemebiT, romlebic adastureben ara mxolod demokratiuli principebis farTo mxardaWeras, aramed ­ rac gansakuTrebiT mniSvelovania ­ mniSvnelovani antidemokratiuli diskursebis ararsebobas. es ganasxvavebs kidec saqarTvelos sxva postkomunisturi qveynebisagan, romlebic ganviTarebis msgavs doneze imyofebian.52 ultra-memarjvene orientaciis moRvaweebma ver SeZles sicocxlisunariani politikuri moZraobebis Seqmna da verc evropul Rirebulebebze saqarTvelos orientacias

51 gia nodia, "politikuri partiebi saqarTveloSi", sadiskusio masala7 (stokholmi: saerTaSoriso ideas gamocema, 2003 wlis maisi, gv. 45-53. 52 ix.: John S. Dryzek and Leslie T. Holmes, Post-Communist Democratization: Political Discourses across Thirteen Countries (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002), gv. 147-157.

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Seuqmnes realuri alternativa.53 msgavsi ram ufro prorusuli da neokomunisturi dajgufebebisagan iyo mosalodneli, vidre eTno-nacionalizmis mqadagebelTagan, oRond pirvelni aranair angariSgasawev politikur Zalas ar warmoadgenen. es yvelaferi ar niSnavs, TiTqos saqarTveloSi modernizaciis mimarT gansxvavebuli diskursebi ar arsebobdes. ubralod, ZiriTadi politikuri jgufebi cdiloben, orive zemoTaRwerili midgoma erTmaneTs Seuxamon. is azri, rom liberaluri demokratia da sabazro ekonomika safrTxes uqmnis tradiciul Rirebulebebsa da erovnul TviTobas, sxvadasxva gziT araerTxel gamoxatula sajaro diskusiebSi. magaliTad, "erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis" Seqmnis Taobaze gamarTuli diskusiebisas54 xSirad dgeboda sakiTxi, saWiro iyo Tu ara am dokumentSi erovnuli kulturisa da tradiciebisaTvis mosalodneli safrTxeebis da maTi Tavidan acilebis gzebis asaxva. isini, vinc ufro metad usafrTxoebis sakiTxebisadmi dasavlur midgomebs eyrdnobodnen, ambobdnen, ram amgvari msjeloba zedmetad gadatvirTavda dokuments, sxvebi ki amtkicebdnen, rom erovnuli usafrTxoeba erovnuli TviTobis dacvis gareSe warmoudgenelia. kidev ufro farTo diskusiis sagnad iqca saqarTveloSi "erovnuli ideologiis" koncefciis Seqmnis sakiTxi. misi momxreni amtkiceben, gamokveTili ideologiis arqona dRevandeli saqarTvelos umTavresi problemaao. aseTi "ideologiis"

53 Cems werilSi _ "rogor gavigoT, aris Tu ara guram SaraZe ruseTis specsamsaxurebis agenti da aqvs Tu ara amas mniSvneloba" (24 saaTi, 10 ivlisi, 2002) sxva yvelaferTan erTad vamtkicebdi, rom am pirovnebis moRvaweoba saqarTvelos dasavleTTan integraciisTvis xels SeSlaze iyo mimarTuli. aRsaniSnia, rom es erTaderTi braldeba gaxldaT, romelic b-nma guramma TavgadadebiT uaryo Tavis sapasuxo satelevizio gamosvlaSi. 54 mTeli am diskusiebis Sedegi mxolod is gaxldaT, rom gaCnda dokumenti saTauriT "saqarTvelo da danarCeni samyaro: momavlis strategiuli xedva ", romelic, sando wyaroebs Tu davujerebT, ucxoeli mrCevlebis mier iyo dawerili. saqarTvelos xelisuflebas is farTod arasodes gauvrcelebia ­ is nato-s veb-saitze gamoqveynda: http://www.nato.int/pfp/ge/d001010.htm.

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qveS isini gulisxmoben konceftualur dokuments, romelSic moxdeboda erisa da saxelmwifosaTvis imperatiuli Rirebulebebisa da strategiebis formulireba. maTi azriT, aseTi koncefcia saxelmwifos mier xelTdasxmul oficialur dokumentad unda iqces da yvela saxelmwifo institutisa da moqalaqisTvis savaldebulo iyos. mowinaaRmdegeebi amboben, rom amgvari dokumenti ukve arsebobs _ mas saqarTvelos konstitucia hqvia da raRac axlis gamogoneba saWiro aRar aris. Tumca erovnuli ideologiis apologetebs naTlad arasodes uTqvamT, Tu ra Sinaarsi da struqtura unda hqonoda aseT dokuments, is mainc cxadi iyo, rom "erovnuli ideologiis" qveS, arsebiTad, erovnuli TviTobis SenarCuneba-gamyarebis strategia moiazreboda.55 erTi SexedviT, TiTqos advilia saerTod yuradReba ar miaqcio oficialur dokumentebSi erovnuli ideologiis dafiqsirebis moTxovnas, rogorc sabWoTa azrovnebis erTgvar recidivs, magram am moTxovnis ukan ufro Rrma problemac imaleba. erovnuli idologiis moTxovna, rac ginda vifiqroT mis formaze, gamoxatavs im mosazrebas, rom qveyanas jer mkafiod ver aurCevia, ra mimarTulebiT unda ganviTardes. liberaluri demokratiis Rirebulebebi metismetad abstraqtuli Cans, rom mimarTulebis damsaxvelad iyos aRqmuli. politikurma elitebma jer ver moaxerxes, es Rirebulebebi myarad CaenergaT qarTul politikur praqtikaSi, amitom bevrs rCeba STabeWdileba, rom Tavad es elitebi liberaluri demokratiis ideebs ufro farad iyenebda, vidre realur samoqmedo programad. nativisturi reaqcia yvelaze dramatulad religiuri umciresobebis mimarT Seuwynareblobisa da Zaladobis saxiT gamovlinda. es "sarwmunoebrivi nacionalizmi" ukiduresi memarjvene ideologiis qarTul versiad SegviZlia warmovisaxoT. saqarTvelos religiuri eqstremistebi amodian iqidan,

55 es diskusiebi mimoxiluli maqvs statiaSi "ideologia: erovnuli da sxva", afra, 5, 1998, gv. 157-169.

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rom marTlmadidebloba istoriulad qarTuli identobis Ziria. aqedan isini askvnian, rom nebismieri sxva eklesiis _ kerZod, ieRovas mowmeebis, sxvadasxva protestantuli eklesiebis Tu kaTolikeebis _ prozelituri saqmianoba qarTuli identobis morRvevas isaxavs miznad. religiuri nacionalistebis azriT, qarTulma sazogadoebam da saxelmwifom marTlmadideblobis garda nebismieri sxva sarwmunoebis gavrceleba unda ganixilos, rogorc principuli gamowveva misi erovnuli usafrTxoebisaTvis. amgvarma damokidebulebam yvelaze metad 1999-2003 wlebSi iCina Tavi, rodesac saqarTvelos religiuri Zaladobis talRam gadauara. adamianis uflebaTa xelyofas rom Tavi davaneboT, dausjeli Zaladobis faqtebis momravlebam saxelmwifos sisustesac gausva xazi. marTalia, xelisufleba ver daiTanxmes formaluri akrZalvebi SemoeRo religiuri umciresobebis mimarT, magram mas arc fanatikosebis Zaladobrivi gamoxdomebi aRukveTia. metic, bevr SemTxvevaSi policia xelsac ki afarebda maT. ra Tqma unda, araviTari farTomasStabiani sarwmunoebrivi konfliqti saqarTvelos ar emuqreba _ Seuwynareblobis talRa mxolod mcire mrevlis myoli eklesiebisken iyo mimarTuli da ara mahmadianuri an, vTqvaT, somxuri gregorianuli eklesiis winaaRmdeg, visac saqarTveloSi gacilebiT meti mimdevari hyavs. magram Tavad es dausjelad darCenili kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebebi saxelmwifos legitimurobas uTxrida Zirs. niSandoblivi is iyo, rom religiuri fanatizmis es gamovlinebebi yvelaze metad dasavleTTan gaigivebul eklesiebs umiznebda: es arapirdapir migvaniSnebs, rom saqarTvelos mosaxleobis nawili dasavleTs marTla aRiqvams, rogorc realur safrTxes qarTuli erovnuli identurobisaTvis. saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiam formalurad dagmo es Zaladobrivi aqtebi, romelTa umravlesobas gankveTili marTlmadidebeli mRvdeli edga saTaveSi. magram igive eklesia Tavis dokumentebSi "liberalur ideologias" marTlmadideblobis sawinaaRmdego movlenad ixseniebda. es metad mniSvnelovania, radgan marTlmadidebeli eklesia yvelaze

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meti ndobisa da pativsacemis mqone institutia saqarTveloSi. sazogadoebis garkveuli nawili amarTlebda am Zaladobas, sxvebi ki Zaladobriv meTodebs ar iwonebdnen, oRond SeSfoTebas gamoxatavdnen religiuri umciresobebis aqtivobis mimarT da maT winaaRmdeg SezRudvebis SemoRebas moiTxovdnen.56 2003 wels, saakaSvilis xelisuflebaSi mosvlis Semdgom, Zaladobis am talRam gadaiara, xolo agresiuli aqtebis ramdenime Semsrulebels cixeSi ukres Tavi. postSevardnaZiseuli periodis dasawyisSive gamoCnda, rom nativisturi reaqcia ki arsebobs, magram imdenad Zlieri ar aris, rom saqarTvelos prodasavlur erovnul proeqts seriozuli safrTxe Seuqmnas. magaliTad, reformatorebis "arasakmaris qarTvelobaSi" dadanaSauleba maTi diskreditaciisTvis sakmarisi ar aRmoCnda. 2003 wlis noembris revoluciis Semdeg xelisuflebaSi swored prodasavleli modernizatorebi movidnen da rogorc saparlamento, ise saprezidento arCevnebma maTi popularobis maRali done cxadyo.57 bevri maTgani, vinc Tavis droze liberaluri reformebs, maT Soris rwmenis Tavisuflebis nakleb popularul moTxovnebs uWerda mxars,

2004 wlis gamokiTxvis mixedviT, 37.7% eTanxmeboda religiuri "seqtebis" Sekrebebis darbevas da 46.9% maTi literaturis dawvas miesalmeboda; aseve, 43.6% baptistebisa da ieRovas mowmeebis aqtivobis kanoniT akrZalvas iTxovda, xolo 34.4% _ maT gandevnas. rac Seexeba "tradiciul" aRmsareblobebs, rogoric kaTolicizmi da islamia, maT winaaRmdeg "galaSqrebas", Sesabamisad, 20.6 da 38.%-ma misca xma. (ix.: giorgi niJaraZe, iago kaWkaWiSvili, rusudan mSvidobaZe, giorgi xuciSvili da emzar jgerenaia, "qarTuli marTlmadidebeli eklesia da religiuri umciresobebi sazogadoebrivi azris WrilSi: sociologiuri kvlevis Sedegebi" saerTaSoriso konferencia: `religia da sazogadoeba _ rwmena Cvens cxovrebaSi'. moxsenebaTa mokle Sinaarsebi, Tbilisi, 2004, gv. 1114. ix. agreTve daviT zurabiSvili, aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba da religiuri uflebebi saqarTveloSi, sadiskusio masala 8 (stokholmi: saerTaSoriso ideas gamocema, 2003 wlis maisi, gv. 68-72, da nodar ladaria, " religiozni ekstremizm v gruzii", http://www.pankisi.info/analitic/ ?page=ge&id=43. 57 2004 w. ianvris saprezidento arCevnebi mixeil saakaSvilma 96.27%-iT moigo, xolo misma gaerTianebam nacionaluri moZraoba-demokratebi saparlamento arCevnebSi xmebis 66.24%. moipova.

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axla Tavadaa xelisuflebaSi. magram saakaSvili da misi gundi kargad xvdeba, rom, dRevandeli popularobis miuxedavad, liberalur-demokratiul programasa da saqarTveloSi gavrcelebul sazogadoebriv praqtikebs Soris mainc sakmaod didi gansvlaa, rac saqarTvelos mowyvladad aqcevs nativisturi reaqciis SesaZleblobis winaSe. amitom, maT nacionalizmis gansxvavebuli, alternatuli xedvis Camoyalibeba sWirdebaT. demokrat modernizatorTa nacionalizmi Zlieri da qmediTunariani saxelmwifo meqanizmis awyobas gulisxmobs. aRmosavleT evropis yvela sxva postkomunisturi qveynis msgavsad, maTTvisac nato-sa da evrokavSirSi gawevrianeba politikuri programis centraluri komponentia; magram es ar niSnavs, rom isini uars amboben erovnul Tavmoyvareobaze an erovnuli saxelmwifos modelze. piriqiT, dasavluri institutebis wevroba saqarTvelos, rogorc damoukidebeli saxelmwifos da erovnuli TviTobis SenarCunebis saukeTeso damcav meqanizmadaa CaTvlili. xolo raki marTlmadidebeli eklesia saqarTvelos TviTmyofobis yvelaze mZlavr simbolod rCeba, prodasavleli modernizatorebi frTxiloben, maTi eklesiisadmi loialoba eWvqveS aravin daayenos. jer kidev 2002 wlis oqtomberSi, SevardnaZesTan TanamSromlobis periodSi, maTi mxardaWeriT daido metad sakamaTo "konkordati", anu saqarTvelos marTlmadidebel eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris konstituciuri SeTanxmeba. "konkordatma" marTlmadidebel eklesias faqtobrivad upiratesi religiuri institutis statusi mianiWa, Tumca es marTlmadideblobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebas ar niSnavs. am aqtma liberali demokratebis kritika daimsaxura, maT Soris maTi, vinc Semdgom Tavad aRmoCnda saakaSvilis mTavrobaSi. Tumca konkordati garkveul winaaRmdegobaSi modis liberaluri demokratiis modelTan, reformatorebisTvis is mainc SedarebiT ioli da uxifaTo gza gaxldaT imisa, rom erovnuli TviTmyofadobis ideisadmi Tavisi erTguleba eCvenebinaT da aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebis principi uSualod dartymis qveS ar daeyenebinaT. 2004 wlis 24 ianvars, sapre104

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zidento inauguraciis ceremonialze, saakaSvilma fici quTaisSi gelaTis taZarSi dado58 da amas ormagad simboluri mniSvneloba mianiWa: erTi mxriv, man eklesiisagan kurTxeva miiRo (Suasaukuneebis xelmwifis msgavsad); meore mxriv, swored gelaTSia dasaflavebuli daviT aRmaSenebeli, saqarTvelos yvelaze warmatebuli mefe. aq miRebuli dalocviT saakaSvilma, Zlieri qarTuli saxelmwifos momxrem, simboluri xidi gado saqarTvelos istoriis im periodTan, rodesac saxelmwifo Tavisi Zlierebis zenitSi iyo. sazogadod, saakaSvili simboloebs did (zogis TqmiT, zedmet) mniSvnelobas aniWebs. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdgom, jer kidev prezidentad inauguraciamde, misi pirveli nabiji is iyo, rom saxelmwifo droSis Secvlis gadawyvetileba miaRebina parlaments. manamde arsebuli droSa saqarTvelos social-demokratiulma mTavrobam 1918 wels SemoiRo. ferebi imdroindeli germaniis droSis msgavsi gaxldaT, oRond Rvinomuqi wiTlis dominantiT _ social-demokratebis ideologiaze misaniSneblad.59 axal saxelmwifo droSas, jer kidev opoziciaSi yofnisas "nacionaluri moZraobis" mier atacebuls, erTi didi wiTeli jvari gasdevs TeTr fonze, da oTxic ­ momcro. mowinaaRmdegeni amtkicebdnen _ eg kaTolikuri droSaao, Tumca mas qarTuli marTlmadidebeli eklesiac iyenebda. zogi istorikosis mtkicebiT, es droSa saqarTvelos oqros xanidan, me-XI-XII saukuneebidan modis: es ki kidev erTi gzaa Zlieri qarTuli saxelmwifos ideis simboluri aRorZinebisa. garda imisa, rom am drois saqarTvelo, Sua saukuneebis sazomebiT, Zlieri saxelmwifo gaxldaT, qarTveli mefeebi jvarosnebTanac iWerdnen saqmes. maSin rodesac dasavleli mimomxilvelebi xSirad eWvqveS ayeneben saqarTvelos evropulobas _ es qveyana evropul istoriul gamocdilebas

"kaTolikos patriarqma prezidentad akurTxa mixeil saakaSvili" (InterPress, 24, 2004). 59 damoukidebeli saqarTvelos respublika 1918 wels Seiqmna germaniis patronaJiT.

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arasodes ziarebiao60 _ jvarosnebTan TanamSromlobis epizodi is iSviaTi gamonaklisia, rodesac saqarTvelos SeuZlia, evropasTan raimenairi istoriuli kavSiris arseboba daiCemos.61 ramdenad Seesabameba jvarosnuli omebi Tanamedrove evropulobis ideas _ es kidev sxva sakiTxia, magram saakaSvilis amocana am SemTxvevaSi imaze miniSnebaa, rom erT dros saqarTvelo uSualod iRebda evropul proeqtebSi monawileobas. Tavis sainauguracio sityvaSi prezidentma ganacxada: "Cven ubralod evropelebi ki ara, ZirZveli evropelebi varT!"62 es naTqvami narTaulad ukavSirdeboda donald ramsfeldis gansxvavebas "Zvel" da "axal" evropas Soris (am ukanasknelSi aRmosavleT evropis postkomunisturi qveynebi igulisxmeba): aq saakaSvilma kargi gamosavali moZebna, radgan mas amerikelebsa da evropelebs Soris uwevs balansireba. magram aq ufro mniSvnelovani imis xazgasmaa, rom qarTvelebis pretenzia evropulobaze uZveles Zirebs eyrdnoba. inauguraciaze ori droSa frialebda _ saqarTvelos uZvelesi simboloebiT datvirTuli axali droSa da evropis droSa _ romelsac evrokavSiri da evropis sabWo aRmarTaven xolme, da romlis simbolika mTlianad Tanamedroveobaze mianiSnebs.

60 ix. mag.: William Pfaff, "`Europe' Has Historical Limits: The Baltics vs. the Caucasus," The International Herald Tribune, February 28, 2004. pfafi wers: "axali prezidenti [saakaSvili] ambobs, rom saqarTvelo evro-atlantikur arealSi unda daabrunos. magram ras hqvia ­ `daabrunos?' saqarTvelo me-16 _ me-17 saukuneebSi xan sparseTis, xanac TurqeTis qveS iyo, Semdgom _ ruseTis koloniad iqca mTeli orasi wliT, xolo 1921-1991 ww. sabWoTa respublika gaxldaT..." saqmec isaa, rom sakaSvili evropaSi "dabrunebis" gasamarTleblad bevrad ufro Zvel ambebs ixsenebs. 61 jvarosnebis motivma xelaxla "amoyvinTa" 2005 wels, rodesac saakaSvilma, Tavis ukrainel kolega viqtor iuSenkosTan erTad, wamoiwyo qarTveli da ukraineli axalgazrdebisaTvis sazafxulo banakebis programa, romelsac "axalgazrda jvarosnebi" daerqva. 62 "Georgian President Optimistic about Future in Inauguration Speech," BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union, January 25, 2004.

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daskvna

gamowvevebi saqarTvelos usafrTxoebisadmi mravalSriania. ori maTgani, yvelaze dramatuli da urTierTdakavSirebuli _ afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis gadauwyveteli teritoriuli konfliqtebi da ruseTTan mouwesrigebeli urTierToba _ gamowvevaTa am sistemis gare Srea. maT gadasawyvetad saqarTvelos metad mwiri arCevani aqvs. 2004 wels samxreT oseTSi gancdilma warumateblobam kargad dagvanaxa saqarTvelos poziciis sisuste: adgilze situaciis Secvlisa da problemis daCqarebuli gadawyvetis mcdelobam, SesaZloa, situacia kidev ufro gaauaresa ­ magram amis alternativa status kvos pasiuri miRebaa. saqarTvelos, ubralod, resursebi ar gaaCnia am problemebis gadasaWrelad. saerTaSoriso gamocdileba ki gviCvenebs, rom teritoriuli konfliqtebis SemTxvevaSi, gansakuTrebiT Tu isini "gayinuli konfliqtebis" stadias miaRweven, roca arc erT mxares ar unda erTxel miRebuli poziciis daTmoba, ori gamosavali arsebobs: an saqmeSi gare Zala ereva da mxareeebs uxeSi samxedro an politikuri zewoliT aiZulebs, mis mier SemoTavazebuli gadawyveta miiRon, an viTareba aTwleulobiT ucvleli rCeba. aqedan gamomdinare, qarTvelebs aqvT safuZvliani SiSi, rom maT kidev didxans mouwevT, icxovron ori gadauwyveteli konfliqtis da ruseTTan gamwvavebuli urTierTobis pirobebSi, rac mudmiv daZabulobas niSnavs. qveynis mTlianobis TemasTan dakavSirebuli sxva sakiTxebi _ aWaris avtonomiis sakiTxi, kuTxuroba, araintegrirebuli da potenciurad gamoyofis mosurne eTnikuri umciresobebi ­ gamowvevaTa Semdeg Sres Seadgens. saqarTvelos SeuZlia, sakuTari resursebiT mixedos am sakiTxebs da damoukideblobis miRwevis Semdeg dinamikac, kacma rom Tqvas, dadebiTia. abaSiZis represiuli reJimis usisxlo damxoba da aWaris saqarTvelos politikur sivrceSi dabruneba, albaT, yvelaze didi warmatebaa saxelmwifoebriobis Senebis gzaze, rasac qveyanam damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdgom miaRwia. samegre107

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lomac TiTqos moiSuSa 90-iani wlebis konfliqtebisagan mowevnili travma. magram somxuri da azerbaijanuli eTnikuri umciresobebi mxolod zedapirulad miekuTvnebian qarTul politikur ers da maTi integracia SesaZloa arc ise ioli aRmoCndes. pozitiuri TvalsazrisiT am problemebTan dakavSirebiTac SeiZleba iTqvas, rom saqarTvelom, rogorc Cans, ZiriTadad moixada agresiuli eTnikuri nacionalizmis saymawvilo seni, maSin roca somxur da azerbaijanul umciresobebs ­ miuxedavad kerZo sakiTxebis gamo ukmayofilebisa ­ yvelaze rTul periodSic ki separatistuli programebis garSemo mobilizacia ar ucdiaT. qmediTi, mdgradi, legitimuri saxelmwifo institutebis Seqmna saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis amocanaTa gulisgulia. es sakiTxi centraluria, radgan amiT ganisazRvreba qveynis unari, gadawyveta upovos zemoTaRweril problemebs. saqarTvelos gamocdileba saSualebas ar gvaZlevs, calsaxa pasuxi gavceT am sakiTxs. xalxma ki mkafiod gamoxata Tavisi miswrafeba demokratiisaken, magram verafriT Caabara mdgradi demokratiis yvelaze elementaruli gamocda: Zalauflebis Secvla konstituciiT gansazRvruli wesiT. "korufcia" yvelas pirze akeria saqarTveloSi ­ iseve, rogorc msoflios mraval sxva qveyanaSi. magram is, rasac is saqarTvelos konteqstSi realurad niSnavs, aris naprali, erTi mxriv, Tanamedrove saxelmwifos normatiul veberiseul ideasa da, meores mxriv, im damkvidrebul praqtikebsa Tu gadarCenis strategiebs Soris, rac modernulobis ideas nagvianevad ziarebuli sazogadoebebisTvis aris tipiuri. mixeil saakaSvilis xelisufleba gulwrfelad cdilobs, korufcia daamarcxos. magram masTan mxolod represiul-revoluciuri meTodebiT brZola da arsebuli saxelmwifo biurokratiis sruli undobloba Sedegs naklebad moitans da SeiZleba sazianoc aRmoCndes, Tu am kampanias sajaro moxeleebis axali da mdgradi institutis Seqmnaze mimarTuli ufro prozauli muSaoba ar daerTo zed. is faqti, rom saqarTvelo jiutad inarCunebs liberalur demokratiad qcevis "erovnuli proeqtis" erTgulebas, vinZlo

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yvelaze imedismomcemi elementi iyos misi evoluciisa damoukideblobis Semdeg. gamsaxurdiasa da SevardnaZis politikis warumateblobas antidasavluri reaqcia ar moutania miuxedavad imisa, rom orive politikosi, zedapirulad mainc, prodasavluri orientaciisa iyo. aSkarad antiliberaluri ideologiebi ­ neokomunizmi, nativisturi eTno-nacionalizmi, antimodernistuli religiuri fundamentalizmi ­ ki aRmocenda, magram gamsaxurdias gaZevebis Semdgom isini politikur sivcrceSi marginalurni rCebodnen. marTalia, qarTvelebma jer ver SeZles ZiriTadi demokratiuli procedurebis aTviseba, magram ­ rogorc "vardebis revoluciam" TvalnaTliv dagvanaxa, ­ Camoyalibda moqalaqeTa kritikuli masa, visac gaTavisebuli aqvs demokratiisa da adamianTa uflebebis Zireuli Rirebulebebi. liberalizmis mkacr mimdevars SeiZleba gulze ar exatebodes marTlmadidebeli eklesiis privilegirebuli statusi an Zlieri erovnuli saxelmwifos agebaze mimarTuli ritorika, rac dRes xelisuflebaSi myof prodasavlel modernistebs axasiaTebT. magram am ukanasknelT kargad esmiT, rom maTi reformebis warmateba imazea damokidebuli, Tu rogor SeZleben isini tradiciuli erovnuli Rirebulebebisa da identobis Sexamebas modernul liberalur ideebTan. marTalia, kvlav arsebobs principuli SesaZlebloba imisa, rom aRmocendes mZlavri antiliberaluri nativisturi moZraoba, romelic saqarTvelos erovnul proeqts safrTxes Seuqmnis. magram is gamocdileba, romelic qveyanam aqamde daagrova, erT rames gviCvenebs: gza daculi da stabiluri saxelmwifos asaSeneblad gadis axali sazogadoebrivi xelSekrulebis Camoyalibebaze, romelic erTmaneTs Seuxamebs axali drois dasavlur Rirebulebebs da erovnuli identobis SenarCunebis garantiebs.

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qristof ciurxeri

sabWoTa kavSirSi komunisturi reJimis krizisma, 1991 wels ki sabWoTa kavSiris daSlam kavkasiaSi samoqalaqo omebis seria gamoiwvia.1 1987 wels mixeil gorbaCovma reformis ambiciuri proeqti wamoiwyo. misi "perestroikisa" da "glastnostis" politikis safuZvelze pirvelad sabWoTa kavSiris istoriaSi

*winamdebare Tavis Sedgenisas TavianTi komentarebiTa da mosazrebebiT didi daxmareba gagviwies jonaTan kohenma, jorj hiuitma, robert legvoldma, bruno kopitersma, gia nodiam, viaCeslav Cirikbam da jonaTan uiTlim. 1 es Tavi eyrdnoba Cems wina naSromebs, ZiriTadad: Institutionen und organisierte Gewalt. Konflikt und Stabilitätsdynamiken im (post-)sowjetischen Kaukasus (Berlin: Habilitationsschrift, Free U Berlin, 2003), and Christoph Zürcher, Jan Koehler, and Pavel Baev, "Internal Violence in the Caucasus," The Economics of Political and Common Violence (Washington, DC: The World Bank Development Economic Research Group, 2002).aseve naxeT: Svante Cornell, "Autonomy in the South Caucasus: A Catalyst for Conflict" (paper presented at the ASN Fifth Annual World Convention, New York, NY, April 12­15, 2000); Nikola Cvetkovski, "The Georgian­South Ossetian Conflict," (PhD diss., Aalborg University, n.d.), chapter 4, http://www.caucasus.dk/publication5.htm; Stephen F. Jones, "Georgia: A Failed Democratic Transition," in Ian Bremmer, and Raymond Taras, eds., Nation and Politics in the Soviet Successor States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), pp. 288­310; Darrell Slider, "Democratization in Georgia," in Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parrott, eds., Conflict, Cleavage, and Change in Central Asia and the Caucasus (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 156­200. Jonathan Wheatley's forthcoming book Georgia from National Awakening to Rose Revolution: A Story of Delayed Transition in the Former Soviet Union (Ashgate) es Zalian Rirebuli wyaroa.

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ruqa 3. avtonomiuri respublikebi da avtonomiuri olqebi saqarTveloSi (1991).

Central Intelligence Agency Map, courtesy of the University of Texas Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/commonwealth/georgia.gif

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Seiqmna is sazogadoebrivi sivrce, sadac SeiZleboda politikuri ukmayofilebis sajarod gamoxatva. es sazogadoebrivi sivrce Tavdapirvelad erovnuli moZraobis warmomadgenlebma gamoiyenes. 1989 wlisaTvis erovnuli moZraobebis umravlesoba radikalurad iyo ganwyobili da sabWoTa kavSiris Semadgenlobidan gasvlas uWerda mxars. procesi baltiispireTis respublikebis saxalxo organizaciebma wamoiwyes da maT kvals maleve mihyvnen somxeTis, azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelos erovnuli moZraobis jgufebi; maTi moqmedeba aranaklebi vnebaTaRelviT gamoirCeoda, am moqmedebis Sedegebi ki gacilebiT dramatuli aRmoCnda. 1991 wels sabWoTa kavSiri daiSala da datova 15 memkvidresaxelmwifo, romelTac gaaCndaT Zalze mcire saxelmwifoebrivi SesaZleblobebi. am qveynebSi ZalauflebisaTvis gamudmebuli brZola mimdinareobda yofil elitasa da erovnuldemokratiul moZraobebs Tu nacionalisturad ganwyobil pirebs Soris. garda amisa, zogierT am axladwarmoqmnil saxelmwifoSi mZlavrobda separatistuli moZraobebi. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg warmoebuli Sida omebis arsis gasagebad gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba saxelmwifos daSlis am uprecedento SemTxvevis gacnobierebas. 1989 wlidan 1993 wlamde saqarTveloSi ganxorcielebuli Zalismieri moqmedebis sami faqti aRiniSna. pirveli _ samxreT oseTis separatistul regionTan dakavSirebuli eTnopolitikuri konfliqti, romelic 1989 wels daiwyo, piks 1991 wlis ianvarSi miaRwia da Semdeg isev gaRvivda 1992 wels. 1992 wlis ivlisSi samxreT oseTSi ganalages samSvidobo Zalebi, romelTa SemadgenlobaSic Sediodnen rusi, qarTveli da osi mSvidobismyofelebi. meore omi iyo TbilisSi _ sisxlismRvreli brZola dapirispirebul politikur jgufebs Soris saxelmwifo ZalauflebisaTvis. es Zalismieri qmedebebi 1991 wlis dekemberSi daiwyo da 1993 wlis noemberSi dasrulda. maTi gamomwvevi mizezi ki prezident zviad gamsaxurdias Zaladobrivi gziT gadayeneba iyo, romelic opozicionerma politikosebma da am "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelebma"2 erToblivad ganaxorcieles.

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TbilisSi es konfliqti mxolod ramdenime kviras gagrZelda da 1992 wlis ianvarSi gamsaxurdias gandevniT dasrulda. magram 1992 wlis martSi eduard SevardnaZis xelisuflebaSi dabrunebis droidan imave wlis noembramde gandevnili prezidentis momxreebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi SeiaraRebul winaaRmdegobas uwevdnen axal mTavrobas. organizebuli Zaladobrivi aqtis mesame SemTxveva iyo separatistuli afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublikis gamo gaCaRebuli omi. igi 1992 wels daiwyo da 1993 wlis seqtemberSi saqarTvelos jaris damarcxebiT dasrulda. faqtobrivad, samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis konfliqtebi dRemde mougvarebelia. orive SemTxvevaSi separatistulma kuTxeebma samxedro Zalis gamoyenebiT Tavi daimkvidres, rogorc de faqto erTeulebma, magram saerTaSoriso aRiareba ver hpoves. naSromis am nawilSi mocemulia saqarTveloSi warmoebuli am sami omis analizi: dawyebuli samxreT oseTSi 1988 wlis masobrivi mobilizaciidan, damTavrebuli Tbilissa da afxazeTSi politikuri Zalauflebis mosapoveblad warmoebuli omebiT. aqcenti keTdeba saqarTveloSi spiralurad ganviTarebad eTnoerovnul mobilizaciaze. meore nawilSi saubaria faqtorTa im oTx jgufze, romelmac saqarTveloSi Zaladobis warmoSoba ganapiroba: (1) sabWoTa eTnofederalizmis meqanizmi, (2) Sida postkomunisturi elitis daSla, (3) "Zaladobis inscenireba" da (4) regionaluri garemocva. naSromis mesame, bolo nawilSi miRebuli Sedegebi TanamedroveobasTan kavSirSia ganxiluli, Sefasebulia saqarTveloSi 1993 wlidan gatarebuli struqturuli cvlilebebi da dasmulia kiTxva, ras niSnavs es dRes saqarTvelosa da regionaluri usafrTxoebisaTvis.

rodesac vambobT "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelebi", vgulisxmobT im xalxs, romelic saomar saqmianobas piradi, materialuri keTildReobisaken swrafvas uTavsebs. es survili xSirad "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelTa" mamoZravebel Zalad iqceva xolme.

2

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erovnuli mobilizaciis spirali

saqarTveloSi mimdinare movlenebis mimarTuleba da logika ver aRiqmeba, Tu ar gaviTvaliswinebT sabWoTa eTnofederaluri sistemisaTvis damaxasiaTebel institutebs, romlebic ganviTarebuli dramis scenas warmoadgendnen. am naSromisaTvis dawerili Tavis komentarebSi gia nodia aRniSnavs, rom sabWoTa kavSiri sxvadasxva statusis mqone teritoriuli erTeulebisagan Semdgar asimetriul federacias warmoadgenda. pirvel doneze iyo TxuTmeti mokavSire respublika, Semdeg modioda avtonomiuri respublikebi da bolos _ avtonomiuri olqebi. qarTuli drama eTnofederaluri struqturis darRvevis Sedegad ganviTarda; am struqturaSi mmarTvelobis TiToeuli done ierarqiulad imarTeboda ­ zeda done iyo kavSiris centri (moskovi), SuaSi mdebareobda saqarTvelos mokavSire respublika, bolos _ afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublika da samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri olqi. movlenebis ganviTarebasTan erTad am ierarqiulma kavSirebma dakarga simWidrove, ierarqiuli struqturis ufro dabal doneebze ki Zalas ikrebda separatistuli moZraoba. saqarTvelos damoukideblobis mopovebasTan erTad samxreT oseTi da afxazeTi sul ufro metad Zlierdebodnen sakuTari damoukideblobis misaRwevad. "perestroikis" adreul etapze saqarTvelo SedarebiT mSvidobiani respublika iyo, romelsac eTnikurad erTgvarovani xelmZRvaneloba marTavda. igi mWidrod iyo SekavSirebuli proteqcionizmiTa da patronaJiT da kargad icoda, Tu rogor gamoeyenebina qarTuli Crdilovani ekonomikis momgebiani SesaZleblobebi. 1970-iani wlebidan qarTuli erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis warmomadgenlebma sabWouri asimilirebis winaaRmdeg TavianTi azris gamoxatva daiwyes, magram es xdeboda calkeul SemTxvevebSi da realuri opoziciuri moZraoba jer kidev ar arsebobda. saqarTveloSi mxolod 1988 wels Camoyalibda baltiispireTsa Tu somxeTSi arsebuli opoziciuri erovnuli diskursi, romelic religiur,

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kulturul da politikur problemebs exeboda. pirveli jgufi, romelsac aSkarad separatistuli programa hqonda, giorgi Wanturias mier daarsebuli erovnul-demokratiuli partia iyo. nacionalisturi talRa uswrafesad Zlierdeboda da amuSavebda sayovelTao TemaTa variaciebs: "saqarTvelos msxverplad Sewirva"; "saqarTvelos istoriis Secvla da damaxinjeba"; "erovnuli mexsierebis amoSla"; "saqarTveloSi rusul-sabWoTa ucxo mmarTvelobis ZaliT daweseba". erovnuli diskursis mTavari elementebi (damoukideblobis moTxovnis garda) prokomunisturad ganwyobilma "rusTavelis sazogadoebamac" ki aitaca.3 1989 wlis dasawyisidan yvela sazogadoebriv sferoSi radikali qarTveli nacionalistebi dominirebdnen ­ gansjiTac da fizikuri qmedebebiTac: quCis demonstraciebiT Tu SimSilobis aqciebiT Tbilisis centrSi. erovnuli mobilizacia afxazeTSi saqarTvelos erovnuli moZraobis pirdapiri asaxvaa. 1989 wels afxazeTi avtonomiuri respublikis statusiT (avtonomiuri sabWoTa socialisturi respublika) moiazreboda saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi. misi mosaxleoba 525000 kacs Seadgenda, romelTagan 45.7 procenti _ qarTveli, 14.3 procenti _ rusi, 14.6 procenti ki somexi iyo. afxazebi mosaxleobis 17.8 procents Seadgendnen. 4 afxazur-adiReuri enebis jgufi Crdilokavkasiur enaTa ojaxSi Sedis. igi enaTesaveba CeCnur-daRestnur jgufs da ara enaTa qarTvelur ojaxs, romelsac qarTuli ena miekuTvneba. afxazeTis mosaxleobaSi arian rogorc marTlmadidebeli qristianebi, ise musulmanebi. qarTul-afxazur urTierTobebs

3 Jürgen Gerber, Georgien: Nationale Opposition und kommunistische Herrschaft, seit 1965 (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1997). 4 es monacemebi motanilia ssrk-Si 1989 wels Catarebuli mosaxleobis aRweris angariSidan; es iyo sabWoTa kavSirSi mosaxleobis bolo da yvelaze farTomasStabiani aRwera. ixileT: 1989 wlis mosaxleobis sakavSiro aRweris Sedegebi (Itogi vsesoyuznoi perepisi naseleniya 1989 goda, (Minneapolis, MN: East View Publications, 1989). am cifrebTan sifrTxile gvmarTebs, radganac es aRwera arc zustia da arc Tavisufali politikuri manipulaciebisagan. demografiuli sakiTxi Zalze mwvave diskusiebis Temaa qarTvelebsa da afxazebs Soris.

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arc sabWoTa periodSi aklda daZabuloba. stalinis mmarTvelobis sastiki represiebis qveS afxazebs eSinodaT qarTvelebis demografiuli da politikuri batonobis. Tbilisi da soxumi mudmiv WidilSi iyvnen resursebis _ umTavresad moskovidan gadmoricxuli fuladi saxsrebis, afxazeTSi sakadro politikisa da Crdilovani ekonomikis Semosavlebze kontrolis mosapoveblad. swored es iwvevda maT Soris mudmiv politikur uTanxmoebas. imdenad, ramdenadac am regionSi jer kidev myari iyo sabWoTa mmarTveloba, politikuri dapirispireba qarTul da afxaz mosaxleobas Soris Zalismieri konfliqtis mizezi ar gamxdara. 1957, 1967 da 1977 wlebSi afxazeTis kulturis muSakebi da inteligenciis warmomadgenlebi (1977 wels ki maTTan erTad komunisturi partiis zogierTi maRalCinosani) moskovs afxazeTis ruseTis sabWoTa federaciuli socialisturi respublikis SemadgenlobaSi Seyvanas sTxovdnen. sabWoTa mTavrobam yovel jerze uaryo afxazebis es moTxovna, magram kompensaciis mizniT mTel rig daTmobebze wavida da regionSi investiciebic gazarda. Sedegad, afxazebs xeli miuwvdaT Seusabamod didi raodenobiT resursebsa da mTavar politikur Tanamdebobebze. es gansakuTrebiT exeba 1980-iani wlebis bolo periods, rodesac Tbilisi kargavda Tavis gavlenas adgilobriv afxazur saqmianobaze. 1990 wels afxazeTis mTavrobis ministrebis 67 procenti afxazi iyo.5 radgan sabWoTa sistemaSi ekonomikur marTvasac administraciuli xelisufleba axorcielebda, afxazebi TiTqmis mTel adgilobriv ekonomikas akontrolebdnen. 1988 wels afxazeTSi "perestroikis" Sedegad Seqmnili sazogadoebrivi sivrce umalve daikava orma diametrulad sawinaaRmdego azrma, romelic cdilobda istoriuli usamarTlobis axsnas. afxazebi wuxdnen maT respublikaSi demografiuli SefardebiTobis mkveTri cvlilebis gamo. sabWoTa periodSi megreli (dasavleT saqarTvelo) glexebis afxazeTSi CasvliT (aseve mTavrobis mier mosaxleobis xelaxali gansax5

ixileT: http://freedomhouse.org/survey99/relterr/abkhazia.html.

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lebiT) avtonomiuri respublikis qarTuli mosaxleoba 1914 wlis maCvenebel 28%-Tan SedarebiT sagrZnoblad gaizarda da 1989 wels igi ukve 45.5%-s Seadgenda: aqedan gamomdinare, gaizarda konkurencia isedac mwir miwebze.6 afxazebi aseve ukmayofiloni iyvnen afxazeTSi erT sul mosaxleze gamoyofili fuladi saxsrebiT, rac saqarTvelos sxva teritoriaze erT sul mosaxleze gamoyofili Tanxis mxolod 40 procents Seadgenda. es marTalac ase iyo, magram arasworad xdeboda am faqtis interpretireba eTnikur diskriminaciad ­ radgan afxazeTis mosaxleobis umravlesobas qarTvelebi warmoadgendnen, am diskriminaciuli politikis mTavar msxverpladac isini gvevlinebodnen. metic, afxazeTi ­ es "sabWoTa riviera" _ aSkarad iyo sabWoTa kavSiris erT-erTi yvelaze mdidari regioni da cxovrebis donec iq bevrad ufro maRali iyo, vidre saqarTvelos danarCen mxareebSi. imavdroulad, afxazeTis qarTuli mosaxleoba ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamda afxazeTSi mTavari Tanamdebobebis araproporciuli ganawilebis gamo. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo kontroli miwis ganawilebaze, radganac afxazeTis sasoflo-sameurneo produqcias _ Cais, Tambaqos, Rvinosa da xils _ uzarmazari mogeba mohqonda sabWoTa bazarze. Tbiliseli qarTvelebi afxazebs moskovel avtoritetebTan gansakuTrebul kavSirebSi adanaSaulebdnen da miaCndaT, rom afxazuri erovnuli moZraoba safrTxes uqmnida saqarTvelos damoukideblobisaken swrafvas. 1988 wlis ivnisSi 58 afxazma komunistma saqarTvelos ssris Semadgenlobidan afxazeTis gasvlis moTxovniT werili

6 mosaxleobis am moZraobaTa didi nawilis sulisCamdgmeli sabWoTa mTavrobis warmomadgenlebi iyvnen. ix.: Giorgi M. Derluguian, "The Tale of Two Resorts: Abkhazia and Ajaria before and Since the Soviet Collapse" in Beverly Crawford and Ronnie D. Lipschutz, eds., The Myth of "Ethnic Conflict": Politics, Economics, and Cultural Violence (Berkeley, CA: International and Area Studies, University of California Press, 1998) pp.261-292 at p.267, http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1064&context=uciaspubs/ research.

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gaagzavna moskovSi, komunisturi partiis me-19 konferenciaze. am moTxovnam qarTvelebSi "yarabaRis scenaris" gameorebis SiSi aRZra ­ am scenaris mixedviT erT-erTi yofili sabWoTa respublikis SemadgenlobaSi myofi avtonomiuri erTeuli meore respublikis SemadgenlobaSi Sesvlas moiTxovda. 1989 wlis martSi gaimarTa masobrivi demonstracia soxumis maxloblad, lixnis teritoriaze ­ am adgils gansakuTrebuli roli eniWeba afxazeTis istoriasa da miTologiaSi, radganac iq dgas "wminda" xe da istoriulad igi warmoadgenda afxazeTis mmarTvelebis rezidencias. oci aTasma adamianma, am respublikis komunisturi elitis afxazi warmomadgenlebis CaTvliT, xeli moawera e.w. "lixnis deklaracias", sadac iTxovdnen afxazeTisaTvis mokavSire respublikis statusis miniWebas, rac saqarTvelos Semadgenlobidan gasvlas gulisxmobda. deklaracia afxazeTis gazeTebSi 24 marts gamoqveynda. 1989 wlis ivlisSi am or eTnikur jgufs Soris moxda Zalismieri dapirispirebis pirveli faqtebi, ris Sedegad daiRupa 16 da daiWra asobiT adamiani.7 magram, miuxedavad amisa, ufro masStaburi ZaladobisaTvis arc afxazebi da arc qarTvelebi jer mzad ar iyvnen. afxazeTis mobilizacias qarTuli erovnuli moZraoba gamoexmaura. mTeli qveynis masStabiT Catarda masobrivi demonstraciebi, sadac antikomunisturi da antiafxazuri lozungebi erTmaneTs erwymoda. Zlierdeboda antiafxazuri ganwyoba, gansakuTrebiT afxazeTis qarTul mosaxleobas Soris. cnobas afxazebis mier mowyobili masobrivi demonstraciis Sesaxeb, sadac wamoyenebuli iyo moTxovna saqarTvelos Semadgenlobidan afxazeTis gasvlis Taobaze, 1989 wlis martSi Tbilisis istoriaSi arnaxuli saprotesto aqcia mohyva. saqarTvelos komunistur mmarTvelobas eSinoda, rom dedaqalaqSi Seqmnil situaciaze kontrols dakargavda da sabWoTa jarebs demonstrantebis winaaRmdeg zomebis miReba sTxova. 9

7 Ronald G. Suny, The Making of the Georgian Nation (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1994), p.323

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aprilis dilas armiam demonstracia Zalis gamoyenebiT daSala, ris Sedegadac daiWra asobiT da daiRupa cxrameti adamiani. am sisxlisRvris winaswarmetyveleba advili SesaZlebeli iyo: qarTuli erovnuli moZraoba ufro radikaluri gaxda, saqarTvelos komunisturma reJimma ki legitimuroba dakarga. moskovis reaqcia igive iyo, rac ramdenime Tvis win yarabaRis krizisis dros ­ gadayenebuli iqnen adgilobrivi mmarTveli pirebi. am SemTxvevaSi Tanamdebobidan gadaayenes saqarTvelos komunisturi partiis centraluri komitetis pirveli mdivani jumber patiaSvili da mis magivrad saqarTvelos saxelmwifo uSiSroebis komitetis Tavmjdomare givi gumbariZe daniSnes. 9 aprilis movlenebiT gamowveuli Soki imdenad didi iyo, rom axalma komunisturma mmarTvelobam erovnuli opoziciis moTxovnebi miiRo da erovnul moZraobasTan did daTmobebze wavida. pirvel rigSi, cixidan gaaTavisufles erovnulganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis liderebi ­ zviad gamsaxurdia, merab kostava da giorgi Wanturia. 1989 wlis agvistoSi saqarTvelos uzenaesma sabWom, romlis wevrTa umravlesobac komunisturi partiis wevri iyo, miiRo kanoni saxelmwifo enis Sesaxeb. kanonis mixedviT savaldebulo iyo qarTuli enis sajaro seqtorSi gamoyeneba mTeli respublikis masStabiT; am faqts uaryofiTad Sexvdnen afxazeTSi (sadac araqarTuli mosaxleobis umravlesobam qarTuli ar icoda) da samxreT oseTSi. 1989 wlis seqtemberSi moskovSi gamarTul partiis centraluri komitetis plenumze givi gumbariZem moiTxova, miecaT saqarTvelosaTvis ufleba, Tavad moegvarebina Tavisi Sida eTnikuri sakiTxebi da am mizniT sakuTari SeiaraRebuli Zalebis Seqmnis uflebac ki iTxova. noemberSi saqarTvelos uzenaesma sabWom gamoacxada, rom igi aRar cnobda sabWoTa kanonmdeblobas, romelic saqarTvelos interesebs ewinaaRmdegeboda. 1990 wlis martSi ki gamocxadda saqarTvelos suvereniteti, riTac sabWoTa mTavrobis mier 1921 wlidan dadebuli yvela xelSekruleba gauqmebulad iTvleboda. givi gumbariZem ganacxada, rom saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgena partiis

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mizans warmoadgenda. komunisturi partiis axali liderebis sul ufro mzard erovnul ritorikas sabediswerod aRiqvamdnen sabWoTa saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi myofi avtonomiebis erovnuli umciresobebi _ osebi da afxazebi da kidev ufro umwvavdebodaT qarTvelebis dominirebiT gamowveuli SiSi. meore cxeli wertili aRmocenda samxreT oseTSi. saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi myofi am avtonomiuri regionis mosaxleoba 100000-s aWarbebda, romlis 66.2 procents _ osebi, 29 procents ki qarTvelebi Seadgendnen. 8 samxreT oseTSi mcxovrebi ojaxebis umravlesoba Sereuli ­ qarTul-osuri iyo9. osuri ena miekuTvneba iranuli enebis CrdiloaRmosavlur jgufs. osebis umravlesoba marTlmadidebeli qristiania, xolo mosaxleobis umciresoba ki ­ suniti musulmani. 1918 da 1921 wlebSi saqarTvelos menSevikurma mTavrobam sastikad CaaxSo osebis bolSevikuri ajanyeba. am movlenis gamo oseTis mosaxleobaSi Warbobda azri, rom maT istoriulad usamarTlod eqceodnen. saerTod, 1988 wlis dasrulebamde urTierToba Tbilissa da cxinvals Soris, iseve, rogorc samxreT oseTSi mcxovreb qarTvelebsa da osebs Soris, umTavresad ar iyo daZabuli. daZabulobam am or eTnikur jgufs Soris 1989 wels iCina Tavi. maSin naTeli gaxda, rom samxreT oseTi afxazeTis gzas daadga ­ gzas, romelic miznad isaxavda sul ufro metad nacionalisturad ganwyobili saqarTvelodan gamoyofas. samxreT oseTs surda, SeerTeboda CrdiloeT oseTs, romelsac ruseTis federaciis SemadgenlobaSi avtonomiuri respublikis statusi hqonda. am periodSi gamwvavda dapirispireba kanonmdeblebs Sorisac: saqarTvelos uzenaesi sabWos mier 1989 wlis agvistoSi miRebul kanons qarTuli enis saxelmwifo enad gamocxadebis Sesaxeb osebma sakuTari kanoni daupirispires da samxreT

ixileT: Itogi vsesoyuznoi perepisi naseleniya 1989 goda. Alexei Zverev, "Ethnic Conflicts in the Caucasus 1988­1994," in Bruno Coppieters, ed., Contested Borders in the Caucasus (Brussels: VUB Press, 1996), p. 39, http:// poli.vub.ac.be/publi/ContBorders/eng/ch0103.htm.

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oseTis teritoriaze oficialur enad osuri ena gamoacxades. 1989 wlis noemberSi samxreT oseTis umaRlesma sakanonmdeblo organom, saolqo sabWom, TxovniT mimarTa saqarTvelosa da sabWoTa kavSiris uzenaes sabWoebs samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri olqis statusis avtonomiuri respublikis statusiT Secvlis Taobaze. am mimarTvaSi araferi iyo konstituciis sawinaaRmdego da arc gamonakliss warmoadgenda, radganac "perestroikis" bolo periodSi yvela avtonomiur olqsa Tu avtonomiur respublikas Tavisi statusis amaRleba surda. miuxedavad amisa, qarTulma komunisturma mmarTvelobam da erovnulma opoziciam oseTis es mimarTva saqarTvelos Semadgenlobidan misi gamosvlisaken mimarTul nabijad da saqarTvelos damoukideblobisaTvis safrTxis Seqmnad aRiqva. saqarTvelos erovnulma moZraobam, romlis yvelaze popularuli lideri zviad gamsaxurdia iyo, samxreT oseTTan Seqmnili mzardi daZabuloba Tavis sasargeblod gamoiyena. 1989 wlis 23 noembers samxreT oseTis sakanonmdeblo organos gadawyvetilebis sapasuxod (SeecvalaT olqis statusi ufro maRali, damoukidebeli respublikis statusiT) mobilizebuli iqna 30000 qarTveli demonstranti, romelic saprotesto aqciis Casatareblad samxreT oseTis dedaqalaq cxinvalSi avtobusebiT gaemarTa. qalaqSi SesvlisTanave maT gza sabWoTa uSiSroebis Zalebma gadauketes. am faqts Setakebebi mohyva, rac, pirvel rigSi, zviad gamsaxurdias aZlevda xels, romelmac naTlad daanaxa yvelas, rom Zala Seswevda, Seekriba 30000 kaci da, Sesabamisad, SeZlebda, saqarTvelos komunisturi partiis liderebisaTvis sakuTari samoqmedo gegma moexvia Tavze. qarTveli nacionalistebis am demonstraciis sapasuxod "adamon nixasis"10 liderebma saxalxo laSqris pirveli SenaerTebis Seqmna daiwyes samxreT oseTSi. samxreT oseTis qarTulma mosaxleobam Tavisi piradi nivTebis usafrTxo

10 adamon nixasi ("xalxis kreba") samxreT oseTSi saxalxo moZraobas warmoadgenda.

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adgilas gadatana da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi gasaqcevad mzadeba daiwyo. 1990 wlis martSi saqarTvelos uzenaesma sabWom kanonierad cno yvela akrZaluli opoziciuri partia da saqarTvelo aneqsirebul da okupirebul saxelmwifod gamoacxada, riTac kidev ufro gaamZafra moskovTan arsebuli konfliqti. saqarTvelos sabWoTa kavSiridan gasvlis mcdelobis sapasuxod afxazebmac, Tavis mxriv, aseTive nabijebi gadadges saqarTvelos Semadgenlobidan gamosasvlelad. afxazeTis uzenaesma sabWom calmxrivad gamoacxada afxazeTis damoukidebloba da moskovs misi sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi mokavSire respublikad Seyvana sTxova. es qmedeba saqarTvelos uzenaesma sabWom ukanonod gamoacxada. 1990 wlis agvistoSi, pirveli Tavisufali saparlamento arCevnebisaTvis mzadebisas, saqarTvelos uzenaesma sabWom miiRo saarCevno kanoni, romelic krZalavda arCevnebSi mxolod regionalur doneze moqmedi jgufebis monawileobas, riTac arCevnebSi nebismieri osuri partiis monawileoba gamoiricxeboda. amis sapasuxod 1990 wlis 20 seqtembers samxreT oseTis saolqo sabWom samxreT oseTi samxreT oseTis demokratiul sabWoTa respublikad gamoacxada da moskovs sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi pirdapiri gziT Sesvla sTxova. 9 dekembers samxreT oseTSi arCevnebi Catarda. saqarTvelos axladarCeulma parlamentma, sadac gamsaxurdias momxreebma adgilebis umravlesoba moipoves, samxreT oseTis arCevnebi ukanonod cno da avtonomiuri olqis statusi gaauqma. samxreT oseTSi gamocxadda sagangebo mdgomareoba, xolo cxinvalSi Sinagan saqmeTa uSiSroebis Zalebi ganlagda. 1991 wlis 5 ianvars 5000-kaciani qarTuli samxedro formireba, romlis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen adgilobrivi saxalxo laSqrisa da axladSeqmnili qarTuli erovnuli gvardiis wevrebi, cxinvalSi Sevida. isini arbevdnen da Tavs esxmodnen adgilobriv mosaxleobas. samxreT oseTis saxalxo laSqarma maT sastiki winaaRmdegoba gauwia. ianvris bolos qarTulma jarma es teritoria datova, poziciebi qalaqis garSemo amaRlebul

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adgilebze daikava da qalaqis blokada daiwyo; es blokada 1992 wlis ivlisamde gagrZelda, sanam samxreT oseTis teritoriaze rusul-qarTul-osuri samSvidobo jarebi ar Sevidnen. samxreT oseTis omi iyo pirveli omi saqarTveloSi da man garkveulwilad ganapiroba momdevno oric. saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze Seiqmna SeiaraRebuli formirebebi, romlebic saxelmwifo kontrols ar emorCilebodnen, Tumca ki maT Camoyalibebas garkveulwilad saxelmwifomve Seuwyo xeli. Semdgomi omebi saqarTveloSi iyo: samoqalaqo omi, romelic 1991 wlis dekemberSi daiwyo da 1992 wlis agvistoSi dawyebuli afxazeTis omi. am omebSi mTavari roli SeiaraRebulma formirebebma iTamaSes. saqarTveloSi 1990 wlis 28 oqtombers Catarebuli pirveli Tavisufali saparlamento arCevnebi zviad gamsaxurdias gamarjvebiT dasrulda. eWvgareSe iyo, rom axal mTavrobas saqarTvelos sruli damoukidebloba surda. magram gamsaxurdias gamarjvebam ver dafara is faqti, rom gamarjvebulebs ar SeswevdaT Zala sabolood gaxleCili erovnuli moZraobis gaerTianebisa. erovnul-demokratiulma da erovnuli damoukideblobis partiebma boikoti gamoucxades uzenaesi sabWos arCevnebs da sanacvlod 1990 wlis 30 seqtembers sakuTari parlamentis ­ erovnuli kongresis ­ asarCevad alternatiuli arCevnebi Caatares. uzenaesi sabWos arCevnebis Sedegad xelisuflebaSi movida saqarTvelos mosaxleobis axali fena ­ fena, romelsac nomenklatura da qalaqis inteligencia miiCnevda dabali ganaTlebisa da susti profesiuli kvalifikaciis mqone adamianebad, romlebsac qveynis marTva ar SeeZloT. es azri dadasturda pirveli parlamentis mier Catarebuli samuSaos Sesaxeb angariSis Seswavlis Sedegad. 1990 wlis SemodgomisaTvis saqarTvelo nawilebad iSleboda. sami avtonomiuri erTeulidan ori ­ samxreT oseTi da afxazeTi ­ Tbilisis kontrols ar eqvemdebareboda. saqarTvelos erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba gaxleCili iyo, xolo parlamentis "promamuliSviluri" jgufebi umetesad gaukontroleblad moqmedebdnen. 1991 wlis 9 aprils, sabWoTa

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jaris mier TbilisSi demonstraciis mTeli sisastikiT darbevidan zustad ori wlis Semdeg, saqarTvelos parlamentma saqarTvelos damoukidebloba gamoacxada, xolo 26 maiss ki gamsaxurdia saqarTvelos prezidentad xmaTa 86 procentiT airCies. am arCevnebs boikoti gamoucxada afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis araqarTulma mosaxleobam. gamsaxurdiam am Tanamdebobaze weliwadze naklebi xani dahyo. saqarTvelom samoqalaqo omisaken svla 1991 wlis agvistoSi moskovSi momxdari putCis Semdeg daiwyo. moskovis am movlenebiT gakvirvebulma gamsaxurdiam ganacxada, rom sabWoTa kavSirSi mimdinare ZalauflebisaTvis brZolis mimarT igi neitraluri iyo da daeTanxma sabWoTa samxedro meTauris moTxovnas, saqarTvelos erovnuli gvardia sabWoTa Sinagan saqmeTa saministros struqturaSi Seeyvana. am brZanebas ar daemorCila erovnuli gvardiis meTauri Tengiz kitovani, radganac es "misi" gvardiis daSlas niSnavda; 1991 wlis seqtemberSi man Tavisi jari Tbilisidan gaiyvana da prezidenti moqmedi samxedro Zalis gareSe datova. es niSnavda imasac, rom gamsaxurdias aRar gaaCnda Zlieri sayrdeni Tavisi reJimis SesanarCuneblad. Tumca 1991 wlis TebervalSi man moaxerxa imJamad gandgomili "mxedrionis" daSla; agvistoSi Tengiz kitovani, misi momxreebi da premierministri Tengiz sigua prezidents ganudgnen, ris Sedegadac gamsaxurdias Zalze cota darCa iseTi SeiaraRebuli piri, romelTa ndobac SeeZlo. Tengiz kitovani da Tengiz sigua gauwonasworebel mdgomareobaSi myofi zviad gamsaxurdias winaaRmdeg gamovidnen. gamsaxurdias mZlavri antisabWoTa da nacionalisturi politika veRar malavda im faqts, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifo nawilebad iSleboda, saerTaSoriso masStabiT ki qveyana izolaciaSi rCeboda. 1991 wlis dekemberSi, cixidan gaTavisuflebis Semdeg, jaba ioselianma "mxedrioni" aRadgina da meamboxeebs SeuerTda. 1991 wlis 22 dekembers erovnuli gvardiis daaxloebiT 500 jariskaci TbilisSi Semovida da mcire xniT parlamentis Senobis alyaSi moqcevis Semdeg kanonierad arCeuli prezi124

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denti Tbilisidan gaaZeva. 1992 wlis 6 ianvars gamsaxurdia somxeTSi gaiqca da opoziciamac Tavi gamarjvebulad CaTvala. magram samoqalaqo omi amiT ar damTavrebula. gandevnilma prezidentma Tbilisis axali mTavrobis winaaRmdeg SeiaraRebuli moZraoba dasavleT saqarTveloSi, Tavis mSobliur regionSi wamoiwyo. gamsaxurdias Tbilisidan gaqcevis Semdeg asparezi ukve mzad iyo axal da ufro Zlier moqmed pirTaTvis. axalma gardamavalma mTavrobam ­ jaba ioselianma ("mxedrionis" lideri), Tengiz kitovanma (erovnuli gvardiis meTauri) da yofilma premierministrma Tengiz siguam (romelic 1991 wlis agvistoSi gamsaxurdiam gadaayena) ­ eduard SevardnaZes samSobloSi mouxmes. eduard SevardnaZe, romelic gorbaCovis inovaciuri mmarTvelobis periodSi sabWoTa kavSiris sagareo saqmeTa ministri iyo, didi avtoritetiT sargeblobda ucxoeTSic da saqarTveloSic. igi im rangis saxelmwifo moxeled moiazreboda, romelsac saqarTvelos samoqalaqo omis qarcecxlidan gamoyvana SeeZlo. 1992 wlis 7 marts eduard SevardnaZis dabrunebis Semdeg, e.w. "saxelmwifo sabWom" igi gardamavali mTavrobis Tavmjdomared daasaxela da qveynis samoqalaqo omidan gamoyvana miando. Tu arsebul garemoebas gaviTvaliswinebT, es amocana Zalze rTuli iyo: samxreT oseTSi gamarjveba ukve SeuZlebeli Canda; afxazeTTan arsebuli konfliqti yovel wuTs SeiZleboda gamwvavebuliyo; gaZevebuli prezidenti zviad gamsaxurdia Tavis erTgul xalxTan erTad dasavleT saqarTveloSi moqmedebda. garda amisa, ruseTi, rogorc sabWoTa kavSiris memkvidre-qveyana, saqarTvelos aiZulebda, axladSeqmnil damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobas (dsT) SeerTeboda da qveyanaSi ruseTis samxedro bazebis arsebobaze daTanxmebuliyo. am dros eduard SevardnaZis erTaderTi (da Zalian arasando) mxardamWerebi "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelebi" ­ jaba ioseliani da Tengiz kitovani iyvnen. samxreT oseTTan arsebul konfliqtSi ruseTi axla mTavar faqtorad gadaiqca. moskovidan wamosulma politikurma zewolam ­ osebis aSkara samxedro daxmarebam da dasaSinebelma manevrebma _ SveulmfrenebiT saqarTvelos soflebze drodadro ganxor125

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cielebulma Setevebma ­ SevardnaZe aiZula, cecxlis Sewyvetaze daTanxmebuliyo. 1992 wlis ivlisSi ruseTis meTaurobis qveS myofi rusul-qarTul-osuri samSvidobo Zalebi cecxlis Sewyvetis ganxorcielebaze kontrols Seudgnen. samxreT oseTSi konfliqtis deeskalaciis Semdeg afxazeTSi kvlav imZlavra Zaladobam. ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelo-afxazeTis konfliqti mxolod kanonmdeblobis (Sesabamisi parlamentebis mier miRebuli kanonebis) da arCevnebis omi iyo.11 1990 wlis 25 agvistos afxazeTis uzenaesma sabWom afxazeTi sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi myof mokavSire respublikad gamoacxada. saqarTvelos uzenaesma sabWom es gadawyvetileba umalve ukanonod cno. 1991 wlis agvistoSi ganxorcielda konsensusis miRwevis erTi seriozuli mcdeloba ­ zviad gamsaxurdiam afxazeTis mTavrobasTan miaRwia SeTanxmebas Zalauflebis gadanawilebis Sesaxeb; es gadanawileba gamoixata saarCevno kodeqsis miRebiT, romlis Tanaxmadac saarCevno olqebis demarkacia eTnikuri principiT unda momxdariyo; ase rom, yovel eTnikur jgufs afxazeTis axal 65-kacian parlamentSi garkveuli kvota eZleoda: qarTuli mosaxleoba (romelic 1989 wels afxazeTis mosaxleobis 45.7 procents Seadgenda) miiRebda 26 adgils, afxazebs (17.8 procenti) eqnebodaT 28 adgili, xolo sxva eTnikuri jgufebi (umTavresad, somxebi (14.6 procenti) da rusebi (14.3 procenti) miiRebdnen darCenil 11 adgils. konstituciuri sakiTxebis gadasawyvetad saWiro iqneboda xmaTa ori mesamedis miReba ­ amis gamo verc erTi eTnikuri jgufi ver gaatarebda konstituciur cvlilebebs sxva jgufTan SeuTanxmeblad.12 1991 wlis

11 "Human Rights Watch", "Georgia/Abkhazia: Violance of the Laws of War and Russia's Role in the Conflict, " March 1. 1995 http://www.hrw.org/reports/1995/Georgia2.htm. 12 ixiliT: Ghia Nodia, "The Conflict in Abkhazia: National Projects and Political Circumstances," in Bruno Coppieters, Ghia Nodia, and Yuri Anchabadze, eds., Georgians and Abkhazians: The Search for a Peace Settlement (Koeln: Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, 1998), pp. 14­48, http://poli.vub.ac.be./ publi/Georgians/chp0201.html; Revaz Gachechiladze, The New Georgia: Space, Society, Politics (London: Routledge, 1995), p.41 and p. 84.

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29 seqtembers am kanonis Tanaxmad afxazeTis uzenaesma sabWom Caatara arCevnebi, romlis Semdegi ori turi 13 oqtombersa da 1 dekembers gaimarTa. sabolood, 1991 wlis xelSekruleba ZalaSi ar Sesula. amis erT-erTi mizezi iyo zviad gamsaxurdias mTavrobis marcxi, ramac, Tavis mxriv, Semdegi movlenebi gamoiwvia: SevardnaZis administracia yvelafers akeTebda zviad gamsaxurdias delegitimizaciisaTvis, amitomac mas aranairi survili ar hqonda, gamsaxurdias proeqtisaTvis daeWira mxari. zviad gamsaxurdias momxreebi eduard SevardnaZis mTavrobas "moskovis marionetad" saxavdnen. Tavis mxriv, axali mTavroba cdilobda, erovnuli interesebis dacvaSi gamsaxurdiaze metad warmoeCina Tavi. am mizezTa gamo mTavrobisaTvis xelsayreli iyo 1991 wlis xelSekrulebis "erovnuli interesebis Semlaxvel" dokumentad gamocxadeba. da bolos, afxazeTis mTavroba saqarTveloSi mmarTvelobisa da legitimurobis rRvevis procesSi Tavisi Sansis gamoyenebas cdilobda: 1992 wlis 23 ivliss afxazeTis uzenaesma sabWom, romelic arc ki ecada xmebis ori mesamedis mopovebas, rogorc es 1991 wlis agvistos Zalauflebis gadamanawilebeli xelSekrulebiT iyo gaTvaliswinebuli, ise miiRo kanoni, romliTac 1925 wlis afxazeTis konstituciis proeqtis aRdgena xdeboda, sadac afxazeTi suverenul saxelmwifod iyo gamocxadebuli da romelic Tavis droze sruliad afxazeTis sabWoebis kongresma miiRo. 1992 wels zviad gamsaxurdias mxardamWerma jarebma gaitaces saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa ministri da parlamentis erTi wevri. rogorc ambobdnen, mZevlebi afxazeTis teritoriaze, galis raionSi gadaiyvanes. qarTulma mxarem es faqti afxazeTSi Sesvlis sababad gamoiyena. 1992 wlis 14 agvistos saqarTvelos erovnuli gvardia afxazeTisaken daiZra, daikava soxumi da gaaRviva konfliqti, romelic didi xnis ganmavlobaSi mwifdeboda. afxazebs mxars uWerdnen Crdilokavkasielebi da maT teritoriaze ganlagebuli ruseTis jarebi. amitomac, qarTvelebisaTvis moulodnelad, maT maSinve SeZles Zlieri

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SeiaraRebuli winaaRmdegobis gaweva. im droisaTvis dasavleT saqarTveloSi zviad gamsaxurdias jarebi sakuTar samxedro kampanias awarmoebdnen. qarTul jars or frontze omis saSiSroeba emuqreboda. aseT SemTxvevaSi isini SeiZleba alyaSi moqceuliyvnen ­ CrdiloeTiT afxazebisa, xolo samxreTiT _ zviad gamsaxurdias Zalebis garemocvaSi. aseTi ram erTi wlis Semdeg marTlac moxda. 1993 wlis seqtemberSi zviad gamsaxurdias samxedro SenaerTebma dasavleT saqarTveloSi qarTul jars Seuties, xolo afxazebma, ruseTis mxardaWeris Sedegad, soxumis dabruneba SeZles. afxazeTis qarTuli mosaxleoba afxazeTidan gamoiqca. damarcxebis Semdeg ukiduresad damcirebuli eduard SevardnaZe iZulebuli gaxda, ruseTisaTvis daxmareba eTxova, raTa gamsaxurdias gasworeboda. ruseTis jarma zviad gamsaxurdias Zalebi or kviraSi daamarcxa. saqarTvelom ki winaaRmdegoba veRar gauwia dsT-s moTxovnas, misi sruluflebiani wevri gamxdariyo da xeli moewera mTel rig xelSekrulebebze usafrTxoebis sferoSi. 1994 wlis ivnisSi afxazeTisa da saqarTvelos mTavrobebi SeTanxmdnen, rom afxazeTisa da saqarTvelos danarCen teritorias Soris arsebul sazRvarze rusi samSvidobo Zalebi ganlagdebodnen. Tbilisma daiwyo molaparakebebi moskovTan vazianSi, gudauTaSi, axalqalaqsa da baTumSi ganlagebuli rusuli samxedro bazebis momavali bedis Sesaxeb. axali qarTuli parlamenti maSin airCies, rodesac afxazeTSi jer kidev omi mimdinareobda ­ 1992 wlis 11 oqtombers. imavdroulad, Catarda parlamentis Tavmjdomaris pirdapiri wesiT arCevnebi, sadac SevardnaZes konkurenti ar hyolia. amomrCevelTa aqtivobam 74% Seadgina da eduard SevardnaZem maTi xmebis 96% moipova. 1992 wlis 6 noembers axalma parlamentma daamtkica kanoni saxelmwifo xelisuflebis Sesaxeb, romlis Tanaxmadac eduard SevardnaZe xdeboda aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis xelmZRvaneli, SeiaraRebuli Zalebis umaRlesi mTavarsardali da saxelmwifos meTauri. mas Semdeg, rac 1995 wlis 24 agvistos moxda axali konstituciis rati128

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ficireba, eduard SevardnaZe 1995 wlis 5 noembers xmaTa 74 procentiT (oficialuri monacemebiT) qveynis prezidentad airCies. am arCevnebiT eduard SevardnaZem moipova demokratiuli da konstituciuri legitimuroba, rac mas xelisuflebaSi mosvlisas ar gaaCnda. mas Semdeg, rac SevardnaZem ver SeZlo kontrolis aRdgena samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTze, igi jaba ioseliansa da Tengiz kitovans daupirispirda ­ liderebs, romlebmac 1992 wels is saqarTveloSi Camoiyvanes im imediT, rom TavianTi SeiaraRebuli formirebebiT SeZlebdnen mis marTvas. upirveles yovlisa, eduard SevardnaZem erovnuli gvardiis neitralizacia ganaxorciela da etapobrivad gaaerTiana igi saxelmwifo struqturaSi. 1993 wlis maisSi man Tengiz kitovani Tavdacvis ministrobidan gaaTavisufla, 1994 wlis TebervalSi ki amave Tanamdebobidan gadadga Tengiz kitovanis proteJe, giorgi yaryaraSvili, romelic am postze eduard SevardaZisadmi keTilganwyobilma vardiko nadibaiZem Secvala. 1995 wlis ianvarSi ZalauflebisaTvis ukanasknelad uimedod gaibrZoles _ Tengiz kitovani (Tengiz siguas daxmarebiT) 700mde msubuqad SeiaraRebul momxresTan erTad kvlav Seecada afxazeTze ieriSis mitanas, magram isini qarTulma policiam SeaCera da daapatimra. jer kidev 1993 wlis Semodgomaze prezident gamsaxurdias momxreTa winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad eduard SevardnaZis dasayrdeni jaba ioseliani da misi "mxedrioni" iyo. mxolod 1995 wlis dasawyisSi SeZlo man, ebrZanebina Sinagan saqmeTa ministrisaTvis saministros jarebis meSveobiT "mxedrionis" SenaerTebis dapatimreba, Tumca 1995 wlis zafxulamde jaba ioselianis moadgile da saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa yofili ministri, Temur xaCiSvili, jer kidev saxelmwifo uSiSroebis ministris moadgiled rCeboda. mxolod 1995 wlis agvistoSi prezident SevardnaZeze ganxorcielebuli Tavdasxmis Semdeg moxda jaba ioselianisa da Temur xaCiSvilis dapatimreba. movlenaTa am mokle mimoxilvidan Cans, rom postsabWoTa periodis pirveli xuTi weli saqarTvelosaTvis umZimesi

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aRmoCnda. 1988-1993 wlebSi saqarTvelo damarcxda or separatistul regionTan mimdinare omebSi, garda amisa, iyo ZalauflebisaTvis daundobeli brZola TbilisSi. winamdebare naSromis Semdgom nawilSi mocemulia movlenaTa amgvari ganviTarebis axsna-ganmarteba. qarTvelebis, afxazebisa da osebis eTnoerovnuli mobilizaciis istoria sam mniSvnelovan sakiTxs wamoWris: pirvel rigSi, am sami jgufis mobilizacia urTierTdamokidebul process warmoadgenda, sadac yovel qmedebas ukuqmedeba mohyveboda. Sidasazogadoebrivi organizebuli Zaladoba spiralis mxolod bolo iyo. didi xnis ganmavlobaSi eTnoerovnuli sakiTxebis gansja mxolod sityvebis oms warmoadgenda. Semdgom amas kanonmdeblobaTa omi mohyva: 1989 wlidan da Semdgom periodSi gamococxlebulma sabWoTa sakanonmdeblo organoebma erovnuli ideebi kanonebsa da gancxadebebSi gadaiyvanes, sadac saxelmwifos meTaurebi suverenitets acxadebdnen. afxazeTis or sxvadasxva eTnikur jgufs Soris arsebuli dapirispireba Zalismier konfliqtSi mxolod gare Zalebis intervenciis Sedegad gadaizarda. meore, aRsaniSnavia, rom erovnuli programebi Zalian swrafad miiRo saqarTvelos, samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis komunisturma nomenklaturam da Semdeg isini sabWoTa sistemis politikur institutebSi Seitana. am samive saxelmwifoSi sabWoTa kanonmdeblebma erovnuli suvereniteti Tu damoukidebloba kanonmdeblobiT ganamtkices. mas Semdeg, rac komunisturi partiis mesveurebma nacionaluri moZraobis xelmZRvanelebs gadasces partiisa da saxelmwifos mobilizebis potenciali, mobilizaciis procesi sagrZnoblad daCqarda. mesame, organizebuli Zaladoba gacilebiT gvian daiwyo, vidre nacionalisturi mobilizacia. zviad gamsaxurdias mier erovnul grZnobebze apelireba sakuTari Zalauflebis ganmtkicebis mizniT samxreT oseTis SemTxvevaSi organizebuli Zaladobis warmoSobis mizezi gaxda ­ man gasaqani misca axladSeqmnil erovnul gvardias, romelic gamorCenis mZebnel

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meTaurTa daqvemdebarebaSi myof araoficialur formirebas warmoadgenda. mogvianebiT am gasamxedroebuli jgufebis gakontroleba SeuZlebeli Seiqna. saxelmwifo kontrols dauqvemdebarebel gasamxedroebul jgufebs ukavSirdeba organizebuli Zaladobis eskalacia saqarTvelos sxva omebSic.

sabWoTa eTnofederalizmis meqanizmi

mobilizaciis zemoaRwerili procesi aSkarad ganapiroba sabWoTa federaluri sistemis institutebma. osebi da afxazebi saqarTveloSi arc erTaderT da arc yvelaze didi raodenobis erovnul umciresobas ar warmoadgendnen. 1989 wels somxebi saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 8 procents Seadgendnen, xolo azerbaijanelebi ­ 5.7 procents. orive jgufis warmomadgenlebi SedarebiT kompaqturad iyvnen dasaxlebuli samxreT saqarTvelos regionebSi, somxeTisa da azerbaijanis sazRvrebis gaswvriv. faqtorebis es kompleqsi qmnis "triadul garemos", romelsac rojer brubeikeri gansakuTrebiT sariskod miiCnevs 13 . eTnopolitikuri konfliqtebis aRmocenebis meti albaTobaa maSin, rodesac nacionalistur saxelmwifoSi eTnikuri umciresobis kompaqturad dasaxlebul jgufs mezobel qveyanaSi "ufrosi eTnikuri Zma" hyavs. xorvatiasa da, gansakuTrebiT ki, bosnia-hercegovinaSi warmoebulma omebma aSkarad gviCvena, Tu ramdenad feTqebadia aseTi mezobloba. saqarTveloSi mcxovreb somxebsa da azerbaijanelebs mobilizacia ar dauwyiaT da, osebisa da afxazebisagan gansxvavebiT, arc separatistuli tendenciebi gamouvleniaT. am gansxvavebis mTavari mizezi isaa, rom afxazebsa da osebs sakuTari avtonomia gaaCndaT, hqondaT politikuri institutebi da simbolika, ramac xeli Seuwyo maT mobilizaciasa da gamoyofas. somxebsa da azerbaijanelebs ki saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi arc avtono13 Rogers Brubaker, Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp.55-76.

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miuri olqi da arc avtonomiuri respublika ar hqoniaT. ase rom, samxreT oseTi da afxazeTi saukeTeso magaliTia sabWoTa eTnofederalizmSi14 Cadebuli Senelebuli moqmedebis naRmisa. Semdegi sami faqtoriT aixsneba is, Tu ratom Seuwyo xeli avtonomiur regionebSi mobilizaciasa da separatizms sabWoTa eTnofederalizmma. pirveli da yvelaze mniSvnelovania is, rom saqarTvelos mier damoukideblobisaTvis gadadgmulma nabijebma safrTxis winaSe daayena is didi privilegiebi, romlebic sabWoTa kavSiris avtonomiuri olqebis rCeul erebs gaaCndaT. es gansakuTrebiT naTlad afxazeTis SemTxvevaSi gamoCnda. sabWoTa periodis dramatuli demografiuli cvlilebebis Sedegad afxazebi 1989 wels afxazeTis mTeli mosaxleobis mxolod 17.8 procents Seadgendnen, xolo qarTvelebi ki ­ 45.7 procents, magram im dros afxazuri elitisaTvis araproporciulad farTod xelmisawvdomi iyo politikuri da ekonomikuri resursebi, radganac yvela mTavari biurokratiuli Tanamdeboba afxazebs ekavaT.15 moskovis TandaTanobiTi dasusteba, politikur zedamxedvelobasa da sakuTrebis uflebebze kontrolis dakargva sistemas ngreviT emuqreboda, racafxazebs privilegirebul mdgomareobas akargvinebda. ase rom, orive jgufma mobilizacia axali garemoebebis sapasuxod daiwyo: qarTvelebi imedovnebdnen, rom SeZlebdnen TavianTi ricxobrivi upiratesobis gamoyenebas da miznad isaxavdnen, daengriaT sistema, romliTac afxazebs resursebze araproporciulad farTod miuwvdebodaT xeli. moskovis daxmarebis imedis mqone afxazebs ki surdaT status-kvos

14 is faqti, rom saqarTveloSi mcxovrebma somxebma mobilizacia ar wamoiwyes, SeiZleba aixsnas agreTve somxebis TavdacviTi reaqciiT. somxeTis liderebma saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi somxuri diasporis liderebTan erTad SeZles aseTi mobilizaciis Tavidan acileba. yvelanairi amgvari mobilizacia erTmniSvnelovnad arasasurveli iyo somxeTisaTvis, romelic ukve iyo CarTuli mTiani yarabaRis konfliqtSi. aseT axsnas xSirad ver SexvdebiT literaturaSi, magram am regionSi gadawyvetilebebis mimRebi pirebi xSirad wamowevdnen xolme win am sakiTxs naSromis avtorTan saubrisas (ivlisi, 2002 w.). 15 Derluguian, ,,The Tale of Two Resorts", p..262

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SenarCuneba da, metic, TavianTi politikuri poziciebis gaumjobesebac ki. am situaciis gaTvaliswinebiT, savaraudo iyo, rom afxazebi Seecdebodnen, TavianTi avtonomiuri respublika sabWoTa kavSiris pirdapir daqvemdebarebaSi SeeyvanaT. damoukideblobis moTxovna sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg gaCnda, radgan am dros afxazebma potenciuri TavSesafari dakarges. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos erovnul moZraobas, maTTvis afxazebis moskovisadmi erTguleba, romelic Tavdapirvelad mxolod ekonomikuri interesebiT iyo gamowveuli, sabWoTa imperiisadmi maT samsaxurs adasturebda. ase rom, resursebis gamo aRmocenebuli konfliqti eTnikur konfliqtad gardaiqmna, ramac, Tavis mxriv, mobilizacias Seuwyo xeli. meore, separatizmis mxardasaWerad mimarTul mobilizacias xels uwyobda is faqtic, rom avtonomiuri warmonaqmnebis SigniT arsebul jgufebs, sakuTari teritoriis armqone nacionaluri jgufebisagan gansxvavebiT, gaaCndaT sakuTari politikuri institutebi, romliTac sargeblobda politikuri elita. sabWoTa politikuri sistemis krizisis pirobebSi afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis erovnuli moZraobebi swrafad Zlierdeboda. orive teritoriaze nacionalur elitebs Soris mimdinareobda daundobeli konkurencia adgilobriv saxelmwifo struqturebze kontrolis dasamyareblad. komunisturi partiis oficialuri pirebi afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi gamarTul mitingebSi monawileobdnen da saxelmwifo da partiul resursebs gansakargavad erovnul moZraobebs gadascemdnen. Sesabamisad, afxazuri da osuri elitebi warmoadgenda erovnuli inteligenciisa da komunisti Tanamdebobis pirebis "personalur kavSirs". orive SemTxvevaSi separatistuli moZraobebi swrafad gavrcelda sakanonmdeblo organoebSic (sabWoebSi). samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis sabWoebi mudmivad mimarTavdnen moskovs maTi sabWoTa centrisadmi uSualo daqvemdebarebis moTxovniT. orive sakanonmdeblo organo Tavidan sabWoTa procedurebs mimarTavda da amiT garkveul formalur legitimurobas aRwevda, risi gaprotestebac uWirda TbilisSi myof mTavrobas, gansa133

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kuTrebiT ki maSin, rodesac saqarTvelos ukve TviTon hqonda Sewyvetili sabWoTa kanonebis mixedviT TamaSi. mesame, centraluri sabWoTa mTavroba zogjer gamiznulad, zogjer ki uneblieTac xels uwyobda sxvadasxva mokavSire respublikebis SemadgenlobaSi myofi avtonomiuri erTeulebis separatistul ganwyobas. stalinis epoqidan wamosuli sabWoTa erovnuli politikis Zireuli elementi iyo principi: "dayavi da ibatone". zogierT SemTxvevaSi mokavSire respublikebis SemadgenlobaSi myofi avtonomiuri erTeulebi amave respublikebis erTa nacionalisturi survilebis dasabalanseblad gamoiyeneboda. daqvemdebarebul avtonomiaTa rCeulma erebma gansakuTrebuli sargebeli miiRes amgvari mdgomareobis gamo ­ maT Seusabamod farTod miuwvdebodaT xeli yovelgvar resursze, yovel SemTxvevaSi iqamde, vidre kiTxvis niSnis qveS ar dadgeboda maTi moskovisadmi erTguleba. "perestroikis" gviandel periodSi moskovi amgvar praqtikas kvlav daubrunda da samxreT oseTsac da afxazeTsac farTo politikur daxmarebas uwevda saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg; sabrZolo moqmedebebis dawyebis Semdeg am daxmarebas samxedro xasiaTic mieca. Tavisi ori sabrZolo marcxis asaxsnelad qarTuli mxare xSirad azviadebs am daxmarebas. sabrZolo moqmedebebis dawyebamde samxreT oseTSic da afxazeTSic aSkarad gadaWarbebuli warmodgena hqondaT moskovis xelT arsebuli zewolis realuri berketebis Sesaxeb. arasworma Sefasebebma, eWvgareSea, ganapiroba separatistebis samoqmedo gegmis Camoyalibebac samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTSi.

postkomunisturi elitis Sida daqsaqsuloba

eTnonacionalur mobilizaciasa da sabWoTa eTnofederalizmis institutebTan erTad organizebul Zaladobas axali qarTuli elitis daqsaqsulobac ukvalavda gzas, rac axladmopovebuli damoukideblobis ganmtkicebas uSlida

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xels.16 es saxelmwifoebrivi sisuste da mmarTvel struqturebSi arsebuli dapirispireba garkveuli institucionaluri mizezebiT aixsneba da damaxasiaTebelia mTeli kavkasiisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki niSandoblivia saqarTvelosTvis. saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sisuste gardamavali postkomunisturi epoqis Sedegi ar yofila. es sisuste ufro adre warmoiSva, rogorc sabWoTa sistemis institucionaluri memkvidreoba. kavkasiasa da centralur aziaSi arsebuli proteqcionizmisa da klientelizmis qseli erT-erT yvelaze efeqtur araformalur instituts warmoadgenda sabWoTa periodSi da igi sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdegac SenarCunda.17 samxreT kavkasiis problemebisadmi miZRvnil naSromSi jerald isteri aRwers, Tu rogor cdilobda stalinis droidan moyolebuli sabWoTa saxelmwifo sakuTari mmarTvelobis simtkicis uzrunvelsayofad adgilobrivi proteqciuli sistemis gamoyenebas.18 amis Sedegad miRebuli socialisturi saxelmwifoebriobis sisuste kompensirdeboda personificirebuli mmarTvelobiT. sabWoTa ekonomikis gadamanawilebeli giganturi meqanizmi im nayofier niadags qmnida, romelzec kargad xarobda proteqcionizmis sistema; amitom arcaa gasakviri, rom es sistema sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdegac SenarCunda. axalma qarTvelma nacionalistebma ver SeZles pirad ndobaze damyarebuli proteqcionizmis Rrmad fesvgamdgari sistemis ufro Tanamedrove, arapiradulze dafuZnebuli saxelmwifo biurokratiis Camoyalibeba. 19 saqarTveloSi

Jones, "Georgia: A Failed Democratic Transition, "pp. 288-310. Pavel K. Baev, "Civil Wars in Georgia: Corruption Breeds Violence," in Jan Koehler and Christoph Zürcher, eds., Potentials of Dis/Order: Explaining Conflict and Stability in the Caucasus and in the Former Yugoslavia (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003), pp. 127­144; Zürcher, Koehler, and Baev, "Internal Violence in the Caucasus"; Derluguian, "The Tale of Two Resorts," pp. 261­292. 18 Gerald Easter, "Personal Networks and Post-Revolutionary State-Building: Soviet Russia Reexamined," World Politics, vol. 48 (1996), pp. 551­578. 19 es aris ZiriTadi Tezisi statiis: Barbara Christophe, "Bringing Culture Back into a Concept of Rationality: State­Society Relations and Conflict in Post-Socialist Transcaucasia," in Koehler and Zürcher, Potentials of Dis/Order, 193­207.

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aRzevebuli erovnuli moZraoba, romelmac zviad gamsaxurdia xelisuflebaSi moiyvana, SeeTvisa am kargad Camoyalibebul da Rrmad fesvgamdgar struqturas, romelic kvlavac akontrolebda yovelgvar SesaZleblobaTa gadanawilebas. amas garda, sakanonmdeblo organoSi ar iyvnen warmodgenilni proteqcionizmis qselis gavleniani warmomadgenlebi, Zveli kadrebi da qalaqis inteligencia ­ amis gamo parlaments sakmaod moaklda politikuri mxardaWera. amgvarad, gamoucdelma parlamentma ver SeaCera saxelmwifos rRveva, kerZod: man ver SeZlo Zveli kadrebisa da maTi mfarvelebis ekonomikuri da politikuri SesaZleblobebis mobilizeba. prezident zviad gamsaxurdiasa da misi axali parlamentisaTvis eTnonacionaluri mobilizacia Zalauflebis SenarCunebis saSualebas warmoadgenda, rasac katastrofuli Sedegebi mohyva. nacionalizmi zviad gamsaxurdias erTaderTi sayrdeni iyo. igi xelisuflebaSi quCis zewolisa da erovnul-patriotuli emociebis Sedegad movida. 1990 wlis Semodgomis arCevnebze man da misma koaliciam _ "mrgvali magida ­ Tavisufali saqarTvelo" parlamentSi 250 adgilidan 155 moipova. erovnulma moZraobam mas arCevnebSi gamarjveba ki moutana, magram saxelmwifos erTianobis uzrunvelyofa ver SeZlo. postkomunisturi periodis samive konfliqtisas organizebuli Zaladobis zrda pirdapir kavSirSia saqarTvelos Sida uTanxmoebasa da Camouyalibel saxelmwifoebriobasTan. pirveli konfliqti ­ sabrZolo moqmedebebi samxreT oseTSi ­ im patriotul ZalTa konsolidacias mohyva, romelmac didad Seuwyo xeli zviad gamsaxurdias xelisuflebaSi mosvlas. am moZraobam gamsaxurdias 1991 wlis saprezidento arCevnebSi xmaTa didi umravlesobiT gaamarjvebina, magram samxreT oseTis omSi gamarjveba ver moutana. mxolod nacionalisturi ritorikiT omebs verc awarmoeben da verc igeben. zviad gamsaxurdias gadasayeneblad wamowyebuli saomari moqmedebac Sida uTanxmoebebisa da susti saxelmwifoebriobis Sedegad daiwyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom saprezidento arCev136

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nebze zviad gamsaxurdiam gaimarjva, qarTul politikur arenaze, gansakuTrebiT ki erovnuli moZraobis SigniT, ar wydeboda piradi dapirispireba da qiSpi. zviad gamsaxurdia, rogorc pirovneba, ver gamodgeboda ukve gaxleCili erovnuli moZraobis gamaerTianeblad. igi mtrebs advilad iZenda, garSemo ki umetesad iseTi xalxi exvia, romelTa erTaderTi Rirsebac misdami erTguleba iyo.20 am pirobebSi arcaa gasakviri, rom pirad ambiciebs ayolilma gaxleCilma erovnulma moZraobam gaerTianeba ver SeZlo. gamsaxurdiam ver daimorCila "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelni". erovnuli gvardia zviad gamsaxurdias ganudga da mis Camosagdebad daiwyo moqmedeba. da bolos, afxazeTSi 1992 wels dawyebuli omic Sedegi iyo eduard SevardnaZis saqarTveloSi Camosvlis Semdgomi dapirispirebebisa da gaumarTavi saxelmwifoebriobisa. imdroindeli garemoebebidan gamomdinare, erovnuli gvardiis afxazeTSi SeWra darbevis msurvel kerZo jaris manevrs hgavda.21 zviad gamsaxurdias damarcxebis mizezebi gasagebi gaxdeba, Tu davakvirdebiT, ra auCqareblad da ostaturad aZlierebda eduard SevardnaZe Tavis Zalauflebas, miuxedavad saqarTvelos teritoriis mniSvnelovan nawilze kontrolis dakargvisa da rogor akowiwebda igi saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobas 1992-1995 wlebSi. eduard SevardnaZem Tavisi udidesi piradi avtoritetiT, dasavleTidan saxsrebis mozidvis unariTa da Suamavlobis niWiT SeZlo sicocxlisunariani kavSiris Seqmna, romelSic Sediodnen yofili funqcionerebi, proteqcionizmis sistemis gavleniani pirebi da erovnuli moZraobis calkeuli erTeulebi. afxazeTSi damarcxebis Semdeg eduard SevardnaZe damorCilda moskovis Zlier zewolas da saqarTvelos dsT-is SemadgenlobaSi Sesvlaze Tanxmoba ganacxada. kmayofilebis niSnad moskovi mas gamsaSuzanne Goldenberg, Pride of Small Nations: The Caucasus and Post-Soviet Disorder (London: Zed Books, 1994), p. 92. 21 Zürcher, Koehler, and Baev, "Internal Violence in the Caucasus"; Baev, "Civil Wars in Georgia," pp. 127­145.

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xurdias momxreTa gamosvlebis CaxSobaSi daexmara. amis Semdeg ki SevardnaZem Zaladobis ori mTavari sulisCamdgmelis ­ kitovanisa da ioselianis izolirebac moaxerxa. nacionalizmma saxelmwifoebriobis ganmtkiceba saqarTvelosa da postsabWoTa sivrcis sxva qveynebSi ver SeZlo; es mxolod somxeTsa da baltiispireTis qveynebSi gaxda SesaZlebeli. somxeTma Tavisi saxelmwifoebrioba samxedro nacionalizmis meSveobiT daamkvidra, romelic udides safrTxesTan iyo dakavSirebuli. CeCneTSi CeCnurma nacionalurma moZraobam ki, araTu saxelmwifoebrioba ver Camoayaliba, aramed qveyana anarqiamdec ki miiyvana, ramac gza misca 1994 wlis katastroful rusul samxedro kampanias. Tavisi poziciebis Sejereba verc azerbaijanis nacional-demokratebma SeZles.

saxelmwifoebriobis sisuste da Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelni 22

postkomunistur gardamaval periodSi saqarTveloSi momxdari organizebuli Zaladobis bevr SemTxvevaSi Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelni ukve nangrevebad qceuli saxelmwifos narCen SesaZleblobebs iyenebdnen. am adamianTa umravlesoba warsulSi saxelmwifo postebze iyo daniSnuli im elitis mier, romelsac Tavisi politikuri miznebis misaRwevad Zala esaWiroeboda. qarTuli omebis yvelaze damaxasiaTebeli niSani iyo zRvris moSla saxelmwifo da kerZo Zaladobas Soris, amitom saWiroa, gavarkvioT, Tu ras SeiZleba ewodos "saxelmwifos privatizacia" da "kerZo saqmianobis saxelmwifo organoebad gardaqmnis" ormagi procesi. saqarTveloSi moqmedebda ori udidesi organizebuli jgufi, romelsac Zalis gamoyenebis saSualeba hqonda _ es iyo "mxedrioni" da erovnuli gvardia. "mxedrioni" iyo Tbilisis

22 es nawili dafuZnebulia naSromze: Zürcher, Koehler, and Baev, "Internal Violence in the Caucasus."

138

1989-1993 wlebi siZneleebis xana saqarTvelos istoriaSi

kriminaluri dajgufebebisa da axalgazrduli bandebis amorfuli erToba, romelic 1989 wels sabWoTa periodis damnaSaveTa samyaros mfarvelma, jaba ioselianma Seqmna. finansebis mosapoveblad es dajgufeba kriminalur saqmianobas eweoda ­ maT Soris reketsa da gamoZalvasac. 1992 wels man SeZlo Semosavlian sferoebze Tavisi kontrolis daweseba, magaliTad, benziniT vaWrobaze.23 "mxedrions" Tavi saqarTvelos damcvel patriotul sazogadoebad miaCnda, misi wevrebi farTod iyenebdnen patriotul da religiur simbolikas. bevri maTgani mkerdze atarebda medalions wminda giorgis gamosaxulebiT. principSi, "mxedrioni" iyo warmatebuli saqmosanpatriotTa SeiaraRebuli SenaerTi, romlebmac TavianTi kerZo jari saxelmwifo samsaxurSi Caayenes damoukideblobisaTvis mebrZoli nacionaluri umciresobebis winaaRmdeg omis dros. erovnuli gvardia 1990 wlis noemberSi Seiqmna da igi qarTuli jaris birTvi unda gamxdariyo. imis gamo, rom am dros jer kidev ar arsebobda qarTuli saxelmwifo, jaris dakompleqteba da misi SeiaraReba TiTqmis mTlianad kerZo pirebis mier xdeboda. gvardia saxelmwifos TiTqmis ararsebuli biujetidan da Savi bazris warmatebul pirTa SemowirulobebiT finansdeboda. gvardiis meTaurad da Tavdacvis ministrad gamsaxurdias axlo megobari da TanamebrZoli Tengiz kitovani dainiSna. mas arc samxedro momzadeba hqonda da arc Sesabamisi gamocdileba, samagierod, igi finansebis kargi mSovneli gamodga. erovnulma gvardiamac da "mxedrionmac" SeiaraReba sabWoTa (SemdgomSi ki, ruseTis) jarisagan miiRo ­ faqtobrivad, im saxelmwifos jarisagan, romelic, qarTveli nacionalistebis azriT, gamiznulad aferxebda saqarTvelos damoukideblobas. 1992 wlis ivlisSi, im periodSi, rodesac sabWoTa jari swrafad iSleboda, am gasamxedroebulma formirebebma sabWoTa arseGeorgii Nizharadze, "The Institutional Framework of Caucasian and Central Asian Transitional Societies: Georgia, Abkhazia, and South-Ossetia," The Economics of Political and Common Violence (Tbilisi: World Bank Development Economic Research Group, 2002), typescript.

23

139

qristof ciurxeri

nalidan 50 tanki miiRes. 24 tankebis miRebidan erT TveSi kitovanma afxazuri kampania wamoiwyo. arc erTi am jgufTagani saxelmwifo kontrols ar eqvemdebareboda. jaba ioselianis "mxedrioni" prezident zviad gamsaxurdias daarsebis dRidanve upirispirdeboda, mogvianebiT erovnuli gvardiac SeewinaaRmdega saxelmwifo struqturebSi integracias da uari Tqva prezidentisadmi erTgulebis ficis dadebaze. 1991 wlis Semodgomaze kitovanma da erovnulma gvardiam prezidents zurgi Seaqcies da amiT gamsaxurdias bedi ukve gadawyvetili aRmoCnda. TbilisSi Zalauflebis mosapoveblad gaCaRebuli brZola swrafad ganviTarda da prezident gamsaxurdias qveynidan gaZevebiT dasrulda. miuxedavad imisa, rom sabrZolo moqmedebebSi 500-ze meti kaci ar monawileobda, samoqalaqo omis es Zaladoba namdvilad iyo gasamxedroebuli jgufis mier organizebul saxelmwifo gadatrialeba. gadatrialebis warmatebiT dasrulebis Semdeg orive dajgufebam gadainawila gavlenis sferoebi: "mxedrionma" SeinarCuna kontroli benziniTa da sigaretebiT vaWrobaze, xolo erovnuli gvardia sul ufro metad Caeflo iaraRiT vaWrobaSi. 1992 wlis martSi saqarTveloSi dabrunebulma eduard SevardnaZem, romelsac saocrad sWirdeboda Tanamdgomebi, "mxedrions" mianiWa Sinagan saqmeTa saministros daqvemdebarebuli usafrTxoebis Zalebis

24

1992 wlis 15 maiss azerbaijanis respublikam, somxeTis respublikam, belorusis respublikam, yazaxeTis respublikam, moldovas respublikam, ruseTis federaciam, ukrainam da saqarTvelos respublikam, rogorc sabWoTa kavSiris memkvidre-saxelmwifoebma, xeli moaweres e.w. taSkentis xelSekrulebas, romlis mixedviT xelmomwer qveynebs hqondaT sakuTari jaris Seqmnis ufleba, romelic Sesabamis saministroebs daeqvemdebareboda; xolo ministrebsa da saxelmwifos meTaurebs ki pativi unda ecaT evropis tradiciuli SeiaraRebis xelSekrulebiT (CFE) gaTvaliswinebuli Cveulebrivi SeiaraRebisaTvis dadgenili zeda zRvrisaTvis. taSkentis xelSekrulebiT, saqarTvelos sabWoTa armiis sawyobebidan 100 tanki da 200 javSan-sabrZolo manqana gadaeca; saqarTvelom ignorireba gaukeTa gadacemis im pirobas, romlis Tanaxmadac ikrZaleboda am SeiaraRebis Sida konfliqtebSi gamoyeneba.

140

1989-1993 wlebi siZneleebis xana saqarTvelos istoriaSi

statusi da igi sabWoTa arsenalSi arsebuli iaraRiT aRWurva. "mxedrionis" erT-erTi lideri, Temur xaCiSvili, Sinagan saqmeTa ministri gaxda. erovnuli gvardiis liderma Tengiz kitovanma Tavdacvis ministris posti SeinarCuna. SevardnaZem "mxedrions" gamsaxurdias momxreebis winaaRmdeg brZola daavala dasavleT saqarTveloSi. am sabrZolo kampanias ufro Zarcva-rbevis saxe hqonda. am brZolaSi moxaliseebis CarTvis mizniT jaba ioselianma da "mxedrionis" mebrZolebma televiziiT gancxadeba gaakeTes, ris Semdegac maT moxalise "SabaTkviris" mebrZolebic SeuerTdnen. isini Cveulebriv samezoblosagan Semdgar patara-patara jgufebSi erTiandebodnen, romelTac "mxedrionis" punqtebSi iaraRs urigebdnen. samoqalaqo omis es nawili dasavleT saqarTveloSi bevrad ufro sisxlismRvreli aRmoCnda TbilisSi momxdar gadatrialebasTan SedarebiT. sabrZolo moqmedebebis TiToeul mxares daaxloebiT 3000 mebrZoli monawileobda, aqedan 2000-mde daRupulad iTvleba. samxreT oseTSi Zaladobrivi qmedebebisaTvis aqtiuri mzadeba 1990-iani wlebidan daiwyo. 1990 wlis bolosaTvis osebs TavianT gankargulebaSi 4000 ­ 5000 kaci hyavdaT, maTgan didi umravlesoba saxalxo laSqris wevri iyo.25 iaraRs isini umTavresad cxinvalSi ganlagebul Sveulmfrenebis sabWoTa polkSi Soulobdnen. am polkSi momsaxure jariskacebisa da oficrebis umravlesoba eTnikur osebs warmoadgenda da maTi didi raodenoba am brZolebis monawile gaxldaT. am sabrZolo moqmedebebSi monawile osuri mxare metwilad CrdiloeT oseTidan (ruseTis federaciis SemadgenlobaSi myofi avtonomiuri respublika, romelic samxreT oseTze bevrad mdidaria) Semosuli SemowirulobebiT finansdeboda.26 Setakebebis pikis dros qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg CrdiloeT oseTidan Camosuli ramdenime aseuli moxalise ibrZoda.

25 Nizharadze, "The Institutional Framework of Caucasian and Central Asian Transiitional Societies. 26 Zurcher, Koehler, and Baev, "Internal Violence in the Caucasus".

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samxreT oseTis omis monawile orive mxares araorganizebuli gasamxedroebuli formirebebi ibrZodnen; maT ar gaaCndaT erTiani sameTauro struqturebi, brZolebSi dros ki mxolod msubuq SeiaraRebas iyenebdnen. osuri danayofebi Zalebs ZiriTadad adgilobrivi mosaxleobis xarjze ikrebdnen, xolo qarTul danayofebSi umTavresad samxreT oseTis qarTuli mosaxleoba monawileobda. Tavdapirvelad qarTvelebis mxareze Sinagan saqmeTa saministros jarebi da erovnuli gvardiis jariskacebi ibrZodnen. sabrZolo moqmedebebis dasrulebisaTvis am omSi mTeli rigi patriotuli suliskveTebiT gamsWvaluli jgufebi CaerTnen. "TeTri Sevardnebi", "merab kostavas sazogadoeba," "mxedrioni" da "saqarTvelos erovnuli fronti" am omSi daqiravebul pirTagan Semdgar araorganizebul jgufebs agzavnidnen, romlebic xSirad mSvidobian mosaxleobas esxmodnen Tavs da mZevlebadac ki ahyavdaT. samxreT oseTis konfliqtis msxverplis Sesaxeb arsebobs Zalze mwiri da winaaRmdegobrivi monacemebi. qarTuli wyaroebis cnobiT, orive mxarem daaxloebiT 500-600 adamiani dakarga.27 1990-1992 wlebSi olqis teritoria etapobrivad datova daaxloebiT 12000 qarTvelma (samxreT oseTis mTliani mosaxleoba daaxloebiT 30000 adamians Seadgens). imavdroulad, saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi osi erovnebis daaxloebiT 30000 adamiani CrdiloeT oseTSi gadavida sacxovreblad zviad gamsaxurdias nacionalisturi reJimis mier maT winaaRmdeg ganxorcielebuli devnis gamo. 1992 wlis agvistoSi Tengiz kitovanis erovnulma gvardiam, eduard SevardnaZis mxardaWeriT, afxazeTis samxedro kampania wamoiwyo. erovnuli gvardiis 5000 wevri afxazeTSi SeiWra, 1000 jariskaci gagris portSi gadaisroles ruseTSi mimavali gzis gadasaketad. gudauTaSi gaqceulma afxazeTis mTavrobam sayovelTao mobilizacia gamoacxada. afxazeTis

27

Nizharadze, "The Institutional Framework of Caucasian and Central Asian Transitional Societies." Other sources speak of 3,000 casualties on the Ossetian side (see www.geocities.com/vienna/strasse/5262/South.html).

142

1989-1993 wlebi siZneleebis xana saqarTvelos istoriaSi

erovnulma gvardiam, romelsac im dros 1000 jariskaci hyavda da ZiriTadad msubuqi SeiaraRebiT iyo aRWurvili, poziciebi mdinare gumisTas napiris gaswvriv, ruseTis samxedro-sahaero bazis maxloblad, daikava. afxazebs CrdiloeT kavkasiidan mTis bilikebiT Camosuli asobiT moxalise SeuerTda. TiTqmis mTel iaraRs isini CeCneTidan iRebdnen. sabrZolo moqmedebebSi am moxaliseTa CarTvaSi mTavari roli kavkasiis mTis xalxTa konfederaciam iTamaSa. es pannacionalisturi moZraoba 1989 wels daarsda adiRei-yaraCai-CerqezeTis (CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi ruseTis federaciis SemadgenlobaSi myofi avtonomiuri olqebi) da afxazeTis aqtivistebis mier. 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi kavkasiis mTis xalxTa konfederacia meamboxe politikur moZraobad gadaiqca, romelic CrdiloeT kavkasiis saxelmwifoebis damoukideblobas iTxovda. miuxedavad imisa, rom ruseTisagan gamoyofa miuRwevel ocnebad rCeboda, konfederaciam mainc SeZlo moxalise samxedro Zalebis Camoyalibeba, romlebmac afxazeTis omSi sakmaod mniSvnelovani roli Seasrules. mogvianebiT, 1994 wels, am Zalebis erTma nawilma CeCneTis winaaRmdegobis frontis birTvi Seadgina.28 ricxobriv umciresobaSi myof afxazebs ruseTis jari daexmara. oficialurad ruseTi afxazeTis sakiTxis mSvidobiani gadawyvetis gzebs eZebda da omSi ar monawileobda, magram misi politika, romelic princips ­ "dayavi da ibatone" efuZneboda, gulisxmobda konfliqtis monawile orive mxarisaTvis samxedro daxmarebis gawevas; magram konfliqtis periodSi am daxmarebas afxazebi sul ufro metad da metad iRebdnen. afxazeTis erovnuli gvardia soxumSi ganlagebuli ruseTis jaris batalionisagan iaraRiT maragdeboda, xolo rusi instruqtorebi moxaliseebis mosamzadebel banakebs xelmZRvanelobdnen.29 garda amisa, ruseTi afxazebis frontis zurgsac

1992 wlis oqtomberSi am organizaciam saxelwodeba Seicvala _ mas kavkasiis xalxTa konfederacia daerqva. 29 Nizharadze, "The Institutional Framework of Caucasian and Central Asian Transitional Societies."

28

143

qristof ciurxeri

amagrebda da afxazeTSi ganlagebuli sahaero bazidan ganxorcielebuli calkeuli sahaero dartymebiTac exmareboda maT. erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi CrdiloeT kavkasiidan da ruseTidan Semosuli daxmarebis wyalobiT dRiTidRe izrdeboda afxazebis brZolisunarianoba, rasac ver vityviT qarTvelebze. "boevikebisa" da mZarcvelebisagan Semdgarma qarTulma armiam daSla iwyo. 1993 wlis 27 seqtembers afxazeTis mebrZolebma sabolood gaaZeves qarTuli jari soxumidan da ukve ramdenime dReSi afxazeTis mTel teritorias akontrolebdnen. afxazeTSi darCenilma 200000 qarTvelma regioni datova. organizebul Zaladobas yovelTvis ganapirobebs garkveuli motivacia da arsebuli SesaZleblobebis gamoyenebis survili. pol kolieri da anke hefleri sixarbisa da sazogadoebrivi ukmayofilebisadmi miZRvnil naSromSi amtkiceben, rom sixarbe (anu "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelTa" angareba) da garemoebaTa xelsayreli damTxveva (magaliTad, iaf iaraRze xelmisawvdomoba, mowinaaRmdegis aSkara sisuste, mesame Zalis daxmarebis imedi da a.S.) ufro xSirad warmoSobs Zaladobas, vidre amas iwvevs sazogadoebrivi ukmayofileba (magaliTad, ekonomikuri da politikuri diskriminacia).30 saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi, miuxedavad nacionalisturi jgufebis mier sazogadoebriv ukmayofilebaze saubrisa (Cagvra, ekonomikuri diskriminacia da a.S.), Sida Zaladobebis umetes mizezad angarebiT Sepyrobili gasamxedroebuli formirebebis qmedebebi unda CavTvaloT. iafi da advilad xelmisawvdomi sabWoTa iaraRis mopoveba gacilebiT aiolebs aseTi jgufebis moqmedebas. zviad gamsaxurdia aseT Zalebs Tavisi politikuri poziciebis gasamyareblad iyenebda, magram saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sisustem mas am jgufebis kontrolisa Tu SeCerebis SesaZlebloba aRar

30

Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, "Greed and Grievance in Civil War," (Washington, DC: The World Bank Group, October 2001), http://econ.worldbank.org/programs/conflict/ library/doc?id=12205; James D. Fearon and David. D. Laitin, "Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War" (paper presented at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, CA, August 30­September 2, 2001), http:// www.stanford.edu/group/ethnic/workingpapers/apsa011.pdf.

144

1989-1993 wlebi siZneleebis xana saqarTvelos istoriaSi

misca. qarTuli, osuri da afxazuri Zalebis mobilizacias Soris aSkara gansxvaveba arsebobs. qarTuli razmebis ­ "mxedrionisa" da "erovnuli gvardiis" ­ mamoZravebeli Zala "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmeli" calkeuli pirovnebebi iyvnen; es ase ar iyo afxazebisa da osebis dajgufebaTa SemTxvevaSi. TiTqosda sabWoTa Cagvris (gansakuTrebiT ki, 1989 wlis 9 aprils TbilisSi momxdari Zaladobrivi faqtis Semdeg) winaaRmdeg Seqmnili "mxedrioni" Zalian swrafad gadaiqca angarebis surviliT Sepyrobil kriminalur organizaciad, romelmac moaxdina Tavisi moqmedebebis legitimizacia da Tavis rigebSi axali wevrebi patriotuli lozungebiT miizida. 1992-1993 wlebisaTvis "mxedrionad" wodebuli sxvadasxva dajgufebis mizans Zarcva-yaCaRoba warmoadgenda da gaugebaric ki iyo, iyvnen Tu ara am jgufebis wevrebi Zveleburad jaba ioselianis erTgulni. erovnuli gvardia "mxedrionisagan" gansxvavebulad warmoiSva. igi daarsda "zevidan" garkveuli politikuri miznebiT. es organizaciac akisrebda xarks Crdilovan ekonomikaSi moRvaweT da iaraRiT vaWrobis sarfian saqmes akontrolebda. bevri mebrZoli erovnul gvardiaSi Zarcvis perspeqtiviT Sedioda. afxazeTis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli kampaniis wamowyeba erovnuli gvardiis ekonomikuri interesebiT iyo nakarnaxevi _ regionis Crdilovani ekonomikis mTavari seqtorebis gakontrolebis surviliT. aRsaniSnavia, rom omma afxazeTis resursebi swrafad amowura. Zaladobis eskalaciasTan erTad ingreoda afxazeTis turistuli industria, paralizebuli iyo satransporto infrastruqtura, adgilobrivma soflis meurneobam bazrebi dakarga. sabrZolo moqmedebebis efeqturoba yovelTviurad klebulobda, mcirdeboda gasamxedroebuli formirebebis momarageba. SemdgomSi eduard SevardnaZem ostaturad gamoiyena am organizaciebis resursebis Semcireba maTi meTaurebis politikuri arenidan gandevnis mizniT. afxazi da osi mebrZolebis mier samxedro Zalis gamoyeneba umTavresad nakarnaxevi iyo ara piradi gamorCenis surviliT, aramed im safrTxis arsebobiT, romelsac maT damoukidebeli

145

qristof ciurxeri

da nacionalisturi saqarTvelo uqmnida. qarTuli nacionalizmis talRa aZlierebda momavali diskriminaciis SiSs, ramac adgilobriv nacionalistebs ufro iolad gadaawyvetina sakuTari Zaladobrivi meqanizmis SemuSaveba. qarTuli dajgufebebis maT teritoriaze SeWrisTanave dadasturda osebisa da afxazebis SiSi, organizebuli Zaladoba ki gardauvali Seiqna.

mezoblobis faqtori

qveynis SigniT arsebuli konfliqtis ganviTarebaze ramdenime garefaqtori moqmedebs. maT Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovania Semdegi sami: diasporis mier meamboxeTa mxardaWera; geostrategiuli mdebareoba da konfliqtSi sxva saxelmwifos Careva.31 TiToeulma am faqtorma garkveuli roli iTamaSa 19881993 wlebSi saqarTveloSi, Tumca maTi moqmedeba xSirad gadaWarbebulad iyo Sefasebuli. adgilobrivma diasporam da naTesaurma eTnikurma jgufebma, raRa Tqma unda, daxmareba gauwies afxazebsa da samxreT osebs damoukideblobisaTvis brZolaSi. osebi kavkasionis mTavari qedis gadaRma32, CrdiloeT oseTSi mcxovrebi eTnikurad monaTesave xalxisagan mniSvnelovan finansur da yovelgvar materialur daxmarebas iRebdnen; isini maT cocxali ZaliTac exmarebodnen. afxaz mebrZolebs CrdiloeT kavkasiis moxalise razmebi da TurqeTSi mcxovrebi afxazuri diasporac exmareboda. yvelaze Zlieri da brZolisunariani SenaerTebidan aRsaniSnavia e.w. "afxazuri batalioni", romelsac meamboxe CeCeni lideri Samil basaevi xelmZRvanelobda. Samil basaevma da daaxloebiT 300 misma TanamebrZolma, romlebic Semdgom CeCeni separatistebis mTavar Zalad gadaiqcnen, faqtobrivad,

31

Collier and Hoeffler, "Greed and Grievance in Civil War"; Fearon and Laitin, "Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War." 32 Zürcher, Koehler, and Baev, "Internal Violence in the Caucasus."

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1989-1993 wlebi siZneleebis xana saqarTvelos istoriaSi

afxazeTSi, qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg warmoebul omSi, miiRes pirveli sabrZolo gamocdileba. miiCneven, rom urTierTmowinaaRmdege Zlieri saxelmwifoebis gadakveTaze mdebare saqarTvelo dawyevlilia Tavisi arasaxarbielo geopolitikuri mdebareobiTa da mZime geomorfologiuri situaciiT. sparseTs, osmaleTsa da mefis ruseTis imperiebs Soris arsebulma qiSpobam da sabWoTa kavSiris politikurma modelma kavkasiis sociopolitikur da kulturul saxes Rrma daRi daasva. yvelaze mniSvnelovania is, rom am istoriulma memkvidreobam dagvianebuli da instituciurad susti saxelmwifoebrioba ganapiroba. amas emateboda isic, rom kavkasiis bevri regionis mTagorianobis gamo adgilobriv elitasac da kolonialur saxelmwifoebsac uZneldebodaT sasurveli mmarTvelobis damyareba. ase rom, ver uarvyofT, geopolitikam da geomorfologiam kavkasiis mTel istoriaze didi zegavlena rom moaxdina. magram rodesac saqme exeba sabWoTa imperiis ngrevasa da axali, damoukidebeli saqarTvelos Seqmnas Soris arsebul drois mcire, boboqar da konfliqtebian periods, maSin zemoaRwerili orive faqtori mniSvnelobas moklebulia. piriqiT, am periodSi Sida politika gacilebiT did rols TamaSobda. movlenebs adgilobrivi institucionaluri struqturebi da maTi moskovTan urTierTdamokidebuleba gansazRvravda. 1988-1993 wlebSi saqarTvelos Sida konfliqtebze seriozuli gavlena arc erT politikur erTeuls ar mouxdenia, Tumca ki iTvleba, rom maT ­ TurqeTs, irans, somxeTs, azerbaijans, aSS-sa da evrokavSirs _ samxreT kavkasiaSi TavianTi interesebi gaaCniaT. aq upriani iqneba, aRiniSnos ori ram, pirveli: mark beisinjeri Tavis mniSvnelovan naSromSi asabuTebs sabWoTa kavSiris memkvidre-saxelmwifoebSi mimdinare movlenebis urTierTdamokidebulebas, rac emyareboda "warmatebuli nacionalisturi mobilizaciis demonstrirebis efeqts".33

33

Mark R. Beissinger, Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

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sabWoTa kavSiris yvela respublikis sazogadoeba da elita gulisyuriT adevnebda Tvals nacionaluri moZraobebis ganviTarebas. am moZraobis yoveli talRa, romelzedac moskovi Tvals xuWavda, sxva nacionalur moZraobebs axali energiiT avsebda, anu eTnonacionaluri mobilizaciis spirali ara marto saqarTvelos SigniT qarTvelebis, osebisa da afxazebis erTmaneTis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli moZraobebiT imuxteboda, aramed baltiispireTis qveynebisa da somxeTis nacionaluri moZraobebiTac. meore exeba sabWoTa kavSirs da misi daSlis Semdeg _ ruseTs. Secdoma iqneboda saqarTveloSi ganviTarebul movlenebze ruseTis zegavlenis uaryofa, magram aseTive Secdoma iqneboda saqarTvelos yvela ubedurebis mzakvruli da kargad dagegmili imperiuli politikisaTvis gadabraleba. sinamdvileSi, sul mcire, 1990 wlis zafxulidan moskovs aRar Seswevda Zala saTanado politikis Camoyalibebis da misi koordinirebisa, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT mis ganxorcielebaze. es yvelaferi mzardi ekonomikuri ngreviTa da kremlSi ZalauflebisaTvis mimdinare brZoliT aixsneba. kavkasiaSi "mSvidobis aRsadgenad" sul ufro meti cudad dagegmili da cudad Catarebuli operacia mimdinareobda. magaliTad, 1988 wlis ivlisSi erevnis aeroportSi demonstrantebis winaaRmdeg miRebuli zomebi; 1989 wlis aprilSi TbilisSi momxdari movlenebi an "sisxliani kvira" baqoSi 1990 wlis ianvarSi. saboloo jamSi, am operaciebma sabWoTa kavSiris Zaladobriobis unaric Seasusta da sabWoTa saxelmwifos dacema daaCqara; imavdroulad, am operaciebma impulsi Semates erovnul moZraobebs. am yvelaferma ki, Tavis mxriv, rogorc cecxlze navTma, ise imoqmeda saqarTvelos Sida teritoriaze mimdinare konfliqtebze. mniSvnelovania aRiniSnos, rom sabWoTa centraluri mTavroba avtonomiuri respublikebisa da olqebis erovnul moZraobebTan taqtikuri kavSiris damyarebas cdilobda. 1990 wlis aprilSi umaRlesma sabWom miiRo kanoni, romlis Tanaxmadac, Tu mokavSire respublika sabWoTa kavSiris Semadgen148

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lobidan gavidoda, maSin masSi Semaval avtonomiur olqebsa da respublikebs, referendumis Catarebis Semdeg, unda hqonodaT sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi darCenis ufleba aSkaraa, rom am kanons unda daebrkolebina mokavSire respublikebis ssrkdan gasvla. miuxedavad amisa, man ver SeZlo sabWoTa kavSiris Sida afeTqebis Tavidan acileba da mxolod motivacia Semata avtonomiuri olqebisa da respublikebis brZolas gamoyofisaTvis. samxreT oseTi da afxazeTi amisi kargi magaliTia. ase rom, es kanoni (Tumca, sxva mxriv, gamiznuli) mkafio niSani aRmoCnda saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi myofi avtonomiuri erTeulebis erovnuli moZraobebisaTvis: maT TiTqos aRuTqves, rom Tuki saqarTvelo sabWoTa kavSiris Semadgenlobidan gavidoda, moskovi maT "iSvilebda". mTlianobaSi, sabWoTa ierarqiis daSla is mniSvnelovani faqtori aRmoCnda, romelmac dramatulad Secvala moqmed ZalTa mamoZravebeli motivebi. saboloo jamSi, zustad amiT aixsneba Zaladobis warmoSoba da ganviTareba saqarTvelos sinamdvileSi arsebul samive SemTxvevaSi. sabWoTa struqturebis sisustis gamo saqarTveloSi SesaZlebeli gaxda erovnuli moZraobis aRmoceneba, am moZraobam ki swrafad daikava mTavari poziciebi. azerbaijanisa da CeCneTisagan gansxvavebiT, magram somxeTisa da baltiispireTis qveynebis msgavsad, saqarTvelos komunisturma nomenklaturam swrafad aiTvisa erovnuli moZraobebis politikuri (Tumca ara ideologiuri) programa da saxelmwifos institutebi maT samsaxurSi Caayena. sabWoTa kavSiris TandaTanobiTma dasustebam gaaadvila saqarTvelosaTvis Tavisuflebis mopoveba. 1990 wlis dasawyisidan erovnulma moZraobam da nomenklaturam mTavar miznad qveynis sruli suvereniteti daisaxa. movlenebis amgvarma ganviTarebam, Tavis mxriv, stimuli misca samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis separatistul moZraobebs. saqarTvelos eTnonacionalurma moZraobam avtonomiur erTeulTa gamorCeul erebSi sakmaod safuZvlianad gamoiwvia imis SiSi, rom damoukidebel saqarTvelSi maT SeiZleba aRar hqonodaT privilegiebi. saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi somxebisa da

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azerbaijanelebisagan gansxvavebiT, osebi da afxazebi flobdnen im politikur berketebs, riTac SesaZlebeli iyo separatistuli politikis gatareba. avtonomiur erTeulebSi mcxovreb yvela erovnuli saTvistomos komunist funqcioners saxelmwifo da partiuli resursebis erovnuli saqmisaken mimarTva SeeZlo _ isini am SesaZleblobas iyenebdnen kidec. kerZod, Tuki 1988 wlamde umaRlesi sabWoebi mxolod simbolurad iTvlebodnen warmomadgenlobiT organod, SemdgomSi isini WeSmariti politikuri xelisuflebis centrebad gardaiqmnen. radikalurma nacionalisturma ritorikam, Zaladobis marTvaze saxelmwifos gavlenis dakargvam da saqarTvelos mTavrobis aSkara survilma, gamoeyenebina "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelebi", xeli Seuwyo ekonomikur-kriminaluri interesebis mqone gasamxedroebuli formirebebis warmoqmnas. zviad gamsaxurdias garSemo arsebulma axalma elitam ver SeZlo verc reJimis gadarCena da verc saxelmwifos konsolidireba, ramac sagrZnoblad gauadvila saqme "Zaladobis sulisCamdgmelebs".

axali siZneleebi siZneleebis xanis Semdeg?

sabWoTa eTnofederalizmi amJamad aRar iyenebs Tavis destruqciul energias, Tumca man Ria Wrilobebi mainc datova. aTwlianma gaWianurebulma molaparakebebma oseTisa da afxazeTis problema ver gadaWra. 2003 wlis seqtemberSi afxazeTma "damoukideblobisaTvis omSi" gamarjvebis meaTe wlisTavi aRniSna. am "gamarjvebis" fasi ruseTze mZime politikurekonomikuri damokidebuleba da saerTaSoriso izolacia aRmoCnda. afxazebis umravlesobam ruseTis moqalaqeoba miiRo, rac maTTvis garkveuli socialuri da politikuri usafrTxoebis garantiaa. omis Semdeg periodulad mainc xdeba Zaladobrivi afeTqeba, daxoces ruseTis samSvidobo jarSi momsaxure aTobiT jariskaci, afxazi Tanamdebobis pirebi da sxvadasxva erovnuli saTvistomos warmomadgenlebi.

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afxazeTis mmarTveloba mixeil saakaSvilis xelisuflebaSi mosvlas gaZlierebuli samxedro mzadyofniT Sexvda. dResdReobiT moskovi afxazeTSi Seqmnil situacias Tavisi samxedro Zalis iq yofniTa da politikur-ekonomikuri daxmarebis gaweviT akontrolebs, risi ganxorcielebac saqarTvelos ar ZaluZs. eduard SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis bolos kriminaluri gasamxedroebuli formirebebi jer kidev axdendnen zegavlenas mosazRvre regionis politikur da ekonomikur cxovrebaze. zogierTi maTgani kvlav mWidrodaa dakavSirebuli egreTwodebul partizanul SenaerTebTan, iseTebTan, rogoricaa "TeTri legioni" zurab samuSias meTaurobiT, "tyis Zmebi" daviT Sengelias xelmZRvanelobiT da ruzgen gogoxias formireba34. afxazeTis mTavrobis winaaRmdeg brZolis motiviT isini xSirad daerevian xolme erTmaneTs benzinis, sigaretisa da Txilis kontrabandaze kontrolis mosapoveblad. 2003 wlis noemberSi xelisuflebaSi mosvlis Semdeg mixeil saakaSvilma brZaneba gasca, bolo moeRoT am formirebebis moqmedebebisaTvis. afxazeTTan SedarebiT samxreT oseTSi arsebuli situacia ufro myifea. iseve, rogorc afxazeTi, es pawawina saxelmwifoc ukanono vaWrobis, umTavresad alkoholuri sasmelebisa da Tambaqos yidva-gayidvis centri aRmoCnda. ori Zlieri politikuri klanis irgvliv koncentrirebuli politikuri elita Tavisi interesebisaTvis iyenebs am viTom Tavisufal ekonomikur zonas. 2004 wels konfliqtis eskalaciis drosac ar Sewyvetila vaWroba danarCen saqarTvelosTan, Tumca ki am vaWrobisaTvis cxinvalidan Tbilisamde mimaval mTel gzaze sxvadasxva "gadasaxadebi" iyo dawesebuli, romlebsac oficialuri da araoficialuri xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi krebdnen. afxazeTSi Seqmnili situaciisagan gansxvavebiT, 1992 wlis Semdeg saqarTvelo, SevardnaZis meTaurobiT da samxreT oseTi sxvadasxva praqtikul nabijebs dgamdnen TavianTi urTi34 International Crisis Group, "Georgia: What Now?" Europe Report no. 151, December 3, 2003, www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2003/icg-geo-3dec.pdf.

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erTobebis gasaumjobeseblad. magram konfliqti araTu daregulirebuli ar aris, aramed gaurkvevelia, sruli damoukideblobis garda ra politikuri statusi iyo misaRebi samxreT oseTisaTvis da suverenitetis ra nawilis daTmoba SeeZlo saqarTvelos. eduard SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis bolo wlebSi samxreT oseTis saboloo statusis Sesaxeb mimdinare molaparakebebi praqtikulad SeCerda. 2004 wlisaTvis mixeil saakaSvilis mier gatarebulma Zalis demonstrirebis politikam daZabulobis axali etapi warmoSva. man naTlad gamoxata, rom samxreT oseTs misi prioritetebis siaSi erT-erTi pirveli adgili ukavia. aWaraSi miRweuli warmatebis Semdeg, sadac igi adgilobriv mmarTvels, aslan abaSiZes, gausworda, yvela eloda, rom prezidenti samxreT oseTis saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi reintegracias Seecdeboda. 2004 wlis maisSi saqarTvelom samxreT oseTSi mdebare uzarmazari da cnobili ergneTis bazroba daxura. am bazrobaze yvela saxis, ZiriTadad, ruseTidan Semosuli kontrabanduli saqoneli iyideboda. zogi analitikosi miiCnevs, rom ergneTis bazroba Tavisi arsiT warmoadgenda ukanono Tavisufal ekonomikur zonas, romelsac weliwadSi 35 milioni aSS-is dolaris Semosavali mohqonda. am Tanxis mniSvnelovani nawili eduard kokoiTis garSemo Semokrebili samxreT oseTis politikuri elitis jibeebSi ileqeboda.35 bazrobis daxurvis es gadawyvetileba imis erTmniSvnelovani signali iyo, rom saqarTvelo aRar apirebs status-kvos moTmenas. 2004 wlis ivlisSi saqarTvelom samxreT oseTSi gamSvebi punqtebi gaaZliera da rokis gadasasvlelze saqarTvelo-ruseTis sasazRvro kontroli daawesa, raTa saqarTveloSi uaqcizo saqonlis importi Seemcirebina. mixeil saakaSvilis axali mTavroba energiuli kampaniiT Seecada am regionSi ZalTa balansis Secvlas. am kampaniis mizani osuri mosaxleobis ndobis

35 M. Alkhazashvili, "South Ossetia's Reliance on Contraband," The Messenger, July 15, 2004, http://www.messenger.com.ge/issues/0655_july_15,2004/economy_0655_1.htm.

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mopoveba da separatistuli mTavrobis samxedro zomebiT daSineba iyo, magram aman Sedegad regionSi samxedro dapirispireba da ruseTTan politikuri krizisi moitana. mokled, samxreT oseTica da afxazeTic gadauWreli problemaa. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT, rom saqarTvelos separatistuli regionebisaTvis politikur da ekonomikur sferoSi cota ramis SeTavazeba SeuZlia, samxedro sferoSi ki igi Zalze sustia saimisod, rom situacia Zalis gamoyenebiT Secvalos, konfliqtebis gadawyveta isev momavlis saqmed rCeba. Tavis mxriv, ruseTi dainteresebulia, regionSi SenarCundes status-kvo, TviTon ki vetos ufleba darCes. reformatorebis meore Taobis winaSe mdgari amocana SeiZleba im amocanaze aranakleb rTuli aRmoCndes, romelic sabWoTa saqarTvelodan damoukidebeli saqarTvelosken grandiozuli gadasvlis periodSi idga. es sruliad gansxvavebuli amocanaa. areulobis xanaSi mowinaaRmdege dajgufebebi im qveynis ZalauflebisaTvis ibrZodnen, romelic, faqtobrivad, ar arsebobda. dRes sameuli _ saakaSvilisa da misi kolegebis saxiT ­ Rrmad fesvgamdgari da korumpirebuli saxelmwifo sistemis Secvlas cdilobs, magram warmatebis garantia, cxadia, ar arsebobs. mokled rom vTqvaT, zviad gamsaxurdia politikur mowinaaRmdegeebs ebrZoda da damarcxda. mixeil saakaSvili Rrmad korumpirebul, magram maRalinstitucionalizebul sistemas ebrZvis da, SesaZloa, isic damarcxdes. misi yvelaze saSiSi mteri ara esa Tu is politikuri lideri an romelime politikuri partiaa, aramed is, rasac SeiZleba "SevardnaZis sistema" vuwodoT. eduard SevardnaZem Zalis uxeSi gamoyenebiT nawil-nawil daSlili qarTuli saxelmwifos Sekowiweba da aRdgena SeZlo, magram amisaTvis man garkveuli safasuri gaiRo. imisaTvis, rom daqsaqsuli elita Semoekriba, igi moTminebiT ekideboda Rrmad korumpirebul sistemasa da kadrebis monacvleobas. dRes es sistema imdenad Rrmadaa fesvgamdgari, rom igi gacilebiT metia, vidre sustadganviTarebuli saxelmwifoebriobis oden damRupveli Sedegi. es aris saxelmwifoebriobis axali

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alternatiuli varianti, romelic sakmaod gafarTovda da Caenacvla jansaR saxelmwifoebriv formas, iseTs, rogoricaa pirovnebebze aradamokidebuli, sazogadoebaze mzrunveli biurokratia. am sistemis Secvlas ramdenime korumpirebuli Tanamdebobis piris dapatimreba ar eyofa, saWiroa mTeli politikuri sistemis xelaxla, praqtikulad, nulidan Seneba. es rTuli gzaa da erT-erT mTavar saSiSroebas is warmoadgens, rom axali elita mxardaWeras eTnonacionaluri mobilizaciis meSveobiT Seecdeba. uaxlesi istoria, gansakuTrebiT ki, qarTuli, gvaswavlis, rom amgvari strategia Zalze sariskoa.

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daviT darCiaSvili

saqarTvelos Tavdacvis seqtoris mdgomareoba, gansakuTrebiT ki samxedro reformis bedi, mniSvnelovnadaa damokidebuli politikuri sistemis SigniT mimdinare movlenebis dinamikaze. samxedro reformis aRqma, Sefaseba Tu warmatebuli ganxorcieleba SeuZlebelia qveynis erTian socialuri da politikuri ganviTarebisagan mowyvetiT. erTi sityviT, e.w efeqturi marTvis praqtikis danergvis gareSe, efeqturi Tavdacvis sistema, mwyobri usafrTxoebis politika da saRi samxedro-samoqalaqo urTierTobebi warmoudgenelia. es principi yvela qveyanaze vrceldeba, saqarTveloSi ki igi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iZens. samxedro reformasTan uSualo kavSirSia dafinansebis sakiTxic. Tavisi SezRuduli materialuri resursebis gamo, saqarTvelo kvlav Ratak qveynad rCeba, rac yovelmxriv zRudavs reformebs, gansakuTrebiT ki usafrTxoebisa da Tavdacvis sferoSi. jarebis restruqturizacia, Tundac ricxovnobis Semcireba, ganaxleba an kontrolis efeqturi saSualebebis Seqmna, finansebs moiTxovs. samxedro pirs biznesSi CarTvis - gansakuTrebiT ukanono komerciis - ufleba ar eZleva. amis Tavidan asacileblad saxelmwifom unda SesZlos Tavisi oficrebisa da jariskacebis adeqvaturi xelfasebiTa da sacxovrebeli pirobebiT uzrunvelyofa, rac saqarTvelom damoukideblobis pirvel aTwleulSi ver ganaxorciela. garda amisa, usafrTxoebisa da Tavdacvis politikaze gavlenas axdens saqarTvelos ideologiuri da socialur155

daviT darCiaSvili

politikur orientacia. erovnuli usafrTxoebis politika da TavdacviTi sistema momdinareobs erovnuli interesebidan da safrTxeebidan, rac erovnuli stereotipebis da Rirebulebebis TemasTan gvabrunebs. Rirebulebebi gansazRvraven safrTxeebs, romelTac erovnuli usafrTxoebis politika unda daupirispirdes. erovnuli interesebi, safrTxeebis aRqma, romelnic pirdapir Tu arapirdapir sazogadoebrivi Rirebulebebidan momdinarea, gavlenas axdens usafrTxoebis seqtoris Sida struqturaze, sakadro politikaze, masSi arsebuli urToerTobebis Taviseburebebze. meorec, ama Tu im eris mier strategiul mokavSireTa da megobarTa arCeva mniSvnelovanwiladaa damokidebuli masSi arsebul RirebulebaTa sistemaze. TanamSromlobiTi aliansebis formirebisas Tanxvedri Rirebulebebi iseve arsebiTia, rogorc pragmatuli ekonomikuri interesebi Tu saerTo geostrategiuli xedvebi. bolo dromde qarTuli sazogadoebis sabazo Rirebulebebis sistema, qveynis winaSe arsebul safrTxeTa definicia (rac usafrTxoebis seqtoris reformirebis fundamentia) da usafrTxoebis sferoSi adgilobrivi eqspertizis done ar Seesabameboda dasavlur standartebsa da evroatlantikuri Tanamegobrobis praqtikas. amave dros, saqarTvelo xelisufleba swored evroatlantikur TanamegobrobasTan integracias isaxavs miznad. Sesabamisad, uaxloes wlebSi, saxelmwifosa da eris mSenebloba qveynis politikuri amocanebis mTavar prioritetad darCeba. damoukideblobis pirvel aTwleulSi saqarTvelo sust, da egeb e.w. arSemdgar saxelmwifodac Camoyalibda. miuxedavad miswrafebebisa Tu pretenziebisa, qveyanaSi damkvidrebuli politikuri praqtika da mmarTvelobis stili sagrZnoblad CamorCeboda dasavleTis Tanamedrove standartebs. erisa da saxelmwifos aRmSenebloba xSirad me-19 saukunis midgomiT erovnuli poeziis, istoriuli gmirebis miTologizirebuli saxeebis Tu marTmadidebluri eklesiis Rirebulebebisa da simboloebis wina planze wamoweviT - gamoixateboda. qarTvelebma da qveynis erovnulma umciresobebma ver SeZles erTiani

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erovnuli identobis Seqmna. eTnikuri kuTvnileba xSirad ufro mniSvnelovnad iTvleboda, vidre individualuri ekonomikuri keTildReoba.1 Sesabamisad, prezident eduard SevardnaZis reJimisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli gaxda liberalur-demokratiuli da eTno-nacionalisturi ideebiT gajerebuli winaaRmdegobrivi proeqtebi. maT formirebaze komunisturi nomenklaturis tradiciebic axdenda gavlenas. Sesabamisad, reformebi neli da meryevi xdeboda. SevardnaZis reJimi mxolod ritorikulad gmobda korufciasa da qsenofobias. Zalian xSirad es ori movlena qarTuli kulturis maxasiaTeblad moiazreboda. qarTuli samuSao jgufi, romelsac prezidentma SevardnaZem anti-korufciuli strategiis SemuSaveba daavala, aRniSnavda, rom korufcia cxovrebis wesad iqca garkveul sferoebSi. korufciuli azrovneba ise Rrmadaa sazogadoebriv azrovnebaSi, rom didi sifrTxilea saWiro erovnuli Taviseburebebis saTaveebisa da korufciuli Cveulebebis gamijvnis dros. antikorufciuli rekomendaciebi2 mxolod qaRaldze rCeboda da araferi hqonda saerTo mTavrobis warmomadgenlebis, biznesmenebis da kriminalebis mier Seqmnil korufciul piramidebTan. ritorikuli kritika ki reJimis winaaRmdegobrivi midgomis nawils warmoadgenda: ganexorcielebina balansi erTi mxriv axalgazrda reformator politikosebsa da moxeleebs, meore mxriv ki, yofil komunistur nomenklaturas Soris. mmarTvelobis bolo periodSi SevardnaZis mTavroba uunaro aRmoCnda, aRekveTa religiur niadagze warmoSobili Zaladobis faqtebi. naTqvamis dasturia eklesiisgan gankveTili mRvdlis basil mkalaviSvilis dausjeli Zaladobrivi qmedebebi religiuri umciresobis mimarT.

Theodor Hanf and Ghia Nodia, Georgia Lurching to Democracy (Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2000), pp. 92-102 2 erovnuli antikorufciuli strategiis SemmuSavebeli jgufi, saqarTvelos erovnuli antikorufciuli programis ZiriTadi mimarTulebebi, kerZo gamocema, 31 oqtomberi,2000 w., gv.9 (jgufi Seqmnili iyo prezidentis mier)

1

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daviT darCiaSvili

gasakviri ar aris, rom qarTuli sazogadoebriv-politikuri cxovrebis SuqCrdilebi farTod airekleboda Tavdacvis politikasa da samxedro reformis procesze. Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis politikisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo sagareo politikis mudmivi cvla, araadekvaturi dafinanseba da SeuzRudavi korufcia. naTeli strategiuli orientirebi Tu erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefcia arasodes yofila bolomde artikulirebuli. xSirad evro-atlantikur sivrceSi integrireba qveynis mTavar prioritetad cxaddeboda.3 magram qveynis politikuri elita prorusuli strategiis arCevansac ar gamoricxavda. samxedro-samoqalaqo urTierTobebi arademokratiuli iyo. isedac mwiri resursebis aramiznobrivi xarjva kidev ufro arTulebda dafinansebas. usafrTxoebisa da samxedro uwyebebSi xelfasebi droulad ar gaicemoda, samxedro da parasamxedro struqturebi ver eqceoda adeqvaturi samoqalaqo zedamxedvelobis qveS. arsebuli kanonmdebloba progresuli iyo, magram detalizacias moklebuli da winaaRmdegobrivi. "Zalovani" ministrebi, rogorc wesi, sazogadoebrivi undoblobiT sargeblobdnen. saboloo jamSi, 2003 wels SevardnaZis xelisuflebis dacemaSi yvela am xarvezma Seitana Tavisi wvlili. saqarTvelos axalma mTavrobam prezident mixeil saakaSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT uprecendento neba aCvena korufciuli saqmianobisa da organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. dasavluri orientaciis mqone inteleqtualebi, romlebis xelmZRvanel postebze dawinaurdnen, acnobiereben globalizaciis mniSvnelobas da iyeneben postmodernistul politikur diskurss, romelic naklebad hguobs nacionalizms, unitaruli saxelmwifoebis ideas, saerTaSoriso arenaze saxelmwifo aqtiorTa tradiciul eqskluziurobas. axalma mTavrobam jvarosnuli omi gamoucxada korufciasa da saxelmwifo

3 1990-iani wlebis miwuruls SevardnaZem sajarod ganacxada, rom 2005 wlisaTvis saqarTvelo natos karze daakakunebs. ix. "svobodnaia gruzia", 26 oqtomberi, 1999 w.

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saxsrebis aramiznobriv xarjvas. pasuxisgebaSi mieca ramodenime maRalCinosani. 2005 wlis ianvarSi moZalade mRvdels mkalaviSvils 6 wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa miesaja.4 da mainc, saqarTvelos saqarTvelos ganviTarebis axal mimarTulebebSi yvelaferi ar Seesabameba evro-atlantikur erTobaSi gaerTianebis kurss.5 axali elita jer kidev ibrZvis popularuli tradiciuli nacionalisturi sentimentebisa da liberalur-demokratiuli imperativebis Sesajereblad. mravalkulturulobis, decentralizaciis, Tavisufal erTa erTobaSi integraciisa da kooperatiuli usafrTxoebis ideaTa moxmobis paralelurad, axali xelmZRvaneloba centralizmis meTodebs ver iviwyebs da regionalur Tu adgilobriv organoebs uxalisod uziarebs samTavrobo movaleobebs. warmatebis misaRwevad, axalma xelisuflebam unda gadalaxos reformebis bedis individualur, subieqtur nebaze damokidebuleba da xeli Seuwyos efeqturi mmarTvelobis mxardamWeri farTo socialuri bazis Seqmnas. naTqvami exeba Tavdacvis sferosac. saqarTvelos mTavrobas naTlad aqvs gansazRvruli korufciasa da organizebul danaSaulTan brZolis aucilebloba. man mxari dauWira Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis, iseve rogorc samarTaldacvis uwyebebSi axali reformatoruli jgufebisa da samoqalaqo mrCevelTa sabWoebis Seqmnis ideas. zogma maTganma ukve daiwyo praqtikuli rekomendaciebis SemuSaveba, rac xelaxal Sanss aZlevs SevardnaZis reJimis ganuxorcielebel antikorufciul politikas. magram metia gasakeTebeli usafrTxoebaze pasuxismgebeli uwyebebis struqturuli

4 IWPR, Caucasus Reporting Service, No 272, February 3, 2005, http://www.iwpr.net/ home_index_new.html 5 arsebiTad, es kursi deklarirebuli iqna Tanamedrove qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis SeqmnisTanave. saqarTvelos pirvelma prezidentma zviad gamsaxurdiam Tavis saprezidento programaSi xazi gausva, rom saqarTvelos Tavdacvis doqtrina evropuli usafrTxoebis sistemis Tanadgomaze aiRebda orientacias. es Seesabameboda mis ideas, rom saqarTvelo gamxdariyo evropasa da azias Soris damakavSirebeli xidi. ix. saqarTvelos respublika 253, 27 dekemberi, 1991 w.

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reformirebis, moqmedebis wesisa da misiebisaTvis saWiro axali kanonebisa da strategiuli diskursis SesamuSaveblad. Tavdacvis reformas saqarTveloSi mougvarebeli eTnikuri konfliqtebic eRobeba win. es konfliqtebi da xelaxali SeiaraRebuli Setakebebis potenciali arcTu saukeTeso fons qmnis qarTuli samxedro sistemis restruqturizaciisaTvis. marTlac, xelisuflebaSi mosvlidan ramodenime TveSi, axali xelmZRvaneloba samxreT oseTis konfliqtis eqskalaciaSi aRmoCnda Cabmuli, rasac konfliqtis zonaSi Sinagan saqmeTa saministros damatebiTi jarebis Seyvana da Sinagan saqmeTa axali ministris mier dagegmili reformis Seferxeba mohyva erTerT Sedegad. winamdebare TavSi gaanalizebulia saqarTvelos usafrTxoebisa da Tavdacvis politikis warumatebloba da axali mTavrobis winaSe mdgomi gamowvevebi.6 igi oTx nawilad aris dayofili. pirveli nawili ikvlevs qarTuli armiis aRmSeneblobis istoriis sxvadasxva etapebs 1980-iani wlebis damdegidan

winamdebare Tavi efuZneba adre Catarebul gamokvlevebs usafrTxoebis sakiTxebisa da samxedro-samoqalaqo urTierTobebis Sesaxeb. ix. David Darchiashvili, "Georgia: The Search for the State Security," Caucasus Working Papers (Stanford, CA: Center for International Security and Cooperation, 1997), http:// cisac.stanford.edu/publications/10255/; David Darchiashvili, "Trends of Strategic Thinking in Georgia: Achievements, Problems, and Prospects," in Gary K. Bertsch, Cassady Craft, Scott A. Jones, and Michael Beck, eds., Crossroads and Conflict: Security and Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia (Routledge: New York, 2000), pp. 66-74; David Darchiashvili and Tamara Pataraia, "Return to Europe? Some Aspects of the Security Orientation of Georgia," Österreichische Militarische Zeitschrift, no. 1 (2001), pp. 43­ 55; ix. agreTve daviT darCiaSvili politikosebi, jariskacebi, moqalaqeni: saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis da samxedro-samoqalaqo urTierTobebis analizi (Tbilisi, saxelmwifo universitetis gamomcemloba, 2000 weli) http://www.cipdd.org/en/archive.shtml?lang=eng&detail=1&id=3; David Darchiashvili, "Power Structures in Georgia," International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, Discussion Paper no. 5 (Printinfo: Yerevan, Armenia, 2003); David Darchiashvili, "Georgian Security Problems and Policies," in Dov Lynch, ed., The South Caucasus, A Challenge for the EU, Chaillot Papers, no. 65 (December 2003), p.107­128, http://www.iss-eu.org/public/content/chaile.html; agreTve, me viyavi biuletenis The Army and Society in Georgia redaqtori 1996-2000 wlebSi. 1998-2001 wlis nomrebi SeiZleba nanaxi iqnas Semdeg misamarTze: http:// www.cipdd.org/en/publication.shtml?cat_id=6.

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2003 wlis vardebis revoluciamde. masSi gaanalizebulia procesis sistemuri naklovanebebi da axsnilia dramatuli movlenebi, romlebmac Searyia samxedro-politikuri urTierTobebi. meore nawilSi ganxilulia samxedro Zalebze samoqalaqo kontrolis problema: urTierToba mTavrobis aRmasrulebel da sakanonmdeblo Stoebs Soris, Tavdacvis biujetis sakiTxi, samxedro sferoSi gamjdari korufcia. mesame nawili exeba erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis Camoyalibebis procesSi warmoCenil gamowvevebs. Tavi sruldeba meoTxe nawiliT, romelSic mokledaa mimoxiluli Tavdacvis politikis da samxedro reformis axali mimarTulebebi vardebis revoluciis Semdeg.

saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebi: istoriuli mimoxilva

miuxedavad mravalsaukunovani istoriisa, regularuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebis formirebaSi saqarTvelos didi gamocdileba ar gaaCnia. bolSevikuri revoluciis Semdeg mopovebuli damoukideblobis mokle periodSi (1918 ­ 1921) saqarTvelos gaaCnda 20-25 aTasi kacis Semadgenlobis regularuli jari da miliciis tipis saxalxo gvardia. qveyanas im dros ruseTis armiidan wamosuli, profesionali, aristokrati oficrebis sakmao moculobis korpusi hyavda. axal socialur - demokratiul mTavrobasa da oficerTa Soris damkvidrebuli urTierTundobloba xels uSlida qveyanas dabrkolebebis gadalaxvasa da efeqturi samxedro sistemis CamoyalibebaSi. qarTul jarSi aRiniSneboda disciplinis sisuste da cudi momarageba. mTeli es eqsperimenti mxolod 1921 wlamde gagrZelda - bolSevikuri wiTeli armiis mier qveynis okupaciamde. gasabWoebis Semdeg moskovi zogjer Tanxmdeboda erovnuli samxedro SenaerTebis Seqmnaze. Tumca, es formirebebi naklebad asrulebda realuri erovnuli armiis funqciebs. msgavsi mcdelobebi sruliad Sewyda 1956 wels, rodesac nikita

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xruSCovma sabWoTa armiaSi yvela erovnuli SenaerTi gaauqma. axali qarTuli samxedro sistema damoukideblobisaTvis masobrivi brZolis dawyebisa da sabWoTa kavSiris daSlisTanave iRebs saTaves. 1980-iani wlebis bolos antisabWoTa politikuri jgufebis mier dakompleqtebuli pirveli qarTuli formirebebis Seqmna imxanad gaRvivebul eTnokonfliqtebs daemTxva. es formirebebi kanongareSe moqmedebdnen. 1990 wlis miwuruls, rodesac zviad gamsaxurdia movida saxelmwifos saTaveSi, es formirebebi daaxlovebiT 6 000 mebrZols iTvlida.7 Tumca, es cifri SesaZloa gadaWarbebulic iyos, radgan erTi da imave dros, SeiaraRebul operaciebSi mxolod ramodenime aseuli mebrZoli monawileobda. formirebebi sabWoTa armiis rigebidan daTxovnili qarTveli oficrebiT, samoqalaqo aqtivistebiT da kriminaluri warsulis mqone adamianebiT iyo dakompleqtebuli. miuRweveli rCeboda SeiaraRebul formirebaTa saerTo politikuri kontroli. sabWoTa kontroli Tavidanve gamoiricxeboda - amgvari formirebebis arsebobas sabWoTa kanonmdebloba ar iTvaliswinebda. garkveul garemoebebSi erovnuli moZraobis liderebs SeeZloT SeeqmnaT kidec alternatiuli politikuri zedamxedveloba, magram maT Soris mudmivi qiSpi sufevda. aqedan gamomdinare ar da ver iqmneboda erTiani sakomando struqtura. yoveli metnaklebad mniSvnelovani formireba avtonomiur erTeuls warmoadgenda. mas Sereuli, samxedro-politikuri misiebi ekisreboda da uSualo meTaurs iyo daqvemdebarebuli. zog SemTxvevaSi formirebebi emorCileboda romelime anti-sabWour politikur organizacias, romelTa raodenoba iseve mravalricxovani iyo, rogorc Tavad Seiararebuli formirebisa. yvelaze Zlieri da maravalricxovani "mxedrioni" loialobas mxolod damfuZneblis, jaba ioselianis mimarT iCenda. igi ganaTlebiT xelovnebaTmcodne,

7 SeiaraRebuli da gasamxedroebuli formirebebi sabWoTa kavSirSi (moskovi, saerTaSoriso da samxedro-politikuri kvlevebis rusulamerikuli centri, 1991) gv 8-9 (rusul enaze)

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profesori da, imavdroulad, kriminaluri samyaros cnobili avtoriteti iyo. "mxedrions," romlis birTvs, ZiriTadad, kriminaluri romantikis mimdevari axalgazrda ubnis biWebi da inteligentTa Svilebi warmoadgendnen, sZulda gamsaxurdia, romelic, Tavis mxriv 1990 wlisaTvis erovnuli moZraobis erTerT yvelaze gavlenian liderad yalibdeboda. "mxedrioni" upirispirdeboda gamsaxurdias xelmZRvanelobis avtoritarul stils, misTvis miuRebel populistur nacionalizms, mis garemocvas, romelsac "mxedrionis" birTvi socialuri da kulturuli TvalsazrisiT "ucxod" moiazrebda. mxedrionelebi, iseve rogorc erovnuli moZraobis zogierTi sxva dajgufeba, gamsaxurdias ar patiobdnen, rom Tavis drozde, 70-ian wlebSi, man sajarod moixada bodiSi antisabWoTa, disidenturi saqmianobisaTvis. ioselianma saerTo ena gamonaxa komunistebis lider givi gumbariZesTan, romelic TviTon cdilobda mzard erovnul moZraobasTan saerTo enis gamonaxvas. amis Sedegad moxda ioselianisa da "mxedrionis" legalizacia alternatiul gasamxedroebul institutad, e.w. "maSvelTa korpusad." maSvelTa korpuss mTavrobisaTvis daxmareba unda gaewia stiqiuri ubedurebebis dros. "mxedrionis" garda funqcionirebda merab kostavas sazogadoebis SeiaraRebuli frTa, romelsac zviad gamsaxurdias erTguli vaJa adamia edga saTaveSi. sxva ori SedarebiT mniSvnelovani formireba - "qarTvel SevardenTa legioni" da saxalxo frontis samxedro frTa "imedi," neitralitets inarCunebda gamsaxurdia - ioselianis dapirispirebaSi. iSviaTad, magram mainc, sxvadasxva formirebebis calkeuli jgufebi icvlidnen daqvemdebarebas. amis dadasturebaa "imedis" nawilis gadanacvleba "mxedrionSi." meore magaliTia gia yaryaraSvili, romelic Tavidan mxedrionSi iricxeboda, mogvianebiT ki calke razmi "TeTri arwivi" Camoayaliba. 8

8 yvela monacemi 1995 ­ 1999 wlebis periodis yofili mebrZolebisa da politikosebis piradi interviuebis safuZvelzea mopovebuli

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aRniSnuli formirebebis moqmedeba, ZiriTadad, qarTvel da erovnuli umciresobebis warmomadgenel nacionalistTa pirvel Setakebebs ukavSirdeba. samxedro TvalsazrisiT formirebebi mciremasStabiani da araorganizebuli iyo. 1990 wlis oqtombris mravalpartiul arCevnebSi antikomunisturi mrgvali magidis gamarjvebis Semdeg, qarTuli samxedro sistemis aRmSeneblobaSi axali etapi daiwyo. axalma mTavrobam Camoyaliba erovnuli gvardia, romlis saxelwodeba, funqcia da Sinagan saqmeTa saministrosadmi daqvemdebareba misi parasamxedro bunebis gamovlena iyo; igi pasuxs agebda sazogadoebriv wesrigsa da saxelmwifos teritoriul mTlianobaze.9 misi, Jandarmeriis msgavsi, elferi or mizans emsaxureboda: rCeboda ra sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi, axali elita, moskovis mxridan mwvave reaqciis SiSiT, Tavs ikavebda bolomde gaemJRavnebina sruli damoukideblobis mopovebis survili. erovnuli armiis nacvlad Sida usafrTxoebaze pasuxismgebeli uwyebis Seqmna nakleb provokaciuli Canda. meores mxriv, aSkara safrTxe, romlis winaSec saqarTvelos mTavroba idga, samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis avtonomiuri regionebis separatistuli moZraobebidan momdinareobda. am moZraobis SesaCereblad parasamxedro Zalebi adeqvaturi Canda. imavdroulad sagareo Tavdacva sabWoTa centris pasuxismgeblobad rCeboda.10 miuxedavad zemoT naTqvamisa, cxadi iyo, rom erovnuli gvardia momavali erovnuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebis birTvad moiazreboda. axali mTavroba ar malavda, rom adre Tu gvian, erovnuli damoukideblobis mopoveba surda da am konteqstSi gvardielebs samSoblos damcvelis rols aniWebda. am ganzraxvam praqtikuli forma erovnuli gvardiis dakompleqtebis da wrTvnis wesebiT SeiZina. erovnuli gvardia orwliani savaldebulo samsaxuris safuZvelze kompleqtdeboda. adre Seqmnili yvela parasamxedro formirebisaTvis savaldebulo

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saqarTvelos uzenaesi sabWos uwyebani 12, 1990 w. axali saqarTvelo, 10 noemberi, 1990w.

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gaxda gvardiaSi Sesvla an daSla. 1991 wlis gazafxulze gvardia 12 000 kacisagan Sedgeboda. axalgazrdebi savaldebulo gawvevas didi enTuziazmiT xvdebodnen, rac albaT ar moxdeboda sazogadoebas gvardia policiur uwyebad rom ar CaeTvala. gvardiaSi Caewera qarTuli warmoSobis bevri sabWoTa oficeri. gvardiis rigebSi Sevida "TeTri arwivi" da "imedi." "mxedrionimaSvelTa korpusi" romelmac uari ganacxada gamsaxurdias mTavrobasTan Serigebaze, gauqmebulad gamocxadda, misi bevri wevri ki daapatimres. am xnis ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi kvlav ganlagebuli iyo sabWoTa armiis didi SenaerTebi. garkveuli garemoebebSi, maT SesaZloa raRac rolic SeesrulebinaT erovnuli armiis SeqmnaSi, rogorc es ukrainasa da belorusiaSi moxda. magram saqarTveloSi es SeuZlebeli iyo. jer erTi, sabWour SenaerTebSi qarTvel oficerTa raodenoba minimaluri iyo. amis erTerT mizezs warmoadgenda is, rom ssrk-s arsebobis bolo periodSi samxedro karieris prestiJi qarTvelebSi sagrZnoblad daeca. 1978 ­ 1979 wlebSi Tbilisis saartilerio saswavlebelSi (erTaderTi samxedro skola sabWoTa saqarTveloSi) ramodenime aseuli kursantidan mxolod ociode iyo qarTveli. 11 erT-erTi qarTveli generlis SefasebiT, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis periodSi, qarTvelebi sabWour erovnebebs Soris 1 000 sul moqalaqeze oficrebis raodenobiT 72-eni iyvnen. nawilobriv am mizezis, iseve rogorc qarTul sazogadoebaSi mzardi eTnikur-nacionalisturi ganwyobis gamo, sabWoTa jarebi okupaciur Zalad moiazreboda. gamsaxurdias mTavrobis erT-erTi ZiriTadi moTxovna maTi gayvana iyo. marTlac, isini nel-nela tovebdnen saqarTvelos da rodesac 1993 wlis SuaxanebSi es procesi droebiT SeCerda, qveynis teritoriaze rCeboda yofili sabWoTa armiis 15 000 ­ 25 000 mosamsaxure, romelTac amierkavkasiis rusuli jarebis jgufis birTvi Seadgines.

11 Tbilisis saartilerio skolis yofili kursdamTavrebulni; interviu avtorTan, dekemberi 1996 w.

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qarTuli armiis mSeneblobis mesame stadia 1991 wlis aprilSi, damoukideblobis deklarirebisa da gamsaxurdias prezidentad arCevis Semdeg daiwyo. parlamentis Tavmjdomaris postis prezidentobiT Canacvlebis Semdeg gamsaxurdia Seecada gavleniani samxedro-samoqalaqo liderebis Camocilebas da samxedro Zalebze piradi kontrolis dawesebas. 1991 wlis 19 agvistos saprezidento gankargulebiT erovnuli gvardiis statusi miliciis specialur qvedanayofamde iqna dayvanili, xolo gvardiis sardlis Tanamdeboba gauqmda. imavdroulad, jer kidev sabWoTa respublikebSi avtonomiuri SeiaraRebuli Zalebis gauqmebis gadawyvetileba miRebul iqna moskovSi momxdari 1991 wlis agvistos putCis mcdelobisas, sagangebo mdgomareobis saxelmwifo komitetis mier. gamsaxurdias saqcieli nawilobriv motivirebuli iyo moskovidan wamosuli muqaris SiSiT, ramac, TavisTavad, sagrZnoblad Searyia gamsaxurdias avtoriteti mis momxreTa Soris. magram imavdroulad, moskovis moTxovna gamsaxurdiasaTvis kargi sababic iyo erovnuli gvardiis damoukidebeli xelmZRvanelobis gzidan Camosacileblad. moskovis saxelmwifo gadatrialebis mcdelobis CaSlisa da centrisadmi Tavad ruseTis respublikuri xelmZRvanelobis urCobis fonze, gamsaxurdiam 1991 wlis 9 seqtembers gamosca brZanebuleba Tavdacvis saministros Seqmnis Sesaxeb. gvardias daubrunda pirvandeli statusi, magram axla igi uSualod prezidentis daqvemdebarebaSi gadavida. misi materialur-teqnikuri uzrunvelyofa ki Tavdacvis saministros daevala.12 paralelurad iqmneboda Sinagan saqmeTa saministros Sinagani jari, romelzedac gadadioda gvardiis policiuri funqciebi. saxelmwifos Senebis gamsaxurdiaseuli strategiis cvlileba am istoriuli periodis konteqstSi unda iyos gagebuli. sabWouri mmarTvelobidan damoukideblobisaken gardamavali periodi dasrulda. saqarTvelos teritoriaze aRar moqme12 general-maiori guram nikolaiSvili, interviu avtorTan, oqtomberi 1996 w.

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debda sabWoTa kanonebi da struqturebi. magram saxelmwifosa da armiis aRmSenebloba umtkivneulod ar mimdinareobda da mogvianebiT SeiaraRebuli ajanyebiTa da gamsaxurdias mmarTvelobis damxobiT damTavrda. movlenaTa aseTi ganviTarebis mizezTa Soris erTerTi iyo gamsaxurdias marcxi samxedro aRmSeneblobis sferoSi. mTavrobis meryevma damokidebulebam erovnuli gvardiis mimarT mniSvnelovnad Seuwyo xeli samxedro reformis procesis arastabilurobas. rogorc male gairkva, gvardielebma prezidents ar apaties 19 agvistos brZanebulebiT maTi statusis Selaxva, ramac saTave daudo 1991 wlis zamTris SeiaraRebul ajanyebas. qarTuli samxedro-samoqalaqo urTierTobis qaosSi sxva aspeqtebic ikveTeboda. aRsaniSnavia, rom ramodenime parasamxedro formireba arasodes yofila integrirebuli erovnul gvardiaSi. gamsaxurdias mxardamWeri merab kostavas sazogadoeba avtonomiasa da iaraRs inarCunebda. misi lideri vaJa adamia parlamentSi arsebul Tavdacvis, erovnuli uSiSroebisa da marTlwesrigis komisias Tavmjdomareobda. igi iTavsebda partiis lideris, formirebis sardlisa da kanonmdeblis funqciebs. igive SieZleba iTqvas Tengiz kitovanis Sesaxeb. is erTdroulad iyo parlamentis deputati, Tavdacvis samTavrobo komisiis Tavmjdomare da erovnuli gvardiis sardali. kitovanis Tanamdebobis fonze gvardiis daqvemdebareba Sinagan saqmeTa saministrosadmi ubralo formalobas warmoadgenda. igi pirovnul loialobas aRvivebda yofili samoqalaqo pirebisagan dakompleqtebul gvardiis oficrebSi, romelnic Tavadac, ZiriTadad, yofili samoqalaqo pirebi iyvnen da naklebad icnobdnen profesionali samxedroebis eTikas. amrigad, formaluri iarliyebis safarqveS, qarTul SeiaraRebul ZalebSi isev klanur-feodaluri suliskveTeba dominirebda. erisadmi erTgulebis popularuli lozungi ver gadaizarda saxelmwifo institutebisadmi loialobaSi. 1991 wlis agvistoSi adamiasa da kitovanis Tanamdebobebidan daTxovis Semdeg, romlebsac Tavidan arc ise TanamSromlobiTi urTierTobebi hqondaT, gamsaxurdias winaaRmdeg gaerTianda.

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1991 wlis dekemberSi gamsaxurdias momxreebsa da mowinaaRmdegeebs Soris gamarTul Tbilisis omSi kitovansa da adamias xelaxla Sekrebili "mxedrionic" SeuerTda. am suraTs isic arTulebda, rom orive mxare rusi samxedroebisgan eloda mxardaWeras, zogi maRal politikur doneze, sxvebi ki adgilobrivad ganlagebuli sabWoTa jarebis meTaurebisagan. gasakviri araa, rom rusebis frTxili simpatiebi ajanyebulebisaken ixreboda. nacionalisturma ritorikam gamsaxurdias kargi samsaxuri ver gauwia ruseTTan urTierTobaSi. 1992 ­ 1993 w.w. saqarTvelos samxedro aRmSeneblobis meoTxe stadias warmoadgens. es yvelaze qaoturi da konfliqtebiT datvirTuli periodia saqarTvelos uaxles istoriaSi. Sesabamisad, samxedro Zalebi sagangebo viTarebaSi, daugegmavad iqmneboda - konceptualuri orientiris gareSe.13 qaRaldze yvelaferi metnaklebad organizebuli Canda, Tumca xSiri cvlilebebiT daRdasmuli. 1992 w. ianvarSi umaRlesi xelisufleba amboxebulTa mier Seqmnil samxedro sabWos xelSi aRmoCnda, Tumca mokle vadiT. oriod TveSi mas Caenacvla saxelmwifo sabWo eduard SevardnaZis xelmZRvanelobiT, romelic dabrunda ruseTidan. Tavdacvis saministros organizeba SevardnaZem TiTqmis nulidan daiwyo. gadawyda jarebis saarmio korpusebad organizeba. 1992 wlis aprilSi Seiqmna pirveli namdvili saarmio nawilis - meTerTmete brigada. zafxulSi rusma samxedro moxeleebma saqarTveloSi ganlagebuli sabWoTa sawyobebidan Cveulebrivi SeiaraRebis didi raodenoba gadasces Tavdacvis axal saministros. imave wels daarsda sasazRvro jari. erovnul gvardias Tavdacvis saministros "swrafi reagirebis korpusi" ewoda da Tavdacvis saministros daqvemdebarebaSi Sevida. Sinagan saqmeTa saministros kvlavindeburad SeunarCunda Sinagani jarebis kontroli. 1993 wels mTavroba Seudga maSvelTa korpusis damoukidebeli departamentis formirebas, romelSic "mxedrionelTa"

13 Richard Wolff, "The Armed Forces of Georgia-An Update", Jane's Intelligence Review, Europe tomi 6, #12, dekemberi 1994 w., gb 559-561

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didi nawili unda Sesuliyo. danarCenebs ki SeiaraRebul jarebSi gaerTianeba daevalaT. Tumca, realurad, rogorc erovnuli gvardia ise "mxedrionic" damoukideblobas inarCunebda. ioseliani, romelic 1992 wlis Semodgomaze parlamentis wevri da uSiSroebisa da Tavdacvis14 erovnuli sabWos Tavmjdomare gaxda, isev "mxedrionis" Seucvlel sardlad rCeboda. gia yaryaraSvili iyo erTaderTi pirovneba, visac gvardielebi emorCilebodnen, rodesac man kitovani Secvala gvardiis sardlis Tanamdebobaze. 1993 wlis maisSi, rodesac SevardnaZe kitovans daupirispirda, am ukanasknelis posti - Tavdacvis ministroba - yaryaraSvils ergo. amieridan yaryaraSvili SeiaraRebuli Zalebis integraciiT dainteresda. SeiaraRebuli Zalebis axali, 1993 wlis maisSi SemuSavebuli struqtura aRar axsenebda swrafi reagirebis korpussa Tu erovnul gvardias. gvardiis batalionebi meTerTmete armiis brigadaSi gaerTianda. daCqarda pirveli da meore korpusebis formireba. Tumca mxedrioni am procesSi ar monawileobda. 1992 ­ 1993 wlebis afxazeTis konfliqtis dros qarTuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebis sakadro da organizaciuli cvlilebebis TvalsazrisiT, realuri progresi ar SeimCneoda. batalionebi mxolod ramodenime aTeuli kaciT iyo dakompleqtebuli. rig SemTxvevebSi isini TviTon irCendnen meTaurs. mebrZolTa did nawils uWirda dasaxeleba, Tu romel SenaerTs ekuTvnoda misi razmi. rigi formirebebi e.w. ubnebis saZmoebiT iyo dakompleqtebuli. iyo SemTxvevebi, rodesac jariskacebi da axalgazrda oficrebi frontis xazze yofnis vadebs Tavad gansazRvravdnen; rig SemTxvevebSi erTi danayofidan meoreSi inacvlebdnen. TviT Tavdacvis ministric ki zogjer arsebiTad, batalionis meTauris funqcias asrulebda. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tavdacvis saministros 1993 wlis maisSi miRebuli axali struqturiT, erovnuli gvardia gauqmebulad iTvleboda, rogorc maRali rangis erTerTi meTauri ixsenebda, mas

14 1995 wels, konstituciis miRebis Semdeg, aRniSnul struqturis nacvlad erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWo Seiqmna.

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arasodes Seuwyvetia funqcionireba.15 1993 wlis oqtomberSi ki SevardnaZem gvardiis formaluri aRdgenis brZaneba gamosca. samxedro xelmZRvanelebi faqtiurad e.w. savele meTaurebis kategorias ganekuTvnebodnen da samoqalaqo xelisuflebis mimarT garkveul indifirentobas iCendnen. samxedro Zalebze saparlamento kontroli mxolod qaRaldze rCeboda an saerTod ar arsebobda. ministris postze daniSnuli kitovani rig SemTxvevebSi SevardnaZes ewinaaRmdegeboda Tavdacvis sakiTxebSi, miaCnda ra, rom saxelmwifos meTaurs mxolod sagareo politikis mogvareba ekisreboda. erT-erT preskonferenciaze man ganacxada, rom parlamentsa da SevardnaZes ki ara, "xalxsa" da armias unda gadaewyvita vin iqneboda Tavdacvis ministri. naxevrad avtonomiuri formirebebis garda arsebobdnen xelisuflebas sruliad daumorCilebeli razmebic. damxobili prezidentis, gamsaxurdias SeiaraRebuli momxreebi periodulad axerxebdnen dasavleT saqarTvelos raionebis gakontrolebas da afxazeTSi ganlagebuli jarebis Tbilisisgan mowyvetas. imave periodSi aWaris lideri aslan abaSiZe sakuTar laSqars ayalibebda. gamsaxurdiasgan gansxvavebiT, SevardnaZem mainc SesZlo garkveuli kontrolis SenarCuneba rTul da daqucmacebul samxedro-politikur garemoze. misi popularobis mTavari iaraRi pirovnuli gavlena iyo, radgan qarTuli politikuri scenis TiTqmis yvela moTamaSe Tvlida, rom mxolod SevardnaZes SeeZlo sarTaSoriso Tanadgomis mopoveba. amasTan erTad igi "dahyavi da ibatones" misTvis kargad Cveul meTodsac iyenebda da erTdroulad arasodes upirispirdeboda yvela SeiaraRebul liders. aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi SevardnaZe gamsaxurdias momxreebTan saerTo enis gamonaxvasac ar Takilobda. aseTi meTodebiT man TandaTan CamoiSora gzidan kitovani, ioseliani da SeiaraRebuli jgufebis nakleb cnobili

15

maiori koba liklikaZe, saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministros prescentris ufrosi, interviu avtorTan, 27 seqtemberi, 1999 w.

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liderebi. Tavisi Zalauflebis konsolidaciisaTvis man mSvenivrad gamoiyena ucxouri Tanadgoma da saerTaSoriso mxardaWera, rac gamsaxurdias arasodes qonda. 1994 ­ 1995 wlebi gadamwyveti periodi aRmoCnda SevardnaZis pirovnuli Zalauflebis konsolidaciisaTvis. es wlebi SeiZleba CaiTvalos saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis Seqmnis mexuTe etapad. afxazeTSi gancdili marcxis Semdeg, SevardnaZem 1993 wlis oqtomberSi damoukidebeli saxelmwifoebis TanamegobrobaSi gawevrianebis gadawyvetileba miiRo da saqarTveloSi rusuli jarebis yofnac daakanona. am nabijiT igi gamsaxurdias momxreTa winaaRmdeg ruseTis mxardaWeris mopovebas Seecada; gamsaxurdiam isargebla SevardnaZis marcxiT afxazeTSi da dasavleT saqarTvelos did nawilze sakuTari kontrolis damyareba daiwyo. SevardnaZis gadawyvetilebaTa Sedegad saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa, usafrTxoebisa da Tavdacvis saministroebi moskovis favaritebis xelSi gadavida. am politikam saTave daudo naxevrad kanonieri SeiaraRebuli formirebebisa da im samxedro liderebis gzidan Camocilebas, romelTa TviTneburi moqmedebebi centralur xelisuflebas uqmnida safrTxes. Tumca amiT samoqalaqo xelisuflebis winaSe mdgomi problemebi ar amowurula. uSiSroebis axali ministri igor giorgaZe gamorCeulad Zlier figurad warmoCnda da Sesabamisad SevardnaZis eWvebis axali obieqtic gaxda. savaraudod, giorgaZe ukanono iaraRisa da sigaretis kontrabandaSi monawileobda Tavisi rusuli nacnobobis wyalobiT. ruseTis uSiSroebisa da samxedro maRalCinosnebi mas ufro ucxadebdnen ndobas vidre SevardnaZes, romelsac sabWoTa imperiis damangrevlad moiazrebdnen. SvardnaZisa da giorgaZis konfliqti 1995 wels gamoaSkaravda. im periodSi ukve warsuls bardeboda SeiaraRebul formirebaTa ukontrolo TareSi TareSi. qarTvelebi mouTmenlad elodnen mSvidobis damyarebas da ekonomiuri pirobebis gaumjobesebis perspeqtivas, gansakuTrebiT ki mas Semdeg rac dasavleTma interesi gamoiCina saqarTvelos mimarT. rogorc aRmoCnda, giorgaZes unari ar Seswevda politikurad an Zalis

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gamoyenebiT metoqeoba gaewia SvardnaZisaTvis. samoqalaqo Tu eTnikuri omebis qartexiliT gatanjuli saqarTvelos mosaxleoba samxedro formian mmarTvels naklebad Seegueboda. garda amisa giorgaZes didi samxedro Zalac ar gaaCnda. 1994 wels ruseTis daxmarebiT Seqmnili uSiSroebis saministros specialuri brigada ver ajobebda sxva, e.w. Zalovani uwyebebis16 koleqtiur Zalas, romlis liderebsac Tavisi sakuTari ambiciebi gaaCndaT. wina wlebis msgavsad, SevardnaZe kvlav ganagrZobda SeiaraRebuli uwyebebis momravlebis da maTi erTmaneTiT dabalansebis Cveul politikas. 1995 wels am politikam SZedegi gamoiRo. 1992-1993 wlebis samoqalaqo da eTnikuri konfliqtebis dros Seqmnil uwyebebTan SedarebiT, axali Zalovani struqturebi ukeT institucionalizebuli da disciplinirebuli gaxda. aseT garemoebaSi moskovi veRar dauWerda mxars axal gadatrialebas - radgan es ukve aSkarad miuRebeli iqneboda qarTveli da evropuli sazogadoebisaTvis. ruseTisaTvis ufro gonivruli xdeboda Tavad SevardnaZesTan TanamSromloba. 1995 wlis agvistoSi saxelmwifos meTaurze ganxorcielebuli Tavdasxmis mcdelobis Semdeg, romlis srulyofili gamoZiebac kvlav momavlis saqmed rCeba, SevardnaZem misi pirovnuli ZalauflebisaTvis yvelaze saSiSi figurebi giorgaZe da mxedrionis lideri jaba ioseliani moicila. Tavdasxmis organizeba maT dabraldaT. am droisaTvis momZlavrebuli policia TandaTan aniaraRebda da Slida mxedrions, rac ioselians TandaTanobiT izolaciaSi aqcevda. 1995 wlis seqtemberSi saqarTveloSi ganlagebuli ruseTis samxedro

16

Zalovani uwyebebi sityvasityviTi Targmania rusuli cnebisa "ñèëîâûå ñòðóêòóðû". es gamoTqma miRebulia postsabWota qveynebSi da gulisxmobs armias, policias, uSiSroebis struqturebs, sasazRvro dacvas da rig sxva gasamxedroebul Zalebs, romlebic arasodes yofila sworad da bolomde urTierTgamijnuli. dawvrilebiTi informaciisaTvis ixileT inglisurenovani Jurnali "Zalovani institutebi post. sabWour institutebSi" http//www.pipss.org/

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bazidan giorgaZe ruseTSi gaiqca, ramac kidev ufro gaaZliera Tavdasxmis mcdelobaSi misi (da rusi Cinosnebis) pirovnuli monawileobis eWvi. giorgaZis gaqcevam, iseve rogorc ioselianis dapatimrebam daaCqara Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis reformis Semdgomi etapi. SevardnaZes meti Tavisufleba mieca piradi arCevaniT waremarTa samxedro aRmSenebloba, radgan mis garSemo Semokrebil politikosebsa da samxedro maRalCinosnebs Zala da gavlena ar eyofodaT, rom misi survilis winaaRmdeg wasuliyvnen. 1995 wlis Semodgomidan 1998 w. gazafxulamde samxedro mSeneblobis axali, rigiT meeqvse etapi mimdinareobda. ruseTis armiis qarTuli warmoSobis generali vardiko nadibaiZe, romelic adre saqarTveloSi ganlagebuli rusuli kontingentis sardlis moadgile iyo, 1998 wlis gazafxulamde uZRveboda saqarTvelos SeiaraRebul Zalebs. 1994 wlis damdegs, rodesac man Tavdacvis ministris posti daikava, qarTul armias daaxloebiT 50 sxvadasxva zomisa da misiis danayofi Seadgenda da maTSi 49 000 kaci iricxeboda.17 samxedro gawveva im periodSi18 sporadulad an dabali masStabiT xdeboda. Sesabamisad, armiisa da erovnuli gvardiis danayofebSi ZiriTadad moxaliseebi Sediodnen. samxedro samsaxurSi Caricxuli bevri oficeri da jariskaci iSviaTad cxaddeboda Tavis nawilSi. aRniSnuli 49 000 kacidan erTdroulad mxolod ramodenime aTasi jariskaci Tu imyofeboda dislokaciis adgilze. nadibaiZis ministrobis dros armiis ricxovnoba Semcirda da samxedro gawvevebis sistema ufro organizebuli gaxda. bevrma araprofesionalma oficerma datova armiis rigebi, romelsac axla metwilad sabWoTa samxedro gamocdilebis mqone asakovani generlebi uZRvebodnen. 1996 wels axalma sistemam met-naklebad dasrulebuli forma SeiZina. saarmio korpusis

17 18

sarke, oqtomberi 18, 1995 gawveva warmoebda 1992 wels miRebuli kanoniT "Tavdacvisa da sayovelTa savaldebulo samsaxuris Sesaxeb" sinamdvileSi kanonmdebloba naklebad moqmedebda.

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sistema gauqmda im mizeziT, rom igi gamousadegar biurokratiul rgolad CaTvales brigadebsa da umaRles sardlobas Soris. Tavdacvis saministros daqvemdebarebuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebi, romelic axla 30 000 kacs iTvlida, 7 motomsroleli, 1 Sereuli tipis sazRvao brigadebad, sahaero Tavdacvisa da sahaero Zalebis danayofebad da ramodenime calkeul batalionad daiyo. erovnuli gvardia Tavdacvis saministros departamentad gadaiqca da misi savele nawilebi erTi brigadis SemadgenlobaSi gaerTianda.19 Tavdacvis saministros jarebi mTavrobis erTaderT samxedro resurss ar warmoadgenda. 1994 wels sasazRvro Zalebi gamoeyo Tavdacvis saministros. imave wels SevardnaZem saxelmwifo dacvis specialuri samsaxuri Seqmna. 1995 wels usafrTxoebis saministrosTan arsebuli specialuri brigada Sinagan saqmeTa saministros gadaeca. 1997 wels, specialuri saparlamento dadgenilebiT, samxedro Zalebis saerTo raodenoba 42 000 jariskaciTa da oficeriT ganisazRvra. samxedro mosamsaxureTa raodenobis parlamentis doneze gansazRvra erTaderTi sakanonmdeblo siaxle ar yofila. 1995 wels miRebuli konstitucia samxedro reformirebis processac Seexo, gansakuTrebiT samxedro Zalebze samoqalaqo kontrolis sferos. axali konstituciiT, saqarTvelo saprezidento mmarTvelobis sitemaze gadavida. prezidentive axorcielebda samxedro Zalebis umaRlesi mTavarsardalis funqcias. 1995 w. saparlamento da saprezidento arCevnebis Semdeg, samoqalaqo kontrolis sakanonmdeblo safuZvlebis xelaxali formireba daiwyo. aRsaniSnavia kanonebi Tavdacvis, saxelmwifo saidumloebis, ndobis jgufis Sesaxeb da zogadi administraciuli kodeqsi. 1998 wels parlamentis sami wevrisgan Semdgari ndobis jgufi Seiqmna, romelsac monitoringi unda ganexorcielebina samxedro da usafrTxoebis saidumlo programaze.

19 parlamentis Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis komitetis wevrebi, interviu avtorTan oqtomberi, 1996.

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samxedro Zalebis uaxlesi istoriis me-7 etapi 1998 wels daiwyo. usafrTxoebis yofili ministris jemal gaxokiZis TqmiT, am wels gadawyda, rom saqarTvelos usafrTxoebisa da sagareo polikis veqtori erTxel da sabolood dasavleTisken iqneboda mimarTuli.20 imave wels evropis sabWom gadawyvita daekmayofilebina saqarTvelos gawevrianebis survili. dasavluri navTobis kompaniebi, iseve rogorc SeerTebuli Statebisa da TurqeTis mTavrobebi sabolood daTanxmdnen didi aRmosavleT-dasavleTis navTobsadenis mSeneblobas saqarTvelos teritoriis gavliT. dasavleTis mzardi dainteresebiT gamxnevebulma SevardnaZem, romlisaTvisac aseve naTeli xdeboda, rom dakargul teritoriebs ruseTis daxmarebiT veRar daibrunebda, dsT-s koleqtiuri uSiSroebis xelSekrulebis datoveba gadawyvita. saqarTvelos mTavrobam ufro aqtiurad daiwyo muSaoba qveynis teritoriidan rusuli samxedro bazebis gayvanis mimarTulebiT. dRis wesrigSi dgeboda natoSi gawevrianebis survilis deklarireba. axali orientaciis simtkiceze mogvianebiT gaCenili eWvebis miuxedavad, es cvlilebebi aiZulebda saqarTvelos mTavrobas meti gaekeTebina samxedro Zalebis marTvisa da kontrolis meqanizmebis dasavlur standartebze gadasayvanad. 1998 wlis aprilSi nadibaiZe Tavdacvis ministris postidan gaaTavisufles. igi erTerTi parasamxedro formirebis yofilma meTaurma daviT TevzaZem Secvala. imave periodSi parlamentis Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis komitetis Tavjdomare revaz adamiam daarwmuna prezidenti usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi mrCevelTa saerTaSoriso sabWos (ISAB) Seqmnis saWiroebaSi, romelic baltiispireTis qveynebSi arsebuli msgavsi institutebis analogi iqneboda. 1999 wels ISAB-ma warmoadgina rekomendaciebi, romlebic samxedro Zalebis ricxovnobis Semcirebas, uwyebaTaSorisi paralelizmis aRmofxvras, oficialuri erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis da Tavdacvis TeTri wignis Seqmnas da Tavdacvis ministris Tanamdebobaze samo20

axali Taoba, oqtomberi 19, 1999

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qalaqo piris daniSvnas gulisxmobda. imavdroulad SeerTebuli Statebis eqspertebi saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministros exmarebodnen dasavluri standartebis generaluri Stabis, Tavdacvis resursebis marTvis centris Seqmnasa da Tavdacvis biujetis SemuSavebaSi. magram, saboloo jamSi, mTavrobam ver SeZlo am rekomendaciaTa ganxorcieleba. 2001 w. 11 seqtembris cnobili movlenebis Semdeg SeerTebuli Statebis mier terorizmis winaaRmdeg dawyebulma omma saintereso gverdiTi efeqti iqonia qarTul samxedro Zalebze. reformatorulad ganwyobil samxedro da politikur liderebTan konsultaciiT, SeerTebulma Statebma wamoiwyo wvrTnisa da aRWurvis programa (GTEP). Sedegad, 2003 wlisaTvis qarTulma armiam miiRo dabali intensivobis konfliqtebSi samoqmedod gawrTvnili 4 profesionaluri batalioni. SevardnaZis mTavrobis winaaRmdegobrivi samxedro saqmianobidan es iyo bolo da albaT yvelaze mizanmimarTuli nabiji. Tbilisma ver moaxerxa qveyanaSi ganlagebul SeiaraRebul Zalebze sruli kontrolis daweseba. afxazeTsa da oseTSi arsebul ukontrolo Zalebs kvlav emateboda aWaris lideris, aslan abaSiZis razmebi. vardebis revoluciis dros aslan abaSiZis daqvemdebarebaSi, gadmocemiT, daaxloebiT oci tanki da javSanmanqana, ramdenime Sveulmfreni da sanapiro katerebi Sedioda. misi specialuri danayofebi 500 ­ 1000 kacisgan Sedgeboda. SevardnaZes arasodes SeeZlo gaekontrolebia abaSiZis saqmianoba da misi TanamSromloba baTumSi ganlagebuli samxedro bazis xelmZRvanelobasTan. ufro metic, Tbilisma ver SesZlo saerTo enis gamonaxva moskovTan am droisaTvis darCenili ori rusuli bazis (baTumis da axalqalaqis) gayvanis Sesaxeb, ris Taobazec mxareebs unda moelaparakaT 1999 noembris euTos samitze miRweuli SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad. 2004 wlis dasawyisSi 3000-6000 rusi samxedro kvlav rCeboda baTumisa da axalqalaqis bazebze. qveynis dasavleTSi (afxazeTis konfliqtis zonis mimdebare) da pankisis xeobaSi moqmedi partizanuli da kriminaluri dajgufebebi ki gasamxedroebuli formirebebis mesame saxeoba iyo, romelic saqarT176

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velos mTavrobis kontrols ar eqvemdebareboda. 2002 wels, ruseTisa da SeerTebuli Statebis moTxovniT, qarTulma samarTaldamcavma uwyebebma bolosdabolos specialuri operacia ganaxorcieles pankisis xeobaSi. sxvadasxva wyaroebis Tamaxmad, qarTvelebTan Setakebis Tavidan asacileblad, CeCnurma SeiaraRebulma formirebebma xeoba datoves.21 daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 1994 wlis Semdeg SevardnaZis reJimma warmatebas miaRwia iaraRiani xalxis TareSis aRkveTaSi. garda amisa, samxedro Zalebi SeiZina ufro disciplinirebuli gaxda. magram mTavrobam ver SeZlo aucilebeli reformebis gatareba. man ver moaxerxa efeqturi Tavdacvis sistemis Seqmna da samoqalaqo kontrolisa da zedamxedvelobis qmediTi demokratiuli meqanizmebis danergva. sul ufro mkvidrdeboda azri, rom saqarTvelo susti, metic, arSemdgari saxelmwifoa. yovelive es gansakuTrebiT naTeli xdeboda vardebis revoluciis wina periodSi. winamdebare Tavis momdevno ori nawili samxedro reformis im or mniSvnelovan gamowvevas exeba, romlis mimarTac SevardnaZis administraciam adekvaturi zomebi ver miiRo. pirveli samxedro Zalebze samoqalaqo kontrolis ganxorcielebaa, meore ki, Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis strategiis ganviTareba.

samxedro Zalebze samoqalaqo kontroli

"me mesmis, Tu risTvisaa policia - uTxra erTxel SevardnaZem Tavis erTerT mrCevels - da rogor warmarTs igi yoveldRiur saqmianobas, magram netav es samxedroebi raRaze fiqroben TavianT yazarmebSi?"22 am remarkam gamoamJRavna

21 rusuli bazebis sakiTxsa da pankisSi ganlagebul CeCenTa gamo ruseTTan konfliqtis Sesaxeb ixileT jaba devdarianisa da oqsana antonenkos naSromebi winamdebare krebulSi. 22 yofili maRalCinosani saqalaqo piri. konfidencialuri interviu avtorTan, Tebervali 2003.

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SevardnaZis Rrma eWvi samxedroebis mimarT, iseve rogorc demokratiuli samxedro - samoqalaqo urTierTobis ucodinaroba. samuel hantingtonis termini rom gamoviyenoT, samxedroebze samoqalaqo kontroli saqarTveloSi 1995 wlisaTvis "subieqturobas" inarCunebda.23 SeiaraRebuli Zalebis politikuri da samarTlebrivi daqvemdebarebis xazebi bundovani iyo. sxvadasxva samTavrobo struqturebi da politikuri dajgufebebi eqiSpebodnen erTmaneTs samxedro sistemis gakontrolebasa da marTvaSi imdagvarad, rom Tavad samxedroebs sakuTari politikuri Tu pirovnuli interesebiT moqmedebis SesaZlebloba eZleodaT. Tavdacvis sakiTxebSi erTiani xedvis ararseboba mniSvnelovanwilad 1995 wlis konstituciidanac momdinareobda. am dokumentis mixedviT parlaments evaleboda saSinao da sagareo politikis mTavari mimarTulebebis gansazRvra, prezidents ki am politikis warmarTva hqonda dakisrebuli.24 qarTul enaSi terminebis "gansazRvra" da "warmarTva" - mniSvneloba Znelad gasamijnia. es orazrovneba Tavis TavSi gulisxmobda imis SesaZleblobas, rom instituciur CarCoebze maRla piradi gavlena, qarizma damdgariyo. an, Tundac meore magaliTi: saqarTvelos konstituciis 98-e muxliT prezidenti ganesazRvravda samxedro Zalebis struqturas, xolo maTi raodenoba parlaments unda daedgina. Sedegad, Tu prezidenti da parlamenti ver SeTanxmdebodnen armiis Semadgenlobis dadgenaze, problema iolad ver mogvardeboda. arc is iyo iolad gasagebi, rogor SeeZlo prezidents SeiaraRebuli Zalebis struqturis gansazRvra Tu ar iqneboda darwmunebuli, rom parlamenti uzrunvelyofda mas saWiro iaraRiTa da samxedro mosamsaxureebiT.

Samuel P. Huntington, The Soldier and the State: the Theory and Politics of CivilMilitary Relations (New York: Vintage Books, 1964) gv. 162-192. hantingtoni exeba situaciebs, rodesac sxvadasxva politikur organoebs aqvT zedamxedvelobis paraleluri rolebi, rac samxedroebs politikur vaWrobaSi CarTvis Sanss aZlevs. 24 saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxlebi 48, 49.

23

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ufro metic, rig SemTxvevebSi, parlamentis mier miRebuli kanonebi ewinaaRmdegeboda saqarTvelos konstitucias. magaliTisaTvis, konstituciis 78-e muxli krZalavda uSiSroebis, sapolicio da SeiaraRebuli Zalebis nebismier gaerTianebas. magram 1997 wlis kanoniT Tavdacvis Sesaxeb Sinagan saqmeTa saministros Sianagani jarebi samxedro Zalebis nawilad cxaddeboda. amasTan, Sinagani jarebis kanonis Tanaxmad, sagangebo situaciebis SemTxvevaSi maT sardals adgilobrivi policiis moqmedebis koordinacia evaleboda.25 saqarTvelos kanonebis winaaRmdegobriobis naTeli ilustraciaa saxelmwifo saidumloebis sakiTxic. sakmaod liberaluri zogadi administarciuli kodeqsis Tanaxmad, Tavdacvis sferoSi saidumlo iyo informacia operatiul gegmebze, moqmed operaciebsa da maT monawileebze. magram saxelmwifo saidumloebebis nusxa, romelic igive saxelwodebis specialur kanons erTvoda, krZalavda informaciis gamJRavnebas samxedro Zalebis ganviTarebasa da organizaciaze, nawilTa Seqmnaze, jarebis da iaraRis raodenobaze, samxedro danayofebSi maT ganawilebaze.26 winaaRmdegobriobaTa CamonaTvali kidev ufro Sors midis. zogierTi kanoni realurad rom amoqmedebuliyo, prezidentsa da parlaments Soris uamrav, gadauwyvetel gaugebrobas eqneboda adgili. rigi sxva kanonebisa ki Zalze mcire Sanss datovebda demokratiuli angariSgebisa da gamWvirvalobisaTvis. ase magaliTad, kanoniT saxelmwifo saidumloebis Sesaxeb SeuZlebeli gaxdeboda kvalificiuri saparlamento debatebis Catareba Tavdacvis saministros xarjebis Sesaxeb. Tumca, realurad, aseTi debatebi, marTalia araprofesionalurad da SezRuduli informirebis pirobebSi, mainc imarTeboda. deputatebi ar flobdnen informacias Tavdacvis biujetis specifikuri detalebis Sesaxeb, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT samxedroebis arasabiujeto Semosavlebsa da xarjebze. simptomaturia, rom Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis komitetisa

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kanoni Sinagani jarebis Sesaxeb, aprili 30, 1998 saqarTvelos respublika, Tebervali 4, 1997

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da ndobis jgufis Tavjdomarem, romelsac nebismieri saidumlo informacia unda hqonoda, 2000 wlis martSi ganacxada, rom mas ar miuwvdeboda xeli Tavdacvis saministros dafinansebis detalebze.27 saerTod, am sferoSi kanoni mudmivad irRveoda. politikosebs, Jurnalistebsa da arasamTavrobo organizaciebis warmomadgenlebs yazarmebis vizitisas problemebi naklebad eqmnebodaT. oficerTa gamokiTxviT, romelTac an ar icodnen kanonis moTxovnebi, an ar adardebdaT maTi simkacre, isini sistematurad ecnobodnen nawilebSi arsebul mdgomareobas. meore mxriv, Tavdacvis saministro ugulvebelyofda Tavis kanonier movaleobas ndobis jgufisTvis swori finansuri informaciis miwodebis Sesaxeb. ase magaliTad, Tavdacvis saministro asxvisebda gamouyenebel qonebas, magram parlamentarebi verafriT igebdnen amgvarad miRebuli arasabiujeto Semosavlebis odenobas. problemis saTave korufciasa da saxsrebis aramiznobriv xarjvaSia saZiebeli, rac farTod iyo gavrcelebuli SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis yvela sferoSi. TviT prezidents problemis masStabebze mxolod zogadi warmodgena hqonda Seqmnili. kontrolis palata, romelsac biujetis xarjvis auditireba evaleboda, xandaxan amowmebda Tavdacvis saministros da asobiT aTasi dolaris aramiznobrivi gamoyenebis faqtebs asaxelebda. 1999 wels, magaliTad saministrom saxelfaso xarji mxolod 66 procentiT Seasrula, imavdroulad ki samivlinebo Tanxebi 42 procentiT iyo gadaxarjuli.28 pasuxi aravisTvis mouTxoviaT, radgan Tavdacvis maRalCinosnebi acxadebdnen, rom gadaxarjvebi Tu xelfasebis davalianeba xazinis brali

27 saqarTvelos parlamentis Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis komitetis mier Catarebuli seminari Temaze: samxedro-samoqalaqo urTierTobebi, marti 21, 2000 28 saqarTvelos kontrolis palatis angariSi 1999 wlis saxelmwifo biujetis Sesrulebis Sesaxeb (Tbilisi, gamouqveynebeli masala saqarTvelos parlamentis kvleviTi departamentidan, 200 weli), gv. 44-45

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iyo, romelic saWiro Tanxebs xan dagvianebiT ricxavda, xanac saerTod ar aZlevda Tavdacvis saministros. Tavdacvis mougvarebeli xarjTaRricxva finansuri xasiaTis problemebis mxolod erTi mxare iyo. afxazeTSi gancdili marcxis Semdegac ki, kriminaluri elferis mqone e.w omis ekonomika kvlav funqcionirebda. konfliqtis zonaSi moqmedi partizanuli razmebi da kriminalebi ganagrZobdnen gamoZalvasa da kontrabandas - xSirad samarTaldamcavi struqturebis xelSewyobiT. 1995 wlis Semdeg samxedroebs naklebad eZleodaT aseT saqmianobaSi monawileobis Sansi, magram maT fulis Sovnis sxva arakanonieri saSualebebi gamonaxes. 2001 wlis seqtembris samTavrobo mosmenisas, antikorufciuli sakoordinacio sabWos mdivanma ganacxada, rom yvela "Zalovani struqtura" seriozulad iyo CarTuli sxvadasxva saxis korufciasa da patronaJuli sistemebis SeqmnaSi;29 Sesabamisad, SevardnaZec iZulebuli gaxda Sexeboda mTavrobaSi fexmokidebuli korufciisa da elitis xelSeuxeblobis sakiTxs. magram saqme arc amjerad wasula ganacxadis miRma. Tavdacvis saministros maRali rangis moxeleni ganagrZobdnen arakanonieri garigebebis dadebas armiis mommaragebel komerciul firmebTan. nadibaiZis ministrobisas (1994 ­ 1998) armiisaTvis sruliad misaRebi gaxda momaragebis kontraqtebis gaformeba im organizaciebTan, sadac generlebis naTesavebi muSaobdnen. Tavdacvis sistemis maRalCinosnebi biujetidan moiTxovdnen Tanxebs im iaraRsa da aRWurvilobaze, romelic isedac maT gankargulebaSi iyo. arc finansTa saministro iyo ucodveli. Tavdacvis saministrosaTvis mniSvnelovani Tanxebis gadaricxvisas, finansTa saministros TanamSromlebi moelodnen da iRebdnen kidec garkveul, sapasuxo wils.30 daviT TevzaZe Tavdacvis ministris postze 1998 wlis gazafxulze dainiSna. dasavleTis rCevebis gaTvaliswinebiT,

saqarTvelos respublika, 6 seqtemberi, 2001 weli saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministros Tanamdebobis pirebi. konfidencialuri interviu avtorTan, 1998-2004

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igi Tavidanve Seecada korufcias SebrZoleboda, magram did warmatebas ver miaRwia. 1998-2003 wlebis mijnaze korufciuli saqmianoba kvlav rCeboda qveynis problemad. Tavdacvis saministro saWurvlis Sesyidvas rusuli samxedro bazebidan yovelgvari dokumentaciisa da gamWvirvalobis gareSe axerxebda. aseTi garigebebis safuZvelze SesaZlebeli xdeboda fulis dazogva, magram SeuZlebeli iyo am fulis realuri xarjvis kontroli. qarTveli oficrebi ramodenimejer iyvnen mxilebulni ukanono iaraRis gayidvaSi. axalwveulTa saxlSi gaSveba kvlav rCeboda qrTamis aRebis saSualebad. nawilebSi mravlad iyo "mkvdari sulebi", rac meTaurTaTvis aralegaluri Semosavlebis wyaro (zedmeti tansacmeli, sakvebi da a.S.) xdeboda. nikoloz janjRava, 2001 wlis gazafxulze daniSuli saxmeleTo jarebis sardali, romelic daniSvnidan ramodenime kviraSi gaaTavisufles, mogvianebiT acxadebda, rom Tavdacvis saministros mier registrirebuli 20 000 kacis nacvlad, jarSi realurad mxolod 10 000 kaci Tu msaxurobda.31 iyo SemTxvevebi, rodesac oficrebi mcvelebad muSaobdnen Ramis klubebSi. es Tavis gatanis erT-erTi gza iyo, radgan Tveebis ganmavlobaSi isini xelfasebs ver iRebdnen. rogorc TevzaZis erT-erTma yofili TanamSromeli ixsenebda, nawilebSi jariskacebis gamosakvebad meTaurebi araregistrirebuli Semosavlebis saerTo salaroebs qmnidnen.32 saxelmwifo biujetis araswori gankargvis Sedegad, korufcia swrafad ikidebda fexs. 2000 w. Tavdacvis saministrosaTvis biujetidan gamoyofili 42 milioni lari (21 milioni $), rac, TavisTavad, araadeqvaturi iyo, ramodenime TveSi isev Semcirda. dasavleTis daxmarebam usafrTxoebis seqtoris reformirebaSi didi Sedegi ar gamoiRo. erTerTi ucxoel eqsperti acxadebda, rom sabiujeto parameterebis mudmivi

polkovniki nikoloz janjRava. interviu avtorTan, ivnisi 2001 Tavdacvis saministros oficialuri piri, konfidencialuri interviu avtorTan, Tebervali 2004

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cvlilebiT SeuZlebeli xdeboda samxedro Zalebis misiaTa zusti gansazRvra da Tavdacvis dagegmareba.33 korufciasTan brZolaSi TviTon SevardnaZe mxolod ritorikiTa da formalizmiT ifargleboda. samoqalaqo da samxedro funqcionerebs prezidentisadmi loialobis kriteriumiT niSnavdnen da aTavisuflebdnen. saboloo jamSi, korufciaze damyarebuli loialuri qselebi araefeqturi iyo, radgan SeuZlebeli xdeboda am qselebSi yvela oficris inkorporireba. Tavisi mmarTvelobis bolo periodSi, uecrad SevardnaZe samxedroTa ukmayofilebis momswre gaxda. jarSi arsebuli gausaZlisi pirobebis momizezebiT, 2001 w. maisSi erovnuli gvardiis erTma batalionma daumorCilebloba gamoacxada. mas gadamdgari samxedroebi da kriminaluri jgufebic SeuerTdnen. prezidentTan intensiuri molaparakebebis Semdeg, mTavrobis jarebiT garSemortymulma meamboxeebma daTmoba amjobines. SevardnaZes isini ar dausjia, radgan CaTvala, rom socialur-ekonomikuri pirobebiT isedac gaRizianebuli sazogadoebis fonze, jarTan urTierTobaSi sifrTxile unda gamoeCina. usafrTxoebisa da samxedro politikaSi mravali arsebiTi detali aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis gankargulebebiT ganisazRvreboda, rac Zirs uTxrida parlamentis funqcias Tavisi wvlili Seetana qveynis erovnuli usafrTxoebis modelis SeqmnaSi. biujetSi cvlilebebis Setana mxolod prezidents SeeZlo. parlaments isRa rCeboda, rom daTanxmeboda SeTavazebul cifrebs, an saerTod Caegdo biujetis kanonproeqti. parlamenti prezidents sust winaaRmdegobas uwevda, radgan SevardnaZes saparlamento umravlesobis mxardaWeris imedi yovelTvis hqonda. parlamenti kidevac rom SewinaaRmdegeboda prezidents, misi kursi mainc ucvleli darCeboda; aRmasrulebeli da sakanonmdeblo Stoebis urTierToba CixSi rom momwyvdeuliyo, saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba

33 germaniis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis oficialuri piri, interviu avtorTan, agvisto, 2000

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mTavrobas nebas rTavda wina wlis sabiujetu cifrebiT exelmZRvanela. amiT parlamentis roli Tavdacvis uwyebis sabiujeto kontrolis sferoSi, rac demokratiuli saparlamento kontrolis mTavari iaraRia, sakmaod SezRuduli xdeboda. parlamentis umweoba gansakuTrebiT TvalsaCino 2002 wlis biujetis miRebis dros gaxda.34 Tavdacvis saministrom scada warmoedgina biujetis proeqti e.w. programuli formiT; specifikuri struqturuli komponentebis calke gamoyofiT. pirvelad moxda, rom Tavdacvis biujetis proeqti natos standartebis Sesabamisad, sam nawilad iyo dayofili: piradi Semadgenloba, operatiuli mzadyofna, Sesyidvebi da kapitaluri xarjebi. miuxedavad amisa, proeqti ver cemda pasuxs Semdeg kiTxvebs: ra iyo xarjebis ganawilebis principi, ra finansuri Sedegebi mohyveboda kadrebis dagegmil Semcirebas? parlamentis Tavdacvis komiteti mxars uWerda Tavdacvis biujetis proeqts, romelsac winwadgmul nabijad Tvlida, Tumca, rogorc male gairkva, Tavdacvis saministrom Tavisi biujetis proeqti finansTa saministrosTan ar SeaTanxma da ise gawera 71 mln larze, roca finansTa saministro mxolod 38 milionis gamoyofaze iyo Tanaxma. parlamentma Tavdapirvelad Tavi Seikava Semcirebuli cifris miRebaze, Tavdacvis saministromac uari ganacxada Tavidan daeangariSebina warmodgenili moTxovna. sabolood, 2002 wlis ianvarSi, parlamentma miiRo saxelmwifo biujeti Tavdacvis sferos Semcirebuli wiliT, Tumca Semdgomi ganxilvis gareSe. finansTa da Tavdacvis saministroebs aRar ganusazRvriaT, Tu rogor unda gadaenawilebinaT natos standartebis Tanaxmad sabolood damtkicebuli biujeti. yovel SemTxvevaSi, parlamentisaTvis es aRaravis ucnobebia. arsebiTad, parlamentma erTxel kidev gauSva xelidan samxedro Zalebze samoqalaqo kontrolis ganxorcielebis mTavari meqanizmi.

34

saqarTveloSi fiskaluri weli kalendaruls emTxveva.

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unda aRiniSnos, rom Tavdacvis, usafrTxoebisa da samarTaldacvis sferoebze saparlamento meTvalyureoba sxva mxrivac sustad gamoiyureboda. konstituciis da parlamentis reglamentis Tanaxmad Tavdacvis, usafrTxoebisa da Sinagan saqmeTa ministrebi angariSvaldebuli iyvnen parlamentis winaSe, magram igive ar iTqmoda sasazRvro Zalebisa da saxelmwifo dacvis specialuri samsaxuris xelmZRvanelebze. maT prezidenti niSnavda da aTavisuflebda sakanonmdeblo organos Tanxmobis gareSe. amave dros, parlaments ar SeeZlo undoblobis gamocxadeba prezidentisa da nebismieri ministris winaaRmdeg. maRali Tanamdebobis samoqalaqo piris impiCmenti konstituciis darRvevis an sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulze dakavebis SemTxvevaSi Teoriulad daSvebuli iyo, magram bralis wayenebisaTvis uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tanxmoba iyo saWiro. parlaments arc erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWos kontroli SeeZlo. 1996 wlis Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobiT, sabWo usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi prezidentis saTaTbiro organod moiazreboda. am funqciiT igi parlamentis winaSe angariSvaldebulad ar iTvleboda. sinamdvileSi ki sabWo, gansakuTrebiT misi aparati, gavlenian rols TamaSobda samxedro da parasamxedro uwyebebis koordinaciasa da sakadro politikaSi. SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis dros Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis sakiTxebi prezidentTan daaxlovebuli pirebis wreSi wydeboda. uwyebaTSoris sistemur kooperacias prezidentis kabineti cvlida. rogorc parlamenti, ise uSualod saministroebi naklebad wyvetdnen raimes usafrTxoebis politikis SemuSavebisa da implementaciis sferoSi. ucxoeli eqspertebis rCevebis gaTvaliswinebiT, 2001 wlis Semodgomaze parlamentma Tavdacvis kanonSi cvlileba Seitana. Tavdacvis saministros generalur Stabs sagangebo da saomari viTarebis dros yvela SeiaraRebuli uwyebis koordinireba daevala. Tumca, cvlilebaSi araferi iyo naTqvami koordinirebis procedurebsa da masStabebze. kanoni ar gansazRvravda generaluri Stabisa da avtonomiuri SeiaraRebuli

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uwyebebis urTierTobebs mSvidobian periodSi. 2002 w. ianvarSi Tavdacvis ministri aSkara ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamda sxvadasxva uwyebebs Soris koordinaciis ararsebobis gamo, aRniSnavda ra, rom koordinacia mxolod sagangebo SemTxvevebSi xdeboda, raime winaswari dagegmvisa da urTierTvaldebulebebis samarTlebrivi gansazRvris gareSe. rogorc Cans SevardnaZe da erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWo situaciis gamosworebas ar eSurebodnen.35

erovnuli usafrTxoebis strategiis ZiebaSi

samxedro reforma unda efuZnebodes kargad Camoyalibebul erovnul interesebs da strategias, rac Tavis mxriv, politikis dagegmvis procesis ganviTarebas gulisxmobs. SevardnaZe aSkarad arasodes ewinaaRmdegeboda erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis Seqmnas, magram man ver SeZlo amis ganxorcieleba. jer kidev 1996 wels Seiqmna saxelmwifo komisia Seiqmna, romelsac aseTi koncefcia unda SeemuSavebina. 1997 wels parlamentma miiRo rezolucia samxedro doqtrinis damtkicebis Sesaxeb. doqtrina Tavdacvis saministroSi momzadda da Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis saparlamento komitetSi gadamuSavda. magram doqtrina naklebad warmoadgenda efeqturi samxedro reformisaTvis saWiro strategiuli azrovnebis nimuSs. misi teqsti ubralod baZavda 4 wliT adre miRebuli rusuli analogis stils. doqtrinaSi aRniSnuli iyo yvela saxelmwifoebTan TanamSromlobis aucilebloba, magram araferi arsebiTi ar iyo naTqvami saqarTvelos erovnul interesebsa Tu qveynis winaSe mdgom safrTxeebze. doqtrina gakvriT Tu exeboda strategiuli partniorebis Temas, gverds uvlida rusi samxedroebis

erTerTi ucxoeli eqsperti 2000 wlis gazafxulze ambonda "dasanania, rom, rogorc Cans, erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWo ar aris mzad samxedro struqturebis konsolidaciisaTvis." konfidencialuri interviu avtorTan, gazafxuli 2000 w.

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qveyanaSi yofnis sadao sakiTxebs. dokumentSi bundovnad iyo naTqvami mezobeli teritoriebis militarizaciis riskis Sesaxeb. es bundovaneba ki kidev ufro matulobda imiT, rom aRniSnuli pasaJi rusuli analogidan praqtikulad sityvasityviT iyo gadmowerili. Sesabamisad, iqmneboda STabeWdileba, TiTqos militarizaciis riskSi saqarTveloc, ruseTis msgavsad, natos gafarTovebas gulisxmobda. magram am SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelos samxedro doqtrina srul SeusabamobaSi eqceoda natosTan TanamSromlobis programasTan "partnioroba mSvidobisaTvis". saubedurod Tu sabednierod, am da sxva sakiTxebs arc dokumenti akonkretebda da, saboloo jamSi, doqtrina miRebisTanave iqna daviwyebuli. am dokuments metad mcire Sansi hqonda saimisod, rom samxedro reformebis orientiri gamxdariyo. 1999 wels erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWom ganacxada, rom ISAB-is rekomendaciebis ganxorcieleba da erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis formulireba misTvis prioritets warmoadgenda. 1996­1999 wlebSi koncefciis mravali proeqti Seiqmna. zogi maTgani saxelmwifo komisiis egidiT iqna SemuSavebuli; danarCeni parlanetSi da calkeul samTavrobo uwyebebSi iqmneboda. erTad aRebulni, es dokumentebi qmnis warmodgenas usafrTxoebis qarTul diskursze. proeqtebis umetesobaSi yuradReba maxvildeboda Semdeg problemebze: saxelmwifos mSenebloba, Sida saxelwifoebrivi separatizmi, gareSe ZalTa Careva qveynis saSinao saqmeebSi, korufcia, socialuri uTanasworoba, regionaluri konfliqtebis riski, saqarTvelos susti samxedro potenciali, ekologiuri safTxeebi. zogierTi proeqti aRniSnavda, rom mosaxleobaSi eTnikuri TviTidentifikacia samoqalaqo, saerTo - saxelwifoebriv gancdaze ufro Zlieri iyo; rom samarTaldamcavi organoebis avtoriteti umdables niSnulze imyofeboda; rom am organoTa warmomadgenlebi pativs ar scemdnen adamianis uflebebs. proeqtebis sagrZnobi nawilisaTvis ucxo ar iyo xazgasma adamianis uflebaTa dacvis aucileblobaze, samxedro Zalebze samoqalaqo kontrolis ganmtkicebis saWiroebaze,

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politikuri pluralizmisa da adgilobrivi TviTmarTvelobis mniSvnelobasa Tu gayinuli eTno-konfliqtebis mSvidobiani gziT gadaWraze. da mainc, am proeqtTa umetesoba gamoirCeoda ekleqturobiT, zogadobiT da winaaRmdegobrivi pasaJebiT. zogjer avtorebi Tavs aridebdnen mgrZnobiare sakiTxebs. zogierT proeqtSi adamianis uflebebisa da erTa demokratiul TanamegobrobaSi integraciis mniSvneloba iyo aqcentirebuli, magram iqve iyo gaJRerebuli globalizaciisa da individualizmis safrTxe. erTerTi dokumenti "ojaxis socialur pasuxismgeblobaze" saubrobda. proeqtTa umetesobas usafrTxoebis diskursSi ganaTlebisa da kulturis sakiTxebic Semohqonda, amave dros ki gakvriT Tu exeboda rusuli samxedro bazebisa da rusi samxedroebis mier qveynis saSinao saqmeebSi Carevis Temebs. ara da sazogadoebriv diskusiebSi es ukanaskneli sakiTxebi dominirebda. 1999 wlis zafxulSi, mas Semdeg rac erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWom ISAB-is rekomendaciebi miiRo, saxelwifo komisiam usafrToebis koncefciis axali, saxeSecvlili versia moamzada. winamorbedi proeqtebisagan igi ramodenime punqtiT gamoirCeoda: ufro mkafiod iyo warmoCenili saqarTvelos strategiuli orientacia: aRiniSneboda, rom qveynis mizani evroatlantikuri erTobis ZiriTad institutebSi integrireba iyo. koncefciis axali versia ganaTlebis sistemisaganac moiTxovda dasavluri orientaciis Sesabamisi normebis damkvidrebas. Tumca verc axali proeqti gaTavisuflda bundovani da saeWvo ganzogadoebebisagan, rogoric iyo "kulturuli TviTmyofadobis Sesatyvisi socialuri organizaciisa da politikuri sistemis Seqmnis saWiroeba". asaxavda ra sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis maqsimalurad farTo speqtrs, amave dros, dokumenti detalurad ver gansazRvravda qveynis winaSe mgdom konkretul safrTxeebs. wina variantebis msgavsad da evropis qveynebisa Tu SeerTebuli Statebis analogiuri dokumentebisagan gansxvavebiT, proeqti ar iZleoda erovnuli interesebis, safrTxeebisa da am safrTxeTa ganeitralebis gzebis mkafio CamonaTvals.

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TandaTan ufro naTeli xdeboda, rom dasavleTTan TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebisaTvis saqarTvelos xelisuflebas unda mieRo erovnuli usafrTxoebis mwyobri koncefcia. ISAB, sxva saerTaSoriso Tu adgilobrivi eqspertebi regularulad moiTxovdnen amas, magram SevardnaZis reJimi nela moqmedebda. koncefciis arseboba ara marto usafrTxoebis mwyobri politikis SemuSavebas aferxebda, aramed samxedro-samoqalaqo urTierTobebSi demokratiuli principebis damkvidrebas da erovnul usafrTxoebaze pasuxismgebeli uwyebebis koordinaciasac eRobeboda win. 2000 wlisaTvis Tavdacvis ministri TavzaZe da sasazRvro Zalebis sardali generali valeri CxeiZe xazgasmiT aRniSnavdnen, rom strategiuli orientirebis amsaxveli dokumentis ararseboba xels uSlida maTze daqvemdebarebuli uwyebebis normalur funqcionirebas. bevri lodinis Semdeg ISAB-ma, sagareo saministrosTan TanamSromlobiT, usafrToebis koncefciis sakuTari varianti SeimuSava. dokumentis saTauri iyo "saqarTvelo da msoflio: momavlis xedva da strategia".36 axali proeqtis avtorebi naTlad acxadebdnen, rom saqarTvelos strategiul miznebs natosTan integracia da evrokavSirTan TanamSromlobis gaRrmaveba warmoadgenda. dokumentSi moTxovnili iyo qveynis teritoriidan rusuli bazebis gayvana, xolo ruseTis gavlenis qveS myofi damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis efeqturobaze eWvi iyo gamoTqmuli. erovnuli usafrTxoebis konfepciis axali proeqti pirvelad aqcevda konkretul yuradRebas Tavdacvis seqtoris misiebis gansazRvras. masSi aRiniSneboda, rom saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebi ukeT unda iyvnen integrirebulni, raTa Sekavebis funqcia itvirTon: maT unda SeswevdeT mtris SedarebiT SezRuduli Zalebis damarcxebis, sazRvris gakontrolebis, teroristuli Tavdasxmebis aRkveTis unari. dokumentis Tanaxmad saqarTvelos samxedro Zalebs moeTxoveboda samoqalaqo xelisuflebis daxmareba kanonierebisa da

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dokumenti daido natos vebsaitze , http://www.nato.int/pfp/ge/d001010.htm

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wesrigis aRdgenaSi sagangebo viTarebaTa dros, stiqiis damangrevel SedegTa likvidacia da saerTaSoriso samSvidobo misiebSi monawileoba. marTalia, aseTi saxis dokumentSi naklebadaa mosalodneli Tavdacvis politikis detalebis ganxilva, magram mainc, koncefciis aRniSnul proeqtsac survilebis CamonaTvalis elferi gadahkravda. miuxedavad imisa, rom ucxoeli eqspertebis daxmarebiT Seqmnil dokumentSi sakmarisad ar da ver iqneboda artikulirebuli qveynis konkretuli wuxilebi mezobel saxelmwifoebTan urTierTobebSi, realistur usafrTxoebis koncefcias mainc meti moeTxoveboda usafrTxoebis gamowvevaTa definiciis TvalsazrisiT. Tumca, "momavlis xedvisa da stratebiis" ZiriTadi xarvezi misi statusi ufro iyo, vidre Sinaarsi. proeqtis gamoqveynebamde igi Sesabamis samTavrobo uwyebebSi ar ganxilula. mis SemuSavebaSi arc sazogadoebas miuRia raime arsebiTi monawileoba. amave dros, dokumenti gamoqveynda oficialuri winasityvaobis gareSe. arc misi oficialurad miRebis raime angariSgasawevi procedura Semdgara. dokumentis gamoqveynebis Semdeg ki qveynis liderebma igi erTgvarad miiviwyes. oficialuri pirebi acxadebdnen, rom erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWo ganagrZobda erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis teqstze muSaobas. 2002 wels Tavdacvis saministrom Seqmna sakuTari "TeTri wigni", Tumca misi daniSuleba SedarebiT mokrZalebuli iyo. igi ISAB-is rekomendaciebis pasuxad daiwera. "TeTri wigni" aRwerda SeiaraRebuli Zalebis organizaciul satruqturas, xazs usvamda samxedro sakiTxebSi samoqalaqo xelisuflebis uzenaesobas da natosTan TanamSromlobis mniSvnelobas. masSi gamoxatuli iyo armiis gaZlierebis survili. "TeTri wigni" cdilobda daekonkretebina samxedro Zalebis misiebi, magram qveynis winaSe mdgomi usafrTxoebis gamowvevebis zusti suraTis Seqmnisa da zogadi strategiis artikulirebis gareSe, aseTi mcdeloba xelSesaxeb Sedegs ver moitanda. Tavdacvisa da finansTa saministroebs Soris arsebuli davis fonze, "TeTr wigns" verc dafinansebis sakiTxSi Seqonda raime sinaTle. masSi

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arc sxva SeiaraRebul struqturebTan koordinaciaze iyo arsebiTi saubari. Tavdacvis "TeTri wigni" sxva samTavrobo institutebTan seriozuli konsultaciebis gareSe Seiqmna. dadioda Wori, rom igi Tavdacvis saministros erTi Tu ori saSualo donis TanamSromelis mier daiwera da rom saministros wamyvan Sida struqturebsac ki "TeTri wignis" SeqmnaSi araviTari qmediTi monawileoba ar miuRiaT. 2003 wlis Sua periodSi erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWos aparatma erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis sakuTari proeqti SeimuSava. masSi ISAB-is variantidan ramodenime idea iyo nasesxebi, magram mTlianobaSi axali versia gansxvavebuli iyo da Tanac, arc Tu ukeTesobis mimarTulebiT. erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos aparatis versia37 bevr Temas moicavda. amaTgan zogierTi naklebad Seefereboda usafrTxoebis Tematikas. ase magaliTad, avtorebi saubrobdnen mrewvelobisa da soflis meurneobis tradiciuli dargebis aRdgenis saWiroebaze. amasTan, teqsti ar akonkretebda samxedro misiebs. proeqtSi xazgasmuli iyo natoSi gawevrianebis ganzraxva, magram sagareo urTierTobebis daxasiaTebisas, avtorebi ar iZleodnen qveynis winaSe mdgomi gamowvevebis da maTze reagirebis meqanizmebis realur Sefasebebs. ruseTTan urTierTobis sakiTxebSi koncefcia saocar aradiplomatiurobas iCenda. garda amisa, koncefciis proeqtSi arsebiTad moviwyebuli iyo adamianTa uflebebis dacvisa da demokratizaciis Temebi. sanacvlod, dokumentSi aRniSnuli iyo, rom saqarTvelos eZleoda SesaZlebloba eSenebina sulieri prioritetebisa da kulturuli identurobis Sesaferisi saxelmwifo. amas mosdevda ambiciuri miznebis mTeli CamonaTvali, Tumda, maTi ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobebis Sefasebis gareSe. ase magaliTad, naTqvami iyo, rom Crdilovani ekonomikis wili erTobliv Sida produqtSi 15-20%-mde unda Semcirebuliyo, magram ar Canda amis miRwevis gza. aseve araferi iyo naTqvami imaze, Tu ra efeqti unda moexdina msgavs process Tavdacvis sferos dafinansebaze.

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gamouqveynebeli dokumenti

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arsebiTad, axali proeqti ar iZleobda erovnuli usafrToebis prioritetebis, strategiuli arCevanis, riskis analizis mkafio da konkretul suraTs. igi ar ansxvavebda erTmaneTisagan safrTxeebs, riskebsa da gamowvevebs. es iyo erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis bolo proeqti, romelic SevardnaZis mTavrobam SeimuSava. winamorbedebis msgavsad, arc igi iqca oficialur dokumentad. misi Seqmnis periodi SevardnaZis reJimis Rrma kriziss daemTxva. Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis politikaSi perzidenti sxvadasxva moqiSpe Zalebs Soris meryeobda, da politikuri koncefciebis nacvlad pirovnul gadarCenaze fiqrobda. mmarTvelobis bolo periodSi SevardnaZe sakmaod ambivalenturi gaxda SeerTebuli Statebisa da evrokavSiris mimarT. igi Znelad egueboda demokratiuli opoziciis kritikas, romelic dasavleTSi mzard TanagrZnobas naxulobda. paralelurad, 2002 wlis miwurulisaTvis SevardnaZis mTavrobas ruseTTan urTierTobebis daregulirebis gazrdili mondomeba etyoboda. 2002 wlis dekemberSi, euTos sagareo saqmeTa ministrebis lisabonis Sexvedraze saqarTvelos delegacia naklebad momTxovni Canda rusuli bazebis gayvanis sakiTxSi. amasTan dakavSirebiT euTos erTerTi maRali Tanamdebobis piri privatul saubarSi aRniSnavda, rom araTanamimdevruloba da gamWvirvaleobis nakleboba asustebda saqarTvelos pozicias.38 saqarTvelos sagareo politikis es cvalebadoba droSi emTxveoda qveyanaSi moqmedi dasavleTeli investorebis saqmianobis Sekvecas,39 da qveynis ekonomikis strategiul seqtorebSi rusuli saxelmwifo biznesis momZlavrebas. SevardnaZis saqarTvelo mankier wreSi imyofeboda: samxedro sferoSi arsebuli uwesrigoba aferxebda strategiuli xedvis formulirebas; erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis ararseboba ki arTulebda samxedro reformis process.

OSCE oficialuri piri, konfidencialuri interviu avtorTan, ianvari 2003 magaliTad, amerikurli energo-kompania AES , romelmac daarsa axlad privatizirebuli energokompania e.i.s.-Telasi.

38 39

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SevardnaZis reJimis bolo wels Tavdacvis sistemis gardaqmnis procesi kvlavac ar misdevda ISAB-is rekomendaciebis qargas. armiis ricxovneba Semcirda, magram 20000 kaci jer kidev iricxeboda saxemwifo biujetis kmayofaze - 6000-7000-iT meti vidre rekomendaciiT iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. uSiSroebis saministros yofili specialuri saSturmo brigada Sinagan saqmeTa saministroSi iyo integrirebuli, rac winaaRmdegobaSi modioda ISAB-is rCevebTan Sinagan saqmeTa saministros samoqalaqo-sapolicio uwyebad gardaqmnis Taobaze. Sesabamisi rekomendaciebis miuxedavad, sasazRvro Zalebic samxedro struqturad rCeboda. SevardnaZe sami mizezis gamo ver arTmevda Tavs Tavdacvis sistemis demokratiuli reformirebis amocanas: 1. rTuli politikuri garemos samarTavad man kontrolis paraleluri xazebis korufciuli qseli Seqmna. erovnuli usafrTxoebis mkafio koncefcia ki xels Seuwyobda gamWvirvaleobas, riTac safrTxe Seeqmneboda aRniSnul qsels. 2. misi mudmivi meryeoba dasavlur da rusul arCevans Soris arTulebda usafrTxoebis starategiis SemuSavebas da samxedro reformis usafrTxoebis politikasTan koordinirebas. erTis mxriv SevardnaZes eSinoda, rom calsaxad dasavluri orientacia ruseTTan dapirispirebas gaamwvavebda. meores mxriv ki igi kvlavac amyarebda imedebs ruseTis daxmarebaze qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdgenis saqmeSi. 3. SevardnaZe zedapirulad Tu iziarebda demokratiul Rirebulebebs. es zedapiruloba kargad Canda mis damokidebulebaSi korufciisadmi, iseve rogorc marTmadidebluri eklesiisaTvis miniWebul fiskalur, ekonomikur da politikur privilegiebSi. evropiaSi integracia misTvis ufro instrumentaluri, vidre Sinagani, ideologiuri amocana iyo. 1999 wlis miwuruls igi acxadebda, rom saqme saqarTvelos evropul Tu rusul orientaciaSi ki ar iyo, aramed imaSi Tu vin ras mogvcemda sanacvlod.40

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gaz. "evropa", dekemberi 25-31, 1999

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aseTi donis progmatizmi araefeqturubis uSualo mizezs warmoadgenda. nebismieri saxelmwifo, ragind susti da patara unda iyos igi, unda mkafio valdebulebebs iRebdes mokavSireebisa da keTilismyofelebis winaSe. mxolod maSin unda elodos igi grZelvadian da Tanasworuflebian TanamSromlobas. SevardnaZem verc erT mxaresTan ver moaxerxa amgvari urTierTsasargeblo TanamSromlobis awyoba. Sesabamisad, igi ver akmayofilebda qveynis moqalaqeTa Zireul moTxovnilebebs, ris gareSedac Tavdacvisa Tu usafrToebis erovnuli sistemac saxalxo mxardaWeras iyo moklebuli. yovelive amis Sedegad, misive gamozrdilma samxedro da sapolicio wreebma uari ganacxades prezidentis dacvaze, rodesac am ukanasknels xalxi daupirispirda. 2003 wlis noembris revolucia arademokretiuli da gamrudebuli samxedro-samoqalaqo irTierTobebis logikuri Sedegic iyo. iseve rogorc mTeli xalxi, armia da parasamxedro Zalebic aRar cemda pativs asakovan prezidents. samxedro Zalebis marTvisa da kontrolis klientelisturi, korumpirebuli, araefeqturi sistema uunaro aRmoCnda kritikul situaciaSi samoqmedod. opoziciis liderebs ki, piriqiT, dasavluri orientaciis mqone energiul da aranakleb ukmayofilo oficrebTan molaparakebis kargi SesaZleblobebi exsnebodaT. SevardnaZes rom xalxis winaaRmdeg Zalis gamoyeneba gadaewyvita, Sedegi Zalian bundovani iqneboda, misi piradi bed-iRbali ki albaT ufro tragikulad warimarTeboda.

samxedro reforma vardebis revoluciis Semdeg

post SevardnaZiseuli epoqa mxolod axlaxans daiwyo da winaswar Znelia imis gansja, Tu ramdenad Sors mimavali iqneba procesebi Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis sferoSi. Tumca axali mTavrobis rig gancxadebebsa da iniciativebSi pozitiuri Zvrebis perspeqtiva SeiniSneba. axal SesaZleblobebs qmnis

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SeerTebuli Statebisa da evrokavSiris daxmarebis axali talRa. damaimedebeli pirveli nabijebi Semdegia: prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma ramdenjerme xazgasmiT aRniSna, rom usafrTxoebis sakiTxebi, maT Soris armiis mSenebloba, saxelmwifo politikis prioritetia. am gancxadebaTa realuroba ki male Tavdacvis dafinansebis gazrdiT dadasturda. garda amisa, axalma mTavrobam daaarsa specialuri fondi, romlis mizans ucxouri da kerZo donaciebis akumulireba da maRali rangis Tanamdebobis pirTa xelfasebis gazrda warmoadgenda. Sesabamisad, xelfasebi sagrZnoblad moemataT Tavdacvis saministros xelmZRvanelebsac. mogvianebiT, xelfasebis mateba mTels oficerTa korpussac Seexo. mTavroba Seudga samxedro teqnikis remontsa da ganaxlebas. amerikisa da natos sxva qveynebis teqnikuri daxmarebiT ganxorcielebulma samxedro reformam axali stimuli SeiZina. 2004 wlis dasawyisSi SeerTebuli Statebidan dabrunebisTanave, saakaSvilma ganacxada, rom amerikelebi araTu gaagrZelebdnen qarTuli armiis jer kidev SevardnaZis dros wamowyebul materialur da teqnikur daxmarebas, aramed natos standartebiT gawvrTnili 5000 kaciani qveiTi brigadis formirebasac Seuwyobdnen xels. amJamindeli gegmebiT, Tavdacvis saministros SeiaraRebul ZalebSi mimdinareobs sruli Semadgenlobis 4 qveiTi brigadis xelaxali formireba. Tavdacvis saministros biujetma 2005 wels 300 milion lars gadaaWarba, rac TiTqmis aTjer metia SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis droindel dafinansebaze. axali reJimis damyarebis pirvel TveebSi kidev ori mniSvnelovani cvlileba moxda. 2004 wlis martSi miRebuli iqna Tavdacvis saministos axali debuleba, romelic Tavdacvis uwyebis natos standartebiT organizebas isaxavda miznad. saministros reorganizaciis konkretul gegmebze, samxedro da samoqalaqo funqciebis gamijvnis sqemebze qarTvel kolegebTan erTad pentagonis mier daqiravebuli kerZo firma "kubiki" da britaneTis Tavdacvis saminitros gundi muSaobda.

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am procesis konkretuli magaliTia erovnuli gvardiis reformirebac. misi sabrZolo nawilebi armiis SemadgenobaSi integrirda. uSualod gvardia ki amJamad sawrTvneli centebisa maT bazaze momzadebuli rezervis batalionebisagan Sedgeba. Tavdacvis saministros wamyvan Tanamdebobebze saakaSvilma uprecedento raodenobis samoqalaqo piri daniSna. samoqalaqo piri gaxda Tavdacvis ministric. imavdroulad pensiaze iqna gaSvebuli bevri generali, romelic an ewinaarmdegeboda reformas an misi gatarebisaTvis saWiro codnas da gamocdilebas ar flobda; ufro axalgazrda oficrebi da samoqalaqo moxeleebi, romlebmac dasavleTis institutebSi gaiares wvrTna, sul ufro mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobdnen samxedro reformis gatarebaSi. ufro metic, reformam axla sxva SeiaraRebuli uwyebebic moicva da mTavrobam rigi paraleluli struqturebic gaaerTiana. saqarTevlos sazRvris dacvis saxelmwifo departamenti Sinagan saqmeTa saministo SeerTda, ramac safuZveli Cauyara mis samarTaldamcav struqturad Camoyalibebas. Sinagan saqmeTa saministros Sinagani jarebi ki Tavdacvis saministos gadaeca. daiwyo fiqri sazRvris dacvis departamentis sanapiro dacvisa da Tavdacvis saministros sazRvao Zalebis gaerTianebaze. usafrTxoebis seqtorSi ukanasknel da yvelaze seriozul siaxles warmoadgenda saqarTvelos mTavrobis struqturasa da saqmianobis wesSi 2004 wlis dekemberSi ganxorcielebuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi. am cvlilebaTa Tanaxmad daiwyo Sinagan saqmeTa saministrosa da uSiSroebis saministros gaerTianeba policiisa da sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis saministrod. paralelurad, calke gamoiyo da uSualod prezidents daeqvemdebara sagareo dazvervis uwyeba. navaraudevia, rom amgvari zomebi xels Seuwyobs saqarTvelos TanamSromlobas natosTan da gaaumjobesebs usafrTxoebisa da Tavdacvis sistemis marTvisa da kontrolis meqanizmebs. integraciisa da jarebis ricxovnobis Semcirebas, saboloo jamSi finansebis dazogvac unda mohyves. seqtoris gamWvirvaleobisa da angariSgebis gasazrdelad, demokratiuli

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samxedro-samoqalaqo urTierTobebis gansavitareblad 2004 wlis manZilze mimdinareobda mTavrobis warmomadgenelTa da samoqalaqo organizaciebis dialogi. navaraudevi iyo sazogadoebrivi sabWoebis Seqmna calkeul Zalovan uwyebebSi. samxedro da parasamxedro Zalebis reformis paralelurad, saakaSvilma mkafiod daadastura qveynis natoSi gawevrianebis survili. misi azriT, es gawevrianebis procesi sul ramodenime wels gastans. manve ganacxada, rom saqarTvelos strategiul mizans evrokavSirSi gawevrianebac warmoadgens. 2004 wlis aprilSi uwyebaTaSorisma specialurma jgufma natosTan indivisualuri partniorobis samoqmedo gegma (IPAP) SemuSava. gegma mowonebuli iqna natos Sesabamisi uwyebebis mier.41 IPAPis axali, postrevoluciuri versia logikur axsnas uZebnis samxedro sferoSi zemoTxsenebul reformebs da natos standartebis misaRwevad iTxovs konkretul teqnikur daxmarebas. imavdroulad, samoqmedo gegma kidev erTxel usvams xazs saqarTvelos evroatlantikur erTobaSi integrirebis survils, regionalur TanamSromlobis mniSvnelobas, demokratiisamdi da sabazro ekonomikis principebisadmi erTgulebas, eTnikuri konfliqtebis mSvidobiani mogvarebis ualternativobas. amrigad, IPAP-ma asaxa erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefiis Sesaferisi mTeli rigi sakiTxebi. amasTan erTad saakaSvilma jvarosnuli omi gamoucxada organizebul danaSaulsa da korupcias. brZola am, erovnuli masStabis safrTxeebTan manamde uCveulo energiiT warimarTa. SevardnaZis epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli maRalCinosnebisa da organizebuli danaSaulis xelmZRvanelTa dausjeloba war41 am dokumentis erTerTi avtori, saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWos aparatis TanamSromeli, interviu avtorTan, 2004 wlis aprili. jer kidev SevardnaZis administracias qonda aRebuli amgvari gegmis SemuSavebis valdebuleba, magram maSin es valdebuleba ganuxorcielebeli darCa. noembris revoluciis win SevardnaZis mTavrobam SeimuSava IPAP-is pirveli versia, magram natos eqspertebma igi metad zedapirulad miiCnies. (saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministros warmomadgeneli, interviu avtorTan, 2003 wlis dekemberi).

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suls bardeboda. magaliTisaTvis, daapatimres rkinigzis saxelmwifo samsaxuris yofili ufrosi akaki CxaiZe. igive bedi ewia parlamentis yofil wevr giorgi kenWaZes, romelic kriminalur samyarosTan kavSirebiT iyo cnobili. dakavebuli iqna afrasiZeebis krinimaluri nabda, romelic svanTis maRalmTiani sofeli eweridan axorcielebda kriminalur saqmianobas mTeli saqarTelos masStabiT. da mainc, naadrevia am cvlilebebs Seuqcevad xasiaTze saubari. amasTan erTad, usafrTxoebisa da Tavdacvis sferoSi kvlav rCeba mniSvnelovani xarvezebi: samxedro sistemaze samoqalaqo kontroli arasakmarisad demokratiulia da zedmeti paralelizmiT xasiaTdeba. 2004 wlis TebervalSi, axalma mTavrobam, parlamentis TiTqmis erTsulovani TanxmobiT, konstituciaSi cvlileba Seitana. SemoRebuli iqna premier-ministris Tanamdeboda da, garkveul SemTxvevebSi, prezidentis parlamentis daTxovnis ufleba mieniWa. zogierTi mosazrebiT, am cvlilebebma Seasustes parlamentis roli, maT Soris, samxedro Zalebze samoqalaqo kontrolis sferoSic. SesaZloa es mosazreba gadaWarbebulic iyos, magram faqtia, rom Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis sferoebSi politikuri organoebis funqciaTa aRrevidan momdinare problematika ar amowurula. magaliTisaTvis, axla parlaments aqvs ufleba undobloba gamoucxados calkeul ministrs an mTlian kabinets, Tumda daTxovnis riskad. premier-ministris postis SemoReba ki aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaSi marTvisa da kontrolis paralelizmis mizezi xdeba: saministroebs premier-ministri uwevs kurirebasa da koordinirebas, magram prezidenti inarCunebs uflebas daiTxovos Tavdacvisa da policiisa da sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis ministrebi premier-ministris Tanxmobis gareSec. amavdroulad, prezidenti rCeba SeiaraRebuli Zalebis uzenaes sardlad da erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos Tavmjdomared. sagangebo SemTxvevebSi prezidenti ministrTa kabinetis sxdomebsac Tavmjdomareobs. aseTi paralelizmi Tu funqciaTa urTierTgadafarva qmnis "subieqturi" samoqalaqo

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kontrolis risks, romlis Sesaxebac adre iyo saubari. metic, Tavdacvis samistros xelmZRvaneloba ganicdida uCveulod xSir cvlilebebs. 2005 w. TebervalSi Tavdacvis ministrma, romelic Tavad iyo rigiT meoTxe ministri revoluciis Semdeg, generaluri Stabis yvela direqtoratis xelmZRvanelTa gadadgoma moiTxova. misive moTxovniT gadadga generaluri Stabis ufrosic. generaluri Stabis axali ufrosad, agreTve meoTxed revoluciis Semdeg, polkovniki levan nikolaiSvili dainiSna. am SemTxvevasTan dakavSirebiT ori ram iyo SemaSfoTebeli. jer erTi, aseTi cvlilebebi xelmZRvanelobis arastabilurobaze mianiSnebda. meorec, ministris moTxovna, savaraudod, arakanonieri iyo, radgan ministrs ar aqvs ufleba generaluri Stabis ufross gadadgoma aiZulos. kanonis Tanaxmad, generaluri Stabis ufrosis daniSvna da gaTavisufleba przidentis prerogativaa. arsebiTad, saqarTvelos Tavdacvis politikaSi bolo dromde narCundeboda revoluciuri qaosisa da qvazi-kanonierebis nazavi. 2005 wlis gazafxulze natom individualuri partniorobis samoqmedo gegmis mimdinareobis pirveladi Sefaseba ganaxorciela. procesi ZiriTadad klasificirebulia da, Sesabamisad, bevri ram ucnobia am Sefasebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb. mTavroba acxadebs, rom natos eqspertebi gaocebuli arian reformebis warmatebuli tempebiT da SeiaraRebuli Zalebis gazrdili brZolisunarianobiT. Tumca, imavdroulad, rigi konfidencialuri wyaroebis cnobiT, natos eqspertebs bevri kiTxvebi uCndebaT saqarTvelos Tavdacvis sistemaSi dagegmvisa da sabrZolo aRWurvilobis Sesyidvebis racionalurobasTan dakavSirebiT. am viTarebaSi mniSvnelovania erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos rolis mkafiod gansazRvra. es procesi 2004 wels daiwyo da imedismomcem pirvel nabijad SeiZleba is garemoeba CeiTvalos, rom erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWos pirvelma post-revoluciurma mdivanma - vano merabiSvilms, erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefciis SemuSavebaSi rCevisaTvis arasamTavrobo organizaciebsa da samoqalaqo eqpertTa sazogadoebas mimar199

daviT darCiaSvili

Ta.42 samwuxarod, misi Semcvleli gela beJuaSvili nakleb interess iCens akademiur wreebsa da sazogadoebriv organizaciebTan TanamSromlobis mimarT. manam, sanam samuSao dasrulebul formas miiRebs da saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoebis oficialuri koncefcia eqneba,43 prezidentma, premier-ministrma da marTveli nacionaluri moZraoba - demokratebis xelmZRvanelebam pasuxi unda gasces Semdeg kiTxvebs: rogor da rodis unda mogvardes rusuli bazebis saqarTveloSi yofnis sakiTxi; rogor gegmavs saqarTevlos mTavroba separirebuli, ukontrolo teritoriebis problemis mogvarebas; rogor apirebs mTavroba qveynis energetikuli usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofas; ra zomebia misaRebi ukiduresi siRaribis, jerac daumarcxebeli korupciisa da organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg; ra unda gakeTdes religiuri da eTnikuri Seuwynareblobis problemebis mosagvareblad, romelic kvlavac sakmaodaa gamjdari saqarTvelos socialur da politikur sistemaSi; ra gziT SeiZleba am yvelafris da usafrTxoebis sxva sakiTxebis mogvarebisaTvis saWiro resursebis mozidva; ra konkretuli misiebi ekisreba usafrTxoebis da Tavdacvis uwyebebs? Tu sabolood ar gairkva ruseT - saqrTvelos urTierTobebi Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis sferoSi; Tu ar iqna mkafiod

erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWos aparatis warmomadgeneli. interviu avtorTan, aprili, 2004 43 sanam wigni dasabeWdad mzaddeboda, saqarTvelos xelisuflebam SeimuSava da miiRo didi xnis nanatri erovnuli usafrTxoebis koncefcia. samuSaos daCqarebaSi didi wvlili Seitana parlamentis Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis komitetma. aRsaniSnavia, rom koncefciis SemuSavebis saboloo etapze, avtorebma uSiSroebis sabWos aparatidan moawyves proeqtis ganxilvebi arasamTavrobo seqtoris monawileobiT. miuxedavad imisa, rom miRebul dokumentSi kvlav aris sakamaTo adgilebi, romelTa ganxilvis saSualeba dasabeWdad gamzadebul wignSi aRaraa, rogorc koncefciis SemuSavebis procesi, ise dokumentis Sinaarsi udavod wingadadgmuli nabijia Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis seqtoris reformirebis gzaze. amave dros, miRweuli iqna progresi molaparakebebSi rusuli bazebis Taobaze. mTavrobam gadadga axali nabijebi konfliqtebis mogvarebis gegmaTa SemuSavebis mimarTulebiTac.

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Camoyalibebuli samxedro Zalebis roli qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdgenis saqmeSi; da Tu swrafi tempiT ar ganxorcieldeba sazogadoebis socialur-ekonomikuri, samarTlebriv-politikuri da kulturuli modernizacia, samxedro reforma - Tundac saukeTeso eqspertebis xelmZRvanelobiT mkvdrad Sobili darCeba. armiaSi, policiasa da usafrTxoebis sxva uwyebebSi wlebis manZilze fexmokidebulma korufciam da favoritizmma serozuli dartyma ganicada. Tumca gasakeTebeli jerac bevria da reformis procesSi gaCenili nebismieri bzari kvlav aaRorZinebs Zvel praqtikas.44 farTomaStabiani agresiis safrTxe saqarTevlos uaxloes momavalSi arsaidan ar emuqreba. ragind gaRizianebuli ar unda iyvnen rusi politikosebi saqarTvelos prodasavluri arCevaniT, farTomaStabiani intervenciis albaTaoba Zalian mcirea. miTumetes, roca maT SeuZliaT saqarTveloze zewolis nairferi ekonomikuri da politikuri berketebis amoqmedeba. aqedan gamomdinare, SesaZlebelic rom iyos, saqarTvelosaTvis mainc ar aqvs azri mravalricxovani tradiciuli armiis formirebas. sinamdvileSi qveyanas esaWiroeba msubuqi da SedarebiT mcirericxovani profesionaluri samxedro Zala, romelic SeZlebs akontrolos mTiani da zRvis pira sazRvrebi. amave dros, saqarTvelos unda yavdes gasamxedroebuli formirebebi organizebul kriminalur jgufebTan sabrZolvelad. samxedro Zalebis nawili SesaZloa warmatebiT iqnas gamoyenebuli saerTaSoriso samSvidobo misiebSi, risi magaliTebic ukve saxezea. amgvar operaciebSi monawileoba saqarTvelos aZlevs Sanss Tavisi wvlili Seitanos saerTaSoriso stabilurobisa da usafrTxoebis saqmeSi. ufro hipoTeturi, farTomaStabiani safrTxeebisaTvis mosamzadeblad ki upriani iqneboda sarezervo Zalebis gaZliereba. sarezervo Zalebi, Tavisi moklevadiani wrTvnebiT, SeiZleba pozitiur faqtorad iqces

44 saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministros warmomadgenlebi. interviu avtorTan, aprili, 2004.

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saqarTvelos mravaleTnikuri mosaxleobis Tanamedrove samoqalaqo erad gardaqmnis saqmeSi. Tu korufcia sabolood iqna aRmofxvrili da moxda menejmentis sistemis optimizacia, saqarTvelos Tavisi mokrZalebuli resursebiTac ki SeeZleba 15 000 ­20 000 profesionali jariskacis Senaxva, rasac rezervistTa kontigenti daemateba. Tumca, yovelive es kvlav gvaxsenebs saqarTvelos ZiriTad saSinao problematikas - maT Soris wina xelisuflebisagan naanderZev da jerac dasaregulirebel samxedro-samoqalaqo urTierTobis problemebs. Tu axali mTavroba gawonasworebulad da mizanmimarTulad imoqmedebs samoqalaqo demokratiuli kontrolis efeqturi meqanizmebis dasamkvidreblad, qveyanas namdvilad eqneba uzrunvelyofili SedarebiTi, magram gazrdili da adeqvaturi usafrTxoeba.

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saqarTvelo da ruseTi: rTuli gza urTierTgagebisaken

jaba devdariani

ruseTsa da saqarTvelos urTierTobebis gaumjobesebis morigi SesaZlebloba 2004 wlis ianvarSi miecaT, rodesac axladarCeulma prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma ruseTs urTierTobebis sufTa furclidan dawyeba SesTavaza. ruseTisadmi undobloba mis bevr mezobels axasiaTebs, maT Soris baltiispira qveynebs da azerbaijansac. TumcaRa sityvieri Tu realuri dapirispirebis doniTa da intensivobiT saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris urTierToba mainc gamorCeulia. maS ra ganapirobebs aseT daZabulobas? rTuli istoriis mqone mezoblebs Soris jansaRi urTierTobis Camoyalibebas am qveynebSi sakuTari SesaZleblobebis rwmenis ganmtkiceba sWirdeba. samwuxarod, sabWoTa kavSiris rRvevam sakuTari Tavis rwmena orive axladSeqmnil saxelmwifos gauqarva. 90­iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi ruseTic da saqarTvelos TviTSegnebis kriziss ganicdida. saqarTvelos mmarTvelma elitam Zalaufleba ruseTis imperiuli klanWebidan gaTavisuflebis droSis qveS moipova. ruseTis imperiaSi gaerTianebidan moyolebuli, Tanamedrove qarTuli nacionaluri azroneba ruseTisagan enobrivi, teritoriuli da religiuri damoukideblobis ideis garSemo yalibdeboda. sabWoTa kavSiris periodma ruseTis mimarT jer kidev imperiul periodSi Camoyalibebuli wyena da undobloba kidev ufro ganamtkica. qarTuli elita Tavis interesebs sul ufro xSirad ganixilavda ruseTis interesebTan SeuTavseblad. ruseTis elitisaTvis, samxreT kavkasiaze kontrolis dakargva mtkiv203

jaba devdariani

neuli movlena iyo, xolo ruseTis mimarT radikalurad ganwyobili qarTuli nacionalizmi damatebiT gamRizianebels warmoadgenda. undoblobis am konteqtSi SeuZlebeli gaxda uSiSroebis umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxebis konstruqciuli ganxilva. saqarTvelo ruseTs safrTxed aRiqvamda, xolo ruseTi eWviT ekideboda saqarTvelos swrafvas natosaken da kavSirebis gaRrmavebas ruseTis istoriul metoqe TurqeTTan. liderebs Soris piradma mtrobam ki komunikacia SeuZlebeli gaxada. saqarTvelos susti mmarTvelebi sazogadoebis mxardaWeras antirusuli propagandiT moipovebdnen. arCevnebi ruseTis mimarT radikaluri gancxadebebis Sejibrad iqca, moskovs miewereboda yvela arsebuli da ararsebuli codva. ekonomikur da politikur warumateblobas saqarTvelos mTavroba ruseTs miawerda, magram ekonomikuri da politikuri sisuste ruseTis yvelaze agresiul elementebs qveynis Sida politikaSi Casarevad uxsnida gzas. am viTarebaSi, ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris pragmatuli TanamSromlobisaTvis adgili ar darCa. Tumca dRes ori faqtori mainc aaxloebs or saxelmwifos. pirveli, mmarTveli fenis TandaTanobiTi cvlaa. politikosTa axal Tobas piradi wyenis naklebi safuZveli gaaCnia. rac ufro mniSvnelovania, Seicvala regionuli da saerTaSoriso konteqsti. mezobeli da ufro Soreuli saxelmwifoebi, saerTaSoriso organizaciebi, biznesi sul ufro met gavlenas axdens samxreT kavkasiis regionze. navTobisa da sxva energomatareblebis tranzitma regioni ufro Rirebuli gaxada. saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis sul ufro meti monawilea dainteresebuli aq stabilurobis SenarCunebiT. naTelia, rom saerTo problemebis gadawyveta TanamSromlobis gziTaa SesaZlebeli. saerTaSoriso terorizmis safrTxem usafrTxoebis aRqma Secvala. saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis mier ruseTidan gadmoricxuli Tanxebis raodenobam da saqarTveloSi ruseTis energetkulma interesebma daaaxloa ori qveynis mTavrobebi. moskovSic da TbilisSic ukanasknel xanebSi cdiloben mcired mainc gaaumjobeson

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urTierToba. TumcaRa, dReisaTvis damaSoriSorebeli mizezebi iseTive Zlieria rogorc damaaxloebeli, rac realur progress xels uSlis. es Tavi saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris konfliqtis mizezebis analiziT iwyeba da dapirispirebis or dones exeba: TviTSegnebis kriziss, romelic orive qveyanaSi 90­iani wlebis dasawyiss daemTxva da usafrTxoebis Ziebas 90­iani wlebis Sua xanebsa da dasasruls. Tavis SuawelSi ormxriv urTierTobebSi axali pragmatizmis Ziebas SevexebiT. Tavis dasasruls saerTo midgomis gamonaxvis or konkretul magaliTze SevCerdebiT.

TviTSegnebis ZiebaSi

ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris daZabulobis zrda 80­iani wlebis dasawyiss ukavSirdeba, rodesac sabWoTa kavSiris rRvevis Semdeg orive saxelmwifo Tavis axal, damoukidebel TviTSegnebas ayalibebda. am rTul da mtkivneul procesSi ruseTi da saqarTvelo TviTmyofadobis Zireulad gansxvavebuli formisaken iswrafvodnen. daZabulobam qveynebs Soris piks miaRwia 1994 wlisaTvis, magram undobloba da masTan dakavSirebuli radikaluri (Tumca xSirad araTanmimdevruli) ritorika arasodes ganelebula. Rirebulebebs Soris amgvari konfliqtebi metad rTuli gadasalaxia, radgan rogorc jefri rubini aRniSnavs, maTi ,,gadawyveta mxolod maSin SeiZleba Tuki erTi mxare meores azris Secvlis aucileblobaSi daarwmunebs da ara molaparakebebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kompromisebis gziT."1 amave mizeziT rTuldeba konfliqtis aRwera pragmatuli politikis enaze, radgan erTi SexedviT politikurad umniSvnelo movlenebi, romlebic ,,normalur" urTierTobebze gavlenas ver moaxdendnen, magaliTad erTi calkeuli statia, gamonaTqvami Tu telegadacema, dapirispirebuli Rirebu1 Jeffrey Z. Rubin. Models of Conflict Management. ­ Journal of Social Studies, vol. 50, no. 1 (1994), pp. 33­45.

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lebebisa da miznebis konteqstSi gadaWarbebul reaqcias iwvevs. anTropologiaSi miRebuli ,,koleqtiuri TviTSegnebis" gansazRvreba am fenomenis aRsawerad gamogvadgeba. ,,koleqtiuri TviTSegneba" sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis zogad, gaziarebul koncefcias gulisxmobs anu ,,koordinatTa uzogades sistemas romelic warmarTavs socialur qmedebas."2 saqarTvelosa da ruseTis Tanamedrove ,,eri­saxelmwifoebis" TviTSegneba mniSvnelovanwilad imperiuli ruseTisa da sabWoTa kavSiris farglebSi ziari istoriis Sedegad Camoyalibda, magram am erebma gansxvavebuli SinaarsiT datvirTes Tanacxovrebis es gamocdileba. TviTSegneba, ,,meoba", Tavisi arsiT eris cxovrebis miTologizebuli moTxrobaa romelic warmarTavs da gansazRvravs sazogadoebriv cxovrebas. is aisaxeba werilobiT istoriaSi, xelovnebaSi, literaturasa da sazogadoebis cxovrebis wesSi. am mxriv SegviZlia visaubroT ,,mTavar miTze," romelic yvelaze zogad doneze gansazRvravs simbolur samyaros, romlis mixedviTac sazogadoeba afasebs, Tu ra uqmnis safrTxes mis arsebobas da ra gziT unda daupirispirdes is am safrTxes.3 es mTavari miTi sakmaod mdgradi unda iyos imisaTvis rom saukuneebis manZilze Camoayalibos da SeinarCunos eris ,,meoba", misi TviTSegneba, magram amave dros misi calkeuli nawilebi mudmivad gadasxvaferdeba da esadageba mimdinare realobas. dramatuli istoriuli movlenebi, rogoric iyo magaliTad sabWoTa kavSiris daSla, xSirad istoriis gadafasebas da mTavari miTis safuZvlian modificirebas iwvevs.4 Tanamedrove saqarTvelos TviTSegneba ruseTisagan damoukideblobis ideis garSemo Camoyalibda. amitomac, ruseTTan

Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (New York: Anchor Books, 1967), p. 62. 3 Berger and Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality, p. 62; Margaret R. Somers and Gloria D. Gibson. Dark Thoughts about the Self, in Craig Callhoun, ed. Social Theory and the Politics of Identity (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994), p. 67. 4 Somers and Gibson. Dark Thoughts about the Self, p. 67. aseve Manuel Castells. The Power of Identity (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1997), p. 31.

2

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mimarTebis Tema mTavaria erovnuli cnobierebisaTvis da mas uzarmazari simboluri datvirTva aqvs politikuri cxovrebisaTvis imisda miuxedavad, Tu ra gzas adgas Tavad ruseTi.5 saqarTvelos istoriis ruseTis imperiasTan mimarTebaSi interpretireba qmnis ,,winaaRmdegobis TviTSegnebas", rogorc mas manuel kastelsi uwodebs. amgvari TviTSegneba erSi maSin yalibdeba, rodesac is Tavsmoxveul ideologias ewinaaRdegeba, xolo suverenuli kontroli sazogadoebriv da politikur institutebze dakargulia. am pirobebSi sazogadoeba paralelur, TavsmoxveulTan dapirispirebul da avtonomur socialur sistemas ayalibebs, aSenebs ,,dapirispirebisa da TviTgadarCenis sangrebs" romlebiTac koleqtiuri ,,Cven" eTno­ lingvisturi, religiuri an sxva niSniT emijneba dampyrobel ,,imaT."6 meTvramete saukuneSi otomanur da sparsul safrTxesTan mebrZoli saqarTvelo politikuri da fizikuri ganadgurebis safrTxis winaSe idga. ver miipyro ra evropis yuradReba, qarTulma elitam dacva ruseTis imperias sTxova. es arCevani gaziarebulma marTlmadideblobamac gansazRvra, rogorc saqarTvelos TviTSegnebis erT­erTma elementma. aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos samxedro­politikuri elita rusuli jarebis mxardamxar ibrZoda Crdilo kavkasiaSi da didi roli Seasrula Tundac imam Samilis legendaruli ajanyebis CaxSobaSi. amave dros, rusuli poeziis, xelovnebisa da ganaTlebis wyalobiT qarTuli aristokratia evropul kulturasa da Rirebulebebs eziara. kulturulma kavSirebma saukuneebs gauZlo, magram politikur­samxedro aliansma did xans ver gastana. imperiuli mmarTvelobis pirveli wlebidanve gamoikveTa ukmayofileba rogorc ubralo mosaxleobis, ise aristokratiis mxridan, rac

5

Gia Tarkhan-Mouravi. The Georgian­Abkhazian Conflict in a Regional Context, in Bruno Coppieters, Ghia Nodia, and Yuri Anchabadze, eds. Georgia and Abkhazia, The Search for a Settlement (Cologne: Sonderveröffentlichung des BIOst, 1998), pp. 90­ 112, http://poli.vub.ac.be. 6 Castells. The Power of Identity, p. 8.

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jaba devdariani

periodul spontanur Tu dagegmil ajanyebebSi gadaizrdeboda xolme. saqarTvelos feodaluri sistema ver Seegua bevrad ufro xist rusul models. axalgazrda qarTvelma aristokratebma ruseTis universitetebSi aiTvises Tavisuflebisa da liberalizmis evropuli idealebi da mamebis Taobis rusuli arCevanis winaaRmdeg gailaSqres. es konfliqti, romelic kargad aisaxa im periodis qarTul literaturaSi, SvilTa gamarvebiT dasrulda. mecxramete saukunis bolosaTvis am Taobam xelovnebis, literaturisa da Jurnalistikis meSveobiT erovnul TviTSegnebaSi Semoitana ruseTis mxridan ,,Ralatis" Tema, Txroba imis Sesaxeb rom imperiuli instinqtebiT moqmedma ruseTma isargebla saqarTvelos sisustiT da dacvis magivrad gaauqma damoukidebeli qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba. saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublikis legitimuroba 1918 wels am ideebze gazrdili Taobis Zalisxmevas daeyrdno. rodesac sabWoTa ruseTis jarebma 1921 wels daikaves damoukidebeli saqarTvelo, saqarTvelos nacionalistebis TvalSi sabolood ganmtkicda ruseTis saxe ­ arasaimedo da mzakvari mezobeli, romelic mudmivad Zirs uTxris qarTvel ersa da qarTul saxelmwifos. miuxedavad imisa, rom qarTuli elita da aristokratia 1920­30­ian wlebSi TiTqmis mTlianad ganadgurda, qarTveli mwerlebisa da sazogadoebrivi moRvaweebis axali Taoba 1930­ian, 40­ian Tu 70­ian wlebSi swored mecxramete saukunis klasikosebis mier Camoyalibebul ,,qarTvelobis" gansazRvrebas eydnoboda, anu imperiul mCagvrelTan dapirispirebas qadagebda. amgvarad, saqarTvelos mTavari miTi ,,winaaRmdegobis TviTSegnebis" niadagze aRmocenda.7 ruseTis mimarT damokidebuleba sabWoTa periodis mtkivneulma gamocdilebam kidev ufro gaauaresa. 1956 wels sabWoTa jarebma cecxli gauxsnes TbilisSi nikita xruSCovis destalinizaciis politikis mowinaaRmdege demonstrantebs,

7

am sakiTxis ufro detaluri analizisisaTvis, ixileT: Irakli Chkonia. Remaking the Identity Master Myth in Georgia: The Intellectual and Social History of Discourse of Modern Georgian Nationalism. gamouqveynebeli naSromi.

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saqarTvelo da ruseTi: rTuli gza urTierTgagebisaken

romlebic xruSCovis kampaniis qveteqstad ,,qarTvelobis" winaaRmdeg Setevas aRiqvamdnen. 1989 wlis 9 aprils sabWoTa Sinaganma jarebma daSales damoukideblobis deviziT gamarTuli demonstracia, ris Sedegadac oci adamiani daiRupa, ZiriTadad axalgazrda qalebi. am movlenam saqarTveloSi damoukideblobis momxreTa rigebi mkveTrad gazarda. saqarTvelos ruseTisagan ganTavisufleba 80­iani wlebis bolos gaSlili damoukideblobis moZraobis mTavari mizani iyo. moZraobis liderebi xSirad saubrobdnen ,,srul damoukideblobaze," Tumca am terminis konkretuli arsi arasodes ganumartavT. erovnuli moZraoba saZulveli imperiisagan gaTavisuflebis instinqts eyrdnoboda. ruseTisadmi undobloba paranoiis zRvarze gadioda: qarTuli presa, magaliTad, Tvlida rom sabWoTa satelevizio arxebis mier Tbilisis amindis prognozis gadmocema imperiuli azrovnebis nawili iyo, xolo damangreveli miwisZvrebi ruseTis saidumlo miwisqveSa laboratoriebidan imarTeboda. am fonze, saqarTvelos usafrTxoebisadmi realuri safrTxe arasworad iyo interpretirebuli. iTvleboda, rom ruseTis Carevis gareSe eTnikur umciresobebTan ­ gansakuTrebiT afxazebTan da osebTan ­ Seqmnili daZabuloba TavisTavad ganimuxteboda.8 ekonomikur sakiTxebsac ar eqceoda yuradReba. politikosebi da ubralo moqalaqeebi Tvlidnen, rom maTi gadawyveta advilad moxerxdeboda damoukideblobis miRwevis Semdeg. daubrundes qveynis bunebrivi resursebi qarTvel xalxs da qveynis ekonomikuri keTildReoba TavisTavad uzrunvelyofili iqneba, Tvlida bevri. mixeil gorbaCovis reformebis dawyebis Semdeg qarTvelebisaTvis damoukidebloba ara mxolod sasurveli, aramed SesaZlebelic Canda. Tuki qarTuli sazogadoeba amas imediT xvdeboda, ruseTis elitisaTvis sabWouri warsulisaTvis

8 am krebulSi Sesul TavSi gia nodia aRniSnavs, rom eTnikuri umciresobebi safrTxed aRiqvamdnen saqarTvelos saxelmwifos eTnikuri niSnis mixedviT gansazRvras.

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zurgis Seqceva ufro rTuli aRmoCnda. ruseTis koleqtiuri TviTSegneba mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli imperiuli ,,diadi saxelmwifosa" da civi omis droindeli ,,supersaxelmwifos" statusTan. amgvari TviTSegneba ruseTs evropisagan damoukidebel erTeulad aRivamda, miuxedavad imisa, rom rusuli elita tradiciulad iswrafvoda evropuli kulturuli sferosaken. sabWoTa periodSi ,,mTavari miTi" ruseTs dasavleTis gamawonasworebel ideologiur da samxedro Zalad ganixilavda. boris dubinis azriT sabWoTa TviTaRqmis mTavari nawilebi 1930­iani wlebidan moyolebuli iyo: ,,misia" (dasavleTis gavlenis gawonasworeba), ,,derJava" (diadi, mravali eris gamaerTianebeli saxelmwifos xatebaze damyarebuli ,,meoba") da ,,sazRvari" (fizikuri gamyofi xazi ,,Cven"­sa da ,,imaT" Soris).9 es koncefciebi jer kidev ruseTis imperiis dros Caisaxa, magram stalinis mmarTvelobis periodSi ,,uzenaesi misiis" imperiuli idea gadaejaWva militaristuli, centralizebuli saxelmwifos instituts, romelic mudmiv samkvdro­ sasicocxlo brZolaSi iyo kapitalistur dasavleTTan.10 gorbaCovi Seecada garideboda dasavleTis gawonasworebis ideas da sabWoTa ekonomika da politikuri institutebi dasavlurTan SeTavsebadi gaexada. ,,mTavari miTi" popularuli rCeboda ruseTis sazogadoebaSi da masze ,,zemodan"Setevam ver daimsaxura saxalxo mxardaWera. konservatiuli elitis politikuri reaqcia 1991 wlis moskovis putCis saxiT gamoixata. sabWoTa politikuri institutebic zedmetad xisti aRmoCnda demokratiul Rirebulebebze gadasawyobad. Sedegad, sabWoTa kavSiri daiSala. ase rom, misiis Secvlis mcdelobisas ruseTma sakuTari ,,meobis" ganmsazRvreli, mravali eris gamaerTianebeli, supersaxelmwifos statusiT damSvenebuli derJava dakarga. ase rom, ruseTis TviTSegnebis krizisi realurad sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg daiwyo. boris elcinis administraciam

9 Boris Dubin. Counterweight: Symbolism of the West in Contemporary Russia. ­ Pro et Contra, vol. 8, no. 3 (2004), p. 24. 10 Dubin. Counterweight, p. 24.

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Tavidan, 1990­93 wlebSi, ganagrZo dasavleTTan integraciis politika. axali rusuli elita acxadebda, rom sabWoTa kavSiris daSla ruseTisaTvis ,,TviTganTavisuflebis" aqts warmoadgenda. liberali reformatorebi, egor gaidaris meTaurobiT, Tvlidnen, rom damoukidebeli, dasavleTze orientirebuli ruseTi wrafad gadaewyoboda sabazro ekonomikaze da miaRwevda keTildReobas. maTi azriT, Tuki ruseTs CamoSordeboda CamorCenili, dotaciaze myofi sabWoTa respublikebi qveyana ufro swrafad SeZlebda ganviTarebas da ekonomikuri aRmavlobis xarjze aRidgenda supersaxelmwifos statuss. ekonomikuri liberalizmis es idea ruseTSi ver gabatonda. privatizaciis gaukuRmarTebulma procesma mxolod kargi kavSirebis mqone adamianebis viwro wre gaamdidra da mosaxleoba reformatorTa ideebis winaaRmdeg ganawyo. ekonomikuri liberalizmis ideologiam ver Secvala sabWoeTis ,,mTavari miTi." rus avtorebs Soris azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa am warumateblobis mizezebis ZiebaSi. zogierTi Tvlis, rom individualur aqtivobaze damyarebuli ekonomikuri keTildReobis idea ucxoa rusuli, koleqtivisturi sazogadoebisaTvis, romelic sulier Rirebulebebs materialur keTildReobaze maRla ayenebs. sxvebi Tvlian, rom dasavleTTan integrirebis idea zedmetad radikalurad ewinaaRmdegeboda rusuli saxelmwifos tradiciul TviTSegnebas, rac dasavleTis gawonasworebas gulisxmobs. sazogadoebrivi azris 1996 wels Catarebuli gamokiTxvis Tanaxmad, ruseTis gamokiTxuli moqalaqeebis 20% Tvlida rom maTi saxelmwifo sabWoTa kavSiris msgavsad unda aewyos, 47% mxars ,,tradiciul rusul" cxovrebis wess uWerda da mxolod 11%­s surda ruseTis dasavlur yaidaze gadawyoba. amave dros, 1997 wels ruseTis gamokiTxul moqalaqeTa 51% Tvlida, rom dasavleTi ,,ruseTis metoqea" romelic ,,sakuTari problemebis ruseTis xarjze mogvarebas cdilobs da zians ayenebs ruseTis interesebs."11

11

Dubin. Counterweight, p. 27

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rodesac axalma ideologiam fexi ver moikida, ruseTis sazogadoeba imperiuli periodis miTebsa da simboloebs miubrunda. aRmosavleT evropis socialisturi saxelmwifoebisaTvis am periodSi saerTod damaxasi 12aTebeli iyo sakuTar fesvebTan mibruneba. Tumca, aRmosavleTi evropisagan gansxvavebiT ruseTis wina­sabWouri warsuli kapitlisturi, demokratiuli institutebis mqone eri­saxelmwifo ki ara, mravalerovnuli teritoriuli imperia iyo. Sesabamisad, fesvebisaken mibruneba imperiuli simboloebis (da masTn erTad derJavnikuli ritorikis) aRorZinebas daukavSirda. ruseTis evro­integraciul politikas saboloo wertili 1994 wels, CeCneTis pirveli omis dawyebisas daesva. dasavleTma dakarga ruseTis swrafi demokratizaciisa da ekonomikuri liberalizaciis imedi. axali saqarTvelossa da axali ruseTis ,,mTavri miTebi" erTmaneTs Riad upirispirdeboda. saqarTvelosaTvis, sabWoTa kavSiris daSla xsna iyo, gaTavisufleba ,,maTgan" vis winaaRmdegac qarTvelebi sakuTar TviTSegnebas grZnobiTa da TiTqmis paranoidaluri daJinebiT agebdnen. ruseTis elitis udidesi nawili mZimed ganicida sabWoTa kavSiris kraxs, radgan aman saxelmwifo TviTSegnebis safuZvlebi Searyia. saqarTvelo ruseTis ,,mTavari miTisaTvis" Tavidan mxolod umniSvnelo elementi iyo, magram TviTSegnebis krizisis periodSi ruseTi ufro mgrZnobiare gaxda saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis mimarT. kavkasiis dapyroba da Tbili zRvebisaken gafarToeba, ,,veluri erebis ganaTleba" rusuli imperiuli misiis ganuyofeli nawili iyo. am ideis garSemo igeboda rusuli literaturis udidesi warmomadgenlebis, puSkinis, lermontovis, tolstois nawarmoebebis mniSvnelovani nawili. saqarTvlos xisti da Seurigebeli TviTgamorkveva Riad upirispirdeboda am miTologias. saqarTvelo uars ambobda derJavis nawilad yofnaze. metic, is Riad acxadebda, rom Tavis Tavs ,,sazRvris" ruseTis

12 Dmitri Trenin. Identity and Integration: Russia and the West in the 21st Century. ­ Pro et Contra, vol. 8, no. 3 (2004), p. 11.

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sapirispiro, dasavlur mxareze aRiqvamda. kidev uaresi, zviad gamsaxurdias romantikul­nacionalisturi ritorika samxreT da CrdiloeT kavkasiis erTobas qadagebda da ruseTis imperiul uflebebs ukve TviT ruseTis federaciis SigniT upirispirdeboda. rac ar unda ararealisturi yofiliyo am gegmebis ganxorcieleba, ruseTSi maT gazviadebuli SiSiT ekidebodnen.13 ,,pan­kavkasiur" moZraobaze saubari xom ruseTSi yofili regionuli metoqis, TurqeTis ekonomikuri da politikuri gavlenis zrdas ukavSirdeboda. strategiuli xedvebisa da ideologiuri mrwamsis SeuTavsebloba ar gamoricxavda TanamSromlobis garkveul dones gamsaxurdiasa da elcinis administraciebs Soris. Tumca, TviTSegnebis ufro Rrma konfliqti gamoricxavda ndobas da, Sesabamisad, realur progress am urTierTobebSi. ruseTTan konfrontacia qarTuli politikis ZiriTad Temad darCa. gamsaxurdias mTavroba ruseTTan brZolas saxelmwifos mSeneblobis nebismier sxva amocanaze maRla ayenebda, rac saziano aRmoCnda qveynis ganviTarebisaTvis. magaliTad, gamsaxurdias mTavrobas metad aSinebda ruseTis uSiSroebis samsaxurisa da komunisturi nomenklaturis zegavlena qveyanaSi mimdinare procesebze. Sedegad, profesiuli elitisa da inteligenciis didi nawili, romlebsac ruseTTan kulturuli da profesiuli kavSirebi hqondaT, saxifaTo kolaboracionistebad iracxebodnen.14 mTavrobis yuradReba konkretuli ekonomikuri da socialuri problemebis gadawyvetidan kudianebze aseT nadirobaze iyo gadarTuli. amave mizeziT, gamsaxurdias mTavrobas gaemijna gamocdili administraciuli kadrebis didi nawili saxelmwifo institutebs SigniT, ramac politikurad daniSnul ministrebsa da maT nomenklaturul

1 Liz Fuller. New Geopolitical Alliances on Russia's Southern Rim. ­ RFE/RL Newsline, April 16, 1997, http://www.rferl.org/newsline/1997/04/160497.asp. 2 zviad gamsaxurdia saqarTveloSi da abulfaz elCibei azerbaijanSi cdilobdnen daSorebodnen "wiTel inteligencias", risi ukuefeqtic "elitebis gaucxoeba" gaxda.

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xelqveiTebs Soris mudmivi daZabuloba moitana. elitebis amgvar gaucxoebas logikurad mohyva gamsaxurdias mTavrobis damxoba.15 msgavsadve, gamsaxurdia da misi administracia afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTs mxolod ruseTis marionetebad aRiqvamdnen. Sedegad, am avtonomiebis elitebis moTxovnebs yuradReba ar eqceoda da ormxrivi kavSirebi maTTan ZiriTadad blokirebuli iyo. aman daZabulobis eskalacia gamoiwvia da politikuri uTanxmoeba SetakebebSi gadaizarda. saqarTvlos xelisuflebam ver gaiazra, Tu ratom emuqreboda, afxazeTisa da oseTis elitebisa da sazogadoebis nawilis azriT, saqarTvelos damoukidebloba maT TviTSegnebas. Sesabamisad, daikarga ufro mWidro, ze­eTnikuri, erovnul­saxelmwifoebrivi TviTSegnebis Camoyalibebis pirveli Sansi damoukidebel saqarTveloSi.16 rasakvirvelia, garkveul doneze gamsaxurdiasdroindel anti­rusul ritorikas praqtikuli politikuri ganzomilebac gaaCnda. gare mtris SiSi xelisuflebis konsolidaciisa da sazogadoebrivi TviTSegnebis ganmtkicebis erT­erTi gzaa. Tumca mtris xatis Seqmna ar aRmoCnda sakmarisi qveynis ganviTarebis uzrunvelsayofad. amgvarad, damoukideblobis pirvel wlebSi saqarTvelos sazogadoeba imaze SeTanxmda Tu saiT surda moZraoba, anu miaRwia imas, rasac kia nodia ,,erovnul proeqts" uwodebs. saqarTvelos surda gaxdariyo evropuli liberaluri demokratiis principebze damyarebuli erovnuli saxelmwifo. samwuxarod, ,,erovnuli proeqti" mxolod imas wyvetda Tu ra surda sazogadoebas da ara imas Tu rogor apirebda is am miznis miRwevas.17 sxvagvarad rom vTqaT, qarTuli elita imdenad aRmoCnda koncentrirebuli ,,winaaRmdegobis TviTSegnebaze" rom ver SeZlo manuel kastelsis TqmiT

15 sabWoTa elitis saqarTvelos mTavrobisagan gaucxoebis Sedegebze ixile: Jaba Devdariani. Georgia: Rise and Fall of Façade Democracy. ­ Äåìîêðàòèçàöèÿ, ò. 12, ¹ 1 (çèìà 2003 ã.), ñòð. 87­91. 16 ix. gia nodias avtorobiT am krebulSi gamoqveynebuli Tavi. 17 ix. gia nodias avtorobiT am krebulSi gamoqveynebuli Tavi.

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,,saproeqto TviTSegnebis" Camoyalibeba, anu ver dasaxa ,,momavali cxovrebis gegma, dafuZnebuli daCagrul TviTSegnebaze, magram mimarTuli sazogadoebis transformaciisaken."18 saqarTvelos gaaCnda Rirebulebebze damyarebuli, instinqturi swrafva evropuli sivrcisaken, magram mas samwuxarod ar gaaCnda demokratiul, sabazro sistemaze damyarebul sazogadoebaSi cxovrebis praqtikuli gamocdileba, romelsac SeeZlo konkretuli gegmis xasiaTi mieca ,,erovnuli proeqtisaTvis." 1918­1921 wlebis demokratiuli respublikisagan damoukidebel saqarTvelos 1991 wels memkvidreobad evropisaken swrafva ergo da ara amgvar sazogadoebaSi cxovrebis socialuri, kulturuli da politikuri gamocdileba. damoukidebeli samwliani arseboba meoce saukunis dasawyisSi sakmarisi ar iyo demokratiis moqmedi institutebis CamoyalibebisaTvis.19 gamsaxurdias Semcvlelma prezidentis postze, eduard SevardnaZem aseve ver SeZlo saqarTvelos ganviTarebis popularuli proeqtis SemuSaveba. isic xSirad iyenebda ruseTis faqtors sakuTari mTavrobis Secdomebisa da araefeqturobis SesaniRbad.20 gamsaxurdiasagan gansxvavebiT, SevardnaZe saqarTveloSi pro­rusul politikosad iTvleboda. igi xelisuflebaSi 1992 wels ruseTTan urTierTobebis gaumjobesebis deviziT movida. afxazeTSi mimdinare konfliqtis ganmavlobaSi SevardnaZe ,,ori ruseTis" politikas atarebda. misi TqmiT arsebobda ,,imperiuli ruseTi" romelsac samxedroebi warmoadgendnen da ,,demokratiuli ruseTi" prezident elcinisa da misi gundis meTaurobiT. 90­iani wlebis bolos,

18

Castells. The Power of Identity, p. 8. baltiis saxelmwifoebSi, romlebsac saqarTvelo damoukideblobisaTvis brZolaSi baZavda, viTareba sxvagvari iyo. 1918­dan 1939 wlamde maT srulfasovnad moqmedi saxelmwifoebi Camoayalibes da demokratiuli institutebis mexsiereba SenarCunda. Taoba, romelic cxovrobda damoukideblobis periodSi jer kidev cocxali iyo 90­ian wlebSi. 20 Tarkhan-Mouravi. The Georgian­Abkhazian Conflict in a Regional Context, pp. 90­112.

19

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maSin rodesac misi popularoba dramatulad Semcirda, SevardnaZe sul ufro xSirad abralebda ruseTs sakuTar Secdomebs. sinamdvileSi, saqarTvelos sisustem, mdgradi, sazogadoebrivi mxrdaWeris mqone institutebis Camouyalibeblobam gamoiwvia ekonomikuri katastrofa, iseve rogorc ori sisxliani Sida konfliqti romelic qveynis 15%­ze kontrolis dakargviT dasrulda. 90­ian wlebSi ruseTis mier kavkasiaSi gatarebuli politikis mizezebis axsna bevrad ufro rTulia. saqarTveloSi gavrcelebuli azriT, ruseTi xels uSlida saqarTvlosa da azerbaijanSi erovnuli xelisuflebebis Camoyalibebas, exmareboda ra politikur (da xSirad SeiaraRebul) opozicias diplomatiuri da samxedro saSualebebiT. Tumca Zalian rTulia imis darwmunebiT mtkiceba, rom yofili komunisturi liderebis heidar alievisa da eduard SevardnaZis dabruneba baqosa da TbilisSi kremlSi daigegma. orive qveyanaSi damoukideblobis Semdeg mosuli erovnuli xelisuflebis damxoba imave warmatebiT SeiZleba aixsnas qveynis Sida problemebiTac. gamsaxurdias winaaRmdeg mebrZoli SeiaraRebuli opozicia iaraRs sabWoTa armiis arsenalebidan iRebda, ramac bevri darwmuna rom reJimis Secvla ruseTis gegmis nawili iyo. arc isaa gamorixuli rom 1991 wels sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Sedegad politikur mmarTvel rgols mowyvetili rusi saxedroebi sakuTari angarebiT moqmedebdnen. dadasturebulia, rom afxazeTSi rusi samxedroebi awvdidnen iaraRs, aRWurvilobas da sadazvrvo monacemebs afxaz ajanyebulebs, zogjer ki pirdapirac exmarebodnen brZolebSi. iyo es kremlis Segnebuli nabiji Tu ruseTSi arsebuli zogadi politikuri areulobis gverdiTi Sedegi? am kiTxvaze gadamwyveti pasuxis gacema jer kidev SeuZlebelia. SesaZloa imaze msjeloba, ras SeeZlo gamoewvia rusi samxedroebis moqmedeba saqarTvelos interesebis winaaRmdeg da ratom ar gaakeTa araferi ruseTis politikurma xelmZRvanelobam maT Sesakaveblad. rogorc adreve vTqviT, ruseTis dasavleTisadmi simpatiiT ganwyobil liberalizms wmindad ekonomikuri saxe

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hqonda. privatizacia saerTaSoriso savaluto fondTan da msoflio bankTan TanamSromlobiT ganxorcielda. sagareo politikaSi ruseTis jarebma datoves aRmosavleT evropa da cnes baltiis saxelmwifoebis damoukidebloba. am nabijebs seriozuli Sida winaaRmdegoba mohyva ruseTis SigniT, TviTSegnebis krizisi pirobebSi, roca bevri cdilobda saxelmwifosaTvis derJavnikuli Sinaarsis dabrunebas. jer kidev 1992 wels ruseTis sagareo ministrma andrei kozirevma evropis uSiSroebisa da TanamSromlobis konferencias e.w. ,,gamafrTxilebeli gamosvliT" mimarTa. man gaaxmovana rusi radikalebis popularuli pozicia, rom yofili sabWoTa kavSiri post­imperiul sivrces warmoadgens da masSi ruseTs sakuTari interesebis nebismieri meTodebiT dacvis ufleba unda mieces.21 kozirevma mogvianebiT axsna, rom misi gamosvla mxolod politikuri radikalizmis safrTxis Taobaze saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis gasafrTxileblad gakeTda, magram ukve 1993 wels ruseTis usafrTxoebisa da sagareopolitikuri doqtrinebi ,,axlo sazRvargareTis" koncefcias Seicavda. es koncefcia swored kozirevis mier navaraudev politikur xazs waagavda.22 rasakvirvelia, am etapze ruseTs aRar SeeZlo post­ sabWoTa sivrceze imperiuli Zalauflebis srulfasovani aRdgena. ,,istoriuli rolisadmi" emociuri swrafva susti saxelmwifoebis sagareo politikaze hegemonuri gavlenis mopovebas isaxavda miznad.23 90­iani wlebis SuaxanebisaTvis

21

Roland Dannreuther Russian Perceptions of the Atlantic Alliance: Final Report for the NATO Fellowship (Brussels and Edinburgh: 1997), p. 11, http://www.nato.int/acad/ fellow/95-97/dannreut.pdf. 22 John J. Maresca. Russia's `Near Abroad'--A Dilemma for the West, in Hans-Georg Ehrhart, Anna Kreikemeyer, and Andrei V. Zagorski, eds. Crisis Management in the CIS: Whither Russia? (Baden Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1995), pp. 192­193; Yuri E. Fedorov. Foreign Policy-Making in the Russian Federation and Local Conflicts in the CIS, in Ehrhart, Kreikemeyer, and Zagorski. Crisis Management in the CIS, p. 122 è pp. 126­127. 23 Rajan Menon. The Security Environment in the South Caucasus and Central Asia, in Rajan Menon, Yuri E. Fedorov, and Ghia Nodia, eds. Russia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia, The 21st Century Security Environment (New York: East West Institute, M.E. Shape Inc., 1999), p. 9.

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gamoikveTa ,,axlo sazRvargareTis" koncefciis praqtikuli Sinaarsi, Tumca misi Teoriuli arsi kvlavac bolomde ganumartavi darCa. am koncefciis mixedviT ruseTi axali, post sabWoTa saxelmwifoebis damoukideblobas ki aRiarebda, magram maT mainc warmosaxviTi ,,derJavis," rogorc politikul­kulturuli sivrcis Semadgenel nawilebad aRiqvamda. ,,axlo sazRvargareTi" ruseTSi sxvadasxva adamianebisaTvis sxvadasxva SinaarsiT iyo Sevsebuli, Sesabamisad ver gamoikveTa konkretuli, Tanmimdevruli politikac. im pirobebSi, rodesac ruseTis axal sazRvrebTan axlos swored Zalovani uwyebebis SedarebiT agresiuli warmomadgenlebi iyvnen yvelaze axlos, imarjvebda ,,axlo sazRvargareTis" maTeuli interpretacia. swored maT hqondaT udidesi gavlena samxreT kavkasiis politikis SemuSavebaze elcinis mmarTvelobis ganmavlobaSi. is, rom ruseTis warmomadgenlebad samxreT kavkasiaSi samxedroebi iqcnen SesaZloa daugegmavi, magram savsebiT logikuri movlena iyo. kavkasiis samxedroebisaTvis mindoba ruseTis imperiis droidan moyolebuli politika iyo. praqtikuli TvalsazrisiT, transkavkasiis samxedro olqi (SemdgomSi transkavkasiaSi ruseTis jarebis jgufad wodebuli) kavkasiaSi ruseTis udidesi biurokratiuli intituti iyo, romelic sabWoTa kavSiris daSlas gadaurCa. rus samxedroebs xSirad axlo urTierToba akavSirebdaT adgilobriv xelisuflebTan.24 ase rom, saqarTveloSi mimdinare konfliqtebisa da somxeT­ azerbaijanis dapirispirebis dros rusi samxedroebi molaparakebebze rusul saxelmwifos warmoadgendnen da xSirad dapirispirebul mxareebs Soris Suamavlebad gamodiodnen. rusi generlebi aseve xSirad akeTebdnen politikur gancxadebebs ruseTis saxeliT. ruseTis Tavdacvis ministrma, pavle graCovma piradad Seuwyo xeli ramodenime SeTanxmebas mxareebs Soris afxazeTisa da mTiani yarabaRis konfliqtebisas, rogorc

24 Dmitri Trenin. Russia's Security Policies and Interests in the Caucasus Region, in Bruno Coppieters, ed. Contested Borders in the Caucasus (Brussels: VUB University Press, 1996), p. 98.

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elcinis piradma warmomadgenelma. ase rom samxedroebs rogroc praqtikuli, ise simboluri wona gaaCndaT kavkasiur saqmeebSi. zogi mkvlevari imasac amtkicebs, rom istoriulad, ruseTSi samxedroebi gansaRvravdnen saxelmwifos raobas da, Sesabamisad, maSin roca samoqalaqo xelisufleba krizisSia, samxedroTa roli avtomaturad izrdeba.25 rusuli saxelmwifoebrivi TviTSegnebis damcvelad samxedroebs Tavad rusuli sazogadoebac aRiqvams, romlis SexedulebiTac armia ,,ZiriTadi, samagaliTo institutia", romelic disciplinasa da vertikalur ierarqias ganasaxierebs.26 ruseTis mier Suamaval institutad samxedroebis daniSvnam saqarTveloSi metad uaryofiT gamoZaxili ipova, kidev ufro ganamtkica ra ruseTis militarisuli zewolis SiSi. viTarebas isic auaresebda, rom rusi samxedroebi inarCunebdnen agresiul, Seurigebel tons, rac imperiuli da sabWoTa qedmaRlobis gadmonaSTad aRiqmeboda saqarTveloSi. sabWoTa sistemis rRvevas samxedroebze politikuri kontrolis Sesusteba mohyva da ruseTis meTaurebic sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr gankargavdnen SeiaraRebas, maT Soris regionuli konfliqtebisas. politikuris garda maT, bunebrivia, finansuri motivaciac amoZravebdaT, radgan iaraRiT vaWroba sakmaod sarfiani biznesi aRmoCnda kavkasiaSi.27 90­iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi safrTxe TviT ruseTis teritoriul mTlianobasac daemuqra da, pirvel rigSi, Crdilo kavkasiaSi. kremli SidaeTnikuri da respublikaTaSorisi dapirispirebis winaSe aRmoCnda CeCneTSi, daRestanSi, inguSeTsa da Crdilo oseTSi. eTnikurad rusul regionebSi problematuri gaxda memarjvene, nacionalisturad ganwyobili radikalebis, maT Soris kazakebis, gakontroleba, romelTac

Alexander Golts. Main Obstacle to Military Reform--Russian Militarism. ­ Pro et Contra, vol. 8, no. 3 (2004), p. 56. 26 Dubin. Counterweight, p. 30. 27 CeCeni mebrZolebisaTvis iaraRis Crdilokavkasiis samxedro arsenalebidan miyidvaze saubrobdnen rogorc Jurnalistebi, ise ruseTis oficialuri pirebi.

25

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seriozuli mxardamWerebi gamouCndaT ruseTis parlamentSi. elcinis reJimi cdilobda balansis moZiebas, da es balansi xSirad saqarTvelosaTvis arasasurveli meTodebiT miiRweoda. magaliTad, rusi moxaliseebi ­ rogorc sepratisti CeCnebi, ise derJavniki kazakebi ­ monawileobdnen afxazeTis konfliqtSi saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg. maTi monawileoba ruseTs safrTxes ar uqmnida. piriqiT, amiT moxerxda ,,orTqlis gamoSveba" Crdilo kavkasiidan da potenciurad damangreveli impulsis ruseTis miRma mimarTva.28 am periodSi rus politikur moTamaSeebs kavkasiaSi TiTqmis aravin abalansebda. samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTSi mimdinare konfliqtebi praqtikulad dasavleTis yuradRebis miRma darCa. saqarTvelos xelisufleba erideboda radikalur moqmedebebs. miuxedavad saqarTvelos parlamentis epizoduri mkacri gancxadebebisa, aRmasrulebeli xelisufleba oficialurad mxolod sustad akritikebda ruseTis monawileobas afxazeTis konfliqtSi da daeTanxma ruseTis mSvidobismyofel rols. rodesac samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTSi konfliqtebis samxedro faza dasrulda, dasavleTma Tavi Seikava am regionebSi samSvidobo operaciebis warmoebisagan da ruseTis samSvidobo roli ualternativod iqca. aqedan moyolebuli, ruseTi yoveli saSualebiT icavs Tavis samSvidobo mandats da cdilobs ar dauSvas saerTaSoriso institutebis pirdapiri da qmediTi monawileoba konfliqtebis mogvarebaSi, garda im SedarebiT SezRuduli sadamkvirveblo rolisa rac gaeros

28 CeCeni da erqezi daqiravebulebis, agreTvi memarjvene kazakebis afxazeTis konfliqtSi monawileoba ,,kavkasiis mTiel xalxTa konfederaciis" farglebSi xdeboda da farTod dasturdeba. (ix. "Äîêëàä îðãàíèçàöèè "Õüþìàí ðàéòñ óîò÷": Ãðóçèÿ â 1995 ãîäó", http://www.hrw.org/reports/ 1995/Georgia2.htm). angariSSi naTqvamia, rom am monawileobis wyalobiT moxerxda CeCnur­rusuli Setakebebis acileba 90­iani wlebis dasawyisSi. amave dros, daqiravebulebis konfliqtSi monawileoba popularuli iyo rus politikosebsa da radikalurad ganwyobil samxedroebs Soris. maTma monawileobam Seamcira zewola elcinis xelisuflebaze. damatebiTi miTiTebebi am sakiTxebze ixileT: Tarkhan-Mouravi. Georgians and Abkhazians: The Search for a Peace Settlement, pp. 90­112.

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gaaCnia afxazeTSi da euTos samxreT oseTSi. ruseTi imgvari viTarebis Seqmnas eswrafvoda, rodesac ,,arcerT saerTaSoriso instituts, garda dsT­si, ar SeuZlia efeqturi samSvidobo operaciebis warmoeba dsT­s SigniT da nebismieri mcdeloba warumatebelia ruseTis monawileobis gareSe."29 afxazeTSi damarcxebis Semdeg, qarTuli saxelmwifo daSlis realuri safrTxis winaSe idga. bevri qarTvelis azriT, ruseTma jer gaaRviva, mere ki mxari dauWira separatistul konfliqtebs afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi. eduard SevardnaZem gaaxmovana es versia soxumis dacemis Semdeg, rodesac man ganacxada rom ,,saqarTvelo ruseTma daaCoqa."30 saqarTvelos xelisuflebi miiCnevdnen, rom qveyanas ar gaCnda sxva arCevani, garda samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTSi rusuli samSvidobo jarebis miRebisa. sinamdvileSi, am jarebis mTavar funqciad, saqarTvelosgan CamoSorebuli provinciebis sazRvrebis dacva, anu maTi damoukideblobis uzrunvelyofa iqca. Tumca, amave periodSi, ruseTis axali didebis ocnebebi Crdilo kavkasiaSi daimsxvra. Zlierebis zrdis nacvlad, ruseTi CeCneTis konfliqtSi Caeflo. metic, samxreT kavkasiaSi mimdinare konfliqtebis Sedegad ruseTis samxreT sazRvari daucveli aRmoCnda migraciuli nakadebis, araprognozirebadi separatistuli reJimebis da kriminaluri jgufebis winaSe.

usafrTxoebis ZiebaSi

CeCneTis pirveli omis pirobebSi, romelic arapopularuli iyo qveynis SigniT da mis gareT, usafrTxoebis sakiTxebs ruseTSi upirvelesi yuradReba eqceoda. am konfliqtma xazi gadausva evropaSi swrafi integraciis imedebs da ruseTisa da

29 Emilia Krivchikova. Peacekeeping Operations on the Territory of the Former Soviet Union, in Ehrhart, Kreikemeyer, and Zagorski. Crisis Management in the CIS, p. 162. 30 es citata farTodaa cnobili da saqarTvelos televiziiT gakeTda. is moixsenieba Semdeg wyaroSi: http://www.philipjohnston.com/centraleurope/chron/ fsu/1993sep.htm.

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evropis Rirebulebebs Soris arsebuli ufskruli warmoaCina. omma Seasusta ruseTis centraluri mTavroba da gaaZliera rogorc biznes­oligarqebi, ise regionuli liderebi. saqarTvelo am dros kvlavac qaosSi rCeboda. SeiaraRebuli bandebi akontrolebdnen biznessa da politikas. qveynis resursebi iyideboda da iZarcveboda. rogorc saxelmwifo, aseve ubralo moqalaqeebic dRidan dRemde gadarCenisaTvis ibrZodnen. energokrizisma ­ gazisa da eleqtroenergiis naklebobam ­ puris deficitic ki warmoqmna. orive qveyanaSi krizisi erovnul TviTSegnebas safuZvlianad daemuqra. bunebrivia, maSin rodesac orive saxelmwifo gadarCenisaTvis ibrZoda, usafrTxoebam upirvelesi mniSvneloba SeiZina. saqarTvelo, usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT, or ZirTad amocanas wyvetda. upirvelesad, saWiro iyo qveynis daSlis tendenciis SeCereba. meores mxriv aucilebeli iyo pirveladi sagareo safrTxis ­ ruseTis dabalanseba. pirveli miznis misaRwevad saqarTvelo manamde warmoudgenel daTmobebze wavida ruseTis mimarT: qveyana SeuerTda damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobas; prezidentma SevardnaZem politikuri mxardaWera gamoxata ruseTis CeCnuri kampanisadmi; ruseTis armiis moqmedi oficeri, vardiko nadibaiZe qveynis Tavdacvis ministrad dainiSna; ruseTisadmi loialurad ganwyobili kadrebi gamoCnda Zalovan saministroebSi. amasTan, Sida stabilurobis dasamyareblad, prezidenti SevardnaZe daupirispirda SeiaraRebul bandebs, rac ,,mxedrionis" gauqmebiTa da misi lideris jaba ioselianisa da gvardiis yofili meTauris Tengiz kitovanis dapatimrebiT dasrulda. policiisa da, gansakuTrebiT, uSiSroebis saministros gaZlierebas mohyva gaxmaurebuli samxedro­policiuri operaciebis seria qveynis regionebSi. zviad gamsaxurdias momxreTa moZraoba Zalismierad CaaxSes dasavleT saqarTveloSi. 1995 wels eduard SevardnaZem Seqmna ,,saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa kavSiri", romelic 1996 wlis arCevnebis Sedegad mmarTveli partia gaxda. zurab Jvanias meTaurobiT am partiaSi Seqmnilma ,,axalgazrda reformatorTa" araformalurma jgufma dasav222

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lel partniorebSi gaaRviva qveynis demokratizaciis imedebi. axali erovnuli valuta, lari, mimoqcevaSi Semovida 1996 wels da gacvliTi kursis stabilurobis SenarCuneba moaxerxa. es radikaluri cvlileba iyo 1993 wlis inflaciis samniSna cifrebTan SedarebiT. ramodenimewliani dramatuli vardnis Semdeg, 1996­97 wlebSi erTobrivi Sida produqtis wliuri zrda orniSna cifrebSi aRiricxa. sagareo­politikur arenaze, SevardnaZe cdilobda dasavleTisagan mieRo usafrTxoebis garantiebi, rac mxolod kaspiis navTobis mimarT intersis zrdis paralelurad moxerxda. kaspiis auzSi moZiebulma navTobisa da gazis rezervebma dasavleTis saxelmwifoebis didi interesi gamoiwvia. 1998 wlisavis kaspiis regionis navTobsabadoebze ukve aTze meti dasavluri kompania muSaobda. mxolod azerbaijanSi maT 28 miliard dolarze meti Rirebulebis kontraqtebi moipoves.31 samxreT kavkasia mniSvnelovani gaxda SeerTebuli StatebisaTvis, ramdenadac misi infrastruqtura aucilebeli aRmoCnda azerbaijanuli (da, potenciurad, Suaaziuri) navTobisa da gazis transportirebisaTvis. aSS monawileobiTa da mxardaWeriT daiwyo navTobsadenis ori ­ mcire, baqo­sufsisa da didi, baqo­Tbilisi­ jeihanis ­ proeqtis ganxorcieleba. SevardnaZem da misma azerbaijanelma kolega alievma mxari dauWires ,,abreSumis gzis" proeqts rac aziasa da evropas Soris satransporto koridoris aRorZinebas isaxavda miznad. afxazeTSi, samxreT oseTSi da CeCneTSi mimdinare konfliqtebma gadaWra saqarTvelos ruseTTan damakavSirebeli satransporto arteriebi. Sedegad, qveynis udides savaWro partniorad TurqeTi iqca. ruseTi samxreT kavkasias sakuTari Sida da sagareo usafrTxoebis problemebis prizmaSi aRiqvamda. mravali rusi analitikosi daeTanxmeboda dimitri trenins, romlis azriTac ,,transkavkasia ganuyofladaa dakavSirebuli Crdilo kavkasias31

Glen E. Howard. NATO and the Caucasus: The Caspian Axis, in Stephen J. Blank, ed. NATO after Enlargement: New Challenges, New Missions, New Forces (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 1998), p. 157.

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Tan, romelic ruseTis federaciis nawilia."32 marTlac, samxreT kavkasiis qveynebis damoukideblobam ruseTis usafrTxoebas damatebiTi problemebi Seuqmna. axali saxelmwifo sazRvari, romelsac sabWoTa kavSirSi mxolod administraciuli statusi hqonda, daucveli da gaukontrolebeli aRmoCnda. upirveles yovlisa, aman ruseTi ltolvilebis nakadis winaSe daayena. umTavresi mainc is iyo, rom Tuki 1995 wlamde ruseTis gavlenas samxreT kavkasiaSi mxolod CeCneTSi mimdinare konfliqti da administrirebis zogadi araefeqturoba zRudavda. 1995 wlis Semdeg, ruseTs regionSi konkurentebi gamouCnda dasavleTis saxelmwifoebis saxiT. dasavleli momomxilvelebi sul ufro xSirad iyenebdnen me­19 saukunis ,,didi TamaSis" analogias kaspiisa da kavkasiis regionebSi mimdinare movlenebis aRsawerad. britanuli ,,gardianis" 2001 wlis nomerSi vkiTxulobT ,,esaa regioni romelzec Tvali aRmosavleTsac uWiravs da dasavleTsac."33 rogorc rusi, ise dasavleli analitikosebisa da Jurnalistebis msjelobaSi gabatonda kavkasiaSi gaCaRebuli strategiuli metoqeobis azri. is gavlenas axdenda politikur momoxilvebsa da politikosebis gadawyvetilebebze. glen hovardi 1998 werda: ,,civi omis dasasrulTan erTad kavkasia kvlavac msoflio geopolitikis wina planzea, radgan kaspiis navTobi natos aRmosavleT flangs swrafad ucvlis saxes."34 rTulia imis dazustebiT Tqma, srulad iziarebda Tu ara am azrs oficialuri bruseli Tu vaSingtoni, magram is kargad asaxavs e.w. ,,realuri politikisaTvis" damaxasiaTebel logikas, romlis mixedviTac energoresursebze kontroli uSualod ukavSirdeba politikuri gavlenisaTvis brZolas. ruseTi, Tavis mxriv, civi omis wesebiT Seecada saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis gagrZelebas. dasrulda rusuli

32 33

Trenin. Russia's Security Policies and Interests in the Caucasus Region, p. 91. Richard Norton-Taylor. The New Great Game. ­ The Guardian, March 5, 2001, http:/ /www.guardian.co.uk/Archive/Article/0,4273,4146099,00.html. 34 Howard. NATO and the Caucasus, p. 152.

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sagareo politikis bavSvobis xana, romelic ,,civilizebuli erebis ojaxSi" re­integrirebisaken iswrafvoda. dasavleTis da, gansakuTrebiT, aSS­s ,,dabalansebis" politika jer kidev sagareo ministr kozirevis moRvaweobisas aRorZinda. Camoyalibebuli saxe man usafrTxoebis civi omisdroindeli specialistis, evgeni primakovis sagareo ministris postze 1996 wlis ianvarSi daniSvnis Semdeg miiRo. ruseTis axali sagareo politikis amocanad aSS­s strategiuli gavlenis gafarToebis Sekaveba da unipolaruli msoflio wesrigis nacvlad multipolaruli wesrigis ideis dacva iqca. oficialuri moskovi aSS­ s mtris nacvlad ,,partniorad" ixseniebda. es partnioroba, ruseTis azriT ar gamoricxavda aSS­sTan metoqeobas saerTaSoriso gavlenis mosapoveblad. sinamdvileSi, erTis mxriv bevri rusi samxedro aSS­s kvlavac mtrad aRiqvamda, meores mxriv ki TviT aSS ukve aRar cnobda ruseTs Tanaswor metoqed. amisda miuxedavad, elcinis administracia cdilobda dsT­ s samxedro­politikuri aliansis gaZlierebas. moskovi aseve emxroboda usafrTxoebis komponentis gafarToebas evropis uSiSroebisa da TanamSromlobis organizaciis (euTos) farglebSi, radgan euToSi ruseTs faqtiurad vetos ufleba gaaCnia. iyo natosa da aSS­s moqmedebebis dabalansebis mcdeloba balkaneTis konfliqtebSi, primakovis meTaurobiT ki ruseTi Seecada Suamavlis roli eTamaSa aSS­sa da e.w. ,,gariyul reJimebs" (erayi, Crdilo korea, irani) Soris.35 Tumca, iranTan gafarToebulma TanamSromlobam usafrTxoebisa da kaspiis sakiTxebSi aSS­s gaRizianeba gamoiwvia.36 samxreT kavkasia am didi politikuri manevrebis erT­erTi, SedarebiT mcire Semadgeneli nawili iyo, xoli saqarTvelo mxolod erTi elementi am globalur SejibrSi. aSS­s 1998 wlis erovnuli usafrTxoebis strategia miznad dsT­s ZiriTadi

35

Allen C. Lynch. The Realism of Russia's Foreign Policy. ­ Europe­Asia Studies, vol. 53, no. 1 (2001), pp. 15­23. 36 Patrick G. Moore. Russia to Sell Iran More Arms. ­ RFE/RL Newsline, March 13, 2001, http://www.rferl.org/newsline/ 2001/03/130301.asp.

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nawilebis dasavlur ekonomikur da politikur struqturebSi srul integracias isaxavda.37 amis sapirispirod, ruseTis 2000 wlis sagareo politikis koncefciis Tanaxmad prioritetulia ,,dsT­s wevri qveynebis or­ da mravalmxrivi TanamSromlobi SeTavsebadobis uzrunvelyofa [ruseTis] erovnuli usafrTxoebis amocanebTan."38 ruseTi sakuTar gavlenaze Setevad aRiqvamda natos gafarToebas, iseve rogorc am organizaciis programas ,,partnioroba mSvidobisaTvis", romelic dsT­s qveynebic monawileoben. amgvarad, kremlis TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelos aqtiuri TanamSroloba natosTan programis ,,partioroba mSvidobisaTvis" farglebSi, ekonomikuri TanamSromloba TurqeTTan da evrogaerTianebasTan dasavleTis mcdelobis nawili iyo mtruli samxedro da ekonomikuri aliansebiT alya Semoertya ruseTisaTvis. 1999 wels ruseTis sagareo ministrma igor ivanovma ruseTis politikis aRsawerad civi omisdroindeli terminologia gamoiyena. am periodSi ruseTis mcdeloba SeerTebul StatebTan usafrTxoebis dargSi paritetisaTvis mieRwia ukve uimedod gamoiyureboda. ivanovi ruseTis SiSze saubrobs: ,,moskovSi xSirad ismis kiTxva: aris Tu ara kosovo da CeCneTi erTi jaWvis rgolebi, romlis mizanic erTganzomilebiani, natoze koncentrirebuli msoflios Seqmnaa? iqneb CeCneTi mxolod safaria natosaTvis msoflio policielis rolis misaniWeblad, strategiuli stabilurobis safuZvlismieri komponentebis ZirgamosaTxrelad da ganiaraRebis procesis SesaCereblad? CeCneTTan dakavSirebuli anti­ rusuli kampania ruseTis kavkasiidan da Semdeg Sua aziidan gasaZeveblad xom ar agorda? es mxolod ramdenime kiTxvaa,

37

William J. Clinton. A National Security Strategy for a New Century (Washington, DC: The White House, October 1998), pp. 37­40. 38 Êîíöåïöèÿ ðîññèéñêîé âíåøíåé ïîëèòèêè. Ìèíèñòåðñòâî èíîñòðàííûõ äåë Ðîññèè â îíëàéíîâîì ðåæèìå, http://www.ln.mid.ru/ns-osndoc.nsf/0e9272befa34209743256 c630042d1aa/fd86620b371b0cf7432569fb004872a7. am dokuments xeli vladimir putinma moawera 2000 wlis 28 ivniss.

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romelic ruseTis sazogadoebas dasavleTis moqmedebis, zogjer ki umoqmedobis, Semxedvares uCndeba."39 90­iani wlebis dasasrulisaTvis ukve naTeli gaxda, rom ruseTis mier am wlebSi dasaxuli strategiuli miznebis miRweva SeuZlebeli iyo. ruseTma xeli ver SeuSala 1999 wels natos gafarToebas. metic, daigegma natos Semdgomi gafarToeba, axla ukve baltiis qveynebis xarjzec. amave wels ruseTis mxridan aSS­s dabalansebis politikam kraxi kosovoSi ganicada. amasTan, eraySi amerikis pirvelma samxedro kampaniam Ziri gamouTxara am regionSi ruseTis gavlenas. ekonomikuri kolafsisa da mudmivi Sidaomebis pirobebSi, dsT ver iqca ssrk­s Sesadar politikuri da samxedro aliansad. saqarTvelosa da samxreT kavkasiaSi ruseTis saqmeebi cota ukeT midioda. aq moxerxda strategiuli upiratesobis SenarCuneba. 1994 wlisaTvis, kremls xelSi ekava ,,gayinuli" eTnikuri konfliqtebis gasaRebebi da regionSi ,,rusuli mSvidoba" damyarda. dominirebis gasamyareblad, ruseTi cdilobda SeezRuda sxva saxelmwifoebis monawileoba mTiani yarabaRis dasaregulirebeli euTos minskis jgufis farglebSi.40 afxazeTis konfliqtSi, ruseTi cdilobda euTosa da gaeros samSvidobo monawileoba damkvirvebelTa misiis SezRudul mandats ar gascileboda.41 amisda miuxedavad, dasavleTis monawileoba kavkasiaSi izrdeboda. 1999 wls gaixsna baqo­sufsas navTobsadeni, saqarTvelo ki Tavis ,,erovnuli proeqtTan" erTi nabijiT daaxlovd da evropis sabWos wevri gaxda. kavkasiaSi ruseTis gavlenis Sesustebis yvelaze mniSvnelovani faqtori CeCneTSi gancdili marcxi iyo. warumateblobam

Igor Ivanov. West's Hypocrisy over Chechnya. ­ Financial Times, November 16, 1999, p. 19. 40 Maresca. Russia's `Near Abroad', p. 194. 41 arsebuli monacemebiT, ruseTma Tavisi mxardaWera haitiSi aSS CarevisaTvis aSS­s mier afxazeTSi saerTaSoriso damkvirveblebis ganTavsebis winaaRmdeg micemul xmaSi gacvala. (ix. Maresca. Russia's `Near Abroad', p. 197).

39

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gamoaaSkarava rusuli samxedro manqanisa da administraciis sisuste. Sida krizisis mouxeSavma da sastikma marTvam naTeli gaxada rom rusuli saxelmwifos resursebi ar iyo sakmarisi samxreTis arastabiluri respublikebis samarTavad. dasavleli analitikosebi Tvlidnen, rom ruseTi Seecdeboda jer Sida problemebisaTvis miexeda da amdenad samxreT kavkasiidan ,,strategiul ukandaxevas" ganaxorcielebda.42 marTlac, 1999 wlis noemberSi, stambolSi, elcinis dasustebuli da mravali ekonomikuri, politikuri da saxedro marcxiT demoralizebuli administracia dahyva aSS­s zewolas da daTanxmda saqarTvelodan jarebis gayvanas.43 euTos stambolis Sexvedraze ruseTma valdebuleba aiRo daexura ori samxedro baza saqarTveloSi da ewarmoebina molaparakebebi darCenili ori bazis dasaxurad. amave wels dasrulda rusi mesazRvreebis gayvana saqarTvelodan, da amdenad ruseTma datova yofili sabWoTa sazRvari natosTan ­ TurqeTTan. rogorc ukve vTqviT, 1994­99 wlebSi saqarTvelom SeZlo qveynis daSlis tendenciis SeCereba da garkveuli ekonomikuri zrdac daibeva. SevardnaZem saocar warmatebas miaRwia 90­iani wlebis dasawyisSi gabatonebuli qaosis aRmofxvraSi. amave xanebSi naTeli gaxda, rom parlamentis mier gatarebul pro­ dasavlur politikas saqarTveloSi patron­klientelisturi, korumpirebuli jgufebi aferxebdnen da rom swored am jgufebs gaaCndaT Zalaufleba politikur, uSiSroebisa da policiis maRalCinosnebs Soris. ekonomikis aRmavloba ukve 1998 wlisaTvis Seferxda. afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis sakiTxebze molaparakebebi CixSi Sevida. metic, aWara kvazi­ damoukidebel samTavrod gadaiqca, romlis lideric Riad upirispirdeboda qveynis xelisuflebas. SevardnaZis adminisPavel K. Baev. Challenges and Options in the Caucasus and Central Asia (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, April 22, 1997), p. 17, http:// www.carlisle.army.mil/ssi/pdffiles/00111.pdf. 43 Stephen J. Blank. U.S. Military Engagement with Transcaucasia and Central Asia (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, June 2000), p. 6, http:/ /www.milnet.com/pentagon/Russia-2000-assessment-SSI.pdf.

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traciis devizi ,,stabiluroba upirveles yovlisa" kargavda popularobas, radgan socialuri da ekonomikuri problemebi sul ufro Rrmavdeboda. prezident SevardnaZis gancxadeba 1999 wels, rom saqarTvelo ramodenime weliwadSi ,,natos karebze miakakunebs" qarTvel amomrCevelze ufro iyo gaTvlili da realistur politikur gegmas naklebad asaxavda.44 amave wels, natos ormocdameaTe iubiles farglebSi, saqarTvelom, ukrainam, azerbaijanma da moldovam Seqmnes suamis aliansi, magram dabadebidanve am organizaciis wevrebis SesaZleblobebi mokrZalebulad gamoiyureboda grZelvadiani samxedro­ politikuri TanamSromlobis TvalsazrisiT. Tumca, Tavad suamis Seqmna sakmarisi aRmoCnda rusi politikosebis gasaRizianeblad, romlebmac es aliansi Tavidanme natos inspirirebul anti­rusul organizaciad aRiqves. saubedurod, prezident SevardnaZis mier ruseTis regionuli (TurqeTi) da saerTaSoriso (nato da aSS) Zalebis mier dabalansebis politikas periodulad eTavseboda gaugebari daTmobebi da morCili damokidebuleba kremlis mimarT. am orsaxovanma politikam SevardnaZis mimarT undobloba ruseTSi kidev ufro gaamZafra. igi isedac ndobis deficits ganicdida ruseTSi, sadac dasavleTTan damegobrebuli sabWoTa sagareo ministris saqmianoba mravali politikosis, da gansakuTrebiT samxedros mxridan Ralatad aRiqmeboda.45 daaxloebiT 1995 wlidan moyolebuli, prezident SevardnaZes Zalian cudi piradi urTierTobebi Camouyalibda Tavis rus kolegasTan, ramac gamoricxa realuri TanamSromloba qveynebs Soris.

44 World News: Georgia Plans to Seek NATO Membership FT Interview: Eduard Shevardnadze. ­ Financial Times, October 25, 1999, http://globalarchive.ft.com/ globalarchive/articles.html?id=991025016635&query=shevardnadze#docAnchor 991025016635. 45 es wlebi sabWoTa kavSirisadmi nostalgiiT gamoirCeoda. sazogadoebrivi azris gamokiTxvebSi stalini me­4­e adgilze iyo ,,yvela droisa daeris gamoCenil adamianebs" Soris. sabWoTa moRvaweebidan stalins mxolod meore adgilze myofma leninma gauswro. ix. Dubin. Counterweight, p. 26.

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90­iani wlebis dasasrulisaTvis, saqarTvelom SeZlo, mZime danakargebis fasad, Tvisi ,,erovnuli proeqtis" gadarCena. dasavluri demokratiis aSenebis survili im uzarmazar sazogadoebriv mxardaWeraSi gamoixata rac saqarTvelos evropis sabWoSi gawevrianebas mohyva. amave dros, SevardnaZis mTavrobis mimarT ukmayofileba kritikul niSnulamde gaizarda, risi ZiriTadi mizezic mosaxleobis elementaruli ekonomikuri moTxovnilebebis daukmayofilebloba da evropuli kursidan gadaxvevad aRqmuli korumpirebuli saxelmwifo institutebi iyo. saqarTvelos evropul miswrafebasa da realobas Soris arsebulma ufskrulma xeli Seuwyo fundamentalisturi organizaciebisa da moZraobebis Camoyalibebas, romlebic uaryofdnen evropul erovnul proeqts da mxars ,,unikalur qarTul" ganviTarebis gzas uWerdnen. am mosazrebis avtorebis azriT, qarTuli Rirebulebebi marTlmadideblobas da TviTmyofadobas emyareba da amdenad winaaRmdegobaSia evropul RirebulebebTan. rac sainteresoa, ruseTisagan gansxvavebiT, saqarTveloSi sabWoTa nostalgiam fexi ver moikida. qarTvelebi warsulisaken dabrunebas miuReblad Tvlidnen, radgan mxars uWerdnen damoukideblobas. amave dros ki Sida areulobisa da dramatuli cvlilebebis gadatanis Semdeg acnobierebdnen rom ukan dabruneba ubralod SeuZlebelic iyo.

pragmatizmis ZiebaSi

mas Semdeg, rac 2000 wels ruseTis prezidenti vladimir putini gaxda, ruseTma ganagrZo saerTaSoriso rolis gaZlierebisaken swrafva, magram Tavisi politikuri, ekonomikuri da samxedro SesaZleblobebis ukve ufro realistur Sefasebas daeyrdno. dasavleTis ,,dabalansebis" idea sabolood Secvala masTan Tanacxovrebisa da urTierTqmedebis misaRebi formis gamonaxvis survilma, Tumca dasavlur institutebSi integraciis gareSe. es cvlileba ar yofila meyseuli. ruseTis axali

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liderebi periodulad cdidnen saerTaSoriso moTminebis dones, gansakuTrebiT ruseTis mezobel regionebSi ganxorcielebuli politikis meSveobiT. misi uSiSroebis sabWos mdivnobisa da premier­ministrobis periodSi putinis uSualo xelmZRvanelobiT SemuSavebuli sagareo da usafrTxoebis doqtrinebi ruseTs jer kidev globalur moTamaSed aRiqvamda, romlis mizani ,,aSS­s gavlenisadmi winaaRmdegoba" iyo. 46 TumcaRa, prezidentad gaxdomis Semdeg putinma Searbila es xisti midgoma, rac gansakuTrebiT naTeli 2001 wlis Semdeg gaxda. aSS­sTan globalur Sejibrs ruseTma sxvadasxva dasavlel partniorTan msoflios sxvadasxva regionSi gansxvavebuli midgomis SemuSaveba amjobina. metoqeobis arealad ki ruseTis uSualo samezoblo iqca. elcinis droindeli strategiuli ukandaxevis Semdeg, bevri mimomxilvli Tvlida, rom ruseTis axalgazrda da energiuli lideri Tavisi qveynis gavlenas ekonomikur da navTobsadenebis proeqtebSi monawileobiT gaaZlierebda.47 maTi prognozi mxolod nawilobriv gamarTlda. putinma sabWouri da imperiuli simboloebis ekleqturi nazavi kidev ufro gaamZafra, magram sagareo metoqeebis Ziebas man Sida mtrebTan brZola amjobina. man zedmetad gaZlierebuli regionuli liderebi moToka da manamde gavleniani federaciis sabWo, parlamentis zeda palata, prezidentis morCil instrumentad aqcia. xelisuflebis konsolidirebis procesSi man uSiSroebis samsaxuris erTguli kadrebi sakvanZo politikur da administraciul Tanamdebobebze daawinaura. gavleniani finansuri da politikuri figurebi, anu ,,oligarqebi" iZulebuli iyvnen an putinis administraciisadmi morCileba aerCiaT, anda daetovebinaT qveyana. oligarqebTan dakavSirebuli kerZo mas-media daiTrguna da xSir SemTxvevaSi, kremlis kontrols

46

Ariel Cohen. The Russia Bush Faces. ­ The Heritage Foundation Online, March 12, 2001, http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/ed031201.cfm; Ariel Cohen. Russia and Eurasia. ­ Issues 2000 (Washington, D.C.: Heritage Foundation, 2000), p. 703. 47 Baev. Challenges and Options in the Caucasus and Central Asia, p. 5.

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qveS aRmoCnda. kremlis yofilma an mimdinare biurokratebma xelSi Caigdes udidesi energo kompaniebis ­ gazpromis, iteras (gazpromis Svilobili kompania romelic dsT­Si mis aqtivebs akontrolebs), da gaerTianebuli energosistemebis sakontolo paketi da marTva, riTac mtkice kontroli daaweses finansur nakadebze. sagareo mtris saxesac Sida daniSnuleba gaaCnda ­ islamur terorizmTan brZolis bairaRiT putinma CeCnur separatizmTan Seurigebel brZolas saerTaSoriso dasabuTeba mouZebna. CeCneTSi ganaxlebulma omma putins ruseTis SigniT udidesi mxardaWera moutana da gadafara omis winaaRmdeg gamomsvlelTa xmebi. niu­iorkSi 11 seqtembris teroristuli aqtebis Sedeg Semcirda CeCneTis omis saerTaSoriso kritikac. Sedegad, putinma saxelmwifo rusi xalxis TviTSegnebisaTvis bevrad ufro misaRebi gaxada. elcinis susti mTavrobis nacvlad, qveyanas Zlieri, zogjer sastiki magram ZiriTadad ,,gulisxmieri" xelmwife marTavs; uSiSroebisa da samxedroTa establiSmenti akontrolebs qveynis marTvas, qveyana ki ganagrZobs ,,CamorCenili" kavkasiis dasamorCileblad brZolas. sagareo moxmarebisaTvis Camoyalibda ruseTis politikis agresiuli elementebis gamarTlebis dasavleTisaTvis gasagebi frazeologia ­ CeCneTis omSi putinma ,,islamuri terorizmis" safrTxe gamoiyena Tavis politikis gasamarTleblad.48 saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi, kremlTan daaxloebuli rusi analitikosebi ,,arSemdgari saxelmwifos" terminologias daeyrdnen mis saqmeebSi Carevis asaxsnelad.49

48 Dmitri Trenin. The Forgotten War: Chechnya and Russia's Future. Policy Brief no. 28 (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, November 2003), http:/ /www.ceip.org/files/pdf/Policybrief28.pdf. 49 rusma mimomxilvelma aleqsei malaSenkom aRniSna, rom moskovma mxedvelobaSic ki ar unda miiRos ,,Sua aziisa da transkavkasiis demokratizaciis hipoTeturi SesaZleblobac ki." misi TqmiT, am regionis ,,demodernizaciis" SeCereba mxolod ruseTis kulturuli gavlenis gaZlierebiT SeiZleba, romelic istoriulad ,,[Sua aziisa da kavkasiis saxelmwifoebis] modernizacias uwyobda xels evropul kulturasTan maTi ziarebis gziT." ix. Aleksei Malashenko. Post-Soviet States of the South and the Interests of Moscow. ­ Pro et Contra, vol. 5, no. 3 (2000), p. 43.

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putinis ruseTi ar aris da arc eswrafvis gaxdes evropuli saxelmwifo an gaiziaros sajaro institutebis, samoqalaqo uflebebis, kanonis uzenaesobis evropuli gageba. putini cdilobs ruseTi Zlier da marTvad saxelmwifod warmoadginos, romelsac SeuZlia dasavluri wesebis gageba da maT mixedviT moqmedeba da romelic mzadaa gaiziaros dasavleTTan TanamSromlobiT motanili ekonomikuri mogeba. sabWoeTis simbolur globalur ambiciaze man uari Tqva ­ miatova sabWoeTis Soreuli avanpostebi ­ samxedro bazebi kubaze (lurdesi) da vietnamSi (kamrani); rusulma samSvidobo kontingentma 2003 wlisaTvis mTlianad datova kosovo da bosnia­hercegovina. urTierTobebi Sesustda libiis, siriis da kubis reJimebTan. amasTan, putini miesalma aSS­sTan samxedro TanamSromlobas avRaneTSi. stiven blanki am politikas ,,dasavleTTan konfrontaciis... mniSvnelovan dasavlur klubebSi (rogoricaa ,didi rviani') gawevrianebis survilTan paradoqsul SeTavsebas" uwodebs.50 sinamdvileSi, es paradoqsi mxolod iluziaa. ubralod, dasavleTTan konfrontaciam ruseTis sazRvrebTan axlos gadmoiwia, maT Soris samxreT kavkasiaSi. aqac ki, putinma Tavidan aicila dasavleTTan Sejaxeba da arCia TviT kavkasiis saxelmwifoebis Sida sisusteebis Tavis sasargeblod gamoyeneba. drodadro ruseTis oficialuri pirebi kidev axseneben ,,axlo sazRvargareTSi" imperiuli gavlenis ,,uflebas." Tumca, sul ufro xSirad ruseTi sajarod aRiarebs mxardaWeras zogadi principebisadmi, rogoricaa magaliTad sazRvrebis urRveoba, magram Semdeg ufro moqnili meTodebiT axdens gavlenas samxreT mezobel qveynebze am principebis sawinaaRmdegod. putinma SeinarCuna da iyenebs 90­ian wlebSi miRweul taqtikur upiratesobas, rac regionSi gayinuli konfliqtebis ­ saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi, afxazeTisa da samxreTo oseTis ­ erTpirovnul kontrolSi gamoixateba. am kontroliT iqmneba regionuli wesrigi, romelic zedapirze ki Seesabameba saerTaSoriso tendenciebsa da standartebs, magram sinamdvileSi

50

Blank. U.S. Military Engagement with Transcaucasia and Central Asia, p. 6.

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jaba devdariani

post­sabWoTa periodSi Seqmnili viTarebis ruseTis sasargeblod gamoynebas gulisxmobs. ruseTis Zveli derJavnikuli politika, romelic ,,axlo sazRvareTis" hegemonur kontrols gulisxmobs Serbilda da dasavlur terminologiaSi gaexva, riTac sabuTdeba ruseTis liderobis aucilebloba mezobeli ,,arSemdgari saxelmwifoebis" problemebis gadasaWrelad da stabilurobis uzrunvelsayofad. saqarTvelos sakiTxi ruseTis politikaSi araa gadamwyveti mniSvnlobisa, magram mas sakmaod xSirad ixilaven. nawilobriv imitom, rom naTelia paraleli saqarTvelos problemebsa da ruseTis CeCnur problemas Soris. erTi SexedviT, am msgavsebas SeeZlo or qveyanas Soris TanamSromloba ganeviTarebina. prezidenti SevardnaZe xSirad cdiloba rusi kolegebi TanamSromlobisaken waeqezebina, magram warumateblad. saqarTvelos sakiTxSi rus politikosbs ramodenime arCevani hqondaT: 1) daxmarebodnen saqarTvelos gaZlierebaSi; 2) eiZulebinaT saqarTvelos mTavroba damorCileboda ruseTis survilebs da 3) gaenawilebinaT regionSi stabilurobis SenarCunebis amocana saqarTvelos mTavrobasa da saerTaSoriso institutebTan. samwuxarod, saqarTvelos xelisuflebisa da saxelmwifos sisustem, iseve rogorc SevardnaZis politikis arasaimedoobam, ruseTi meore variantis upiratesobaSi daarwmuna. oficialurma ruseTma saqarTvelos mosTxova misi teritoriis gamoyeneba CeCneTze Setevebis gansaxorcieleblad da qveyanis im nawilSi rusuli specdaniSnulebis nawilebis ganTavseba iTxova, sadac CeCneTidan ltolvilebma ipoves TavSesafari.51 amave periodSi daiwyo ruseTis aviaciis mier saqarTvelos sahaero sivrcis darRvevebi, rac CeCnebTan sabrZolvelad da velebis dasanaRmad gamoiyeneboda.52

Âàëåðèé Ðîêîòîâ. Åùå îäèí ôàêòîð âëèÿíèÿ. ­ Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 16 ÿíâàðÿ 2001 ãîäà, http://ng.ru/cis/2001-01-16/5_factor.html. 52 Liz Fuller. Unknown Fighters Again Violate Georgian Air Space. ­ RFE/RL Newsline, August 23, 1999, http://www.rferl.org/newsline/1999/08/2-TCA/tca-230899.asp.

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2000 wlis noemberSi, ruseTis zewolam piks miaRwia. saqarTvelo dsT-s pirveli qveyana gaxda, romlis mimarTac ruseTma savizo reJimi SemoiRo. metic, ,,gamartivebuli" ­ Tavisi arsiT uvizo ­ reJimi dawesda saqarTvelos separatistul provinciebTan.53 amave wlidan moyolebuli ruseTma masiurad daiwyo afxazeTis da samxreT oseTis mosaxleobisaTvis ruseTis moqalaqeobis miniWeba, riTac kidev ufro ganamtkica maTTan kavSiri.54 2000 wlis zamTarSi ruseTidan gazis miwodeba ramodenimejer Sewyda, rac saerTaSoriso mediam energetikuli zewolis politikur instrumentad gamoyenebad aRiqva.55 am versias oficialuri saxe mieca 2001 wlis 19 ianvars, rodesac evrogaerTianebis sagareo saqmeTa komisarma ruseTi Riad gaakritika gazis miwodebis politikuri zewolisaTvis gamoyenebisaTvis.56 saqarTvelo­ruseTs Soris incidentebi am periodSi metad xSirad xdeboda. pavel baevi Tvlis, rom es taqtika SesaZloa ,,ar ukavSirdeboda ruseTis mxridan saqarTvelos daTrgunvas." misi azriT gazisa da eleqtroenergiis miwodebis Sewyveta SesaZloa gazpromsa da iteras Soris Sida dapirispirebis Sedegi SeiZleboda yofiliyo, ramac sabazro fasebsa da mogebaze gaamaxvila maTi yuradReba. 57 am incidentebSi ruseTis pasuxismgeblobis donis gansazRvra gansakuTrebiT rTulia im periodSi prezident SevardnaZis mier ganxorcielebuli

Àðìåí Õàíáàáÿí. Ââåäåíèå âèçîâîãî ðåæèìà íåèçáåæíî. ­ Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 10 íîÿáðÿ 2000 ãîäà, http://ng.ru/cis/2000-11-10/1_vises.html. 54 es teritoriuli mTlianobis principis darRvevas niSnavda. oficialurad, ruseTi aRniSnavda, rom afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis mcxovrebni moqalaqeobis gareSe darCnen da ruseTma maT moqalaqeoba mianiWa, rogorc sabWoTa kavSiris samarTalmemkvidrem. TumcaRa politikuri qveteqsti cxadia: magaliTad krasnodaris raionSi marTlac moqalaqeobis gareSe aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi mcxovreb mesxeTel Turqebs uari eTqvaT ruseTis moqalaqeobaze. 55 Michael Lelyveld. Western Press Accuses Moscow of Using Energy as a Cudgel. ­ RFE/ RL Newsline, January 1, 2001, http://www.rferl.org/nca/features/2001/01/05012001104106.asp. 56 Andrew Jack. Russia Warned over Attitude to Georgia. ­ Financial Times, January 19, 2001. 57 Pavel Baev. Russia Refocuses Its Policies in the Southern Caucasus (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Caspian Studies Program, 2001), p. 11.

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araTanmimdevruli politikis gamo. SevrdnaZis Zalauflebas maSin gaZlierebuli opozicia emuqreboda da isic ruseTis safrTxes iyenebda Tavisi mdgomareobis gasamyareblad. SevardnaZis momxreebi mas ruseTisagan erTaderT xsnad warmoadgendnen, ixsenebdnen ra 90­iani wlebis travmatul gamocdilebas. isini acxadebdnen, rom saqarTvelo ruseTis safrTxis winaSe unda gaerTiandes (SevardnaZis garSemo) da rom mxolod prezidents SeuZlia evropisa da aSS­s darwmuneba, raTa maT daicvan saqarTvelo ruseTisagan. sinamdvileSi, saqarTvelos mTavrobis SesaZleblobebi am periodSi sul ufro SeizRuda. 2000 wlis arCevnebi saerTaSoriso damkvirveblebma demokratiis TvalsazrisiT ukangadadgmul nabijad Seafases. xelisuflebisadmi sazogadoebis mxardaWera sarekordod dabal doneze iyo, saprotesto eleqtorati ki siRaribis gafarToebasTan erTad izrdeboda. TviT mmarTvel moqalaqeTa kavSirSi gaxSirda konfliqtebi. yvelafrisda miuxedavad, SevardnaZis taqtikam, rusuli safrTxis gamo Seenarunebina dasavluri mxardaWera, nawilobriv mainc gaamarTla. xedavdnen ra saqarTvelos sisustes, dasavleTis qveynebma gaafrTxiles ruseTi, Tavi Seekavebina avanturebisagan da amiT daicves sakuTari ekonomikuri interesebi regionSi. prezident jorj buSis administraciam Riad gaakritika ,,axlo sazRvargareTis" politika. 2001 wlis martSi, aSS saxelmwifo ministrma kolin pauelma daarwmuna saqarTvelos sagareo ministri, rom aSS ganagrZobs saqarTvelos mxardaWeras da sajarod dagmo ruseTis mxridan ganxorcielebuli zewola.58 amave dros, saqarTvelom natos Stab­binaSi jer pirveli politikuri konsultaciebi gamarTa, 2001 wlis ivnisSi ki programis ,,partnioroba mSvidobisaTvis" farglebSi natos samxedro manevrebs umaspinZla.59

58

Liz Fuller. U.S. Assures Georgia of Support. ­ RFE/RL Newsline, March 21, 2001, http:/ /www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/03/210301.asp. 59 Liz Fuller. Georgia Consults NATO, EU. ­ RFE/RL Newsline, April 2, 2001, http:// www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/04/020401.asp.

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pankisi: sasinji qva

pankisis xeobis CeCneTis omTan kavSiris sakiTxi 1999 wlidan moyolebuli mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvravda ruseTTan saqarTvelos urTierTobas. es konfliqti ori qveynis Zireuli erovnuli interesebis dapirispirebis kargi magaliTia. miuxedavad imisa, rom pankisis garSemo daZabuloba kinaRam saxifaTo da Ria eskalaciaSi gadaizarda, saerTaSoriso Zalebis Carevam pragmatuli Sedegi moitana. krizisi 1999 wels daiwyo da 2001 wlisaTvis piks miaRwia. manve ganapiroba saqarTvelos politikis taqtikuri cvlileba da SesaZloa safuZveli daudo prezident SevardnaZis administraciis damxobas. rusi samxdroebi CeCneTis sazRvris saqarTvelos monakveTis gakontrolebas 1999 wlis bolodan aqtiurad cdilobdnen. 1999 wlis agvistoSi, rodesac CeCneTis konfliqti daRestanSi gavrcelda, prezidentma elcinma eduard SevardnaZes saqarTveloSi mdebare rusuli bazebis gamoyeneba sTxova CeCneTis teritoriis dasabombad. SevardnaZem uari ganacxada. meore CeCnuri kampaniis pirvelive TveebSi, saqarTvelos sazRvari

ruqa 3. pankisis xeoba

Central Intelligence Agency map, courtesy of the Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2005, http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/gg.html.

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Svid aTasamde CeCenma ltolvilma gadmokveTa. isini ruseTis federaluri jarebis Setevas gaurbonen. saqarTvelom, misi saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis Sesabamisad (1951 wlis gaeros konvencia ltolvilTa statusis Sesaxeb da misi 1967 wlis protokoli) CeCen ltolvilebs masiurad, anu individualuri Semowmebis gareSe, mianiWa ltolvilis statusi. TiTqmis dauyovnebliv, ruseTma masiuri diplomatiuri da media kampania wamoiwyo, romlis mixedviT saqarTvelos Tavi aTasobiT CeCenma mebrZolma Seafara da ,,teroristTa" sawvrTneli banakebi Seqmna, romlebic axali ajanyebulebis mosamzadeblad da CeCneTSi gasagzavnad gamoiyeneboda. Tavdapirvelad, saqarTvelos mTavrobam mtkiced uaryo es braldebebi da yuradReba ltolvilebis dacvis saerTaSoriso valdebulebaze gaamaxvila. male saqarTveloSi gaxSirda danaSaulisa da adamianis gatacebebis SemTxvevebi, rac pankiss ukavSirdeboda. aman ruseTis gancxadebebs meti wona SesZina. sinamdvileSi, saqarTvelos xelsuflebis sisustem pankisi yvela juris damnaSavis, maT Soris yofili CeCeni ajanyebulebis, TavSesafrad aqcia. oficialuri Tbilisi xeobas jer kidev CeCeni ltolvilebis iq Casvlamde ver akontrolebda. pankisis rTuli eTnikuri Semadgenlobisa da istoriis gamo, aq tradiciuli saTemo samarTali yovelTvis ufro gavrcelebuli iyo vidre oficialuri samarTaldamcavi saqmianoba.60 samarTaldamcavi struqturebis sisustem ki es raioni damnaSaveebisaTvis oazisad aqcia. CeCeni ltolvilebis mosvlam ubralod saerTaSoriso mniSvneloba mianiWa pankiss da naTlad gamoavlina ukanonoba romelic aq batonobda. saqarTvelosTvis, pankisi mtkivneul politikur dilemad iqca. mTavrobaca da sazogadoebac miiCnevda, rom SeiaraRebuli eskalacia pankisSi sasikvdilo SeiZleboda gamxdariyo sepratizmiT, ekonomikuri krizisiTa

60

Jaba Devdariani and Blanka Hancilova. Georgia's Pankisi Gorge: Russian, U.S., and European Connections. CEPS Policy Brief no. 23 (Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, June 2002).

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da politikuri arastabilurobiT isedac dasustebuli qveynisaTvis. saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis sisuste maT efeqtur gamoyenebas gamorixavda. Sedegad, mTavroba mxolod simbolurad Seecada pankisis xeobis Caketvas. policiis erTaderTi blok­posti mis SesasvlelSi ara Tu danaSaulis Semakavebel barierad ar iqca, aramed Jurnalisturi gamoZiebebisa da Semdgomi oficialuri gamoZiebis Tanaxmad, TviTon gaxda narkovaWrobis centri. ruseTi sul ufro daJinebiT iyenebda politikur da samxedro zewolas, cdilobda ra saqarTvelo eiZulebina aqtiuri moqmedeba daewyo pankisSi. es zewola talRiseburad ganviTarda da piks 2000 wels, ltolvilebis Semosvlis periodSi, 2001 wlis dasawyisSi, 2001 wlis Semodgomaze da 2002 wlis zafxulSi miaRwia. logika am zewolis miRma martivi iyo: ruseTis Tavdacvis ministris sergei ivanovisa da genStabis ufrosis anatoli kvaSninis TqmiT, raki saqarTvelos ar SeeZlo pankisSi wesrigis damyareba, ,,terorizmis budis" ganadgureba ruseTis samxedro Zalebis CareviT unda momxdariyo.61 qarTuli sazogadoeba zizRiT moekida zewolis am samxedro Sinaarss. radio ,,Tavisuflebis" samxedro mimomxilvelis, koba liklikaZis monacemebiT 1999 wlis Semodgomidan 2002 wlis agvistomde ruseTma 25­jer mainc daarRvia saqarTvelos sahaero sivrce da, erTis garda, yvela SemTxvevaSi uaryo darRveva.62 meores mxriv, prezident SevardnaZis ucnauri gamosvlebi ­ xan CeCeni mebrZolebis pankisSi yofnis uaryofam, xan maTi lideris ,,normalur, ganaTlebul adamianad" daxasiaTebam, Semdeg ki teroristebis ganadgurebis moTxovnam ­ daarwmuna misdami ukve skeptikurad ganwyobili qarTuli sazogadoeba, rom xelisuflebas marTlac hqonda raRac dasamali pankisSi. yovelive amis miuxedavad, saqarTveloSi gabatonebul Sexedulebas, rom ruseTi pankiss saqarTveloze politikuri

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Ian Traynor. Russia Angry at U.S. War Plan for Georgia. ­ The Guardian, February 22, 2002, http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story0,3604,654020,00.html. 62 koba liklikaze, interviu ,,rusTavi­2" eTerSi, 2002 wlis 29 agvisto.

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zewolisaTvis usamarTlod iyenebda gaaCnia realuri safuZveli. logikas araa moklebuli oficialuri Tbilisis azric, rom saqarTveloSi samxedro Careva ruseTis CeCnur problemas ki ar gadawyvetda aramed piriqiT, gaauaresebda. naTelia, rom rusi politikosebi azviadebdnen pankisis problemis realur masStabs. TviT ramodenime rusi eqspertis azriTac, pankisi CeCneTSi mimdinare movlenebis Sedegia da ara mizezi. 63 yovelive amis miuxedavad, pankisis problemis eskalaciis ganmavlobaSi araferi miuTiTebda imaze, rom Tbilisis Zala Seswevda gadaewyvita pankisis problema. dauyovnebeli moqmedebis aucilebloba ki dResaviT naTeli niu­iorkze 11 seqtembers ganxorcielebuli Setevis Semdeg gaxda, ramac pankiss globaluri ganzomileba mianiWa. ruseTi aSS­ze teroristuli Setevis gamoyenebas Seecada CeCneTSi Tavisi moqmedebebis gasamarTleblad da, SesaZloa, saqarTveloSi intervenciisaTvis. 11 seqtemberze reagirebisas presidentma vladimir putinma ganacxada, rom misi saxelmwifo gaanadgurebs ,,teroristTa samalavebs" ruseTis saxelmwifos maxloblad. amiT, mimomxilvelebis SefasebiT, putini narTaulad sTxovda aSS­s pankisSi Carevis uflebas. saqarTvelos isedac arapopularul mTavrobas axla ukve saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobac mkacrad sTxovda aRmoefxvra qveyanaSi teroristuli safrTxis warmoSobis SesaZlebloba. 2001 wlis oqtomberSi, saqarTvelom oficialurad aRiara CeCeni mebrZolebis yofna pankisSi. mimomxilvelebis cnobiT, es mas Semdeg moxda rac aSS­Si vizitisas SevardnaZes mtkiced urCies terorizmis winaaRmdeg Seurigeblobis politikis gatareba.64 pankisis sakiTxSi mouxeSaobam TiTqmis nulovan donemde dasca SevardnaZis popularoba. 2001 wlis agvistoSi mis

63 radio ,,Tavisuflebis" mimomxilveli oleg kusovi, radio ,,exo moskvisaTvis" micemul interviuSi. 2002 wlis 26 agvisto, http:// www.echo.msk.ru/guests/5754/. 64 Zeyno Baran. Georgia Update, March 4, 2002, p. 3, http://www.csis.org/ruseura/georgia/ gaupdate_0203.htm.

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politikas, gamokiTxvebis mixedviT, mxars moqalaqeTa mxolod 6% uWerda. damoukidebel televiziaze zewoliT gamowveuli saxalxo saprotesto gamosvlebis fonze, SevardnaZem 2001 wlis oqtomberSi daiTxova mTavroba. moqalaqeTa kavSiri gardauvali daSlisaken mieqaneboda. am pirobebSi, saqarTvelos politikuri elita SiSobda rom SevardnaZe radikalurad Secvlida kurss da ruseTTan seriozul daTmobebze wavidoda, maT Soris pankisis sakiTxSic. amdenad, saqarTvelos mTavrobis sisuste ruseTTan urTierTobebSi gaurkvevlobisa da daZabulobis SenarCunebis erT­erTi mizezi iyo. ruseTis liderebis SexedulebiT, saqarTvelos Tavisuflad SeeZlo CeCeni mebrZolebis Sefareba Tundac maTi ruseTis winaaRmdeg brZolisadmi simpatiis mizeziT. meores mxriv ruseTs aSfoTebda, rom Tuki movlenebi cudad ganviTardeboda, saqarTvelo ubralod ver SeZlebda krizisis aRmofxvras policiisa da armiis Ronemixdilobis gamo. dasavlel liderebsac cudad eniSnaT SevardnaZis araprognozirebadi politikuri naxtomebi da Sinagan saqmeTa, Tavdacvis da uSiSroebis saministroebis winaaRmdegobrivi gancxadebebi CeCen mebrZolebTan dakavSirebiT. qarTul mediaSi gavrcelda mosazreba, rom saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministro idga CeCeni mebrZolebis pankisidan afxazeTSi gadasrolis avanturis ukan, rac 2000 wels ganxorcielda.65 aman kidev ufro gaamZafra rogorc ruseTis, ise dasavleTis SiSebi. yvela mxridan zewolis fonze, saqarTvelos politikur elitaSi mainc ruseTisadmi undoblobam iZala. maTi azriT, dasavleTi (da gansakuTrebiT aSS) saqarTveloSi CeCnuri konfliqtis gadmodinebis SesaCereblad erTaderTi imedi iyo. saqarTvelom ruseT­aSS­s Soris winaaRmdegobaze iTamaSa. jer kidev 1999 wlidan, ruseT­saqarTvelos sazRvris CeCneTis

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am gancxadebebs, rogorc Cans realuri safuZveli gaaCnda. 2004 wlis ivnisSi prezident saakaSvilis mTavrobam gankarguleba gasca gamoeZiebinaT CeCeni mebrZolebis afxazeTSi, 2000 wels gadasrolis ambavi. amasTan, saxelmwifo ministrma giorgi xaindravam daadastura, rom am movlenebSi garkveuli roli SevardnaZis administraciam iTamaSa.

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monakveTze euTos damkvirveblebi iyvnen ganTavsebuli. isini adasturebdnen, rom CeCneTsa da saqarTvelos Soris mebrZolTa aqtiuri mimosvla ar xdeboda, rac dasavleTis yurs malamod ecxeboda. saerTaSoriso konteqsti meyseulad, 2002 wlis TebervalSi Seicvala rodesac aSS elCis movaleobis Semsrulebelma, filip remlerma ganacxada rom pankisSi SesaZloa ,,al­ yaidasTan dakavSirebuli pirebi" imalebodnen. es gancxadeba meore dResve aSS gazeTebis pirvel gverdebze moxvda da amas TiTqmis maSinve mohyva aSS­s mxridan saqarTvelosadmi gaweuli samxedro daxmarebis dramatuli zrda. gamocxadda 64 milioni aSS dolaris Rirebulebis wvrTnisa da aRWurvis programa, romelic gaRatakebul qarTul armiaSi anti­teroristuli SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebas isaxavda miznad. am programis farglebSi saqarTveloSi 200­mde amerikeli samxedro instruqtori Camovida, xolo programis farglebSi savele wvrTnebi ukve 2002 wlis martSi daiwyo. iurgen Smitis mosazrebiT, programis dawyebis dros Tu davakvirdebiT, naTelia rom aSS­s gadawyvetileba ar dayrdnoba al­yaidasTan dakavSirebuli pirebis pankisSi yofnis Sesaxeb miRebul raime axal informacias. ufro savaraudoa, rom samxedro daxmarebis programis dauyovnebeli dawyeba aucilebeli iyo ruseTis mxridan gardauvali eskalaciis, SesaZloa SeiaraRebuli Carevis, Tavidan asacileblad.66 rogorc Cans, aSS­s pankisSi sisastikiT ganTqmuli rusi generlebis Carevis ki eSinoda, magram saqarTvelos samxedro sisustec arwmunebda rom pankisi kidev didi xani SeiZleboda darCeniliko kriminaluri, maT Soris teroristuli, elementebis TavSesafrad. aSS samxedroebis saqarTveloSi gamoCenas ruseTis politikuri wreebis aRSfoTeba mohyva. mravali rusi politikosi acxadebda, rom aSS­s mizani samxreT kavkasiidan ruseTis gaZeveba iyo. nezavisimaia gazetas samxedro danarTi ufro Sors

Juergen Schmid. Krieg gegen den Terrorismus im Südkaukasus? Die USA entsenden Militärberater nach Georgien. ­ SWP Brennpunkte, http://old.swpberlin.org/produkte/ bparchiv/zentralasien6druck.htm.

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wavida da Tavis mkiTxvelebs arwmunebda, rom aSS CeCneTSi SeWras gegmavda.67 prezident putinis oficialuri pasuxi bevrad ufro gamozomili aRmoCnda. ucnobia, gauziara Tu ara vaSingtonma putins Tavisi gegmebi saqarTvelosaTvis daxmarebis programis dawyebamde. amisda miuxedavad, putinis gancxadebiT, Tuki aSS Careva ruseTis usafrTxoebas ganamtkicebs, moskovs araferi aqvs misi sawinaaRmdego. rogorc aRmoCnda, pankisis sakiTxi amiT ar amoiwura. aSS samxedro daxmareba uSualod pankisSi viTarebaze meyseul gavlenas ar axdenda. ruseTis saqarTveloze zewola ki ufro agresiuli gaxda. yvelaferi politikuri demarSebiT daiwyo. 2002 wlis 8 agvistos, ruseTis delegacia ar gamocxadda saqarTvelosTan CarCo­xelSekrulebis mosamzadebeli komisiis sxdomaze. oficialuri versiiT, ruseTi ,,mzad ar iyo" xelSekrulebis gansaxilvelad. saqarTvelos oficialuri pirebi acxadebdnen, rom SeTanxmebis blokirebis moxsnis safasurad ruseTi pankisSi ,,erToblivi policiuri aqciis" Catarebas moiTxovda. CarCo­xelSekruleba SevardnaZis sagareo politikis erT­erTi ZiriTadi mizani iyo, rac im periodSi saqarTvelodan ruseTis jarebis gayvanasa da ruseTSi momuSave saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis dacvas ukavSirdeboda. amave dros, ruseTis samxedo zewola sul ufro saxifaTo xdeboda. 2002 wlis aprilSi, ruseTisa da saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebi Setakebis zRvarze iyvnen afxazeTis kodoris xeobaSi. qarTuli formirebebis mier kontrolirebad teritoriaze iq moulodnelad rusi medesanteebi gadmosxdnen.68 2002 wlis 29 ivlisidan amave wlis agvistos ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos sahaero sivrce ruseTis Zalebma xuTjer daarRvies CeCneTisa da afxazeTis monakveTebze. sam SemTxvevaSi rusulma aviaciam cecxli gaxsna. 22 agvistos, samxreT oseTis regionSi ruseTis samSvidobo Zalebis meTaurma, general­

Âàäèì Ñîëîâüåâ. Äæè Àé èäóò íà Êàâêàç. ­ Íåçàâèñèìîå âîåííîå îáîçðåíèå, 30 àâãóñòà 2002 ãîäà. 68 Civil Georgia, August 8, 2002, http://www.civil.ge.

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maiorma vasili prizemlinma erTpirovnulad daarRvia pasuxismgeblobis zonis sazRvrebi da goris raionSi sangrebis gaTxra daiwyo.69 erTi dRis Semdeg, rusulma samxedro TviTmfrinavebma CeCneTis mosazRvre saqarTvelos teritoria dabombes, rasac erTi samoqalaqo piris daRupva da Svidamde adamianis daWra mohyva.70 saqarTvelosa da euTos damkvirveblebis protestis miuxedavad, ruseTma uaryo Tavisi monawileoba. Tavdacvis ministrma ganacxada rom dabombva saqarTvelos Zalebma moaxdines da incidents ,,swori mimarTulebiT gadadgmuli nabiji" uwoda CeCeni mebrZolebis Seviwroebis saqmeSi.71 viTareba TiTqos samxedro Sejaxebis zRvramde mivida. am kritikul momentSi moxerxda viTarebis krizisidan gamoyvana. pankisSi ukanonobiT SeSfoTebuli aSS­sa da ruseTis erTdrouli zewolis winaSe saqarTvelos mTavroba iZulebuli gaxda 2002 wlis 25 agvistos pankisSi anti­kriminaluri operacia daewyo. Sinagan saqmeTa da uSiSroebis saministros 1000­mde mosamsaxure uSualod xeobaSi Sevida. wvrTnisa da aRWurvis programa swored am dros gadavida mesame, uSualod savele wvrTnis etapze da amerikul formebSi gamowyobili 1500­mde samxedro saCvenebeli manevrebiT zurgs umagrebda pankisis operacias. brZolisunariani SeiaraRebuli Zalebis udidesi nawilis erT operaciaze gadasrola sarisko gadawyvetileba iyo. Tumca, anti­ kriminaluri operaciis SedarebiT warmatebas SeeZlo saqarTvelos politikuri mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba ­ aSS­sTan daaxloebis gagrZeleba da ruseTis SiSebis nawilobrivi gaqarveba. 2002 wlis agvisto­seqtembris operacia aTze meti kriminalis dakavebiT dasrulda. rac ufro mniSvnelovania, aRdga policiis kontroli pankisis xeobis yvela sofelsa da dasaxlebul punqtSi, gaixsna Sinagani jarebis aTamde sakontrolo­gamSvebi punqti. moskovis agresiulobam CeCeni ltolvilebi da adgilobrivi qistebi saqarTvelos Zalebis

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Civil Georgia, April 12, 2002, http://www.civil.ge. Civil Georgia, August 22, 2002, http://www.civil.ge. 71 Civil Georgia, August 23, 2002, http://www.civil.ge.

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operaciisadmi loialurad ganawyo, radgan maTTvis saZulveli ruseTis jarebis mier operaciebis pankisSi Catareba absoluturad miuRebeli da saSiSi iqneboda. uSiSroebis imdroindelma ministrma, valeri xaburZaniam mogvianebiT, 2003 wlis ianvarSi, ganacxada, rom uSiSroebis qarTvelma agentebma ,,daarwmunes" CeCeni savele meTaurebi mSvidobianad daetovebinaT xeoba.72 logikuri Cans, rom CeCen mebrZolebs maTi ojaxebisa da naTesavebis usafrTxoeba saqarTveloSi da Semdgomi emigraciis perspeqtiva xeobis datovebad uRirdaT. pankisis warmatebuli operaciis Sedegad, saqarTvelos mosaxleobam aRidgina sakuTri SeiaraRebuli Zalebis rwmena, nawilobriv aSS­s daxmarebiT. SeiaraRebuli CeCnebis didma nawilma datova xeoba. pro­dasavluri ganwyoba saqarTveloSi kidev ufro gaZlierda da warsulSi ruseTisadmi simpaTiiT ganwyobili politikurma partiebmac ki ruseTisadmi ufro mkacr politikas dauWires mxari. parlamentma damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobidan gasvla da saqarTvelodan ruseTis jarebis gayvana moiTxova. pro­rusuli poziciis dakaveba nebismieri partiisaTvis politikur TviTmkvlelobas udrida. pankisze kontrolis faqtiurad sisxlisRvrisa da adgilobrivi mosaxleobis protestis gareSe aRdgena saqarTvelos mTavrobis udides warmatebad iqca. ruseTi aman ar daakmayofila da yvela im CeCenis dakaveba moiTxova, vinc ruseTisTvis potenciur safrTxes warmoadgenda.73 2002 wlis seqtemberSi putini Seecada miebaZa aSS­s politikisTvis. niu­iorkze Setevebis wlisTavze man generalur Stabs mosTxova pankisze prevenciuli sahaero da saxmeleTo dartymebis gegmis momzadeba ,,teroristebis" gasanadgureblad. putima mosTxova gaeros ecno ruseTis Tavdacvis ufleba teroristuli safrTValeri Khaburdzania. Georgia's Key Security Concerns: Pankisi and Abkhazia. Discussion at the Nixon Center, Washington DC, January 30, 2003, http://www.civil.ge/eng/ article.php?id=3163. 73 Jaba Devdariani. Georgian Security Operation Proceeds in Pankisi Gorge. ­ Eurasia Insight, September 3, 2002, http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/ eav090302a.shtml.

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xis winaSe, gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos 1378 rezoluciisa da gaeros qartiis 51 muxlis Sesabamisad. am muqaras saqarTveloSic da mis farglebs gareSec yuradRebiT moekidnen, magram rusi mimomxilvelebi daafiqra putinis moqmedebam. zogierTma es ubralod viTarebis araswori SefasebiT axsna. maTi TqmiT putini moeloda, rom prezidenti buSi niu­iorkze Setevis wlisTavze gaeros terorizmis winaaRmdeg prevenciuli moqmedebis uflebis aRiarebis moTxovniT mimarTavda. samxedro mimomxilvelma pavel felgenhauerma aRniSna, rom ruseTi ubralod blefs mimarTavda. sxvebi Tvlidnen, rom ruseTi ubralod ukidures gaRizianebas gamoxatavda saqarTvelos mimarT kaspiis navTobsadenis mSeneblobis Sesaferxeblad, anda CeCneTSi warumateblobisagan yuradRebis gadasatanad. ruseTis agresiuli gancxadeba kavkasiis regionisadmi saerTaSoriso yuradRebisa da saqarTveloze samxedro dartymis mimarT dasavleTis SesaZlo reaqciis Semowmebad iqca. aSS administracia pasuxad anti­teroristul koaliciaSi saqarTvelos monawileobas miesalma. aSS saxelmwifo departamentma, evrokavSirma da euTom SeSfoTeba gamoTqves CeCneTis konfliqtis saqarTveloze gavrcelebis SesaZleblobis gamo. 2001 wels ruseTTan dapirispirebis Semdeg, saqarTvelo darwmunda, rom pankisis problemis mogvareba mas sakuTari ZalebiT SeuZlia. amave dros, aSS­m Tanmimdevrulad daicva saqarTvelos ufleba TviTon gadaewyvita es konkretuli problema da pirdapiri daxmarebac gauwia oficialur Tbiliss samxedro SesaZleblobebis gasaumjobeseblad.74 isic cxadi gaxda, rom ruseTs ar moecemoda ufleba aSS­s prevenciuli dartymebis doqtrinis kopireba ganexorcielebina kavkasiaSi. aSS daxmarebiTa da pankisis problemis mogvarebiT gaTamamebuli saqarTvelo ruseTTan am konkretul konfliqtSi gamarjvebuli gamovida. Tumca aSS­s ,,ufros Zmad" gamoyenebam ruseTis winaaRmdeg kidev ufro ganamtkica undoblobis

74

Statement of the White House Press Secretary, August 24, 2002.

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stereotipebi. ruseTi darwmunda rom saqarTvelo susti, araprognozirebadi mezobelia da amasTan ,,moRalatec" romelic mzadaa regioni ruseTis mtrebs (gind CeCnebsa da gindac amerikelebs) gauxsnas. saqarTvelosaTvis ruseTi kidev erTxel warmoCinda rogorc agresiuli Zala hegemonisturi ambiciebiT. bevri qarTveli SeaSfoTa ruseTis radio ,,exo moskvis" gamokiTxvam 2002 wlis 26 agvistos, romlis mixedviTac gamokiTxulTa 58%­ma ganacxada rom ruseTma bodiSi ar unda moixados saqarTvelos winaSe, maSinac ki Tu man marTlac dabomba saqarTvelos teritoria. gansakuTrebiT SemaSfoTebeli isaa, rom ,,exo moskvis" auditoriad ZiriTadad liberaluri, prodemokratiuli moskovelebi iTvlebian. pankisis krizisma saqarTvelos mier ruseTis aSS­Ti dabalansebis politikis sisusteebic naTeli gaxada. cxadi gaxda, rom saqarTvelos sisustis pirobebSi, aSS­s daxmarebas mxolod droebiT SeuZlia ruseTis zewolis Sesusteba. am politikiT ver moxerxdeba or qveyanas Soris urTierTobebis grZelvadiani da yovlismomcveli mowesrigeba. pankisis SemTxevaSi, saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobisa da aSS monawileobam Seakava ruseTi ukiduresad agresiuli samxedro avanturisagan pankisSi. Tumca amave dros, ruseTma ganavrco afxazeTisa da samxreTo oseTis mosaxleobisaTvis moqalaqeobis miniWeba, 2001 wlis zamTarSi ki aRadgina sarkinigzo kavSiri afxazeTTan, riTac axali da rTuli problemebi Seuqmna saqarTvelos xelisuflebas, romelTa gadawyvetac mxolod ruseTTan TanamSromlobiT SeiZleba. 2003 wlis noemberSi SevardnaZis xelisufleba mxolod gayalbebuli arCevnebis gamo ar damxobila. opoziciam upasuxa sazogadoebriv moTxovnas enaxa ufro Zlieri da sakuTar TavSi darwmunebuli saqarTvelo. metic, ,,erovnuli proeqtis" erTguli qarTvelebi Tvlidnen rom usisxlo, pro­demokratiuli ,,vardebis revolucia" politikuri krizisis evropulad, civilizebuli gziT gadaWris magaliTi iyo.75 moskovi

75 es SesaZloa sadao gancxadebaa, magram savsebiT gasagebia TbilisSi 1991 wlis zamTarSi momxdari sisxliani ajanyebis fonze.

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TiTqos daeTanxma azrs rom ufro Zlieri saqarTvelo maTsave interesebSi Sedioda. bevris azriT sagareo ministr igor ivanovis roli, romelmac xeli Seuwyo SevardnaZis gadadgomas, swored amas mianiSnebda.76 mixeil saakaSvilma 2004 wlis ianvarSi udidesi upiratesobiT gaimarjva saprezidento arCevnebSi da dauyovnebliv gamoTqva ruseTTan urTierTobis galRobis survili. Tavis sainauguracio sityvaSi saakaSvilma ganacxada, rom is ,,megobrobis xels uwvdis ruseTs" da rom misi politika ,,arc pro­ rusulia da arc pro­amerikuli, aramed pro­qarTulia." prezidentma saakaSvilma, amave dros, xazi gausva rom misi mTavroba mtkiced moiTxovs ori rusuli samxedro bazis daxurvas baTumsa da axalqalaqSi. amasTan man mianiSna, rom mzadaa bazebis sakiTxi calke ganixilos da ara yvela sxva winaaRmdegobriv problemasTan kavSirSi. ,,Cven vaRiarebT ruseTis interesebs am regionSi," ganacxada prezidentma saakaSvilma ,,magram am interesebis ganxorcieleba bazebze ukeTesi meTodebiT SeiZleba."77 prezidentma agreTve aRniSna rom kari Riaa rusuli investiciebisavis energetikis seqtorsa da saporto infrastruqturaSi, da anti­teroristuli centris gaxsna SesTavaza ruseTs bazebis nacvlad. pirvel etapze ruseTma saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mimarT molodinis politika airCia. moskovi skeptikuradaa ganwyobili saakaSvilis mimarT da ar swams, rom axalgazrda prezidents SeuZlia saqarTvelos problemebis gadawyveta da mmarTvelobis gajansaReba. SevardnaZis administracia susti da arasaimedi partniori iyo, romelsac Tavisive sisuste aSinebda. roca prezidenti saakaSvili aWaris mmarTvels, aslan abaSiZes daupirispirda 2004 wlis aprilSi, ruseTma Tavdapirvelad (Tumca sakmaod ugulod) mxari dauWira abaSiZes. Tumca, rogorc ki saakaSvilis gamarjveba gardauvali gaxda, ruseTma genStabis

76 Tumca, ivanovi uaryofs, rom man icoda SevardnaZis survilze gadamdgariyo. 77 mixeil saakaSvilis sainauguracio sityva, 2004 wlis 25 ianvari.

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maRali rangis generali gagzavna baTumSi, raTa iq dislocirebuli, abaSiZisadmi simpaTiiT ganwyobili rusi samxedroebi konfliqtSi ar Careuliyvnen. bolos, isev igor ivanovi daexmara abaSiZes moskovSi gaqcevaSi, mas Semdeg rac aWaris liderma saakaSvilisagan usafrTxoebis garantiebi miiRo. am epizodidan cxadia, rom rodesac saqarTvelom iniciativa gamoiCina, ruseTma mas winaaRmdegoba ar gauwia. aqedan SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom Tuki saqarTvelo SeinarCunebs reformebis temps da mis mTavrobas kvlavac eqneba saxalxo mxardaWera, ruseTi ufro gamozomilad moeqceva saqarTvelos. or qveyanas Soris undoblobis gadasalaxad ufro metia saWiro ­ ruseTma politika Zireulad unda Secvalos, saqarTvelom ki sakuTari Zalebis rwmena gaimyaros. analitikosebi ver Tanxmdebian surs da SeuZlia Tu ara prezident putins saqarTvelosadmi politikis erTpirovnulad Secvla. 2003 wlis dekembris saparlamento arCevnebSi putinis momxreebma qveda palataze, dumaze, sruli kontroli moipoves, riTac TiTqos xeli gauxsnes putins sagareo politikis TvalsazrisiT. magram nacionalisturad ganwyobili politikosebi ­ vladimer Jirinovskis liberal­demokratebi, komunistebi, partia ,,rodina" ­ kvlvac isteriul tons aZleven ruseTis politikas da realurad gansazRvraven sazogadoebriv azrs ruseTSi. ase, rom putinis mxridan politikis cvlileba SesaZloa arc ise advili amocana iyos, radgan amiT politikuri speqtrisa da sazogadoebis didi nawili gairiyeba.78 mimomxilvelebis azri gansxvavebulia putinis administraciis politikaze saqarTvelos axali xelisuflebis mimar. ariel koeni, eyrdnoba ra maRali rangis amerikel diplomats moskovSi, ambobs rom ,,imperiuli nostalgiis maragi" ruseTSi ,,ufro Zalismier midgomas" gamoiwvevs" Sua aziisa da kavkasiis

78

Ariel Cohen. U.S. Officials Warily Monitor Russian Policy Debate on Caucasus. ­ Eurasia Insight, January 9, 2004, http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/ eav010904b_pr.shtml.

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mimarT. 79 karnegis moskovis centris mkvlevari aleqsei malaSenko Tvlis, rom kremlis ,,poziciis ori mesamedi TanamSromlobis survilzea damyarebuli" xolo ,,erTi mesamedi...imperiul damokidebulebas eyrdnoba."80 sagareo da Tavdacvis politikis sabWos xelmZRvaneli sergei karaganovi amtkicebs, rom ,,ruseTma saqarTvelos funTuSa unda SesTavazos. Tuki saWiro gaxdeba, maTraxisaken mibruneba Zneli araa."81 sakiTxavi isaa SeuZlia Tu ara ruseTs im ,,funTuSis" moZieba, romelsac saqarTvelo iTxovs ­ kerZod afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi saqarTvelos suverenitetis aRdgena. warsuli liderebis gamocdileba karnaxobs rus politikosebs, rom maTraxi funTuSas sjobia. TanamSromlobaze damyarebuli sagareo urTierTobebis kulturis Seswavlas dro sWirdeba. amasTan, ufro pragmatul qarTul­rusul TanamSromlobas mniSvnelovani da rTulad gadasaWreli problemebi uSlis xels ­ upirveles yovlisa rusi mSvidobismyofelebis saqmianoba afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi da rusuli bazebis gayvana saqarTvelodan. pankisis, SevardnaZisa da abaSiZis gandevnis gamocdilebam aswavla saqarTvelos axal xelisuflebas, rom ruseTs Tavisive muqaris Sesasruleblad xSirad realuri resursebi ar yofnis. am gakveTils SeiZleba Secdmoebi mohyves, rac naTlad gamoCnda 2004 wlis seqtemberSi, rodesac saakaSvilis administracia Seecada erTi xelis dartymiT gadaeWra samxreT oseTis problema separatistul mTavrobaze humanitaruli, politikuri da samxedro zewolis meSveobiT. Sedegad, ruseTidan samxreT oseTisaken moxaliseebisa da samxedro daxmarebis nakadi wamovida, rasac SeiaraRebuli Setkebebi da msxverpli mohyva. saqarTvelos xelisuflebam ukan daixia da Tavidan

Cohen. U.S. Officials Warily Monitor Russian Policy Debate on Caucasus. Igor Torbakov. Russian Policy Makers Struggle to Respond to Political Changes in Georgia. ­ Eurasia Insight, January 8, 2004, http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/ articles/eav010804_pr.shtml. 81 Torbakov. Russian Policy Makers Struggle to Respond to Political Changes in Georgia.

80

79

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airida srulmasStabiani konfliqti, gadaerTo ra politikuri gamosavlis Ziebaze. SevardnaZisagan gansxavebiT, prezidenti saakaSvili cdilobs pirveli svla TviTon gaakeTos da Semdgomi arCevani ruseTs miandos. putinis administraciis mxardaWera TviT ruseTSi Semcirda. dasavleTic skeptikurad uyurebs iukosis renacionalizacias da avtoritarizmisaken gadadgmul nabijebs. saakaSvili imedovnebs, rom putini Secdomebs dauSvebs da zedmetad agresul upasuxebs saqarTvelos. Tuki misi administracia dasavluri Rirebulebebisa da politikuri stilis mimdevrad darCeba, oficialuri Tbilisi Tvlis rom SeuZlia dasavluri mxardaWeris gaZliereba bazebis, afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis sakiTxebSi.

ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi saqarTveloSi

saqarTvelos axali xelisufleba cdilobs gamoZebnos iseTi sakiTxebi, romlebzec SesaZlebelia ruseTTan pragmatuli molaparakeba. is aseve cdilobs gaarkvios, romel molaparakebebze wamova ruseTi nebayoflobiT da ra mimarTulebiT iqneba aucilebeli saerTaSoriso politikuri zewola. amgvari axali midgoma yvelaze ufro naTlad gamoCnda ruseTis samxedro bazebze molaparakebebSi. rusi samxedroebi saqarTveloSi ori ZiriTadi formiT arian ganlagebuli: samxedro bazebi, romlebic sabWoTa kavSiris droidan SemorCa da samSvidobo Zalebi, romlebic afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis konfliqtebis dasrulebis Semdeg ganlagda dapirispirebuli mxareebis dasaSoriSoreblad. saqarTvelo daJinebiT moiTxovda ruseTis bazebis gayvanas misi teritoriidan, xolo samSvidobo ZalebTan dakavSirebiT misi pozicia bevrad ufro araTanmimdevruli iyo. Tavdapirvelad, rodesac saakaSvili xelisuflebaSi movida, igi Seecada gaenelebina bazebis sakiTxis simZafre. misi

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gancxadebiT, bazebs praqtikulze ufro simboluri datvirTva gaCndaT. TumcaRa, 2004 wlis bolosa da 2005 wlis ganmavlobaSi bazebis sakiTxma saqarTvelo­ruseTis urTierTobebSi kvlav pirvel planze gadmoiwia imis niSnad, rom Tbilisis pirveli mcdelobebi nebayoflobiT TanamSromlobaze daeyoliebina ruseTi uSedegod dasrulda. saqarTvelos teritoriidan ruseTis samxedro bazebis gayvanam gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba euTos 1999 wlis stambolis samitis Semdeg SeiZina. am Sexvedraze elcinis mTavroba daTanxmda ori ­ vazianisa da gudauTis ­ bazis gayvanas 2001 wlis ivlisamde da aiRo valdebuleba ewarmoebina molaparakebebi danarCeni ori bazis ­ baTumsa da axalqalaqSi ­ gayvanis Sesaxeb. vazianis baza, Tbilisis maxloblad, 2001 wlis 1 ivlisisaTvis daixura. 2001 wlis 9 noembers ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa saministrom gudauTis bazis daxurvis Sesaxeb ganacxada. gudauTis baza, romelic afxazeTSia ganlagebuli, sxvadasxva wyaros mier ixsenieboda afxazeTisa da ruseTis Zalebis saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg samoqmedo ZiriTad centrad 1992­94 wlebis konfliqtis ganmavlobaSi. bazis daxurvaze dasakvirveblad ar dauSves saerTaSoriso eqspertebi da, qarTuli mxaris mtkicebiT, bazis 1100­mde mosamsaxuridan 2001 wels is mxolod 300­mde samxedrom datova.82 xolo danarCenebi, iseve rogorc bazis fizikuri infrastruqtura, iq ganlagebuli rusi samSvidoboebis gankargulebaSi gadavida.83 anu, bazas ubralod saxeli gadaerqva. 2002 wlis ivnisSi euTos samxedro eqspertebi dauSves gudauTis bazaze da maT daadastures ruseTis SeiaraRebisa da personalis gasvla.84 Tumca saqarTvelo bazis mudmiv saerTaSoriso kontrols moiTxovs.

saqarTvelos sagareo saministros gancxadeba, 2001 wlis 21 noemberi, http://www.bits.de/NRANEU/docs/ GeorgiaMFA211101.htm. 83 Russian­Georgian Contradictions Worsen. ­ Russian Military Analysis, issue 68 (June 2001), http://www.wps.ru/en/products/pp/military/2001/06/15.html. 84 Liz Fuller. OSCE Says Russian Withdrawal from Georgian Base Complete. ­ RFE/RL News Digest, June 17, 2002, http://www.eurasianet.org/resource/georgia/hypermail/200206/ 0036.shtml.

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2004 wlis ianvrisaTvis baTumisa da axalqalaqis bazebis gayvanaze mimdinare molaparakebebma win ver waiwia, Sexvedrebis rva raundis miuxedavad. ruseTi gayvanisaTvis 11 welsa da, sagareo ministr Tedo jafariZis TqmiT, 500 milion dolars moiTxovda.85 bazebi oficialuri Tbilisis SeSfoTebas ara mxolo simboluri, aramed savsebiT praqtikuli mizezebiTac iwvevda. simbolurad, bazebi sabWoTa sivrceSi saqarTvelos yofnaze miuTiTebda, praqtikulad ki isini or potenciulad mtkivneul geografiul regionSi ­ aWaris avtonomiur respublikasa da somxuri mosaxleobis kompaqturi dasaxlebis raionSia ganlagebuli. axalqalaqis bazaze adgilobrivi mosaxleobis didi nawilia dasaqmebuli da isini ewinaaRmdegebian bazis gayvanas ara mxolod samuSaos dakargvis SiSiT, aramed mezobeli TurqeTisadmi somexi mosaxleobis tradiciuli undoblobis gamo. qarTvelebisa da saqarTvelos xelisuflebisagan gansxvavebiT, axalqalaqis mosaxleoba SiSiT uyurebs TurqeTisa da Tundac natos gavlenis gaZlierebas regionSi. baTumSi ganlagebuli baza ki adgilobriv liders aslan abaSiZes avtoritaruli reJimis ganmtkicebaSi daexmara. saqarTvelos axali liderebi, maTi winamorbedebis msgavsad, Tvlidnen, rom sanam ruseTi inarCunebs bazebs, mas xelT upyria potenciurad rTul regionebSi areulobis xelSewyobis SesaZlebloba. 2004 wlis ianvarSi Jurnal ,,taimisaTvis" micemul interviuSi prezidentma saakaSvilma ganacxada rom bazebi ,,imperiuli ambiciis ganmtkicebas ufro emsaxureba vidre ruseTis usafrTxoebas. man aseve Tqva, rom ,,ruseTs ainteresebs samxreTi sazRvris dacva, maT Soris teroristebisagan. aq Cveni interesebi erTmaneTs emTxveva." 86 ruseTis interesebis sapasuxod, saqarTvelos sagareo ministrma salome zurabi85

Giorgi Sepashvili. U.S. Backs Georgia in Hard Talks Concerning Russian Military Bases. ­ Civil Georgia, January 15, 2004, http://www.civil.ge/eng/print.php?id=6023. Äæàïàðèäçå çàÿâèë îá ýòîì â ÿíâàðå 2004 ãîäà. 86 Paul Quinn-Judge. 10 Questions for Mikheil Saakashvili. ­ Time, January 19, 2004, p. 19.

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Svilma moskovs erToblivi anti­teroristuli centris Seqmna SesTavaza bazebis gayvanis sanacvlod.87 bazebze molaparakeba 2004 wlis ivnisSi ganaxlda, magram mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi ar momxdaa. ruseTis saxedro uwyeba adasturebda, rom principSi bazebis gayvana gadawyvetili iyo, magram xazs usvamda, rom jer aucilebelia bazebis personalisa da teqnikis misaRebad ruseTis teritoriaze infrastruqturis momzadeba. Tavdacvis ministrma sergei ivanovma ganacxada, rom is ,,ar apirebs samxedroebisa da teqnikis velze dayras," rogorc es aRmosavleT germaniidan gamoyvanil jarebs mouvida.88 rusi analitikosis pavel felgengaueris azriT es pozicias usafuZvlo iyo, radgan baTumisa da axalqalaqis bazebis mosamsaxureTa udidesi nawili saqarTvelos mcxovrebi iyo, ase rom maTi gayvana mxolod oficerTa ramodenime ojaxisa da teqnikis gatanas utoldeba, risi gakeTebac ramodenime TveSia SesaZlebeli.89 TbilisSi Tvlidnen, rom ruseTi bazebis sakiTxs post­ sabWoTa sivrceze Tavisi samarTlebrivi gavlenis gasaZliereblad iyenebda. ruseTi SesaZloa ar apirebs sabWoTa kavSiris aRorZinebas, magram mas surs sakuTari ekonomikuri da politikuri intersebisaTvis xelSemwyobi garemos Seqmna. am TamaSSi, putini mzadaa gverdi auaros elcinis dros aRebuli valdebulebebis nawils.90 euTos 2003 wlis dekembris samitze, maastrixtSi, ruseTma ganacxada rom mas ar auRia saqarTvelosa da moldovidan jarebis gayvanis iuridiuli valdebuloba. aSS­sa da evropis zewolis sapasuxod, ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa saministrom ganacxada, rom 1999 wlis dokumenti ambobs, rom ruseTi mxolod ,,apirebs" gaiyvanos bazebi Tuki Sesruldeba daukonkretebeli ,,aucilebeli pirobebi." euTos portos

87 Russia, Georgia Discussed Joint Anti-Terrorism Center. ­ Civil Georgia, June 24, 2004, http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=7195. 88 Sepashvili. U.S. Backs Georgia in Hard Talks Concerning Russian Military Bases. 89 Pavel Felgenhauer. Motives in Georgia are Base. ­ The Moscow Times, January 13, 2004. 90 Trenin. Identity and Integration: Russia and the West in the 21st Century, p. 17

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Sexvedraze, 2002 wlis bolos, aSS cdilobda ruseTis daxmareba mieRo erayis sakiTxSi da amitomac winaaRmdegoba ar gauwa amgvar interpretacias, rodesac is pirvelad gaisma. evrokavSiri ar iyo dainteresebuli sakiTxiT da arc mas daukavebia aqtiuri pozicia ruseTis mimarT.91 natos 2004 wlis ivnisis samitis win, ruseTis dumam (parlamentis qveda palatam) moaxdina evropaSi Cveulebrivi SeiaraRebis xelSekrulebis ratifikacia, xolo sagareo ministrma sergei ivanovma kidev erTxel ganacxada, rom am xelSekrulebasa da saqarTvelosa da moldovidan jarebis gayvanas Soris kavSiri ar arsebobs.92 Tavis mxiv, natos generalurma mdivanma iap de huup sxeferma aRniSna, rom es ori sakiTxi erTmaneTs ukavSirdeba. natos axali wevrebi, maT Soris baltiis qveynebi, mxolod mas Semdeg apireben Cveulebrivi SeiaraRebis xelSekrulebasTan SeerTebas, Tu ruseTi 1999 wlis valdebulebebs Seasrulebs.93 am qveynebis xelSekrulebis gareT darCena niSnavs, rom maT Tavisuflad SeuZliaT Tavis teritoriaze natos Zalebis SeuzRudavi raodenobis ganlageba. 2005 wlisaTvis, saqarTvelos TiTqmis gadaewura ruseTTan urTierTobebis normalizebis imedi. ruseTma ar Seamcira separatistuli provinciebis mxardaWera, metic, man xeli ar SeuSala moxaliseebisa da iaraRis ruseTis teritoriidan samxreT oseTSi gadadinebas 2004 wlis zafxulSi konfliqtis eskalaciisas. moskovi uxeSad Caeria afxazeTis saprezidento arCevnebSi da Seecada Tavisi proteJe gaeyvana prezidentis postze. 2004 wlis dekemberSi, ruseTis vetos gamo Sewyda saqarTvelo­ruseTis sazRvris CeCneTis monakveTis monitoringi euTos damkvirveblebis mier. ruseTi kvlavac ganagrZobda mtkicebas, rom CeCeni mebrZolebi Tavs pankiss

91 Vladimir Socor. OSCE, R.I.P. ­ IASPS Policy Briefings: Geostrategic Perspectives on Eurasia no. 47 (Washington, DC: Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, January 1, 2004), p. 5. 92 Ãåííàäèé Ñûñîåâ. Ìèíèñòð îòðàáîòàë íà âûñøåì óðîâíå. ­ Êîììåðñàíòú, 30 èþíÿ 2004 ãîäà. 93 Press Conference by NATO Secretary-General after the NATO-Russia Council. ­ NATO News Release, June 28, 2004, http://www.nato.int/docu/speech/2004/s040628i.htm.

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afareben. rusulma kompaniebma saqarTveloSi mimdinare privatizaciis procesSi ramodenime msxvili kontraqti gaaformes, magram ekonomikuri urTierTobebis gaumjobesebas politikuri daTboba ar moutania. Sedegad, 2005 wlis ianvarSi CaiSala bazebze molaparakebebis erT­erTi dagegmili raundi. 94 mas Semdeg, rac TebervalSi ruseTis sagareo ministr sergei lavrovis vizitmac ver moitana Sedegi, saqarTvelo viTarebis gamwvavebaze wavida. saqarTvelos parlamentma ­ sagareo saministros mxardaWeriT ­ miiRo dadgenileba, romlis ZaliTac mTavrobas daevala rusuli bazebi kanongareSed gamoecxadebina da mieRo zomebi maTi iZulebis wesiT gasayvanad 2006 wlis ianvramde, Tuki ver moxerxdeboda molaparakebebSi progresis miRweva 2005 wlis maisis Sua ricxvebamde. saqarTvelos sagareo ministrma salome zurabiSvilma rusul saagentoebTan saubarSi saqarTvelos axali, ufro mtkice politika Camoayaliba.95 zurabiSvili amtkicebs, rom saqarTvelo mtkiced mihyveba adamianis uflebebisa da saxelmwifos moqmedebis evropul standartebs da ruseTisaganac igives moelis. oficialuri Tbilisis pozicia naTlad gamoCnda ­ Tuki ruseTi daTanxmdeba TamaSis saerTaSoriso wesebs da uars ityvis saqarTveloze gansakuTrebuli gavlenis SenarCunebaze, saqarTvelo mzadaa gaiTvaliswinos ruseTis realuri interesebi. gansxvavebiT SevardnaZis administraciisagan, saqarTvelo ar apirebs kulisebs miRma garigebas. Tuki ruseTis mxridan zewola gagrZeldeba, saqarTvelo saerTaSoriso samarTlis yvela SesaZleblobas gamoiyenebs da yvela saerTaSoriso forumze moiTxovs ruseTis agresiul saxelmwifod warmoCinebas.

94

Russian Foreign Minister Visits Georgia. ­ Civil Georgia, February 17, 2005, http:// www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=9106. 95 Ðîññèÿ ïåðåä âûáîðîì. ­ Àãåíòñòâî íîâîñòåé "Ðåãíóì", 25 äåêàáðÿ 2004 ãîäà, http:/ /www.regnum.ru/news/382323.html.

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swored am politikis gamoZaxili iyo saqarTvelos parlamentis mier 2005 wlis 10 martis dadgenileba, romelmac saqarTvelos mTavrobas daavala ganexorcielebina ruseTis bazebis blokada da Seewyvita maTi komunaluri momsaxureba, Tuki ruseTi bazebis gayvanis ,,realistur" gegmas ar daeTanxmeboda.96 am gadawyvetilebiT, saqarTvelo Seecada agreTve gverdi aeara ruseTis mcdelobisaTvis eWvis qveS daeyenebina 1999 wels aRebuli valdebulebebi. Tuki parlamentis gadawyvetileba ganxorcieldeboda, es moxdeboda ara stambolis SeTanxmebis Seusruleblobis sababiT, aramed daeyrdnoboda saqarTvelos suverenul uflebas uari ganacxados ucxo qveynis saxelmwifos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis mis miwaze ganTavsebaze. naTelia, rom bazebis sakiTxi ruseTTan umaRles doneze daayenes aSS da evropelma liderebmac. saqarTvelos gamkacrebulma poziciam realuri Sedegebi moitana. parlamentis dadgenileba jer kidev ganixileboda, rodesac ruseTis genStabis ufrosma TiTqmis orgzis Seamcira bazebis gayvanisaTvis ruseTis azriT aucilebeli drois intervali ­ mxolod erTi Tvis win ruseTis delegaciis mier moTxovnili TerTmetidan sam-oTx wlamde. am gancxadebam ver SeaCera parlamentis gadawyvetilebis miReba. saparlamento rezoluciis Semdeg, molaparakebebis ori raundi Sedga 2005 wlis martsa da aprilSi, romelTa ganmavlobaSic ruseTma oficialurad daadastura bazebis sam-oTxwlian vadaSi gayvanis SesaZlebloba. am raundebma mainc ver moitana saboloo SeTanxmeba, radgan saqarTvelo moiTxovda, rom ar momxdariyo bazebis axali ZalebiT Sevseba gayvanis periodSi.97 pesimisturi prognozebisda miuxedavad, ukanasknel wams, 30 maiss saqarTvelosa da ruseTis sagareo ministrebma xeli moaweres SeTanxmebas, riTac ruseTma darCenili bazebis gayvanis valdebuleba aiRo 2008 wlis bolomde, anu ZiriTadad daeTanx96

Parliament Sets a Deadline for Withdrawal of the Russian Military Bases. ­ Civil Georgia, March 10, 2005, http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=9310. 97 Civil Georgia, April 18, 2005, http://www.civil.ge.

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ma saqarTvelos moTxovnebs.98 Tavis mxriv, ruseTma saqarTvelos mosTxova ar ganeTavsebina natos jarebi. bazebis sakiTxis win wamoweva naTlad miuTiTebs, rom saakaSvilis administracia imedgacruebulia ruseTis poziciiT. Tbilisi kargavs moTminebas, radgan nebayoflobiTi TanamSromlobis gzebis Zieba gadaulaxav biurokratiul da ideologiur barierebs eCexeba. Sesabamisad, zewolis gza ruseTTan urTierTqmedebis erTaderT SesaZleblobad moCans. putinis administracia, Tavis mxriv, gaRizianebulia amgvari zewoliT da gaaCnia kontrSetevis wamowyebis cduneba. erTaderTi rac ruseTs akavebs, saerTaSoriso konteqstSi Riad agresiuli moqmedebebis gamarTlebis sirTulea.

daaxloebis SesaZlebloba: ekonomikuri TanamSromloba

90­ian wlebSi ruseTis ekonomikuri proeqtebi saqarTveloSi politikosebis SeSfoTebas ori mizezis gamo iwvevda. erTis mxriv, TbilisSi SiSobdnen rom ruseTi ekonomikur gavlenas politikuri zewolisaTvis gamoiyenebda. meores mxriv, opoziciuri politikuri Zalebi Tvlidnen, rom dasustebuli SevardnaZe Tavisi xelisuflebis gadasarCenad ruseTTan farul da rogorc ekonomikurad, ise politikurad wamgebian garigebebze wavidoda. ruseTsa da dasavleTs Soris dabalansebis politika damokidebuli iyo aSS­s mier mxardaWeril energetikul proeqtze ­ baqo­ Tbilisi­jeihanis navTobsadens saqarTvelos energetikuli usafrTxoeba unda ganemtkicebina, ruseTis energomatareblebze damokdebulebis Semcirebis gziT. 1992 wlidan moyolebuli saqarTvelos mTavroba ver axerxebda mosaxleobis gziTa da eleqtroenergiiT uzrunvelyofas. Suqis xSiri gaTiSvebi mosaxleobas mTavrobis winaaRmdeg ganawyobda, gansakuTrebiT mas

98 Ñîâìåñòíàÿ äåêëàðàöèÿ ìèíèñòðîâ èíîñòðàííûõ äåë Ðîññèéñêîé Ôåäåðàöèè è Ãðóçèè, 30 ìàÿ 2005 ãîäà, http://www.civil.ge/eng/detail.php?id=10009.

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Semdeg, rac cxadi gaxda rom energetikis gasaujobeseblad mimarTuli milionobiT dolaris dasavluri daxmareba ganiavda anda korumpirebuli Cinovnikebis jibeSi aRmoCna. 2003 wels, SevardnaZisaTvis umniSvnelovanesi saparlamento arCevnebis win, xeli or kontraqts moewera. 11 agvistos saqarTvelos mTavrobam oficialurad ganaxada, rom ruseTis ,,gaerTianebulma energosistemebma" amerikuli ei­i­esisagan gamoisyida Tbilisis energogamanawilebeli qselis 75%, 600 megavatis warmadobis ori energobloki, TurqeTTan da somxeTTan damakavSirebeli gadamcemi xazebi da ori hidroeleqtrosadguris marTvis ufleba. es udidesi politikuri mniSvnelobis garigebac iyo, radgan ei­i­esi saqarTveloSi udides amerikul investors warmoadgenda, romelmac 240 milion dolaramde Cado energetikis reabilitaciaSi. am xelmoweramde raodenime dRis win, SevardnaZem rusul ,,gazpromTan" xeli ,,strategiuli TanamSrolobis" xelSekrulebas moawera, ris ZaliTac rusuli kompania valdebulebas iRebda mravalmilioniani dabandeba ganexorcielebina somxeTisa da TurqeTisaken mimavali gazsadenebis SekeTebaSi. am gazsadenebiT mTavroba varaudobda qarTuli ekonomikis gamococxlebas da SedarebiT iafi rusuli gazis miwodebis gazrdas uSualod saparlamento arCevnebis win. prezident buSis administracia eWviT moekida gazpromTan dadebul xelSekrulebas. stiven mani, buSis mrCeveli kaspiis auzis energetikul diplomatiaSi, dauyovnebliv ewvia Tbiliss da gaafrTxila saqarTvelos mTavroba, rom gazpromTan dadebul SeTanxmebas SeeZlo ,,saqarTvelos gavlenis mniSvnelovnad Semcireba aRmosavleT­dasavleTis energetikul gzatkecilze." vaSingtoni SiSobda, rom ,,gazpromis" proeqti konkurencias gauwevda anglo­amerikuli ,,britiS petroleumisa" da norvegiuli ,,statoilis" mier mxardaWeril gazsadens, romelic azerbaijanis Sah­denizis sabados TurqeTTan daakavSirebda.99

Jaba Devdariani. Potential Deal with Russian Gas Conglomerate Sparks Controversy in Georgia. ­ Eurasia Insight, June 6, 2003, http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/ business/articles/eav060603.shtml.

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prezident SevardnaZis TqmiT, dadebuli xelSekrulebebi, gansakuTrebiT kontraqti ei­i­essa da ,,gaerTianebul energosistemebs" Soris sufTa ekonomikuri gaTvlebiT iyo nakarnaxevi. igi acxadebda, rom Tbilisis energogamanawilebeli qselis gayidva SesaZlebeli gaxda mxolod mas Semdeg, rac amerikulma kompaniam ganaaxla qseli da Seqmna [ekonomikuri] SesaZlebloba rusuli kompaniis [saqarTveloSi] Semosasvlelad." TumcaRa, rogorc politikuri opozicia, ise stiven mani amtkicebnen, rom kontraqtebi ,,arasakmarisad gamWvirvale" iyo.100 amdenad, aSS ewinaaRmdegeboda ara saqarTvelos mier rusuli gazisa da eleqtroenergiis Sesyidvas, aramed strategiuli gazsadenebisa da eleqtroqselebis rusuli kontrolis qveS aRmoCenas, rac SemdgomSi amerikul proeqtebs SeuSlida xels.101 qarTuli opoziciac da buSis administraciac darwundnen, rom SevardnaZis susti da korumpirebuli mTavroba kulisebs miRma garigebebze midioda ruseTTan arCevnebze gavlenis mosaxdenad. saqarTveloSi rusuli energokompaniebis mimarT undobloba emyareboda rwmenas, rom ,,gazpromis" Svilobili ,,itera" warsulSi politikuri gavlenis mosaxdenad uTiSavda gazs saqarTvelos. kremlis mzardi gavlena energetikul kompaniebze mxolod amZafrebda Tbilisis SiSebs. ,,gazpromi" kremlis gavlenis qveS myarad imyofeboda da xSirad misi gavlenis iaraRs warmoadgenda TviT ruseTis SigniTac. gaerTianebuli energosistemebis xelmZRvaneli, anatoli Cubaisi ,,liberaluri imperiis" koncefciis mimdevaria, romlis Tanaxmadac ruseTi dsTs ,,bunebrivi da erTaderTi lideria" da man unda ,,ganamt-

100

Zeyno Baran. Deals Give Russian Companies Influence over Georgia's Energy Infrastructure. ­ Eurasia Insight, August 18, 2003, http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/ business/articles/eav081803.shtml. 101 erTaderTi dRes arsebuli alternatiuli gazsadeni, romelic iranidan azerbaijanis gavliT gadis, sabWoTa droidan ar gamoiyeneba da kapitalur remonts saWiroebs. amasTan, iranSi mopovebuli gazis fasi bevrad aRemateba rusuli gazis fass.

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kicos, ganavrcos da gaaZlieros gavlena msoflios am nawilSi."102 rusuli imperiuli gavlenis sxva Teoretikosebisagan gansxvavebiT, Cubaisis azriT ruseTi evraziaSi liberalizaciis mebairaxtre unda gamxdariyo. Tumca Tavad is, rom ruseTis biznesmenebic ki imperiis, Tundac liberaluris, Camoyalibebaze fiqroben saqarTveloSi gaRizianebas iwvevs da am kompaniebisadmi undoblobas kidev ufro aZlierebs. saqarTvelos axali mTavroba acnobierebs qveynis bazris saerTaSoriso kompaniebisaTvis gaxsnis aucileblobas. Savi bazris udidesi wilis gaTvaliswinebiTac ki, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri daRmasvlis tempi ukanaskneli aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi katastrofuli iyo. maRali riskebis pirobebSi rusuli kompaniebi investiciisa da momsaxurebis TvalsazrisiT albaT ualternativoa. miuxedavad amisa, ruseTisaTvis gazis miwodebis sferoSi myari monopoliis miniWeba kvlavac saxifaToa rogor politikuri, ise ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, radgan amgvari upiratesobis SemTxvevaSi, ruseTs SeeZleba konkurentebisaTvis bazris Caketva. maSasadame, saqarTvelos mxridan energomatareblebis wyaroebis gamravalferovnebis survili savsebiT logikuria. ekonomikis mxiv, saakaSvilis mTavrobam ganacxada rom mas surs gadasaxadebis Semcireba da kapitaldabandebebisaTvis xelSemwyobi sxva RonisZiebebis ganxorcieleba. rusuli kompaniebi gansakuTrebulad moiwvies axal sainvesticio proeqtebSi monawileobis misaRebad. mTavrobam aseve gamoTqva survili im obieqtebis privatizeba ganexorcielebina, romlebic manamde ,,strategiul obieqtebad" iTvleboda da, Sesabamisad, gasayidad ar gamohqondaT. maT Sorisaa hidroeleqtrosadgurebi da baTumisa da foTis portebis aqciebi. Tbilisma sagangebo konferencia moawyo kremlTan daaxloebuli rusi biznesmenebisaTvis, romelTa delegaciasac ruseTis ekonomikis ministri, german grefi

Igor Torbakov. Russian Policymakers Air Notion of `Liberal Empire' in Caucasus, Central Asia. ­ Eurasia Insight, October 27, 2003, http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/ insight/articles/eav102703.shtml.

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xelmZRvanelobda. am mcdelobam Sedegi moitana: ruseTis evrazholdingma moigo saprivatizio garigeba 2005 wlis ianvarSi, romliTac WiaTuris marganecis qarxana SeiZina 132 milion dolarad.103 ianvarSive, ruseTis saxelmwifo vneStorgbankma gaerTianebuli qarTuli bankis aqciebis 51% SeiZina, riTac qarTul bazarze yofniT grZelvadiani daintereseba gamoxata.104 mimomxilvelebma prezident saakaSvilis mier ekonomikis ministrad qarTuli warmoSobis cnobili rusi biznesmenis kaxa benduqiZis daniSvna ekonomikuri gaxsnilobis am axali politikis gamoZaxilad aRiqves. benduqiZe liberaluri ekonomikuri politikis Tanmimdevruli damcvelia da saxelmwifo kompaniebis sruli privatizaciis momxred gamodis.105 zogierTma damkvirvebelma benduqiZis daniSvna mxolod ruseTis biznesisadmi gaxsnilobis Jestad aRiqva, Tumca savaraudoa, rom rusuli biznes praqtikis kargad mcodne benduqiZis erT-erTi funqcia saqarTvelos ekonomikuri interesebis dacvacaa rusuli giganti kompaniebis winaSe. saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi, romlebic droebiT an mudmivad muSaoben ruseTSi ori qveynis ekonomikuri urTierTobis kidev erTi mxarea. saqarTvelos sttistikuri departamentis 2002 wlis oqtombris monacemebiT ruseTSi saqarTvelos 205 aTasi moqalaqe muSaobda. araoficialuri monacemebiT, maTi ricxvi 500 aTasi maincaa da umravlesoba aralegluradaa dasaqmebuli, Sesabamisad yovelgvari socialuri dacvis gareSe da umciresi gasamrjelos safasurad. muSaxelis sezonuri gadineba saqarTvelodan udidesia ruseTis mimarTulebiT, Tumca saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi agreTve miemgzavrebian aSS­Si, saberZneTsa da germaniaSi. fuladi gzavnilebi qveynis gareT momuSaveTagan weliwadSi 480­dan 500 milion dolaramdea Sefasebuli, rac

103 104

Civil Georgia, January 19, 2005, http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=8833. Civil Georgia, January 18, 2005, http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=8830. 105 2004 wlis dekemberSi benduqiZe stuqturuli reformebis sakiTxSi saxelmwifo ministri gaxda, Tumca SeinarCuna gavlena ekonomikur politikaze.

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saqarTvelos erToblivi Sida produqtis 20%­s Seadgens da saqarTveloSi ojaxebis Semosavlis didi nawilia.106 Sesabamisad, ruseTTan ekonomikuri kavSirebi friad mniSvnelovania saqarTvelosaTvis. qarTveli muSaxelis saqmianobis legalizacia ruseTSi daexmareboda saqarTvelos mTavrobas ukeT daecva maTi interesebi ruseTSi da ukeT gaekontrolebina finansuri nakadebi. amgvarad, ekonomikuri sfero ori qveynis TanamSromlobis yvelaze momgebiani dargia, Tumca amisaTvis aucilebelia gadailaxos eWvebi, rom ruseTi ekonomikur kavSirebs politikuri miznebisaTvis gamoiyenebs. es ki advili ar iqneba. saqarTvelos axali liderebi amtkiceben rom maT Sejibris Tanabari da gamWvirvale SesaZleblobebis Seqmna surT, maSin roca ruseTi gansakuTrebul uflebebs iTxovs. putinis administracia ukanasknel xanebSi evraziis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis organizaciis (evrazesi) ganviTarebiTaa dakavebuli da mis farglebSi Tavisufali vaWrobis zonis Seqmnas apirebs, rac Tavisi arsiT, ruseTis gavlenis qveS myofi ekonomikuri sivrcis Camoyalibebas utoldeba. saqarTvelo ar apirebs am sivrceSi Sesvlas da, ruseTisagan gansxvavebiT, is ukve msoflio savaWro organizaciis wevricaa, ris ZaliTac man maqsimaluri ekonomikuri xelSewyobis reJimi unda gaavrcelos organizaciis yvela wevrze. es saqarTvelos xelisufleba manevris Tavisuflebas aZlevs ruseTTan urTierTobaSi saerTaSoriso savaWro normebis SemoRebis TvalsazrisiT. amasve emsaxureba qarTuli kanonmdeblobis evrokavSiris standartebTan miaxloeba. saboloo jamSi, saqarTvelos swrafva, gaacxovelos savaWro urTierTobebi ruseTTan, magram Tavidan aicilos rusuli kompaniebis monopoluri gavlena, damokidebulia imaze Tu ramdenad aqtiuri iqnebian investorebi sxva qveynebidan. es ki saqarTveloSi korufciis aRmofxvras, infrastruqturis ganviTarebas da kanonmdeblobis gaumjobesebas moiTxovs.

106

Labour Migration from Georgia (Tbilisi: International Organization for Migration/ Association for Economic Education, 2003). am gamokvlevaSi 630 ojaxi monawileobda, romelTa ojaxis wevrebi ruseTSi muSaoben. kvleva saqarTvelos oTx regionSi ganxorcielda.

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jaba devdariani

samomavlo perspeqtivebi

ruseT­saqarTvelos urTierTobebs ukve didi xania undobloba aferxebs, ris gaRvivebaSic orive mxaris wvlilia Setanili. SevardnaZisdroindeli saqarTvelosaTvis ruseTTan urTierToba erTgvar mojadoebul wres warmoadgenda: aucilebeli iyo qveynis gaZliereba ruseTis zewolasTan gasamklaveblad da ruseTTanave ufro saimedo partniorobis Camosayalibeblad. amave dros, saqarTveloSi bevri Tvlida rom qveynis gaZliereba SeuZlebelia afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis problemebis gadaWris gareSe, raSic aucilebelia ruseTis monawileoba. amgvari logika ergvarad gaukuRmarTebulic kia: misi mixedviT ruseTia saqarTvelos sisustis mTavari mizezic da misi mTavari mxsnelic. amgvarad, saqarTvelos mTavroba da mosaxleoba Tavs aridebdnen sakuTar pasuxismgeblobas sakuTarive problemebis gadaWris saqmeSi. amave logikiT, afxazeTi, samxreT oseTi, ruseTis bazebi da ruseTTan ekonomikuri TanamSroloba erTi giganturi problemaa, romelic erTi dakvriT unda gadaiWras. prezidenti saakaSvili, Cans, mzadaa gaarRvios es mojadoebuli wre da daaxarisxos sakiTxebi romelTa gadawyveta saqarTvelos ZalebSi Sedis, sakiTxebi, romlebze kompromisis moZebna SesaZlebelia da sakiTxebi, romlebic araa molaparakebebis sagani. magaliTisTvis, saakaSvilis administracia amtkicebs, rom baTumisa da axalqalaqis bazebi unda daixuros da am sakiTxze Tbilisi ukandaxevas ar apirebs. bazebis gayvanis Semdeg, SesaZloa ruseTTan molaparakeba erToblivi anti­teroristuli centrebis Camoyalibebis Sesaxeb. molaparakebebi afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTze gamoyofilia erTmaneTisagan da, amave dros, ar ganixileba samxedro bazebTan kavSirSi. oficialuri Tbilisi aseve cdilobs regularuli piradi urTierTobebis damyarebas ruseTis uSiSroebis sabWosTan, prezidentis administraciasTan da calkeul saministroebTan. sakaSvili imedovnebs, rom am gziT Seiqmneba ndobis kunZulebi rus kolegebTan da etapobrivad moxerxdeba dagrovili problemebis gadaWra.

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urTierTgagebis safuZvlad oficialuri Tbilisi moiazrebs im gagebas rom kavkasiaSi arsebuli problemebi ­ separatizmi, arastabiluri mTavrobebi, gaumWvirvale politikuri procesi ­ safrTxes uqmnis regionis stabilurobas da Tanabrad saxifaToa rogorc ruseTis, ise saqarTvelosaTvis. amgvari midgoma SesaZloa produqtiuli aRmoCndes da SesaZlebloba misces ruseTs gamoiyenos SedarebiTi upiratesoba kavkasiaSi ­ mas gaaCnia regionis ukeTesi gageba vidre dasavlel partniorebs da SeuZlia am gavlenis gamoyeneba saqarTvelos stabilurobis gansamtkiceblad. Tumca jerjerobiT, saqarTvelo da ruseTi ver Tanxmdebian urTierTqmedebis wesebze. saqarTvelo mcire saxelmwifoa da bunebrivia is eZiebs sagareo garantiebs ruseTis Seudareblad didi ekonomikuri resursebisa da politikuri gavlenis dasabalanseblad. amis gamo, saqarTvelo ruseTTan evropis normatiuli sivrcis farglebSi urTierTobas amjobinebs. ruseTi, Tavis mxriv, upiratesobas ormxriv urTierTobebs aniWebs dsT­ s farglebSi arsebuli normatiuli reJimis farglebSi, romelic SesamCnevad Camoreba evropul standartebs rogorc adamianis uflebaTa, ise savaWro dargSi. samwuxarod, am sivrcis farglebSi saqarTvelo Tavs absoluturad daucvelad grZnobs. ukanasknel xanebSi ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris daZabuloba samxedro bazebisa da samxreT oseTis sakiTxebSi swored am konteqstSi SeiZleba ganvixiloT. samxreT oseTis SemTxvevaSi, saqarTvelos gancxadebiTis saerTaSoriso normebis farglebSi moqmedebda. saakaSvilis administraciis mtkicebiT, qveynis valdebulebaa suverenuli kontroli ganaxorcielos missave sazRvrebze. moskovis xedviT, umjobesia dsT­s farglebSi Camoyalibebuli arsebuli viTarebis SenarCuneba samxreT oseTSi, rac ruseTis interesebs ukeT pasuxobs. amdenad, SenarCunebulia mankieri wre: prezidenti saakaSvili cdilobs Sinaganad gaaZlieros saqarTvelo da, raRac doneze, ruseTs urCevnia Zlier saqarTvelosTan hqondes saqme. Tumca kremlis dRevandeli damokidebuleba saqarTvelos separatistul regionebTan xels uSlis saqarTvelos gaZlie265

jaba devdariani

rebas, radgan misi sazRvrebi daucvelia kriminalebis winaSe. metic, ruseTis mxardaWeriT gulmicemuli separatisti liderebi ver xedaven saqarTvelos mTavrobasTan molaparakebebis warmoebis azrs. Sedegad, SenarCunebulia saqarTvelos Semdgomi dasustebis riski, rac, paradoqsulad, mas ruseTisaTvis arasaimedo partniorad aqcevs. viTarebas cota ufro farTod rom SevxedoT, ruseTi kargavs gavlenis zogierT berkets. saakaSvili da misi axalgazrda kolegebi ar arian dakavSirebuli yofil sabWoTa politikur qselTan arc ganaTlebiTa da arc gamocdilebiT. prezidenti saakaSvili Tavis amomrCevels emyareba da ar cdilobs mokovis mxardaWeriT gaimyaros pozicia. saqarTvelos politikosebis axali Taobis gavlenis safuZveli qveynis SigniTaa. isini SesaZloa ganixilavdnen karieris gagrZelebis SesaZleblobas saqarTveloSi, anda, vTqvaT bruselSi, magram ara moskovSi. saqarTvelos sazogadoeba mieswrafvis dasavleTis ekonomikur, politikur da usafrTxoebis meqanizmebSi gawevrianebisaken, radgan swored es sfero iTvleba keTildReobis garantiad. 1994 wels prezidenti SevardnaZe amomrCevlebs parlamentis tribunidan arwmunebda, rom dsT­Si gawevrianeba qveyanas ,,xorbalsa da kvercxs" moutanda. aTwleulis Semdeg ukve yvelasaTvis naTelia, rom saqarTvelos bazarze ZiriTadi produqtebi dsT­ Si yofna­aryofnis miuxedavad Semova. aRarc isaa TavisTavad cxadi, rom post­sabWoTa ekonomikuri daRmasvliTa da korumpirebuli politikuri klasiT imedgacruebuli amomrCevlebi sabWoTa kavSirs nostalgiiT ucqeren, anu xmas pro­rusul politikur kurss miscemen. moldovas magaliTi gvarwmunebs, rom miuxedavad komunisturi partiis warmatebisa 2001 wels, qveynis pro­dasavluri kursis ar Seicvala.107 moldovas komunistma prezidentma vladimir voroninma pro­rusuli sagareo ministri gadaayena da axali ministri daniSna, romlis azriTac ,,evropasTan integracias

107

Dan Wisniewski and Zsolt-Istvan Mato. Moldovan Communists Win Absolute Majority. ­ RFE/RL Newsline, February 26, 2001, http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2001/02/260201.asp.

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alternativa ar gaaCnia."108 man ukanaskneli arCevnebi erTmniSvnelovnad anti­rusul motivebze warmoebuli kampaniiT moigo da kursi saqarTvelosa da ukrainasTan pro­evropuli aliansis gaZlierebisaken aiRo. saqarTvelos axali mTavrobis mimarT molodinis politika ruseTis mxridan araa produqtiuli. is mxolod Zveli politikis inerciaa, romlis mixedviTac SevrdnaZe an Secdomas dauSvebda anda gacnobierebulad miscemda saSualebas ruseTs qulebi Caewera aSS­sTan dapirispirebaSi. saqarvelos destabilizacia mavnea ruseTis usafrTxoebisaTvis. bevrad ufro sasargeblo iqneboda Tuki ruseTi saqarTvelos axal politikaSi pozitiur rols daibevebda da grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi undoblobis aRmofxvras Seuwyobda xels. dasavleTs rac Seexeba, SevardnaZis meryevma politikam aSS­sa da ruseTs Soris saqarTvelos mosaxleobis ,,nacionaluri proeqtisda" miuxedavad, Seaferxa qveynis integracia dasavlur institutebSi ­ natosa da evrokavSirSi. dReisaTvis saqarTvelo winmswrebi tempiT cdilobs realuri mniSvnelobiT datvirTos arsebuli xelSekrulebebi, rogoricaa natos ,,partnioroba mSvidobisaTvis" da evrokavSirTan partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis xelSekruleba. evrokavSirTan daaxloeba gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania da am proeqts ruseTis mxridan, savaraudod, natoSi SesvlasTan SedarebiT naklebi winaaRmdegoba Sexvdeba. erT­erTi damaimedebeli nabiji evrokavSiris mxridan samxreT kavkasiaze ,,evropis samezoblo iniciativis" gavrceleba iyo. Tumca saqarTvelos mxridan ruseTis rTuli gadawyvetilebebisaken iZuleba SesaZloa saxifaToc aRmoCndes ­ amis dasturad 2004 wels samxreT oseTSi viTarebis eskalaciac gamodgeba. SeZleben ki saqarTvelosa da ruseTis liderebi axleburi urTierTobebis damyarebas? am kiTxvaze pasuxi didwilad

Íàòàëüÿ Ïðèõîäüêî. Êèøèíåâ èçáàâëÿåòñÿ îò ïðîðîññèéñêè íàñòðîåííûõ ìèíèñòðîâ. ­ Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 6 ôåâðàëÿ 2004 ãîäà, http://www.ng.ru/cis/2004-02-06/ 5_kishinev.html.

108

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jaba devdariani

saqarTveloSi reformebis warmatebazea damokidebuli. axali mTavroba ruseTTan urTierTobas ufro taqtikuri TvalsazrisiT udgeba, vidre strategiuliT da amiT cdilobs Sexebis wertilebis moZiebas. strategiuli TvalsazrisiT, saqarTvelos mTavari amocana politikuri sistemis gajansaReba da ekonomikis gaZlierebaa. es saSualebas miscems saqarTvelos ufro seriozuli roli iTamaSos post­sabWoTa sivrcis politikasa da ekonomikaSi. ruseTSi jer kidev ar dasrulebula axali TviTSegnebis mSenebloba. nacionalisturi Zalebis siZliere zRudavs prezident putinis moqnilobas qarTul­rusuli urTierTobebis sferoSi. amdenad, saqarTvelos mTavrobam unda gahyos is problemebi, romlebzec albaT SesaZlebelia ruseTTan ormxrivi kompromisis Zieba da is sakiTxebi sadac mas ruseTis dasarwmuneblad saerTaSoriso mxardaWeris mobilizeba dasWirdena. samxedro bazebisa da SemdegSi, samSvidobo operaciebis modernizebis Secvlis sakiTxebi albaT am ukanasknel kategoriaSi Seva. vaSingtonis pozicia bazebTan dakavSirebiT, romelic erTis mxriv mouwodebda ruseTs gaeyvana jarebi da, meores mxriv mas finansur mxardaWeras sTavazobda gayvanis dasaCqareblad, albaT yvelaze realisturi midgomaa. samwuxarod, beslanis 2004 wlis tragediam putinis mTavrobis agresiuloba gazarda. putinma piradad gaaaqtiura kavSirebi afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis lierebTan da Sexvda kidev maT 2005 wlis 5 aprils. zogierTi mimomxilvelis informaciiT, man evrokavSiris sagareo saqmeTa komisari xavier solanac ki Seaxvedra separatist liderebs.109 zogma es Sexvedra ruseTis mxridan ufro konstruqciuli poziciis niSnad aRiqva, zogma ki piriqiT. simarTles momavali gamoavlens. afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi viTarebis gasaumjobeseblad saqarTvelos mTavrobas am mxareebis faqtobriv liderebTan

109

Vladimir Socor. EU Policy in Disarray in Georgia and Moldova. ­ Eurasia Daily Monitor, April 15, 2005, http://jamestown.org/edm/article.php?volume_id=407 &issue_id=3301&article_id=236959.

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pirdapiri urTierTobebis gaaqtiureba mouwevs. maTi gverdis avliT moskovTan SeTanxmebis miRwevis mcdeloba araefeqturi Cans. amave dros, konkretul sakiTxebSi SesaZloa TanamSromlobac ­ magaliTisTvis, moskovs surs sarkinigzo mimosvla aRadginos saqarTvelosTan afxazeTis gavliT da am SesaZleblobis gamoyeneba ndobis aRsadgenad savsebiT SesaZlebelia. samSvidobo jarebis sakiTxis mogvareba albaT evrokavSirTan TanamSromlobas gulisxmobs. am organizaciis gamocdileba policiuri daxmarebis misiis farglebSi bosniasa da hercegovinaSi zedgamoWrilia afxazeTis galis raionSi dabrunebuli devnilebis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad. daskvnis saxiT, urTierTobebis umZimesi aTwleulis Semdeg, klavac arseobs ruseT­saqarTvelos urTierTobebis konstuqciuli ganviTarebis SesaZlebloba. amis miRweva ki mxolod maSin SeiZleba, Tuki saqarTvelo kargad gaicnobierebs Tavis pasuxismgeblobas Sida sisusteebis aRmofxvris saqmeSi da warmatebiT ganaxorcielebs reformebs.

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gayinuli gaurkvevloba: ruseTi da konfliqti afxazeTis irgvliv

oqsana antonenko

sabWoTa kavSiris daSlam gamoiwvia regionul konfliqtebis seria, romelic Zaladobis sawyisi fazis Semdeg politikur CixSi aRmoCnda da aTwleulze meti xnis ganmavlobaSi gadauWreli rCeba.ori aseTi konfliqti ­ afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi ­ warmoiSva saqarTveloSi, yofil sabWoTa socialistur respublikaSi misi axal, damoukidebel saxelmwifod arcTu ioli transformaciis dros. konfliqti afxazeTSi 1992-1993 wlebSi, postsabWoTa konfliqtebidan iyo erT-erTi yvelaze sisxliani, aTasobiT msxverpliTa da daaxloebiT 250 000 gadaadgilebuli adamianiT (umravlesoba eTnikuri qarTveli)1. man gaanadgura

1 cifri 250 000 xSirad gamoiyeneba eqspertebisa da politikosebis mier,magram es raodenoba sakamaToa. oficialurad saqarTvelos hyavs registrirebuli 262 217 Sida gadaadgilebuli piri, saidanac 11 987 samxreT oseTis konfliqtis zonidanaa, danarCenebi ki _ afxazeTidan. damkvirvebelTa umravlesoba eWvqveS ayenebs am cifrebs. bevrma, vinc Tavidan saqarTveloSi Cavida, Semdeg datova igi. 2002 wlis mosaxleobis aRweram aCvena, rom bolo aTwleulSi qveyanam dakarga daaxloebiT milioni adamiani emigrantebis saxiT da SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom maT Soris arian afxazeTidan ltolvilebic. saqarTvelos axalma prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma erTnairad gaaoca momxreebic da mowinaaRmdegeebic cota xnis win gakeTebuli gancxadebiT imis Sesaxeb, rom mas surs 1992-1993 wlebis afxazeTis omis Sedegad gadaadgilebuli adamianebis sruli aRricxva. 2004 wlis 5 aprils ministrTa kabinetis sxdomaze saakaSvilma Tqva, rom "ltolvilTa dRevandeli ricxvi ­ 260 000 ­ Zalian gaberilia". ("Georgia's Refugee Recount," IWPR Report, April 28, 2004). 2004 wlis agvistoSi ltolvilTa da integraciis saministrom Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebisaTvis gamouSva 216 947 piradobis mowmoba. magram es cifri moicavs mxolod Sida gadaadgilebul pirebs da ara emigrirebulebs.

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gayinuli gaurkvevloba: ruseTi da konfliqti afxazeTis irgvliv

Savi zRvis erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili sakurorto regionis ekonomikuri perspeqtivebi. 1994 wlis 19 maisis SeTanxmebam cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb mxareebi afxazeTis politikuri statusis gadawyvetamde ver miiyvana; sanacvlod Tbilisis kontrols gareT aRmoCnda afxazeTi, rogorc de faqto saxelmwifo, Tumca saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriobisa da ruseTis mier formalurad mainc aRiarebuli, rogorc saqarTvelos nawili. saerTod, postsabWoTa saqarTveloSi saxelmwifo mSeneblobis sawyisi etapi nacionalisturi iyo Tavisi ritorikiTa da ideologiiT, ukanono _ Tavisi xerxebiT, magram xSirad gamarTlebuli istoriuli wyeniTa da miTebiT. 2 qarTulafxazuri konfliqtis dawyebaSi yvela es faqtori gansakuTrebul rols TamaSobda, ramac ekonomikuri da geopolitikuri logikis sawinaaRmdegod, eTnopolitikur konfliqtamde miiyvana da or banakad gayo mravalerovani omamdeli afxazeTi. mobilizacia xorcieldeboda eTnikuri kuTvnilebis safuZvelze, amasTan eTnikuri umciresobebis umravlesoba (rusebi, somxebi da berZnebi) ibrZoda afxazebis mxareze. am konfliqts qarTvelebi Zlieri, gaerTianebuli da sicocxlisunariani qarTuli saxelmwifos mSeneblobis gzaze erT-erT ZiriTad dabrkolebad miiCneven. ase iyo zviad gamsaxurdias _ saqarTvelos pirveli prezidentis _ dros. ase iyo misi memkvidris, eduard SevardnaZis drosac, romlis xelmZRvanelobis periodSi moxda omi da mTavrobam ver SeZlo samxedro saSualebebiT afxazeTze kontrolis aRdgena. saqarTvelos dRevandeli prezidenti mixeil saakaSvili Tavisi prezidentobis erT-erT prioritetad qarTuli miwebis gaerTianebas Tvlis. iseve rogorc misi winamorbedebi, prezidenti saakaSvili mzad aris, misces afxazeTs farTo avtonomia, magram ara _ saerTaSoriso suvereniteti. afxa2 qarTul-afxazur konfliqtSi istoriuli miTebis rolis analizis Sesaxeb. Âèêòîð Øíèðåëüìàí, Âîéíû ïàìÿòè: Ìèôû èäåíòè÷íîñòè è ïîëèòèêà â Çàêàâêàçüå // Ìîñêâà: Àêàäåìêíèãà, 2003, ñ. 259-461.

271

oqsana antonenko

zebisaTvis konfliqti erovnuli gadarCenisaTvis brZolis simbolo da erovnuli identurobis SenarCunebis imperativia. sabWoTa kavSiris ngrevasa da qarTuli nacionalizmis zrdaSi afxazuri elita xedavda rogorc sakuTari erisa da saxelmwifos Seqmnis istoriul Sanss, ise TviTmyofadobis safrTxes. omi qarTuli jaris gamoyvaniT da afxazeTis qarTuli mosaxleobis masobrivi gamodevniT (45 procenti)3 dasrulda. dRemde arc erTma saxelmwifom ar aRiara afxazeTi saerTaSoriso samarTlis damoukidebel subieqtad. misi mosaxleoba ­ romlis SemadgenlobaSi, afxazebis garda, axlac Sedian qarTvelebi, rusebi, berZnebi da somxebi ­ ekonomikurad izolirebulia da gadarCenis mizniT ZiriTadad naturalur meurneobas eyrdnoba. miuxedavad amisa, afxazeTma SeZlo de faqto saxelmwifo institutebis Seqmna, maT Soris parlamentis, prezidentisa da samxedro Zalebis. 1999 wels, damoukideblobis referendumis Semdeg, xelisuflebam imis mtkiceba daiwyo, rom suverenuli saxelmwifos aSeneba aqvs ganzraxuli da misi damoukideblobis aRiareba mxolod drois saqmea. gamomdinare iqidan, rom qarTuli da afxazuri mxareebis poziciebi diametrul winaaRmdegobaSi rCeba, politikuri daregulireba ki CixSia momwyvdeuli, yuradReba ufro mesame mxaris rolze maxvildeba. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania ruseTi. konfliqtis yvela etapze is dominirebul da xSirad winaaRmdegobriv rols TamaSobda. qarTvelebi ruseTs konfliqtis dawyebis provocirebaSi sdeben brals, Semdeg _ mis "gayinvaSi", dabolos, afxazuri separatistuli miswrafebebis yvela saSualebiT Ria mxardaWeraSi, formaluri

3 1989 wels, bolo sabWoTa aRweris mixedviT, afxazeTis mosaxleoba Seadgenda 525 000, saidanac 45 procenti, anu 239 000 adamiani eTnikuri qarTveli iyo. rodesac 1993 wlis oqtombrisaTvis damTavrda omi, TiTqmis yvela qarTvels daatovebines afxazeTi. maT Soris aTeulaTasobiT gadasaxlda droebiT sacxovreblad saqarTvelos qalaqebsa da soflebSi. ix. http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/ACOS-64D87Q? OpenDocument.

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aRiarebis garda. Tbilisi afxazeTSi ganlagebuli samSvidobo Zalebis internacionalizacias cdilobs maT rigebSi sxva qveynebis samxedroebis CarTviT da moiTxovs, ufro mkafiod ganisazRvros moskovis, rogorc mediatoris, politikuri roli gaeros molaparakebis procesSi. afxazebsac aqvT pretenziebi ruseTis mimarT konfliqtis sawyis etapze saqarTvelos samxedro mxardaWeris gamo; magram axla isini ruseTs uyureben, rogorc maTi usafrTxoebis mTavar garants. 1999 wlidan afxazeTis parlamentma ramdenimejer mimarTa moskovs, raTa afxazeTsa da ruseTs Soris damyarebuliyo asocirebuli urTierTobebi afxazeTis, rogorc "Tavisufali asocirebuli wevris", ruseTis federaciis SemadgenlobaSi CarTvis gziT. am statusiT afxazeTi suverenitets SeinarCunebda. saboloo jamSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom saerTaSoriso sazogadoebrioba daiRala qarTul-afxazur konfliqtSi ruseTis diplomatiis sul ufro calmxrivi ZalisxmeviT da TbilisTan misi rTuli urTierTobebiT, mas kvlavindeburad miaCnia, rom ruseTis monawileoba politikur procesSi mtkice mSvidobisa da politikuri daregulirebis misaRwevad saWiroa. rogoria ruseTis pozicia afxazeTis konfliqtSi? ramdenad prioritetuli adgili ukavia mas ruseTis politikaSi? aqvs Tu ara ruseTs strategia qarTul-afxazur konfliqtSi, Tu is ubralod reagirebs movlenebze am regionSi? ra doneze manipulirebs afxazeTiT, rogorc marionetiT? ra doziTaa ruseTis afxazeTTan TanamSromloba moskovis TbilisTan urTierTobebiT ganpirobebuli? ras warmoadgenen ZiriTad interesTa jgufebi, romlebic ayalibeben ruseTis politikas da rogor Seicvala maTi gavlena prezident putinis dros? am TavSi SemoTavazebulia aRniSnul kiTxvebze pasuxebi im ZiriTadi faqtorebis analizis gziT, romlebic gansazRvravs ruseTis politikas qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis mimarT. gansakuTrebiT yuradReba gamaxvilebulia 2000-2004 wlebze _ putinis prezidentobis erT monakveTze. avtors sammxrivi mizani aqvs: pirveli, ruseTis politikis evoluciis aRwera;

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oqsana antonenko

meore, politikuri gadawyvetilebebis miRebisa da ganxorcielebis sirTuleebis gaSuqeba, ruseTis SigniT sxvadasxva mZlavri gavlenis jgufze aqcentis gakeTeba, imaze _ Tu romeli moTamaSeebi ayalibeben ruseTis politikis pirvelad motivebs da romlebi sweven dabla mis efeqturobas. mesame mizani ki imaSi mdgomareobs, rom afxazeTSi ruseTis politika ganxilul iqnas konfliqtis daregulirebis procesSi sxva Zlier moTamaSeebTan misi damokidebulebis konteqstSi. es sami ganzomileba mowodebulia axsnas, Tu romeli mimarTulebiT SeiZleba ganviTardes ruseTis politika, rodesac igi konfrontaciaSi Sedis saqarTvelosa da afxazeTSi xelmZRvanelobis Secvlis ormag gamowvevasTan.

ruseTis CarTva konfliqtSi

1994 wlis maisSi cecxlis Sewyvetaze SeTanxmebidan da damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis (dsT) samSvidobo Zalebis ganlagebidan aTi wlis Semdeg gamoqveynebul arc erT publikaciaSi, romelic ki arsebobs ruseTis rolze qarTulafxazur samxedro konfliqtTan dakavSirebiT, srulyofilad ar aris gaanalizebuli ruseTis arqivebi an wamyvan monawileTa mogonebebi. Tumca zogierT gamoqveynebul moxsenebaSi naTqvamia, rom 1992-1994 wlebSi ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi da uSiSroebis samsaxurebi axorcielebdnen pirdapir Tu irib politikur da, rac ufro mniSvnelovania, samxedro daxmarebas rogorc qarTul, ise afxazur mxareze.4 zogierTi qarTuli wyaro ufro Sors midis da amtkicebs, rom ruseTis specialurma

4

ruseTis konfliqtSi CarTvaze analizis Sesaxeb. Ñòàíèñëàâ Ëàêîáà, Àáõàçèÿ äå ôàêòî èëè Ãðóçèÿ äå þðå? (Ñàïïîðî, ßïîíèÿ: Öåíòð ñëàâÿíñêèõ èññëåäîâàíèé, Óíèâåðñèòåò Õîêêàéäî, 2001 ã.), http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/publictn/lakova/lakovacontents.html ; Alexei Zverev, "Ethnic Conflicts in the Caucasus," in Bruno Coppieters ed., Contested Borders in the Caucasus (Brussels: VUB Press, 1996), pp. 51­60, http:// poli.vub.ac.be./publi/ContBorders/eng/; Ñâåòëàíà ×åðâîííàÿ, Àáõàçèÿ 1992: Ïîñòêîììóíèñòè÷åñêàÿ Âàíäåÿ (Ìîñêâà: Ìîñãîðïå÷àòü, 1992 ã.).

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samsaxurebma dagegmes yvela separatistuli konfliqti kavkasiaSi, maT Soris qarTul-afxazuric da Semdeg maTi provocireba moaxdines qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis Seqmnis perspeqtivis aRmofxvris mizniT. 5 Tavis mxriv, afxazi komentatorebi ar azviadeben ruseTis CarTvas da aqcenti gadaaqvT moxaliseebis rolze, akritikeben ruseTis mier yofili sabWoTa samxedro teqnikis qarTul erovnul gvardiaze gadacemas 1992 wlis 14 agvistos afxazeTze misi pirveli Tavdasxmis win. rogorc wesi, rusuli wyaroebi gverds uvlian omis msvlelobis dawvrilebiT gadmocemas, samagierod sabWoTa kavSiris ngrevis dros ruseTis politikur xelmZRvanelobaSi arsebul uwesrigobas xazs usvamen, brals sdeben adgilobriv samxedro meTaurebs am omSi maTi finansurad motivirebuli rolis gamo.6 saboloo jamSi, rTulia msjeloba imis Sesaxeb, iyo Tu ara ruseTis monawileoba afxazeTSi 1992-1993 wlebSi kremlis Segnebuli politikis strategiis nawili, magram sakamaTo ar aris is, rom Semdgom qarTul-afxazuri konfliqti gaxda da dRemde rCeba misi politikis mniSvnelovan instrumentad. ruseTis roli 1992-1993 wlebis omSi rogorc realurad, ise popularul miTebSi saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris normaluri urTierTobebis ZiriTadi barieri gaxda. ruseTis, rogorc afxazeTSi omis wagebis aSkara mizezad aRqmam qarTveli politikosebisa da moqalaqeebis mTeli Taoba Camoayaliba. afxazi eqsperti iuri anCabaZe wers: "saqarTveloSi jer kidev dominirebs azri, rom yvela politikuri Soki, romlebic respublikam bolo wlebSi gadaitana, afxazeTSi konfliqtis

5 ix. magaliTad, Gia Tarkhan-Mouravi, "The Georgian­Abkhazian Conflict in a Regional Context," in Bruno Coppieters, Ghia Nodia, and Yuri Anchabadze eds., Georgians and Abkhazians: The Search for a Peace Settlement, (Köln: Bundesinstitut für Ostwissenschaftliche und Internationale Studien, 1998), pp. 90­112, agreTve http:// poli.vub.ac.be/ ; an naxeT Svetlana Chervonnaya, Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia and the Russian Shadow (Glastonbury: Gothic Image Publications, 1994). 6 ix. Dmitrii Danilov, "Russia's Role," Accord, issue 7 (September 1999), pp. 42­49, http://www.c-r.org/accord/geor-ab/accord7/index.shtml.

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CaTvliT, inspirirebuli iyo mesame Zalis mier". mesame ZalaSi yovelTvis igulisxmeba ruseTi.7 dResac ki qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis istoria uwindeburad daRs asvams imas, Tu rogor gansazRvravs ruseTi Tavis interesebsa da strategias da afxazebisa da qarTvelebis mier rogor aris misi roli aRqmuli. amasTan dakavSirebiT Tanamedrove politikaze istoriis gavlenis ramdenime aspeqts gamovyofT: pirveli, konfliqti imdenad sastiki iyo da Tavad ruseTze, gansakuTrebiT ki mis CrdiloeT kavkasiis regionze, iseTi zemoqmedeba moaxdina, rom 1994 wels, omis Sewyvetis SeTanxmebaze xelmoweris Semdeg, misi politika, upirveles yovlisa, fokusirebuli iyo konfliqtis ganaxlebis raime perspeqtivis prevenciaze. udavoa, rom axali omis SiSiT ruseTi orive mxareze mkacri zewolisagan Tavs ikavebda, uSualod ki konfliqtis Semdgom periodSi, rodesac ufro SeiZleboda meti politikuri progresisaTvis mieRwia. meore, konfliqtis orive mxares ruseTis CarTvam Ziri gamouTxara qarTvelebisa da nawilobriv afxazebis ndobas ruseTis, rogorc miukerZoebeli da sando mediatoris, mimarT. ruseTi iyo da aris aRqmuli, rogorc konfliqtis monawile. ufro metic, ruseTis daxmarebam orive mxaris mimarT ufro gaaZliera saqarTvelosa da afxazeTSi gavrcelebuli azri, rom konfliqti an moskovis mier daigegma, an ganxorcielda ruseTis interesebSi.es gansakuTrebiT naTlad Cans saqarTveloSi, sadac ruseTis CarTva aRiqmeba "afxazeTis dakargvis" mTavar mizezad. eduard SevardnaZe amtkicebda kidec, rom konfliqtis dros ruseTis mier afxazeTis mxardaWera mTeli aTwleulis manZilze qarTul-rusuli urTierTobebis gafuWebis mTavar mizezad gadaiqca. afxazebi, romlebic iZulebulni arian daeyrdnon rusebis daxmarebas, aseve iCenen ruseTis patronaJisadmi undoblobas (samxreT osebisagan gansxvavebiT),

7 Yuri Anchabadze, "Georgia and Abkhazia: The Hard Road to Agreement," in Coppieters, Nodia, and Anchabadze, eds., Georgians and Abkhazians, pp. 80­89, also on http://poli.vub.ac.be/.

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ruseTTan mxolod asocirebul urTierTobebs eZeben da ara srul integracias da masze subordinacias. mesame, afxazeTis konfliqtSi CrdiloeT kavkasiidan moxaliseebis, rusi samxedroebisa da politikosebis monawileobam, ufro metad, vidre sxva postsabWoTa sivrcis separatistulma konfliqtebma, igi Sida rusuli politikis im mniSvnelovan problemad gadaaqcia, romelic dRemde gadauWrelad rCeba. metic, 1991-1992 wlebSi da ufro gvian, TviT afxazeTis konfliqtis dros, afxazur da CeCnur elitas Soris kavSirebis gamo ruseTis politika qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis mimarT xangrZlivi drois ganmavlobaSi CeCneTSi ruseTis mier gatarebuli politikis Zlieri gavlenis qveS imyofeboda. am faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT, aucilebelia afxazeTTan dakavSirebiT ruseTis oficialuri politikis evoluciis analizi da misi saxeliT moqmedi sxvadasxva jgufis qmedebebis mokle mimoxilva. ruseTis monawileobis Rrma ganxilva konfliqtis pirveli dReebidan imis gamoa mizanSewonili, rom 1991-1993 wlebSi moskovs ar hqonda Tanmimdevruli politika mTlianad kavkasiisa da, kerZod, qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis mimarT. 8 misi politika yalibdeboda bevri jgufis mier, romlebic ufro gvian, post-konfliqtur periodSi, mniSvnelovani politikuri aqtorebi gaxdnen. dasawyisSi ruseTma gamoiCina loialoba konfliqtSi monawile orive mxaris mimarT. rusuli politikuri elitis nawili gaerTianebuli saqarTvelos momxre iyo, nawili ki mxars uWerda de faqto damoukidebel, promoskovur afxazeTs. konfliqtis dros es loialoba ucvleli ar rCeboda; sabrZolo moqmedebebis ganaxlebisas yvelani afxazebs emxrobodnen. Tavdapirvelad erTiani saqarTvelos mxardamWerTa jgufSi Sediodnen ruseTis mTavrobis is warmomadgenlebi, vinc piradi kontaqtebi daamyara eduard SevardnaZesTan, misi sabWoTa

8 rusul politikaze kavkasiaSi ix. Dmitri Trenin, "Russia's Security Interests and Policies in the Caucasus Region," in Coppieters ed., Contested Borders in the Caucasus, pp. 91­102, http://poli.vub.ac.be/.

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kavSiris sagareo saqmeTa ministrad yofnis dros da isinic vinc ewinaaRmdegeboda afxazur separatistul miswrafebas imis SiSiT, rom igi TviT ruseTis teritoriuli erTianobis safrTxes gamoiwvevda CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi. am jgufSi Sediodnen ruseTis prezidenti boris elcini da sagareo saqmeTa ministri andrei kozirevi, aseve sagareo saqmeTa saministros sxva maRalCinosnebic. zogierTi afxazuri wyaro imasac amtkicebs, rom afxazeTis winaaRmdeg Zalis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb SevardnaZis gegmis politikuri mxardaWera uzrunvelyo elcinma.9 afxazeTSi konfliqtis dawyebis Semdeg 1992 wlis agvistoSi ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa saministrom werili gaugzavna saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministros, romelSic gamoTqmuli iyo Tanadgoma saqarTvelosadmi "terorizmis winaaRmdeg brZolis" saqmeSi. es nabiji nakarnaxevi iyo ruseTis mzardi problemebiT CeCneTSi. rac Seexeba ruseTis samxedro istebliSments, mas afxazeTis konfliqtis mimarT araerTgvarovani damokidebuleba hqonda. moskovSi Tavdacvis saministros Cinosnebma Tavdapirvelad mxari dauWires saqarTvelos moqmedebebs, maSin, rodesac samxedroebi, romlebic samsaxurs afxazeTSi gadiodnen, konfliqtis TiTqmis dasawyisidan afxazebisken gadaixarnen, an pasiurad iyvnen _ SeinarCunes neitraliteti; mogvianebiT ki maTac afxazuri Zalebis aqtiuri daxmareba daiwyes. 1992 wlis maisidan 1993 wlis maisamde ruseTis Tavdacvis ministri pavel graCovi saqarTvelos Tavdacvis ministrisa da erovnuli gvardiis mTavarsardlis, general Tengiz kitovanis axlo megobrad rCeboda. 1992 wlis agvistoSi, omis dawyebis win, graCovi exmareboda saqarTvelos amierkavkasiis samxedro olqSi arsebuli sabWoTa mowyobilobebisa da mZime SeiaraRebis qarTul SeiaraRebul Zalebze gadacemaSi, ramac udavo

9 stanislav lakoba amtkicebs, rom 1992 wlis 24 ivnisis dagomisis samitze saqarTvelos saxelmwifo sabWos meTaurma eduard SevardnaZem xeli moawera "SeTanxmebas qarTul-osuri konfliqtis daregulirebis principebze" da miiRo prezident elcinis mxardaWera afxazeTis winaaRmdeg saqarTvelos samxedro moqmedebis Taobaze. ix. lakoba, gv. 10.

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samxedro upiratesoba moutana maT. qarTulma sajariso nawilebma miiRes tankebi, saartilerio sistemebi, Sveulmfrenebi da msubuqi SeiaraReba. 10 1992 wlis 14 agvistos qarTuli jari 2 000-dan 5 000-mde jariskacis SemadgenlobiT Sevida afxazeTSi da daikava soxumi; damatebiT 1 000-kaciani razmi dadga gagraSi da gadaketa afxazeTis sazRvari ruseTTan. Tavidan graCovma scada, Seekavebina ruseTis samxedro savele meTaurebi, rom afxazebs ar daxmarebodnen. zogierTi afxazuri wyaro miuTiTebs kidevac imaze, rom rusebma qarTvelebs faruli daxmareba aRmouCines, Tumca aseTi gancxadebebis gadamowmeba SeuZlebelia.11 sabrZolo moqmedebebis pirveli etapidan, konfliqtTan dakavSirebiT moskovis poziciis jer kidev Secvlamde, CrdiloeT kavkasiis moxaliseebisagan afxazurma mxarem mniSvnelovani mxardaWera miiRo, maT Soris afxazebTan eTnikurad axlos mdgomi iseTi jgufebisagan, rogorebic arian adiRelebi da Cerqezebi. am mizniT 1992 wlis seqtembris bolos 1 000-mde moxalise CrdiloeT kavkasiidan Cavida soxumSi12. kavkasiis mTiel xalxTa konfederaciam (mogvianebiT kavkasiis xalxTa konfederacia), romelic CrdiloeT kavkasiis respublikebis suverenitetisaTvis ibrZoda, afxazeTSi sabrZolvelad aTasobiT moxalisis mobilizaciis saqmeSi mTavari roli iTamaSa. regionuli elita, romelic Tavidan ewinaaRmdegeboda aseT mobilizacias, iZulebuli gaxda Serigeboda, rom ar gariyuliyo im politikuri procesisagan, romelSic 1991-1993 wlebSi eTnikuri aRorZineba da mobilizacia dominirebda.

10 1993 wlis martSi, konfliqtis dros, rusma samxedroebma saqarTvelos gadasces samocdaoTxi samxedro nawili Tavisi mowyobilobiT. ix. zverevi, gv. 53. 11 afxazuri wyaroebis mixedviT, Tavdapirvelad afxazeTze TavdasxmaSi monawileobas iRebdnen rusuli nawilebi. magaliTad, qalaq gagraSi ganlagebis dros qarTuli jarebi iyenebdnen rusul gemebs. ix. lakoba, gv. 35. 12 Pavel Baev, Jan Koehler, Christoph Zürcher, Internal Violence in the Caucasus: Study Prepared for The World Bank Development Economic Research Group (DECRG) (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2002).

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qarTveli da rusi analitikosebi amtkiceben, rom afxazur-qarTul konfliqtSi monawileobisaTvis ruseTis specsamsaxurebisa da samxedroebis nawili krebda da avarjiSebda CrdiloeT kavkasiis mebrZolebs, Samil basaevis CaTvliT.13 mogvianebiT basaevi afxazeTis Tavdacvis ministris moadgiled dainiSna. ruseTis samxedroebmac arsebiTi mxardaWera gauwies afxazur mxares. ZiriTadad es keTdeboda regionul an amierkavkasiis samxedro olqis samxedro meTaurebis doneze. arsebobs mosazrebebi, Tumca _ mtkicebulebebis gareSe, rom aseTi brZaneba moskovidan modioda. afxazeTSi myofi adgilobrivi qvedanayofebi mebrZolebs daxmarebis sxvadasxva formas sTavazobdnen, personalis, SeiaraRebis, informaciis da sxva momsaxurebis CaTvliT; magram sakiTxi, Tu vin mfarvelobda aseT qmedebas, sakamaTo rCeba. aleqsei zverevis mixedviT, graCovma akrZala konfliqtis romelime mxares dadgoma.14 sxvebi amtkiceben, rom im dros savele samxedro meTaurebi damoukideblad, brZanebebis gareSe moqmedebdnen da xSirad finansuri mogebiT an konfliqtis dros Camoyalibebuli piradi simpaTiebiT iyvnen motivirebulni. 15 general aleqsandre lebedis mixedviT, bevri brZaneba gaicemoda telefonis zarebiT, maRal politikur doneze pasuxismgeblobis Tavidan acilebis mizniT.16 1992 wlis seqtembrisTvis, rodesac aSkara gaxda, rom blickrigis qarTuli gegmebi Cavarda da konfliqti gaWianu1994 wlis Semdeg Samil basaevi gaxda ruseTis jaris winaaRmdeg erTerTi yvelaze cnobili mebrZoli CeCneTSi. polkovnik stanislav lunevis mixedviT, "1992-1992 wlebSi, afxazeTis omis dros, basaevma gaiara specialuri momzadeba da "CeCneTis batalionis" meTauri gaxda". Colonel Stanislav Lunev, "Chechen Terrorists in Dagestan--Made in Russia," August 26, 1999, http://www.newsmax.com. 14 Zverev, p. 53. 15 evgeni primakovi wers Tavis mogonebebSi: "me vici, rom ruseTis xelmZRvaneloba, upirveles yovlisa _ prezidenti, arasdros aZlevda sanqcias ruseTis samxedro Carevaze ­ pirdapir an arapirdapir ­ konfliqtis romelime mxaris mimarT. 16 Àëåêñàíäð Ãîëüö, «Àðìèÿ Ðîññèè: 11 Ïîòåíöèàëüíûõ ëåò» (Ìîñêâà: Çàõàðîâ, 2004), ñ. 151.

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rebul, sastik omSi gadaizarda, ruseTis politikac Seicvala da afxazurma jarma ruseTis samxedro daxmareba ufro didi odenobiT miiRo.17 aseTi cvlileba SeiZleba aixsnas im faqtiT, rom dinamikurad ganviTarebad konfliqtSi moskovelma politikurma Zalebma dakarges kontroli situaciaze, maSin, rodesac afxazeTSi myofi ruseTis samxedro Zalebi da moxaliseebi gadaiqcnen ZiriTad moTamaSeebad da TavianTi qmedebebiT gansazRvravdnen ruseTis politikas. afxazeTis mebrZolebi iaraRs gudauTaSi ganlagebuli ruseTis 643-e sazenitosaraketo polkidan da momaragebis nawilidan iRebdnen. omamde ruseTis am nawilebis SeiaraReba Sedgeboda aTasi avtomatis, 18 tyviamfrqvevis, naxevari milioni vaznisa da ramdenime javSanmanqanisagan.18 ucnobi rCeba, Tu ramdeni gaiyida aqedan an gadaeca afxazur mxares. ufro metic, arsebobs azrTa sxvaoba imis Taobaze, gudauTaSi dislocirebuli rusuli nawilebi rodis asrulebdnen pirdapir ruseTis Tavdacvis saministros brZanebebs da rodis moqmedebdnen damoukideblad.19 nebismier SemTxvevaSi, daxmareba mniSvnelovani iyo. zverevis Tanaxmad, is faqti, rom konfliqtis zonaSi gamoiyenes 100 000 naRmi, maSin, rodesac omamde afxazeTSi naRmebis sawyobebi ar yofila, miuTiTebs ruseTis daxmarebis masStabebze. mixeil demianovma saqarTvelos televiziisaTvis micemul interviuSi ganacxada, rom iaraRi afxazur mxares ufasod gadaecemoda.20 afxazi istorikosi stanislav lakoba,

Lakoba, p. 21. Evgeny Kozhokin, "Georgia­Abkhazia" in Jeremy R. Azrael and Emil A. Payin eds., U.S. and Russian Policymaking with Respect to the Use of Force (Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1996), citirebulia robert silis mier wignSi Russo­Chechen Conflict 1800­2000: A Deadly Embrace (London: Frank Cass, 2001), p. 192. 19 saerTaSoriso organizaciaze xiuman raits uotCi Tavis moxsenebaSi "omi Tu mSvidoba? adamianis uflebebi da ruseTis Careva "axlo sazRvargareTSi" akeTebs Semdeg Sefasebas: "rTulia imis gansazRvra, Tu ra doneze gaicemoda nebarTvebi Tu brZanebebi... aSkara ki is aris, rom ruseTis mTavrobam ar gamoiZia, araferi rom ar iTqvas sisxlis samarTlis devnaze, kriminaluri faqtebia, romlebic gulisxmobda maRali donis Tanamonawileobas". ixileT: http://www.hrw.org/reports/1993/russia/.

18 17

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Tavis mxriv, amtkicebs, rom afxazebma ki ar miiRes, aramed iyides ruseTis samxedroebisagan naRmebis didi nawili, msubuqi iaraRi da mZime SeiaraRebac. 1993 wlis TebervalSi ruseTis samxedro TviTmfrinavebma dabombes qarTuli poziciebi. 1993 wlis 19 marts qarTulma Zalebma Camoagdes aviagamanadgurebeli "su-27", romelsac marTavda ruseTis piloti. es epizodi daadastures gaeros samxedro damkvirveblebma da mogvianebiT aRiara ruseTis mxaremac. misi mtkicebiT, am frenis mizani ruseTis strategiuli obieqtebis dacva iyo.21 1993 wlis martSi gazeTma "izvestiam" pirvelad daadastura, rom afxazeTma ruseTis samxedro mrCevlebisagan aqtiuri daxmareba miiRo da afxazebisaTvis gadacemuli SeiaraRebis CamonaTvali gamoaqveyna.22 rogorc zemoT iyo naTqvami, afxazur Zalebs sakmaod didi samxedro daxmareba gauwia kavkasiis xalxTa konfederaciis mier organizebulma, Crdilo kavkasiidan Casulma aTasobiT moxalisem da daqiravebulma. CrdiloeT kavkasiis moxaliseebis monawileoba, romlebic, afxazuri wyaroebis mixedviT, Seadgendnen mTeli afxazuri Zalebis daaxloebiT 10 procents, ufro mniSvnelovani da gadamwyveti iyo afxazuri mxarisaTvis, vidre ruseTis samxedro_teqnikuri daxmareba.23 swored amitom miiRes maT, Stabis ufrosis, Tavdacvis ministris moadgilisa da samxedrosazRvao Stabis ufrosis sakvanZo Tanamdebobebi afxazur ZalebSi. qarTul-afxazur konfliqtSi ruseTis samxedro monawileobis xasiaTis miuxedavad, ar arsebobs iseTi mtkicebulebebi, romelTa safuZvelzec SeiZleba iTqvas, rom konfliqti dagegma da ganaxorciela moskovma. aseTi gancxadebebi ki xSirad gaismis

20 21

"omi Tu mSvidoba?", gv. 5. Êðàñíàÿ Çâåçäà, 23 ìàðòà 1993 ã., ñ. 1. 22 «Àáõàçñêèå âîéñêà øòóðìóþò Ñóõóìè: Øåâàðäíàäçå îáâèíÿåò Ðîññèþ â àãðåññèè», Èçâåñòèÿ, 17 ìàðòà 1993 ã., citirebulia Seely-s mixedviT, gv. 193. siaSi Sedioda 72 tanki, ruseTis sadesanto batalioni, 20 javSanmanqana, "gradis" saraketo danadgarebi, "uraganis" saraketo danadgarebi da 12 saartilerio erTeuli ruseTis oficrebTan erTad, romlebic iyvnen 10kaciani qvedanayofebis meTaurebi. 23 Lakoba, p. 19.

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qarTuli politikuri elitis warmomadgenlebis mxridan. arda amisa, gadauWreli rCeba sakiTxi, moaxdina Tu ara gadamwyveti gavlena ruseTis monawileobam konfliqtis dinamikaze.24 saqarTvelos damarcxebis aseTi rusocentristuli interpretaciis Semdeg yuradRebas ar aqceven afxazeTis mosaxleobis uprecedento mobilizacias, romelic SiSobda erovnuli gadarCenis Taobaze da amis gamo brZolis ufro Zlieri motivacia gaaCnda, vidre qarTveli meomrebis umravlesobas. gazviadebulia afxazebis gamarjvebisaTvis saWiro gare mxardaWeris donec, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, rom miuxedavad omamde ruseTis regionuli sardlobisgan miRebuli daxmarebisa, qarTuli Zalebi araorganizebuli, udisciplino da gauwvrTneli iyvnen. amasTan, isini, vinc konfliqtSi brals sdeben ruseTs, midrekili arian, uaryon adgilobrivi afxazuri Zalebis arseboba, maTi interesebi da motivaciebi. 1996 wels gia nodia werda, rom afxazebs "uyurebdnen ara, rogorc sakuTari uflebebisaTvis mebrZolebs, aramed, rogorc "maTTan", rusebTan mimxrobilebs "Cven", qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg".25 iuri anCabaZe SeniSnavs, rom "qarTuli mxaris daJinebuli Zalisxmeva, gamoiyvanos ruseTi erTaderT damnaSaved, omSi maTi damarcxebis gamarTlebis survils niRbavs da qarTvelebis mier im sakuTari rolisa da Secdomebis adekvaturi Sefasebis SesaZleblobas amcirebs, romelmac saqme 19921993 wlebis tragikuli movlenebis eskalaciamde miiyvana".26

Tumca, zogierTi qarTuli wyaro amtkicebs, rom SesaZlebelia ruseTis monawileoba gadamwyvetic yofiliyo. avtorTan saubrisas jaba devdariani citirebda qarTul mtkicebulebebs imis Sesaxeb, rom afxazurma Zalebma ganaaxles Seteva soxumze soWis SeTanxmebis Semdeg, iyenebdnen ra mZime artilerias, romelic, wesiT, gamoyvanili unda yofiliyo cecxlis xazidan da misi saketebi " zatvorebi" Sesanaxad Cabareboda ruseTis sardlobis meTvalyureobis qveS. Tu vivaraudebT, rom soxumis Sturmis win rusma meTaurebma daabrunes artileria, maSin maT SeeZloT gadamwyveti gavlena moxdenaT omis erT-erT sabediswero epizodze. 25 Ghia Nodia, "Political Turmoil in Georgia and the Ethnic Policies of Zviad Gamsakhurdia," in Coppieters, ed., Contested Borders in the Caucasus, p. 84. 26 Anchabadze, pp. 86-87.

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samxedro konfliqtis dasasruli da Sida debatebi ruseTSi

konfliqtSi ruseTis mTavar politikur warmatebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos 1993 wlis 27 ivliss qarTuli da afxazuri mxareebis mier q. soWSi xelmowerili SeTanxmeba, romelic cecxlis Sewyvetas da afxazeTis demilitarizacias gulisxmobda. soWis SeTanxmebis Sesabamisad, qarTulma mxarem daiwyo Tavisi Zalebis gamoyvana da Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis nawili saxlebSi daabruna. konfliqtis orive mxaris ganiaraRebis mizniT ruseTis Tavdacvis ministrma graCovma afxazeTSi ori rusuli samxedro brigadis ganlagebis winadadeba wamoayena, magram saqarTvelom uari Tqva am windadebaze da, rogorc evgeni primakovma aRniSna, mogvianebiT inana aseTi gadawyvetilebis miReba.27 qarTveli eqsperti paata zaqareiSvili ki, romelic eswreboda ruseTis warmomadgenlis sergei Soigus mediatorobiT Catarebul molaparakebebs soWSi, biWvinTasa da gudauTaSi, amtkicebs, rom ruseTis mxare yovelTvis aSkarad proafxazur poziciaze idga da qarTul mxareze Zlier zewolas axdenda.28 Soigu iTxovda soxumsa da sxva did qalaqebSi ruseTis samxedro xelisuflebis (komendaturebis) ganlagebas, magram saqarTvelos warmomadgenelma Jiuli Sartavam uari ganacxada am winadadebaze.29 1993 wlis 27 seqtembers afxazeTis Zalebma soxumi qarTuli jarisagan "gaaTavisufles". ramdenime saaTiT adre, vidre

Primakov, p. 417. Soigus kavSirebi afxazeTis oficialur pirebTan grZeldeboda konfliqtis Semdegac. man nodar xaSba, romelic warmoadgenda afxazur mxares soWis molaparakebebSi daniSna maRal Tanamdebobaze Tavis sagangebo situaciebis saministroSi, sadac xaSba msaxurobda 2004 wlamde. Semdeg igi gaagzavnes ukan, afxazeTSi ruseTis interesebis warmosadgenad 2004 wlis sakamaTo arCevnebis dros afxazeTis droebiTi premierministris rangSi. 29 paata zaqareiSvili. "iyo Tu ara iaraRi fqvilis tomrebSi?" _ "rezonansi", 9 oqtomberi, 2004 w.

28

27

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afxazebi qalaqze kontrols daawesebdnen, soxumidan Tavad SevardnaZis evakuacia gaxda saWiro. saqarTvelos prezidentma moskovs protesti ganucxada afxazuri Zalebis mier soWis SeTanxmebis darRvevis gamo, magram pasuxi ver miiRo. faqtobrivad, soxumis movlenebi daemTxva did politikur kriziss moskovSi ­ winaaRmdegobas prezident elcinsa da uzenaes sabWos Soris, rodesac mTavrobam Zala gamoiyena ruseTis "TeTr saxlSi" darCenili opoziciurad ganwyobili parlamentarebis nawilis winaaRmdeg. Sedegad, soxumisaTvis bolo brZolis dros qarTvelebis ruseTisadmi mimarTva daxmarebis Taobaze upasuxod darCa. erTaderTi pasuxi moskovidan 20 seqtembers movida, roca moskovma afxazeTis winaaRmdeg ekonomikuri sanqciebi SemoiRo. qarTuli wyaroebi amtkiceben, rom ruseTis jarebi afxazebTan erTad aqtiurad monawileobdnen soxumis ieriSze. zogierTebi ki darwmunebuli arian, rom rusulma nawilebma soxumze ieriSi afxazur jarebze win miitanes. afxazuri monacemebis mixedviT ki, ruseTis daxmareba mxolod imiT Semoifargla, rom graCovma uari ganacxada afxazebis Setevis SesaCereblad ruseTis jaris gamoyenebaze.30 lakoba Tvlis, rom am SemTxvevaSi saomari moqmedebebi daiwyeboda ruseTsa da afxazeTs Soris (CrdiloeT kavkasiis moxaliseebis monawileobiT) da naklebad savaraudoa, maT moskovis CareviTac ki ukan daexiaT.31 qarTuli samxedro Zalebisa da samoqalaqo pirebis gaqcevis Semdeg, 30 seqtembrisaTvis, afxazuri Zalebi afxazeTisa da saqarTvelos regionis _samegrelos gamyof mdinare enguramde Cavidnen. saqarTvelo damarcxebiT Sokirebuli iyo da imedovnebda, rom moskovisa da saerTaSoriso sazogadoebisadmi mimarTviT Secvlida omis Sedegebs. moskovis mxridan mravalTviani zewolis Sedegad, 1993 wlis 9 oqtombers, saqarTvelo, bolos da bolos, SeuerTda damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tana30 31

Zverev, p. 54. Lakoba, p. 31.

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megobrobas (dsT-s), xedavda ra masSi ruseTis daxmarebiT afxazeTSi status_kvos aRdgenis SesaZleblobas. magram moskovi daexmara SevardnaZes saqarTvelos samoqalaqo omSi mxolod zviad gamsaxurdias da ara _ afxazeTis winaaRmdeg. CeCneTidan saqarTveloSi gamsaxurdias dabrunebis Semdeg zviadistebma TandaTanobiT daikaves dasavleT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani nawili, imuqrebodnen ra Tbilisze SeteviT da gamsaxurdias saxelmwifos meTauris postze dabrunebiT. dsTis oqtombris SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, ruseTis Zalebma daamyares kontroli centralur magistralebze da SevardnaZis momxreebs ajanyebis CaxSobaSi gadamwyveti daxmareba gauwies. TviTon gamsaxurdia dasavleT saqarTveloSi 1993 wlis 31 dekembers gaurkvevel viTarebaSi daiRupa. amave dros afxazeTis problemis gadaWris saqmeSi aranairi progresi ar iyo. 1993 wlis oqtomber-noemberSi moskovi zewolas axdenda afxazeTsa da saqarTveloze, raTa isini konfliqtis ganaxlebisagan gadaerwmunebina. Jenevasa da moskovSi Sexvedrebis Semdeg politikuri dialogi CixSi moeqca. 1994 wlis 4 aprils moskovSi garkveuli garRveva moxda. orive mxarem _ rogorc afxazeTis, iseve saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebma ruseTisa da evropis usafrTxoebisa da TanamSromlobis konferenciis (euTk) oficialuri pirebis da agreTve gaeros generaluri mdivnis warmomadgenlebis TandaswrebiT, bolos da bolos, xeli moawera deklaracias qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis politikuri daregulirebis Sesaxeb. agreTve gaformda SeTanxmeba ltolvilebisa da Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis nebayoflobiTi dabrunebis Taobaze, imaTi gamoklebiT, vinc samxedro danaSaulobebSi iyo Careuli.32 sanam rusi mediatorebi moskovis SeTanxmebaze muSaobdnen, prezidenti elcini da misi samxedroebi cdilobdnen ruseTis strategiuli interesebis ganxorcielebas uSualod Sevard32

orive dokumenti gamoqveynebulia naSromSi: Jonathan Cohen, ed.," A Question of Sovereignty: The Georgia­Abkhazia Peace Process," Accord, issue 7 (September 1999), pp. 66­69, http://www.c-r.org/accord/geor-ab/accord7/index.shtml.

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naZis mTavrobasTan, romelic mniSvnelovnad Sesustebuli iyo afxazeTSi damarcxebis gamo. 1994 wlis 3 Tebervals elcini Cavida TbilisSi da xeli moawera xelSekrulebas saqarTvelosTan megobrobis, keTilmezobluri urTierTobebisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb. Tavdacvis ministrma pavel graCovma da saqarTvelos premier-ministrma oTar facaciam ki xeli moaweres oqms, romelic ruseTs 25 wlis vadiT saqarTveloSi sami samxedro bazis Seqmnis uflebas aZlevda.33 maTi ganlageba gaTvaliswinebli iyo vazianSi, axalqalaqsa da baTumSi, gudauTisa da soxumis ganyofilebebTan erTad. samagierod, moskovi daTanxmda saqarTvelos gaewia samxedro-teqnikuri daxmareba da daadastura rom ruseTi mxars uWerda saqarTvelos teritoriul erTianobas. 1994 wlis 17 Tebervals saxelmwifo dumis dsT-is saqmeTa da sazRvargareT mcxovreb TanamemamuleebTan kavSirebis komitetma am or SeTanxmebasTan dakavSirebiT Caatara specialuri mosmena, sadac elcini gaakritika imis gamo, rom xeli moawera SeTanxmebas jer kidev mimdinare konfliqtis erT mxaresTan. mosmenaze gairkva, Tu ratom iyvnen ukmayofiloni kanonmdeblebi. isini ewinaaRmdegebodnen imas, rom ruseTma saqarTvelos teritoriuli erTianoba aRiara afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis statusis raime garantiebis gareSe da amtkicebdnen, rom aseTma calmxrivma midgomam SeiZleba saqme iqamde miiyvanos, rom afxazeTi da samxreT oseTi dakargaven ndobas ruseTis mimarT da Searyeven mis, rogorc Suamavlis, rols, rac konfliqtis orive mxarisaTvis misaRebia. deputatebi gansakuTrebiT aRaSfoTa SeTanxmebis me-3 muxlma, romelic gulisxmobda ruseTis daxmarebas saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis SeqmnaSi, maT Soris _ teqnikisa da SeiaraRebis miwodebaSi. saxelmwifo dumis dsT-is saqmeTa komitetis 1994 wlis 3 Tebervlis (xelSekrulebis xelmoweris dRe) specialur gancxadebaSi naTqvamia, rom am muxlma "SeiZleba saxifaTo destabilizacia gamoiwvios kavkasiasa da

33

Zverev, p. 9.

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TviT ruseTSi". iqve aRniSnulia, rom saqarTvelosTvis iaraRis gadacema SeiZleba iyos miCneuli, rogorc ruseTis mxridan saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mier Zalis gamoyenebis waxaliseba afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTze kontrolis aRdgenis mizniT. kanonmdeblebma agreTve sadavo gaxades Tavdacvis saministros mtkiceba imis Sesaxeb, rom ruseTis samxedro daxmareba da momzadeba gaaZlierebs ruseTis samxedro gavlenas saqarTveloSi. dabolos, maT gamoTqves SiSi, rom saqarTvelo sust da dacalkevebul mdgomareobaSi imis garantias ver uzrunvelyofs, rom ruseTis SeiaraReba da teqnika ar Cavardeba mesame Zalis xelSi da magaliTad mTiani yarabaxi moiyvanes. maTi Semodaveba amiT ar amowurula. ruseTis nakisr valdebulebaSi _ daxuros Tavisi sazRvrebi, raTa samxedro moqmedebebis ganaxlebis SemTxvevaSi ar dauSvas CrdiloeT kavkasiidan moxaliseebis SeRweva afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi, isini afxazeTis mimarT saqarTvelos mier Zalis gamoyenebis waxalisebas xedavdnen. maT gaakritikes afxazur konfliqtSi gaeros mzardi roli, radgan dsT-is funqciis Sesusteba SeniSnes. gamoiTqva SiSi saqarTveloSi ruseTis samxedro bazebis Sesaxeb graCovisa da facacias mier xelmowerili oqmis garSemo, agreTve saqarTvelos mier arakontrolirebad teritoriaze _ afxazeTSi ruseTis bazebis funqcionirebis uzrunvelyofis unaris gamo. afxazeTis mimarT politikasTan dakavSirebiT 1994 wlis TebervalSi gakeTebuli dumis gancxadebebi warmoadgenda gardatexis wertils ruseTis Sida politikur debatebSi. 1994 wlamde saqarTvelosa da afxazeTSi ruseTis mTavrobas SeeZlo Tavisi politikis gatareba politikuri opoziciis gareSe, miuxedavad CrdiloeT kavkasiis regionuli elitis protestebisa, romlis gavlena umniSvnelo iyo. amitom afxazeTis omis dros dominirebdnen ZiriTadad proqarTuli politikuri elita moskovSi, maT Soris TviT elcini da ganxeTqilebaSi myofi samxedroebi, romlebic rogorc saqarTvelos, ise afxazeTsac exmarebodnen. 1994 wlis Semdeg mTavroba aRmoCnda afxazuri interesebis damcveli saxelmwifo dumis zewolis qveS. 90-ian

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gayinuli gaurkvevloba: ruseTi da konfliqti afxazeTis irgvliv

wlebSi duma inarCunebda am rols, imisda mixedviT, Tu rogor kargavda qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis mimarT interess mTavroba. maSasadame, parlamenti iyo mTavari Zala, romelic ayalibebda sazogadoebriv da ruseTis elitis azrs konfliqtis Sesaxeb. Sedegad, sazogadoebrivi azri ixreboda afxazeTTan axlo urTierTobebis sasargeblod da "aramegobruli" saqarTvelos sawinaaRmdegod. dumis opoziciasTan Sejaxebisas elcinma gadawyvita afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi konfliqtebis daregulirebamde megobrobis, keTilmezobluri urTierTobebisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb xelSekruleba saratifikaciod ar gadaeca. Sesabamisad, es xelSekruleba arc yofila ratificirebuli saxelmwifo dumis mier. es rom 1994 wels momxdariyo, mas SeeZlo rusul-qarTuli urTierTobebis xasiaTi da afxazeTSi movlenaTa dasasruli Seecvala. samarTlebrivi CarCoebis ararsebobisas ruseTis mTavroba mainc Seudga saqarTvelos teritoriaze samxedro bazebis Seqmnas, rac xuTi wlis Semdeg rusul-qarTuli urTierTobebis daZabulobis mTavar wyarod iqca. gaurkveveli rCeba, Seasrula Tu ara moskovma saqarTvelos winaSe valdebulebebi samxedro daxmarebasTan dakavSirebiT, Tumca samxedro teqnikis miwodebas adgili hqonda, qarTveli oficrebis mcire nawilis momzadebasTan erTad. dumis rekomendaciebis miuxedavad, ruseTis mTavroba daTanxmda gaeros Suamavlis rolze da konfliqtis zonaSi gaeros damkvirvebelTa misiis ganlagebaze; magram moskovi Seecada gaeros Seviwroebas, mis ukana planze dayenebas (marginalizacia) da Tbilissa da soxums Soris mTavar mediatorad yofnas. amis gansaxorcieleblad is dsT-is mandatis qveS ruseTis samSvidoboebis yofnas da soxumTan gansakuTrebul urTierTobebs eyrdnoboda. es urTierTobebi, formaluri embargos miuxedavad, ganviTarda, radgan ruseTis gavleniani jgufebi situaciaSi _ "arc omi da arc mSvidoba"_ nayofier niadags xedavdnen afxazeTSi TavianTi ekonomikuri interesebisa da politikuri ambiciebis realizaciisaTvis.

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ruseTis samSvidoboebi da gaero

1994 wlis 14 maiss saqarTvelom da afxazeTma xeli moaweres SeTanxmebas cecxlis Sewyvetisa da mowinaaRmdege mxareebis gamijvnis Sesaxeb.34 SeTanxmeba gaeros egidiTa da ruseTis federaciis xelSewyobiT daido. mis Sesrulebaze dakvirvebisaTvis igi iTvaliswinebda dsT-is Zalebis ganlagebas.35 1994 wlis 9 ivniss prezidentma elcinma xeli moawera brZanebulebas qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis zonaSi dsT-is samSvidobo operaciebSi ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebis monawileobis Sesaxeb. 21 ivniss ruseTis samSvidobo Zalebi (erTaderTi samSvidobo Zalebi, romlebic axorcieleben dsT-is mandats konfliqtis zonaSi) ganlagdnen usafrTxoebis "Crdilo" (kodoris xeobis qveda nawili) da "samxreT" (mdinare engurze) zonebSi. amave dros saqarTveloSi gaeros damkvirvebelTa (sgdm), romelic 1993 wlis agvistodan imyofeboda konfliqtis zonaSi cecxlis droebiTi Sewyvetis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis Sesrulebis kontrolis mizniT, davalebuli hqonda moskovis SeTanxmebis Sesrulebaze dakvirveba da dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebze monitoringi. 1994-2004 wlebSi am Zalebis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda 30 aTasze meti samxedro mosamsaxure. maTgan movaleobis Sesrulebis dros daiRupa 97 da daiWra 251. dRes dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebis ruseTis kontingenti Seadgens 1700 samxedro mosamsaxures. 2004 wels saqarTvelos gaeros damkvirvebelTa misiis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda 114 samxedro damkvirvebeli 23 qveynidan.36

Cohen, ed., pp. 69­70. 1994 wlidan, dsT-is mandatiT, mxolod ruseTis Zalebi warmoadgendnen am samSvidobo Zalis nawils. 36 ix. http://www.unomig.org; 2003 wlis oqtombrisaTvis saqarTvelos gaeros damkvirvebelTa misiis operaciebis saerTo Rirebuleba Seadgenda 1,5 miliard aSS dolars. Report of the Secretary-General toSecurity Council, 17/10/03, S/2003/1019, p. 7. 2003 wlisaTvis dsT-is samSvidobo operaciebis Rirebuleba Seadgenda 490 milion aSS dolars. ix. The Military Balance, 2003­2004 (London: The International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2003).

35

34

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dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebis zonebi sigrZeSi 85 da siganeSi 24 kilometria da cecxlis Sewyvetis xazis orive mxarezea gaSlili. masSi Sedis 22 sadamkvirveblo da 4 sakontrolo posti. garda amisa, ruseTis samSvidoboebi gaeros damkvirveblebTan erTad regularulad patrulireben kodoris xeobis qveda nawilSi, haeridan akvirdebian kodoris xeobis zeda nawils da akontroleben demilitarizebul zonaSi mZime SeiaraRebis nebismier gadaadgilebas. ruseTis samSvidobo Zalebis mandati, romelic, qarTuli mxaris mudmivi kritikis miuxedavad, 1994 wlidan ar Secvlila, iTvaliswinebs cecxlis Sewyvetis realizacias da SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis ganaxlebis aRkveTas. marTalia, samSvidoboebis nawili ganlagebulia galis raionSi, magram maT iq politikuri operaciebis Catarebis pirdapiri mandati ar gaaCniaT. 1994 wlis zafxulSi ruseTis oficialuri pirebi Seecadnen, afxazuri mxare daeTanxmebinaT afxazeTSi, ZiriTadad ki galis raionSi, Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis didi jgufebis dabrunebaze. samSvidoboebi mzad iyvnen, maTTvis usafrTxoebis garantia miecaT, magram afxazuri mxare amtkicebda, rom es maT mandatSi ar Sedioda da daJinebiT moiTxovda ltolvilTa etapobriv dabrunebas. afxazeTis xelisufleba imuqreboda, rom winaaRmdegobas gauwevda ruseTis samSvidoboebs, Tuki isini xels Seuwyobdnen qarTvelTa didi jgufebis dabrunebas. 1994 wlis 14 seqtembers afxazuri Zalebi usafrTxoebis zonaSi Sevidnen da ruseTis samSvidoboebi aiZules ukan daexiaT.37 maSin, rodesac afxazebi Tvlidnen, rom sakiTxi maT sasicocxlo interesebs exeboda, msgavsi incidentebi moskovis mier afxazeTis politikaze gavlenis moxdenis SesaZleblobis SezRudulobis demonstrirebas axdenda. uTanxmoeba ltolvilebis dabrunebis vadebsa da masStabebze moskovsa da soxums Soris daZabulobas iwvevda. cxadia, rom moskovs Zalis gamoyenebiT damuqreba SeeZlo, magram es calsaxad konfliqtis ganaxlebasa da cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb 1993 wlis seqtembris

37

Lakoba, p. 37.

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oqsana antonenko

SeTanxmebasTan dakavSirebiT ruseTis mTavrobis udavo prioritetis darRvevas moaswavebda. amdenad, dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebis ganlagebis Semdeg saqarTvelos mTavroba mivida daskvnamde, rom ruseTis xelisufleba ar apirebda afxazur mxareze iseT zewolas, romelic aiZulebda Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis Sesaxeb aprilis SeTanxmebebis dacvas. piriqiT ­ ruseTis samSvidoboebis rolma swrafi transformacia ganicada: qarTuli da afxazuri mosaxleobis TandaTanobiTi reintegraciis nacvlad, maT Soris gaTiSuloba ufro gaRrmavda.38 es gaxda mTavari mizezi imisa, rom saqarTvelo mudmivad eZebda mSvidobis SenarCunebisaTvis Zalisxmevis internacionalizaciis gzebs, Tumca es cdebi warumatebeli aRmoCnda. afxazeTSi ruseTis samSvidobo Zalebis ganlagebidan ramdenime Tvis Semdeg prezident elcinis kurTxeviT rusma samxedroebma CeCneTSi joxar dudaevis winaaRmdeg samxedro moqmedebebi daiwyes da ruseTi moulodnelad gaWianurebul sisxlian konfliqtSi Caabes, risTvisac is moumzadebeli aRmoCnda. omma CeCneTSi rus politikosebs sul ufro gaurTula mezobeli qveynebis separatistuli reJimebis mxardaWera. am pirveli CeCnuri omis movlenebma daaaxlova saqarTvelosa da ruseTis erovnuli interesebi. axsovda ra omSi afxazuri jaris mxareze CeCenTa aqtiuri monawileoba, prezidentma SevardnaZem mxari dauWira ruseTis samxedro kampanias CeCneTis separatizmis winaaRmdeg. moskovi, Tavis mxriv, daeTanxma qarTvelebis moTxovnas, daewesebina afxazeTis ufro masStaburi blokada mas Semdeg, rac 1993 wlis dekemberSi SemoRebuli Tavdapirveli blokada moixsna mdinare fsous sasazRvro saguSagoze SezRuduli gasasvlelis gaxsnis gamo. 1994 wlis dekemberSi ruseTma kvlav daketa Tavisi sazRvari mdinare fsouze, afxazeTis mosaxleobis erTaderTi saxmeleTo kavSiri gare samyarosTan. saxmeleTo da sazRvao blokadasTan erTad ruseTma afxazeTs satelefono kavSiric Seuwyvita da uari

38

Dov Lynch, "Managing Separatist States: A Eurasian Case Study," EU-ISS Occasional Papers, no. 32, (November 2001), p. 17.

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gayinuli gaurkvevloba: ruseTi da konfliqti afxazeTis irgvliv

Tqva afxazur enaze gaformebuli sabWoTa pasportebis cnobaze.39 mogvianebiT man mxari dauWira dsT-is qveynebis meTaurebis mier 1996 wlis 31 ianvars miRebul gadawyvetilebas afxazeTis winaaRmdeg ekonomikuri embargos SemoRebisa da iaraRis miwodebis akrZalvis Sesaxeb.40 afxazeTis izolaciis es politika 1999 wlamde gagrZelda. 1999 wels ki moskovma gaxsna sazRvari da amiT vaWroba da sazRvris gadakveTa gaadvila. sanqciebis politikam afxazeTis mTavrobas daTmobebisaken ar ubiZga. blokadam ver aiZula soxumi TbilisTan ufro mWidro kontaqtebi moeZia da ver Secvala misi pozicia politikuri statusis Sesaxeb; metic, man afxazeTis poziciis gamkacrebas Seuwyo xeli. konfliqtis dasawyisidan afxazursa da qarTul xelmZRvanelobas Soris politikuri dialogis xelSewyobis mizniT ruseTi yovel Rones xmarobda da dResac ganagrZobs Zalisxmevas. procesi, romelsac gaero xelmZRvanelobs, am dialogis mTavari RerZi gaxda. ruseTis mxardaWeriTa da gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialuri warmomadgenlis TavmjdomareobiT 1997 wels Seiqmna sakoordinacio sabWo. evropis uSiSroebisa da TanamSromlobis organizacia (euTo) da gaeros generaluri mdivnis megobarTa jgufi (romlis SemadgenlobaSi Sedian safrangeTi, germania, SeerTebuli Statebi, gaerTianebuli samefo da ruseTi) CarTulebi iyvnen rogorc damkvirveblebi. sakoordinacio sabWom Seqmna sami samuSao jgufi: usafrTxoebasa da samxedro moqmedebebis ganuaxleblobis, Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebisa da ekonomikur da socialur sakiTxebze. arda amisa, 1997­1999 wlebSi ruseTma moawyo ramdenime Sexvedra prezident SevardnaZisa da afxazeTis prezident vladislav

Lakoba, p. 38. imis gamo, rom ar arsebobs damoukidebeli Sefaseba, rTulia imis Tqma, sruldeboda Tu ara es sanqciebi. calkeuli monacemebis mixedviT, sanqciebis reJimis CaSlas xels uwyobda vaWroba ruseT-saqarTvelos sazRvarze, rogorc zRviT (TurqeTisa da ruseTis gemebis daxmarebiT), gansakuTrebiT ­ TviT saqarTvelosTan sasazRvro vaWrobiT, romelSic monawileobas iRebdnen Tavdacvis afxazuri razmebic da zugdidis raionidan egreT wodebuli qarTveli partizanebic ki.

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arZinbas Soris, aseve Sexvedrebi orive mxridan maRalCinosani warmomadgenlebis monawileobiT. moskovi fiqrobda, rom msgavsi pirdapiri molaparakebebi xels Seuwyobda Cixidan gamosvlas. am mizniT Tbiliss federalur modelze daTanxmebas sTavazobda da afxazeTisaTvis asimetriul federaciaSi gansakuTrebuli statusis SeTavazebas iTxovda. amave dros moskovi aSkarad agrZnobinebda soxums, rom mas damoukidebel saxelmwifod an ruseTis federaciis wevrad gaxdomis raime perspeqtiva ar hqonda. magram progresis miRwevamde, sul male, procesi axalma krizisma Sewyvita. 1998 wlis maisSi galis raionSi, sadac bevri qarTveli dabrunda da sadac mdinare enguris gaswvriv rusi samSvidoboebi mxareebs Soris gamyof xazs patrulirebdnen, brZolebma ifeTqa. es brZolebi provocirebuli iyo qarTveli gasamxedroebuli formirebebis mier, romlebmac cecxlis Sewyvetis xazi gadakveTes da aseve afxazuri Zalebis mier, romlebmac usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg operacia wamoiwyes. evgeni primakovi Tavis memuarebSi amtkicebs, rom SevardnaZe aqciis mzadebis Sesaxeb informirebuli ar iyo, Tumca am kampaniebSi monawile gasamxedroebuli dajgufebebi "TeTri legioni" da "tyis Zmebi" daxmarebas qarTuli saxelmwifo struqturebisgan iRebdnen.41 asobiT adamiani iqna mokluli, 20 000-ze meti qarTveli, romlebic cota xnis win TavianT saxlebs daubrundnen, kvlav gadaadgilebuli gaxda, 1500 saxlze meti ki, romelTa didi nawili gaeros programis mixedviT iqna aRdgenili, daangries. ruseTis samSvidoboebma ver uzrunvelyves qarTuli mosaxleobis saTanado dacva, magram usafrTxoebis zonaSi orive mxridan mZime SeiaraRebis Semoyvanas xeli SeuSales. ruseTis am nabijma xeli Seuwyo Zaladobis lokalizebas da cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis reJimTan dabrunebas.42

Ïðèìàêîâ. Ãîäû â áîëüøîé ïîëèòèêå, ñ. 414. im dros primakovi iyo ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministri. 42 Ïðèìàêîâ. Ãîäû â áîëüøîé ïîëèòèêå, ñ. 413.

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afxazeTSi Zaladobis gamoyenebaze ruseTis reaqcia ar iTvaliswinebda iZulebiT zomebs. ruseTis politikurma xelmZRvanelobam, Tvlida ra mTavar amocanad konfliqtis ganuaxleblobas, yovelgvari riskis Tavidan asacileblad, Tavis samSvidoboebs Carevis ufleba ar misca. ufro metic, ruseTis TavSekaveba da samSvidobo mandatis policiurze an sxva formaze Secvlis survilis uqonloba primakovma imiT axsna, rom aseTi mandati gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos mier unda yofiliyo damtkicebuli. dsT-s ki amis gakeTeba ar SeeZlo. igi ambobs, rom mandatis msgavsi Secvla albaT ruseTis samSvidoboebis ufro met msxverpls gamoiwvevda (1998 wlis movlenebis dros ruseTis jarebma dakarges 60 adamiani).43 primakovi aSkarad migvaniSnebs, rom mandatis nebismieri Secvla ruseTis xelmZRvanelobisa da sazogadoebrivi azrisaTvis politikurad miuRebeli iqneboda. 1998 wlis galis raionis movlenebis Semdeg rusi samSvidoboebis mier qarTuli mosaxleobis dacvis survilis arqoniT aRSfoTebulma saqarTvelos mTavrobam dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebis mandatis gafarToebis moTxovnebi ganaaxla Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis usafrTxo dabrunebis mizniT da ara mxolod galis raionSi. saqarTvelom agreTve ganacxada, rom, Tu ruseTi uars ityvis mandatis gafarToebaze, maSin misi jarebi mravalerovani samSvidobo ZalebiT unda Seicvalos. ukrainam mzadyofna gamoTqva monawileobis miRebaze, magram mxolod gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos mandatiT da garedan dafinansebis pirobiT. 44 ruseTis winaaRmdegobis gaTvaliswinebiT, gaerom da euTom gadawyvites ar ganixilon konfliqtis zonaSi alternatiuli samSvidobo Zalebis gagzavnis SesaZlebloba. 2003 wlis 16 ivliss saqarTvelos parlamentma daavala mTavrobas, mimarTos uSiSroebis sabWos, rom afxazeTis winaaRmdeg gaeros wesdebis me-7 muxlis gamoyenebis neba

ix. Dmitry Danilov. Role of Russia in Cohen, ed., p. 55. "The Georgian Ambassador Suggests Internationalizing the Abkhazia Peacekeeping Operation," Interfax Military News Bulletin, July 15, 2003, http://www.interfax.com.

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darTos.45 saqarTvelos xelmZRvanelobas esmoda, rom gaero amas ar daamtkicebda, es davaleba arSeasrula. samxreT kavkasiaSi ruseTis Tavdajerebulma politikam, misma TanamSromlobam afxazeTTan, gansakuTrebiT adgilobrivi elitis doneze da afxazeTSi Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebis survilis arqonam, TbilisSi sul ufro didi imedgacrueba gamoiwvia. metic, SevardnaZem moskovi daadanaSaula orjer misi sicocxlis xelyofis organizebaSi.46 Tavis mxriv, 1998 wlis ivlisSi galis seqtorSi xuTi rusi samSvidobos naRmze afeTqebas ruseTis sastiki reaqcia mohyva. qarTvelma politikosebma ki es SemTxveva imisaTvis gamoiyenes, rom samSvidoboebi ori TviT adre galis raionSi qarTveli moqalaqeebis daRupvisas gamoCenil gulgrilobaSi daedanaSaulebinaT. saqarTvelom gamoacxada Tavisi ganzraxva dsT-is koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis xelSekrulebidan gamosvlis Taobaze da wamoayena ruseTis samxedro bazebis daxurvis moTxovna. farTo saerTaSoriso mxardaWeriT, 1999 wels Tbilisma moskovisagan bazebis daxurvis valdebulebas miaRwia, rogorc evropaSi Cveulebrivi SeiaraRebuli Zalebis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis modifikaciis winaswar pirobas, ris miRwevasac ruseTi natos gafarToebis Semdeg dabejiTebiT cdilobda. oqtomberSi stambulSi, euTos samitze, ruseT-saqarTvelos erTobliv gancxadebas bazebis daxurvis Sesaxeb xeli moaweres. saqarTvelos sul ufro mWidro kavSirebi SeerTebul StatebTan da natosTan, moskovSi aRqmuli iyo rogorc ruseTis gagdebis cda samxreT kavkasiidan ­ ruseTis gavlenis tradiciuli sferodan. Sedegad, ruseTis presis komentarebi da ruseTis parlamentis gancxadebebi saqarTvelos mimarT sul ufro mtruli xdeboda.

45

"Georgian Parliament Wants UN to Use Force in Abkhazia," Interfax Military News Bulletin, July 16, 2003, www.interfax.com. 46 See http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574966/Shevardnadze_Eduard_A.html.

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elcinis memkvidreoba: interesTa jgufebis metoqeoba

1996 wels elcini misi xelaxali arCevisa da CeCneTSi pirveli omis damTavrebis Semdeg didxans avadmyofobda da umoqmedod iyo. igi yuradRebas ar aqcevda afxazeTis konfliqts. sainteresoa, rom Tavis memuarebSi, romlebic moicavs 1997-2000 wlebs, bevrs laparakobs dsT-ze, magram afxazeTs ar axsenebs.47 rogorc Cans, ruseTis politika mimarTuli iyo status-kvos "gayinvaze"_"arc omi da arc mSvidoba" formulis Sesabamisad. moskovi isev mxars uWerda saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobas, ganagrZobda ra aqtiur urTierTobas afxazeTis araRiarebul xelisuflebasTan. 1997-1999 wlebSi moskovis politika qarTul-afxazur konfliqtSi gamoirCeoda ukiduresi SeuTanxmeblobiT. politikuri kompetenciebi delegirebuli iyo sxvadasxva interesTa jgufebze da TiToeul maTgans sakuTari xazi hqonda. formalurad sagareo saqmeTa saministro xelmZRvanelobda politikur process, magram 1998 wels boris berezovskim, gavlenianma oligarqma, romelic mogvianebiT ruseTis uSiSroebis sabWos xelmZRvaneli da dsT-is mdivani gaxda, ikisra Suamavlis roli. swored berezovskim moawyo SevardnaZisa da arZinbas Sexvedra TbilisSi 1997 wlis agvistoSi. misi strategia gulisxmobda ruseTisaTvis xelsayrel ekonomikur politikas, romelic erTdroulad "xels Seuwyobda konfliqtis mxareebs Soris ndobis aRdgenas". erezovskim maT afxazeTis gavliT navTobsadenis gayvana, vaWrobis interesebidan gamomdinare, rkinigzis moZraobis aRdgena da mdinare fsouze sasazRvrogamSvebi punqtis gaxsna SesTavaza. afxazi liderebi amiT

ar exeba 1998 wlis galis movlenebsac ki, romlebmac omi TiTqmis ganaxlebamde miiyvana. ix. Áîðèñ Åëüöèí. Ïðåçèäåíòñêèé ìàðàôîí // Ìîñêâà: èçäàòåëüñòâî ÀÑÒ, 2000. elcini afxazeTs mxolod erTxel axsenebs, isic afxazeTis tragediis SevardnaZiseul aRqmasTan aris dakavSirebuli. igi wers: "SevardnaZe yovelTvis atarebs sakuTar TavSi afxazuri tragediis tkivils". gv. 190.

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dainteresdnen, magram qarTulma mxarem uari Tqva ekonomikur sakiTxebze ewarmoebinaT molaparakebebi, Tu isini Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebasTan ar iqneboda dakavSirebuli. ruseTis alternatiuli winadadeba Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebis meqanizmis SemuSavebis Taobaze Tbilisma ar miiRo. Sedegad, arc erTi ekonomikuri proeqti ar ganxorcielebula. maSasadame, politikuri procesiT rusulma saqmianma lobim ver ixeira, ZiriTadad imitom, rom nebismier msxvil proeqts orive mxaris Tanxmoba sWirdeba. da mainc, rusuli regionuli elita afxazeTSi sul ufro SesamCnev rols TamaSobda, gansakuTrebiT ekonomikis sferoSi. maT miekuTvnebodnen moskovis meri iuri luJkovi, TaTreTis respublikis liderebi, regionuli Cinosnebi CrdiloeT kavkasiidan da sxva nacionaluri ambiciebis mqone moRvaweebi. ignorirebas ukeTebdnen ra ekonomikuri sanqciebis reJims, romelmac 1998 wlisaTvis ukve mniSvnelovanwilad ziani miayena sasazRvro vaWrobas, isini aqtiurad amyarebdnen kavSirebs afxazeTTan. magaliTad, afxazeTma xeli moawera SeTanxmebebs adiReis, yabardo-balyareTis, TaTreTis respublikebTan, krasnodaris olqTan, rostovis olqTan da CrdiloeT oseT-alaniis respublikasTan. Tumca es SeTanxmebebi ar gulisxmobda afxazuri saxelmwifoebriobis formalur politikur an samarTlebriv aRiarebas, miuxedavad amisa, isini afxazeTs dsT-is blokadis gverdis avlasa da izolaciidan gamosvlaSi daexmarnen. afxazeTis partniorebi iyvnen regionebi da respublikebi realuri ekonomikuri interesebiT afxazeTSi da maTi xelmZRvanelobis politikam sazogadoebis farTo mxardaWera moipova. regionuli mTavrobebis garda, embargos winaaRmdeg mniSvnelovan rols is politikuri elita TamaSobda, romelsac afxazeTSi Zlieri kavSirebi hqonda. dsT-is saqmeTa da dumis TanamemamuleebTan kavSirebis komitetis 1997 wlis yovelwliuri angariSi rusuli Temebis kongresis afxazeTis ganyofilebasTan (ruseTis gavlenian politikur organizaciasTan) sxvadasxva SeTanxmebis Sesaxeb, rasac xels awerda dumis mier dafinansebuli TanamemamuleTa sabWos mdivani l. n. smirnovi, farTo informacias

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Seicavs. SeTanxmebebi exeboda afxazeTidan ruseTSi mineraluri sasuqebis, citrusebisa da soflis meurneobis sxva produqciis eqsports. moxsenebaSi agreTve aris miTiTeba ruseTis mTavrobis specialur brZanebulebaze ( 1397) afxazeTidan ruseTis federaciaSi citrusebis transportirebis nebarTvis Sesaxeb. miuxedavad imisa, rom es kavSirebi SezRuduli iyo da mcire gavlena moaxdina afxazeTis mosaxleobis cxovrebaze, romelic ekonomikuri blokadis pirobebSi gadarCenas cdilobda, maT proafxazuri politikuri lobis gaZliereba SeZles ruseTis mTavrobasa da kerZo dainteresebul jgufebs Soris, romlebic ukanono, magram sarfian vaWrobas eweodnen gavlenian afxazur jgufebTan TanamSromlobiT. es aSkarad Canda saxelmwifo dumis dsT-is saqmeTa komitetis Tavmjdomaris mier ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa saministroSi gagzavnili werilidan, romelSic is mouwodebda mTavrobas, mxari daeWira afxazeTis mosaxleobisTvis, maT Soris _ ruseTis moqalaqeebisaTvis, vaWrobasa da ruseT-afxazeTis sazRvarze gadaadgilebis SezRudvebis Serbilebis meSveobiT. amave dros es werili afxazeTis xelisuflebas ubiZgebda ruseTis moqalaqeebisaTvis afxazeTSi uZravi qonebis SeZenisa da ekonomikaSi kapitaldabandebebis xelSemwyobi pirobebis Seqmnisaken. maSasadame, mezobeli rusuli regionebis garda, ruseTis dumac cdilobda SeenarCunebina minimaluri TanamSromloba afxazeTTan, maSin, rodesac oficialuri moskovi CeCneTis omSi pirveli damarcxebis Semdeg kavkasiis mimarT nakleb interess iCenda. 1996-1999 wlebSi aseTi politikuri rolis TamaSis SesaZlebloba saxelmwifo dumas mTavrobisa da TviT prezidentis sisustis gamo hqonda. duma im adgilad rCeboda, sadac qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis Sesaxeb ZiriTadi politikuri debatebi tardeboda. 1997 wlis 8 aprils dsT-is saqmeTa da sazRvargareT mcxovreb TanamemamuleebTan kavSirebis komitetma Caatara amierkavkasiis regionSi ruseTis politikisadmi miZRvnili daxuruli mosmena, romelsac sakvanZo saministroebis warmomadgenlebi eswrebodnen, maT Soris sagareo saqmeTa, Tavdacvisa da ekonomikis uwyebebidan. am TaTbiris

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Sedegebidan TvalnaTliv Canda, Tu ra dilemis winaSe aRmoCnda ruseTi. komitetis gancxadeba xazs usvamda ruseTis erovnuli uSiSroebisa da ekonomikis interesebisaTvis mocemuli regionis mniSvnelobas da aRiarebda, rom afxazeTSi samxreT oseTsa da mTian yarabaxSi konfliqtebis daregulirebis gareSe mSvidoba SeuZlebelia da ruseTis grZelvadiani interesebis realizeba ar moxdeba. maSasadame, ruseTma qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis gadawyvetis saqmeSi mTavari roli unda iTamaSos. magram gancxadebaSi konstatirebuli iyo, rom amis miRweva rTulia, rodesac orive mxare sul ufro xSirad brals sdebs ruseTs situaciis CixSi moqcevis gamo da aqtiurad eZebs sxva gare moTamaSeebis, maT Soris natos mxardaWeras. Tavis gancxadebaSi dumis komitetma moiTxova, rom ruseTis mTavrobas gamoeCina ufro meti Zalisxmeva molaparakebebis mimarT da gaafrTxila, rom, Tu axlo momavalSi ruseTi ver aRmofxvris kriziss, maSin dazaraldeba konfliqtis mxareebs Soris misi, rogorc mTavari Suamavlis, roli. gancxadebaSi aisaxa dilema, romelic dResac aqtualuri rCeba. Tu ruseTi xels Seuwyobs konfliqtis daregulirebas, maSin is dakargavs geopolitikur monopolias afxazeTSi, magram, Tu ar iqneba miRweuli progresi da ruseTi CaiTvleba sust saxelmwifod, romelic cdilobs SeinarCunos status-kvo, bolos da bolos, ufro energiuli moTamaSeebi, romlebic mzad arian Seavson Seqmnili vakuumi, mas CrdilSi daayeneben. rogor unda imoqmedos ruseTma? dumis komiteti acxadebs, rom rusma mediatorebma molaparakebebi unda warmarTon orive mxaris Tanasworobis safuZvelze, gadadon ra afxazeTis politikuri statusis rTuli problema da yuradReba gaamaxvilon, upirveles yovlisa, ekonomikuri kavSirebis ganaxlebaze. afxazeTsa da ruseTs Soris sasazRvro vaWrobis SezRudva unda moixsnas im SemTxvevaSi, Tu afxazeTis xelisufleba xels Seuwyobs ltolvilebis dabrunebas. amave gancxadebiT rusi samSvidoboebis (dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebi) mxridan ltolvilebis mimarT nebismieri garantiebi unda ukavSirdebodes sarkinigzo mimosvlis ganaxlebasa da saqarTvelosa da afxazeTs Soris sasazRvro SezRudvebis Serbilebas. 90-iani wlebis

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bolodan 2003 wlis martSi soWis SeTanxmebamde es principebi ruseTis politikis safuZveli gaxda. maSasadame, elcinis xelisuflebaSi meore vadiT yofnis dros saxelmwifo duma iyo is mamoZravebeli Zala, romelic gavlenas axdenda sazogadoebriv azrze da im winadadebebs SeimuSavebda, romlebic am mSfoTvare regionSi mTavrobis politikas edo safuZvlad.

putinis politika: omi CeCneTSi da afxazeTTan TanamSromlobis ganaxleba

1999 wlis 9 agvistos elcinma putini ruseTis premierministrad daniSna. putinma dauyovnebliv daikava mkacri pozicia CeCneTis mimarT. 2000 wlis agvistoSi, moskovsa da volgodonskSi sacxovrebeli saxlebis afeTqebebis seriisa da agreTve mezobel daRestnis respublikaSi CeCeni mebrZolebis SeiaraRebuli SeWris Semdeg, ruseTma CeCneTSi meore omi daiwyo. pirveli omisagan gansxvavebiT, romelmac ruseTisa da saqarTvelos poziciebi erTmaneTTan daaaxlova afxazeTis separatizmTan damokidebulebiT, meore omma maT ormxriv urTierTobebSi arsebuli krizisi gaaRrmava. mizezi iyo is, rom saqarTvelos mTavroba, savaraudod, moskovis mimarT farTod gavrcelebuli mtrobiT xelmZRvanelobda, ara mxolod ewinaaRmdegeboda ruseTis samxedro Zalis gamoyenebas CeCneTSi, aramed, moskovis azriT, Segnebulad aZlevda TavSesafars CeCen mebrZolebs. aman erTbaSad Secvala ruseTis politika afxazeTis mimarT. 1999 wlis seqtember-dekemberSi aTasobiT ltolvilma, CeCneTSi mZime brZolebis gamo datova TavianTi saxlebi da mTis bilikebiT gadavida saqarTveloSi, pankisis xeobaSi ­ qistebiT (CeCnebTan monaTesave eTnikuri jgufi) dasaxlebul regionSi. moskovi amtkicebda, rom, bavSvebisa da qalebis garda, sazRvari mebrZolebmac gadakveTes da maT pankisis xeobaSi savarjiSo bazebi Seqmnes. SiSobda ra, rom CeCneTis konfliqti gavrceldeboda mis teritoriaze, saqarTvelom uari ganacxada

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moskovis moTxovnaze, ufleba mieca ruseTis jarisaTvis am regionSi CeCneTis jaris winaaRmdeg samxedro operaciebi ganexorcielebina. ufro metic, saqarTvelos xelmZRvanelobam uari Tqva im cameti CeCnis eqstradiciaze, romelTac ruseTi 2002 wlis oqtombris bolos iTxovda. sapasuxod, ruseTma saqarTvelos sahaero sivrce mravaljer daarRvia.48 2002 wlis seqtemberSi ki putini daemuqra saqarTveloSi myof CeCnebze prevenciuli sahaero dartymis SesaZlo miyenebiT, rasac Tavdacvis uflebiT amarTlebda.49 ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebis gauaresebam afxazeTSi ruseTis politikuri orientaciis Secvla gamoiwvia. mravalwliani SezRuduli kavSirebis Semdeg putinma afxazeTTan urTierTobebi ganaaxla. moskovma saprezidento arCevnebisa da referendumis Catarebas usityvod dauWira mxari, rasac 1999 wlis oqtomberSi afxazeTis damoukideblobis gamocxadeba mohyva. am nabijma Tbilissa da soxums Soris federaluri modelis Taobaze politikur molaparakebebs kari miuxura. miuxedavad imisa, rom moskovma Riad ver aRiara 1999 wlis referendumis Sedegebi da oficialurad saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis mxardaWeras ganagrZobda, soxumTan oficialuri urTierTobebi ufro gaafarTova. 1999 wels ruseTma gaxsna sazRvari afxazeTTan da amiT mis mier adre SemoRebuli blokada moxsna. 2000 wlis dekemberSi, gamoTqva ra wuxili CeCeni mebrZolebis mier sazRvris gadakveTis gamo, ruseTma qarTveli moqalaqeebisaTvis SemoiRo savizo reJimi, magram Segnebulad dauSva gamonaklisi afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis mcxovreblebisaTvis.saqarTvelom es aqciebi qarTuli teritoriis faqtobriv aneqsiad aRiqva.50

48 miuxedavad imisa, rom ruseTis Tavdacvis saministro am faqtebs uaryofda, isini dadasturda euTos damkvirvebelTa mier. OSCE Press Release, August 2, 2002, http://www.osce.org/news/show_news.php?id=2636. 49 OSCE Press Release, September 13, 2002, http://www.osce.org/news/show_news.php?id =2724. 50 CSCE Hearing, September 24, 2002, http://www.csce.gov/witness.cfm?briefing_id=232 &testimony_id=326.

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rusul-qarTuli urTierTobebis kidev ufro daiZaba, rodesac saqarTvelos uSiSroebis Zalebi kodoris xeobis afxazur nawilSi SeiWrnen. 2001 wlis seqtemberSi CeCeni mebrZolebi, ruslan gelaevis meTaurobiT, romelic manamde karga xans imyofeboda pankisis xeobaSi, saqarTvelos Sinagan saqmeTa saministros monawileobiT gadaisroles kodoris xeobaSi, saqarTveloafxazeTis sazRvarze. gelaevs afxazeTis gavliT CeCneTSi Sesvla hqonda ganzraxuli, Tumca es ori regioni erTmaneTs ar emijneba da, maSasadame, SemovliTi gza afxazeTis gavliT, rogorc Cans, winaswar dagegmili iyo da ara SemTxveviTi marSruti. SesaZlebelia, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebas ganzraxuli hqonda afxazeTSi situaciis destabilizacia. gelaevma (rigi cnobebis mixedviT ­ qarTuli gasamxedroebuli formirebebis mxardaWeriT) ramdenime Tavdasxma ganaxorciela kodorSi. am incidentebma mkveTrad daZaba urTierToba saqarTvelosa da afxazeTs Soris da axali omis dawyebis muqara gaisma. ruseTma mxari dauWira afxazebis moTxovnas kodoris xeobidan qarTuli jaris gayvanis Taobaze (gaeros damkvirveblebma daadastures, rom kodoris xeobaSi 350 qarTveli samxedro iyo ganlagebuli). garda amisa, SiSobda ra gelaevis jgufis ruseTis teritoriaze SeRwevis gamo, ruseTi afxazeTs am Tavdasxmebis mogeriebaSi daexmara. ruseTis TviTmfrinavma "su-25"-ma daarRvia saqarTvelos sahaero sivrce da is adgilebi dabomba, sadac gelaevis razmTan brZolebi mimdinareobda. kodorSi ruseTma ganalaga kidec mcirericxovani jari (igi 2002 wlis aprilSi gaiyvana). krizisi gagrZelda ramdenime Tve ­ 2002 wlis Tebervlamde, rodesac qarTulma jarma datova kodori. amis Semdeg qveda kodorSi ganaxlda rusi samSvidoboebisa da gaeros samxedro damkvirveblebis erToblivi patrulireba. movlenebma pankissa da kodorSi sakvanZo roli iTamaSes konfliqtis mimarT ruseTis politikis CamoyalibebaSi. putinis prezidentobis pirvel wlebSi ruseTis politikis prioritetebSi saqarTvelosTan da afxazeTTan urTierTobebi bevrad ufro mniSvnelovani gaxda. im dros, rodesac saqarTvelosTan urTierTobebi krizisidan krizisamde viTardeboda da arcTu

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iSviaTad Ria konfliqtis zRvramde midioda, afxazeTTan moskovi aqtiuri urTierTTanamSromlobis politikas atarebda. afxazeTis mxardaWera CeCneTis meore omSi ruseTis mier gamocxadebuli "gamarjvebis" Semdeg kidev ufro gaZlierda, Tumca samxedro kampaniam sayovelTao politikur gadawyvetilebamde ver miiyvana da ruseTisagan CeCneTis warmatebuli gamoyofis perspeqtiva Semcirda. Sedegad, ruseTs ukve aRar aSinebda is, rom mis mier sxva adgilebSi separatistuli reJimebisadmi mxardaWeras TviT ruseTSi eqosaviT gamoexmaurebodnen. 2003 wlis dekemberSi qarTul-afxazul konfliqtSi ruseTis politikaze putinma gaakeTa Semdegi gancxadeba: cota xnis win ruseTis saxelmwifos teritoriuli mTlianobis SenarCuneba erT-erT yvelaze mTavar, mwvave da prioritetul amocanas warmoadgenda, magram axla es problema ZiriTadad gadaWrilia. Tu am principebiT mivudgebiT, ar SegviZlia uari vuTxraT Cvens mezoblebs teritoriuli mTlianobis SenarCunebis uflebaze. teritoriuli konfliqtebis gadawyvetiT dainteresebuli mxareebi unda SeTanxmdnen, ruseTi ki am SeTanxmebebis garantad gamova. Cven yuradRebiT vadevnebT Tvals situaciebs separatistul respublikebSi, mxars vuWerT saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobas da iseT gadawyvetilebebs miviRebT, rom am teritoriaze mcxovrebi adamianebis interesebi ar dazaraldes.51 putinis gancxadebaSi aRniSnulia miznebis sami jgufi, romlebic dRemde aqtualuria: pirveli, afxazeTis mimarT sakuTari usafrTxoebis interesebidan gamomdinare, moskovi, upirveles yovlisa, CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi Tavis politikas afuZnebs. Sesabamisad, mTavar amocanad afxazeTSi konfliqtis ganuaxlebloba rCeba. amis Suqze, afxazeTTan ekonomikuri kavSirebis aRdgena da mosaxleobis cxovrebis Semsubuqeba ganixileba, rogorc regionSi stabilurobis garanti. meore, oficialurad ruseTi ganagrZobs saqarTvelos teritoriuli

51

RosBusinessConsulting Information Agency, December 18, 2003, http://top.rbc.ru/ arc.shtml?2003/12/18.

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mTlianobis mxardaWeras im pirobiT, rom qarTul-afxazur dialogSi moskovi mTavari Suamavlis rols ikisrebs da SeTanxmebis miRwevis SemTxvevaSi ruseTi misi garanti iqneba. mesame, ruseTi ar xedavs winaaRmdegobas mis mier saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis ideis mxardaWerasa da afxazeTis de faqto xelisuflebasTan ganviTarebad ekonomikur da politikur urTierTobas Soris. ruseTis politikis strategiul dasabuTebaSi, politikuri da ekonomikuri motivebis garda, umniSvnelovanes rols geopolitikuri mosazrebebi TamaSobs. putinis prezidentobis dros samxreT kavkasiaSi mzardi amerikuli da mogvianebiT ­ evropuli daswrebis gamo SeSfoTeba mkveTrad gaizarda. miuxedavad imisa, rom TviTon Tavs ikavebda afxazeTis mimarT ufro farTo geopolitikur mosazrebebTan ruseTis politikis dakavSirebisgan, ruseTis politikuri elita, maT Soris parlamentarebi da Tavdacvisa da uSiSroebis uwyebebis Tanamdebobis pirebi, xSirad ganixilavdnen afxazeTs Tavisebur buferul zonad ruseTsa da dasavleTze sul ufro Riad orientirebul saqarTvelos Soris.52 metic, qarTulrusuli urTierTobebis gauaresebis fonze, afxazeTi da samxreTi oseTi aRqmuli iyvnen rogorc potenciuri mokavSireebi; raionebi, sadac ruseTs evropis an SeerTebuli Statebis mxridan konkurenciasTan Sejaxeba ar uwevs.

52 ruseTis saxelmwifo dumis uSiSroebis komitetis mrCeveli g. k. yolbaia werda: "geopolitikuri realoba iseTia, rom saqarTvelo, romelic sargeblobs saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mxardaWeriT, axorcielebs Tanmimdevrul antirusul politikas... am rTul garemoebebSi ruseTs ara aqvs didi SesaZlebloba, gavlena moaxdinos situaciaze saqarTveloSi, amitom afxazeTze qarTuli kontrolis ararsebobasakmaod xelsayrelia... afxazeTi ukve TamaSobs buferuli zonis rols, romelic ruseTs mtruli saqarTvelosagan acalkevebs. es kodoris xeobaSi qarTul-CeCnuri gasamxedroebuli formirebis ganadgurebam aCvena. afxazeTis am rolis gaZliereba ruseTis interesebSia". ix. "Áåçîïàñíîñòü Ðîññèè: àáõàçñêèé ðóáåæ" â: G.N. Osipov, ed. Reforming Russia: Realities and Prospects, http://www.duma.gov.ru/search/kmpage/80200016/arc3/public/92.html.

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dasavleTis samxedro daxmareba

saqarTveloSi aSS-is samxedro instruqtorebis gamoCenis Semdeg ruseTis geopolitikuri sifrTxile gaizarda. reagirebda ra qarTul-rusuli urTierTobebis gauaresebaze da sul ufro metad SiSobda, rom "al-qaida" pankisis xeobaSi axal TavSesafars ipovida, SeerTebulma Statebma qarTuli jarisaTvis pirdapiri samxedro daxmareba ikisra. amerikeli samxedro instruqtorebis ganlagebam saqarTveloSi saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis wvrTnisa da aRWurvis programis mixedviT (GTEP), romlis mizani iyo 2 aTasze meti qarTveli samxedro mosamsaxuris momzadeba, risTvisac gamoiyo 64 milioni aSS dolari, ruseTis sxvadasxva nacionalisturi Zalebisa da sagareo politikuri eqspertebis ­ "realpolitik" mrisxane reaqcia gamoiwvia.53 GTEP aRqmuli iyo rogorc pirdapiri safrTxe ruseTisaTvis _ kavkasiaSi ruseTis gavlenis Semcirebis simbolo; zogierTebma ki masSi CeCneTSi dasavleTis intervenciisaTvisgadadgmuli pirveli nabijebic SeniSnes. putins, romelic cota xnis win centralur aziaSi aSS-is samxedro bazebis ganlagebas daeTanxma, xelaxla mouwia am reaqciis Serbileba. is iseTi moufiqrebeli pasuxis Tavidan acilebisaken miiswrafoda, romelic 11 seqtembris Semdeg Camoyalibebul ruseTisa da SeerTebuli Statebis antiteroristul koalicias daemuqreboda. yazaxeTSi vizitis dros putinma gaakeTa gancxadeba, romelSic naTqvami iyo, rom "GTEP tragedia ar aris da arc SeiZleba, rom iyos... ratom ar SeiZleba amerikuli Zalebi centralur aziaSi iyvnen, saqarTveloSi ki ­ ara?" da daamata: "nebismier saxelmwifos, kerZod ki, saqarTvelos, ufleba aqvs imoqmedos sakuTari usafrTxoebis dacvis mizniT. ruseTi aRiarebs am uflebas".54

53 im dros ruseTis "realpolitik"-is momxreebi sxva ideologiur skolebs Warbobdnen da saxelmwifos mier kontrolirebad masobrivi informaciis saSualebebsa da presaze ganusazRvreli uflebebiT sargeblobdnen. 54 "Putin: U.S. Deployment `No Tragedy,'" CNN News, March 1, 2002, http:// www.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/europe/03/01/georgia.putin/.

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GTEP-ze ruseTis reaqciaSi aSkarad igrZnoboda geopolitikuri SeSfoTeba, Tumca kanonzomierma SekiTxvebmac wamoiwies am programis potenciuri zegavlenis Taobaze saqarTvelosa da mis separatistul regionebs Soris samxedro balansze. aSS-isa da saqarTvelos xelmZRvanelobis pirdapiri dadasturebis miuxedavad, ar arsebobda imis garantia, rom afxazeTSi CixSi Sesuli politikuri procesis pirobebSi, saqarTvelos gazrdili Tavdajerebuloba da samxedro Zliereba Zalismieri gadawyvetilebis axal mcdelobebad ar gadaiqceoda. 2002 wlis martSi afxazeTis prezidentma vladislav arZinbam mowodebiT mimarTa SeerTebul Statebsa da dasavleTis qveynebs, aRiaron, rom saqarTvelosaTvis samxedro daxmarebis gawevas SeuZlia gauTvaliswinebeli Sedegebis mqone konfliqtis eskalaciis gamowveva. 2003 wlis 11 aprils ruseTis saxelmwifo dumam daamtkica (351 xmis umravlesobiT da 1 winaaRmdeg) rezolucia, romelic gmobda aSS-sa da saqarTvelos Soris SeiaraRebuli Zalebis statusis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas da gamoTqva wuxili imaze, rom aSS-is xelmZRvanelobiT momzadebuli samxedro nawilebi SeiZleba gamoiyenon afxazeTis winaaRmdeg samxedro operaciebSi. kremli mainc ganagrZobda imis xazgasmas, rom saqarTvelosTvis amerikis samxedro daxmareba ruseTis urTierTobebs vaSingtonTan ar gaafuWebda. buSis administracia uars ki ambobda GTEP SeCerebis moskovis nebismier moTxovnaze, Tumca acxadebda imasac, rom amerikam winaswar acnoba ruseTs am programis Sesaxeb da samxreT kavkasiis problema 2002 wlis maisSi moskovSi Semdgar samitze prezidentebis _ buSisa da putinis dRis wesrigSi iyo CarTuli. am samitze orive prezidentma tradiciulad daadastura saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobisadmi mxardaWera da qarTulafxazuri konfliqtis daregulirebaSi TanamSromlobis gagrZelebisaTvis mzadyofna gamoxata. gasakviri ar aris, rom samxreT kavkasiaSi stabilurobiT saerTo daintereseba konfliqtis mimarT erTian midgomad ar gadaiqca. cxadia, rom arc SeerTebulma Statebma da arc ruseTma maT ormxriv urTierTobebSi qarTulafxazuri konfliqti kritikulad ar CaTvales.

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kamaTi samSvidobo Zalebis Sesaxeb

pankisisa da kodoris movlenebis Semdeg qarTul-rusul urTierTobebSi mzardma daZabulobam ruseTis samSvidobo mandatis gafarToebis Taobaze axali uTanxmoebebi gamoiwvia. 2002 wlis oqtomberSi saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo rezolucia ruseTis samSvidobo Zalebis gayvanis Sesaxeb. sul male, gaerosa da generaluri mdivnis "megobarTa jgufTan" konsultaciebis Semdeg, saqarTveloSi mixvdnen, rom realurad Tu imsjelebdnen, ar iyo mosalodneli rusi samSvidoboebis Canacvleba saerTaSoriso ZalebiT, gansakuTrebiT 11 seqtembris Semdeg, rodesac ucxoeTis jarebis simcire aSkarad igrZnoboda.55 SevardnaZe ganuwyvetliv Cioda, rom arsebuli samSvidobo operacia xels ar uwyobda konfliqtis mogvarebas, magram dasavleTis mTavrobebma da saerTaSoriso institutebma 1994 wlis Semdeg arsebuli dsT-is samSvidobo operaciis statusis calmxrivi Secvlis mcdeloba erTsulovnad gadaaTqmevines.56 ufro metic, gaerom ganacxada kidevac, rom dsT-is samSvidoboebis gayvanas misi sakuTari damkvirveblebis gayvana mohyveba.57 maSasadame, dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebis mandatis yoveli naxevarwliani gagrZeleba axla ukve seriozulad arTulebda

55 2002 wlis ianvarSi saqarTvelos radiosadmi micemul interviuSi SevardnaZem ganacxada, rom 11 seqtembris teroristuli Tavdasxmebis Semdeg yvela im qveyanam, romlebic monawileobas iRebdnen afxazuri konfliqtis daregulirebaSi, maT Soris SeerTebulma Statebma, ruseTma, germaniam, safrangeTma da gaerTianebulma samefom gaumarTleblad CaTvales raime moTxovnebi rusi samSvidobo Zalebis afxazeTidan gayvanis Taobaze. ix. http://www.sakartvelo.info. 56 2003 wlis 3 Tebervals prezidenti eduard SevardnaZe iZulebuli iyo eRiarebina, rom "rusi samSvidoboebi ver umklavdebian TavianT movaleobebs da, samwuxarod, gaeros uSiSroebis sabWo ar aqcevs am faqts saTanado yuradRebas." ix. http://www.una.org.ge. 57 30 ianvris gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos rezoluciaSi, romelmac gaagrZela konfliqtis zonaSi gaeros damkvirvebelTa mandati, naTqvamia, rom gadawyvetileba mandatis Secvlis Taobaze unda iyos gadasinjuli, Tu dsTis samSvidoboebis mandatis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba ar iqneba miRebuli 2003 wlis 15 Tebervlamde. ix. "Abkhazia Situation Fragile," http://una.org.ge.

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qarTul-rusul urTierTobebs. ruseTi acxadebda, rom misi samSvidobo Zalebi samarTlebriv vakuumSi moeqcnen. 2001 da 2002 wlebis dekemberSi, rodesac mandatis vada iwureboda, qarTul mxares kvirebi da Tveebic ki dasWirda imisaTvis, rom misi gagrZelebis Tanxmoba mieca. maSin, rodesac qarTuli mxare mandatis SecvlisaTvis ibrZoda, afxazurs misi SenarCuneba mtkiced hqonda gadawyvetili da imuqreboda, rom mis gareSe miRebul nebismier gadawyvetilebaze uars ityoda. dsT-is samSvidoboebis yofna afxazeTis faqtobrivi saxelmwifoebriobis stabilurobis mniSvnelovani faqtori iyo. dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebis mandati arsebiT zewolas ar axdenda afxazur mxareze qarTveli Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis farTomasStabian dabrunebaze daTanxmebaSi, rasac respublikis SigniT rogorc demografiuli, ise politikuri wonasworobis Secvla SeeZlo. yvela am mizezis gamo afxazeTis xelisufalni xazs usvamdnen, rom status-kvos Secvla mZime Sedegebs gamoiwvevda da amtkicebdnen, samSvidobo Zalebis gayvana konfliqts ganaxlebis gardauvalobamde miiyvanda.58 ruseTi Riad arasdros ewinaaRmdegeboda saerTaSoriso sazogadoebisadmi saqarTvelos mowodebebs dsT-is samSvidobo ZalebTan dakavSirebiT, magram arc arasdros acxadebda, rom mzad aris seriozulad ganixilos sakuTari samSvidoboebis

2001 wlis dekemberSi afxazeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministri sergei Samba iTxovda mandatis gagrZelebas, usvamda ra xazs, rom afxazuri mxare formatis Secvlisa da mSvidobis SenarCunebis operaciis internacionalizaciis winaaRmdeg gamodis. ix. "Àáõàçèÿ ïðîñèò ïðîäëèòü ìàíäàò ðîññèéñêèõ ìèðîòâîðöåâ", http://www.gazeta.ru. 2002 wlis dekemberSi afxazeTis Tavdacvis saministrom gaafrTxila, rom, Tu ruseTis samSvidoboebi iZulebuli gaxdebian datovon afxazeTi, maSin afxazuri Zalebi mdinare engurisaken waiweven (gari kubalbas, afxazeTis Tavdacvis ministris moadgilis gancxadeba). 2003 wlis dekemberSi afxazeTis premierministrma raul xajimbam ganacxada, rom ruseTis samSvidobo Zalebs alternativa ara aqvs da rom isini unda darCnen konfliqtis zonaSi saqarTvelosa da afxazeTs Soris urTierTobebis srul normalizaciamde. ix. http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/newstext/news/id/619609.

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gayvanis sakiTxi an maT internacionalizaciaze daTanxmdes.59 aseTi nabiji ruseTis geopolitikur ambiciebs Seasustebda da imis SiSs gaaZlierebda, rom aman SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos natos gamoCenas regionSi (Tumca nato arasdros gamoxatavda dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebis CanacvlebisTvis mzadyofnas). ufro metic, ruseTi fiqrobda, rom misi samSvidobo Zalebis yofna qarTulafxazuri konfliqtis zonaSi sakuTar usafrTxoebasac emsaxureboda.60 da bolos, is rusi analitikosebic ki, romlebic mzad iyvnen regionSi mSvidobis SenarCunebis alternatiuli variantebi ganexilaT (magaliTad, aleqsandre nikitini, politikuri da saerTaSoriso kvlevebis centris xelmZRvaneli), amtkicebdnen, rom axlo momavalSi ruseTi realurad darCeba konfliqtis zonaSi mSvidobis SenarCunebis erTaderT wyarod. namdvilad, gaeros egidiT calkeuli samSvidobo Zalebis Camoyalibebis survili gaeros wevrebma ar gamoxates da aranairi perspeqtiva ar iyo, rom euTo an ­ rac kidev ufro daujerebelia ­ esa Tu is specialurad Seqmnili regionul organizacia (rogoricaa ÃÓÓÀÌ) ruseTis Zalebis mier gatarebuli operaciis alternativis wamoyenebas SeZlebda.61

Tumca 2003 wlis ivlisSi ruseTis elCma saqarTveloSi, vladimer CxikviSvilma Tavis erT-erT interviuSi ganacxada, rom "ruseTi mzad aris gamoiyvanos Tavisi Zalebi nebismieri mxaris pirvelive moTxovnisTanave da aseTi gamoyvanis gegma ukve mzad aris". ix. "Àáõàçñêèé òóïèê". ­ Âðåìÿ íîâîñòåé, 27 èþëÿ 2003 ãîäà. 60 2004 wlis ivnisSi saxelmwifo dumis Tavdacvis komitetis Tavmjdomaris moadgile genadi gudkovma ganacxada, rom "afxazeTSi 97 rusi samxedro mosamsaxuris daRupvis fasad 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi SenarCunebulia mSvidoba. is, rom aq [konfliqtis zonaSi] mefobs mSvidoba - es ruseTisa da rusuli samSvidobo kontingentis wyalobiTaa. es aris amave dros mSvidoba ruseTSic, radgan axali omi afxazeTSi niSnavs situaciis gamwvavebas TviT ruseTSi". http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/newstext/news/id/ 677572.html. 61 ix. "Âòÿãèâàíèå Ðîññèè â âîåííîå ðåøåíèå àáõàçñêîé ïðîáëåìû îñòàåòñÿ íàèáîëåå âåðîÿòíûì", http://www.abkhezati.ru/pages/3/315.html.

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gayinuli gaurkvevloba: ruseTi da konfliqti afxazeTis irgvliv

afxazeTis mimarT ruseTis politikis axali organizaciuli formebi

vladimer putinis prezidentobis pirveli vadis periodSi ruseTis politika mTlianad dsT-is, kerZod ki, afxazeTis mimarT, ufro Tanmimdevruli gaxda, vidre elcinis dros. ruseTSi aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis centralizaciis aRdgenasTan erTad afxazeTis politikasTan mimarTebaSi dumis gavlena sagrZnoblad Semcirda. sagareo saqmeTa saministros gazrdil rolTan erTad pasuxismgebloba isev samxedro uwyebasa da uSiSroebis samsaxurebs daekisra. ruseTis politikurma da samxedro xelmZRvanelobam pasuxismgebloba gainawiles ruseTis usafrTxoebaze qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis SesaZlo gavlenis gamo, gansakuTrebiT CrdiloeT kavkasiasa da CeCneTTan dakavSirebiT. radganac putinis mmarTvelobisas, gansakuTrebiT ki misi prezidentobis meore vadaSi, rusul-qarTul urTierTobebSi usafrTxoebis problemebi dominirebda, Tavdacvis ministrma sergei ivanovma ufro xSirad daiwyo saqarTvelos mimarT ruseTis politikis Camoyalibeba. pankisisa da kodoris krizisebis dros saqarTveloze zewolisas putinma rus samxedroebs sruli mxardaWera gamoucxada. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, is pankisSi CeCeni mebrZolebis mimarT samxedro Zalis prevenciuli gamoyenebiTac imuqreboda. da mainc, rus samxedroebs ukve aRar hqondaT afxazeTSi moqmedebis iseTi Tavisufleba, rogoric elcinis epoqaSi, afxazeTis omis dros da uSualod mis Semdeg. xandaxan isini iZulebuli iyvnen iseTi gadawyvetilebebi SeesrulebinaT, romlebsac aSkarad ar eTanxmdebodnen; magaliTad, es exeboda 2001 wlis ivlisSi euTos stambulis SeTanxmebebis mixedviT gudauTis samxedro bazidan (afxazeTi) jarisa da SeiaraRebis gayvanas. analogiurad, samxedroebi iZulebulni iyvnen saqarTvelosTan amerikis samxedro TanamSromlobaze TavianTi reaqcia SeerbilebinaT. magaliTad, 2003 wlis 11 ivliss, mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelos mTavrobam SeerTebuli Statebis

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"avaqsis" tipis TviTmfrinavebs sakuTar sahaero sivrceSi frenis ufleba misca. aman ki ruseTSi mkveTri kritika gamoiwvia. ruseTis Tavdacvis saministrom saWirod CaTvala im braldebebis uaryofa, rom is sapasuxo zomis saxiT afxazeTSi sazenito-saraketo kompleqsis "C-300"-is ganlagebas apirebda.62 amrigad, miuxedavad imisa, rom rusi samxedroebi damoukideblad veRar moqmedeben, isini mainc gavlenian Zalad rCebian. am raionSi dsT-is samSvidobo ZalebSi da gudauTis samxedro bazis dacvaze 1700-ze meti rusi jariskaci da oficeri msaxurobs. bevrma samxedro meTaurma iq qoneba SeiZina da mWidro piradi urTierTobebi daamyara adgilobriv xelisuflebasTan. 2004 wlis ivnisSi baikalis mxaris samxedro olqis meTauris yofili moadgile generali anatoli zaicevi afxazeTis Tavdacvis ministris moadgiled dainiSna. arsebuli informaciiT, rusi samxedroebi monawileobas iReben afxazeTis Zalebis samxedro momzadebaSic. ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros roli konfliqtSi putinis prezidentobis dros gaizarda. garda imisa, rom is dsTis politikaze aqtiur gavlenas axdens, putinis strategiuli sagareo-politikuri gadawyvetilebebis realobaSi gatarebis mTavari sayrdenicaa. mocemuli situacia mkveTr kontrastSia elcinis periodTan, rodesac sagareo saqmeTa saministro gavlenisaTvis sxva moTamaSeebs, maT Soris ekonomikur elitas da Tavdacvis saministros ebrZoda. es gansakuTrebiT cxadad igrZnoboda ruseTis politikasTan dakavSirebiT dsT-is qveynebSi. maSin sagareo saqmeTa saministro qarTul-afxazur konfliqtSi ufro neitraluri iyo, vidre Tavdacvis saministro an ekonomikuri elita, vinaidan mis TanamSromlebs msgavsi uwyebrivi da piradi interesebi afxazeTSi ar gaaCndaT. 2002 wlis aprilSi prezidentma putinma sagareo saqmeTa ministris maSindeli moadgile valeri loSCinini qarTul62

"Russia Not Planning to Deploy Air Defence Missile Systems in Abkhazia - Defence Ministry," Interfax Military Information Bulletin, July 15, 2003, http://www.interfax.com.

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afxazur konfliqtSi prezidentis specialur warmomadgenlad daniSna. sagareo saqmeTa saministro prezidentTan erTad rusuli iniciativebis dagegmvasa da ganxorcielebasTan erTad iseTi saerTaSoriso institutebis moqmedebebis koordinaciaSi TamaSobda sakvanZo rols, rogorebicaa gaero, euTo da "megobarTa jgufi". am axalma saorganizacio formam ufro zustad SeTanxmebuli politikis ganxorcielebis saSualeba misca, ris gamoc ufro ioli gaxda oficialuri politikis gamoyofa ama Tu im pirebis iniciativebisagan, romlebic sakuTar kerZo interesebs icavdnen. sagareo saqmeTa saministros arc erTi warmomadgeneli ar eswreboda 1992-1993 wlebis omSi afxazebis gamarjvebis me-10 wlisTavis zeims, Tumca rusi gubernatorebisa da dumis deputatebis nawilma am dResaswaulSi monawileoba miiRo. SesamCnevia axali tendenciac, romelic rusul politikas axal ferebs aZlevs. Tumca amaze garkveviT laparaki naadrevia, magram ise Cans, rom prezidenti putini interess iCens ruseTis natosTan TanamSromlobisa da agreTve sxva saerTaSoriso RonisZiebebSi, magaliTad, samxedro-sazRvao TanamSromlobis Savi zRvis jgufSi (BLACKSEAFOR) monawileobis mimarT, es ki qmnis STabeWdilebas, rusi samxedroebis poziciebis TandaTanobiT Secvlaze. ufro metic, qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis zonidan gaeros damkvirveblebi, romelTa umetesobac natos qveynebis samxedro mosamsaxureebi arian, ityobinebian, rom gaeros samxedro damkvirveblebsa da dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebs Soris TanamSromloba TandaTanobiT wesrigdeba.

bodenis iniciativa

xelisuflebaSi putinis yofnis pirvel wlebSi afxazeTis mimarT rusuli politikis gazrdili TanmimdevrobiTobis miuxedavad, konfliqtis mxareTa Soris politikuri dialogis aRdgenaSi mxolod umniSvnelo progress miaRwies. piriqiT,

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2001 wlis kodoris krizisma praqtikulad SeaCera gaeros egidiT wamowyebuli qarTul-afxazuri politikuri dialogi da ndobis ganmtkicebaze gamiznuli RonisZiebebis realizacia. ramdenime Tvis Semdeg, 2002 wlis ivlisSi, gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialurma warmomadgenelma diter bodenma gansaxilvelad gamoaqveyna moxseneba saTauriT "Tbilissa da soxums Soris kompetenciebis gamijvnis ZiriTadi principebi" (xSirad "bodenis dokumentad" moxseniebuli). misi ZiriTadi argumenti mdgomareobs imaSi, rom afxazeTma unda miiRos yvelaze farTo avtonomia da saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi "damoukidebel subieqtad" aRiarebac ki, magram saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis SenarCunebis pirobiT.63 afxazeTis xelisuflebam ki uari ganacxada raime dokumentis safuZvelze molaparakebebis warmoebaze, romelSic maTi damoukideblobis gza ar aris SemoTavazebuli. ruseTma ar gamoiCina enTuziazmi bodenis dokumentis mimarT da is mxolod gaerosa da "megobarTa jgufis" dasavleli wevrebis daJinebuli diplomatiuri Zaldatanebis gamo miiRo.64 aseTi pozicia SeiZleba aixsnas im siZneleebiT, romlebsac ruseTi dokumentis afxazuri mxarisaTvis SeTavazebis dros waawydeboda. formalurad dauWira ra mxari dokuments, moskovma ganacxada, rom ramdenimejer scada afxazuri mxaris darwmuneba imaSi, rom es iniciativa saqarTvelos mTavrobasTan molaparakebebis safuZvlad gaexada. am mcdelobebSi afxazeTis Tanamdebobis pirebTan maRal doneze Sexvedrebic iyo

63 bodenis dokumentis rusulenovani versia gamoqveynebuli iyo mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiiis institutis saitze: http://www.cipdd.org. am dokumentSi SemoTavazebuli federaciuli modelis analizi ix. Bruno Coppieters, "The Georgian­Abkhaz Conflict," in Bruno Coppieters et al., Europeanization and Conflict Resolution: Case Studies from the European Periphery (Ghent: Academia Press, 2004), pp. 203­208; agreTve gamoqveynebulia eleqtronul JurnalSi Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, http://www.ecmi.de/jemie/. 64 Coppieters, "The Georgian­Abkhaz Conflict," pp. 203­208

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CarTuli.65 dasavleTis diplomatebi da saqarTvelos liderebi amtkicebdnen, rom moskovi didad ar cdilobda afxazur mxareze zewolis moxdenas. amis pasuxad ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros Tanamdebobis pirebma moskovis SesaZleblobebis SezRudulobas gausves xazi. bodenis dokumentis miReba nebismieri afxazi politikosisaTvis politikuri TviTmkvleloba iqneboda. maSasadame, bodenis iniciativa, romelic mowodebuli iyo molaparakebebis stimulirebisaTvis, sabolood dabrkolebad gadaiqca da ara politikuri gadawyvetilebisaken winsvlis saSualebad.66 rTulia ruseTis rolis gansazRvra bodenis dokumentis CavardnaSi: Tu is namdvilad zewolas axdenda afxazur mxareze, maSin es marcxi imas niSnavs, rom ruseTis gavlena afxazur mxareze gazviadebuli iyo

2002 wlis 25 maiss ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministri igor ivanovi moskovSi Sexvda afxazeTis de faqto premier-ministr anri jergenias da sagareo saqmeTa ministr sergei Sambas, raTa afxazuri mxare daregulirebis procesSi winsvlis aucileblobaSi daerwmunebina. ix. See Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, July 10, 2002, http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/reports/2002/sgrep02.htm. ivnisSi ruseTis prezidentis specialuri warmomadgeneli qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis daregulirebis saqmeSi _ valeri loSCinini soxumSi afxazeTis de faqto mTavrobis warmomadgenlebTan Sexvedraze gaemgzavra. 2002 wlis oqtomberSi ruseTis mxarem SesTavaza gaeros warmomadgenlebTan afxazeTis premier-ministris anri jergenias Sexvedris mowyoba, romlis dros afxazur mxares gaacnobdnen sadiskusio dokumentis arss da mniSvnelobas. Sexvedra dainiSna 5 oqtombers, magram Semdeg gauqmda imis gamo, rom batonma jergeniam uaryo dokumenti da masSi diter bodenis Semcvlelis, gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialuri warmomadgenlis haidi taliavinis monawileobis winaaRmdeg gamovida. ix. Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Abkhazia, Georgia October 14, 2002, http:// www.un.org/Docs/sc/reports/2002/sgrep02.htm. 2002 wlis 14 oqtombers ruseTis mxare xelaxla Seecada afxazur mxaresTan "megobarTa jgufisa" da gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialuri warmomadgenlis moskovSi Sexvedra moewyo kompetenciebis gamijvnis Sesaxeb sadiskusio dokumentis fuZemdeblur principebze azrTa gacvlis mizniT. gaeros Sexvedra isev afxazuri mxaris uaris Tqmis gamo gauqmda. 66 Jonathan Cohen, "Overview of the South Caucasus," presentation to the conference "The South Caucasus--A Challenge for Europe?" Heinrich Boell Foundation, Berlin, May 8­9, 2003.

65

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oqsana antonenko

saqarTvelosa da saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mier. amave dros, Tu is dokumentis win wawevas arcTu ise Zalian cdilobda, es imas niSnavs, rom putinis mTavroba dainteresebuli iyo konfliqtis mxolod iseTi mogvarebiT, romelSic sakvanZo rols Tavad iTamaSebda. SesaZlebelia agreTve isic, rom ruseTi politikuri daregulirebis swrafi winsvliT ar iyo dainteresebuli, konfliqtis SesaZlo ganaxlebis SiSisa da CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi destabilizaciis an samxreT kavkasiaSi gavlenis dakargvis gamo. sanam gaeros egidiT politikuri procesi Seferxda bodenis dokumentis ganxilvaze afxazuri mxaris uaris Tqmis gamo, ruseTma Tavisi urTierToba afxazeTTan gaaaqtiura. 2002 wlis aprilSi, ruseTis parlamentis mier moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb axali kanonis damtkicebis Semdeg, ruseTis xelisuflebam krasnodaris mxareSi ruseTis moqalaqeobis msurveli afxazebis gancxadebebis miReba daiwyo, rasac afxazeTis xelisuflebam mxari dauWira. 2002 wlis bolos afxazeTSi mcxovrebma 50 aTasze metma adamianma ruseTis pasportebi an Zvel sabWoTa pasportebSi ruseTis Stampebi (SemdgomSi es pasportebi oficialuri rusuliT gamocvales) miiRo. 2002 wlis 25 dekembers ruseTma soWsa da soxums Soris rkinigzis mimosvlis gaxsnis gegmebis Sesaxeb ganacxada. saqarTvelos protestis sapasuxod moskovma aRniSna, rom es gza kerZo seqtoris nawilia da saxelmwifos masTan kavSiri ara aqvs. 2003 wlis 28 ianvars kievSi, dsT-is samitze, putinma SesTavaza SevardnaZes afxazeTis gavliT soWsa da Tbiliss Soris rkinigzis mimosvlis aRdgena. SevardnaZe am winadadebis ganxilvas mxolod im pirobiT daTanxmda, Tu mas daemateboda qarTveli Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabruneba afxazeTSi, metadre ki _ galis raionSi.67 am garemoebaSi saqarTvelos xelisuflebam diplomatiuri molaparakebebis ganaxleba ruseTTan dasavleTis daxmarebis gareSe gadawyvita. am axal ormxriv CarCoSi afxazeTi, rogorc Tanasworuflebiani partniori, ar Caabes. is ruseTis

67

Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, April 9, 2003, http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/reports/2002/sgrep02.htm.

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mxardaWeras unda dayrdnoboda da, rodesac misi warmomadgenlebis daswreba uxerxuli xdeboda, moskovi maT ar iwvevda. es axali CarCo 2003 wlis 6-7 marts soWSi ruseTisa da saqarTvelos prezidentebis Sexvedraze iqna formulirebuli. SexvedraSi monawileobisTvis mowveuli iyo afxazeTis premier-ministri genadi gagulia. saqarTvelo da ruseTi saqarTvelosa da afxazeTis samsaxurSi myofi mdinare enguris hidroeleqtrosadguris modernizaciis Catarebaze SeTanxmdnen, aseve _ energetikul proeqtebze (maT Soris enguris hidroeleqtrosadguris aRdgenaze), ltolvilebisa da Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebaze, agreTve soWsa da Tbiliss Soris sarkinigzo mimosvlis aRdgenaze. adre miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis realizaciisaTvis Seiqmna sami samuSao jgufi.68 formalurad samuSao jgufebi ormxrivi unda yofiliyo, rac ruseTis mier saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdgenas xazs usvamda. afxazuri mxare mainc CarTes ormxriv komisiaSi. gaeros warmomadgenlebic miiwvies zogierT SexvedraSi, rogorc damkvirveblebi da ara Tanasworuflebiani partniorebi. soWis samitze qarTuli mxare daTanxmda rTuli da politikurad mouqneli proceduris Secvlas, romelic yovel or weliwadSi samSvidobo mandatis ganaxlebas iTvaliswinebda, samSvidoboebis mandatis uvado gagrZelebis SeTanxmebiT an im momentamde, sanam konfliqtis erT-erTi mxare ukan ar gaiwvevda Tavis Tanxmobas; magram mandatis dasrulebis procedura gaurkveveli rCeba. mas Semdeg ki, rodesac konfliqtis erTerTi mxare amas moiTxovs, saboloo gadawyvetileba unda moiwonos dsT-is sabWom. soWis Sexvedra warmatebuli iyo rusuli diplomatiisaTvis. is afxazeTsa da saqarTvelos Soris politikuri dialogis aRdgenas daexmara, ganamtkica moskovis, rogorc mTavari Suamavlis, roli, Seqmna baza ruseTis ekonomikuri interesebis realizaciisaTvis rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise afxazeTSi da

68 Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, April 9, 2003, http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/reports/2002/sgrep02.htm.

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afxazeTTan ruseTis urTierTobis axali politika legitimuri gaxada. daskvniT preskonferenciaze putinma gaimeora, rom ruseTis politika "saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis SenarCunebasa da mravalerovani afxazeTis interesebis kanonieri uflebebis uzrunvelyofas" efuZneba. 69 aseve aRniSna, rom "urTierTxelsayreli saqmiani iniciativebisa da proeqtebis realizacia amcirebs konfrontacias, muSaobs mTlianad regionis ekonomikur ganviTarebaze, emsaxureba iq mcxovrebi adamianebis interesebs". ufro rTulia imis mtkiceba, rom soWis Sexvedram qarTul diplomatias warmateba moutana. prezidenti SevardnaZe ruseTis samSvidobo Zalebis mandatis uvado gagrZelebas usafrTxoebis garantiebis gareSe daTanxmda, magram gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebis dasturi ver miiRo. afxazuri mxarisaTvis wina molaparakebis formatTan SedarebiT, romelSic is Tanaswor rols TamaSobda, soWis procesi ukan gadadgmuli nabiji iyo. soWis CarCoebma ruseTi miukerZoebel Suamavlad ki ar aqcia, aramed molaparakebebis im mxared, romelic rogorc sakuTar, ise afxazuri mxaris interesebsac warmoadgenda, gansakuTrebiT ekonomikur proeqtebSi. amave dros afxazeTma Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebis nebismier gadawyvetilebaze vetos ufleba SeinarCuna. miuxedavad imisa, rom gaeros generaluri mdivani oficialurad miesalmeboda soWis SeTanxmebebs, bevrma damkvirvebelma da oficialurma pirma am SeTanxmebebSi, "megobarTa jgufis" xelmZRvanelobiT, Jenevis procesis saqmianobis Seryeva dainaxa.70 namdvilad, soWis ormxrivi samuSao jgufebi,

69 prezidenti vladimer putini, preskonferencia soWSi Sexvedris Semdeg, 2003 wlis 7 marti. 70 Tavis moxsenebaSi uSiSroebis sabWos saxelze afxazeTSi situaciis Sesaxeb gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialurma warmomadgenelma ganacxada, rom "megobarTa jgufis" axalma winadadebebma, agreTve ormxrivma SeTanxmebebma prezident putinsa da prezident SevardnaZes Soris samSvidobo procesis reaqtivaciis cdebs axali impulsi misca". ix. Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, April 9, 2003.

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romlebic JenevaSi soWis Sexvedramde erTi kviriT adre Seiqmna, dublirebdnen gaeros sam komisias (usafrTxoebis problemebze, Sida gadaadgilebul pirebsa da ekonomikur sakiTxebze). wlebis ganmavlobaSi gaero da ruseTi erTmaneTs metoqeobas uwevdnen molaparakebis procesSi liderobisaTvis da soWis Sexvedram ganamtkica ruseTis, rogorc meTauris, roli. soWis SeTanxmebebis xelmoweris Semdeg dasavleTis diplomatebma da saqarTvelos mTavrobam seriozuli cda wamoiwyes, ruseTis xelmZRvanelobiTa da gaeros egidiT soWis procesis, Jenevis procesTan dasakavSireblad. afxazuri mxare Seecada soWis Sexvedris gamoyenebas sakoordinacio sabWos farglebSi usafrTxoebaze SeCerebuli dialogis ganaxlebis lobirebisaTvis.71 formalur doneze ruseTi uxalisod akavSirebda soWis process Jenevis procesTan da aseve uxalisod ekideboda axali formatiT "megobarTa jgufis" soWis an momaval SexvedrebSi CarTvas. ruseTi daTanxmda gaeros CarTvaze da Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebaze samuSao jgufebSi monawileobis misaRebad saqarTveloSi gaeros samxedro damkvirvebelTa misiisa da gaeros ltolvilTa umaRlesi komisariatis sammarTvelos warmomadgenlebi miiwvia. maSin, rodesac ruseTma ikisra wamyvani roli ekonomikuri iniciativebis realizaciasa da Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis problemis gadaWraSi, gaerosa da "megobarTa jgufs" unda moegvarebina usafrTxoebisa da politikuri procesis ganaxlebis sakiTxebi, ganesazRvra maT Soris yvelaze rTuli ­ afxazeTis politikuri statusi. afxazuri mxare uwindeburad

71 afxazeTis de faqto premier-ministrma raul xajimbam SeniSna, rom soWis Sexvedram "dadebiTi gavlena moaxdina qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis daregulirebis saerTo atmosferoze da xeli Seuwyo Tbilissa da soxums Soris daZabulobis Senelebas. am pirobebSi gaCnda qarTul-afxazuri sakoordinacio sabWos Sexvedris ganaxlebis SesaZlebloba". ix. http//www.mid.ru , sadac SesaZlebelia informaciis mopoveba qarTul-afxazur konfliqtSi konsultaciebis Sesaxeb, 2003 wlis 7 maisi.

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uars ambobda molaparakebis procesis safuZvlad bodenis dokumentis miRebaze, magram soWis Sexvedras qarTulafxazuri dialogis nawilobrivi ganaxleba mainc mohyva. 2003 wlis martidan 12 Tvis ganmavlobaSi sxvadasxva formatiT ramdenime Sexvedra Sedga. 72 saqarTvelosa da afxazeTis warmomadgenlebis ori Sexvedra galSi, gaeros specialuri warmomadgenlis haidi taliavinis TavmjdomareobiT, Catarda. pirveli 2003 wlis oqtomberSi Sedga, uSualod "vardebis revoluciis" win, meore ki ­ 2004 wlis ianvarSi. afxazeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministr sergei Sambas sityvebiT, oqtombris Sexvedris Semdeg situacia galis raionSi gaumjobesda da 2004 wlis ianvarSi, saakaSvilis prezidentad arCevis Semdeg, gauaresda.73 gaeros generaluri mdivnis moxsenebebi ki am Sefasebas ar adasturebs. maTSi miTiTebulia, rom usafrTxoebis problemebs adgili hqonda oqtomberSi, noembersa da dekemberSi. mdgomareoba mxolod zafxulSi gaumjobesda.74 saqarTvelos mTavrobam amas imiT Seuwyo xeli, rom 2004 wlis TebervalSi zugdidSi msxvili antikriminaluri operacia Caatara da enguris meore mxaresa da kodorSi moqmed ukanono partizanul dajgufebebs mxari ar dauWira. sul male ruseTis didi molodini Seicvala imedgacruebiT, romelic rusma eqspertebma ganmartes, rogorc "saqarTvelos cdebi gadaxedos an Tundac ziani miayenos soWis SeTanxmebebis

15 ivliss, gaTiSulobis xangrZlivi periodis Semdeg, gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialuri warmomadgenlis TavmjdomareobiT, soxumSi erToblivi qarTul-afxazuri Sexvedra Sedga. masze ganixiles usafrTxoebis garantiebi, romlebic konfliqtis ganuaxleblobas uzrunvelyofda. usafrTxoebis garantiebi mniSvnelovani iyo ekonomikuri proeqtebis realizaciisa da Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebisaTvis. 2003 wlis 21-22 ivliss JenevaSi specialuri Sexvedra Sedga qarTuli da afxazuri mxareebis, "megobarTa jgufisa" da gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialuri warmomadgenlis monawileobiT. 73 «Ïðåäâàðèòåëüíûå èòîãè ãðóçèíî-àáõàçñêîé âñòðå÷è ïî âîïðîñàì áåçîïàñíîñòè», http:/ /www.kavkaz.memo.ru/news/id/625957.html. 74 Report of the Secretary-General on the situation in Abkhazia, Georgia, July 14, 2004, http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/sgrep04.html.

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realizacias".75 Tavis mxriv, saqarTvelom brali wauyena ruseTs Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis sakiTxSi progresis uqonlobis gamo, amtkicebda ra, rom ruseTis warmomadgenlebma ver daarwmunes afxazeTis xelisufleba ltolvilebis dabrunebis qarTuli mxaris moTxovnis miRebis Sesaxeb. afxazebi daJinebiT moiTxovdnen mxareebisgan galSi dabrunebulebis daregistrirebas. miT umetes, rom saqarTvelom afxazeTTan damakavSirebeli rkinigzis proeqtis irgvliv axali eWvebi gamoTqva. Tavis mxriv, afxazebi adanaSaulebdnen Tbiliss enguris hidroeleqtrosadguris aRdgenis dayovnebis gamo. prezidenti SevardnaZe amtkicebda, rom soWSi isini prezident putinTan erTad ganixilavdnen galis raionSi erToblivi qarTul-afxazuri administraciis Seqmnis sakiTxs, magram, rusuli wyaroebis mixedviT, konkretuli gadawyvetileba ar miuRiaT. Sexvedris Semdegac saqarTvelos xelisufleba mtkiced moiTxovda saerTaSoriso dakvirvebis qveS "droebiTi gardamavali xelisuflebebis" dafuZnebas jer _ galis, Semdgom afxazeTis sxva raionebSi da ewinaaRmdegeboda rogorc galSi, ise afxazeTis sxva raionebSi Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebamde Tbilisi-soxumi- soWis marSrutiT sarkinigzo mimosvlis gaxsnis ganxilvas. kamaTis dros naTeli gaxda, rom soWSi miRebuli valdebulebebis arsis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebebi, rogorc gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialuri warmomadgeneli imedovnebda, politikur dialogs biZgs ar miscemda, magram xelsayrel instrumentad gadaiqceoda ruseTsa da afxazeTs Soris samomavlo ekonomikuri kavSirebis gasamarTleblad, romlebic, savaraudod, saqarTvelos TanxmobiT ganxorcieldeboda. saqarTveloSi prezidenti SevardnaZe soWis SeTanxmebebis xelmoweris gamo gaakritikes. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg axali qarTuli xelisufleba Sors dadga am procesisagan da

75

Ñì. Alexander Chepurin, "How to Strengthen Stability and Security in the Caucasus," Journal of Social and Political Studies, http://www.ca-c.org/online/2004/journal_eng/ cac-02/07.cheeng.shtml.

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mianiSna, rom ar apirebs maTSi Cadebul ormxriv standartze daTanxmebas. magram 2004 wels soWis samitis CarCoebSi muSaobas mainc agrZelebda ramdenime samuSao jgufi, upirveles yovlisa, samuSao jgufi ltolvilebisa da Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis Sesaxeb gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialuri warmomadgenlis, gaeros ltolvilTa saqmeebis umaRlesi komisariatisa da dsT-is samSvidobo Zalebis mTavari sardlis monawileobiT. ekonomikis sferoSi ruseTma calmxrivad daiwyo bevri proeqtis ganxorcieleba, romelTa legitimizacias is soWis procesis meSveobiT Seecada, maT Soris soWsa da soxums Soris sarkinigzo mimosvlis gaxsniTa da sasazRvro vaWrobis gafarToebiT.

ekonomikuri interesebi: vaWroba da izolacia

ruseTis sazRvrispira wvrili vaWroba, romelic mdinare fsouze gamSvebi punqtis meSveobiT xorcieldeboda, soxumis bazrebs saqonliT amaragebda da afxaz "moZrav vaWrebs" SemosavliT uzrunvelyofda. es afxazeTSi mcxovrebi aTasobiT adamianisaTvis gadarCenis erTaderTi saSualeba iyo. dov linCis mixedviT, afxazeTis de faqto respublika Sav zRvaze da ruseTis sazRvarTan momgebiani ekonomikuri adgilmdebareobis wyalobiT arsebobs.76 TiTqmis mTeli 90-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi afxazeTi ruseTisaTvis gansakuTrebul ekonomikur interess ar warmoadgenda. 1996 wels dsT-is qveynebis meTaurebis mier afxazeTis mimarT SemoRebuli sanqciebi arc ise Seexo ruseTis ekonomikur interesebs. 90-ian wlebSi ekonomikuri urTierTobebi SeinarCunes mxolod kerZo pirebma, maT Soris _ moqmedma an gadamdgarma oficrebma da ruseTis mezobeli regionebis im regionulma Cinovnikebma, romlebmac afxazeTSi

76

Lynch, p. 17.

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qoneba SeiZines. aRniSnuli pirebidan zogierTebi, upirveles yovlisa, citrusebiTa da soflis meurneobis sxva produqciiT wvril sasazRvro vaWrobas eweodnen. ruseTis zogierTma sawarmom da saxelmwifo dawesebulebam, romlebsac omamde "sauwyebo" kurortebi hqondaT afxazeTSi (Tavdacvis saministro, atomuri energiis saministro), omis Semdeg afxazuri xelisuflebisagan isini ijariT aiRes, raTa TavianTi mosamsaxureebisaTvis iafi sagzurebi miecaT. rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, ruseTis ramdenime samxreT regionma turizmisa (isini agreTve ijariT iRebdnen kurortebs) da vaWrobis (Tambaqo, Rvino, citrusebi, Txili da a. S.) sferoebSi afxazeTTan ekonomikur TanamSromlobaze xelSekrulebebi dado. isini afxazeTSi xetyis damzadebisa da mSeneblobis mcire proeqtebsac axorcielebdnen. magaliTad, rostovis olqma dado xelSekruleba afxazeTis gemTSemkeTebeli sawarmoebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb. dabolos, (rusuli, afxazuri da qarTuli), kriminaluri dajgufebebi afxazeTis gavliT farTomasStabian kontrabandas eweodnen. zogierTi kvlevis mixedviT, afxazeTi gadaiqca ukanono vaWrobis, iaraRisa da narkotikebis gadatanis mniSvnelovan marSrutad, Tumca kontrabandis namdvili moculoba ucnobia. albaT is ar aRemateboda samxreT oseTis, azerbaijanisa da daRestnis gavliT ukanono tvirTebis nakadebs.77 afxazeTi Seecada, ekonomikuri sargeblobis perspeqtiva gamoeyenebina iseTi rusi politikosebis mxardaWeris mosapoveblad, rogorebic arian moskovis meri luJkovi, samxreT olqebis rigi gubernatorebi da saxelmwifo dumis patriotuli Zalebi, Tumca es moRvaweebi isedac iCendnen aseT midrekilebas. magram, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, maTi gavlena afxazeTis mimarT mkveTrad Semcirda mas Semdeg, rac prezidentma putinma arsebiTad SezRuda oligarqebis, guber77

Alexander Kukhianidze, Organized Crime and Smuggling through Abkhazia and its Impact on Georgian-Abkhazian Conflict Resolution (Tbilisi: Transnational Crime and Corruption Center, American University, Georgia Office, 2003).

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natorebisa da parlamentis Zalaufleba da maTi gavlena ruseTis politikaze. miuxedavad amisa, ruseTis ekonomikuri lobi agrZelebda mniSvnelovani rolis TamaSs 2004 wels, afxazeTis saprezidento arCevnebis dros. saqarTvelos mTavroba cdilobda, gamoeyenebina ekonomikuri interesebi, rogorc afxazeTis mimarT moskovis politikaze gavlenis saSualeba, magram amas SesamCnevi warmatebebi ar mohyolia. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg saakaSvilis mTavrobam ruseTs oficialurad SesTavaza afxazeTis gavliT navTobsadenis gayvanis sakiTxis ganxilva (berezovski am winadadebas ayenebda adre, misi uSiSroebis sabWos mdivnad yofnis dros). Tavis mxriv, afxazebi CaeWidnen ruseTis dainteresebas sarkinigzo mimosvlis aRdgenaze, gzebis mSeneblobis daCqarebas rusi muSaxelis mizidvis pirobiT. saakaSvili negatiuri zewolis moxdenasac Seecada, daemuqra ra im qonebis konfiskaciiT, romelic afxazeTSi saqarTvelos xelisuflebis nebarTvis gareSe ruseTis moqalaqeebma SeiZines. swored ase moiqca aWaraSi aslan abaSiZis reJimis dacemis Semdeg saqarTvelos mTavroba ruseTis sakuTrebis mimarT. magram saqarTvelos mxridan arc ekonomikurma dainteresebam da arc zewolam ruseTis poziciaze SesamCnevi gavlena ver moaxdina. bolo wlebSi ruseTi araerTxel acxadebda, rom ekonomikuri sanqciebi afxazeTis mimarT kontrproduqtiulia da afxazebSi mxolod sakuTari Tavis, rogorc alyaSemortymuli cixe-simagris patimrebad aRqmas aRviZebs, sakuTar Zalebze dayrdnobis swrafvas da "maTTvis Tavsmoxveul" molaparakebebze winaaRmdegobis gawevis survils aZlierebs.78 sanqciebma ver aiZula afxazeTis xelisufleba, Seerbilebina damoukideblobis moTxovna da regionSi stabiluroba da usafrTxoeba ver gaaZliera. piriqiT, aman afxazeTis ekonomikuri gaRatakeba, izolacia da kriminaluri viTareba gaamZafra.

78

aseTi azris mimdevaria zogierTi gare damkvirvebelic. ix. Cohen, "Overview of the South Caucasus."

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SevardnaZis dros saqarTvelo uars ambobda afxazeTze dadebuli sanqciebis moxsnis ganxilvaze, maT Soris sarkinigzo mimosvlis gaxsnaze, Tu ar iqneboda miRweuli progresi iseT politikur sakiTxze, rogoricaa Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabruneba. SevardnaZem 2003 wlis ivlisSi putinisadmi gagzavnil Ria werilSi gaakritika moskovi 1996 wlis dsT-is movaleobebis ignorirebis gamo. isini "nebismier calmxriv politikur da ekonomikur kontaqtebs afxazeTis de faqto xelisuflebasTan qarTuli mxaris Tanxmobis gareSe krZalavda".79 "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg moskovs meti imedi hqonda, rom Tbilisi sanqciebTan dakavSirebiT poziciebs Secvlida. 2004 wlis ianvarSi "rossiiskaia gazeta"-sTvis micemul interviuSi qarTul-afxazur konfliqtSi ruseTis prezidentis specialurma warmomadgenelma valeri loSCininma aRniSna, rom ekonomikuri sanqciebis moxsna "Seqmnida konfliqtis daregulirebis xelsayrel pirobebs". man xazi gausva saakaSvilis gancxadebas imis Sesaxeb, rom Tbilisi ar miiswrafvis afxazeTis izolaciisaken80 da movlenaTa msgavsi ganviTareba imeds iZleva, rom saqarTvelos axali mTavroba mzadaa gadaxedos sakiTxs sanqciebis Sesaxeb. loSCininis Tanaxmad, afxazeTTan saxelmwifo, ekonomikuri da sxva kavSirebis akrZalvis moxsnis sakiTxze urTierTgagebas soWSi 2003 wlis martSi miaRwies, magram, misi azriT, SemdgomSi saqarTvelos mTavrobam ukan daixia.81 udavoa, rom afxazeTis winaaRmdeg 1996 wlis sanqciebi mxolod qaRaldze arsebobs. 1990-iani wlebis bolos ruseTis mTavroba gadaadgilebis, turizmisa da vaWrobis sferoSi SezRudvebis Sesustebas loialurad uyurebda. 2000-2003

http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2003/07/mil-030721-rfel121604.htm. 80 "Russia Wants to Lift Sanctions on Abkhazia," http://www.civil.ge/eng/article. php?id=6138. 81 interviu "rossiiskaia gazeta"-dan, 2005 wlis 29 ianvari, http://www.rg.ru/ 2004/01/29/loshinin.html. raime SeTanxmeba TbilisSi axal mTavrobasTan miRweuli ar yofila.

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wlebSi ruseTis mTavari wvlili afxazeTis ekonomikaSi iyo ara vaWroba, aramed im rusi turistebis raodenoba, romlebic afxazeTis kurortebze ruseTis xelisuflebis mxridan SezRudvis gareSe Cadiodnen. 2003 wlis zafxulSi maTma ricxvma 300 aTass miaRwia.82 prezidenti saakaSvili mkveTrad aprotestebda ruseTsa da afxazeTs Soris aseTi ekonomikuri kavSirebis ganmtkicebas. 2004 wlis agvistoSi man rusi turistebi gaafrTxila, rom afxazeTSi gamgzavrebisagan Tavi SeekavebinaT da ruseTis gemebs, romlebsac soWidan soxumSi turistebi gadahyavda, cecxlis gaxsniT daemuqra.83 am muqaram qarTul-afxazur urTierTobebSi sakmaod mwvave krizisis provocireba gamoiwvia, ramac didi gavlena moaxdina ruseTis sazogadoebisa da misi politikuri elitis mier prezident saakaSvilis aRqmaze. radgan ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa saministrom Tavisi moqalaqeebis (marTalia, ar wamoscdeniaT, rom afxazeTis mosaxleobis umravlesoba aseve ruseTis moqalaqea) dacva ikisra, rusi turistebis nakadi ar wydeboda mTeli zafxulis ganmavlobaSi. zafxulis am incidentebis Semdeg prezidentma saakaSvilma mtkice pozicia daikava sanqciebis moxsnis sakiTxze. 2004 wlis seqtemberSi dsT-is samitze, astanaSi, man isev daadastura afxazeTis mimarT dsT-is gadawyvetilebebis Sesrulebis aucilebloba, maT Soris 1996 wels miRebuli gadawyvetilebis ­ separatistul respublikasTan raime ekonomikuri an politikuri urTierTobebis mxardaWeraze uaris Tqma. astanaSi, pres-konferenciaze, prezidentma saakaSvilma prezident putinisagan moiTxova imis garantiebi, rom ruseTi am gada82

2003 wels afxazeTs 300 aTasi turisti ewvia da, miuxedavad imisa, rom es ricxvi omamdel 3 milionze bevrad ufro dabalia, fulis umetesi wili brundeba ruseTSi (TiTqmis yvela sastumro aris rusebis sakuTrebaSi), es mainc qmnis sezonur samuSao adgilebs. ix. vropuli komisiis moxseneba "Humanitarian Aid for the Most Vulnerable People of Georgia," http://europa.eu.int/comm/echo/pdf_files/ decisions/2004/dec_georgia_01000_en.pdf. 83 "Georgian President Promises to Sink Russian Ships," The Russia Journal, August 4, 2004, http://www.russiajournal.com/news/cnews-article.shtml?nd=44913.

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wyvetilebebs daicavs, mniSvnelovanwilad imitomac, rom sarkinigzo mimosvla soWsa da soxums Soris dsT-is samitamde zustad erTi kviriT adre gaixsna.84 savaWro sanqciebis miuxedavad, 2004 wlis dasawyisSi afxazeTis sagareo vaWrobis brunvaSi ZiriTadad ruseTidan importis wilma 75 procenti Seadgina.85 magram ruseTi ar aris afxazeTis erTaderTi savaWro partniori. TurqeTis gemebi regularulad Sedian afxazeTis portebSi. dRes TurqeTi afxazuri xetyis importiorTa Soris pirvel adgilze dgas, Tumca ruseTi afxazeTis soflis meurneobis produqciis mTavar bazrad rCeba. zogierTi SefasebebiT, afxazeTs yvelaze did Semosavals eqsportidan xetyiTa da jarTiT vaWroba aZlevs. mxolod xetye biujetis 80 procents Seadgens.86 90-iani wlebis bolos ruseTma vaWrobaSi dominirebuli poziciebis dakargva daiwyo. prezident putinis dros afxazeTis ekonomikuri mniSvneloba ZiriTadad imitom gaizarda, rom dsT-is mTel regionSi ekonomikuri interesebi aRmoCda ruseTis strategiis centrSi. am TvalsazrisiT afxazeTSi ruseTis ekonomikuri interesebi ase gamoiyureba: pirveli, afxazeTis gavliT ruseTis saqonlis sarkinigzo tranzitis aRdgenis imedi somxeTSi, iranSi, TurqeTsa da TviT saqarTveloSi; meore, afxazeTis gavliT saeqsporto navTobsadenis mSeneblobis SesaZleblobebis Seswavla baqo-jeihani-Tbilisis navTobsadenTan SeerTebis mizniT, bosforis srutis gverdis avliT; mesame, enguris hidroeleqtrosadguris aRdgena da iq warmoebuli Warbi eleqtroenergiis eqsporti ruseTSi, romlis samxreTi regionebi amJamad mxolod nawilobriv maragdeba am eleqtroenergiiT; meoTxe, soxumis portis gamoyeneba Savi zRviT

Giorgi Sepashvili, "CIS Summit Reveals Rift in Russo­Georgian Relations," http:// www.civil.ge/eng/print.php?id=7852. 85 "Ãîñóäàðñòâåííûé òàìîæåííûé êîìèòåò Ðåñïóáëèêè Àáõàçèÿ ïîäâåë èòîãè ñâîåé ðàáîòû çà ïåðâîå ïîëóãîäèå", 15 èþëÿ 2004 ãîäà, http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/newstext/ news/id/684112.html. 86 Kukhianidze, p. 5.

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gadazidvebisaTvis (sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg Sav zRvaze ruseTs darCa mxolod erTi msxvili porti ­ novorosiiski); dabolos, rusuli kapitaldabandebebisaTvis Savi zRvis sakurorto zonis gafarToeba. rac Seexeba am bolo punqts, afxazeTis xelisuflebas iq jer ar Cautarebia farTomasStabiani privatizacia da, amdenad, ucxoelebi legalurad ver SeiZenen sakuTrebas. afxazeTSi ruseTis warmoebebis umetesobas kurortebi ijariT aqvT aRebuli, magram es saSualebas ar aZlevT infrastruqturaSi msxvili kapitaldabandebebi moizidon. afxazeTis dauregulirebeli politikuri statusi da gaurkvevloba qonebriv uflebebTan dakavSirebiT ruseTis ekonomikuri interesebis realizaciisTvis ZiriTad dabrkolebas warmoadgens. miuxedavad imisa, rom moskovs Teoriulad proeqtebis arcTu ise mcire ricxvis ganviTarebaze afxazeTis an saqarTvelos xelisuflebasTan SeTanxmebebis miRweva SeuZlia, maTi umravlesobis ganxorcieleba saqarTvelosa da afxazeTis monawileobis gareSe SeuZlebelia. grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi mainc saWiroa afxazeTis gavliT sarkinigzo mimosvlis gaxsnis Sesaxeb sakiTxis gadawyveta. rkinigza ukiduresad mniSvnelovania ruseTis eqsportis Rirebulebis Semcirebisa da somxeTSi, romelic dRemde azerbaijanul-Turquli blokadis gamo izolirebulia, misi ekonomikuri interesebis SenarCunebisaTvis. rkinigzas agreTve SeuZlia somxeTSi ganlagebuli ruseTis jaris momaragebis Rirebulebis Semcireba. garda amisa, rusuli kompaniebi dainteresebulebi arian saqarTvelosa da afxazeTis rkinigzis privatizaciiT.87 afxazebis mier gzis aRdgenis saqmeSi rusuli sarkinigzo samxedro nawilebis daxmarebis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobis ganxilvam qarTul mxares, romelsac konfliqtis zonaSi damatebiTi rusuli jarebis yofna ar surs,

87 interviu vladimir iakuninTan, Sps "rossiiskie Jeleznie dorogi"-s vice-prezidentTan. ix.: ÎÀÎ "ÐÆÄ" õî÷åò ïðèâàòèçèðîâàòü æåëåçíûå äîðîãè Ãðóçèè, 16 èþíÿ 2004 ãîäà, http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/newstext/news/id/675512.html.

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sazrunavi gauCina.88 somxeTis mTavrobam proeqtis dasafinanseblad mzadyofna gamoxata da qarTvelebisaTvis mis upiratesobaze miuTiTa. somxeTis transportis ministrma andranik manukianma aRniSna, rom ruseTSi qarTuli tvirTebis amJamindeli sarkinigzo marSruti azerbaijanis teritoriaze gadis, rac afxazeTis marSrutTan SedarebiT 700 kilometriT metia. dumis deputat aleqsandre gustovis SefasebiT, gzis am monakveTis blokirebis gamo saqarTvelo yovelwliurad TiTqmis 300 milion amerikul dolars kargavs.89 msgavsma ekonomikurma argumentebma Tbilisi proeqtis mxardaWeraSi ver daarwmuna. qarTveli Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis dabrunebasTan dakavSirebul ruseTTan molaparakebis dros saqarTvelo rkinigzis am monakveTs, rogorc mniSvnelovan kozirs, ise ganixilavs. Tavdapirvelad, 2004 wlis TebervalSi, saakaSvilis moskovSi vizitis dros, Seiqmna STabeWdileba, rom saqarTvelos mTavroba SeiZleba daTanxmeboda sarkinigzo mimosvlis aRdgenas, ganixilavda ra amas rogorc nabijs ndobisaken da ara rogorc daregulirebis winapirobas. magram ramdenime kviris Semdeg saqarTvelos prezidenti daubrunda Tavis sawyis pozicias. mogvianebiT qarTuli mxare kidevac Seecada daekavSirebina sarkinigzo proeqtis perspeqtiva afxazeTis statusis gansazRvris saerTo progresTan. 2004 wlis Sua periodSi ruseTis enTuziazmi sarkinigzo proeqtTan dakavSirebiT mniSvnelovanwilad Senelda.90 msgavs mdgomareobaSi iyo afxazuri mxarec, 2004 wlis zafxulSi saqarTvelosa da samxreT oseTs Soris axali samxedro konfÀáõàçèÿ ïðåäëîæèëà ðîññèéñêèì âîéñêàì âîññòàíîâèòü æåëåçíóþ äîðîãó. ­ Èíòåðôàêñ, 22 äåêàáðÿ 2003 ãîäà. 89 "Ãðóçèÿ íå ñ÷èòàåò öåëåñîîáðàçíûì ïåðåäà÷ó àáõàçñêîãî ó÷àñòêà Çàêàâêàçñêîé æåëåçíîé äîðîãè â êîíöåññèþ Àðìåíèè", 29 ìàÿ 2004, http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/newstext/news/ id/669692.html. 90 cnobili rusi eqsperti sergei karaganovi wers: "saqarTvelom faqtobrivad uaryo afxazeTis, saqarTvelosa da somxeTis gavliT sarkinigzo mimosvlis aRdgenis idea, romliTac misi erTiani ekonomikuri sivrcis aRdgena daiwyeboda". ix. Ñåðãåé Êàðàãàíîâ. Ïðîùàíèå ñ Ãðóçèåé? ­ Ðîññèéñêàÿ ãàçåòà, 20 àâãóñòà 2004 ãîäà.

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rontaciiT warmoSobili daZabulobis eskalaciis gamo. 2004 wlis 10 seqtembers ruseTma da afxazeTma sarkinigzo mimosvla soWsa da soxums Soris mainc ganaaxles. gzis es monakveTi ekonomikuri kavSirebisa da turizmis ganviTarebaSi sakvanZo rols TamaSobs da, saboloo jamSi, ruseTisa da afxazeTis integraciis gaZlierebis instruments warmoadgens. prezidentma saakaSvilma da saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis zogierTma wevrma es nabiji gaakritikes da, rogorc ruseTis mier saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobaze valdebulebebis darRveva, ise Seafases. magram humanitaruli TvalsazrisiT, rkinigza sasicocxlo mniSvnelobisaa aTwleulze metxans izolaciaSi myofi afxazeTis mosaxleobisaTvis. saqarTvelos mier amierkavkasiis rkinigzis gafarToebul variantze seriozul molaparakebebze uaris Tqma afxazeTis mimarT misi humanitaruli ganzraxvis demonstrirebis SesaZleblobis xelidan gaSvebas niSnavda. mokled, saqarTvelom ver gamoiyena sarkinigzo proeqti konfliqtis gadaWris instrumentad. afxazeTTan ruseTis ekonomikuri kavSirebi soxumisTvis rogorc waxalisebis, ise zewolis saSualebac iyo. zewolis demonstrireba gansakuTrebiT aSkara gaxda 2004 wlis bolos, afxazeTSi rTuli saprezidento arCevnebis dros. pirvel arCevnebSi gamarjvebuli sergei baRafSisaTvis misi uflebamosilebebis SemzRudavi ruseTis mier SemoTavazebuli kompromisebis miRebaze iZulebis mizniT, moskovma afxazi vaWrebisaTvis sazRvris gadaketviTa da satransporto komunikaciebis SewyvetiT ekonomikuri zewolis moxdena daiwyo. iuxedavad amisa, 2005 wlis ianvarSi, meore arCevnebis Semdeg, baRafSma moskovSi CasvliT ruseTTan ekonomikis sferoSi kidev ufro mWidro TanamSromlobis ganzraxva daadastura. man mouwoda rusuli investiciebis gazrdisaken, turizmis ganviTarebisa da afxazur-rusuli ekonomikuri kanonmdeblobis ufro mWidro koordinaciisaken. misi iniciativebi aCvenebs, rom ruseTi, gadadgmuli nabijebis miuxedavad, axlo momavalSi afxazeTis mTavar ekonomikur partniorad darCeba.

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da mainc, ruseTsa da afxazeTs Soris ekonomikuri kavSirebi SezRuduli iqneba.politikuri da ekonomikuri garantiebis uqonloba ruseTis investorebisaTvis imas niSnavs, rom saeWvoa afxazeTma iseTi rusuli investiciebis mozidva SeZlos, rogoric saqarTvelom, romelmac 2004 wlis bolosaTvis saprivatizacio tenderebi gamoacxada. ramdenadac saqarTveloSi msxvili rusuli biznesi farTovdeba, ekonomikuri interesebis balansi rusul elitaSi SesaZloa Seicvalos. saqarTvelos ekonomikuri mdgomareoba Tu gaumjobesdeba, ruseTis bizneswreebis garkveul nawils afxazeTis ekonomikisadmi interesi SesaZloa Seumcirdes. magram im ekonomikur jgufebs, romlebic afxazeTTan msxvili kapitaldabandebebiT ukve dakavSirebuli arian (regionul elita da wvrili movaWreebi, saqonlis gansazRvrul saxeobaze specializebulebi), uwindeburad kremlis politikaze zegavlenis moxdenis SesaZlebloba aqvT, rac arCevnebSi ruseTis maRal doneze Carevam daamtkica. Sejamebisas SeiZleba iTqvas, rom, miuxedavad rusuli ekonomikuri interesebis potenciuri mniSvnelobisa afxazeTSi, saeWvoa maTi realizeba, Tu saqarTvelosa da afxazeTs Soris arsebuli konfliqti ar daregulirda. ruseTis interesebi soWis raionsa da alag-alag CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi SezRuduli da umaRles doneze personificirebuli rCeba. rogorc aseTi, dResdReobiT moskovis qarTul-afxazur konfliqtTan midgomis formirebaSi isini gadamwyvet rols ar TamaSoben. Tumca momavalSi SesaZloa, afxazeTma, miuxedavad misi statusisa, mniSvnelovani adgili daikavos ruseTis ufro farTo ekonomikur angariSebSi. afxazebisaTvis ruseTi sakvanZo ekonomikur partniorad da misi ekonomikuri gadarCenis garantad rCeba.

afxazeTi ruseTis saSinao politikaSi

ekonomikuri politikisgan gansxvavebiT, ruseTis politikis formirebaSi afxazeTTan da mTlianad qarTul-afxazur

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konfliqtTan mimartebiT sul mcire, 6 faqtori TamaSobs aSkara rols.pirveli, ruseTis nacionalisturma da politikurma Zalebma wamowies "afxazeTis dacvis" lozungi, rogorc erT-erTi TavianTi politikuri prioritetebidan. bolo aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi ruseTis saxelmwifo dumis warmomadgenlebi xmamaRla mxolod afxazeTze laparakobdnen. vladimer Jirinovskis liberalur-demokratiuli partia, bolo dros ki partia "rodinac" aqtiurad uWerdnen mxars afxazeTis damoukideblobas da sxvebze xSirad Cadiodnen am regionSi. 2004 wlis agvistoSi, maSin, rodesac prezidenti saakaSvili Zalis gamoyenebiT imuqreboda, raTa daebrkolebina turistebis afxazeTSi gamgzavreba, Jirinovski soxumSi miiWra da Tqva, rom afxazeTi saqarTvelos nawili arasodes iqneba.partia "rodinas" liderma da dumis saerTaSoriso saqmeebis komitetis Tavmjdomare dimitri rogozinma aqtiurad dauWira mxari afxazeTis mosaxleobis ruseTis moqalaqeebad registracias, aseve ruseTis pensiebiT maTi uzrunvelyofis kampanias da ganacxada, rom misi fraqcia afxazeTis sruli saerTaSoriso aRiarebis momxrea.91 2004 wlis maisSi ki saxelmwifo dumis komunisturma fraqciam prezident putins mouwoda, "afxazeTSi mcxovrebi ruseTis moqalaqeebisaTvis aSkara da araorazrovani Tanadgomis, usafrTxoebis mtkice garantiebis" demonstrireba moexdina. aseve ruseTis politikurma partiebma afxazeTis sakiTxi gamoiyenes, rogorc TavianTi saarCevno kampaniebis gamaerTianebeli lozungi, metadre imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom afxazeTis bevrma mcxovrebma ruseTis moqalaqeoba miiRo. magaliTad, 2003 wlis dumis arCevnebze ruseTis saxalxo partiam Tavis partiul siaSi Seiyvana ruseTis moqalaqe, afxazeTis saxalxo partiis lideri, romelmac xmebis 21 procenti daagrova, Tumca qveynis sxva regionebSi parlamentSi gasasvlelad aucilebeli 5-procentiani barieri ver gadalaxa.

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"Äìèòðèé Ðîãîçèí: ôðàêöèÿ `Ðîäèíà' áóäåò ñîäåéñòâîâàòü ìåæäóíàðîäíîìó ïðèçíàíèþ Àáõàçèè", http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/newstext/news/id/674872.html.

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xSirad calkeuli rusi parlamentarebis gancxadebebi qarTuli elitisa da sazogadoebriobis mrisxane reaqcias iwvevs. saxelmwifo dumis mier miRebuli oficialuri gancxadebebi, rogorc wesi, radikalur winadadebebs ar Seicavs. magaliTad, saqarTveloSi amerikuli samxedro daswrebis sapasuxod 2002 wlis martSi deputatebis erTma nawilma afxazeTis suverenitetis aRiarebis winadadeba Semoitana, magram am ideam xmaTa umravlesoba ver daagrova. 2004 wlis maisSi dumis saerTaSoriso saqmeebis komitetis Tavmjdomare konstantine kosaCevma daadastura, rom ruseTi saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobas uWers mxars da mas afxazeTTan da samxreT oseTTan mSvidobiani meTodebis gamoyenebiT konfliqtis daregulirebisaken mouwoda. meore, ruseTis Sida politikaSi anarekli pova afxazeTis mxridan gameorebulma mowodebebma ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi asocirebuli statusis micemis Sesaxeb. saerTaSoriso aRiarebis erTob bundovani perspeqtivisa da saqarTvelos mTavrobis "nebismieri saSualebebiT" kvlav gaerTianebis daJinebuli moTxovnebis pirobebSi afxazeTis elita damoukideblobis SenarCunebis ZiriTad garantias ruseTis proteqtoratis miRebaSi xedavs.92 xSirad komentatorebi rusul-afxazur urTierTobebs SeerTebul Statebsa da taivans Soris arsebul urTierTobebs adareben. aseTi asociacia ar niSnavs, rom afxazeTs (samxreT oseTisagan gansxvavebiT) ruseTis federaciaSi, rogorc Semadgenel nawils, ise unda Sesvla. afxazuri versiis asociacia, rogorc sagareo saqmeTa yofilma ministrma igor axbam ganmarta, mxolod "mWidro TanamSromlobas gulisxmobs Tavdacvis politikis sferoSi, sasazRvro sakiTxSi, sabaJo kavSirsa da valutaSi".93

92 afxazeTis vice-prezidentma valeri arSbam ganacxada: "Cven gvinda, rom kvlav, rogorc es 1810 wels iyo, ruseTis proteqtoratis qveS aRmovCndeT, raTa man afxazeTis xalxebis eTnikuri uflebebis SenarCuneba SeZlos da omi ar dauSvas". ix. Èíòåðôàêñ, 15 èþíÿ 2004 ãîäà, http://www.interfax.com. 93 "Þðèé Ëóæêîâ ïðèáûë â Àáõàçèþ", 5 àâãóñòà 2004 ãîäà, ÐîñÁèçíåñ_Êîíñàëòèíã, http://top.rbc.ru/index.shtml?/news/daythemes/2004/08/05/ 05151418_bod.shtml.

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saxelmwifo dumis vice-spikerma vladimer Jirinovskim gamoTqva azri ruseTisa da belorusiis kavSirSi afxazeTis Sesvlis Taobaze, romelic Teoriulad iqneba konfederacia, sadac yoveli qveyana suverenitets SeinarCunebs, magram bolomde cxadi ar aris, rom aseTi kavSiri odesme realoba gaxdeba. yvela SemTxvevaSi, prezidenti putini afxazeTisaTvis asocirebuli statusis miniWebas im safrTxis gamoc ar daTanxmdeba, rom msgavsi moTxovnebi iseTi de faqto saxelmwifoebisganac wamova, rogorebicaa samxreT oseTi da dnestrispireTi. metic, aseTi damokidebuleba ruseTis federaciis subieqtebisaTvis _ "gansakuTrebuli" statusis likvidireba _ gaarTulebs mis politikas centrsa da regions Soris urTierTobis harmonizaciis saqmeSi. 2005 wlis 11 marts saxelmwifo dumam uaryo fraqcia "rodinas" mier Semotanili is rezolucia, romelSic separatistul regionebs dsT-is asocirebul wevrobas sTavazobdnen. winadadeba ar gasula, magram man xmebis mniSvnelovani nawili miiRo da es maSin, rodesac msgavsi rezolucia pirvelad iqna kenWisyraze dayenebuli. mesame gza, romliTac afxazeTis problemebi ruseTis Sida politikaSi aRwevs, moqalaqeobis sakiTxTanaa dakavSirebuli. ruseTis kanonis Sesabamisad, 1991-2001 wlebSi sabWoTa pasportis nebismieri mflobeli ruseTis moqalaqeobas avtomaturad iRebda. 2001 wlis oqtomberSi miRebulma axalma kanonma, miuxedavad komunisturi partiis deputatebis mZafri SekamaTebisa, romlebic araRiarebuli respublikebis, pirvel rigSi ki, afxazeTis mcxovreblebisaTvis moqalaqeobis sayovelTao micemas uWerdnen mxars, es procesi mniSvnelovnad gaarTula. putinma uari Tqva da xazi gausva imas, rom ruseTs sxvis konfliqtebSi Careva ganzraxuli ara aqvs da arc iseT nabijebs gadadgams, rac mezobeli qveynis suverenitets darRvevs.94

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"Çàêîí î ãðàæäàíñòâå: óæåñòî÷åíèå ïðàâèë íà ôîíå âîéíû â Àáõàçèè", 18 îêòÿáðÿ 2001 ãîäà, http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/news/id/424551.html.

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rodesac axalma kanonma moqalaqeobis miRebis msurveli im afxazebis aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia, romlebmac uari ganacxades qarTuli pasportebis miRebaze da sazRvargareT gasvla ar SeeZloT, ruseTi maT keTilmosurned gamoexmaura da moqalaqeoba misca.95 am kampanias afxazeTis rusuli Temebis kongresi da afxazi kazakebis sazogadoeba xelmZRvanelobdnen. es ukanaskneli Sekruli iyo krasnodaris mxaris kazakebis organizaciasTan. 2004 wlis agvistosTvis, afxazeTis vice-prezident valeri arSbas sityvebiT, afxazeTSi mcxovrebi 320 aTasi adamianidan 170 aTasi ruseTis moqalaqe gaxda, 70 aTasi ki am statuss elodeba. rogoric unda iyos zusti cifri, SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom mosaxleobis absoluturi umravlesoba ukve ruseTis moqalaqea.96 afxazeTis mcxovrebTaTvis moqalaqeobis micemiT dawyebulma facifucma ara mxolod saqarTvelos aRSfoTeba, aramed ruseTis damkvirveblebis kritikac gamoiwvia. 2004 wlis agvistoSi, maSin, rodesac saqarTvelos axal mTavrobasa da samxreT oseTs Soris daZabulobam saqarTvelos konfliqtebis problema ruseTis yoveldRiuri gazeTebis pirvel gverdebze kvlav gamoitana, evropis institutis direqtoris moadgile valentin feodorovma moskovi saqarTvelos mimarT gatarebuli iseTi politikis gamo gaakritika, rogorsac is sakuTar

afxazma politikosebma gaeros mouwodes, am xalxs gaeros droebiTi samgzavro sabuTebi misces (magaliTad, kosovosa da CrdiloeT TimorSi gacemuli sabuTebis msgavsad). afxazeTis parlamentis wevris ciza gumbas sityvebiT, romelmac am winadadebiT ÑÏÃÑÎÎÍ-s mimarTa, aseTi sabuTebis gacemiT Tavidan aicilebdnen ruseTis moqalaqeobis miRebis msurvelTa masobriv gancxadebebs. ix. "ÎÎÍ ìîæåò âûäàòü ãðàæäàíàì Àáõàçèè âðåìåííûå äîêóìåíòû", 16 ÿíâàðÿ 2004 ãîäà, http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/newstext/news/id/ 625275.html. magram gaerom ver SeZlo am Txovnas keTilganwyobiT Sexvedroda. kosovosa da CrdiloeT Timoris formaluri statusi afxazurisagan erTob gansxvavdeba. cxadia, rom ruseTis moqalaqeobis bevri pretendenti aseve praqtikuli ekonomikuri mosazrebebidan gamomdinareobda: maSin maT dauwesdebaT ruseTis pensia, romelic gacilebiT metia imaze, rasac saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi da afxazeTis mcxovreblebi iReben. 96 C.J. Chivers. The Threat of Civil War is Turning the Abkhaz into Russians. ­ New York Times, August 15, 2004 (http://www.sakartvelo.ru, â ðóññêîì ïåðåâîäå).

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moqalaqeebTan mimarTebaSi ar moiTmenda. "rogor moiqceoda ruseTi, _ kiTxulobda is, _ Tu kurilis kunZulebis (teritoria, romelzec ruseTis suverenitetis cnobaze tokio uars acxadebs) mosaxleobis umravlesobas iaponia pasportebs miscemda?". 97 magram saqarTvelos axali prezidenti TiTqos mzad iyo moqalaqeobis sakiTxis simwvave Seemcirebina. cnobilia, rom rig SemTxvevaSi man ormagi moqalaqeoba dauSva, es ki Seqmnili Cixidan gamosvlis saSualebas iZleoda. meoTxe problema, romelic Sida politikis Seferadebas axdens, esaa rusi politikosebis, eqspertebisa da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis warmomadgenlebis mier afxazeTis sakiTxis geopolitikur WrilSi miwodeba. is, rom ruseTi kavkasiaze gavlenas kargavs da mis nacvlad SeerTebuli Statebi da nato Sevlen da rom ruseTis kavkasiidan gamoZevebis procesSi umniSvnelovanes rols saqarTvelo TamaSobs _ praqtikulad, ruseTis politikuri elitis sayovelTao mrwamsi gaxda. geopolitikuri xedva amaRlebs im araRiarebuli respublikebis mniSvnelobas, romlebic, afxazeTis CaTvliT, TavianTi strategiuli miznebis realizaciisas mxolod ruseTze agrZeleben dayrdnobas. vladimer Jirinovski gamonaklisi ar gaxlavT, roca ambobs: "CvenTvis afxazeTi imiT aris saintereso, rom mas CvenTan yofna unda" da amatebs: "rac ufro Cqara Seva saqarTvelo natoSi, miT ufro Cqara iqneba afxazeTi ruseTSi".98 nacionaluri strategiis institutis prezidenti stanislav belkovski araRiarebul saxelmwifoebs im sayrdenebs uwodebs, romelTa gareSec ruseTi ukve didi xnis win iqneboda kavkasiidan gandevnili.99 xSirad ufro zomieri damkvirveblebic ki afxazeTs ruseTsa da prodasavlurad ganwyobil saqarTvelos Soris arsebul

97 "Âìåñòî ðåøåíèÿ ïðîáëåì Ãðóçèè Ðîññèÿ äîëæíà íå äîïóñòèòü ñîáñòâåííîãî ðàñïàäà", 11 àâãóñòà 2004 ãîäà, http://www.sakartvelo.info. 98 "×åì áûñòðåå Ãðóçèÿ áóäåò â ÍÀÒÎ, òåì áûñòðåå Àáõàçèÿ ­ â Ðîññèè", http:// www.sakartvelo.info/result_ar.php?key=58420. 99 Radio Russia, "Are We Going to See War in Georgia?", August 12, 2004.

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"buferul saxelmwifod" ganixilaven.100 afxazeTis oficialuri pirebi, romlebmac moskovis elitis "susti wertilebi" ician, imisaTvis, rom ruseTis mxridan daTmobebs miaRwion, arcTu iSviaTad geopolitikur argumentebsac iyeneben. moskovSi im eqspertebis SezRuduli wrec arsebobs, romlebic yuradRebiT adevneben Tvals saqarTvelos ambebs, afxazeTTan mimarTebaSi ki moskovis politikas akritikeben.101 kavkasiis sakiTxebSi eqspertTa umravlesoba mainc mkafiod gamoxatul antiqarTul poziciebze dgas da iseTi politikosebis msgavsad, rogorebic arian dimitri rogozini da konstantine zatulini, mtkice nacionalistebs warmoadgenen da moskovs yvelgan Tanamemamuleebis interesebis dacvisken mouwodeben. ruseTis Sida politikasTan afxazeTis kidev erTi Sexebis wertili regionul politikur elitas ukavSirdeba. TavianTi politikuri statusis asamaRleblad bevri adgilobrivi lideri

Êàðàãàíîâ. Ïðîùàíèå ñ Ãðóçèåé? karaganovi wers: "ruseTs dasWirdeba buferuli saxelmwifoebi. Tuki saqarTvelo dRevandeli politikiT ganagrZobs cxovrebas, TviTngrevisTvis iqneba ganwiruli. amave dros afxazeTis mzardi demokratiuli Zalebi uaryofen ideas imis Sesaxeb, rom maT dasavlur Rirebulebebze uari unda Tqvan, raTa ruseTi daxmarebaze daiTanxmon". 101 2004 wlis zafxulSi, moskovsa da Tbiliss Soris daZabuli urTierTobebis momentSi, vladislav inozemcevma (postindustriuli sazogadoebis gamokvlevebis centri) ruseTi imaSi daadanaSaula, rom is saqarTvelos Sida konfliqtSi erT mxares exmareba da Secdomad CauTvala afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi gatarebuli "marTvadi arastabilurobis" politika. aRniSna, rom ruseTma piriqiT, Tbilissa da separatistul regionebs Soris federaciuli molaparakebis garantia unda uzrunvelyos. ix. Âëàäèñëàâ Èíîçåìöåâ. Ñààêàøâèëè ñëåäóåò çàêëþ÷èòü ôåäåðàòèâíûé äîãîâîð ñ ìÿòåæíûìè ëèäåðàìè ­ ïðè ãàðàíòèÿõ ñî ñòîðîíû Ðîññèè. ­ Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 16 àâãóñòà 2004 ãîäà. meore kritikosi boris volxonski ruseTis elitas nacionalisturi koziris gaTamaSebisaTvis gmobs, rac kontrabandisTvis Sav xvrelebs qmnis. ambobs, rom igi farulad exmareba daqiravebulebs da saqarTvelosTan damokidebulebaSi patriotul lozungebs wamoswevs, yvela am qmedebiT ki ruseTs saerTaSoriso izolaciisken ubiZgebs. ix. Áîðèñ Âîëõîíñêèé. Öåíà âîïðîñà: òîíàëüíîñòü çàÿâëåíèé, ðàçäàþùèõñÿ â Ìîñêâå, âûçûâàåò íåäîóìåíèå. Êîììåðñàíòú, 20 àâãóñòà 2004 ãîäà.

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afxazeTTan mWidro kavSirebs amyarebs. es qmedebebi ZiriTadad ganekuTvneba 90-iani wlebis Sua periods, rodesac, rogorc ukve iTqva, zogierTma regionma afxazeTTan TanamSromlobisa da vaWrobis xelSekrulebebi dado. mas Semdeg, rac prezidentma putinma regionul gubernatorebis uflebamosilebebi SezRuda, maT "sakuTari" sagareo politikis gatarebis SesaZleblobebi CamoerTvaT. amitomaa, rom maTi mcire nawili uwindeburad sajarod laparakobs afxazeTis mxardaWeraze. maT Soris, vinc, amas emxroba, arian krasnodaris mxaris gubernatori aleqsandre tkaCovi da moskovis meri iuri luJkovi. luJkovis iniciativiT, moskovi uwindeburad Tanxebs abandebs (Tumca _ mcireodens) afxazeTSi. is aseve mniSvnelovanwilad simbolur humanitarul daxmarebasac uwevs. krasnodaris mxare ki, romelic afxazeTs esazRvreba, intensiur ekonomikur da politikur kavSirebs inarCunebs, maT Soris transsasazRvro vaWrobisa da eleqtroenergiis miwodebis saxiT. krasnodaris mTavroba ganzrax politikur Jestebsac ki akeTebda. amis magaliTia 2004 wlis 24 maiss soxumSi organizebuli aRlumi, romelSic 500 kazaki monawileobda. afxazebi aseve megobrul urTierTobas inarCuneben CrdiloeT kavkasiis rig eTnikurad axlo xalxebTan, gansakuTrebiT ki adiRelebTan. 1996 wels adiReis respublikam da afxazeTma xeli moaweres SeTanxmebas TanamSromlobaze. 102 ruseTis xelisufleba ar akeTebs msgavsi politikuri kavSirebis waxalisebas afxazebsa da adiRelebs Soris an afxazur diasporasTan TurqeTsa da axlo aRmosavleTis sxva nawilebSi, radgan miaCnia, rom diasporebTan kontaqti CrdiloeT kavkasias "importirebuli" islamizaciis safrTxiT emuqreba. maSin, rodesac afxazuri mxare ufro mWidro kavSirebs eZebs ruseTTan, ruseTis mTavroba sagonebelSia Cavardnili imis gamo, rom CrdiloeT kavkasiis eTnikuri respublikebis nacionalur-teritoriuli avtonomia ar gaZlierdes da amiT

102 Ïðåçèäåíò Àäûãåè è ìýð Ìîñêâû îòïðàâèëèñü â Àáõàçèþ. ­ Regnum, 5 àâãóñòà 2004 ãîäà, http://www.regnum.ru/forprint/303693.html.

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safrTxis qveS ar daayenos am respublikebis rusuli mosaxleoba. Cndeba sxvadasxva winadadeba, maT Soris ruseTis federaciuli sistemis eTnoteritoriuli dayofis gadasinjvis Sesaxeb. am mimarTulebiT moZraoba gardauvali aRmoCndeba afxazeTTan dakavSirebiT ruseTis politikis ganviTarebaSi. dabolos, mTliani suraTis nawils ruseTis sazogadoebrivi azris ganxeTqileba warmoadgens. 2004 wlis ivlisSi samxreT oseTSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis gamo, ramac gamoiwvia rusulqarTuli urTierTobebis daZabva, ruseTis moqalaqeebis 47 procenti Tvlida, rom ruseTi unda Caerios, Tu saqarTvelo Zalas gamoiyenebs afxazeTSi mcxovrebi ruseTis moqalaqeebis winaaRmdeg, 38 procents ki miaCnda, rom ruseTma es ar unda gaakeTos, 14 procenti darwmunebuli iyo, rom afxazeTi saqarTvelos nawili unda iyos, 32 procenti fiqrobda, rom is ruseTs unda miuerTdes, 29 procenti _ rom unda iyos damoukidebeli. samxreT oseTisaTvis es cifrebi Seadgens Sesabamisad 12, 34 da 30 procents.103 2002 wlis agvistoSi ruseTis moqalaqeebis mxolod 26 procenti ganewyo saqarTvelosadmi dadebiTad, 28 _ neitralurad da 39 _ uaryofiTad. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg es maCveneblebi droebiT gaumjobesda da mkveTrad Seicvala. 2004 wlis ianvarSi 41 procentma pozitiuri damokidebuleba gamoxata, 42 procentma _ neitraluri da mxolod 10 procentma _ negatiuri. 2004 wlis ivlisisaTvis, samxreT oseTis movlenebis Semdeg, es cifrebi 2002 wlis dones daubrunda: 29 procentma pozitiuri Sefaseba misca, 40 procentma _ neitraluri, 22 procentma ki _ negatiuri.104 2004 wlis Tebervlidan ivlisis CaTvliT ruseTis im moqalaqeebis ricxvi, romlebsac miaCndaT, rom saqarTvelos axali xelmZRvanelobis dros rusul-qarTuli urTierTobebi

Ðîññèÿíå î êîíôëèêòàõ ìåæäó Ãðóçèåé, Þæíîé Îñåòèåé è Àáõàçèåé. ­ Ëåâàäà_Öåíòð, 30 èþëÿ 2004 ãîäà, http://www.levada.ru/press/2004073004.html. 104 Âîêðóã àáõàçñêîãî êîíôëèêòà. ­ Áàçà Äàííûõ Ôîì, 10 àâãóñòà 2002 ãîäà, http:// bd.fom.ru/report/map/gg021707.

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gaumjobesdeboda, 30-dan 13 procentamde Semcirda. im xalxis ricxvi, vinc Tvlida, rom prezidenti saakaSvili saqarTveloSi situaciis mniSvnelovnad Secvlas ver moaxerxebda, 1-dan 32 procentamde gaizarda.105 es 6 magaliTi Sida politikis zemoqmedebisa ruseTis politikaze saqarTvelosa da afxazeTis konfliqtTan damokidebulebaSi mniSvnelovania, magram ara calsaxa. ruseTis Sida politikaSi afxazeTi ufro arsebiT rols TamaSobs, vidre yofili sabWoTa kavSiris teritoriis nebismieri sxva "araRiarebuli respublika". xSirad ruseTis politika afxazeTTan mimarTebaSi ruseTis Sida politikis prioritetebTan mkveTr winaaRmdegobaSi modis. 2000-2003 wlebSi afxazeTSi ruseTis kavSirebis gamyarebasTan erTad prezidenti putini im Zalebis CaxSobasac cdilobda, romlebic am politikis ZiriTadi gamtareblebi iyvnen. man qveynis SigniT nacionaluri Zalebis zegavlenis SemcirebisaTvis nabiji gadadga, Seecada, regionul liderebis damoukidebeli qmedebebisTvis bolo moeRo da ruseTis politikuri istebliSmentis tradiciuli geopolitikuri paranoia dasavleTTan pragmatuli damokidebulebis sasargeblod gadawyvita. aseve xeli SeuSala CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi eTnikur mobilizacias, Zalovnebis _ Sinagan saqmeTa, Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis saministroebis warmomadgenlebis _ eTnikur respublikebSi uflebamosil Tanamdebobebze daniSvnas, imavdroulad dsT-is qveynebSi ruseTis moqalaqeebis mtkiced "dacvis" mowodebebis uaryofas.

saprezidento arCevnebi afxazeTSi: rusuli gavlenis zRvari

ruseTis politikis SezRudvebi da winaaRmdegobebi afxazeTSi mkafiod gamoCnda 2004 wlis 3 oqtombers da 2005 wlis 12

105 Âñåðîññèéñêèé öåíòð èçó÷åíèÿ îáùåñòâåííîãî ìíåíèÿ (ÂÖÈÎÌ), ïðåññ-âûïóñê ¹ 105, "Ðîññèÿíå î Ãðóçèè è ñèòóàöèè â Þæíîé Îñåòèè".

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ianvars or etapad Catarebul sakamaTo saprezidento arCevnebis msvlelobisas. am TariRebs Soris gaTamaSebuli krizisis dros ruseTi gamodioda, rogorc mTavari gareSe Zala, romelic afxazeTSi ZalTa Sida ganawilebaze zegavlenas axdenda. ruseTis aqtiuri Careva Tavidan situaciis destabilizacias uwyobda xels, magram bolos saxifaTod orad gayofil afxazur sazogadoebaSi Serigebis procesis dawyebiT prezidentobis or ZiriTad kandidats politikuri kompromisis miRwevaSi daexmara. arCevnebSi rusulma politikam imis demonstrireba gaakeTa, Tu ramdenad Sorsgamiznulia ruseTis qmedebebi afxazeTSi Tavisi interesebis SesanarCuneblad. amave dros regionSi efeqturi politikis gatarebisas man Tavisi SesaZleblobebis realuri SezRuduloba gamoavlina. afxazeTSi Catarebuli saprezidento arCevnebi arc saqarTvelom da arc saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriobam, maT Soris gaerom da euTom, kanonierad ar cnes.106 ruseTma, rogorc samSvidobo procesis Suamavalma, gaeros 1255 rezoluciis debulebis dacvis pasuxismgebloba, romelic msgavs arCevnebs aralegitimurs uwodebs, Tavis Tavze aiRo, riTac metismetad didi interesi dado sasworze. rusi politikosebi xazs usvamdnen ara mxolod am arCevnebis mniSvnelobas, aramed aqtiurad cdilobdnen, zemoqmedeba moexdinaT mis dasasrulze. arCevnebi marTlac mniSvnelovani iyo, imitom rom afxazeTis omis Semdgomi pirveli prezidentis vladislav arZinbas Zalauflebis gadacemis problema wydeboda axal liderze, romelsac uaxloesi 4 wlis ganmavlobaSi unda

106 gaeros pozicia Camoyalibebuli iyo gaeros generaluri mdivnis 2004 wlis 18 oqtombris moxsenebaSi. 1255 rezoluciaSi (1999w.) uSiSiSroebis sabWom afxazeTSi e. w. arCevnebis Catareba miuReblad da ukanonod miiCnia mosaxleobis umetesi nawilis dauswreblobisa da teritoriis dauregulirebeli politikuri statusis gamo. saqarTveloSi gaeros damkvirvebelTa misiam mxari dauWira am pozicias. 2004 wlis 14 oqtombris saqarTvelos Sesaxeb evroparlamentis (P6_TA(2004)0023) rezoluciam "afxazeTSi saprezidento arCevnebi, rogorc ukanono", uaryo da komisiasa da sabWos gaeros xelmZRvanelobiT qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtis molaparakebaTa procesis intensifikaciis mxardaWerisaken mouwoda".

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exelmZRvanela afxazeTSi cvlilebebisTvis da gamoexata saqarTvelosTan, ruseTTan da gare samyarosTan Tavisi damokidebuleba. prezidenti arZinba saqarTvelosTan misi ukompromiso damokidebulebisa (1992-1993 ww. omSi misi piradi monawileobis gavleniT Camoyalibebuli) da moskovTan didi xnis urTierTobis, aseve evgeni primakovTan adrindeli kavSirebis gamo moskovisaTvis xelsayreli lideri iyo. arZinba wlebis ganmavlobaSi avadmyofobam mwyobridan gamoiyvana, aman ki korufciisaTvis kari gaaRo TviT afxazeTSi da kulisebs miRma manevrebisaTvis rogorc ruseTis politikosebis, ise misi bizneselitisaTvis. naTeli gaxda, rom arZinbas memkvidres saeWvo iyo aseTive kavSirebi hqonoda moskovSi, amitomac is SeiZleboda gauTvaliswinebeli gamxdariyo. rogorc ruseTis, ise saqarTvelosTvisac. ai, ratom iyo ruseTis politikuri elita simtkiciT aRsavse, xelisuflebaSi moskovTan aSkarad loialuri memkvidris mosvla uzrunveleyo, romelic ar imoqmedebda ruseTis ekonomikuri interesebis winaaRmdeg (rogorc kanonierad, ise ukanonod an sulac kriminalizebul struqturebTan SekvriT). rusma politikurma mrCevlebma mainc ver SeZles imis gageba, rom arZinbam da misma garemocvam, miuxedavad qveynis aSenebaSi Setanili wvlilisa, didi xania, rac afxazeTis gaRatakebuli mosaxleobis mxardaWera dakarges. xalxi arCevnebisagan afxazeTis SigniT kardinalur cvlilebebs moeloda, korufciasTan, kriminalTan, klanebTan, klanur struqturebTan brZolis CaTvliT. arZinbas saqmis SenarCunebis gegmas praqtikulad warmatebis Sansi ar hqonda, arCevnebi rom arsebiTi manipulaciebis gareSe Catarebuliyo. ruseTis strategia, Zalaufleba gadaeca axal promoskovuri liderisTvis, gamWriaxobiT ar gamoirCeoda. faqtobrivad man eleqtoralur procesSi, yvela mis stadiaze, uprecedento sagareo Carevis saxe miiRo. es politika SeiZleba SevadaroT sakuTriv ruseTSi gubernatorebis arCevnebs, romelTa Sedegi xSirad moskovSi miRebul gadawyvetilebebze

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iyo damokidebuli da arCevnebis meSveobiT ubralod "ratificirdeboda". msgavs strategias afxazeTSic mimarTes, magram amas moulodneli Sedegebi mohyva. prezidentobis kandidatma sergei baRafSma ganmarta: "amjerad afxazeTSi pirvelad Catarda namdvilad alternatiuli arCevnebi. afxaz xalxs TviTon undoda Tavisi respublikis bedis gadawyveta. amomrCevlebi arZinbas xelisuflebis uxeSi zewolis, informaciuli blokadisa da ruseTis presaSi Savi piaris winaaRmdeg gamovidnen."107 jer kidev oficialuri saarCevno kampaniis dawyebamdec ruseTis politikosebi ar malavdnen imas, rom mxars uWerdnen raul xajimbas, romelsac arZinbas dros premier-ministris Tanamdeboba ekava. mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi uSiSroebis organoebSi namuSevari arZinbas axlo megobari da TanamebrZoli xajimba, cnebas _ "afxazi putini" yvelaze metad Seesabameboda. igi iTvleboda im politikosad, romelic moskovze damokidebuli iqneboda. manpremierministrobisas mWidro kontaqtebi daamyara moskovTan da varaudobdnen, rom arZinbas mier ruseTTan damyarebul ekonomikur da politikur kavSirebs SeinarCunebda. xajimbasa da arZinbas Soris siaxlove imas niSnavda, rom pirvels arasakmarisi mxardaWera eqneboda afxazeTis mosaxleobaSi. sazogadoebisaTvis arCevnebi ruseTTan an saqarTvelosTan damokidebulis politikaze referendumi ki ar iyo (kandidatebma moskovze dayrdnobiT afxazeTis damoukideblobas dauWires mxari), aramed arZinbas memkvidreobisaTvis Tavisi damokidebulebis gamoTqmis Sansi. magram moskovma an ver SeZlo amis gageba, an am faqts ignorireba ganzrax gaukeTa. metic, moskovelma politikurma mrCevlebma jerovnad ver Seafases afxazeTis sazogadoebis (aseve galis raionSi dabrunebuli, qarTveli Sida gadaadgilebuli pirebis) mobilizacia alternatiuli kandidatis irgvliv. aseTi alter107 citata prezidentobis kandidat sergei baRafSis "nezavisimaia gazeta"sTvis micemuli interviudan. ix. Ñàìîïðîâîçãëàøåííûé ôàëüñòàðò. ­ Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 5 îêòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà.

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nativa gaxda regionuli eleqtrokompaniis _ "Cernomorenergos" xelmZRvaneli sergei baRafSi. baRafSi ar mouwodebda mTavrobas ruseTTan mWidro kavSirebis arsebiTi Secvlisken, arc saqarTvelosTan xelaxal SeerTebaze sakiTxis gadasinjvas sTavazobda; magram farTo saxalxo mxardaWeris gamo is aRqmuli iqna, rogorc gacilebiT ufro damoukidebeli lideri, romelsac afxazi xalxis interesebis dacva ara mxolod saqarTvelos, aramed ruseTis winaSec SeeZlo. aseve, am arCevnebze baRafSi gaerTianda aleqsandre anqvabTan _ mtkice politikosTan, romelic moskovisa da ruseTis interesebisaTvis seriozul saSiSroebas warmoadgenda, imdenad, ramdenadac cnobili iyo, rogorc korufciasa da damnaSaveobasTan ukompromiso mebrZoli. ruseTis politikurma elitam baRafSisa da anqvabis kavSirSi saSiSroeba dainaxa da xajimbas gamarjvebis uzrunvelyofa gadawyvita. arCevnebis win soWSi prezidenti putini piradad Sexvda xajimbas. Sexvedraze, romelic erTob tlanqad, rogorc meore msoflio omis veteranebTan Sexvedra, ise dafiqsirda, pirdapiri mxardaWeris Sesaxeb sityvebi ar gaJRerebula, RonisZiebis simbolur mniSvnelobaSi ki eWvi aravis Separvia. xajimbasadmi mxardaWera mxolod maRali oficialuri doniT ar Semofarglula. moskovma Tavisi ekonomikuri Zliereba da afxazeTisaTvis gare samyarosken erTaderTi fanjris roli gamoiyena _ Tavisi kandidatis arCevis SemTxvevaSi sazogadoebas praqtikuli sargebloba SesTavaza. man ara mxolod soWi_soxumis rkinigzaze aRadgina moZraoba, aramed 23 seqtembridan am qalaqebs Soris regularuli saavtobuso mimosvla ganaaxla. ruseTis mTavrobam ganacxada, rom afxazeTTan sarkinigzo da saavtobuso kavSiris ganaxlebiT arc erTi saerTaSoriso SeTanxmeba ar daurRvevia, magram saqarTvelos warmomadgenelma gaeroSi, revaz adamiam uSiSroebis sabWoSi gaagzavna oficialuri werili, sadac sarkinigzo mimosvlis aRdgenas "saqarTvelos suverenitetisa da saerTaSoriso samarTlis darRveva" uwoda. "putinis "darRveulma valdebulebam", Sida gadaadgilebul pirTa dabrunebasTan erTad ekonomikuri proeqtebis sinqronizeba momx344

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dariyo, _ Tqva adamiam, _ gaeros egidiT mimdinare samSvidobo procesebs zarali miayena".108 xajimbas kandidaturas ruseTSi tradiciulad proafxazuri gavlenis jgufebma dauWires mxari, maT Soris nacionalistma politikosebma, biznesis warmomadgenlebma, CrdiloeT kavkasiis sazogadoebrivma organizaciebma da ruseTis samxreTis zogierTma regionulma politikosma. arCevnebamde ramdenime dRiT adre "moskoveli aqtivistebis" jgufma _ vladimer Jirinovskim, generaluri prokuroris moadgile vladimer kolesnikovma, ruseTis saxelmwifo dumis vicespikerma artur cilingarovma, aseve ruseTis popularulma momRerlebma da msaxiobebma soxumi moinaxules da xajimbas sasargeblod gamarTul masobriv mitingebze aqtiuri agitaciiT gamovidnen. Tuki moskovisaTvis sasurveli kandidati ar iqneboda arCeuli, maTi gancxadebebi afxazeTTan ekonomikuri kavSirebis gawyvetis pirdapir muqaras Seicavda.109 sajaro zewolam mosalodnelis sawinaaRmdego efeqti moaxdina. xajimbas poziciebis gamagrebis nacvlad, mis metoqes, romelic arZinbas reJimis negatiur memkvidreobasTan dakavSirebuli ar iyo da ufro damoukidebel politikosad miiCneoda, xmebis mniSvnelovani ricxvi Semata. Sedegad, 3 oqtombers Catarebul arCevnebSi amomrCevelTa 50 procentze metma (bevri maTgani eTnikuri qarTveli galis raionidan) baRafSs misca xma.110 xajimbam uari ganacxada arCevnebis Sedegebis

108 "Georgian Ambassador's Letter to the UN Security Council over Abkhazia", http://www.civil.ge/ eng/detail.php?id=8202. ruseTis pozicia "Îðãàíèçîâàíî äâèæåíèå ýëåêòðîïîåçäîâ èç Ñî÷è" ­ SeiZleba moiZebnos misamarTze: http://www.kavkazweb.net/news/ news.cgi?action=view&nid=01&yy=2004&mm=9&dd= 13&message_id=1095100970154196 zbrjYiB7KCpmZ. 109 "Ñàìîïðîâîçãëàøåííûé ôàëüñòàðò" 110 11 oqtombers afxazeTis cesko-m gamoacxada, rom xmebis 50,08 procentis dagrovebiT baRafSma gaimarjva. 28 oqtombers afxazeTis uzenaesma sasamarTlom arCevnebis Sedegebi daamtkica, magram meore dRes xajimbas momxreebis zewolis gamo iZulebuli gaxda gadawyvetileba Seecvala. 12 noembers baRafSis momxreebma SturmiT aiRes samTavrobo Senobebi da 15 noembramde dakavebuli hqondaT.

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aRiarebaze. amas mohyva arastabilurobis xangrZlivi periodi drodadro Zaladobriv moqmedebebSi gadazrdis saSiSroebiT. im pirobebSi, roca yvela msxvilma saerTaSoriso organizaciam da sazRvargareTis qveynebma arCevnebi ukanonod aRiares, ruseTi kvlav Suamavlis rolSi gamovida. is mainc sakuTari miznebisaTvis iRvwoda, cdilobda baRafSis gamarjvebis delegitimizacias da axali arCevnebis organizebas, romelSic SeiZleboda xajimbas gamarjvebisaTvis mieRwia. ruseTis maRali Tanamdebobis pirebma orive kandidati moskovSi miiwvies da axali arCevnebis Catareba daJinebiT mosTxoves, razec baRafSma da misma momxreebma uari ganacxades; amtkicebdnen, rom arCevnebSi gamarjveba moipoves da es gamarjveba afxazeTis parlamentma, centralurma saarCevno komisiam da uzenaesma sasamarTlom aRiares. isini dekembris dasawyisSi apirebdnen baRafSis inauguraciis Catarebas. maSin moskovma soxumSi miavlina afxazeTis mkvidri nodar xaSba, romelic ruseTis sagangebo situaciebis saministroSi sergei SoigusTan muSaobda. arZinbam is premier-ministrad daniSna da mis winaSe eleqtoraluri Cixis gadalaxvis amocana daayena. xaSbas daniSvnam, romelic respublikis farglebs gareT didi xnis ganmavlobaSi cxovrobda da afxazeTSi saxalxo mxardaWeriT ar sargeblobda, afxazeTis elitaSi axali antirusuli protesti gamoiwvia. ruseTma ekonomikur zemoqmedebasac mimarTa. Tavdapirvelad krasnodaris mxaris gubernatori aleqsandre tkaCovi gamovida gancxadebiT, sadac mouwodebda, rom afxazeTsa da ruseTs Soris sazRvari CaeketaT "sasazRvro zolSi ruseTis nacionaluri usafrTxoebis pirdapiri saSiSroebis gamo," misi regionis CaTvliT.111 tkaCovma xazi gausva imas, rom sazRvris daketva pirdapir aisaxeba afxazur ekonomikaze, "turistuli industriis SeCerebis gamowveviT da sazRvarTan soflis meurneobis produqtebiT vaWrobis Seferxebis Sedegad

111 krasnodaris mxaris gubernatoris gancxadebam adgilobrivi opozicia sagonebelSi Caagdo. _ Regnum.ru, 2004 wlis 24 noemberi.

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afxazeTis aTasobiT moqalaqe Semosavlis gareSe darCeba".112 tkaCovis gadawyvetilebam baRafSis momxreebSi aRSfoTeba da SiSi gamoiwvia. 19 noembers, rodesac sazRvris gadakveTis SezRudvebi realurad SemoiRes, xalxs Tavzari daeca. gavrcelda xmebi imis Sesaxebac, rom ruseTi afxazeTSi jaris gamogzavnas apirebda, magram es, cxadia, usafuZvlo Wori gamodga. mis nacvlad putinma ori maRalCinosani Zalovani _ ruseTis generaluri prokuroris moadgile vladimer kolesnikovi, romelic adre afxazeTSi cxovrobda da iq kargad iyo cnobili da Sinagan saqmeTa saministros pirveli moadgile aleqsandre Cekalini _ xajimbasa da baRafSs Soris Suamavlis saxiT gagzavna. orive maTganTan pirveli Sexvedris Semdeg kompromisze wasvlis miniSnebac ki ar warmoSobila. amjerad amas ruseTis premier-ministr genadi bukaevisagan sazRvris daketvis muqara mohyva.113 swored bukaevi daemuqra afxazebs: "Tu baRafSi Tavis arakonstituciur qmedebebs ganagrZobs (sxva sityvebiT, inauguracias Caatarebs), ruseTsa da afxazeTs Soris sazRvari Caiketeba".114 ruseTis mTavrobam aseve droebiT SeaCera afxazeTsa da soWs Soris sarkinigzo mimosvla. yvela es zoma destabilizaciis potenciuri safrTxisagan "ruseTis moqalaqeebis dacviT" iyo gamarTlebuli.115 sainteresoa imis aRniSvna, rom am gadawyvetilebam sruli ignorireba gaukeTa afxazeTSi mcxovrebi ruseTis moqalaqeebis interesebs, romelTa dacvasac ruseTis mTavroba araerTgzis kisrulobda.

112 "krasnodaris mxaris gubernatoris gancxadebam adgilobrivi opozicia sagonebelSi Caagdo". 113 anatoli gudenko. afxazeTs gadasaxadebis specialistebma mohkides xeli. ­ Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 2004 wlis 24 noemberi. 114 Russia Blockades Abkhazia. ­ Alternatives, December 1, 2004, http:// www.alternatives.ca/article1568.html. 115 saxelmwifo dumaSi mTavrobis warmomadgenlis andrei logunovis gancxadeba. Semdeg man aRniSna: "ruseTs ar surs, rom afxazeTSi, sadac politikuri krizisi SesaZloa sisxlian konfliqtSi gadaizardos, misi moqalaqeebi iyvnen". ix. "Ãðóçèÿ âûñòóïàåò ïðîòèâ âìåøàòåëüñòâà Ðîññèè âäåëà Àáõàçèè", 3 äåêàáðÿ 2004 ãîäà, http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/newstext/news/id/736646.html

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4-5 dekembers, baRafSis mier dagegmil inauguraciamde, molaparakebebis bolo raundi Catarda.116 amjerad kompromiss miaRwies. SeTanxmeba iTvaliswinebda imas, rom axali arCevnebi 13 ianvramde Catardeboda, baRafSi prezidentobaze iyrida kenWs, xajimba ki _ vice- prezidentobaze. am kompromisma baRafSisa da xajimbas momxreebad mkveTrad gayofili afxazeTis sazogadoeba SeaZrwuna. magram is daZabulobis moxsnasa da 12 ianvars mSvidobiani kenWisyris Catarebis uzrunvelyofaSi daexmara. baRafSma 90%-ze meti xmiT damajerebeli gamarjveba moipova.117 baRafSma realuri Zalaufleba miiRo, xajimbam ki mniSvnelovan xarisxad _ simboluri Tanamdeboba. miuxedavad adrindeli imedebisa, baRafSma uaryo cnobebi imis Sesaxeb, rom usafrTxoebisa da sagareo politikis yvela sakiTxs kurirebas xajimba gauwevda. Tqva, rom yvela strategiul gadawyvetilebas prezidenti miiRebda, vice-prezidenti ki mxolod operatiul sakiTxebze gascemda pasuxs. metic, rodesac baRafSma, moskovis Sedavebismiuxedavad, nodar xaSba gadaayena da premier-ministrad aleqsandre anqvabi daniSna, amiT Tavisi Zalauflebis konsolidacia moaxdina. kavSiri baRafSsa da arZinbas klanis warmomadgenel xajimbas Soris, SesaZloa, winaaRmdegobaTa wyaro momavalSic gaxdes, radgan es ori adamiani interesebis sxvadasxva jgufs warmoadgens da saeWvoa namdvili mokavSireoba SeZlon. maT Soris Semdgomma daZabulobam afxazeTi SeiZleba arastabilurobis gagrZelebamde miiyvanos da Sida reformebis ganxorcielebis, Tavisi de faqto institutebis gaZlierebisa da

116 am molaparakebebSi monawileobdnen baRafSi, xajimba, xaSba aseve kolesnikovi da ruseTis saxelmwifo dumis spikeris moadgile sergei baburini. mxareebi "afxazeTis respublikaSi nacionaluri erTobis miRwevis zomebze" SeTanxmdnen. mas xeli moawera arZinbam, rogorc prezidentma. 117 centraluri saarCevno komisiis Tavmjdomaris baTal tabaRuas moxsenebiT mTavar da damatebiT siebSi Seiyvanes 129 298 amomrCeveli, kenWis yraSi monawileoba 75 691 adamianma miiRo, anu 90,1 procentma baRafSs misca xma. 3 467 adamianma, anu 4,5 procentma ki _ prezidentobis alternatiul kandidat iakub lakobas.

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gayinuli gaurkvevloba: ruseTi da konfliqti afxazeTis irgvliv

saqarTvelosTan konfliqtis daregulirebis saSualeba ar misces. am periodSi ruseTis moqmedebebidan Semdegi daskvnebis gakeTeba SeiZleba. rogorc bevri rusi politikosi ganmartavda, saarCevno procesSi ruseTis aqtiuri Careva samma faqtorma ganapiroba: pirveli, afxazeTSi arastabiluroba an Zaladoba SesaZlo iyo ruseTis CrdiloeT kavkasiis regionebSi gadasuliyo; meore, afxazeTis mcxovrebTa umetesoba oficialurad ruseTis moqalaqe iyo; mesame, ruseTis moqalaqeebsa da kompaniebs am regionSi arsebiTi ekonomikuri interesebi gaaCndaT. zemoT CamoTvlili faqtorebi SeiZleba arCevnebis Sedegebisadmi ruseTis interesis erTgvari gamarTleba iyos, metadre kerZo pirebsa da mewarmeebs Soris. saarCevno procesSi ruseTis mTavrobis aqtiuri Careva gaeros egidiT mimdinare qarTul-afxazur samSvidobo procesSi misi, rogorc Suamavlis, erT-erTi mTavari rolis gamo SeuTavsebelia. im periodis movlenebma cxadad aCvena, rom ruseTis politikis mamoZravebel Sida impulsebsa da im saerTaSoriso valdebulebebs Soris, romlebic man Tavis Tavze aiRo, winaaRmdegoba arsebobs. da mainc, ruseTis mier afxazeTis arCevnebis dros wamowyebulma moqmedebebma mniSvnelovani gavlena ver moaxdina saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mier qarTul-afxazur samSvidobo procesSi misi erT-erT ZiriTad Suamaval pirad aRqmaze, albaT ufro im mizeziTac, rom ruseTi afxazur mxareze erTaderTi zemoqmedebis realuri berketebis SenarCunebas ganagrZobs. magram ruseTis gavlena garkveul farglebs ar scildeba da amaSia afxazuri arCevnebis meore aSkara Sedegi. saarCevno procesSi ruseTis Careva situaciis stabilizaciis CarCoebidan gamovida da gadaiqca daJinebul mcdelobad, pirdapir ganesazRvra arCevnebis Sedegebi. miuxedavad ruseTsa da afxazeTis sazogadoebas Soris mravalwliani mWidro urTierTobebisa, moskovma xelisuflebaSi xajimbas moyvana mainc ver SeZlo. ruseTis gavlenis farglebi ar SeiZleba mxolod geopolitikiT aixsnas. 2004 wlis noember-dekemberSi ukrainaSi Catarebuli arCevnebisagan gansxvavebiT, ruseTi erTaderTi

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gareSe piri iyo, romelic afxazeTSi arCevnebis saboloo Sedegebze zemoqmedebas cdilobda. ar SeiZleba es farglebi resursebis ukmarisobiT aixsnas. maTi mizezi ufro imaT arakompetenturobaSi imaleba, vinc ruseTis strategias SeimuSavebda da cxovrebaSi atarebda. am xalxs afxazi eris gageba, maTi da maTive miswrafebebis pativiscema aSkarad aklda. Tumca Zneli kia afxazeTis saprezidento arCevnebSi ruseTis politikis arqiteqtoris zusti dasaxeleba. ruseTis gazeTebi amtkiceben rom xajimbas mxardaWeris strategia prezidentis administraciis saerTaSoriso politikis ganyofilebaSi SeimuSaves.118 maT Soris, visac mogvianebiT "zaralis aRmofxvrisaken" mouwodes, nacionalisti politikosebisa da Zalovnebisagan Semdgari pirebis is Cveulebrivi kombinacia iyo, romlebic ruseTis afxazeTTan damokidebulebas gansazRvraven. rogorc aseTi, Suamavlobas axorcielebdnen sergei baburini, cnobili imiT, rom dumaSi didxans TanmimdevrobiT icavda afxazebis interesebs da Zalovnebi _ vladimer kolesnkovi da aleqsandre Cekalini. krasnodaris gubernatorma tkaCovma, romelic sazRvris daketviT imuqreboda, aseve mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa. Tumca prezidenti putini maTi saqmisgan distancirebas Seecada, imis mtkicebiT, rom isini damoukideblad moqmedebdnen. cxadi gaxda, rom maT ruseTis interesebis im damcvelebad aRiqvamdnen, vic qveynis gavlenis SenarCunebasa da gamyarebas cdilobda. moskovSi politikuri gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas erTgvari SiSi gaCnda, Sesabamisad, ver moxerxda maTi koordinireba.

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Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà iuwyeboda, rom afxazeTSi arCevnebTan dakavSirebiT ruseTis politikaze prezidentis administraciaSi saerTaSoriso politikis ganyofileba iyo pasuxismgebeli. am ganyofilebis dsT-is qveynebTan urTierTobebis qvedanayofis xelmZRvanelma aleqsei sitninma didi dro gaatara afxazeTSi. aseve ityobineboda, rom ruseTis Zalovnebi ruseTis politikaze seriozul gavlenas axdendnen. Àíàòîëèé Ãîðäèåíêî è Íàòàëèÿ Ìåëüíèêî_âà. Ñàìîïðîâîçãëàøåííûé ôàëüñòàðò. ­ Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 5 îêòÿáðÿ 2004 ãîäà.

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sagareo saqmeTa saministro winaaRmdegobriv gancxadebebs akeTebda, jer amtkicebda, rom ruseTi afxazeTSi Tavis interesebs daicavda, Semdeg ki mTavrobis muqara sanqciebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb aRkveTa.119 sagareo saqmeTa saministro, romelic sajarod uWerda mxars saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobas da soxumis gacxarebuli krizisis dros Jenevis SexvedrebSi monawileobda, Zalovnebma kvlav gverdze gadaswies. gaeros egidiT mimdinare samSvidobo procesis CarCoebSi ruseTis mier aRebuli saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis ignorirebiT Zalovnebs afxazeTSi mkacri xazis gatareba surdaT. miuxedavad amisa, ar SeiZleba pozitiurad ar vaRiaroT is, rom arCevnebis Sedegebis gamo uTanxmoeba msxvilmasStabian ZaladobaSi ar gadaizarda da ruseTis metad arastabilur CrdiloeT kavkasiis regionebSi ar gavrcelda. amasTan, ruseTis monawileoba samxedro zewolis gareSe iyo ganxorcielebuli. im mokle periods Tu ar CavTvliT, rodesac sazRvari daketili iyo, Tumca ruseTsa da afxazeTs Soris ekonomikuri urTierTobebi ar Sewyvetila. dabolos, saarCevno procesSi ruseTis Careva afxazeTis mosaxleobisa da politikuri elitis farTo kritikis sagani gaxda. orive mixvda, rom ruseTTan nebismieri arsebiTi integracia politikuri Tavisuflebis, aseve sasurveli liderebis arCevis uflebis, samoqalaqo sazogadoebisa da Tavisufali presis ganviTarebis Semcirebis niSani iqneba. Tumca afxazeTis sazogadoebis didi nawili jer kidev ar aris demokratiuli faseulobebis matarebeli; afxazeTis, rogorc "araRiarebuli" qveynis, mZime cxovrebam mas erTobis grZnoba gaumZafra. amiT gansxvavdeba afxazeTi mezobeli ruseTis bevri sxva regionisagan, romlebic uwindeburad federalur centrze

sagareo saqmeTa saministros warmomadgenelma aleqsandre iakovenkom ganacxada, rom ruseTi Tavis interesebs daicavs afxazeTSi (Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 2 äåêàáðÿ 2004 ãîäà). sagareo saqmeTa saministros informaciuli departamentis ufrosis moadgile mixeil troianskim daadastura, rom afxazeTTan sazRvris daketvis sakiTxi sagareo saqmeTa saministroSi ar ganxilula (Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 2 äåêàáðÿ 2004 ãîäà).

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arian damokidebuli da mzad arian ekonomikuri subsidiebis sanacvlod TavianTi politikuri avtonomiis SezRudvas daTanxmdnen. baRafSi, romelmac Sida kanonmdeblobis harmonizaciiT ruseTTan ekonomikur kavSirebze mzadyofna gaacxada, roca saqme politikur kavSirebs exeba, TavSekavebuli xdeba.120 amave dros arCevnebis Semdeg ruseTis pasportebTan erTad Sida, afxazuri pasportebis gacemiT afxazeTis politikuri damoukideblobis simboloebis gamyareba daiwyo.121 jerjerobiT ki putinis Sida politikaSi mzardi avtoritaruli tendenciebi afxazeTis SigniT mimdinare procesebs sul ufro emijneba.arCevnebma aCvena, rom afxazeTis samoqalaqo sazogadoeba korumpirebuli liderebis winaaRmdeg, ranair patriotul droSebsac ar unda afrialebdnen isini, saprotesto gamosvlebisaTvis mzadaa. Tu es tendenciebi gagrZelda, SesaZloa ruseTTan daaxloeba aRqmul iqnas, rogorc afxazebis nacionaluri miswrafebebis TandaTan dasamareba. magram es mainc ar niSnavs imas, rom afxazur-rusul urTierTobebs didi cvlilebebi elis. afxazeTis saerTaSoriso aRiarebisa da qarTul-afxazur urTierTobebSi uaxloes droSi arsebiTi gaumjobesebis uperspeqtivobisa, ruseTi afxazeTisaTvis kvlav politikuri da ekonomikuri mxardaWeris mTavar wyarod rCeba. ukrainis "narinjisferi revoluciisgan" gansxvavebiT, sadac saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba im demokratiul Zalebs uWerda mxars, arCevnebis falsifikaciis winaaRmdeg protests rom acxadebdnen, afxazeTSi saerTaSoriso monawileobis arqona

120 Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà-sTvis micemul interviuSi sergei baRafSma ganacxada: "afxazeTis xalxi Camoyalibda imaSi, rom Cven damoukidebeli saxelmwifo gvaqvs. amitom ruseTTan daaxloebas jer mxolod ekonomikiT daviwyebT". Íåçàâèñèìàÿ ãàçåòà, 21 ÿíâàðÿ 2005 ãîäà, http://www.ng.ru/printed/courier/2005!01!24/ 9_georgia.html. 121 baRafSis sityvebiT, afxazeTi Sida pasportebis gacemis dawyebas 2005 wlis marti-aprilisaTvis gegmavda. ix. "Âåñíîé ýòîãî ãîäà â Àáõàçèè íà÷íåòñÿ ââåäåíèå âíóòðåííèõ ïàñïîðòîâ",http://www.kavkaz.memo.ru/newstext/news/id/ 760564.html.

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rogorc Signidan, ise garedan arCevnebiT Ria manipulirebis SesaZleblobas iZleva. metic, saqarTvelos axali xelmZRvanelobis konstruqciuli strategiis uqonloba afxazeTis saerTaSoriso izolaciasTan dakavSirebiT, afxazuri elitis im fenebisaTvis, romlebic ruseTis mxridan zewolis gamo ukmayofiloni iyvnen, manevrirebis viwro ares tovebs. kremlis qmedebebma ruseTis politikur elitSi mwvave debatebi warmoSva. regionuli problemebis eqspertebma (sergei aruTinovi, aleqsei malaSenko da ala iazkova), liberalurma politikosebma (irina xakamada da valeri goregliadi) da tradiciulad prokremlurma analitikosebma (sergei makarovi da stanislav belkovski) afxazeTis arCevnebSi moskovis taqtika mwvaved gaakritikes. 122 am kritikis miuxedavad, 2004 wlis Semodgomaze, ukrainis saprezidento arCevnebis dros, ruseTis liderebma im Secdomebidan kvlav bevri gaimeores. ruseTis politikuri kontrolidan afxazeTis gamosvla mxolod im SemTxvevaSi moxdeba, Tu saqarTvelo afxazi sazogadoebisaTvis imis demonstrirebas SeZlebs, rom is afxazeTis nacionalur gadarCenas ukve safrTxes ar uqmnis. prezidentma saakaSvilma da saqarTvelos mTavrobam es jerjerobiT ver gaakeTes, Tumca afxazeTis arCevnebis dros moskovSi daSvebuli Secdomebi TbilisSi zedmiwevniT fiqsirdeboda. rogorc bevri qarTveli komentatori aRniSnavda, ruseTis kontroli afxazeTze _ rac aqamde bevrs swori miaCnda, metwilad miTi aRmoCnda. problema isaa, rom qarTvelma liderebma jer ver miagnes ruseTis sisusteebidan saqarTvelosTvis sargeblobis miRebis xerxs _ sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, gaixsnas gza soxumTan axali, konstruqciuli dialogisTvis.123

am misamarTis Sesabamisad: http://grani.ru/Politics/World/Europe/Georgia/ p.81031.html; http://www.ng.ru/printed/cis/2004!12!07/_abkhazia.html; aseve http:// www.ng.ru/politics/ 2004!10!18/2_abhazia. html. 123 paata zaqareiSvili, "axali Svidi dRe", 8-14 oqtomberi, 2004 w.

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nabiji win: status-kvo-dan gamosvla?

saqarTvelosa da afxazeTs Soris SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis Semdeg damyarebul status-kvos SenarCunebas "gayinuli gaurkvevlobis" aT welze meti xnis rusuli strategia daexmara. am rolma SeaZlebina ruseTs ara mxolod SeenarCunebina regionSi yofna da gavlena, aramed xeli Seewyo afxazeTis faqtobrivi saxelmwifoebriobis ganmtkicebisTvis. Tumca ruseTis politikam praqtikulad konfliqti ver daaregulira, magram ubralo afxazebs daculobis grZnoba Seuqmna da ekonomikurad gadarCenis saSualeba misca. aseve Tavidan aicila SesaZlo destabilizacia CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi. amave dros ruseTis politika qarTuli suverenitetis ganviTarebis arsebiTi dabrkoleba gaxda. saqarTvelo wlebis ganmavlobaSi iZulebuli iyo, Tavis saSinao saqmeebSi ruseTis Carevas Serigeboda da droebiT adgilnacvali pirebis daxmarebis tvirTi etarebina. politikur molaparakebebSi progresis ararsebobis miuxedavad, saqarTveloSi, afxazeTsa da ruseTSi didi cvlilebebi moxda. prezidenti saakaSvili Cixidan gamosavlis povnis mtkice imediTaa aRsavse. aseve afxazeTi ufro gawaful strategias atarebs, ruseTze nakleb damokidebuli xdeba da Tavisi nacionaluri miznebisaTvis iRvwis. ruseTis politikam saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi mZime gamocda ukve gaiara 2004 wlis gazafxulsa da zafxulSi, aWarisa da samxreT oseTis movlenebis dros. ufro mniSvnelovania is, rom ruseTis qmedebebma 2004 wlis Semodgomaze, afxazuri arCevnebis dros, gamoaaSkarava misi Zalauflebis SezRuduloba da marjved koordinirebuli politikis gatarebis uunaroba. Sedegad, ruseTma afxazuri elitis ndoba dakarga, romelic axla ufro uxalisod midis moskovTan politikur daaxloebaze. ruseTis gavlena afxazeTze ekonomikur xasiaTs atarebs da ase darCeba manam, sanam saqarTvelo da saerTaSoriso sazogadoebrioba ar gadawyveten uari Tqvan afxazeTis izolaciis mcdelobaze da ar SeimuSaveben axal strategias,

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gayinuli gaurkvevloba: ruseTi da konfliqti afxazeTis irgvliv

romliTac am regionisTvis ufro farTo ekonomikur SesaZleblobebs gaxsnian im imediT, rom aseTi saxiT Serigebisken mimavali politikuri dialogisTvis ufro myari saZirkveli Caiyreba. marTlac, Semobrunebis msgavsi niSnebi SeiZleba afxazeTis ekonomikis aRdgenaSi evrosabWos mzard wvlilSi dainaxo da qarTuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis xmebSic saqarTvelos mTavrobis mxridan ndobis calmxrivi zomebis mowodeba gaismis. ruseTi uwindeburad mxolod samSvidobo procesis sakiTxebze reagirebs, ZiriTadad moqmedi pirebis rTuli nakrebis gamo da xSirad sawinaaRmdegoa Sexedulebebi mis strategiul interesebze. arsebuli tendenciis SenarCunebis SemTxvevaSi ruseTi SesaZloa ufro metad marginaluri gaxdes, Tu saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba kavkasiis "gayinuli konfliqtebis" daregulirebaSi ufro aqtiuri rolis TamaSs gadawyvets.

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dasavleTi miesalma mixeil saakaSvilis, rogorc reformebze orientirebuli demokratis, prezidentad arCevas 2004 wlis ianvarSi im imediT, rom miuxedavad uamravi politikuri sirTulisa, is SeZlebda Tavisi qveynis warmarTvas stabilurobis, usafrTxoebisa da ganviTarebis gziT. ramdenime Tvis Semdeg misma Zaladobrivma aqciam samxreT oseTSi cxadyo, rom dasavleTis imedebi ramdenadme gadaWarbebuli iyo. saakaSvilis revoluciuri warmateba ar niSnavda, rom is aucileblad SeZlebda imave warmatebiT qveynis institutebis reformirebas. axal elitas memkvidreobiT ergo susti saxelmwifo, sadac korufcias Rrmad hqonda fesvebi gadgmuli. dasavleTma saTanadod ver Seafasa es problemebi. misi interesebi regionSi didi xnis manZilze Zalian viwrod iyo gansazRvruli. yovelive aman gamoiwvia situaciis araswori da gaurkveveli Sefaseba, rogorc gareSe subieqtebs Soris, ise ­ saqarTvelos xelisuflebis SigniT. pirveli gaugebroba Seexeboda dasavleTis interesis intensivobas. miuxedavad saqarTvelosa da amierkavkasiis geopolitikuri mniSvnelobisa, arc erTia SeerTebuli Statebisa da evrokavSirisTvis pirvelxarisxovani interesis sagani.1 dasavleTis politika regionSi status-kvos SenarFiona Hill, "A Not-So-Grand Strategy: United States Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia since 1991," http://www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/views/articles/fhill/2001politique.htm. This paper is the English version of a contribution to Politique étrangère, no. 1 (February 2001), pp. 95­108.

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Cunebisa da axali konfliqtebis acilebisken iyo mimarTuli. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom maT bolomde verc mSvidobis SenarCuneba da verc amierkavkasiisTvis usafrTxoebis erTiani CarCos Seqmna SeZles.2 saqarTvelos urTierTobebi aSS-sa da evrokavSirTan, aseve, emyareboda sxva araswor intepretaciebs. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg rogorc dasavleTi, iseve saqarTvelo, cdilobda saerTo enis gamonaxvas urTierTinteresis gamosaxatavad. iseT sferoebSi, rogoricaa humanitaruli da finansuri daxmareba, maT, nawilobriv, miaRwies warmatebas. Tumca, sxva mniSvnelovan sferoebSi komunikacia da urTierT-gagebis xarisxi dabali iyo. am tendenciis axsna ramdenime faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT SeiZleba. pirveli, qarTuli elita moklevadiani sargebliT iyo dainteresebuli, rodesac dasavleTi, gansakuTrebiT ki, evrokavSiri, cdilobda grZelvadiani, mdgradi programebis ganxorcielebas. SevardnaZis prezidentobisas, politikuri da samTavrobo stabilurobis nakleboba korumpirebul saxelmwifo moxeleebs umokles xanSi maqsimaluri sargeblis Ziebisken ubiZgebda. usafrTxoebis problemebi da Zaladoba, agreTve, CeCneTis konfliqtTan dakavSirebiT ruseTis politikuri zewola, zrdida politikur destabilizacias da aqezebda viwro, TviTgamorCenisken mimarTul qmedebebs. Sedegad, dasavleTi aRmoCnda iseT rTul situaciaSi, rodesac Zneli iyo grZelvadiani gadawyvetilebebis lobireba, Tu qarTuli saxelmwifo moxeleebi moklevadian piradul sargebels ver moipovebdnen.

2 evrokavSirisa da aSS-s politika xandaxan gansxvavebulicaa saqarTveloSi. magaliTad, 1999 wels evrokavSiri mkacrad ewinaaRmdegeboda aSS-isa da msoflio bankis gegmebs strategiulad mniSvnelovani foTis portis privatizaciis Sesaxeb. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom, rogorc wesi, evropa da amerika cdilobda amierkavkasiaSi politikis koordinaciasa da pasuxismgeblobis tvirTis gadanawilebas, ormxrivi da mravalmxrivi politikis kombinaciis gziT.

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meore, verc SeerTebuli Statebi da verc dasavleT evropa ver daeyrdnoboda saqarTvelosTan axlo urTierTobis istoriul gamocdilebas. zogierTi dasavluri saxelmwifo mokle xniT iyo dainteresebuli saqarTveloTi 1921 wlis sabWoTa aneqsiamde.3 am saerTo istoriuli gamocdilebis naklebobis gamo dasavleTi da saqarTvelo, mimdinare politikis gansazRvrisas, ver iyeneben warsul gamocdilebas. amas Tan erTvis dasavlur qveynebsa da saerTaSoriso organizaciebSi gadawyvetilebis miRebis rTuli meqanizmebi. es, gansakuTrebiT, evrokavSirs Seexeba. qarTvelebi, romlebic sabWoTa centralizebul politikas arian Cveulni, da naklebad icnoben evropuli integraciis xangrZliv process, imedgacruebiT aRiqvamen, Tu rogor miiReba (an ar miiReba) gadawyvetilebebi evrokavSirSi. mesame, kanonis uzenaesoba sakmaod sustadaa saqarTveloSi ganviTarebuli. tradiciebi da araformaluri urTierTobebi, gacilebiT, ufro mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs, vidre kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli procedurebi. amas garkveuli problemebi mohyveba saerTaSoriso daxmarebisa da sxva dasavlel partniorebTan TanamSromlobis proeqtebis yoveldRiur ganxorcielebaSi. saakaSvilis mTavroba cdilobs am problemis mogvarebas, magram am praqtikis swrafad aRmofxvra advili ar iqneba. dasavleTSi ganaTlebamiRebuli axalgazrda liderebis, romelTac ukeT uwyian kanonis uzenaesobis pativiscemis principebi, mosvlas xelisuflebaSi, SesaZloa, mohyves, am mxriv, situaciis gamosworeba. Tumca, unda aRiSnos, rom xSirad es axali elita dasavlur da adgilobriv auditorias gansxvavebulad esaubreba. magaliTad, saakaSvili, gacilebiT, ufro nacionalistur da populistur ritorikas iyenebs, roca is

S. Neil MacFarlane, "Caucasus and Central Asia: Towards a Non-Strategy," Geneva Center for Security Policy Occasional Paper Series no. 37 (Geneva: Geneva Center for Security Policy, 2002), http://www.gcsp.ch/e/publications/Occ-papers/2002/37-MacFarlane.pdf; Musa Gasimli, "The Role of the United States in the South Caucasus 1917­1918," Caspian CrossroadsMagazine, vol. 6, no. 3 (2003), http://www.usazerbaijancouncil.org/ caspiancrossroads/current.html#4.

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adgilobriv auditorias mimarTavs, vidre, roca is saerTaSoriso msmenels esaubreba.4 saqarTvelosa da dasavleTs Soris arsebuli meoTxe gaurkvevloba ukavSirdeba orive mxaris mier gadaWarbebul molodinebs. esaubrebian ra TavianT kavkasiel kolegebs amierkavkasiis strategiul geopolitikur mniSvnelobaze, dasavleTi politikuri da samxedro daxmarebis ararealisturi molodinebis warmoSobas uwyobs xels. samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTSi samxedro marcxis gancdis Semdeg qarTvelebi did imedebs amyareben dasavleTis mier Sida usafrTxoebis problemebis mogvarebaze, risi gadawyvetac Tavad ver SeZles. aSkaraa, rom saqarTvelo mougvarebeli Sida konfliqtebiTa da ukontrolo teritoriebiT ver iqneba mzad Crdilo-atlantikur aliansSi gasawevrianeblad. magram, miuxedavad imisa, rom Tbilisma 2002 wels Seitana natoSi gawevrianebis oficialuri moTxovna, arc am organizaciis mier xdeba mkafiod gansazRvra, Tu ra grZelvadiani perspeqtivebi SeiZleba hqondes saqarTvelos. Tumca, 2004 wlis Semodgomaze individualuri partniorobis samoqmedo gegmis (IPAP) miReba, erTgvarad, imedismomcemia. rac Seexeba evrokavSirs, mas wevroba, ra Tqma unda, ar SeuTavazebia da rom ara 2003 wlis noembris movlenebi, saqarTvelo "axal samezoblo politikaSic" ver moxvdeboda.5 Tumca, wevrobis perspeqtiva ZiriTadi berketia, romelic briusels gaaCnia saqarTveloSi institucionaluri remagaliTad, afxazeTis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, prezidenti saakaSvili saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis winaSe inglisurad gamosvlisas calsaxad konfliqtis mSvidobian gadaWras uWers mxars. saqarTveloSi qarTuli auditoriisadmi mimarTvisas ki is ufro agresiulia am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, rac xSirad kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayenebs mSvidobiani meTodebis ualternativobas. 5 evrokavSiris es politikuri CarCo 2003 wels iqna SemuSavebuli da moicavda gazrdili evrokavSiris yvela geografiulad mosazRvre qveyanas (garda TurqeTisa da balkaneTis im saxelmwifoebisa, romlebic evrokavSiris wevrobis kandidatebi arian da, Sesabamisad, evrokavSiris politikis arsebul CarCoSi xvdebian).

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formebis stimulirebisaTvis. axali samezoblo iniciativis farglebSi evrokavSiri ufro mWidro TanamSromlobis perspeqtivebs sTavazobs im qveynebs, romlebic evrokavSiris miznebis Sesabamis politikas ganaxorcieleben. Tumca, saeWvoa, aris Tu ara sakmarisi aseTi zogadi perspeqtivebi qarTuli politikuri elitisTvis arapopularuli reformebis gansaxorcieleblad. amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma energoproeqtebis mxardaWeriT saqarTveloSi didi imedebis warmoSobas Seuwyo xeli, magram ar arsebobs garantia, rom mxolod navTobisa da gazis proeqtebi iqneba sakmarisi saqarTvelos keTildReobisTvis. es proeqtebi, TavisTavad, ver SeZlebs sxva ucxouri investiciebis mozidvas, sanam ar moxdeba sxva mniSvnelovani pirobebis dakmayofileba, rogoricaa samarTlebrivi da ekonomikuri reformebi, an Sida teritoriuli konfliqtebis mogvareba. vaSingtoni gansakuTrebulad usvams xazs saqarTvelos mniSvnelobas regionSi da (sityvierad mainc) gamodis mis dasacavad, roca rusTidan momavali zewola autaneli xdeba. Tumca, amasTan erTad, aSS saqarTvelos ruseTTan urTierTobisas ufro drekadi politikisken mouwodebs. amerikuli xedviT, saqarTvelo mudmivad iqneba damokidebuli ruseTze mraval sferoSi da mas sxva gza ar aqvs, Tu ara Zlier mezobelTan konstruqciuli TanamSromloba. mokled, saqarTvelos xelisuflebas, rogorc Cans, sjera, rom dasavleTis ZiriTadi mizania saqarTvelos evro-atlantikur sivrceSi gawevrianebis xelSewyoba, maSin, roca dasavleTis prioritetia saqarTvelos mier Sidapolitikuri problemebis mogvareba da ruseTTan da sxva mezobel saxelmwifoebTan TanamSromlobiT qveynis Sida da regionaluri stabilurobis miRweva. 1990-iani wlebis ganmavlobaSi dasavleTis usafrTxoebis politika saqarTveloSi sami ZiriTadi miznis miRwevas emsaxureboda: energogadazidvebis usafrTxoeba, Sidakonfliqtebis mogvarebiT regionaluri stabilurobisa da integraciis miRweva da qarTuli saxelmwifos gaZliereba. es usafrTxoebis amocanebi mWidro urTierTkvSirSia. yvela am

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sakiTxis ganxilva xdeba mravalmxrivi da ormxrivi forumebis CarCoebSi, sadac saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemebis mosagvareblad konkretuli winadadebebi ganixileba, rogorc energo damoukideblobisa da regionaluri integraciis, ise ­ saxelmwifo reformebis sakiTxebSic.6 winamdebare TavSi Cven SevecdebiT, ganvixiloT yvela am miznis mniSvneloba saqarTvelos mimarT dasavleTis usafrTxoebis politikis konteqstSi.

saqarTvelos dasavleli partniorebi

saqarTvelos ZiriTad "dasavlel partniorebad" SeiZleba evrokavSiri da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi CaiTvalos. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom vercerTma maTganma ver SeZlo saqarTvelos mimarT Tanmimdevruli da yovlismomcveli politikis SemuSaveba. politika aris sxvadasxva subieqtis, institutisa da saxelmwifos muSaobis Sedegi. amiT aixsneba is faqti, rom zogierTi maTi gadawyvetileba saqarTveloSi aRiqmeba, rogorc gaurkveveli da SeuTanxmebeli.7 evrokavSiris sagareo politika damokidebulia e.w. institucionalur samkuTxeds ­ sabWos, komisiasa da parlaments ­

Stephen J. Blank, U.S. Military Engagement with Transcaucasia and CentralAsia (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2000), http://www.carlisle.army.mil/pdffiles/PubID=113/ 7 Jan Zielonka, "Transatlantic Relations: Beyond the CFSP," in Hall Gardner and Radoslava Stefanova, eds., Russia and China: The Risks of Uncoordinated Transatlantic Strategies (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2001), pp. 65­80. amierkavkasiaSi dasavleTis politikaze ixileT, S. Neil MacFarlane, Western Engagement in the Caucasus and Central Asia (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1999), xolo dasavleTis politikis Sesaxeb afxazeTis konfliqtTan mimarTebaSi ixileT, Bruno Coppieters, "Western Security Policies and the Georgian­Abkhaz Conflict," in Bruno Coppieters, David Darchiashvili, Natella Akaba, eds., Federal Practice: Exploring Alternatives for Georgia and Abkhazia (Brussels: VUB Press, 2000), pp. 21­ 58. (am statiis rusuli Targmani daibeWda, rogorc: Áðóíî Êîïïèòåðñ. Ïîëèòèêà Çàïàäà â îáëàñòè áåçîïàñíîñòè è ãðóçèíî-àáõàçñêèé êîíôëèêò // Áðóíî Êîïïèòåðñ, Äàâèä Äàð÷èàøâèëè, Íàòåëëà Àêàáà (ðåä.). Ïðàêòèêà ôåäåðàëèçìà. Ïîèñêè àëüòåðíàòèâ äëÿ Ãðóçèè è Àáõàçèè. Ì.: Âåñü Ìèð, 1999. C. 18-71, òàêæå ïî àäðåñó: http://poli.vub.ac.be.)

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Soris Sida urTierTobebze. evropuli sabWos roli ganisazRvreba wevr-saxelmwifoebs Soris politikuri TanamSromlobiT, roca isini cdiloben erTiani sagareo politikis SemuSavebas. zogierTi wevri saxelmwifo cdilobs Tavi aaridos amierkavkasiis problemebSi Rrma Carevas. 8 evro komisia, romelic xSirad ufro erTiani politikis momxrea, ver gadis im farglebs gareT, romelsac sabWo awesebs. Tumca, amas xeli ar SeuSlia misTvis xandaxan gabeduli sagareo iniciativebiT gamosvlaSi.9 rac Seexeba evropis parlaments, marTalia, is xandaxan sxvadasxva lobis gavlenis qveS eqceva xolme (magaliTad, somxuri lobi), is, ZiriTadad, mainc amierkavkasiaSi evrokavSiris ufro aqtiuri rolis momxrea da cdilobs sabWos am gzisken biZgebas, miuxedavad imisa, rom evropul sazogadoebas ar aqvs didi interesi evropis am periferiuli regionis mimarT. evropelTa umravlesobis warmodgeniT, amierkavkasia Soreul mTebs miRma mimaluli teritoriaa, xolo gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT, problemebis mTebs miRma mdebareobs.10 jer-jerobiT, evrokavSiri sakmaod susti moTamaSea amierkavkasiaSi, uTmobs ra pirvelobas calkeul wevr-saxelm8 evropelebi amierkavkasias sxvadasxva TvalTaxedviT Sescqerian. erTni yuradRebas amaxvileben rusul da sabWoTa memkvidreobaze, meoreni ­ eTno-lingvistur faqtorebze; zogi kavkasias evropis nawilad miiCnevs, sxvebi upiratesobas mis farTo kaspiis zRvis auzSi CarTvas aniWeben. am midgomaTa ufro detaluri analizi ixileT, Damien Helly, "The Role of the EU in the Security of the South Caucasus: A Compromised Specificity?" Connections, vol. 1, no. 3 (July 2002), pp. 67­76, http://pfpconsortium.org/parser.cgi?file=/infopages/pubs_en.htm. 9 evropis komisiis, rogorc saerTaSoriso aqtorisa da misi sagareo politikis kompetenciebis Sesaxeb (sxva kvlevebs Soris), ixileT, Charlotte Bretherton and John Vogler, The European Union as a Global Actor (London: Routledge, 1999). 10 manam, sanam TurqeTis gawevrianeba gadauwyveteli rCeba, amierkavkasia ar iqneba prioritetuli sakiTxi evrokavSirisaTvis. magram, mas Semdeg, rac TurqeTi evrokavSiris wevri qveyana gaxdeba, is amierkavkasiasTan pirdapir sazRvars SeiZens. ixileT, Christopher Hill, "The Geopolitical Implications of Enlargement," EUI Working Paper no. 30 (Florence: European University Institute, 2000).

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wifoebs, rogoricaa, didi britaneTi, safrangeTi da germania.11 aSS-Si, politikuri gadawyvetilebebis miRebisas, saxelmwifo departaments, Tavisi mravalricxovani sammarTveloebiTurT, TeTr saxls, erovnuli usafrTxoebis sabWosa da Tavdacvis saministros ­ yvelas Tavisi xedva gaaCnia amierkavkasiasTan mimarTebaSi, maSin roca, kongresi navTobisa Tu erovnuli lobis zegavleniT, xSirad kidev sxva gadawyvetilebebis miRebas cdilobs. sxvadaxva prezidentis administraciebi amerikaSi gansxvavebul prioritetebs SeimuSavebda.12 1990-iani wlebis bolomde aSS-is politika gansakuTrebulad gaurkveveli iyo, rac institucionalur gaurkvevlobas da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesis SeuTanxmeblobas ukavSirdeboda. mxolod bil klintonis meore saprezidento vadis bolos moxda "kaspiis politikis" SemuSaveba. garda amisa, 2001 wlis 11 seqtembris teroristuli aqtebis Semdeg sagrZnoblad Seicvala aSS-is sagareo politikis prioritetebi. saqarTvelo dRes "didi axlo aRmosavleTis" nawilad moiazreba ­ potenciuri teroristuli safrTxis mTavari regioni. saqarTvelos roli, rogorc centraluri aziis karibWisa, zedmiwevniT gaizarda avRaneTisa da erayis saomari kampaniebis Sedegad. separatistuli regionebi saqarTveloSi gansakuTrebuli SeSfoTebis sagani gaxda, vinaidan evropelebic da amerikelebic aq teroristebis potenciur TavSesafars xedaven. am teroristuli safrTxis gadaWra saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifo reformis farglebSi unda momxdariyo.

Dov Lynch, ed., The South Caucasus: A Challenge for the EU, Chaillot Papers no. 65 (Paris: Institute for Security Studies, European Union, December 2003), http://www.isseu.org/public/content/chaile.html. germania da patara wevri saxelwifoebi ufro aqtiurad uWeren mxars evrokavSiris erTian politikas, vidre ­didi britaneTi da safrangeTi (is ruseTTan da aSS-sTan erTad e.w. minskis jgufis wevria, romelsac mTiani yarabaxis konfliqtSi Suamavlis roli akisria). 12 Hill, "A Not-So-Grand Strategy." agreTve ixileT, Simon Serfaty, "Les Etats-Unis, l'Europe et la France," Revue française de géoéconomie, no. 7 (1998), pp. 125­143; and Michael Brenner, "La diplomatie américaine et la sécurité en Europe," Le Trimestre du Monde, vol. 30 (1995), pp. 57­69.

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energousafrTxoeba

klintonis administraciidan moyolebuli, vaSingtonis midgoma kaspiis zRvis navTobisa da gazis transportirebis ganviTarebisadmi ufro metad geopolitikur gaTvlebs emyareboda -- vidre wminda komerciuls.13 1990-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi SeerTebulma Statebma, erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos iniciativiT, azerbaijani-saqarTvelo-TurqeTis navTobsadens, sxva marSrutebTan SedarebiT, ori ZiriTadi mizezis gamo mianiWa upiratesoba: pirveli, ruseTis teritoriis gverdis avla, raTa moskovis zegavlena Semcirebuliyo mis samxreTel mezoblebze da meore, vaSingtonis gadawyvetileba ­ xeli SeeSala iranisTvis, kaspiis energoresursebis tranzitiT sargeblobaSi.14 am ori mizezis garda, aSS-is oficialuri pirebi moqmedebdnen im gaTvliT, rom baqo-Tbilisi-jeihani (bTj) xels Seuwyobda regionSi situaciis stabilizacias, konfliqtebis Semcirebis da ara stimulirebis xarjze. milsadenis es proeqti, agreTve, erTgvari kompensacia iyo TurqeTisaTvis aSS-isgan, 1991 wlis sparseTis yureSi saomari moqmedebebis mxardaWerisTvis da am omis Sedegad garkveuli finansuri danaklisisTvis.15 garda amisa, klintonis admi13 emi jefis SeniSvniT, klintonis "kaspiis politika" 1994 wlidan arsebobda, magram misi mniSvneloba gaZlierda 1998 wels regionSi spec. warmomadgenlis daniSvniT. ixileT, Amy Jaffe, "U.S. Policy towards the Caspian: Can the Wish-list be Realized?" in Gennady Chufrin, ed., The Security of the Caspian Sea Region (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), pp. 136­150. 14 Hill, "A Not-So-Grand Strategy." hilis ganmartebiT, "1996 wlis agvistoSi iranisa da libiis winaaRmdeg sanqciebis gadawyvetilebis miRebiT, romelic awesebda jarimebs iranis navTobisa da gazis industriis msxvili investorebisTvis, aSS mkafiod gadavida sparseTis yureSi da sxva regionebSi, kaspiis CaTvliT, iranis izoliaciis politikaze. Sedegad, 1995-96 wlebSi [erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos] analitikosebi gaxdnen aSSis politikis arqiteqtorebi, romelic iTvaliswinebda ramdenime milsadenis mSeneblobas kaspiis navTobpoduqtebis eqsportisaTvis, rac kavkasiasa da centralur azias daakavSirebda globalur bazarTan da iranTan kavSiri minimumamde iqneboda dayvanili." 15 Hill, "A Not-So-Grand Strategy."

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nistracia am wamowyebas SeerTebul StatebSi energoresursebis miwodebis diversifikaciis saWiroebiT asabuTebda, miuxedavad imisa, rom kaspiis navTobi msoflio maragis 5%-ze naklebs Seadgens. baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis proeqtis ganxorcieleba rTulad mimdinareobda. bevri msxvili navTobkompania Tavidan ewinaaRmdegeboda kavkasiur milsadens, miaCndaT ra, rom navTobsadeni ekonomiurad yvelaze momgebiani iranis an ruseTis teritoriis gavliT iqneboda.16 "eqson mobili" (ExxonMobile), mowinave amerikuli kompania azerbaijansa da yazaxeTSi, sabolood mainc ar SeuerTda proeqts. TviT "BP"-ic ki, romelic dRes bTj-is wamyvani Zalaa, didxans ewinaaRmdegeboda am proeqts, magram sabolood dasTanxmda, SeerTebuli Statebis mniSvnelovani zewolis Sedegad. 2000 welsac ki, BP-i Siraqis velidan momavali baqo-sufsa milsadenis gamtarunarianobis gaormagebas aniWebda upiratesobas, vidre bTj-is gayvanas.17 es proeqti arc evrokavSiris bevri qveynisTvis iyo optimaluri. rac Seexeba axal wevrebs, ufro logikuri iqneboda kaspiis navTobis pirdapir Savi zRviT ­ rumineTis, bulgareTis, an saberZneTis gavliT ­ importi samxreT evropaSi, vidre TurqeTisa da xmelTaSua zRvis saSualebiT. magram evrokavSiris erTiani navTobpolitikis ararsebobis gamo briuselma ver SeZlo gadawyvetilebis miRebaze Sesabamisi zemoqmedebis moxdena. vinaidan evrokavSiris zogierTi wevri qveyana (rogoricaa, didi britaneTi, safrangeTi da italia), TavianT nacionalur navTobkompaniebTan erTad (Sesabamisad, "BP", "TotalFinaElf"-i da "ENI"), sargebels xedavda baqo-Tbilisijeihanis navTobsadenis proeqtisa da sxva kaspiuri investiciebidan, maT naklebi interesi hqondaT erTiani energogeopolitikis SesamuSaveblad.18 aseTi politikis arseboba maT

Jaffe, "U.S. Policy towards the Caspian." Jaffe, "U.S. Policy towards the Caspian." 18 saqarTvelosa da amierkavkasiaSi diplomatiuri warmomadgenlobis mqone evrokavSiris sxva qveynebis interesebi, rogoricaa germania da saberZneTi, naklebad moeqcnen navTobinteresebis gavlenis qveS.

17 16

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evropel konkurentebs regionSi axali SesaZleblobebis saSualebas miscemda. "BP"-s Tavdapirveli TavSekavebis miuxedavad, evropuli saxelmwifoebidan, sabolood, didi britaneTi iyo bTj-is navTobsadenis erT-erTi yvelaze didi mxardamWeri, proeqtis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli britanuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis saprotesto kampaniis miuxedavad. azerbaijanis, saqarTvelosa da TurqeTis xelmZRvaneloba aqtiurad uWerda mxars bTj-is navTobsadens, maSin, roca umravlesoba saerTaSoriso saqmiani wreebisa proeqts komerciulad aramomgebianad miiCnevda. azerbaijanis prezidenti heidar alievi da navTobkonsorciumi "azerbaijanis saerTaSoriso operaciuli korporacia" daexmara proeqts, CarTo ra mis ganxorcielebaSi aSS-is navTob-biznesis mniSvnelovani warmomadgenlebi amerikul-azerbaijanuli samrewvelo palatidan. TurqeTis prezidenti suleiman demireli amtkicebda, rom bTj dadebiTad imoqmedebda TurqeTSi ekologiur situaciaze, vinaidan is saSiSad gadatvirTul bosforis srutes auvlida gverds. xolo saqarTvelos prezidenti eduard SevardnaZe irwmuneboda, rom bTj saqarTvelos daexmareboda regionSi energetikuli xidis rolis SesrulebaSi. aSS-isa da evrokavSiris saxemlwifoebrivi interesebi amierkavkasiaSi ukavSirdeba komerciul interesebs msxvili navTobkompaniebisa, romlebic qmnian ZiriTad kaspiis energo konsorciumebs. kaspiis auzSi, TavianTi investiciebis usafrTxoebis garantiebis uzrunvelsayofad, am kompaniebma gamonaxes Tanamzraxvelebi aSS-is geopolitikur-strategiuli Teoriis mimdevrebSi, romlebic mxars uWeren amerikis mzard rols ruseTis mezobel qveynebSi.19 aSS-is yofili maRalCinosnebi, rogorebic arian: zbignev bJezinski, brent skoukrofti, jon sununu, jeims beikeri da riCard Ceini (rodesac is "holiberton"-s xelmZRvanelobda),

19

Jaffe, "U.S. Policy towards the Caspian."

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sxvadasxva dros estumrnen baqosa da kaspiis regions da lobirebdnen navTobkompaniebis interesebs.20 vinaidan ruseTi (arausafuZvlod) baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis proeqtSi xedavda mcdelobebs misi zegavlenis Semcirebisa da azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelos energo bazrebidan misi gaZevebisa, is mainc ar molba proeqtis ideisadmi mas Semdegac ki, roca ruseTis navTobkompania lukoili principulad dasTanxmda proeqtSi monawileobas. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom lukoilis monawileoba gagrZelda mxolod 2002 wlamde, roca igi, dRemde ucnobi mizezebis gamo, proeqtidan gavida. bTj-is proeqtma mkacri kritika gamoiwvia sxvadasxva dasavluri Tu qarTuli arasamTavrobo organizaciis mxridanac, romelnic misi SesaZlo ekologiuri SedegebiT arian SeSfoTebulni.21 proeqtis damgegmavebi TviT saqarTveloSic ki, Seejaxnen Ria protests, romelic ukavSirdeboda milsadenis, rogorc Tavidan igegmeboda, borjomis nakrZalSi gavlas da mineralur wyalze zegavlenis savaraudo Sedegebs. anti-bTj-is kampania 2004 welsac gagrZelda, magram klebadi sixSiriT da ZalebiT. vaSingtonis Zalisxmeva rom ara, albaT, bTj-is milsadenis gayvana SeuZlebeli iqneboda. am proeqtSi monawile kompaniebi saWiroebdnen aSS-is Carevas, raTa adgilobriv xelisufalTa mxardaWera moepovebinaT da mieRoT saxsrebi saerTaSoriso safinanso institutebidan. aSS-is mxardaWeriT, saerTaSoriso safinanso korporaciam (ssk) ­ msoflio bankis struqtura, romelic kerZo seqtorTan muSaobs ­ 2003 wlis noemberSi

20 Svante E. Cornell, Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus (Richmond, UK: Curzon, 2001), p. 373. 21 baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis proeqtis arasamTavroboTa kritikis Sesaxeb, ixileT, United Kingdom Parliament, House of Commons, Session 2002­03, International Development Committee Publications, International Development--Written Evidence, Annex 1, November 6, 2003, http://www.parliament.thestationeryoffice.co.uk/pa/cm200203/cmselect/cmintdev/1266/1266we15.htm. baqojeihanis kampaniis Sesaxeb, ixileT, http://www.bakuceyhan.org.uk.

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Tanxmoba ganacxada bTj-is proeqtSi monawileobaze.22 garkveuli Tavdapirveli uTanxmoebebi navTobsadenis sakiTxebze, erTis mxriv, aSS-sa da, meores mxriv, evropul saxelmwifoebs Soris TandaTanobiT gaqra da 2004 wlisTvis bTj-is proeqti ukve realobad iqca. dResdReobiT, bTj-is navTobsadeni, savaraudod, 2005 wels Seva eqsploataciaSi da 2010 wlisTvis miaRwevs srul datvirTvas, roca is dReSi, daaxloebiT, erT milion barel navTobproduqts gaatarebs.23 erTiani energopolitikis ararsebobis miuxedavad, evrokavSirSi yovelTvis esmodaT, rom saqarTvelo navTobisa da gazis evropaSi gadazidvis ZiriTad tranzitad iqceoda da amitom CarTes igi 1997 wels TavianT Savi zRvis auzis strategiaSi, romlis erT-erTi komponenti xazs usvamda transevropuli qselebis kavkasiis infrastruqturasTan mierTebis saWiroebas. am miznebma asaxva hpova evrokomisiis 2001 wlis "Green Paper"-Si, romelic energo momaragebis usafrTxoebas Seexeboda da energoresursebis alternatiuli wyaroebis aRmoCenaze amaxvilebda yuradRebas.24 evrokavSiri, aseve, gansakuTrebiT, dainteresda azerbaijanuli gazis samxreTaRmosavleT evropaSi saqarTvelos gavliT eqsportiT. baqo"ssk-s investiciebi bTj-is milsadenSi Seadgens 125 milion aSS dolaris sesxs sakuTari saxsrebidan da 125 milioni aSS dolaris sesxs komerciuli sindikaciis saxiT. bTj-is proeqtis saerTo Rirebuleba Seadgens 3,6 miliard aSS dolars." ixileT, http://www.ifc.org/btc. 23 ixileT, http://www.caspiandevelopmentandexport.com/ASP/BTC.asp. 24 evropis komisiis komunikacia Regional Cooperation in the Black Sea Area: State of Play, Perspectives for EU Action Encouraging Its Further Development, November 14, 1997. Savi zRvis proeqt "petra"-s Sesaxeb ixileT, www.bs-petra.org. evrokomisiis Savi zRvis politikis ZiriTad miRwevad, romelic mimarTuli iyo evrokavSiris Semdgomi gafarToebis momzadebaze, gaxldaT Savi zRvis irgvliv satransporto qselebis Seqmna da evrokavSirs gareT arsebuli zRvispira saxelwifoebis mzardi ekonomikuri integracia. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom Savi zRvis politika mainc ver iqca evrokavSirisTvis prioritetad. agreTve, ixileT, evrokavSiris "mwvane angariSi", Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply (2001), http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy_transport/en/lpi_lv_en1.html. es dokumenti evrokomisiis mier iqna miRebuli 2000 wlis 29 noembers.

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Tbilisi-erzrumis proeqtis daniSnulebis punqtad TurqeTi SeirCa, romelmac, saberZneTis gavliT, unda moaxdinos evrokavSiris qveynebSi gazis transportireba da, savaraudod, misi gayvana 2006 wels unda dasruldes.25 evrokavSiris wevri saxelmwifoebis "gadauwyvetloba" erTiani energopolitikis SemuSavebaSi, 1999 wlamde, mainc, garkveulwilad, balansirdeboda evrokomisiis mcdelobiT, transportisa da energosakiTxebSi erTiani midgoma hqonodaT.26 manam, sanam amierkavkasiaSi mimdinareobda eqsportis marSrutebis SemuSaveba da igegmeboda milsadenebis mSenebloba, evrokavSiri sakuTari iniciativis ganxorcielebas Seudga. man aamuSava alternatiuli, droebiTi sistema navTobis rkinigziT gadazidvisa, azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelos gavliT, evropa-kavkasia-aziis stransporto koridoris (TRACECA) dakavSirebiT.27 mravalmxrivi teqnikuri SeTanxmebebis Sedegad, es sistema SemuSavda evropis satransporto qselebis centralur aziasa da kavkasiasTan dasakavSireblad da Warbi kaspiuri navTobis, romelic milsadeniT ar miedineba, evropaSi gasatanad. amavdroulad, evropaSi gazisa da navTobis transportirebis samTavroboTaSoriso programis (INOGATE) farglebSi, evrokavSiri cdilobda regionSi gazisa da navTobis infrastruqturis seqtorSi erTiani normatiuli bazis Seqmnas. dasavluri qveynebis interesma, energoresursebis tranportirebis xazebis mimarT, aiZula isini ufro aqtiuri roli eTamaSaT kavkasiaSi arsebuli konfliqtebis mogvarebaSi.

Jean-Christophe Peuch, "Smell of Russian Gas Hangs over Georgian Election Campaign," RFE/RL, June 14, 2003, http://www.rferl.org/features/2003/06/13062003144514.asp. 26 Peter Bachrach and Morton S. Baratz, "Decisions and Nondecisions: An Analytical Framework," American Political Science Review, vol. 57, no. 3 (1963), pp. 632­642. es koncefcia iqna gamoyenebuli: Damien Helly, "L'action extérieure de l'Union européenne dans le Caucase du Sud," Ph.D. diss., Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, 2003. 27 TRACECA-s Sesaxeb ixileT, Damien Helly, "Un corridor de transport Asie-Europe: Traceca, l'Union européenne et sa Route de la Soie," Courrier des Pays de l'Est, no. 1019 (2001), pp. 52­64.

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sazRvris kontroli, satransporto infrastruqtura, mdgradi sagadasaxado sistema da efeqturi samarTaldamcavi meqanizmi umniSvnelovanesia ara marto saqarTvelosTvis, aramed -- mTeli regionisTvis, vinaidan saqarTvelo rCeba ZiriTad satranzito teritoriad. is aris satransporto kvanZi, romlis saSualebiTac somxuri da azerbaijanuli saqoneli aRwevs TurqeTis, ruseTis, iranisa da msoflios sxva bazrebze. aqedan gamomdinare, urTierTdamokidebuleba warmoiSva energousafrTxoebas, stabilurobasa da kavkasiaSi konfliqtebis mogvarebas Soris, ramdenadac rTuli ar unda yofiliyo amis miRweva. SemTxveviTi araa, rom kavSiri navTobsa da mTiani yarabaxis konfliqts Soris aSS-s administraciis yuradRebis centrSi moeqca 1990-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi, daaxloebiT, maSin, roca klintonis administracia aqtiurad CaerTo bTj-is navTobsadenis proeqtSi.

konfliqtebis mogvareba

saqarTvelos miRwevebi konfliqtebis mogvarebis sakiTxebSi sakmaod mwiria: arc afxazeTis da arc samxreT oseTis konfliqti ar aRmofxvrila da ramdenjerme moxda konfliqtis zonebSi situaciis mZafri eskalacia, rac 1998 da 2004 wlebSi Rrma krizisebSic gadaizarda. verc aSS-ma da verc evropam SeZlo am wamoWrili krizisebis Tavidan acileba. samSvidobo procesebSi maTi monawileoba ar aRmoCnda warmatebuli sxva mediatorebTan, ZiriTadad, ruseTTan SeuTanxmoblobis gamo. saqarTvelo iqca ruseTisa da aSS-is brZolis velad, sadac civi omi kvlav grZeldeba, ZiriTadad, "arc omi, arc mSvidobis" principiT da gayinuli status kvo-Ti. araRiarebuli respublikebi destruqciul rols TamaSoben molaparakebebSi, ZiriTadad, moskovis pirdapiri miTiTebebis wyalobiT. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg amierkavkasia mudmivad destabilizirebulia da am areulobis evropasa Tu axlo aRmosavleTSi gavrecelebis saSiSroeba realuria.28 evropis

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energointeresebis dasacavad aucilebelia azerbaijansa da saqarTveloze gamavali satransporto koridoris stabilizacia.29 "evropa ­ rogorc amas erT-erTi analitikosi aRniSnavs ­ ver iqneba sruliad usafrTxo, Tu kavkasia darCeba evropuli usafrTxoebis [CarCos] miRma." 30 vinaidan amierkavkasiaSi usafrTxoeba moicavs problemaTa farTo wresa da mraval saxelmwifos, gamosavali mxolod molaparakebaTa mravalmxriv CarCoebSi unda gamoiZebnos, radganac mxolod koleqtiurma gadawyvetilebebma SeiZleba mogvces praqtikuli Sedegebi. regionis stabiluroba yvela CarTuli mxaris SeTanxmebas moiTxovs. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, marginalizirebuli an procesebidan CamoSorebuli Zalebi SeiZleba mogvevlinon xelis SemSlelebad. mxareTa Suamavlebs Soris konkurenciam advilad SeiZleba migviyvanos Cixamde. ruseTi winaaRmdegi gamovida mTeli rigi dasavluri iniciativebisa mTiani yarabaxisa da afxazeTis konfliqtebTan mimarTebaSi, iseve, rogorc, dasavleTi uSlida xels ruseTis mcdelobebs yofiliyo erTaderTi mediatori saqarTvelos Sida konfliqtebSi. kavkasiis regionaluri stabiluroba da amierkavkasiis qveynebSi Sida stabiluroba damokidebulia imaze, Tu rogor SeZleben Sida da gare Zalebi usafrTxoebis problemaTa kompleqsTan gamklavebas, sadac TiToeuli Semadgeneli elementi damokidebulia yvela danarCen elementze.31 Sesaamierkavkasiis geopolitikuri mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb ixileT, Ronald D. Asmus and Kenneth M. Pollack, "The New Transatlantic Project: A Response to Robert Kagan," Policy Review, no. 115 (2002), pp. 3­18, http://www.policyreview.org/OCT02/ asmus.html; Bruno Coppieters, ed., Contested Borders in the Caucasus (Brussels: VUB Press, 1996); and Edmund Herzig, The New Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1999). (Áðóíî Êîïïèòåðñ (ðåä.). Ñïîðíûå ãðàíèöû íà Êàâêàçå. Ì.: Âåñü Ìèð, 1996, òàêæå ïî àäðåñó: http://poli.vub.ac.be.) 29 William E. Odom, "U.S. Policy toward Central Asia and the South Caucasus," Caspian Crossroads Magazine, vol. 3, no 1 (1997); Graham Fuller, "Geopolitical Dynamics of the Caspian Region," Caspian Crossroads Magazine, vol. 3, no. 2 (1997), http:// www.usazerbaijancouncil.org/caspiancrossroads/archive/archive.htm. 30 Blank, U.S. Military Engagement with Transcaucasia and Central Asia, p. 8. 31 Cornell, Small Nations and Great Powers.

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bamisad, saqarTvelos usafrTxoeba mWidrod ukavSirdeba mis urTierTobebs mezobel saxelmwifoebTan, gansakuTrebiT ki ­ ruseTTan. amgvarad, saqarTvelosTan urTierTobisas dasavleTs sxva gza ara aqvs, Tu ara gaiTvaliswinos ruseTis istoriuli, geografiuli, samxedro da ekonomikuri wona. dasavleTisTvis saqarTvelos problemaTa gadawyveta niSnavs ara marto Suamavlis rolis Sesrulebas dapirispirebul mxareebs Soris, aramed ruseTTan, TurqeTTan da iranTan molaparakebebsac, vinaidan TiToeul maTgans uSualod exeba saqarTveloSi konfliqtebis mogvarebis mcdelobaTa Sedegebi. aucilebelia, agreTve, mravalmxrivi usafrTxoebis CarCoTa gaTvaliswineba, rogorebicaa evropaSi usafrTxoebisa da TanamSromlobis organizacia (euTo), damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobroba (dsT) da Crdilo atlantikuri aliansi (nato). garda amisa, saqarTvelo Savi zRvis sanapiros yvela saxelmwifos mezobelia da amierkavkasiis samive saxelmwifo Savi zRvis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis (bisek-is) wevria.32 Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom regionis usafrTxoebis politikaSi mravalmxrivoba ar aris yvelaze TvalSi sacemi niSani da gare Zalebi xandaxan erTmaneTs upirispirdeba amierkavkasiaSi. magaliTad, natosa da evrokavSiris gafarToebasTan erTad, zogierTi dasavleli analitikosi miiCnevs, rom amierkavkasiis sami saxelmwifo unda ganixilebodes, rogorc "dasvleTis uSualo samezoblo" da ara rogorc moskovis "uaxloesi sazRvargareTi."33

miuxedavad imisa, rom somxeTs ar gaaCnia zRvaze gasasvleli, is mainc erT-erTia bisek-is TerTmet wevrTagan, sadac wevroba regionaluri da ara mkacrad geografiuli pricipebis mixedviTaa. am organizaciis Sesaxeb ufro dawvrilebiT SegiZliaT ixiloT Tomas de vaalis Tavi amave wignSi. 33 es axali civi omis argumenti wamowies iseTma cnobilma amerikelma politikosebma, rogorebicaa: zbignev bJezinski da brus jeqsoni. agreTve, ixileT, Vladimir Socor, "Better For All than Alexander the Great," The Wall Street Journal Europe, January 10, 2003. sokori wers: "natom ukve miiRo Savi zRvispireTis dasavleTi nawili rumineTsa da bulgareTSi, riTac gaamyara kavSiri TurqeTis samxreTis sanapirosTan. balkaneTis aRmosavleT sanapiroze ki is strategiulad mdebareobs saqarTvelosa da energoresursebiT mdidar kaspiis auzTan, romlebic dasavleTis axali samezoblo iniciativis wevrebi gaxdnen."

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amavdroulad, ruseTis konservatiuli Zalebi darwmunebulni arian, rom moskovis mdgomareobis gadarCena mxolod samxedro Zalauflebisa da imperiuli ruseTis aRdgeniT SeiZleba, amiekavkasiaSic ki. amgvarad, saqarTvelos wilad ergo saeWvo privilegia, iyos erT-erTi im mcireoden qveynebs Soris, sadac dasavleTi da ruseTi pirdapir upirispirdeba erTmaneTs. saqarTvelos mougvarebeli konfliqtebi afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi seriozulad abrkolebs qveynis politikur da ekonomikur ganviTarebas da mis stabilurobas. organizebuli danaSauli da Crdilovani ekonomika yvavis separatistul teritoriebze da vrceldeba ra qveynis sxva nawilebSi, seriozul zians ayenebs saxelmwifos, rogorc Sida, ise ­ gare erovnul usafrTxoebas. am konfliqtebma gansakuTrebulad daZabes saqarTvelo-ruseTis urTierTobebi, gamoiwvies aseuli aTasobiT adamianTa iZulebiTi gadaadgileba da mTeli mosaxleobis travmireba, agreTve, Sidasazogadoebrivi dapirispirebebi. saqarTvelos erovnuli usafrTxoeba warmoudgenelia am konfliqtebis mogvarebis gareSe. mravali diplomatiuri iniciativa iqna wamowyebuli afxazeTis konfliqtis mosagvareblad, sadac omis Sedegebi gansakuTrebulad mZime iyo. am procesSi monawile yvela sagareo, Tu Sida Zala midis im daskvnamde, rom, Tu odesme gamoiZebneba gadawyvetis gza, igi, problemis xasiaTidan gamomdinare, aucileblad moiTxovs mravalmxriv midgomas. gaero aris is organizacia, romlis CarCoSic SeiZleba Camoyalibdes aseTi mravalmxrivi midgoma. afxazeTSi gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis saqmianoba sxvadasxva formiT vlindeboda -- e.w. "msubuqi zomebidan" (rogoricaa, 1992 wels pirveli kvleviTi misia) samxedro sadamkvirveblo misiamde. gaeros sadamkvirveblo misia saqarTveloSi 1993 wlis agvistoSi gaixsna, raTa ganexorcielebina 1993 wlis ivlisSi Tbilissa da soxums Soris gaformebuli cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis mo373

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nitoringi.34 1994 wlamde dasavleTi iTvaliswinebda ra ruseTis interesebs regionSi, cdilobda dasavleTis gavlenaTa SeWris gamo daZabulobis Tavis aridebas. am mizeziT, gaerom mxolod sadamkvirveblo misia gaxsna saqarTveloSi da ara sruli samSvidobo operacia.35 saqarTveloSi gaeros sadamkvirveblo misiis farglebSi, daaxloebiT, 100 samxedro damkvirvebeli msaxurobs afxazeTSi. maTi mTavari misiaa monitoringi gauwios da Tvalyuri adevnos 1994 wlis 14 maiss moskovSi miRweuli cecxlis Sewyvetisa da mxareTa daSoriSorebis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis ganxorcielebas.36 misi mandati moicavs: (1) "usafrTxoebis zonis" (sadac dauSvebelia samxedro Zalebis yofna) da "SezRuduli zonis" (sadac akrZalulia mZime teqnikis ganTavseba) meTvalyureobas cecxlis Sewyvetis xazis orive mxares, enguris xidis gaswvriv; (2) kodoris xeobis37 patrulireba da (3) dsT-is samSvidobo

1993 wlis 27 ivliss gudauTaSi saqarTvelom da afxazeTma xeli moawera cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebas. gaeros samxedro damkvirveblebi axorcielebdnen, Tavdapirvelad, SeTanxmebis monitorings. magram 1993 wlis seqtemberSi SeTanxmeba daarRvies afxazebma oCamCiresa da soxumze TavdasxmiT. axali SeTanxmeba cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb daido 1994 wels moskovSi. mxareebi SeTanxmdnen dsT-is samSvidobo kontingentis ganTavsebaze, xolo gaeros misias saqarTveloSi unda ganexorcielebina SeTanxmebisa da dsT-is samSvidoboebis qmedebaTa monitoringi. ufro detalurad, ixileT, Oliver Paye and Eric Remacle, "UN and CSCE Policies in Transcaucasia," in Coppieters, Contested Borders in the Caucasus, pp.105­110. (Îëèâüå Ïý è Ýðèê Ðåìàêëü. Ïîëèòèêà ÎÎÍ è ÑÁÑÅ â Çàêàâêàçüå // Áðóíî Êîïïèòåðñ (ðåä.). Ñïîðíûå ãðàíèöû íà Êàâêàçå. Ñ. 118-128.) agreTve ixileT, Rick Fawn and Sally N. Cummings, "Interests over Norms in Western Policy toward the Caucasus: How Abkhazia Is No One's Kosovo," European Security, vol. 10, no. 3 (autumn 2001), pp. 84­108. 35 S. Neil MacFarlane, "The Role of the UN," Accord, issue 7 (September 1999), p. 36, http://www.c-r.org/accord/geor-ab/accord7/unrole.shtml; (Ñ. Íèë Ìàêôàðëåéí. Ðîëü ÎÎÍ // Äæîíàòàí Êîýí (ðåä.) Ïðîáëåìà ñóâåðåíèòåòà. Accord, âûïóñê 7. Êîíñèëèýéøí Ðèñîðñèç. Ëîíäîí, 1999 ­ Ì.: Ãëîáóñ, 2000. Ñ. 44, òàêæå ïî àäðåñó: http://www.c-r.org/accord/ series.shtml.) da Pierre Binette, "La crise en Abkhazie, acteurs et dynamique," Revue Etudes Internationales, vol. 29, no. 4 (1998), pp. 831­865. 36 ixileT, saqarTveloSi gaeros sadamkvirveblo misiis internet-gverdi: http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/missions/unomig/. 37 kodoris xeoba aris maRTalmTiani teritoria afxazeTSi. xeobis zeda nawili saqarTvelos iurisdiqciis qveSaa.

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Zalebis qmedebaTa monitoringi moskovis xelSekrulebis Sesrulebis farglebSi.38 saqarTveloSi gaeros sadamkvirveblo misia pasuxismgebelia, agreTve, konfliqtis orive mxaresTan mWidro kontaqtiT, dsT-is samSvidobo ZalebTan urTierTobiT da konfliqtis zonaSi misi yofniT, xeli Seuwyos devnilTa da ltolvilTa usafrTxo da organizebul dabrunebas. gaeros damkvirvebelTa samxedro kontingenti, ZiriTadad, evropuli qveynebisgan Sedgeba. isini SeuiaraRebelni arian da maTi politikuri Tu fizikuri usafrTxoeba sakmaod myifea. 39 magaliTad, gaeros sadamkvirveblo misia saqarTveloSi iZulebuli iyo Seewyvita zeda kodoris xeobis monitoringi mas Semdeg, rac misi damkvirveblebi gaitaces 2003 wlis ivnisSi. srulmasStabiani politikuri daregulirebis misaRwevad saqarTveloSi gaeros sadamkvirveblo misiam SeimuSava rTuli, mravalmimarTulebiani samSvidobo molaparakebebis meqanizmi, rogorc mas xSirad uwodeben "Jenevis procesi". 40 Jenevis process gaero Tavmjdomareobs. ruseTi iTvleba, rom fasilitatoris rols asrulebs, rac sakmaod ambiciuri funqciaa, magram aSkaraa, rom arsebobs molodini ruseTis mier srulmasStabiani daregulirebis xelisSewyobis. euTosa da gaeros generaluri mdivnis megobarTa jgufs ­ romelSic Sedian aSS, germania, didi britaneTi, safrangeTi da ruseTi ­ aqvT damkvirveblis statusi am procesSi. Jenevis molaparakebaTa dRis wesrigi sakmaod farToa da moicavs, rogorc politikur, humanitarul, agreTve, usafrTxoebisa da ekonomikur sakiTxebs. 1997 wels Jenevis molaparakebaTa farTo CarCoSi Seiqmna ufro kompleqsuri meqanizmi, romelic Sedgeba sakoordinacio sabWosa da sami Tematuri samuSao jgufisgan. es jgufebi muSaoben iseT sakiTxebze, rogoricaa usafrTxoeba da Zaladobis ganuaxlebloba, devnilTa da ltolvilTa dabruneba da

ixileT, http://www.unomig.org. Fawn and Cummings, "Interests over Norms in Western Policy toward the Caucasus," pp. 84­108. 40 mxareTa Soris molaparakebaTa pirveli raundi gaimarTa JenevaSi, 1993 wlis noember-dekemberSi.

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ekonomikuri TanamSromloba. amavdroulad, gaerom ganaviTara ndobis aRdgenisken mimarTuli forumi, raTa xeli Seewyos araformalur garemoSi ormxrivi kontaqtebis gazrdas.41 1993dan 1997 wlamde gaeros gen. mdivnis specialuri elCi xSirad stumrobda xolme saqarTvelosa da afxazeTs, magram konfliqtis zonaSi mudmivad ar imyofeboda. 1997 wlis ivlisSi daniSnuli gaeros gen. mdivnis specialuri warmomadgeneli dRes Jenevis process Tavmjdomareobs da saqarTveloSi gaeros sadamkvirveblo misias xelmZRvanelobs. aSS, germania, ruseTi, didi britaneTi da safrangeTi saqarTvelos sakiTxebSi gaeros gen. mdivnis megobarTa jgufSi monawileoben. es iniciativa, Tavdapirvelad, frangebs ekuTvnodaT da iTvaliswinebda mdored mimdinare srulmasStabiani SeTanxmebis molaparakebebis procesis gamococxlebas da qarTul-afxazur molaparakebebSi ruseTis dominanturi rolis dabalansebas. megobarTa jgufi ukavSirdeba gaeros samSvidobo operacias da Jenevis molaparakebaTa formats. miuxedavad ruseTis wevrobisa, afxazebi megobarTa jgufs aRiqvamen, rogorc mikerZoebul Zalas, romelic dasavleTis ekonomikur da geostrategiul interesebs icavs.42 es aRqma mTlianad safuZvels moklebuli araa. gansakuTrebiT safrangeTi arasdros malavda Tavis pro-qarTul pozicias da ramdenjerme pirdapir aqvs es afxazebisTvis gacxadebuli. didi britaneTi da germania ufro frTxilad moqmedeben, erTis mxriv, aqtiurad monawileoben megobarTa jgufis saqmianobaSi, xolo meore mxriv, afinanseben konfliqtis mogvarebisken mimarTul arasamTavrobo organizaciebis programebs.43

sami maRali donis Sexvedra iqna Catarebuli ndobis aRdgenis zomebis farglebSi: aTenSi (1998 wlis oqtomberi), stambolSi (1999 wlis ivnisi) da ialtaSi (2001 wlis marti). 42 Fawn and Cummings, "Interests over Norms in Western Policy toward the Caucasus," p. 94. 43 sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg saqarTvelo germaniisaTvis prioritetulad mniSvnelovani iyo. SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis periodSi, sxva postsabWoTa saxelmwifoebTan SedarebiT, saqarTveloSi germaniis diplomatiuri aqtiuroba da finansuri daxmareba gansakuTrebulad maRali iyo. damatebiTi informaciisaTvis ixileT, Helly, "Un corridor de transport Asie-Europe."

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afxazeTSi gaeros damkvirvebelTa da ruseTis samSvidoboebis arsebobam xeli Seuwyo, zogadad, stabilurobas da gamoiwvia galis raionSi devnilTa spontanuri dabruneba. 1998 wlis dasawyisSi, gaeros devnilTa umaRlesi komisariatis monacemebiT, sul cota 50 aTasi devnili dabrunda galis raionSi. aRmoCndnen ra am faqtis winaSe, saerTaSoriso sazogadoebam afxazeTSi humanitaruli daxmareba gazarda, rac gansakuTrebiT skolebisa da saxlebis aRdgenisken iyo mimarTuli. magram 1998 wlis maisSi brZolebi ganaxlda mas Semdeg, rac afxazurma SeiaraRebulma Zalebma wamoiwyes farTomasStabiani samxedro operacia qarTuli aralegaluri SeiaraRebuli dajgufebebis regionidan gamosadevnad. am qmedebebma gamoiwvia 30-40 aTasi adgilobrivi mcxovrebis xelaxali gandevna. 5 dRis ganmavlobaSi ramdenime milioniani ucxouri daxmareba wyalSi Caiyara. saerTaSoriso donorebi am ZviradRirebuli gamocdilebis Semdeg Tavs ikaveben afxazeTSi sxva programebis ganxorcielebisgan. am movlenebma naTlad aCvenes devnilTa organizebulad dabrunebis saWiroeba. faqtiurad, 1998 wlis Semodgomaze mxareebma, gaeros SuamdgomlobiT, moamzades dokumentis proeqti, romelic iTvaliswinebda devnilTa organizebul dabrunebas da galis raionis ekonomikur reabilitacias, magram qarTveli da afxazi liderebi ­ eduard SevardnaZe da vladislav arZinba ­ , sabolood, mainc ar Sexvdnen erTmaneTs dokumentze xelmosawerad.44 zogirTi qarTveli politikosi da saxelmwifo moxele ganagrZobda afxazeTSi partizanuli dajgufebebis mxardaWeras, xolo SevardnaZis mTavroba dasavleTSi eZebda Tanadgomas "bosniuri modelis" gansaxorcieleblad, 1995 wels

MacFarlane, "The Role of the UN," p. 40. (Ñ. Íèë Ìàêôàðëåéí. Ðîëü ÎÎÍ // Äæîíàòàí Êîýí (ðåä.) Ïðîáëåìà ñóâåðåíèòåòà. Accord, âûïóñê 7. Êîíñèëèýéøí Ðèñîðñèç. Ëîíäîí, 1999 ­ Ì.: Ãëîáóñ, 2000. Ñ. 49, òàêæå ïî àäðåñó: http://www.c-r.org/accord/series.shtml.) (Áðóíî Êîïïèòåðñ. Ãðóçèíî-àáõàçñêèé êîíôëèêò // Áðóíî Êîïïèòåðñ è äð. Åâðîïåèçàöèÿ è ðàçðåøåíèå êîíôëèêòîâ: êîíêðåòíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ åâðîïåéñêîé ïåðèôåðèè. Ì.: Âåñü Ìèð, 2005. Ñ.207, http://poli.vub.ac.be/).

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saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mier bosniaSi konstituciuri mowyobis ZaliT damkvidrebis msgavsad. igi, aseve, iTxovda afxazeTSi mSvidobis mxardamWeri operaciis ­ "mSvidobis damyarebis" operaciiT Canacvlebas, rac, savaraudod, devnilTa usafrTxo dabrunebas Seuwyoboda xels.45 ramdenime wlis Semdeg, 1999 wlis kosovos krizisSi iugoslaviis winaaRmdeg natos sahaero kampaniis dros, Tbilisi imedovnebda, rom "kosovos modeli" saqarTveloSic ganxorcieldeboda da ixsenebda afxazeTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg Cadenil "eTnikur wmendas" im mizniT, raTa konfliqtis Zalismieri gadawyveta momxdariyo. amis pasuxad, aSS-ma aSkarad ganacxada, rom amierkavkasiaSi "kosovos scenari" ar gameordeboda. 1998 wlis krizisma afxazeTSi naTlad aCvena arsebuli meqanizmebis uunaroba, Tavidan aecilebina Zaladobis ganaxleba. imis magivrad, rom konfliqtis srulmasStabian mogvarebaze emsjela, sakoordinacio sabWo da misi qvestruqturebi Semoifarglebodnen Zaladobis arganaxlebis, tyveTa gacvlis da devnilTa dasabruneblad usafrTxoebis zomebis gaZlierebis ganxilviT.46 1999 wels gaeros gen. mdivnis spec. warmomadgeneli liviu bota Seecada politikuri dialogis axali ZalisxmeviT ganaxlebas. megobarTa jgufTan konsultaciis Semdeg botas Semcvlelma, germanelma diplomatma diter bodenma SeimuSava "Tbilissa da soxums Soris kompetenciaTa gadanawilebis ZiriTadi principebi", romelic "bodenis dokumentis" saxeliTaa cnobili. es dokumenti megobarTa jgufSi ruseTsa da dasavlur qveynebs Soris molaparakebaTa Sedegi iyo da ar warmoadgenda konfliqtis mxareTa Soris raime saxis kompromiss.47 afxazurma mxarem uari ganacxada dokumentis ganxilvaze, ZiriTadad, im mizeziT,

45

Liana Kvarchelia, "An Abkhaz Perspective," Accord, issue 7 (September 1999), p. 31, http://www.c-r.org/accord/geor-ab/accord7/unrole.shtml. 46 Ketevan Tsikhelashvili, "The Case Studies of Abkhazia and South Ossetia," working paper prepared for the Carnegie Project on Complex Power-Sharing and SelfDetermination, September 30, 2001, http://www.ecmi.de/cps/download/Abkhazia_ SouthOssetia.pdf.

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rom dokumenti afxazeTs saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi datovebas sTavazobda, Tumca suverenul warmonaqmnad, romelic "kanonis uzenaesobis principis" safuZvelze iarsebebda. megobarTa jgufis dasavlurma wevrma saxelmwifoebma ver SeZles ruseTis darwmuneba, saTanado zewola moexdina afxazeTis de-faqto xelisuflebaze, raTa am dokumentis bazaze dawyebuliyo molaparakebebi. molaparakebebSi realuri progresis ararsebobis miuxedavad, saqarTveloSi gaeros sadamkvirveblo misia agrZelebda Tavis saqmianobas, magram situacia, usafrTxoebis mxriv, saTanadod ar gaumjobesebula, raTa momxdariyo galis raionSi devnilTa usafrTxo dabruneba.48 ufro metic, konfliqti faqtiurad ramdenjerme gadaizarda Ria dapirispirebaSi. mzardi kriminaluri saqmianoba saqarTvelo-afxazeTis sazRvris orive mxares saqarTveloSi gaeros sadamkvirveblo misiis efeqturobas uSlida xels. afxazebsa da qarTvelebs Soris ver iqna miRweuli SeTanxmeba cecxlis Sewyvetis xazis orive mxares gaeros samoqalaqo policielebis ganTavsebaze. 2004 wlis gazafxulze samoqalaqo policielebi usafrTxoebis zonis mxolod zugdidis mxares iyvnen ganTavsebulni iq, sadac saqarTvelos iurisdiqcia vrceldeba. ndobis aRdgenisken mimarTuli RonisZiebebi qarTul da afxazur arasamTavrobo organizaciebs Soris grZeldeboda, magram SezRuduli efeqtiT, vinaidan isini mxolod konfliqtis orive mxaris mosaxleobis mcire nawils moicavda. miuxedavad imisa, rom ruseTic aris megobarTa jgufis wevri, is xSirad TavSekavebul da destruqciul pozicias ikavebda afxazeTTan mimarTebaSi, mouwodebda ra jgufs ar Careuliyo konfliqtis mogvarebis mis pirad iniciativebSi. organizaciis

Bruno Coppieters, "The Georgian­Abkhaz Conflict," in Bruno Coppieters, et al., Europeanization and Conflict Resolution: Case Studies from the European Periphery (Ghent: Academia Press, 2004), pp. 203­208, also published in the electronic Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, issue 1 (2004), http://www.ecmi.de/jemie/. 48 Domitilla Sagramoso, "The UN, the OSCE and NATO," in Lynch, The South Caucasus, pp. 63­89.

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SigniT, am gansxvavebebis gamo, gasakviri ar aris, rom man ver SeZlo realuri Sedegebis miRweva konfliqtis srulmasStabiani mogvarebis sakiTxebSi. gaeros molaparakebaTa CarCos paralelurad, ruseTma wamoiwyo ramdenime damoukidebeli iniciativa. 2003 wlis martSi ruseTisa da saqarTvelos prezidentebi putini da SevardnaZe Sexvdnen Savi zRvis kurort soWSi da xeli moaweres xelSekrulebas, romelic status-kvos gaumjobesebas isaxavda miznad. soWis xelSekruleba galis raionSi qarTveli devnilebis dabrunebas iTvaliswinebda, afxazeTis gavliT, ruseTisa da somxeTis damakavSirebeli rkinigzis aRdgenis paralelurad, da, agreTve, enguris hidroeleqtrosadguris rekonstruqcias.49 zogierTi mkvlevris azriT, SevardnaZis es qmedeba gamowveuli iyo, gaeros egidiT, molaparakebaTa neli tempis gamo imedgacruebiT da gamoxatavda mis mzadyofnas ruseTisTvis gadaeca Suamdgomlobis ufro didi roli, magram gaeros Jenevis procesis gagrZelebis paralelurad.50 euTos mandati qarTul-afxazur molaparakebebSi sakmaod SezRudulia. misi mTavari mizania euTos centraluri ofisis mudmivi informireba, gaeros adgilobriv ofisTan mudmivi kavSiris gziT, agreTve, gaeros mier warmoebuli samSvidobo molaparakebis xelisSewyoba da dakvirveba.51 adamianis uflebaTa dacvis oficris saSualebiT euTo inarCunebs warmomadgenlobas soxumSi, sadac misi ZiriTadi mizania ndobis aRdgenis xel49 enguris hidroeleqtrosadguris Sesaxeb informaciis wyaro aris avtorTa mier afxazeTSi aRebuli interviuebi, 2004 wlis gazafxulze. 50 Coppieters, "The Georgian­Abkhaz Conflict." (Áðóíî Êîïïèòåðñ. Ãðóçèíî-àáõàçñêèé êîíôëèêò // Áðóíî Êîïïèòåðñ è äð. Åâðîïåèçàöèÿ è ðàçðåøåíèå êîíôëèêòîâ: êîíêðåòíûå èññëåäîâàíèÿ åâðîïåéñêîé ïåðèôåðèè. Ì.: Âåñü Ìèð, 2005. Ñ. 197-236, http:// poli.vub.ac.be/). 51 1993 wels gaero da euTk (mogvianebiT, euTo) SeTanxmdnen, rom gaero iTavebda saerTaSoriso mediatoris rols afxazeTis, xolo euTo ­ samxreT oseTis konfliqtSi. ixileT, MacFarlane, "The Role of the UN," p. 36. (Ñ. Íèë Ìàêôàðëåéí. Ðîëü ÎÎÍ // Äæîíàòàí Êîýí (ðåä.) Ïðîáëåìà ñóâåðåíèòåòà. Accord, âûïóñê 7. Êîíñèëèýéøí Ðèñîðñèç. Ëîíäîí, 1999 ­ Ì.: Ãëîáóñ, 2000. Ñ. 44, òàêæå ïî àäðåñó: http://www.c-r.org/accord/series.shtml).

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Sewyoba, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis gaZlierebis gziT. Tumca, unda aRiniSnos, rom euTos sakmaod uaryofiTi imiji aqvs afxazeTSi, vinaidan is afxazebs qarTvelTa "eTnikur wmendaSi" adanaSaulebs euTos samitis ramdenime deklaraciaSi.52 qarTul da afxazur samoqalaqo sazogadoebebs Soris ndobis aRdgenisken mimarTuli iniciativebs xels uwyobs iseTi organizaciebi, rogoricaa saerTaSoriso gangaSi (International Alert), linqsi (LINKS), Serigebis resursebi (Conciliation Resourcs), agreTve, kaliforniis universitetisa da briuselis Tavisufali universitetis mecnierebi. maTi dafinansebiT araerTi Sexvedra Sedga neitralur teritoriaze, rac saSualebas aZlevs orive mxaris aqtivistebs, daamyaron urTierTobebi da ganagrZon dialogi.53 miuxedavad imisa, rom am programebs ar gamouwveviaT raime garRveva molaparakebaTa procesSi, isini dadebiTad moqmedeben samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTarebaze konfliqtis orive mxares, vinaidan isini saSualebas aZleven adgilobriv liderebs imogzauron, Seityon meti gare samyaros Sesaxeb da esaubron TavianT kolegebs.54 miuxedavad zemoT xsenebuli mcdelobebisa, undobloba da afxazeTis momaval satatussa Tu devnilTa dabrunebaze Rrma uTanxmoeba grZeldeba. ndobis aRdgenisken mimarTul mcdelobaTa garda, dasavluri saxsrebi Caido, agreTve, huma-

52 ixileT, euTos budapeStis (1993 w.), lisabonisa (1994 w.) da stambolis (1999 w.) deklaraciebi. 53 Susan Allen Nan, "Civil Initiatives", Accord, issue 7 (September 1999), p.50. (Ñüþçåí Àëëåí Íýí. Ãðàæäàíñêèå èíèöèàòèâû // Äæîíàòàí Êîýí (ðåä.) Ïðîáëåìà ñóâåðåíèòåòà. Accord, âûïóñê 7. Êîíñèëèýéøí Ðèñîðñèç. Ëîíäîí, 1999 ­ Ì.: Ãëîáóñ, 2000. Ñ. 62-71, òàêæå ïî àäðåñó: http://www.c-r.org/accord/series.shtml). "saerTasoriso gangaSis" (International Alert) Sesaxeb informacia ixileT: http://www.international-alert.org/. "linqsis" (LINKS) Sesaxeb ­ http://www.links-london.org/. xolo "Serigebis resursebis" (Conciliation Resources) Sesaxeb damatebiTi informacia SegiZliaT ixiloT: http://www.c-r.org/. 54 afxazurma samoqalaqo sazogadoebam mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa SarSandel saprezidento arCevnebSi, roca arasamTavrobo organizaciaTa koaliciam awarmoa arCevnebis monitoringi da gamarjvebuli kandidatis dasacavad gaerTianda.

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nitarul proeqtebSi afxazeTSi, rogoricaa Halo Trust (ganaRmviTi samuSaoebi), Accion Contra el Hambre (saxlebis reabilitacia), "saerTaSoriso wiTeli jvari" (sursaTi umweoTaTvis), "eqimebi sazRvrebs gareSe" (samedicino daxmareba). amgvarad, rogorc Cans, dasavlurma da gaeros egidiT warmoebulma samSvidobo iniciativebma ar migviyvana konfliqtis politikur gadawyvetamde. yvela dasavluri iniciativa ­ 1997 wlis progresuli midgoma, sakoordinacio sabWos SeqmniT, aseve, 2000 wlis ufro srulmasStabiani midgoma, romelic afxazeTis politikuri statusis sakiTxsac moicavda ­ uSedego aRmoCnda. ufro metic, ruseTma, molaparakebaTa arxebis gafarToebiT, mTeli procesis aRreva gamoiwvia. rac Seexeba samxreT oseTis dauregulirebel konfliqts, dasavleTma 1992 wels konfliqtis daarsebidan samoqmedo areali ruseTsa da evropaSi usafrTxoebisa da TanamSromlobis konferencias (euTk, dResdReobiT ­ euTo) dauTmo. rogorc es afxazeTis konfliqtTan dakavSirebiT iyo, dasavleTi Tavidanve saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobas uWerda mxars. euTk-m Tavisi pirveli misia saqarTveloSi 1992 wels daaarsa, rogorc gamoxmaureba saqarTvelos Txovnaze, daxmareba gaewia qarTulosuri da qarTul-afxazuri konfliqtebis daregulirebaSi. dRes, euTo, gaeros devnilTa umaRlesi komisariati da evrokavSiri, ruseTTan, saqarTvelosa da samxreT oseTTan erTad muSaoben molaparakebaTa da mSvidobismyofelTa mravalmxriv meqanizmSi, romelsac Sereuli sakontrolo komisia ewodeba. euTos mandati samxreT oseTSi moicavs iseT miznebs, rogoricaa farTo politikuri CarCos Seqmna, sadac SesaZlebeli iqneba konfliqtis farTomasStabiani politikuri daregulireba; saqarTvelosa da samxreT oseTs Soris aqtiuri molaparakebebis xelSewyoba; masve aqtiuri roli akisria, Sereuli sakontrolo komisiis saSualebiT, konfliqtis gadawyvetis gzebis gamonaxvaSi.55 euTo awarmoebs Sereuli samSvidobo Zalebis monitoringsac, mis rusul xelmZRvanelobasTan

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ixileT: http://www.osce.org/georgia/mandate/.

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mudmivi kavSiris gziT.56 samSvidobo Zalebi (rusuli, qarTuli da osuri SemadgenlobiT) TanamSromloben dasavleTTan mravalmxrivi meqanizmis farglebSi. Tavdapirvelad gaero xelmZRvanelobda aRdgeniT samuSaoebs, Tumca 2001 wlidan mniSvnelovani rolis Sesruleba iTava am mxriv evrokomisiam da rogorc daxmarebis proeqtebis erT-erTma yvelaze mniSvnelovanma damfinansebelma Sereul sakontrolo komisiaSic daimkvidra adgili.57 euTos mcdelobaTa miuxedavad ­ Sereuli sakontrolo komisiis farglebSi ganeviTarebina ndobis aRdgenis meqanizmebi (rogoricaa infrastruqturis reabilitacia, ganiaraReba da kriminalis winaaRmdeg brZola) ­ is mainc mxareTa mier mzardi kritikis sagani xdeboda. wlebis ganmavlobaSi qarTuli mxare amtkicebda, rom euTos misiis arseboba konfliqtis zonaSi, samxreT oseTis arsebobis legitimizacias uwyobda xels, vinaidan man ver SeZlo konfliqtis srulmasStabiani mogvareba. 2004 wels ganaxlebul ZaladobasTan erTad, qarTulma mxarem pozicia Seicvala. axla isini euTos mandatis gafarToebas uWerdnen mxars da moiTxovdnen misgan saqarTvelo-ruseTis sazRvris, gansakuTrebiT, rokis gvirabis tvirTbrunvis gakontrolebas. es, Tavis mxriv, ruseTis winaaRmdegobis mizezi gaxda. SarSan dekembramde, euTo axorcielebda ruseT-saqarTvelos (CeCneTis, inguSeTisa da daRestnis monakveTebze) sazRvris monitoringis operaciasac, riTac xels uSlida

1992 wlis ivnis-ivlisis ruseT-saqarTvelos Soris dagomisis xelSekrulebisa da soWis cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, Sereuli samSvidobo Zalebi, rusuli, qarTuli da osuri SemadgenlobiT, ganlagdnen konfliqtis zonaSi. 57 damatebiTi informacia samxreT oseTSi evropuli qveynebis mier warmoebuli politikis Sesaxeb, ixileT, Damien Helly, "L'action extérieure de l'Union européenne dans le Caucase du Sud," pp. 343­349. oficialurad samSvidobo kontingenti samxreT oseTSi sammxrivia: qarTuli, rusuli da osuri. Tumca, osuri kontingenti droTa ganmavlobaSi, TiTqmis, mTlianad samxreT-osuri SemadgenlobiT dakompleqtda, CrdiloeT-osuri sardlobiT.

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CeCneTis konfliqtis saqarTveloSi gavrcelebas da exmareboda rusi da qarTveli mesazRvreebis TanamSromlobas. 2004 wlis 31 dekembers sazRvris monitoringis misiis mandati dasrulda, xolo ruseTma mis gagrZelebas veto daado. miuxedavad amisa, qarTuli oficiozi ganagrZobda ucxo damkvirveblebis saqarTvelo-ruseTis sazRvarTan ganTavsebis lobirebas. 2005 wlis 14 aprils euTos mudmivmoqmedma sabWom daamtkica euTos mesazRvreTa wvrTnis programa, romelic sazRvris monitoringis programis bazaze unda Seqmniliyo. garda amisa, aprilis dasawyisSi evrokavSiris mier sami pirisgan Semdgari misia iqna mivlinebuli saqarTveloSi sami TviT, raTa SeeswavlaT sazRvarze arsebuli safrTxe da SeefasebinaT saqarTvelos saWiroebebi da arsebuli SesaZleblobebi.58 miuxedavad imisa, rom ver iqna miRweuli samxreT oseTis konfliqtis srulmasStabiani mogvareba, situacia, bolo dromde, kontrols eqvemdeboreboda da misi gZelvadiani gadawyveta SesaZlebeli Canda. Tumca, 2004 wlis ivnis-agvistos movlenebma, roca SeiaraRebul dapirispirebas konfliqtis zonaSi msxverpli mohva, rogorc samxedro, ise samoqalaqo pirTa Soris, cxadyo, rom arsebuli status kvo metad myofe iyo. saqarTvelos prezident mixeil saakaSvilis mier Tbilisis politikuri gavlenis qveS aWaris warmatebul reintegracias mohyva mcdeloba msgavsi Sedegebis miRwevisa samxreT oseTSic. iseve, rogorc aWaris SemTxvevaSi, saqarTvelos xelisufleba moqmedebda im prezumfciiT, rom samxreT oseTis de-faqto xelisuflebas ar hqonda agdilobriv mcxovrebTa Soris didi mxardaWera. faqtiurad, Tbilisma ver SeZlo cxinvalis reJimis mimarT realuri ukmayofilebis gamoyeneba da ganaxlebul SeiaraRebul dapirispirebas mohyva aWaris sapirispiro Sedegebi ­ mxardaWeris konsolidacia samxreT oseTis de-faqto prezident kokoiTs irgvliv.59 mas Semdeg, rac ganax"evrokavSiris sami eqsperti daakvirdeba ruseT-saqarTvelos sazRvars", sivil jorjia, 2005 wlis 8 aprili, http://www.civil.ge/eng/ article.php?id=9557. 59 International Crisis Group, "Georgia: Avoiding War in South Ossetia", Europe Report no.159, November 26, 2004.

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lebuli SeiaraRebuli dapirispireba regionSi realobad iqca, dasavleTma mkacrad gaafrTxila saakaSvili, rom saqarTvelo marto darCeboda, Tu samxreT oseTSi konfliqti ganaxldeboda.60 19 agvistos ganaxlda cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb SeTanxmeba da Tbilisma gaiyvana arasanqcirebuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebi konfliqtis zonidan. miuxedavad am uaryofiTi Sedegebisa, Tbilisma moaxerxa qarTul-osuri konfliqtis "galRoba". am procesSi saqarTvelo dasavleTis ufro aqtiur monawileobas Riad uWerda mxars da konfliqtis srulmasStabiani gadawyvetisTvis moiTxovda saerTaSoriso konferenciis mowvevas.61 2003 wels evrokavSirma fineli diplomati heiki talvitie daniSna Tavis specialur warmomadgenlad amierkavkasiaSi. misi mandati, romelic moicavs konfliqtebis gadawyvetisken mimarTuli mcdelobebis xelis Sewyobas, zogi analitikosis kritikis obieqti gaxda, rogorc metad SezRuduli, vinaidan mas ar hqonda ufleba pirdapir eSuamdgomla an Careuliyo konfliqtebis mogvarebaSi. miuxedavad SezRuduli mandatisa, talvitiem mainc SeZlo swrafad aewia evrokavSiris politikuri profili regionSi da man es moaxerxa didi wevri saxelmwifoebis ­ safrangeTisa da didi britaneTis ­ gabrazebis gareSe. aq aisaxa evrokavSiris ufro ambiciuri politika, miuxedavad wevr saxelmwifoebs Soris regionisadmi erTiani midgomis ar arsebobisa. vinaidan saqarTvelos sruli yuradReba Sida konfliqtebis mogvarebazea gadatanili afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi,

60 avtorTa interviuebi dasavlel diplomatebTan, Tbilisi, 2004 wlis agvisto-seqtemberi. 61 2005 wlis ianvarSi, evrosabWos saparlamento asambleis winaSe gamosvlisas prezidentma saakaSvilma gaaJRera "saqarTvelos mTavrobis iniciativa samxreT oseTis konfliqtis mSvidobian daregulirebasTan dakavSirebiT." iniciativebi, ZiriTadad, samxreT oseTis momaval statuss exeba saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi, magram saeWvoa maT mohyves konkretuli Sedegebi, Tu jer ndobis aRdgenisken mimarTuli nabijebi ar iqna gadadgmuli. ixileT, International Crisis Group Policy Briefing no. 38, "Georgia-South Ossetia: Refugee Return the Path to Peace", April 19, 2005, http:// crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=3380&l=1.

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dasavleTis mier wamoweuli sxva sakiTxebi xSirad saTanado yuradRebis gareSe rCeba. aSS da evropa mouwodebda saqarTvelos ufro aqtiuri regionaluri TanamSromlobisken mis uSualo mezobel saxelmwifoebTan. sxvadasxva programa iqna SemuSavebuli, romelTac xeli unda Seewyo amierkavkasiaSi sabaJo, transportirebisa da garemos dacvis sakiTxebSi ufro meti TanamSromlobisTvis. magram progresi, albaT, Zalian nela miiRweva, Tu saqarTvelos mTeli yuradReba separatistul regionebze gavlenis aRdgenisken (an, sul mcire, raime saxis erovnuli Serigebis miRwevisken) iqneba mimarTuli.

saxelmwifo reformebi

qveynis Sida usafrTxoeba Tavidanve iyo dasavleTis erTerTi mTavari prioriteti saqarTveloSi, xolo ormxrivi Tu mravalmxrivi sagareo daxmareba erT-erTi ZiriTadi meqanizmi iyo am miznis misaRwevad. es politika adreuli 1990-iani wlebis sufTa humanitaruli daxmarebidan samoqalaqo sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifo institutebis ganviTarebisken mimarTuli daxmarebiT Seicvala. erT sul mosaxleze gaangariSebiT, saqarTvelos meore adgili ukavia aSS-is daxmarebis mimReb qveynebs Soris62 da am daxmarebis didi nawili mimarTulia qveynis Sida usafrTxoebis problemebis mogvarebisken, rogoricaa saqarTvelos sasazRvro jarebi da sabaJo kontroli.63 2001 wlidan moyolebuli,

62 aSS-is mTliani daxmareba saqarTvelosadmi 1992-2000 wlebSi Seadgenda 778 milion aSS dolars, rac xuTjer aRemateba azerbaijanis mier miRebul daxmarebas. amasTanave, 1996 wlidan moyolebuli saqarTvelom aSS-is saerTaSoriso daxmarebis saagentodan damatebiT miiRo 375 milioni dolari. ixileT, "Country Report: Georgia", The Economist Intelligence Unit, November 2003. 63 Office of the Secretary of State, Congressional Budget Justification, 2003. See also Ekaterine Metreveli and Ester Hakobyan, "The Political Underpinnings of U.S. Bilateral Aid to the Countries of Transcaucasus," Demokratizatsia, vol. 9, no. 3 (summer 2001), pp. 367­381.

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aSS gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebda organizebul danaSaulTan brZolaSi daxmarebas. 64 garda amisa, aSS-is SeSfoTeba saqarTvelos Sida usafrTxoebis mdgomareobiT mxolod gaZlierda mas Semdeg, rac 2001 wlis zafxulSi Sinagan saqmeTa saministros CaeSala gilaevis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli operacia kodoris xeobaSi, roca CeCeni bovikebis garkveuli jgufi, qarTuli elementebis daxmarebiT, Seecada afxazeTSi situaciis destabilizacias. CeCeni boevikebis aseTma TavSeyram kidev ufro gaaZliera aSS-is SeSfoTeba da yuradReba pankisis xeobisken iqna gadatanili, romelic SesaZloa globaluri terorizmis buded gadaqceuliyo. 65 am safrTxis Tavidan asacileblad da amasTan, saqarTvelo moiazreboda terorizmis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi strategiul partniorad, 2002 wlis aprilSi SeerTebulma Statebma daiwyes saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis "wvrTnisa da aRWurvis" programis ganxorcieleba, romelic iTvaliswinebda qarTuli armiis specdanayofebis momzadebas terorizmis safrTxis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad da, agreTve, baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis milsadenis dasacavad.66 antiteroristul koaliciasTan saqarTvelos mierTebisa da erayis koaliciis ZalebSi monawileobis gazrdis Sedegad, SeerTebulma Statebma axali samxedro daxmarebis programis Sesaxeb gaakeTes gancxadeba, raTa qarTuli sajariso danayofebi samSvidobo operaciebisTvis moemzadebinaT.67

ixileT, Brenda Shaffer, "U.S. Policy," in Lynch, The South Caucasus, pp. 53­62. kodoris xeobaSi ganxorcielebuli am operaciis Sesaxeb ufro detalurad ixileT sxva Tavebi amave gamocemaSi, oqsana antonenkosa da jaba devdarianis avtorobiT. pankisis xeobis Sesaxeb damatebiTi detalebi ixileT devdarianis qveTavSi. 66 ixileT, daviT darCiaSvilis qveTavi amave gamocemaSi. 67 "U.S. Announces New Military Assistance Program for Georgia," Civil Georgia,November 5, 2004, http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=8271. "SenarCunebisa da stabilurobis" programis Sedegad, 558 qarTveli samxedro gaigzavneba eraySi terorizmis winaaRmdeg globaluri brZolis mxardasaWerad da Caenacvlebian "operacia erayis Tavisuflebis" farglebSi momsaxure sxva qarTvel jariskacebs. ixileT, "U.S. Announces New Military Assistance Program for Georgia."

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"SenarCunebisa da stabilurobis" programa oficialurad 2005 wlis aprilSi daiwyo. is iTvaliswinebs qarTuli SeiaraRebuli Zalebis wrTvnasa da sxva saxis daxmarebis gawevas, raTa saqarTvelom SeZlos eraySi koaliciur ZalebSi monawileobis gagrZeleba.68 nato, "partnioroba mSvidobisaTvis" programis farglebSi da sxva misi wevri saxelmwifoebis (kerZod, aSS, didi britaneTi, TurqeTi da germania) saSualebiT, monawileobs saxalmwifo reformis gamxorcielebaSi, gansakuTrebiT, sajariso da Tavdacvis sistemis reformirebaSi. natom organizeba gauwia Savi zRvis raionSi samSvidobo Zalebis wvrTnas, romelSic aqtiurad monawileobda germaniis, didi britaneTisa da sxva evropuli qveynebis (maT Soris saqarTvelos) sajariso qvedanayofebi. 69 garda amisa, saqarTvelo, TurqeTis meTaurobiT, monawileobda kosovos samSvidobo operaciebSi da maspinZlobda samxedro wvrTnebs. Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTveloSi Tavdacvis reformas seriozulad aferxebdnen ekonomikuri faqtorebi da arsebuli korufcia. Tbilisi araerTxel iTxovda natos ufro aqtiur monawileobas saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemebis gadawyvetaSi. am moTxovnaTagan zogierTi ruseTis amierkavkasiaSi arsebobis dabalansebas iTvaliswinebda, xolo sxva moTxovnebi ruseTTan TanamSromlobis

"Sustainment and Stability Operations Program (SSOP) Formally Begins," http:// georgia.usembassy.gov/events/event20050423SSOPOpen.html. 69 2004 wlis 6 aprils, briuselSi vizitisas, prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma xazgasmiT aRniSna saqarTvelos natoSi gawevrianebisken swrafva da ganacxada, rom 2004 wlis ivnisis natos stambolis samitis dros saqarTvelo gegmavda natosTan individualuri partniorobis xelSekrulebis gaformebas. (RFE/RL Newsline, 7 aprili, 2004 w.). 2001-2002 wlebSi saqarTvelo monawileobda natos "partnioroba mSvidobisaTvis" cxra wvrTnasa da, agreTve, rva "partnioroba mSvidobisaTvis" msgavsi suliskveTebis wvrTnaSi. natosadmi mimarTul saqarTvelos politikis Sesaxeb ixileT, NATO's New Role in the NIS Area, Interim Project Report: NATO and its Partners in Eastern Europe and the Southern Caucasus (Warsaw: Osrodek Stuiow Wschodnich Centre for Eastern Studies, December 2003), at pp. 42­46, http:// www.osw.waw.pl/en/epub/NATO/raport_en.pdf.

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gzebs eZebda. magaliTad, prezidentma saakaSvilma oficialurad SesTavaza ruseTs, Seqmniliyo erToblivi rusul-qarTuli antiteroristuli centri saqarTvelodan rusuli samxedro bazebis gayvanis sanacvlod.70 2004 wlis ivnisSi, stambolSi gamarTul samitze natom miiRo gadawyvetileba kavkasiasa da centralur aziaSi specialuri warmomadgeneli daeniSna. 15 seqtembers natos generaluri mdivnis meore moadgile robert simonsi oficialurad Seudga specialuri warmomadgenlis uflebamosilebis Sesrulebas da Tavisi mudmivi warmomadgeneli daniSna kavkasiaSi, romelic TbilisSi iqna movlinebuli.71 2004 wlis oqtombris bolos, natos wevri qveynebis mier damkicebul iqna saqarTvelosTan individualuri partniorobis samoqmedo gegma (IPAP), xolo misi ganxorcielebis pirveladi Sefaseba Sedga 2005 wlis gazafxulze. saqarTvelo-natos urTierTobebis gaaqtiureba, savaraudod, dadebiTad imoqmedebs saxelmwifo reformebis ganxorcielebaze, mesame qveynebis daxmarebiT, romelTa nawili ukve gaerTianebulia "saqarTvelos axal megobarTa" jgufSi. es jgufi, romlis SemadgenlobaSic Sedian estoneTi, latvia, litva, poloneTi, rumineTi da bulgareTi, aSkarad gamoxatavs evrokavSiris zogi axali wevri saxelmwifos mzard interesebs regionSi. is ukve arsebuli "megobarTa jgufis" erTgvari damatebaa da yuradRebas saqarTvelos natosTan da evrokavSirTan urTierTobasa da saxelmwifo reformebis ganxorcielebaze gaamaxvilebs.72 2003 wlis noembris "vardebis revoluciamde" SerTebuli Statebisa da evropisTvis aSkara gaxda, rom SevardnaZis mTavrobam ver SeZlo xalxis ndobiT aRWurvili saxelmwifos mSenebloba, ekonomikuri ganviTareba da stabilurobis miRweva. mTavrobis uunarobam mniSvnelovani reformis gansaxor"Georgia Proposes New `Mechanics' for Relations with Russia," Civil Georgia, September 22, 2004, http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=7891. 71 "NATO to Dispatch Liaison Officer to Georgia," Civil Georgia, September 9, 2004, http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=7846. 72 Vladimir Socor, "New Group of Georgia's Friends Founded," Eurasia Daily Monitor, February 7, 2005.

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cieleblad, gamoiwvia donorTa didi imedgacrueba.73 2003 wlis dasawyisSi msoflio bankma SeaCera energetikuli da socialuri programebi yovlismomcveli korufciis gamo, xolo 2003 wlis seqtemberSi aSS-ma ganacxada, rom 2004 wlidan Seamcirebda saqarTvelosadmi gaweuli daxmarebis masStabebs.74 dasavleTis mxridan gaZlierebulma kritikam SevardnaZes ruseTTan daaxloebisken ubiZga, rac energosferoSi strategiuli xelSekrulebebis gaformebiT gamoikveTa.75 am xelSekrulebebma kidev ufro gaaRrmava SeerTebuli Statebis SeSfoTeba. elCma stiven manma, aSS-is prezidentis mrCevelma kaspiis energosakiTxebSi, sajarod gamoxata SeSfoTeba msgavsi xelSekrulebebis Taobaze ruseTTan, radgan aman SeiZleba Seaferxos amierkavkasiis gazsadenis proeqti, romelic 2006 wels unda daiwyos da unda moaxdinos gazis transportireba azerbaijanis Sahdenizis sabadodan TurqeTSi, saqarTvelos gavliT.76 SeerTebulma Statebma (an, minimum, zogierTma amerikulma moRvawem) daiwyes saqarTvelos politikuri opoziciaSi Ria investireba da maTi roli "vardebis revoluciaSi" mniSvnelovani aRmoCnda. aSS-is mTavrobis mier dafinansebuli erovnuli demokratiuli instituti monawileobda opoziciis liderebis treningSi, momzadebasa da gaerTianebaSi. saerTaSoriso respublikuri instituti, saarCevno sistemebis saerTa"Country Report: Georgia," The Economist Intelligence Unit, November 2003. Natalia Antelava, "United States Cuts Development Aid to Georgia," Eurasia Insight, September 29, 2003, http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/ eav092903.shtml. 75 2003 wlis ivlisSi saqarTvelom 25-wliani TanamSromlobis SeTanxmebas moawera xeli ruseTis gazis gigant gazpromTan. xelSekruleba iTvaliswinebda saqarTvelos gaziT momaragebas da misi infrastuqturis satranzitod gamoyenebas. ixileT, RFE/RL Newsline, July 28, 2003, http:// www.rferl.org/newsline/2003/07/2-TCA/tca-280703.asp. 76 RFE/RL Newsline, July 28, 2003, http://www.rferl.org/newsline/2003/07/2-TCA/tca280703.asp. aSS-ma ganacxada, saqarTvelos energosistemisTvis gaweuli daxmarebis Semcirebis Sesaxeb 30 milioni aSS dolaridan 14 milionamde. "Country Report: Georgia," The Economist Intelligence Unit, November 2003. ufro detalurad gazpromTan gaformebuli am xelSekrulebis Sesaxeb, ixileT, jaba devdarianis qveTavi amave gamocemaSi.

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Soriso fondTan (IFES) erTad, muSaobdnen intensiurad Tavisufali da samarTliani arCevnebis xelSesawyobad. qarTuli sadamkvirveblo organizaciebi, gansakuTrebiT, samarTliani arCevnebisa da demokratiis saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba, mzaddeboda da finansdeboda amerikeli eqspertebis mier. am politikurma gamocdilebam mniSvnelovani roli iTamaSa arasamTavrobo organizaciaTa seqtoris politizirebaSi da demokratiuli opoziciis mxardaWeraSi. gadadgomis Semdeg SevardnaZem pirdapir daadanaSaula vaSingtoni saqarTvelos Sida saqmeebSi Riad CarevaSi, xolo amerikeli filantropi jorj sorosi ­ opoziciis mxardaWeraSi. zogierTi qarTveli Jurnalisti xazs usvamda im faqts, rom aSSis elCi saqarTveloSi riCard mailsi iyo diplomatiuri misiis xelmZRvaneli azerbaijansa da serbeTSi, roca prezidentebis abulfaz elCibeisa da slobodan miloSeviCis gandevna moxda. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom amerikis elCi da sxva dasavleli diplomatebi uSualo kontaqtSi imyofebodnen qarTul opoziciasTan 2003 wlis noembris revoluciis gadamwyvet momentebSi. Tumca, es aranairad niSnavs imas, rom maT moaxdines SevardnaZis gadayenebis inspirireba. SeerTebulma Statebma sruli mxardaWera gamoucxada saqarTvelos axal xelisuflebas. 2004 wlis ianvarSi saxelmwifo mdivani kolin paueli piradad eswreboda saakaSvilis inauguraciis ceremonias, sadac ganacxadeba gaakeTa 2004 wels 166-milion dolariani daxmarebis Taobaze. 2004 wlis maisSi vaSingtonma saqarTvelo CarTo "aTaswleulis gamowvevis" programaSi.77 am gegmis mixedviT, Tbilisma sami wlis ganmavlobaSi unda miiRos 500 milioni aSS dolari. grantebi "aTaswleulis gamowvevis" programis CarCoSi eZlevaT mTavrobebs, arasamTavrobo organizaciebs da kerZo struqturebs efeqturi mmarTvelobis, ekonomikuri reformebis, korufciasTan brZolis, mewarmeobisa da kerZo seqtoris ganvi77 Millennium Challenge Corporation, Press Release, http://www.mca.gov/public_affairs/ press_releases/PR_Eligible.pdf.

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Tarebis, soflis meurneobis nayofierebisa da janmrTelobis, agreTve, ganaTlebis donis amaRlebis mxardasaWerad.78 da bolos, aRsaniSnavia prezident buSis saqarTveloSi viziti meore msoflio omis dasrulebis 60 wlisTavis aRsaniSnavi mogzaurobis farglebSi. is saqarTveloSi ruseTidan Camovida 2005 wlis 10 maiss, riTac xazi gausva saqarTveloSi demokratiis, istoriuli mniSvnelobis reformebis da konfliqtebis mSvidobianad gadaWris mniSvnelobas.79 xolo rac Seexeba evropis kavSirs, is yovelTvis mniSvnelovan daxmarebas uwevda saqarTvelos, miuxedavad programebis arSesrulebisa da ganviTarebis perspeqtivis ararsebobisa im periodSi, rodesac mTavrobaSi imyofeboda SevardnaZis korumpirebuli gundi. evrokomisia axorcielebs programebs humanitaruli da sakvebi produqtebiT daxmarebis, kanonis uzenaesobis, ekonomikuri da samarTlebrivi reformebis, da energopolitikis sferoSi.aSS-Tan SedarebiT naklebad, magram zogierTma evropulma qveynam, gansakuTrebiT, didma britaneTma, germaniam, saberZneTma da safrangeTma, aseve, ganaviTares ormxrivi TanamSromloba saqarTvelos xelisuflebasTan, gansakuTrebiT, samxedro, sabaJo da samarTaldamcav organoebTan. 2003 wlis noembridan moyolebuli evrokavSiri gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iCens saqarTvelosadmi da, rogorc Cans, did imedebs amyarebs axal xelisuflebaze, kanonis uzenaesobis garkveuli problemebis miuxedavad. 2004 wlis ivnisSi donorebis konferenciaze briuselSi, evrokomisiam da msoflio bankma, 31 qveyanasTan da 12 saerTaSoriso organizaciasTan erTad, TiTqmis 1 miliardi aSS dolaris daxmarebas dahpirda axal xelisuflebas.80 es daxmareba gankuTvnilia reformebisTvis energetikis, mmarTve"U.S. to Grant Georgia $500 ml in Frames of MCA," Civil Georgia, May 28, 2004, http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=7021. 79 "President Bush to Travel to Georgia," http://georgia.usembassy.gov/events/ event20050325BushVisit.html. 80 Joint Press Release by the European Commission and the World Bank, June 16, 2004, http://www.seerecon.org/Georgia/press_release.pdf.

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lobis, siRaribis daZlevis, bavSvTa socialuri dacvis, infrastruqturisa da soflis meurneobis ganviTarebis xelSesawyobad 2004-2006 wlebSi. 2003 wlis dekemberSi, evropis palmanentma rekomendacia gauwia amierkavkasiis qveynebs ­ somxeTs, azerbaijansa da saqarTvelos ­ evropis axali samezoblo politikis nawili gamxdariyvnen, xolo 2004 wlis maisSi es winadadeba evrokomisiis mier iqna damtkicebuli. analitikosebi varaudoben, rom es nawilobriv dagvianebuli gadawyvetileba ­ amierkavkasiis qveynebis evropis samezoblo iniciativaSi CarTvis Sesaxeb, didad iqna ganpirobebuli saqarTveloSi mimdinare politikuri cvlilebebiT. 81 2005 wlis martSi evrokomisiam miiRo gadawyvetileba saqarTvelosTan urTierTobebis intensifikaciis Sesaxeb, rac samezoblo iniciativis farglebSi samoqmedo gegmis SemuSavebas gulisxmobda. es rekomendacia eyrdnoboda evrokomisiis mier gakeTebul angariSs, romelic detalur da siRrmiseul analizs iZleva saqarTveloSi arsebuli politikuri da ekonomikuri situaciis Sesaxeb da asaxavs dRemde arsebul ormxriv urTierTobebs evrokavSirTanac.82

Jaba Devdariani, "Europe Remains Ambiguous in its South Caucasus Neighborhood," Central Asia­Caucasus Analyst, July 14, 2004. 82 The European Commission's Delegation to Georgia and Armenia, http://www.delgeo.cec.eu.int/ en/press/5_mart_ge_2005.htm. samoqmedo gegmis ZiriTadi elementebi unda moicavdes: kanonis uzenaesobis dacvas, demokratiis institutebisa da pluralizmis gaZlierebas, biznes-garemos gaumjobesebas, sagadasaxado da sabaJo administraciis reformas, siRaribis daZlevas, konfliqtebis mogvarebasa da mzard regionaluri TanamSromlobas. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg evrokavSiri gansakuTrebul yuradRebas amaxvilebda qveyanaSi kanonis uzenaesobis damcveli institutebis gaZlierebaze. 2004 wlis zafxulSi evrokavSirma saqarTveloSi gaxsna pirveli kanonis uzenaesobis misia (EUJUST THEMIS), raTa daxmareba gaewia samarTlebrivi sistemis reformirebaSi. Sesabamis saministroebSi rva ucxoeli eqspertis ganTavsebiT, misia saqarTvelos xelisuflebas exmareba, zogadad, reformebis koordinaciaSi. ixileT, "EU Launches `Rule of Law' Mission, Amid Human Rights Concerns", Civil Georgia, July 17, 2004, http://www.civil.ge/eng/ article.php?id-7439.

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ra unda moimoqmedos dasavleTma?

dasavleTma saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis dRis wesrigSi upirveles amocanad unda gansazRvros qveynis ganviTarebis problemebi da saxelmwifo reformebi. aqedan gamomdinare, kargia, rom SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis bolo ramdenime wlis "donorTa imedgacrueba" daxmarebis gawevis xelaxalma mzadyofnam Secvala, mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelos axalma xelisuflebam korufciis winaaRmdeg brZola gaaZliera da saxelwifo reformebSi winsvla aRiniSna. aseT viTarebaSi dasavleTma unda gaagrZelos saxelmwifo reformis mravlismomcveli strategia, romlis ganxorcielebac SesaZlebelia saakaSvilis prezidentobis pirveli vadis amowurvamde. umTavresi orientirebi saqarTvelom Tavad unda gansazRvros, magram isini unda Seesabamebodes evrokavSiris standartebsa da evroatlantikur gamocdilebas. mTavari principebi ukve Cadebulia iseT, saqarTvelos wina xelisuflebis mier xelmoweril an mimdinare, dokumentebSi, rogoricaa evrokavSirisa da saqarTvelos partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis SeTanxmeba, axali samezoblo iniciativa (evrokavSirisa da saqarTvelos samoqmedo gegma) da natosTan individualuri partniorobis samoqmedo gegma. magram dasavleTis strategia unda iyos gawonasworebuli ­ aucilebelia, fundamenturi problemebis gadaWra (korufciasTan brZolis CaTvliT), magram, imavdroulad, reformebis periodSi uyuradRebod ar unda darCes politikuri stabilurobis SenarCuneba. magaliTad, sazogadoebis farTo ukmayofileba SeiZleba gamoiwvios saxelmwifo moxeleebis samsaxuridan masiurma daTxovnam. garda amisa, aseTma nabijma SeiZleba gamoaaSkaraos kvalificiuri kadrebis nakleboba saqarTvelos mTavrobaSi, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca ar arsebobs adekvaturi sakadro politika. es problemebi udavod warmoCindeba procesis dasawyisSive, magram isini didi xnis ganmavlobaSi iarsebeben, Tu dasavleTi arafers iRonebs maT gadaWraSi dasaxmareblad. 2004 wlis martSi, saqarTvelos

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mTavrobam piroba dado, rom daTxovnil sajaro moxeleebs Sesabamisi kompensaciiT da axali samuSao SesaZleblobebiT uzrunvelyofda.83 man, agreTve, SeimuSava yvela sxva sazogadoebrivi seqtoris reformirebis uaRresad ambiciuri gegma 2004-2009 wlebisaTvis. es gegma iTvaliswinebs demokratiuli mmarTvelobis gaZlierebas, saxelmwifo institutebis Camoyalibebas, sajaro samsaxurisa da ganaTlebis sistemebis ganaxlebas, kulturuli institutebis ganviTarebas, saxelmwifos teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdgenas, erovnuli usafrTxoebis garantiebis Seqmnasa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis miRwevas. aSkaraa, rom axalma xelisuflebam mkafiod unda gansazrvros am reformaTa Soris prioritetebi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, maTi realizacia naklebsavaraudoa. ukve aSkaraa daxmarebis saWiroeba. aucilebelia specialuri programebis ganxorcieleba dasavleTis qveynebSi, romelic moizidavs evropaSi ganaTlebul da gamocdil axalgazrda specialistebs. es programebi daexmareba mTavrobas administraciuli aparatis SeqmnaSi, romelic kompetenciaze, gamocdilebasa da keTilsindisierebaze iqneba damyarebuli. amave mimarTulebis CarCoebSi xelisuflebam unda Camoayalibos da daicvas qcevis kodeqsi sajaro moxeleebisTvis. garda amisa, xelisuflebas marTebs frTxili sakadro politikis gatareba, roca saqme exeba sajaro moxeleTa masiur Semcirebebs. imisda miuxedavad, rom SevardnaZis prezidentobisas korufcia farTod iyo gavrcelebuli, arsebobdnen moxeleebi, romlebic axerxebdnen, ar gareuliyvnen masSi. es Tanamdebobis pirebi da maTi ojaxis wevrebi, SesaZlebelia, administraciuli wmendis msxverplni aRmoCndnen. meti efeqturobisTvis saWiroa, rom reformebi da axali kadrebis ayvana adekvaturi da drouli xelfasebis gacemis paralelurad moxdes. Tu es ar moxdeba, korufcia kvlav iCens Tavs.

83 Georgian Ministry of Finance, "Strengthening and Uniting Georgia through Economic Growth, European Integration, and Long-Term Stability: Reform and Development Programme for the Government of Georgia 2004­2009."

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specialuri fondi sajaro moxeleebis xelfasebisTvis iqna Seqmnili da sxvadasxva donoris mier dafinansebuli. sorosisa da sxva amerikulma fondebma, agreTve, gaeros ganviTarebis fondma Seitanes TavianTi wvlili am specialur fondSi.84 garda amisa, saWiro Tanxebis saxelmwifo biujetSi mobilizaciisTvis aucilebelia sabaJo wesebisa da mmarTvelobis reforma, ukve arsebuli dasavluri programebis SenarCunebasTan erTad. sabaJo gadasaxadebis amoReba damokidebuli iqneba iseTi strategiuli teritoriebis gakontrolebaze, rogoricaa samxreT oseTisa da samegrelos regionis kontroli kontrabandaze.am miznis misaRwevad aucilebelia centraluri xelisuflebis politikuri kontrolis gaZliereba. sabaJo reforma uSualodaa dakavSirebuli qveynis erTianobasa da teritoriul mTlianobaze. 2004 wlis ivnisSi samxreT oseTis konfliqtis zonasTan mdebare ergneTis bazrobis gauqmeba aucilebeli iyo zogierTi kriminaluri dajgufebis saqmianobis aRsakveTad. magram aseTi tipis bazrobebi adgilobrivi mosaxleobisTvis Semosavlis wyarocaa. amdenad, aseT politikas aucileblad unda axldes Tan ekonomikuri ganviTarebis SesaZleblobebi. policiis reformam unda aRadginos ndoba moqalaqeebsa da saxelmwifos Soris. saerTaSoriso donorebis mier dafi-

84 2004 wels prezidenti, premier ministri, parlamentis Tavmjdomare da uzenaesi sasamarTlos Tavmjdomare iRebda 1500 aSS dolars am fondidan, TavianTi oficialuri xelfasis danamatad. TxuTmeti ministri da oTxi saxelmwifo ministri, agreTve, uSiSroebis sabWos mdivani da prezidentis administraciis xelmZRvaneli iRebda 1200 dolars. ekonomikuri sabWos Tavmjdomare, Sinagani jarebis sardali, genStabis ufrosi, satransporto policiis xelmZRvaneli, saxelmwifo dacvis samsaxuris ufrosi, sagadasaxado inspeqciis xelmZRvaneli da finansuri policiis ufrosi iRebda 1000 dolars. samoci ministris moadgile iRebda 700 dolars. uSiSroebis sabWos wevrebi iRebdnen 500 dolars. yvela satransporto policieli iRebda 150 dolars. momavalSi es danamatebi xelfasebze dagegmilia saxelmwifo biujetidan gaices. daaxloebiT 5000-mde sajaro moxele miiRebs damatebiT xelfass. ixileT, rezonansi, 25 marti, 2004 w., gv. 2.

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nansebuli specialuri wvrTnis programebi aucilebelia policiis muSaobis efeqturobis asamaRleblad, iseve rogorc, rekomendaciebi, sabWoTa policiuri sistemis reformirebisaTvis. saqarTvelom policiis reforma daiwyo sagzao policiis aTasobiT TanamSromlis daTxovniT. imis miuxedavad, rom sagzao policia uaRresad korumpirebul struqturas warmoadgenda da sazogadoebis minimaluri mxardaWeriT sargeblobda, aTasobiT adamianis samsaxuridan daTxovna, axali perspeqtivebisa da socialuri garantiebis gareSe, saeWvoa qveyanaSi zogadad arsebuli kriminaluri situaciis gaumjobesebas emsaxurebodes. saqarTvelospoliciis sagamoZiebo struqturebis reformac unda iyos prioriteti, vinaidan adamianis uflebaTa darRvevebi kvlav mravladaa, xelisuflebis cvlilebis miuxedavad. kvlav xSiria saCivrebi TviTneburi dakavebis, narkotikebisa da iaraRis Cagdebis, sagamoZiebo da winaswari dakavebis saknebSi wamebis Sesaxeb. Sedegiani dialogi Tbilissa da separatistul teritoriebs Soris SesaZlebeli iqneba mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu dasavleTi daexmareba afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTs ganaviTaros da ufro Ria gaxados sakuTari politikuri sistemebi. ufro metic, dasavluri daxmareba adgilobrivi arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da socialurad daucveli jgufebisadmi unda emsaxurebodes ndobis aRdgenas orive mxares Soris. Tu gaizrdeba ndoba, xolo afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis mosaxleoba daijerebs imas, rom dasavleTi (da Sesabamisad saqarTveloc) yuradRebas iCens maTi momavlisadmi da iziareben maT legitimur miswrafebas, ar iqnen asimilirebulni dominantur qarTul kulturaSi, isev warmoiSveba SesaZlebloba warmatebuli politikuri dialogis ganaxlebisa. magram, sanam dasavleTi ganagrZobs afxazebisa da osebis problemebis ugulvebelyofas, isini arsebuli safrTxis nawilad moiazrebian am regionebSi da separatistul warmonaqmnebs ruseTTan kidev ufro mWidro kavSirisken ubiZgebs. Tu saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobas surs saqarTvelos stabilurobis miRweva, aucilebelia maTi SeTanxmebuli

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moqmedeba. pirvel nabijad saWiroa, gadaixedos dsT-is (ruseTis) mSvidobismyofelTa da gaeros warmomadgenlobis mandati. rusuli jarebi ufro metad unda iyvnen CarTuli adgilobrivi mosaxleobis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofaSi. Tu rusi mSvidobismyofelebi ver SeZleben usafrTxo garemos Seqmnas, maSin gaerom seriozulad unda ganixilos saerTaSoriso samSvidobo Zalebis gagzavnis SesaZleblobis sakiTxi. rac Seexeba gaeros misias saqarTveloSi, mas SeuZlia iTavos gaeros humanitaruli da ganviTarebiTi programebis koordinacia, rac qarTvelebsa da afxazebs Soris daZabulobis ganmuxtvas unda emsaxurebodes. gaeros mier dafinansebuli qarTvelebiT dasaxlebul galis raionSi samoqalaqo policiis proeqti SeiZleba iqces aseT Sansad. samxreT oseTSi saWiroa Zalisxmevis gaaqtiureba regionSi ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis wasaxaliseblad, gansakuTrebiT, adgilobrivi savaWro da sabanko sistemis daxmarebis gziT. evrokavSiris winadadebebi erToblivi sabaJo Tu tvirTis makontrolebeli meqanizmebis SemuSavebis Sesaxeb, romelic mxareebis mier iqna uaryofili, kvlav unda gaxdes ganxilvis sagani. es SeiZleba ndobis aRdgenis umniSvnelovanes meqanizmad iqces. saerTaSoriso sazogadoebam, aseve, unda gaaZlieros zewola saqarTveloze, raTa miRebul iqnas konfliqtis dros iZulebiT gaqceuli, daaxloebiT 60 aTasi osi devnilis dabrunebisa da qonebis restituciis iuridiuli CarCoebi. donorebma finansuri daxmareba unda gauwion saqarTvelos, gansakuTrebiT, kompensaciis valdebulebaTa Sesasruleblad. regionaluri TanamSromlobis ganviTarebis yvela mcdeloba uSedego gamodga, nawilobriv, azerbaijan-somxeTs Soris arsebuli mTiani yarabaxis konfliqtis gamo. aseT SemTxvevaSi, imis magivrad, rom gaagrZelos unayofo mcdelobebi saqarTvelos, somxeTisa da azerbaijans Soris sammxrivi TanamSromlobis ganviTarebisa, dasavleTisTvis ufro mizanSewonili iqneba, mxari dauWiros realur formas ormxrivi TamanSromlobisa saqarTvelosa da or sxva amierkavkasiur qveyanas Soris. sasargeblo proeqtebi SeiZleba ganxorcieldes mravali

398

saqarTvelos usafrTxoeba da dasavleTis roli

ganxriT, rogoricaa satransporto tranziti, TanamSromloba usafrTxoebis sferoSi, sabaJo, sazRvris dacva, organizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg brZola. ekonomikuri ganviTarebisa da dasavluri investiciebis mozidvis mizniT, rac oficialur institucionalur mxardaWeras saWiroebs, (aseve evropul da araevropul ekonomikur subieqtebs Soris kontaqtebis mxardaWeris mizniT), evrokavSirma unda ganixilos kavkasiuri bankisa da evrokavSiris mier dafinansebuli savaWro palatis Seqmnis SesaZlebloba. is araa valdebuli (da arc unda iyos) mxolod saqarTveloTi Semofarglos; misi saqmianoba SeiZleba gavrceldes, aseve, ruseTze, iransa da TurqeTze. aSS-is monawileoba saqarTvelos saqmeebSi sagrZnoblad gaizarda bolo ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi. magaliTad, saqarTvelo iqca tranzitul punqtad aSS-is samxedro aviaciisTvis, avRaneTSi mimdinare operaciebisas. saqarTvelo cdilobda SeerTebul StatebTan daemyarebina ufro axlo urTierTobebi, maT Soris natos farglebs miRmac. 2003 wlis agvistoSi saqarTvelom gagzavna 70 kaciani specialuri daniSnulebis danayofi eraySi, xolo momdevno wlis aprilSi, mSvidobismyofelTa ricxvi 155 kacamde gazarda.85 aqedan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos antiteroristul koaliciaSi monawileobiT gafarTovda aSS-is samxedro gavlena regionSi, romelsac ruseTi tradiciulad sakuTari gavlenis sferod miiCnevda, rasac SesaZloa aSS-ruseTis urTierTobebis daZabva mohyves. SeerTebuli Statebis aseTma gaaqtiurebam gamoiwvia ruseTis SeSfoTeba imis gamo, rom vaSingtoni cdilobda amierkavkasiidan mis gamoZevebas. es SeSfoTeba Zlierdeba, roca aSS cdilobs moskovze zewolas, raTa am ukanasknelma Seasrulos stambolis 1999 wlis samitze nakisri valdebulebebi da gaiyvanos Tavisi bazebi saqarTvelodan. gansakuTrebiT mwvaved es sakiTxi gamoaSkaravda euTos 2003 wlis

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"Georgian Peacekeeping Troops to Deploy in Iraq," RFE/RL Newsline.

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dekembris samitze maastrixtSi, roca saxelmwifo mdivanma kolin pauelma gaakritika ruseTi stambolis valdebulebebis arSesrulebis gamo da gaafrTxila moskovi, ar daeWira mxari separatistuli reJimebisTvis amierkavkasiaSi. aSS-ma mzadyofna gamoTqva saqarTveloSi darCenili ori, axalqalaqisa da baTumis, bazis gasayvanad ruseTisTvis finansuri daxmarebis gawevis Taobaze. miuxedavad imisa, Tu rogor Seecdeba aSS misi saqarTveloSi mzardi rolis Serbilebas, es mainc sakmaod mware abi SeiZleba aRmoCndes ruseTis nacionalisturi da konservatiuli ZalebisTvis gadasaylapad da emociuri reaqcia gardauvalia. gavlenis dakargvisadmi fsiqologiuri Seguebis problemebis garda, Zalze gansxvavebuli Zalebi ruseTSi SeSfoTebas gamoxataven imis SesaZleblobaze, rom darCenili rusuli bazebis gasvlis Semdeg, maT adgils amerikis an natos Zalebi daikaveben. riskis minimumamde dasayvanad, raTa ar moxdes ruseTis an saqarTvelos SecdomaSi Seyvana, aSS-ma mkafiod unda gansazRvros saqarTvelos roli mis usafrTxoebis gegmebSi. Tu vaSingtons imedi aqvs, gaaZlieros saqarTvelos roli platformis saxiT, Tavisi momavali samxedro operaciebis gansaxorcieleblad, man unda erTmniSvnelovnad ganucxados amis Taobaze saqarTvelosac da ruseTsac. xolo natom, Tavis mxriv, mkafiod unda gansazRvros pirobebi da daaxloebiTi vadebi, romlis CarCoebSic saqarTvelo SeZlebs gaaZlieros Tavisi urTierTobebi aliansTan. aucilebelia natos kandidati wevrebis msgavsi yovlismomcveli samoqmedo gegmis saqarTvelosTvis oficialurad SeTavazeba. natos miznebi saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi mkafiod unda ganemartos ruseTs da unda gadaidgas Sesabamisi nabijebi, raTa am miznebis araswori gagebis riski Semcirdes. oqsana antonenkos winadadeba, ruseTis baTumis samxedro baza gardaiqmnas natoruseTis saswavlo centrad kavkasiis an Savi zRvis regionisTvis, SeiZleba iqces erT-erT aseT nabijad.86 bolos da bolos,

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oqsana antonenko, strategiuli kvlevis saerTaSoriso institutis ufrosi mkvlevari, interviu avtorTan, 27 marti, 2004 w.

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stabiluri saqarTvelo ruseTis grZelvadian interesebSi unda Sediodes. xolo ufro usafrTxo saqarTvelo rusuli biznes interesebisTvis damatebiT SesaZleblobebs warmoadgens. Sida krizisebisgan Tavisufali saqarTvelo kidev erTi faqtoria ruseTisTvis, raTa es ukanaskneli finansur da ekonomikur berketebs daeyrdnos da ara samxedro Zalas da kidev erTi mizezi, raTa moxdes adrindeli taqtikis Secvla, romelic gavlenaTa gasaZliereblad problemaTa eqsploatacias iTvaliswinebda. dro gvaCvenebs, SeZlebs Tu ara axali qarTuli xelisufleba am mimarTulebiT ubiZgos ruseTs da, imavdroulad, dasavleTic daarwmunos, rom is Rirseuli partnioria.

daskvna

SeerTebuli Statebisa da evropis wvlili saqarTvelos usafrTxoebaSi didi xania Semcirda urTierTgagebisa da saerTo enis simciris gamo, roca saqme exeba TviT saqarTvelos pasuxismgeblobas sakuTar stabilurobaze Tu dasavleTis mzadyofnas ruseTs daupirispirdes iseT mgrZnobiare sakiTxebze, rogoricaa teritoriuli konfliqtebi. naklebad savaraudoa, rom daZabuloba ruseTsa da dasavleTs Soris saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis problemebis gamo male dasruldes. ekonomikuri da geopolitikuri TvalsazrisiT, dasavleTi dainteresebulia evropisa da axlo aRmosavleTis periferiaze stabilurobiT, xolo saqarTvelo kavkasiaSi stabilurobis mniSvnelovani faqtoria. magram imisaTvis, rom saqarTvelom stabilurobisken mimarTuli gavlena iqonios kavkasiaSi, aucilebelia misi sakuTari usafrTxoebis problemebis gadaWra. aSS aqtiurad axorcielebs energetikuli da geopolitikuri politikis aRrevas, raTa amierkavkasiaSi yovlismomcveli regionaluri stabiluroba damkvidrdes. evrokavSiri naklebad aqtiuri iyo navTobisa da gazis proeqtebis ganxorcielebaSi da sarbiels kerZo seqtors uTmobda, xolo TviTon prioritetebs regionalur TanamSromlobas aniWebda. konfliqtebis

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damien eli da giorgi gogia

mogvarebis sferoSi evropam da amerikam ver SeZlo raime konkretuli da grZelvadiani Sedegis miRweva, miuxedavad xangrZlivi mcdelobebisa euTosa da gaeros formatebSi. dasavleTis mier dafinansebul saxelmwifo reformebs, gansakuTrebiT SevardnaZis dros, umniSvnelo Sedegi mohyva. dasavleTis yvelaze warmatebuli saqmianoba, albaT, TviT 2003 wlis "vardebis revoluciaa", rac dasturia imisa, rom samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTarebis, adamianis uflebebis dacvisa da demokratiuli opoziciis mxardaWeris xangrZlivi mcdelobebi aucileblad gamoiRebs nayofs. axalma qarTulma xelisuflebam, albaT, xanrZlivi Sroma unda gaswios, rom yvela mimarTulebiT miaRwios warmatebebs, magram man aranairad ar unda dauSvas qveyanaSi arsebuli usafrTxoebis situaciis kidev ufro gamZafreba. uaxloes momavalSi saqarTvelos axalma xelisuflebam unda daamtkicos, rom mas ZaluZs iseTi reformebis warmarTva, rac qveyanas aRmavlobisken da stabilurobisken miiyvans. es gulisxmobs saxelmwifo struqturebis mniSvnelovan modernizacias, kanonis uzenaesobis damkvidrebas, samxedro Zalebis srul kontrolsa da racionalizacias, agreTve, korufciis aRmofxvrasa da organizebul danaSaulTan brZolas. am miznebis misaRwevad aucilebelia mebaJeebis, policielebisa da samxedroebis gawvrTna da, dasavluri standartebis Sesabamisad, organizeba, rasac saakaSvili xSirad afiqsirebs sajarod, roca saqarTvelos evro-atlantikur ojaxSi gawevrianebis miswrafebebze saubrobs. dasavleTs SeuZlia daexmaros saqarTvelos arademokratiuli tradiciebis aRmofxvraze aqcentebis gakeTebiT; agreTve, qarTuli nacionalizmis enobrivi, eTnikuri da religiuri ganzomilebebis Serbilebaze; eTnikuri umciresobebis civilizebul mopyrobaze; da centrsa da separatistul regionebs Soris arsebuli undoblobis Serbilebis gzebis gamonaxvaze. Tu progresi iqneba miRweuli am mimarTulebebiT, saqarTvelosa da farTo kavkasiis regionis usafrTxoeba, udavod gaizrdeba.

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Tomas de vaali

1919 wlis bolos saqarTvelo, axali damoukidebeli saxelmwifo, mraval problemas waawyda yvela frontze: somxeTTan sasazRvro dava gadasawyveti rCeboda; arsebobda mcire, magram metad rTuli orazrovani sakiTxebi azerbaijanTan urTierTobaSi; Tbilisis mTavroba daJinebiT asabuTebda Tavis sadavo moTxovnebs baTumis regionis mimarT, romelic, is-is iyo, unda daetovebinaT britanelebs. am qaosSi saqarTvelos mravalnacadi sagareo saqmeTa ministri evgeni gegeWkori kvlav cdilobda saqarTvelos, somxeTsa da azerbaijans Soris farTo transkavkasiuri konfederaciis Camoyalibebas. gegeWkori iyo organizatori mravali konferenciisa, romelic mimarTuli iyo am sam respublikas Soris erTi wlis win gauaresebuli kavSirebis aRdgenisaken. Tumca britaneli Jurnalisti, s.i. beChoferi, romelic gegeWkors Sexvda 1919 wels, gaocebuli iyo imiT, Tu rogori moumzadeblebi Sexvdnen qarTvelebi mezoblebTan kompromisze wasvlas da imiT, Tu rogori gauaresebuli iyo mTlianad regionuli garemo. is wers: "rac man [gegeWkorma] ar miTxra da rac isedac cxadi iyo yvelasTvis, vinc ramdenadme erkveoda transkavkasiur situaciaSi, iyo is, rom saqarTvelos ar unda hqonoda azerbaijanis mxardaWeris imedi TurqeTis an proTurquli Zalis kavkasiaSi SemoWris SemTxvevaSi. TaTrul-somxuri [azerbaijanul-somxuri] xelSekruleba, rogorc drom

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gviCvena, im qaRaldis fasic ar iyo, romelzedac is ewera".1 beChoferi iqve aRniSnavs, rom is, rasac "cota xnis winandel saqarTvelo-somxeTis kinklaobas" uwodebs, SeiZleba 1918 wlis dekembers Tbilisis dapyrobiT damTavrebuliyo, qarTvelebi britanelebs rom ar daecvaT.2 am epizodis Sesaxeb qarTvel istorikosebs gansxvavebuli Sexeduleba aqvT: isini amtkiceben, rom britaneTis jarma xeli SeuSala qarTvelTa Setevas. yovel SemTxvevaSi, es iyo Zala, romelmac gadamwyveti roli iTamaSa 1918 wlis Sidakavkasiuri brZolis SewyvetaSi. oTxi gareSe Zala ­ ruseTi, TurqeTi, germania da didi britaneTi _ am periodSi didi politikuri moTamaSe iyo samxreT kavkasiaSi. yoveli maTgani sxvadasxva dros icavda sam kavkasiur saxelmwifos: ruseTi icavda somxeTs, TurqeTi _ azerbaijans da, Sesabamisad, didi britaneTi da germania _ saqarTvelos. kavkasiis saxelmwifoebs Soris mudmivma SuRlma naTeli gaxada is, rom msxvili samxedro Zalebis mxridan dacvis dapirebam mTlianad gadawona regionuli solidaroba da loialoba. marTlac, sadavo sazRvrebis mqone regionSi gavleniani Zalis mxardaWera (es 1919 wels mcire xniT britaneTi iyo) SeiZleboda gamoyenebuliyo efeqturad, rom upiratesoba moepovebinaT iseT sadavo sakiTxebSi, rogoric iyo baTumis sakiTxi. rac Seexeba somxeTs, saqarTvelos mier mokavSireebis sifrTxiliT arCeva erTmaneTisgan gamijnavda TviTgadarCenasa da srul ganadgurebas . 2005 welsac, rodesac cdiloben usafrTxoebis problemis mogvarebas, rac ganamtkicebs maT damoukideblobasa da sazRvrebs, kavkasiis postkomunistur axal damoukidebel sam patara saxelmwifos kvlav amoZravebs msgavsi mosazrebani sagareo da usafrTxoebis politikis warmarTvisas. somxeTi kvlav eyrdnoba ruseTs, rogorc mTavar strategiul mokav1 C.E. Bachhofer, In Denikin's Russia and the Caucasus, 1919-1920 (London: Collins, 1921), p.54. 2 Bachhofer, In Denikin's Russia and the Caucasus, p.54.

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Sires, saqarTvelos mzera mipyrobilia SeerTebuli Statebisaken, azerbaijanis uaxloesi mokavSire ki TurqeTia. es proteqcionisturi SeTanxmebani mimarTulia sruliad kavkasiuri TanamSromlobis winaaRmdeg. kavkasiur saxelmwifoTa mier usafrTxoebis mopovebis aucilebloba didi gareSe Zalis mxridan kidev erTxel aCvenebs, rom amgvari gareSe Zalebi, iseve, rogorc sxva moTamaSeni ­ magaliTad, navTobis saerTaSoriso kompaniebi da iranis islamuri respublika, arRveven samxreT kavkasiis regionis usafrTxoebas. urTierTsawinaaRmdego interesebiT gaTiSulma samxreT kavkasiam da misma axlo mezoblebma ver SeZles, CamoeyalibebinaT zustad gamokveTili "regioni" imgvarad, rogorc es moxda baltiis an beneluqsis qveynebSi. "samxreT kavkasias" ufro gzajvaredinis an gansxvavebul kulturaTa Sexvedris adgilis metaforad iyeneben, vidre regionis saxelwodebad. 1918 wlidan 1920 wlamde gegeWkori iyo erT-erTi im mcire pirTagan, vinc cdilobda regionuli TanamSromlobis gaadvilebas samxreT kavkasiaSi. bolo dros saqarTvelo nakleb interess amJRavnebda mezobel qveynebTan axlo TanamSromlobis mimarT. Tanamedrove saqarTvelos pirveli prezidenti, zviad gamsaxurdia, saqarTvelos warmoaCenda, rogorc gansakuTrebul evropul qveyanas, romelsac dauyovnebliv unda gaewyvita kavSiri ruseTTan da mis sabWour warsulTan. es ki wlebis ganmavlobaSi gamoiwvevda saqarTvelos iseT saxelmwifod Camoyalibebas, rogoric avstria da Sveicariaa. misi eqscentruli ideebi imis Sesaxeb, rom kavkasiel xalxs saerTo eTnikuri da kulturuli bazisi aqvs da rom qarTuli eTnosi iberiul-kavkasiuri eTnokulturuli civilizaciis nawili iyo, xels uSlida regionul integracias. sabolood, man miaRwia Tavisi qveynis izolacias ruseTis, dasavleTisa da samxreT kavkasieli mezoblebisagan. gamsaxurdias Semdgomma prezidentma, eduard SevardnaZem, Tavisi sagareo politika mizanmimarTulad waiyvana ruseTisagan Camocilebisa da SeerTebuli Statebis mxardaWeris mopovebis gziT; amave dros, misi evrokavSirisa da saqarTvelos uSualo mezoblebisgan CamoSo405

Tomas de vaali

rebisken. man ar gamoamJRavna araviTari interesi saqarTvelos mezobel qveynebTan politikuri da ekonomiuri integraciis gafarToebaSi. TviT misi azerbaijanTan kargi urTierToba ufro metad emyareboda maRali donis strategiul da energogaTvlebs, vidre komerciul kavSirebs. saqarTvelos politikuri liderebi gamoxatavdnen mxolod sityvier mxardaWeras somxeTis Tu azerbaijanis liderebis mimarT an xels awerdnen axal iniciativebs. es ukanasknelni ki sinamdvileSi warmoSobdnen valdebulebebs furcelze da araferi keTdeboda imisaTvis, rom erTiani regioni Semdgariyo. am TavSi Cemi msjelobis arsi aris is, rom saqarTvelos mdgomareoba rogorc samxreT kavkasiaSi, ise mis sazRvrebs miRma aris ara usafrTxoeba, aramed piriqiT ­ arastabiluroba da agreTve is, rom samxreT kavkasiis qveynebis xelmocaruloba TavianTi Tavis regionad miCnevaSi uaryofiT gavlenas axdens maT winsvlaze. amaSi nawilobriv brali saqarTvelos mTavrobas miuZRvis da misi elitis ambiciebs, xolo nawilobriv ki es ganpirobebuliaRrma istoriul-geografiuli faqtorebiT (magaliTad, moskovis roli da regionis danawevrebis istoriis gansxvavebuloba), ramac Camoayaliba politikuri arCevani samxreT kavkasiaSi. sabolood, saqarTvelo usafrTxoebis mogvarebis sakiTxSi rCeba sruliad marto. saqarTvelos gavliT ybadaRebul navTobsaden milsadensac ki negatiuri gavlena hqonda da manac veraferi Semata farTo regionul usafrTxoebas. 2003 wlis noemberSi saqarTveloSi Zalaufleba xelSi axalma prezidentma, mixeil saakaSvilma aiRo. aman bevri ram Secvala, Tumca regionuli usafrTxoebis Rrmad fesvgadgmuli struqtura, yovel SemTxvevaSi, uaxloes momavalSi, ucvleli darCa. saakaSvilis brZola Savi bazrisa da korufciis winaaRmdeg imeds iZleva (Tuki gaamarTlebs), rom sazRvrebs Soris ganxorcielebul vaWrobas gamWvirvales gaxdis. miseuli gawonasworebuli sagareo politika iZleva imis Sanss, rom saqarTvelo naklebad moeqces vaSingtonis an moskovis gavlenis qveS. ramdenadac saakaSvili koncentrirebulia saqarTvelos

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saSinao problemebze, rTuli problemebi raionSi gadauWreli rCeba, Sesabamisad, samxreT kavkasiaSi winsvlas didi dro dasWirdeba.

usafrTxoeba samxreT kavkasiaSi

termini "samxreT kavkasia" geografiuli mniSvnelobiT 1990iani wlebis Suaxnidan gamoiyeneba. CrdiloeTidan SemosazRvruli kavkasiis qediT saqarTvelos, somxeTisa da azerbaijanis teritoriebi Tavdapirvelad rusul enaze "imierkavkasiad" (" zakavkazie ") iwodebodnen; damoukideblobis miRebam am sam qveyanas saSualeba misca, gamoeyenebina ufro neitraluri termini _ "samxreT kavkasia". maSin, roca mTebi warmoqmnis mkveTr bariers CrdiloeTisken (Tumca zust sazRvrebze SeiZleba idavon afxazebma, osebma da lekebma), regionis samxreTis sazRvrebi bolomde zustad dadgenili araa. zogadad rom iTqvas, pirvelad regionis samxreTis sazRvari gavlebuli iyo ruseTis imperiuli mmarTvelobis, mefis dros, Semdeg ki sabWoTa kavSiris epoqaSi. misi zusti sazRvrebi istoriuli ufro iyo, vidre geografiuli. is, rom samxreT kavkasiaSi Sedis baTumi, magram ar Sedis yarsi, istoriuli sakiTxia (romelic gaCnda 1915-1921 wlebSi), ramac baTumi politikurad moskovTan ufro daaaxlovba, vidre mezoblad mdebare TurqeTis portTan trapizonSi. amrigad, sabWoTa memkvidreoba kvlav gansazRvravs am regionis Tanamedrove identurobas mravali faqtoriT.3 usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT regionis istoriis ubralo Tvalis gadavlebac qmnis STabeWdilebas, rom gamoTqma "kavkasiis usafrTxoeba" sinamdvileSi warmoadgens ori

regionis geografiuli terminologiis detaluri ganxilvisTvis ix. Tamaz V. Makrelidze, "Transcaucasia" or South Caucasus"? Towards a More Exact Geopolitical Nomenclature," Marco Polo Magazine, vol. 4-5 (1999), http:// www.traceca.org/marcopolo/mp40.pdf.

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urTierTgamomricxavi cnebis naerTs. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi samxreT kavkasia iyo imperiaTa brZolis veli adgilobriv moxaliseTa an iZulebiT omSi CabmulTa monawileobiT, rasac bolo ar uCanda. iZulebiTi Tanacxovrebis did saxelmwifoTa Soris omebSi monawileobis es imperiuli memkvidreoba arasodes uzrunvelyofda regionis usafrTxoebis stabilur sistemas, garda garedan Tavsmoxveulisa. saqarTvelo Tavis dedaqalaq tiflis/TbilisiT xSirad aRiarebuli iyo regionis centrad. tiflisi iyo regionis administraciuli centri, roca is ruseTis imperiis nawils warmoadgenda da, agreTve, mcire xniT, 1918 wels amierkavkasiis federaciis dros. somxeTsa da azerbaijans Soris mTiani yarabaRis davis gamo, Caketili sazRvris pirobebSi, romelic ugrZesia samxreT kavkasiaSi, saqarTvelo kvlav (SecdomiT) regionul centrad iTvleba saerTaSoriso organizaciebis, biznesisa da arasamTavrobo organizaciebisaTvis, romlebsac surT, kavSiri hqondeT samive saxelmwifosTan. xazi unda gaesvas imas, rom qarTvelebi Tavs ar debdnen wamyvanis rolze samxreT kavkasiaSi da saqarTvelos, rogorc aseTs, ara aqvs regionSi dominirebis tradicia. dedaqalaqis statusi tiflis/Tbiliss miniWebuli hqonda ruseTis mier mefis dros, magram arc somxebi da arc azerbaijanelebi ar Tvlian mas kavkasiis dedaqalaqad. bolo saukunis ganmavlobaSi saxelmwifoebrivi Seneba saqarTveloSi yovelTvis ejaxeboda eTnikur umciresobaTa ambiciebs, romlebic mfarvelobas eZebdnen ara TbilisSi, aramed moskovSi (afxazebi, osebi), baqoSi (azerbaijanelebi) an erevanSi (somxebi). amave dros samxreT kavkasiis danarCen teritoriaze ar aris qarTuli diaspora, romelic SeZlebda TbilisisTvis Tavis moqalaqeTa mfarvelis statusis miniWebas saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom kavkasiur ojaxSi saqarTvelo iyo erT-erTi moqiSpe bavSvi, magram ara mSobeli. marTlac, problema SeiZleba ganisazRvros, rogorc ojaxi, romelSic mSoblebi ar arian. arian mxolod xelisSemSleli biZebi da dedinacvlebi.

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kavkasiisTvis tradiciulad dedinacvali iyo moskovi. sabWoTa kavSiris dros regionis vaWrobis 50% modioda ruseTTan vaWrobaze (ruseTis federaciuli respublika) da kavkasiis sami respublikis ekonomikuri urTierToba sustad viTardeboda. resursebisa da SeRavaTebis Sesaxeb molaparakebebi ZiriTadad mimdinareobda moskovSi, masSi naklebad monawileobdnen baqoeli an erevneli megobrebi. saqarTvelos roli (an misi arqona) mTiani yarabaRis davaSi gviCvenebs mis arafunqciur regionuldinamikas. roca pirvelad 1988 wels mTiani yarabaRis konfliqti daiwyo, saqarTvelo sabWoTa respublika iyo da ar SeeZlo Suamavlis rolSi gamosvla. 1988 wlis TebervalSi, roca mTian yarabaRSi gaCnda areulobis pirveli niSnebi, politbiurom saqarTvelodan iq gadaisrola Sinagan saqmeTa saministros 160kaciani motorizebuli batalioni wesrigis dasamyareblad. jer kidev konfliqtis aseT adreul etapze regionSi ukve sariskod iyo miCneuli somxeTidan batalionis azerbaijanisken gadayvana. Tumca pirvel batalionSi, romelic mTian yarabaRSi gagzavnes, jariskacTa umetesoba qarTveli iyo, isic SesaZloa vivaraudoT, rom xelmZRvaneli oficeri slavuri warmoSobis iyo. politbiuros oqmebi (gamoica 1992 wels) gviCvenebs, rom politbiuros erTaderTi wevri, romelmac konfliqtis gadasawyvetad wamoayena winadadeba, iyo eduard SevardnaZe. is sTavazobda, mTiani yarabaRis statusi avtonomiuri respublikis statusamde aeyvanaT, magram misi rCeva yurad ar iRes da misi Careva, rogorc Cans, amiT amoiwura. SevardnaZis winadadebas mogvianebiT, 1998 wlis bolos miubrundnen, magram ukve gvian iyo. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg miukerZoebel damkvirvebels SeeZlo imedi hqonoda, rom axali damoukidebeli saqarTvelo 1991 wels, roca yarabaRis konfliqti kvlav gamwvavda da saxelmwifoTa Soris omad iqca, sasargeblo iqneboda somxeTsa da azerbaijans Soris, rogorc Suamavali. magram ruseTis prezidentma boris elcinma da misma yazaxma

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kolegam nursulTan nazarbaevma wamoiwyes maRali profilis samSvidobo iniciativa im wels, roca orive ewvia stefanakerts _ mTiani yarabaRis regionul dedaqalaqs. saqarTvelom rom ver Seasrula Suamavlis roli or meomar mezobels Soris, gamowveuli iyo nawilobriv im faqtiT, rom is Cafluli iyo sakuTar gaWirvebaSi 1991 wlidan 1994 wlebamde da aRar gaaCnda politikuri neba, gadaewyvita visime problemebi. ufro mniSvnelovani iyo is faqti, rom mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelo Seejaxa samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis regionebis gamoyofis mcdelobebs, yarabaRis Taobaze davaSi mxars uWerda azerbaijanis principul pozicias, saxeldobr: SenarCunebuli unda yofiliyo axali postsabWoTa saxelmwifoebis teritoriuli mTlianoba da separatizmi unda aRkveTiliyo. amgvari mxardaWeris erT-erTi mizezi iyo isic, rom SevardnaZem axlo strategiuli urTierToba daamyara azerbaijanis prezident heidar alievTan. samxreT kavkasiis qveynebs da maT uSualo mezoblebs Soris rTuli urTierTobis xilvisas iqmneba azri, rom prioritetebis dadgenisas rTuli realisturi gaTvlebi ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre kulturuli an istoriulad gansazRvruli faqtorebi. magaliTad, miuxedavad mdidari kulturuli da istoriuli urTierTkavSirisa ori saukunis ganmavlobaSi, saqarTvelos axlandeli urTierToba ruseTTan Zalian daZabulia. amas SeiZleba daematos is, rom umetesad musulmanur azerbaijanTan saqarTvelos urTierTobis rTulma istoriam xeli ver SeuSala am ori qveynis urTierTobis keTil ganviTarebas bolo aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi. Tumca ruseTsa da somxeTs camde ahyavT TavianTi saukunovani kavSiri, rac, savaraudod, safuZvlad udevs maT kavSirs, msgavsi msjelobani ver axsnis, ratom aqvs somxeTs (romlis mosaxleobis 98% qristiania) strategiuli partnioroba iranis islamur respublikasTan; pragmatuli mosazrebani gansazRvravs saqarTvelos somxeTTan urTierTobas, Tumca am ori saxelmwifos, romlebsac aqvT Zveli qristianuli fesvebi, sagareo politika mainc araa ganpirobebuli saerTo isto410

saqarTvelo da misi Soreuli mezoblebi

riuli gamocdilebiT. sazRvargareTidan importis gamo xmeleTze Caketili somxeTi damokidebulia saqarTvelos Savi zRvis portebze ­ foTsa da baTumze.4 saqarTvelos gavliT midis ruseTis gazi da xorcieldeba navTobis eqsporti somxeTSi. magram es kavSiri ar myardeba farTo politikuri da ekonomikuri TanamSromlobiT saqarTvelosa da somxeTs Soris. mTavari gza somxeTis sazRvridan javaxeTamde saqarTvelos teritoriaze erT-erTi yvelaze cudia kavkasiaSi. amJamad Tbilissa da erevans Soris ar xorcieldeba komerciuli aviareisebi. saqarTvelosa da somxeTs Soris 1918 wlis dekembris konfliqti loresa da axalqalaqis gamo sul ori kvira grZeldeboda, Tumca kvlav daZabuli mdgomareobaa javaxeTis regionSi, gansakuTrebiT qalaq axalqalaqis garSemo. somxebi saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 5-6%-s Seadgenen, xolo javaxeTSi es cifri 90%-mdea. javaxeli somxebis ukmayofileba TbilisiT mwvave problemaa, Tumca mniSvnelovan zians ar ayenebs saqarTvelo-somxeTs, rogorc saxelmwifoTa Soris urTierTobas, magram qarTul sazogadoebaSi zemoxsenebuli problema SiSs mainc badebs. strategiulad somxeTisa da saqarTvelos mzera mimarTulia sxvadasxva mxares _ moskovisa da vaSingtonisken. 1995 wels somxeTma xeli moawera SeTanxmebas, romelic nebas rTavs ruseTis jars, darCes gumris bazaze ocdaxuT welze met xans. ori wlis Semdeg am SeTanxmebas daemata ufro farTo, "megobrobis, TanamSromlobisa da urTierTdaxmarebis" SeTanxmeba. somxeTisa da ruseTis jarebis wvrTna erTad mimdinareobs da isini mWidrod TanamSromloben ekonomikur donezec: ruseTi TandaTanobiT STanTqavs somxeTis umniSvnelovanes qonebas,

4 Evgeny Polyakov. Changing Trade Patterns after Conflict Resolution in the South Caucasus (Washington, DC: World Bank Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Sector Unit, Europe and Central Asia Region, 2000), p. 33, http://Inweb18.worldbank.org/ eca/eca.nsf/0/23ac8865ee0dc520852568fc005ba956/$FILE/ATT00ZE9/Trade+ flows3.pdf.

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industriul qarxnebs, atomuri eleqtrosadguris CaTvliT. somxeTisgan gansxvavebiT, saqarTvelos liderebi mtkiced acxadeben, rom maT surT Crdiloatlantikur blokSi (NATO) gawevrianeba da prioritetad gamoacxades ruseTis darCenili samxedro bazebis daxurva saqarTveloSi. somxeTis strategiul interess warmoadgens saqarTveloSi baTumisa da axalqalaqis bazebis SenarCuneba, radgan es bazebi ruseTis samxedro Zalas saSualebas aZlevs, moamaragos rusuli baza gumriSi (somxeTi). saqarTvelo-somxeTis sazRvris gavliT rus samxedroebs intensiurad gadahyavT xalxi da teqnika (Tumca 2000 wels ruseT-saqarTvelos Soris savizo reJimis SemoRebis Semdeg gadazidvebis moculoba Semcirda). garda amisa, axalqalaqis baza, faqtobrivad, am raionSi adgilobrivi somxebis dasaqmebis erTaderTi saSualebaa da misi daxurva SeiZleba katastrofulad aisaxos adgilobriv ekonomikaze. gacilebiT ukeTesia saqarTvelos urTierToba azerbaijanTan. miuxedavad imisa, rom am or qveyanas dava hqonda zaqaTalas raionis gamo, bolo dros es sakiTxi ar ganaxlebula. orive qveyanam ganacxada, rom strategiuli orientacia aiRes dasavleTisken, rac gamoixata metismetad politizebul baqoTbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis mSeneblobis proeqtSi monawileobiT (proeqts qvemoT dawvrilebiT ganvixilavT). garda amisa, orma xangrZlivad moqmedma prezidentma _ SevardnaZem da alievma 1990-ian wlebSi Riad Sekra kavSiri, miuxedavad imisa, rom 1980-ian wlebSi, mixeil gorbaCovis dros politbiuroSi yofnisas isini warmoadgendnen erTmaneTis ideologiur mowinaaRmdegeebs. alievma azerbaijanis navTobsadenis satranzito gadasaxadi aCuqa saqarTvelos im dros, roca proeqtTan dakavSirebiT problemebi warmoiqmna. miuxedavad amisa, saqarTvelo-azerbaijanis partnioroba ise mWidro araa rogorc erTi SexedviT Cans. baqo-Tbilisijeihanis grandiozuli infrastruqturul proeqtSi Tanamonawileoba ver iqca farTo ekonomikur TanamSromlobad. samxreT kavkasiis gansakuTrebuli tradiciebis Tanaxmad, azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelos strategiuli prioritetebi

412

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gansxvavebulia. ruseTis prezidentad putinis gaxdomis Semdeg azerbaijanisa da ruseTis urTierToba gaumjobesda. "suk"-is orma yofilma oficerma SeZlo, axali impulsi mieca kargi urTierTobebisTvis, rac Zlier gansxvavdeboda putinisa da SevardnaZis daZabuli urTierTobisagan. 2000 wels ruseTma demonstraciulad SemoiRo savizo reJimi saqarTvelosTvis, rac azerbaijanis mimarT ar ganuxorcielebia. moskovis myisieri da Tbili milocva ilham alievisadmi 2003 wlis oqtomberSi azerbaijanSi mRelvare saprezidento arCevnebSi misi gamarjvebis Semdeg mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda ruseTis aTdRiani mdumarebisagan 2004 wlis ianvarSi saakaSvilis prezidentad erTxmad arCevis Semdeg . azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelos gansxvavebuli urTierToba ruseTTan imaze miuTiTebs, rom baqo da Tbilisi erTnairad ar uyureben yvela strategiul sakiTxs. omisSemdgomi evropis gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom mWidro savaWro urTierToba da qveynebs Soris Ria sazRvrebi warmoadgens winapirobas mtkice strategiuli kavSirisaTvis. am kriteriumebis sawinaaRmdegod, kavkasiis sami saxelmwifo mtkivneulad aris gaucxoebuli erTmaneTis mimarT. marTlac, saqarTvelos naxevrad izolacia ori samxreTkavkasiuri saxelmwifosagan uaRresad SesamCnevia qveynis sazRvrebze: yofili sabWoTa kavSiris erTi respublikidan meoris sazRvarze gadasasvlelad SeiZleba daikargos ramdenime saaTi; komerciuli gadazidvebisaTvis ixdian maRal gadasaxadsac da qrTamsac; mZRolebs erTi qveynis nomriT ar surT sazRvris gadalaxva da meore qveyanaSi Sesvla, radgan eSiniaT adgilobrivi sagzao policiis mxridan fulis gamoZalvisa. Sedegad, saqarTvelosa da mis mezobel qveynebs Soris nebadarTuli vaWroba Semoifargleba ZiriTadad xe-tyiT, xorbliTa da navTob-produqtebiT. saerTo sawarmoTa Seqmnaze rom araferi vTqvaT, kavkasiis saerTo bazris gafarToebas udidesi dabrkolebebi eRobeba. metic, aseTi mdgomareoba ar aris grandiozuli gegmebis xelmZRvanel korumpirebul adgilobriv moxeleTa sabotaJis Sedegi. aseTi izolacia

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Tomas de vaali

warmogvidgeba, rogorc samxreT kavkasiis politikuri da ekonomikuri struqturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSani. es problemebi warmoiqmneba ara marto biurokratiuli barierebiT, romlebic gauqmebisTanave gamoaTavisufleben dagubebul mwarmoeblur energias _ esaa ekonomikis Rrmad fesvgadgmuli politikuri produqtebi, roca moklevadiani politikuri interesebi ewinaaRmdegeba grZelvadian ekonomikur progress. samxreT kavkasiis ekonomika ganawilebuli aqvs ramdenime politikur moTamaSes, romlebic eswrafvian stabilur monopolias, raTa SeinarCunon politikuri usafrTxoeba da dafinanseba Zalauflebis SesanarCuneblad. saqarTveloSi Seiqmna iseTi situacia, roca masobrivi siRaribis, araformalurad privatizebuli ekonomikis, susti da korumpirebuli samarTaldamcavi organoebis wyalobiT Crdilovanma ekonomikam yvelgan SeaRwia, rac safrTxes uqmnis saTanadod dafinansebuli da funqcionirebadi saxelmwifos aRSenebis yovelgvar cdas. saqarTvelos awgardacvlili premier-ministri, zurab Jvania, ambobda, rom 2003 wels kontrabandisa da gadasaxadebis gadauxdelobis gamo saqarTvelos mTavrobam dakarga 60 milioni lari (29 mln aSS dolari) mxolod Tambaqos nawarmis Semosavlidan da TiTqmis 200 mln aSS dolari navTobproduqtebis gadasaxadebis damalvis gamo.5 erT-erTi amerikeli specialisti sakiTxs ufro mwvaved ayenebs da amtkicebs, rom "[saqarTvelos mTavrobas] SeeZlo biujetis deficitis aRmofxvra, Tu Semosavlebs akrefda produqciis ori saxeobidan: importirebuli benzinidan da sigaretidan".6 organizebuli danaSaulis qarTveli specialistis, giorgi Rlontis SefasebiT, "saqarTvelos ekonomika 60-70 procentiT damokidebulia Sav bazarze, romelic umTavresad vaWrobs kontrabanduli saqon5 Shorena Ratiani. Georgia: Corruption Crackdown Makes Waves. ­ IWPR Caucasus Reporting Service no. 231, March 4, 2004, http://www.iwpr.net/index.pl?archive/cau/ cau_200403_221_1_eng.txt. 6 Craig MacPhee. Expert on Georgia Explores `Can Saakashvili Outdo Shevardnadze?'. ­ Newswise, January 5, 2004.

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liT, rogoricaa alkoholuri sasmelebi, sigareti da sxva samrewvelo saqoneli".7 xSirad gansxvaveba legalursa da aralegalurs Soris naklebad aris gamokveTili. toni vo aRniSnavs: "miuxedavad imisa, qveyana TiTqos daSlis procesSi myofi postsabWoTa saxelmwifoa, saqarTveloSi realurad aRorZinebulia Tavisufali sabazro ekonomika. problema aris is, rom am ekonomikis regulireba damokidebulia ara saxelmwifos racionalur qmedebaze, aramed klanuri da kriminaluri sistemis gavlenaze."8 albaT, ufro swori iqneba iTqvas, rom bazari sulac ar aris "Tavisufali", is regulirdeba ramdenime pirovnebis (maT Soris arian saxelmwifo moxelenic) viwro politikuri mosazrebebiT, romlebsac ar ainteresebT saxelmwifos, rogorc mTlianis, grZelvadiani ekonomikuri ganviTareba. im regionSi, sadac sustia marTlwesrigi, Zalian Znelia, dadgindes zogierTi ekonomikuri moRvaweobis legalurobis sakiTxi. xalxs, romelic akontrolebs xe-tyes CrdiloeT somxeTSi an dasavleT saqarTveloSi, Txils an sigarets - aWaraSi, yvela saxis navTobproduqts - azerbaijanSi an jarTs mTel saqarTveloSi, sruli safuZveli aqvs, eSinodes Tavisufali vaWrobis. imis gamo, rom saqarTvelos aqvs pretenzia gaxdes satransporto derefani, is kriminalebisTvis mimzidveli marSruti gaxda, magaliTad, qveyana iqca satranzito zonad narkotikebiT saerTaSoriso vaWrobisaTvis. transnacionaluri danaSaulisa da korufciis kvlevis centris mkvlevari luiz Seli wers: "interpolis analizis Tanaxmad, 1990 wels narkotikebis gadatanis marSruti [samxreT kavkasiis gavliT] axla atarebs avRaneTidan evropis bazrebisaken narkotikebis 10 procents, rac ar xdeboda sabWoTa kavSiris daSlamde."9

Giorgi Glonti. Problems Associated with Organized Crime in Georgia, http:// www.traccc.cdn.ge/publications/publication2.html. 8 Tony Vaux. Strategic Conflict Assessment, Georgia (Timbertop, UK: Humanitarian Initiatives, 2003), p. 6. 9 Louise Shelley. Organized Crime in the Former Soviet Union: The Distinctiveness of Georgia, http://www.traccc.cdn.ge/publications/publication1.html.

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Tomas de vaali

avRaneTis aralegaluri narkotikebi ­ heroini da nedli opiumi gadaaqvT iranidan samxreT kavkasiaSi, vidre balkaneTs miaRwevdes. sxva saxis narkotikebi uciloblad gzas ikvleven TurqmeneTis gavliT, gadakveTen kaspiis zRvas, Tumca TurqmeneTSi zegasaidumloebuli viTarebis gamo mopovebuli monacemebi Zneli dasajerebelia. svante korneli aRniSnavs, rom saqarTvelo gansakuTrebiT zaralobs ara mxolod imitom, rom "saqarTvelos uSiSroebis samsaxuri cudad aris aRWurvili saimisod, problemas Tavi gaarTvas, aramed, rogorc Cans, imitom, rom maT Soris kontrabandis qselis warmomadgeneli gacilebiT metia, vidre azerbaijanSi."10 imis gamo, rom saqarTvelos sazRvrebi xSirad Caketilia Raribi, magram patiosani biznesmenebisTvis da SemaSfoTeblad Riaa organizebuli danaSaulisaTvis, saxelmwifos xelmZRvaneloba mudmivi panikis mdgomareobaSia. pankisis xeobaSi 2001 wlidan 2002 wlamde ramdenime aTeuli "mujahedis" (zogi maTgani dakavSirebuli iyo al-qaedasTan) yofna, savaraudod, SeiZleba aixsnas saqarTvelos uSiSroebisa da sasazRvro samsaxuris sisustiTa da korumpirebulobiT. saqarTvelo garkveuli xnis ganmavlobaSi gaxda saerTaSoriso terorizmis TavSesafari, xolo pankisis xeoba gadaiqca gilaevis meTaurobiT CeCen molaSqreTa gasasvlel gzad maTi unayofo eqspediciisas kodoris xeobaSi (afxazeTi), ramac seriozulad Seaferxa qarTul-afxazuri samSvidobo procesi.11 es iyo gadamdebi korufciis ybadaRebuli precedenti, rac Zirs uTxrida qveynis saxelmwifoebriobas. korufcia da sasazRvro sakiTxebi, SevardnaZis reJimTan dakavSirebul gavlenian pirTa dapatimreba, albaT, ganeSvante Cornell. The Growing Threat of Transnational Crime, in Dov Lynch, ed. The South Caucasus: A Challenge for the EU, Chaillot Papers no. 65 (December 2003), p. 83, http://www.iss-eu.org/public/content/chaile.html. 11 ufro detalurad gilaevis mier ganxorcielebul eqspediciaze kodoris xeobaSi ixileT winamdebare wignis qveTavi oqsana antonenkos avtorobiT. pankisis xeobasTan dakavSirebuli detaluri informaciisaTvis ixileT qveTavi jaba devdarianis avtorobiT.

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saqarTvelo da misi Soreuli mezoblebi

kuTvneba im Znelad mosagvarebel sakiTxebs, romelTa gadaWrasac saakaSvili apirebda. korufciaSi monawileobis gamo sabaJo samsaxuris wmenda saqarTvelo-azerbaijanis sazRvarze da aWaraSi kontrabandasTan brZola _ yovelive es imaze miuTiTebs, rom prezidents problemebis masStaburoba mainc esmis, Tu ar icis maTi gadawyvetis aucilebeli brZolis meTodebi. samxreT oseTSi situacia naTels hfens im dilemas, rasac waawyda saakaSvili; arc erTi sakiTxis gadawyveta ar SeiZleba izolirebulad, magram saqarTvelos mTavrobas ar gaaCnia resursebi, rom yvela problema erTdroulad daZlios. 2004 wlis ivlisSi saqarTvelos "antikontrabandistuli operacia" samxreT oseTis winaaRmdeg gadaizarda am aTi wlis manZilze yvelaze mwvave politikur dapirispirebaSi Tbilissa da cxinvals Soris. 1990-iani wlebis konfliqtebis mogvarebis uunaroba TbilisisaTvis aris Tavsatexis ara marto mTavari mizezi, aramed, ra Tqma unda, isic, rom samxreT kavkasiaSi igi xels uSlis SedarebiT ufro janmrTeli ekonomikuri situaciis formirebas. mTiani yarabaRis, afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis konfliqtebis molaparakebis gziT daregulireba Zirs uTxris mraval gavlenian kartels regionSi. SeiZleba davasaxeloT sami magaliTi: 1) somxeTis samxedroebi, romlebic akontroleben somxeTis ekonomikis umetes nawils, agreTve somxeTsa da somxebis kontrolirebad mTian yarabaRs Soris erTaderT gzaze tvirTebis gadatanas, waagebdnen, rom gaxsniliyo 1990 wels daketili sazRvari azerbaijanTan; 2) samegrelos regionis xelisufleba da specsamsaxurebi, romlebic monawileoben benzinis, sigaretisa da Txilis kontrabandaSi dasavleT saqarTelosa da afxazeTis sazRvris gavliT, Zalian bevrs dakargavdnen, Tu es sazRvari gaixsneboda saavtomobilo da sarkinigzo transportisaTvis; 3) Tu CrdiloeT-samxreTis sarkinigzo marSruti (ruseTidan saqarTvelosa da somxeTSi afxazeTis gavliT) kvlav gaixsneba

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saqarTvelosa da afxazeTs Soris molaparakebis Sedegad, es iqneboda seriozuli dartyma imaTTvis, vinc yovelwliurad Rebulobs milionobiT dolaris Semosavals naxevradlegaluri vaWrobiT oseTis teritoriis gaswvriv. sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, gavlenian kriminalTa interesebi ewinaaRmdegeba saerTokavkasiuri bazris ganviTarebas. energomatareblebis ori milsadeni azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelos gavliT warmoadgens erTaderT msxvil saerTokavkasiur proeqts, romelic axla realizdeba. es proeqtebi finansdeba dasavleTis navTobkompaniebis mier da amitom ZiriTadad ar ganicdis wvrilmani adgilobrivi ekonomikuri interesebis gavlenas. magram (am navTobsadenis strategiul mniSvnelobas ganvixilavT qvemoT) maTi potenciuri roli regionuli vaWrobis Seuqcevadi ganviTarebisaTvis ukeTes SemTxvevaSi araerTgvarovania. roca navTobsadenis Seneba damTavrdeba da miwis mesakuTreebs azerbaijansa da saqarTveloSi gadauxdian kompensacias, veravin miiRebs gansakuTrebul ekonomikur sargebels. moigeben navTobis kompaniebi da mTavrobebi baqoSi, TbilisSi, ankarasa da dasavleTSi. amave dros, arsebobs imis realuri safrTxe, rom navTobsadenis proeqti gamoiwvevs sruliad kavkasiuri ekonomikis deformacias. es moxdeba "holandiuri avadmyofobis" sindromis gamo. roca msjeloben azerbaijanisTvis potenciur riskze, sami specialisti am sindroms Semdegnairad ganmartavs: holandiuri daavadeba Tavs iCens, roca didi raodenobis ucxouri valuta gamomuSavebuli raime saqonlis gayidviT (magaliTad, navTobi) gaicvleba adgilobriv valutaze. es gazrdis moTxovnas adgilobriv valutaze, rac gamoiwvevs gacvliTi kursis amaRlebas. Sedegad, importi gaiafdeba, xolo eqsporti _ gaZvirdeba. Rirebulebis kursis daweva asustebs Sromatevad samrewvelo seqtors.12

12

Sabit Bagirov, Ingilab Akhmedov, and Svetlana Tsalik. State Oil Fund of the Azerbaijan Republic, in Svetlana Tsalik, ed. Caspian Oil Windfalls: Who Will Benefit? (New York: Caspian Revenue Watch, Open Society Institute, 2003), p. 94.

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2001 wels azerbaijanis navTobis seqtorze modioda samrewvelo warmoebis 67,5%. produqciis gamoSveba, romelic navTobTan ar iyo dakavSirebuli, mkveTrad daeca, xolo saqonlis eqsporti ruseTSi, romelic qveynis umsxvilesi savaWro partniori iyo 1997-2001 wlebSi, orjer Semcirda. es tendencia SeiZleba ufro gaZlierdes imis mixedviT, Tu ra raodenobiT Semova uaxloes wlebSi azerbaijanSi ucxouri valutis mZlavri nakadi.azerbaijanis ekonomikis is dargebi, romlebic navTobTanaa dakavSirebuli, SeiZleba mTlianad daingres. aseTi scenaris misadageba saqarTvelos mimarT friad bundovania: aman SeiZleba gamoiwvios saqarTvelos eqsportis zrda azerbaijanSi, Tumca saqarTvelos mrewvelobis done jer kidev iseTi dabalia, rom msgavsi varianti naklebad savaraudoa. ufro mniSvnelovania Semdegi: energetikul seqtorSi mkveTr zrdas SeiZleba hqondes mniSvnelovani (ara aucileblad dadebiTi) Sedegebi samxreT kavkasiis qveynebis ekonomikisaTvis. iseT garemoSi, sadac energosaqonlidan didi Semosavali iqneba, sadac ekonomikaSi karteli dominirebs da xdeba sazRvrebze Seferxeba, uaxloes periodSi Tavisufali vaWroba ver ganviTardeba.

navTobsadenebi, SesaZleblobebi da saSiSroeba

2005-2006 wlebSi ori axali energosadeni xazi mTlianad Secvlis energetikul profilsa da strategiul suraTs samxreT kavkasiaSi. baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis gayvana unda damTavrdes 2005 wlis dasawyisSi da dagegmilia, rom erTi wlis Semdeg amas mohyves baqo-Tbilisi-erzrumis (samxreT kavkasia) gazsadenis gayvana, romelic navTobsadenis paraleluri iqneba azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelos gavliT, ris Semdegac es energogamtarebi gaiyofian TurqeTSi. aRniSnuli proeqtebi saqarTvelos mdgomareobas msoflio arenaze ekonomikurad Tu ara, strategiulad mainc Secvlis, saqarT419

Tomas de vaali

velos mtkiced daukavSirebs TurqeTsa da dasavleTs, amave dros, es proeqtebi metad daainteresebs dasavleTis qveynebs, uzrunvelyon stabiluroba saqarTveloSi, romlis gavliTac usafrTxo pirobebSi maT bazrebze moxvdeba navTobi da gazi. magram aseTi mniSvnelovani proeqti uciloblad Seicavs risks usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT da saqarTvelo, SeiZleba, uyuradRebod tovebs seriozul grZelvadian problemebs usafrTxoebis sferoSi, romlebsac es riski Seqmnis. wminda ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT am navTobsadens ar eqneba mniSvnelovani Sedegi saqarTvelosTvis. sxvagvaradaa saqme azerbaijanSi, romelic uTuod mogebuli darCeba: axlandeli SefasebiT, Tu bareli navTobi eRireba 25 aSS dolari, 2010 wels azerbaijani miiRebs 17 miliard dolars navTobis warmoebisa da transportirebis Sedegad. Tu SenarCunda amJamindeli maRali fasebi, Semosavali ufro meti iqneba. saqarTvelo miiRebs ufro naklebs ­ man SeiZleba miiRos mxolod 50 milioni dolari weliwadSi satarifo gadasaxadis saxiT, marSrutis SedarebiT mcire monakveTis gamo. amasTan dakavSirebiT SevardnaZes sayvedurobdnen, maT Soris, misi memkvidre saakaSvilic, rom man "gadaWarbebiT Seafasa" navTobsadenis mniSvneloba qarTveli mosaxleobisTvis. gazsadeni baqo-erzrumi uTuod met pirdapir sargebels moutans saqarTvelos, ramdenadac igi uzrunvelyofs kaspiis gaziT qveynis raionebis saimedo momaragebas. es adre damokidebuli iyo ruseTidan gazis arastabilur mowodebaze an srul gadaketvaze. gazsadenis bedi damokidebulia imaze, SeuSlis Tu ara xels gazsadenis mSeneblobas SevardnaZis mTavrobis mier 2003 wels ruseTis "gazpromTan" dadebuli energoxelSekruleba (romliT gamowveuli SesaZlo sirTuleebi jer gaurkvevelia). garda amisa, radganac somxeTi imedebs amyarebs saqarTvelos gavliT transportirebul ruseTis gazze da, amave dros, iranTan awarmoebda molaparakebas iran-somxeTs Soris gazsadenis mSeneblobis Taobaze, saqarTvelo aRmoCnda ori gazsadenis SuaSi, romelic dagegmilia ori urTierT420

saqarTvelo da misi Soreuli mezoblebi

sawinaaRmdego blokebis mier, esenia: azerbaijani-saqarTveloTurqeTi da ruseTi-saqarTvelo-somxeTi-irani. baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis proeqtis ganxorcielebis ori varianti arsebobda. pirveli proeqti wamoyenebuli iqna TurqeTis mier da gulisxmobda sargeblis miRebas iqidan, rom misi saboloo punqti gaxdeboda xmelTaSua zRvis porti jeihani. am marSrutiT mcirdeboda navTobis tankerebis mier Seqmnili mudmivi ekologiuri saSiSroeba, radganac tankerebi gaivlidnen Savi zRvis portebidan _ novorosiiskidan da foTidan bosforis srutis gavliT stambolis axlos. am ideam realurad xorcSesxma daiwyo 1997-1998 wlebSi, roca mas mxari dauWira klintonis administraciam. im wlebSi iseTma maRalCinosanma amerikelebi, rogorebic arian stiv sestanoviCi, riCard morninstari, federiko penia da bil riCardsoni, kongresSi gamosvlisas ganacxades, rom emxrobodnen proeqts, romelic zrdida aSS-s energetikul usafrTxoebas da Tanac exmareboda azerbaijansa da saqarTvelos. dasawyisSi bevrs awuxebda is, rom navTobsadeni Tavdapirvelad inicirebuli iyo politikuri interesebiT da warmoadgenda "vaWrobis wamyvan droSas". vuein merim, pentagonisa da saxelmwifo departamentis yofili TanamSromeli, vinc eswreboda navTobsadenis Sesaxeb gamarTul diskusiebs, dasawyisSive ganacxada, proeqtze fiqri uaRresad bundovaniao. meris Tanaxmad, sawyisi motivacia iyo kompensacia TurqeTis im Semosavlebisa, rasac is kargavda erayis winaaRmdeg SemoRebuli sanqciebis gamo 1991 wels sparseTis yuris omis Semdgom: mogvianebiT daiwyes sxva sakiTxebis, sxva pirovnulisa da institucionaluri mosazrebebis gaTvaliswineba. navTobis kompaniebs yovelTvis sWirdeboda samxreTis marSruti iranis gavliT, rom gamoeyenebinaT arsebuli adgilobrivi da globaluri gamanawilebeli infrastrqtura. es ewinaaRmdegeboda vaSingtonSi gavleniani wreebis, antiiranuli dajgufebis interesebs (romelsac

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axlac aqvs iniciativebis blokirebis saSualeba). Semdeg amotivtivda novosibirskis (samxreTdasavleTis) marSrutis interesi. mas SeewinaaRmdega antirusuli dajgufeba, romelsac eSinoda ra "neoimperializmisa" (Tumca xmamaRla gaJRerda mxardaWera ruseTis monawileobis sasargeblod). Semdeg kvlav gaCnda interesi, rom raimeTi daxmarebodnen "Sevi"-s [SevardnaZes] misi, rogorc sagareo saqmeTa ministris moRvaweobis dasafaseblad da, imavdroulad, mxari daeWiraT alievisTvis. orive SemTxvevaSi yuradReba eqceoda imas, rom arc erT proeqts, SesaZloa, bolomde ganxorcieleba ar ewera.13 sad ar gaivlida navTobsadeni, iseve mniSvnelovani iyo, rogorc is, Tu sad gaivlida igi. SeiZleba mas darqmeoda "ararusuli, arairanuli" navTobsadeni. sabWoTa kavSiris mimarT strategiis ganmsazRvrelma saukeTeso amerikelma eqspertma stroub telbotma kongresSi gamosvlisas 1998 wels Riad gaafrTxila irani, romlis mimarTac gamoiyena gamoTqma "terorizmis saxelmwifo sponsori", xolo SefarviT ruseTic ­ kavkasiaSi maTi interesebis gamo. man Tqva: "Cven vagrZelebT saxelmwifoTa gafrTxilebas iranTan mWidro urTierTobis ganviTarebis gamo. metic, winaaRmdegi varT, am regionSi romelime saxelmwifom daikavos dominirebuli mdgomareoba, politikuri an ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT. Cven gavagrZelebT TanamSromlobas kavkasiis yvela saxelmwifosTan, rom xeli SevuSaloT iranis gavlenis zrdas am regionSi."14 navTobis mrewvelobisTvis yvela es argumenti naklebad damajerebeli iyo. Teri adamsi, romelic saTaveSi edga pirvel mravalerovan navTobis konsorciums _ baqo-azerbaijanis saerTaSoriso saoperacio konsorciums, Tqva, rom es gegma iyo

13 14

vaine meri, avtorisTvis miwerili werili, 2003 wlis 4 noemberi. Strobe Talbot, U.S. Congress, Senate, Testimony before the Subcommittee on Foreign Operations, Appropriations Committee, 105th Congress, 2nd Session, March 31, 1998.

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politizebuli da naklebad sicocxlisunariani. 2000 wels adamsi werda: erovnuli damoukideblobis mxardaWera, Tavisi arsiT, gare politikuri moTamaSis farTo geografiul arenaze CarTvas ganapirobebs. SeerTebuli StatebisaTvis es niSnavs ruseTisa da iranis gavlenis Sekavebas am regionSi, imavdroulad, moiTxovs aSS-s iq damkvidrebis zrdas. es uciloblad midioda regionul diplomatiur da komerciul konfliqtebamde, romlebic praqtikulad fokusirda navTobsadenis saqmeze. yvelaferi dafuZnebuli iyo Seumowmebel warmodgenaze, rom kaspiidan benzinis eqsportisaTvis marSrutis iZulebiT arCeva gansazRvravda xangrZliv geopolitikur Sedegebs.15 daaxloebiT 2000 wels, rogorc ki regionSi da mis garSemo situacia Seicvala, navTobkompaniebma (gansakuTrebiT BPAmoco) irwmunes baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis ("bi-Ti-si") komerciuli SesaZleblobani. 2003 wels daiwyo mSenebloba. gadamwyvet faqtors warmoadgenda kaspiis navTobis perspeqtiuli erToblivi maragi, navTobze arsebuli maRali fasebi da mzardi gaurkvevloba axlo aRmosavleTis mimarT. ramdenadac dasavleTis kompaniebisTvis da mTavrobebisTvis prioritetuli mniSvneloba SeiZina "energetikulma usafrTxoebam", energomatarebelTa wyaros mimzidvelobam, romelic iyo OPEC-is sazRvrebs miRma da kontrolirdeboda, praqtikulad, uSualod saerTaSoriso kompaniebis mier, TandaTan aamaRla kaspiis reitingi. jon robertsi wers: "kaspia mniSvnelovania ara imiT, rom is aris msoflios erT-erTi mwarmoebeli regioni, aramed

15 Terry Adams. Caspian Hydrocarbons, The Politicisation of Regional Pipelines and the Economic Destabilisation of the Caucasus. ­ Caucasian Regional Studies, vol. 5, issue 1 & 2 (2000), http://poli.vub.ac.be/publi/crs/eng/0501-00.htm. 16 John Roberts. Energy Reserves, Pipeline Politics and Security Implications, in Lynch. The South Caucasus, p. 91.

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imiT, rom is SeiZleba gaxdes msoflios erT-erTi udidesi mwarmoebeli regioni, sadac navTobis faqtobrivi mopoveba ZiriTadad rCeba bazarze orientirebul saerTaSoriso energetikul kompaniaTa xelSi."16 am TvalsazrisiT "bi-Ti-si" "arairanuli da ararusuli navTobsadenidan" gadaiqca"araerayuli da arasaudis arabul" navTobgamtarad., rac aris energetikuli usafrTxoebis mimzidveli alternatiuli wyaro da romelsac mTlianad akontrolebs dasavleTis kompaniebi. azerbaijanisa da saqarTvelosTvis sami qveynis marSrutis mqone proeqts, "bi-Ti-si"-s, namdvilad hqonda politikuri sargebeli. azerbaijani dainteresebulia, hyavdes satranzito qveynad politikurad susti mezobeli saqarTvelo iqamde, vidre SeuZlia, Tavi gaarTvas iranisa da ruseTis mxridan eWvis TvaliT yurebas. saqarTvelosTvis navTobsadens aqvs uaRresad didi politikuri mniSvneloba, rogorc damoukidebeli saxelmwifos simbolos. yofilma prezidentma eduard SevardnaZem naTlad gamoTqva, rom "bi-Ti-si"-s mSenebloba iyo udidesi mniSvnelobis movlena mTeli misi prezidentobis periodSi. "yvela aRiarebs, rom saqarTvelo erT-erTi mTavari rgolia am proeqtSi", _ ganacxada SevardnaZem 2003 wlis agvistoSi, _ "am navTobsadenis funqcionireba didad aris damokidebuli Cvens qveyanaze, saqarTvelo gaxda globaluri interesebis sfero, rac Cveni saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis ganmtkicebis seriozul faqtors warmoadgens."17 SevardnaZis TanaSemwisa da sagareo politikaSi misi uaxloesi mrCevlis, gela Carkvianis TqmiT, qarTvelebica da rusebic kargad acnobierebdnen ruseTis gverdiT gamavali msxvili navTobsadenis simbolur mniSvnelobas. Carkviani amas ganixilavda, rogorc saqarTvelos suverenitetis burjs:

17

citata motanilia teqstidan: Leila Amirova, Nurlana Gulieva, Gennady Abramovich, and Giorgy Kupatadze. Special Report: Trans-Caucasus Pipeline Underway at Last. ­ IWPR Caucasus Reporting Service no. 211, December 23, 2003, http:// www.iwpr.net/index/pl?archive/cau/cau_200312_211_2_eng.tst.

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sabWoTa kavSiri yvelaze centralizebuli qveyana iyo msoflioSi. yovelgvari moZraoba sabWoTa kavSirSi xdeboda periferiidan centrisaken da ara piriqiT. araviTari kavSiri ar arsebobda periferiasa da sazRvargareTs Soris ­ Tbilisidan TurqeTSi. TurqeTi ufro axlosaa, vidre moskovi, magram yvelaferi unda wasuliyo moskovis gavliT. ar SeiZleboda sazRvris gadalaxva, Tu Tanxmobas ar miiRebdi centridan. es mentaliteti dRemde SenarCunebulia.18 miuxedavad areuli dasawyisisa da Seferxebebisa, "bi-Ti-si" dRes azerbaijansa da saqarTveloSi sruli mxardaWeriT sargeblobs. araviTar politikur winaaRmdegobas is ar Sexvedria arc erT am qveyanaSi. mas mxars uWerdnen opoziciuri partiebic. sakiTxiT dainteresebuli arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, magaliTad, "mwvane alternativa", gamoTqvamdnen eWvs ara imdenad proeqtis Sesaxeb, ramdenadac, maTi azriT, proeqtis ganxorcielebisas daSvebuli Secdomebisa da siCqaris gamo. saqarTveloSi sayovelTaod miRebulia azri imis Sesaxeb, rom ori energosadeni daexmareba saqarTvelos, gaxdes satranzito derefani aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs Soris da iyos ruseTisagan ufro metad damoukidebeli. magram "bi-Tisi"-s saqarTvelosTvis moaqvs sxva strategiuli Sedegebic, Tumca isini nakleb sasiamovnoa da jer ar miuRia farTo mxardaWera. es dakavSirebulia imasTan, rom TviT proeqtebis politikuri xasiaTi regions hyofs "mogebulebad" da "wagebulebad" da aman SeiZleba gamoiwvios arsebuli sadavo sakiTxebis gamwvaveba. Tavidanve cnobili iyo, rom proeqti "bi-Ti-si" ar gaivlida somxeTze. yvelaze swrafi da iafi iyo milis gayvana baqojeihanis mimarTulebiT mdinare araqsis velze, azerbaijanis teritoriis, naxCevanis gavliT da Semdeg aRmosavleT Tur18

avtoris interviu gela CarkvianTan, 2003 wlis 24 oqtomberi.

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qeTSi. magram es imas niSnavda, rom milis 30 km-s iranis teritoriaze unda gaevlo, rac aSS-sTvis miuRebelia, an kidev analogiur monakveTze somxeTSi. somxeTis varianti dasavleTSi misaRebi iyo maTTvis, vinc proeqts Tvlida "samSvidobo proeqtad". aSS-s warmomadgenelma jon mareskam, evropaSi uSiSroebisa da TanamSromlobis organizaciis minskis jgufis yofilma TanaTavmjdomarem, mTiani yarabaRis mSvidobiani procesis ganxilvisas, 1995 wels, mxari dauWira am ideas. man ganacxada, rom am ideas eqneba dadebiTi efeqti, radgan is somxeTs CarTavs zogadregionul ekonomikur proeqtSi. mareska wers: "milsadenis somxeTze gavla stimuls miscemda saRad moazrovne somxebs, SeuerTdnen patiosan RonisZiebebs, rom gadawyviton yarabaRis konfliqti am unikaluri SesaZleblobis gamoyenebiT. suleluri Secdoma iqneboda gamtar milTan dakavSirebuli SesaZleblobis gamouyenebloba".19 es ar moxda, radganac mTiani yarabaRis mSvidobiani procesis dinamika friad bundovani iyo saimisod, rom xeli Seewyo uaRresad komerciuli proeqtisTvis. navTobkompaniebi gasagebi mizezebis gamo Tavs aridebdnen, rom mTiani yarabaRis xvedrs ganesazRvra maTi navTobsadenis bedi. robert ebelma STambeWdavad CaurTo: "mSvidobas SeuZlia mogvitanos energosadeni mili, xolo energosaden mils ar SeuZlia mogvitanos mSvidoba".20 metic, yarabaRis konfliqtis gadawyvetis gareSe milsadenis Senebis idea mtruli saxelmwifos gavliT apriorulad miuRebeli iyo azerbaijanisTvis. qveynis saSinao politika mxars ver dauWerda am marSruts, radgan es iqneboda saCuqari mtrisTvis, mokled rom iTqvas, sabotaJis provocireba. amrigad, "bi-Ti-si" gamoricxavs somxeTs ­ mxolod imgvarad, rogorc es cxadi iyo ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi. misi

John Maresca. A `Peace Pipeline' to End the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict. ­ Caspian Crossroads, vol. 1 (winter 1995). 20 citata, sxva adgilebs Sorisac, moyvanili Semdegi statiidan: : Inga Saffron. Black Gold, Once Red, Fuels an Oil Rush. ­ Knight-Ridder Newspapers, July 20, 1977.

19

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zemoqmedeba yarabaRis Sesaxeb davaze araerTgvarovania. Tu visaubrebTmis dadebiT mxareze, sami miliardi dolaris Rirebulebis proeqtis mSenebloba Sanss aZlevs BP Amoco-sa da sxva ucxoel investorebs, gariskon da investiciebi Cadon yarabaRis konfliqtis mSvidoban mogvarebaSi. "bi-Ti-si"-s xazi yarabaRTan axlos gaivlis, Tormetiode kilometris daSorebiT cecxlis Sewyvetis xazis CrdiloeTidan. azerbaijanis oficialuri pirebi gamovidnen sruliad aradamajerebeli gancxadebiT, TiTqos navTobgamtars emuqreba "somxuri terorizmi". azerbaijanis Tavdacvis ministrma, safar abievma ganacxada: "somxeTi zrdis SeiaraRebas da es navTobsadenisTvis safrTxes warmoadgens", xolo erovnuli usafrTxoebis dargSi ministris moadgilis, fuada iskanderovas TqmiT, mis organizacias gaaCnia informacia imis Sesaxeb, rom "somxeTis teroristuli organizaciebi" warmoadgenen safrTxes.21 am gamonaTqvamebSi gadaWarbebiT aris Sefasebuli somxeTis ZirgamomTxrelobis unari da ganzraxva. yuradReba ar eqceva usafrTxoebis farTo kompleqsur RonisZiebebs, romlebic investorebis mier Cadebulia proeqtis mSeneblobaSi da, rac mTavaria, somxeTs agrZnobines _ Tu moxdeba raime diversiuli aqti navTobsadenTan dakavSirebiT vinmes mxridan, vinc dakavSirebulia somxeTTan, misTvis es iqneba saerTaSoriso diplomatiuri katastrofa da amas Sesabamisi qmedebac mohyveba. eqsperti energetikis sakiTxebSi, jon robertsi, wers: "baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis da samxreT kavkasiis gazsadeni milebi miwaSi Cadebuli iqneba erT metrze Rrmad mTel sigrZeze. ase rom, isini daculi iqneba SemTxveviTi dartymisagan. magram ori gadasatumbi sadguri ganTavsdebaazerbaijanis teritoriaze, oric _ saqarTveloSi, danarCeni gadasatumbi sadgurebi da wnevis Semamcireblebi sadgurebi ki _ TurqeTSi. Tumca es sadgurebi

21

Amirova et al. Special Report: Trans-Caucasus Pipeline Underway at Last.

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SeiZleba iqcnen partizanebis an teroristebis samizned. didia albaToba, rom aseT obieqtebze Tavdasxma didi masStabis konfliqtis nawili iyos da ara uSualod milsadenebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli operacia. amitom ZiriTadi sakiTxia im qveynis stabiluroba, romelzec isini gadis".22 teroristul aqtze msjelobisas unda ganisazRvros ori hipoTeturi safrTxe (Tumca, savaraudod "bi-Ti-si"-s arsebobis ormoci wlis ganmavlobaSi SeiZleba sxva safrTxec Seiqmnas): pirveli: dasavleTis mimarTulebiT navTobsadenis proeqti proamerikul qveyanaSi SeiZleba al-qaedas an maTi mokavSiris samizne gaxdes. ukanasknel wlebSi mebrZoli islamuri jgufebi Tavisuflad gadadiodnen saqarTvelos sazRvarze orive mxares. arsebobs mosazreba, rom ramdenime aTeuli maTgani axlac imyofeba pankisis xeobaSi an mis axlo raionebSi. am savaraudo safrTxesTan dakavSirebiT ganixileboda sakiTxi amerikelTa mier momzadebuli da aRWurvili qarTuli specsamsaxurebis ganlagebis Sesaxeb regionSi navTobsadenis dasacavad. meore hipoTeturi safrTxe isaa, rom ruseTSi avtoritaruli reJimis gaZlierebis SemTxvevaSi saqarTvelos mimarT mtrulad ganwyobili ruseTis specsamsaxuris aramzada warmomadgenlebi an maTi mokavSire, anda Tavad ruseTis oficialuri warmomadgenlebi (amas xazi unda gaesvas) SeiZleba Seecadon navTobsadenis ganadgurebas. saqarTveloSi bevri Tvlis, rom ruseTis specsamsaxuris garkveuli jgufebi gareulni iyvnen SevardnaZeze TavdasxmaSi 1995 da 1999 wlebSi. amas mowmobs is faqti, rom ruseTma uari ganacxada yofili saqarTvelos uSiSroebis ministris, igor giorgaZis gadacemaze, rac nawilobriv adasturebs mis danaSauls. rogorc Cans, moskovma miatova saidumlo operaciebis praqtika, romelsac is iyenebda kavkasiaSi 1990-iani wlebis dasawyisSi, magram is SeiZleba kvlav daubrundes mas mo22

Roberts. Energy Reserves, p. 99.

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mavalSi. orive SemTxvevaSi navTobsadeni SeiZleba saSiSi gaxdes saqarTvelos usafrTxoebisaTvis _ gadaaqcios misi teritoria brZolis velad, romelSic erT-erTi susti moTamaSe iqneba saqarTvelos mTavroba: 2002 wels, roca pankisis xeobis garSemo gaCaRda skandali, ruseTma da aSS-m TavianTi SeSfoTeba gamoTqves saqarTelos dabneuli mTavrobis mimarT. rac Seexeba robertsis gafrTxilebas kavkasiaSi "masStaburi konfliqtis" Sesaxeb, yvelaze seriozuli safrTxea samxedro moqmedebaTa ganaxleba mTian yarabaRSi. 2000 wels, dapatimrebamde, yarabaReli somxebis armiis yofilma mTavarsardalma, samvel babaianma Tqva: "Tu daiwyeba meoTxe raundi, is iqneba gadamwyveti da maSin Cven ar mogviwevs omis Sewyveta da molaparakebis magidasTan jdoma. amis msvlelobisas orive mxare iZulebuli iqneba, daTmobaze wavides da miiRos raime gadawyvetileba. Tu Cven kvlav gavCerdebiT, rogorc 1994 wels, male daviviwyebT, Tu ra problema iyo es."23 miuxedavad imisa, rom amJamad yarabaRis somxebis xelmZRvanelebs SedarebiT zomieri pozicia uWiravT, babaianis Sexedulebebi gamoyofil da somxeTis mmarTvelobis qveS myofi juja "saxelmwifos" Sesaxeb cixidan gamosvlis Semdeg kvlav popularulia samxedroTa Soris. safrTxe isaa, rom Tu kvlav daiwyeba saomari moqmedebani, somxeTis oficrebisTvis, romlebsac ver akavebs zavi, navTobsadeni SeiZleba samizne gaxdes. es gvafiqrebinebs sxva SesaZlo negatiuri scenaris Sesaxeb, romelic dakavSirebulia "bi-Ti-si"-s proeqtTan. raoden paradoqsulic unda iyos (rogorc ukve moxda afrikisa da laTinuri amerikis zog saxelmwifoSi), mdidarma energoresursebma azeraijans SeiZleba ziani ufro meti miayenos, vidre sargebeli, imis gamo, rom didi Semosavali saSualebas miscems saxelmwifos, bevri daxarjos qveynis SeiaraRebasa da sakuTari usafrTxoebis aparatze. Tu es moxda da azerbaijanma Seqmna Zvirad aRWurvili armia, misi saomari ritorika SeiZleba

23

avtoris interviu samvel babaianTan, 2000 wlis 26 Tebervali.

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iqces TviTacxadebul winaswarmetyvelebad da gamoiwvios samxedro Seteva yarabaRis winaaRmdeg. TiTqmis yvela gareSe damkvirvebeli iziarebs azrs, rom Tu ori kargad SeiaraRebuli mowinaaRmdege ganaaxlebs damangrevel konfliqts mTian yarabaRSi, es yvelasTvis katastrofa iqneba. amis erT-erTi Sedegi SeiZleba iyos is, rom somxebi upasuxeben azerbaijanelTa Setevas, zogierTebi didi enTuziazmiT aRiqvamen aseT SesaZleblobas, rogorc babaianis konfliqtis "meoTxe raunds". samxreT kavkasia Caefloba regionulomSi, romelSic ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi monawileobas miiReben somxebis mxareze. yvelaze damangrevel Sedegebs igrZnobs somxeTi da azerbaijani, imavdroulad, dazaraldeba saqarTveloc da navTobsadenic. yarabaRis axali omis SesaZlebloba, sabednierod, Soreuli perspeqtivaa, yovel SemTxvevaSi, uaxloes ramdenime weliwadSi. ufro aqtualuri problema javaxeTis regionia samxreT saqarTveloSi, romelic ZiriTadad somxebiTaa dasaxlebuli. "bi-Ti-si"-s ganxorcielebam SeiZleba gamoiwvios am problemis gamwvaveba. javaxeli somxebi didi xania grZnoben Tbilisisgan mowyvetas. cota maTgani laparakobs qarTulad, maTi satransporto kavSiri sxva raionebTan Zalian gaZnelebulia. qarTuli fulis nacvlad iq brunavs somxuri drami an rusuli rubli, ori somxuri nacionalisturi partia iRvwis oficialuri avtonomiisaTvis saqarTvelos farglebSi (riskenac iswrafvis zogierTi somexi nacionalisti saqarTvelos gareT). 2004 wlis ianvarSi mixeil saakaSvilis arCevis Semdeg saqarTvelos farglebSi politikuri avtonomiis mopovebis sakiTxi kvlav wamowies javaxeTis somxebma . pirvelad, roca ixileboda navTobsadenis saqarTvelos monakveTi, farTo mxardaWera hpova marSrutma javaxeTze gavliT, rogorc umoklesma manZilma TurqeTis sazRvramde. saboloo gadawyvetileba miRebuli iqna ufro grZeli marSrutis sasargeblod, javaxeTis CrdiloeTiT ufro rTul reliefur pirobebSi. axali marSruti gaivlida borjomis axlos, romelic aris saqarTvelos saxelganTqmuli mineraluri

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wylebis dedaadgili da turistebisTvis mimzidveli nacionaluri parki. es marSruti gaxda metad sadavo sakiTxi baqoTbilisi-jeihanis mTel proeqtSi, ramdenadac borjomSi mineraluri wylebis mwarmoebeli ­ Georgian Glass and Mineral Water (saqarTvelos minisa da mineraluri wylebis kompania) da saqarTvelos mwvaneTa erovnuli organizaciis jgufebi (romelTac mxars uWerda msoflio bunebis dacvis fondi) ewinaaRmdegebodnen borjomis marSruts. navTobsadenis marSrutis arCevisas gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesi mimdinareobda daxurulad. proeqtis institucionaluri investorebi borjomis marSruts mizanSewonilad miiCnevdnen. saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso navTobkompaniis (ssnk) maSindeli xelmZRvaneli, Tedo jafariZe, 2002 wels ambobda, rom miuRebelia navTobsadenis mSenebloba axalqalaqis ruseTis bazis axlos, miuxedavad imisa, rom baza unda daiketos ramdenime welSi, navTobsadeni ki gaTvlilia 40 welze. bevr qarTvels jer kidev epareba eWvi borjomis marSrutis arCevis sisworeSi. magaliTad, ramaz jabaurma, saqarTvelos dazvervis ufrosis moadgilem ganacxada, rom axalqalaqis gavliT navTobsadenis gayvanis Sesaxeb gadawyvetileba miRebuli iyo im dros, roca eri aRmoCnda saSiSroebaTa winaSe. Semdeg daumata "am momentSi ufro Wkvianuri iqneboda navTobsadenis gayvana axalqalaqis gavliT iq samuSao adgilebis Seqmnis TvalsazrisiT."24 radgan saqarTveloSi warmoiSva azrTa sxvadasxvaoba, savsebiT savaraudoa (Tumca dRemde sarwmunod araa cnobili), rom gadamwyveti roli iTamaSa azerbaijanis mosazrebam marSrutis Sesaxeb javaxeTze gavliT, baqos mTavroba xelmZRvanelobda politikuri mosazrebiT da veto daado somxebiT dasaxlebuli raionis gavliT navTobsadenis gayvanis ideas. azerbaijanis oficialuri pirebi am sakiTxis irgvliv ar gamoTqvamdnen raime mosazrebebs, magram Tu gaTvaliswinebuli iqna azerbaijanis Warbi yuradReba nebismieri proeqtis mimarT,

24

Amirova et al. Special Report: Trans-Caucasus Pipeline Underway at Last.

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romelic sasargeblo iqneba somxeTis an somxebisaTvis, javaxeTis proeqtis mxardaWera azerbaijanis mTavrobisaTvis politikurad wamgebiania. magaliTad, opoziciis lideri, ali qerimli, saxalxo frontis partiis reformistuli frTis meTauri, ambobda: "javaxeTis gavliT navTobsadenis gayvana SeuZlebelia. es regioni dasaxlebulia somxebiT da amitom warmoadgens safrTxes proeqtisaTvis. ufro saimedoa navTobsadenis gayvana borjomis gavliT."25 borjomis marSrutis arCevis pirdapiri Sedegi iyo javaxeTSi somxebis gaucxoebis grZnobis gaZliereba. axalqalaqis merma nairi iricinma interviuSi Tqva, rom gulgatexilia misi raionis ignorirebiT. man Tqva, rom qalaqis ori aTasi mcxovrebi yovel wels samuSaos saZebnelad midis ruseTSi. erTaderTi adgili, sadac SeiZleba samuSaos Sovna, es aris ruseTis samxedro baza. baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis mSenebloba uzrunvelyofda raionSi samuSao adgilebs da kompensacias.26 imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom navTobsadenisgan miRebuli moklevadiani sargebeli adgilobrivi ekonomikisaTvis umniSvnelo iqneboda, dRes arsebuli varaudebi proeqtTan dakavSirebiT SesaZloa ufro mniSvnelovani yofiliyo, vidre realoba. adgilobrivi arasamTavrobo organizaciis liderma, ararat esoianma javaxeTis gverdis avlis gadawyvetilebis politikuri arsis gamo mkveTrad ganacxada: "javaxeTSi xalxi ambobs: am marSrutis arCeviT maT gaavles saqarTvelos momavali sazRvari".27 zogadad, es ori milsadeni warmoadgens saqarTvelos, rogorc susti suverenitetis qveyanas, romelsac aqvs uzarmazari SesaZleblobebi da didi pasuxismgebloba. grZelvadiani usafrTxoebis problema warmoiqmneba maSin, roca ori milsadeni aSendeba, daiwyebs funqcionirebas 40 wlis vadiT da saqarTvelos daekisreba maTi dacva Tavis teritoriaze. agreTve didi

25 26

Amirova et al. Special Report: Trans-Caucasus Pipeline Underway at Last. Amirova et al. Special Report: Trans-Caucasus Pipeline Underway at Last. 27 avtoris interviu ararat esoianTan, 2003 wlis 24 oqtomberi.

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mniSvneloba aqvs sociopolitikur konteqstsac. Tu saqarTvelos mTeli sazogadoeba (da ara misi romelime nawili) miiRebs sargebels milsadenebidan, proeqts eqneba sazogadoebrivi mxardaWera, rac ganapirobebs maT politikur xangrZlivobas.

adgilis povna did Sua aRmosavleTSi

sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi saqarTvelo CamoqveiTebuli iyo suverenuli saxelmwifodan uaRresad centralizebul saxelmwifos erT-erT regionamde. sabWoTa drois ganmavlobaSi mokavSire respublikebs Soris kontaqti xorcieldeboda moskovis meSveobiT da ararusul respublikebs Zalian SezRuduli ormxrivi urTierToba hqondaT. saqarTvelosTvis warmoudgeneli iyo, hqonoda raime "ormxrivi urTierTobis" msgavsi urTierToba TurqeTTan, xolo saqarTvelo-TurqeTis sazRvarze moZraoba mkacrad SezRuduli iyo. gorbaCovis dros, 1980-iani wlebis bolos, daketili kari moulodnelad gaiRo. magram mas Semdeg saqarTvelom (metaforis gadasxvaferebiT) 15 weli gaatara uTavbolo qoreografiul speqtaklis mocekvavis msgavsad, sadac misi partniorebi mudmivad icvlebodnen. movlenaTa qarborbala ar iZleoda stabiluri urTierTobebis saSualebas. 1989- 1991 wlebSi centris mimarT uaRresad mtrulad ganwyobilma sabWoTa respublikebma Seqmnes araoficialuri kavSiri gorbaCovisa da moskovis winaaRmdeg, saqarTvelo SeuerTda xuT sxva respublikas _ somxeTs, moldovasa da baltiis sam respublikas. maT boikoti gamoucxades 1991 wels sabWoTa kavSiris SenarCunebis mizniT Catarebul referendums. magram zemomoyvanili respublikaTa sia ar iZleoda imis gagebis saSualebas, Tu rogor ganviTardebodnen Semdgom, ramdenadac yofili sabWoTa respublikebis urTierTobebis safexurebrivi ganlageba xSirad icvleboda. 1991 wels maT Seqmnes saerTo fronti moskovis winaaRmdeg, Tumca dRes am respublikebs naklebad aqvT urTierTkon433

Tomas de vaali

taqtebi. amasTan, maTi momavali sxvadasxvanairad warimarTa. rogorc ukve aRiniSna, somxeTs dRes sruliad sxva strategiuli orientacia aqvs, vidre saqarTvelos. mxolod moldovas (romelic mainc da mainc araa saqarTvelos mTavari mokavSire) aqvs saqarTvelos msgavsi orientacia. es aris erTgvari sasargeblo prizma, romlis meSveobiTac mimoixileba suuam-is kavSiri (saqarTvelo, ukraina, uzbekeTi, azerbaijani da moldova), romelic Camoyalibda 1996-1997 wlebSi rogorc suam-i (saqarTvelo, ukraina, azerbaijani, moldova). zogadad rom iTqvas, es iyo mcdeloba damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis (dsT) araoficialuri kavSiris Seqmnisa, romlebic iswrafodnen, erTad win aRdgomodnen ruseTis gavlenas. 1999 wlis aprilSi uzbekeTis SeerTebiT suami gadaiqca suuam-ad. amave dros, sami maTgani _ saqarTvelo, azerbaijani da uzbekeTi gamovidnen koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis xelSekrulebidan. STambeWdavi iyo "suuam"-is formirebis adgili ­ es moxda vaSingtonis samitze, romelic mieZRvna nato-s 50 wlisTavs. vaSingtonis am Sexvedraze suuam-is liderebma wamoayenes dRis wesrigi, romelSic ganacxades oTx mTavar sakiTxSi saerTo valdebulebebis Tavis Tavze aReba. pirveli ori valdebuleba iyo saxelmwifoTa teritoriuli mTvlianobis SenarCuneba da "agresiuli separatizmis" uaryofa. mxedvelobaSi hqondaT saqarTvelos, azerbaijanis da moldovas ganzraxva, daebrunebinaT gamoyofili teritoriebi ­ afxazeTi da samxreT oseTi; mTiani yarabaRi; dnestrispireTi. mesame sakiTxi iyo saerTo mzadyofna "religiur eqstremizmTan" brZolisa, rac gulisxmobda uzbekeTis mTavrobis kampanias islamuri opoziciis winaaRmdeg. ukanaskneli punqti iyo saerTo valdebuleba, rom Tavidan yofiliyo acilebuli konfliqtebis zonaSi iaraRis dagroveba, rac gulisxmobda (Tumca es pirdapir ar dasaxelebula) iaraRis Setanas ruseTis bazebSi saqarTveloSi, somxeTsa da moldovaSi. suuam-is es Sexvedra Cafiqrebuli iyo, rogorc simboluri, misi arsi Seesabameboda ruseTze maT skeptikur Sexedulebas,

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romelic im dros Zals ikrebda vaSingtonSi. konservatiuli Jamestown Foundation Prism wamaxaliseblad aRniSnavda: "adgili da situacia ormagad mniSvnelovania: pirveli, im faqtis dramatizirebisTvis, rom moskovma ver daarwmuna dsT-s qveynebi, natos mimarT ruseTis politikas mihyolodnen; meore, rac aranakleb mniSvnelovania, am xuTi saxelmwifos dasavleTze strategiuli orientaciis simbolurobisaTvis."28 magram suuam-i miraJi aRmoCnda. kavSiri ar Sedga, mis wevrsaxelmwifoTa mier ar iqna xelmowerili aranairi xelSekruleba, ar Cans maT Soris vaWrobis gafarToeba am aliansis Sedegad. rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, saqarTvelosa da azerbaijans Sorisac ki ar aris iseTi Rrma urTierToba, rogorc erTi SexedviT SeiZleba mogvCveneboda. suaam-i Zalian dazaralda 2001 wlis 11 seqtembris movlenebis gamo, roca Seicvala aSS-s strategiuli prioritetebi yofili sabWoTa kavSiris mimarT. moulodnelad, ruseTis savaraudo neoimperiuli ambiciebis Sekavebis politikam vaSingtonSi popularoba dakarga. islamuri terorizmis muqarasTan brZolisas SeerTebuli Statebis urTierToba vladimer putinis ruseTTan gaumjobesda. gaumjobesda moskovis urTierTobebi azerbaijanTan da uzbekeTTan. suuam-is saxelmwifoTa umetesoba cuds verafers xedavda ruseTTan kargi urTierTobis damyarebaSi. igive damokidebuleba iyo aSS-sTan, Tumca saqarTvelo, gasagebi mizezebis gamo, gamonakliss warmoadgenda. mudmivad cvalebadi politikuri landSaftisaTvis niSandoblivia, rom 2005 wlis maisSi suuam-i kvlav gadaiqca suam-ad, roca "vardebis" da "narinjisferi" revoluciebiT SeSfoTebuli uzbekeTi gamovida misi Semadgenlobidan. Tu suuam-ma raime aCvena, es iyo arasaWiroeba iseTi gaerTianebisa, rogoricaa dsT, romelic aRmoCnda ara imdenad "Tanamegobroba", aramed ruseTis iaraRi, gaekontrolebina Tavisi yofili sabWoTa mezoblebi, axla ukve ruseTis "uaxloesi

28 From GUAM to GUUAM: A Growing Centrifugal Force in the CIS. ­ The Jamestown Foundation Prism, May 7, 1999.

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sazRvargareTi". roca dsT-s mimarTes mowodebiT, gaeZlierebina Tavisi roli usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad, rogorc omis Semdgom afxazeTSi samSvidobo misiis dakompleqtebis SemTxvevaSi 1600 jariskacis SemadgenlobiT, gamoCnda realuri suraTi:am kavSiris arc erTma qveyanam (garda ruseTisa) ar gamoyo samxedroTa jgufi afxazeTSi samSvidobo misiisaTvis. amrigad, mkacri sinamdvile aris is, rom saqarTvelos urTierToba yofil sabWoTa mezoblebTan bevrad aris damokidebuli aSS-sa da ruseTs Soris urTierTobaTa cvlilebaze. amasTan, vaSingtoni da moskovi warmoadgenen usafrTxoebis or poluss, romelTa Sorisac meryeoben yofili sabWoTa respublikebi. saxeldobr, am konteqstSi unda ganvixiloT saqarTvelos wevroba metad ambiciur, magram sustad dafinansebul regionul organizaciebSi. ramdenad unariani iqneba mwiri biujeti da suuam-is xmamaRali gancxadebebi, roca mTavroba realuri krizisis winaSe dadgeba TbilisSi, galSi da pankisis xeobaSi? yofili sabWoTa kavSiris sazRvrebs gareT, samxreTsa da dasavleTSi, saqarTvelo iwodeba sxvadasxvanairad, magram, SesaZloa, yvelaze moxerxebulia termini "didi axlo aRmosavleTi". geografiulad Tbilisi ufro axlosaa baRdadTan da damaskosTan, vidre moskovTan. saqarTvelos mezobelTagan yvelaze ukeTesi satransporto mimosvla ­ sagzao, sarkinigzo, sazRvao da sahaero ­ aqvs TurqeTTan. bolo aTasi wlis ganmavlobaSi sparseTisa da osmaleTis imperiebi xSirad akontrolebdnen samxreT kavkasias da gansazRvravdnen mis istorias, amitom uadgilo ar iqneba movelodeT, rom maTi memkvidreebi ­ irani da TurqeTi ­ dainteresebulni arian, amjeradac igive gaakeTon. magram damoukideblobis oficialuri aRdgenis momentidan, 1992 wlidan, saqarTvelos adgili am metad farTo arasabWoTa regionSi SeiZleba ganxiluli iqnas, rogorc "gamouyenebeli potenciali". mTavari mizezi, rogorc Cans, aris is, rom saqarTvelos sWirdeba dro mezoblebTan urTierTobaTa damyarebisaTvis, radgan 70 wlis ganmavlobaSi (sabWoTa Zalauflebis dros) mas yovelgvari kavSiri gawyvetili hqonda am

436

saqarTvelo da misi Soreuli mezoblebi

qveynebTan, roca sabWoTa kavSiris samxreTi sazRvrebi mTlianad Caketili iyo. metic, cxovrebiseulma gamocdilebam qarTvelebi ufro ganaTlebul, maRali wris da gaevropelebul xalxad aqcia maT samxreTel mezoblebTan SedarebiT. siria, TurqeTi da irani ar warmoadgenen saxelmwifoTa iseT modelebs, romelsac qarTuli elita mibaZavda. qarTvel axalgazrdobas TiTqmis ar ainteresebs, iswavlos am qveynebSi, romlebic daSorebuli arian evropul civilizacias romliskenac saqarTvelo iswrafvis. am qveynebs Soris politikuri urTierTobac amgvaradve CamorCenilia: saqarTvelos urTierToba mis samxreTel mezoblebTan, aqcevs mas, yovel SemTxvevaSi, garegnulad mainc, kavSiris sistemaTa iseT sferoSi, romelic damaxasiaTebelia am farTo regionisaTvis. magaliTad, TurqeTi natos wevria da aqvs mtkice kavSiri israelTan, irani da somxeTi cdilobdnen, daemyarebinaT sammxrivi urTierToba saberZneTTan. magram am molaparakebaTa Semdgomi ganviTareba, safiqrebelia, naklebad exeba saqarTvelos. israeli Tavisi problemebiT saqarTveloSi naklebad sainteresoa. 2003 wels prezident SevardnaZis SeTavazeba aSS-sTvis, erayis omSi esargebla saqarTvelos sahaero bazebi, Tavazianad uaryves. rac Seexeba saberZneTs, ormxriv urTierTobaSi Tbilissa da aTens Soris ZiriTadi problemaa migrantTa didi raodenoba da sazRvargareTidan mowveuli muSebi (romelTa umetesoba berZenia), romlebic mimodian am or qveyanas Soris. arc "qristianuli solidaroba", arc istoriuli eWvianoba TurqeTis mimarT sakmarisi araa, rom saberZneTma azerbaijanSi aqtiuri diplomatiuri moRvaweoba anda azerbaijanuli gaziT sargebloba Sewyvitos. miuxedavad SedarebiTi geografiuli siaxlovisa, irani Sorsaa saqarTvelosa da misi strategiuli interesebisagan. iranis strategiuli interesebi samxreT kavkasiaSi koncentrirebulia umTavresad somxeTsa da azerbaijanSi. Teirani SeSfoTebulia azerbaijanis gavleniT iranis CrdiloeTSi sakuTar azerbaijanul mosaxleobaze da aviTarebs karg urTierTobas somxeTTan, ramac SeiZleba gaamyaros axali

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gazsadenis proeqtis idea. magram somxeTic da azerbaijanic Sors iWeren iranis diplomatias: 1992 wels irani Seecada, daewyo molaparakeba somxeT-azerbaijanis konfliqtis sakiTxze, magram molaparakeba Sewyda somxebis mier SuSis dapyrobasTan dakavSirebiT da aRarc ganaxlebula. urTierTobis TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelo ufro metadaa daSorebuli iranisagan. islamuri respublikis naxevrad avtoritaruli politikuri sistema ar aris is modeli, romelsac saqarTveloSi vinme gaiziarebs. "borotebis RerZis erT-erTi rgolis" statusis wyalobiT (prezident buSis Sefaseba) irani aRmoCndeba im banakSi, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba im pozicias, romelsac dRevandeli msoflio umniSvnelovanesi problemebis sferoSi, iziarebs saqarTvelo. metic, irani ar Sedis arc erT evropul institutSi, romlis wevric Tu kandidatic aris saqarTvelo: evrokavSiri, evropis sabWo, euTo da nato. gamouyenebeli potencialis kidev erTi magaliTia saqarTvelos TavSekavebuli damokidebuleba Savi zRvis sanapiros mezoblebTan, romelebic warmoadgenen SedarebiT warumatebel Savi zRvis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis organizacias (SeTo) TerTmeti wevri qveyniT. SeTo-s damfuZnebeli samitis deklaraciis me-8 muxlis Tanaxmad, romelic xelmowerilia stambulSi 1992 wlis 25 ivniss, organizacia mizania, "uzrunvelyos, rom Savi zRva gaxdes mSvidobis, stabilurobis, ayvavebis, megobrul da keTilmezoblur urTierTobaTa ganviTarebisaken miswrafebis zRvad." organizacia Cafiqrebuli iyo TurqeTis prezidentis, turgut ozalis mier, rogorc instituti, romelic organizacias gaukeTebda mezobeli qveynebis 330-milionian mosaxleobas Tavisufali vaWrobis axal zonaSi da romelsac eqneboda 300 mlrd dolaris savaWro balansi. Seiqmna aparati, romelsac hqonda SesaZlebloba, Caetarebina Sexvedrebi da mieRo deklaraciebi, Tumca is ver gadaiqca iseT organizaciad, romelic mzad iqneboda ufro axlo TanamSromlobisaTvis. 1999 wlis ivnisSi SeTo-s mdivani, nurver nuresi, interviuSi wuxda, rom ozalis sikvdilis Semdeg mis organizacias mxars ar uWeren TurqeTis

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politikosebic ki. man Tqva, rom SeTo-s ori ganyofileba, savaraudod rom ganekuTvneba saerTaSoriso organizaciebs, premier-ministr Tansu Cileris brZanebiT gadaeca TurqeTis mTavrobas. nuresma agreTve Tqva: "ozali rom cocxali iyos, Cven gadavlaxavdiT winaaRmdegobebs da mivaRwevdiT ufro maRal dones, ramdenadac ozals mSvenivrad SeeZlo am ideis mimzidvelobis dasabuTeba. Tu Cven ver SevZeliT, farTod gagveRo kari am miznebisaTvis, misi Sexedulebebi ki ar iyo damnaSave, aramed xalxi. idea SesaniSnavia. TurqeTs unda Seesrulebina lokomotivis roli am organizaciis SigniT". 29 SeTo cdilobs aRorZinebas meore qarTveli mdivnis, saqarTvelos yofili sagareo saqmeTa ministris, Tedo jafariZis daniSvnis Semdeg, magram mas aqvs mizeruli biujeti da safiqrebelia, rom cotam Tu vinmem icis saqarTveloSi, saerTod ras akeTebs es organizacia. es ar niSnavs, rom Savi zRvis regionuli gaerTianeba usargeblo ideaa. bolo dros Savi zRva gadaiqca avRaneTSi daxmarebis gadazidvis marSrutad: pirveli tvirTi gaigzavna bulgareTidan saqarTveloSi da Semdeg avRaneTSi 2003 wlis seqtemberSi. 2001 wlis aprilSi Savi zRvispireTis eqvsma qveyanam Seqmna Sav zRvaze saZebnosamaSvelo da humanitaruli operaciebis koordinirebis organizacia. magram ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da kargad dafinansebuli SeTo-s saorganizacio struqturis seriozuli programis gareSe, rogorc suuam-i da dsT, SesaZloa, cariel sityvebad darCes. saqarTvelos TurqeTTan urTierTobis gansaviTareblad, romelic mzard mniSvnelobas iZens samxreT kavkasiaSi, SeTo ar sWirdeba. ruseTis msgavsad, mezobeli qveynebisTvis TurqeTic sxvagvari qveyanaa. misi mosaxleoba 68 milionia, samxreT kavkasiis samive qveynis mosaxleoba ki, erTad aRebuli

29 Nurver Nures. Lack of Interest, Not Lack of Success vis-à-vis Black Sea Economic Cooperation. ­ Turkish Daily News, June 22, 1999.

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_ 15 milioni; aqvs imaze meti teritoria da Semosavali, vidre saqarTvelos, somxeTsa da azerbaijans erTad aRebuls. TurqeTsa da saqarTvelos aqvT mniSvnelovani saerTo interesebi, rac gamoixateba "bi-Ti-si"-sa da baqo-erzrumis proeqtebiT. TurqeTica da saqarTveloc iswrafvian, gaxdnen evrokavSiris wevrebi (amasTan, TurqeTis survili ufro realuria, vidre saqarTvelosi). saqarTvelos agreTve surs, TurqeTis kvaldakval gaxdes natos wevri. aRmosavleTeli mezoblebisgan gansxvavebiT, rogorebicaa TurqeTi, irani, siria da somxeTi, saqarTvelo imeds iZleva, iyos saimedo politikuri da savaWro partniori. TurqeTi ki ukve aris moculobiT meore savaWro partniori saqarTvelosTvis. am or qveyanas Soris viTardeba samxedro TanamSromloba, Turqma samxedro mwvrTnelebma daikaves TbilisTan axlos samxedro-sahaero bazis binebi, romlebic rusebma axlaxan datoves. 2003 wlis aprilSi TbilisSi Camofrinda TurqeTis samxedroTa delegacia Stabis ufrosis, hilmi ozkokis xelmZRvanelobiT, romelmac, sxvaTa Soris, ganixila qarTuli samxedro personalis momzadebis sakiTxebi Turqi samxedro eqspertebis mier, qarTuli jaris dafinanseba Turqebis mier, saqarTvelos samxedro-sahaero obieqtebis ganaxleba da TurqeTis daxmareba Savi zRvis flotis antiteroristuli qvedanayofebis momzadebaSi.30 miuxedavad amisa, saqarTvelosTvis ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT TurqeTi jer kidev CamorCeba ruseTs. istoriuli da lingvisturi faqtorebi sagrZnoblad aRemateba Tanamedrove politikur mosazrebebs. magaliTad, daaxloebiT naxevari milioni qarTveli cxorobs da muSaobs ruseTSi, iq wasasvlelad qarTvelebi valdebulni arian, winaswar aiRon vizebi; TurqeTSi, sadac vizis gaformebas mxolod ramdenime wuTi sWirdeba, qarTvelebis ricxvi umniSvneloa. ra Tqma unda, nawilobriv es gamowveulia imiT, rom TurqeTi ubralod ruseTze Raribia, magram es jer kidev ar

30

Igor Torbakov. Explanding Turkish-Georgian Strategic Ties Rankle Russia. ­ Eurasia Insight, April 25, 2003.

440

saqarTvelo da misi Soreuli mezoblebi

niSnavs yvelafers. saqarTveloSi 2003 wlis noembris "vardebis revoluciis" mimarT TurqeTisa da ruseTis reaqciaTa Sedareba gviCvenebs, rom saqarTvelo gacilebiT Rrmad aris Cafluli ruseTsa da mis problemebSi, vidre TurqeTisaSi, moswons mas es Tu ara. rogorc ki SevardnaZis reJimi Seirya, ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministri, igor ivanovi (saqarTveloSi dabadebuli), maSinve Camofrinda TbilisSi prezidentsa da opozicias Soris saSuamavlod. ivanovs saswrafo molaparakeba hqonda orive mxaresTan; rusTavelis gamzirze demonstraciis monawileebsac ki elaparaka. igive suraTi ganmeorda 2004 wlis maisSi. amjerad pirdapir TurqeTis zRurblze, aWaraSi, roca ivanovi, amjerad ruseTis uSiSroebis sabWos mdivnis rolSi, kvlav Camofrinda mosalaparakeblad, rom aWaris didi xnis lideri, aslan abaSiZe, mSvidobianad wasuliyo Tanamdebobidan. Zneli warmosadgenia, rom TurqeTs SeeZlo aseTi mniSvnelovani rolis TamaSi saqarTveloSi krizisis dros. faqtobrivad, "vardebis revolucia" TurqeTis mTavrobisTvis moulodneli aRmoCnda. am dros premier-ministri da sagareo saqmeTa ministri qveyanaSi ar imyofebodnen. komentarze orivem uari ganacxada. gazeTis mimomxilveli tunjai ozkani aRniSnavs, rom saqarTvelos damoukideblobis periodSi TurqeTma da saqarTvelom daamyares megobruli kavSirebi, maTi samxedroebi mtkiced TanamSromloben magram, rogorc ozkani wers memarcxene centristul gazeT "aksamSi", TurqeTi ver erkveva mimdinare movlenebSi (kavkasiaSi), rom araferi vTqvaT maT manipulirebaze.31 rogorc Cans, TurqeTi ver flobs enasa da formats, rom saqarTvelosTan urTierToba gadaitanos yoveldRiuri politikuri dialogis reJimSi, rasac ver vityviT ruseTsa da aSS-ze. amrigad, Tanamedrove istoria da Zlieri institucionaluri struqtura, rac gaaCnia ruseTsa da dasavleTs, jer kidev aRemateba saqarTvelos yvela geografiul da istoriul

31

Mevlut Karik. Will Turkey Meet The Strategic Challenge In Georgia? ­ Eurasia Insight, December 12, 2003.

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Tomas de vaali

pretenzias. friad ucnauria, rom TurqeTisa da iranis samxreT kavkasiaSi CarTulobis strategiis indikatoria is interesi, romelic maT gamoxates kavkasiaSi "usafrTxoebis paqtis" momakvdavi koncefciis mimarT. prezidentma demirelma mxari dauWira am ideas euTo-s samitze 1999 wels. iranis sagareo saqmeTa ministri qamal xarazi cdilobda, gaecocxlebina es gegma 2003 wels aprilSi, roca samxreT kavkasias ewvia. usafrTxoebis paqti xels Seuwyobda orive mxares, am regionSi eTamaSaT is roli, rac maT amJamad ar gaaCniaT.

daskvna

damoukideblobis mopovebidan aT welze meti xnis Semdeg saqarTvelo aRmoCnda ucnaur situaciaSi: igi kvlav Sescqeris or Soreul dedaqalaqs _ vaSingtonsa da moskovs politikuri arCevanis gakeTebisas da man saocrad cota ram gaakeTa uaxloes mezoblebTan TanamSromlobis gansaviTareblad. TbilisSi saakaSvilis dros mTavrobis sasaxlis Tavze evropis droSa mowmobs im axal survils, romelmac saboloo angariSiT SeiZleba uzrunvelyos saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis meti stabiluroba, magram jerjerobiT amisi Sedegi ekonomikuri daxmarebis zrdaa: evropis sabWos jer ara aqvs farTo monawileobis gamocdileba didi regionebis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelsayofad. saqarTvelos mezobel qveynebSi mdgomareoba wynari araa. sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo, saqarTvelom ver moipova raime strategiuli upiratesoba samxreT kavkasiaSi verc Tavisi centraluri mdgomareobiT da verc TurqeTTan da iranTan axlo mdebareobiT, radgan is daSorebulia mTiani yarabaRis konfliqtidan, aqvs Ria sazRvrebi somxeTTan, azerbaijanTan da TurqeTTan, agreTve Tavis meoTxe mezobelTan _ ruseTTan, magram mas ara aqvs grZelvadiani SeTanxmebebi usafrTxoebis sferoSi arc erT am qveyanasTan. saqarTvelos centraluri geografiuli mdebareoba SeiZleba usargebloc iyos. saqarTvelo aRmoCnda or moqiSpe banaks Soris: TurqeTi-azerbaijani da ruseTi-somxeTi-irani,

442

saqarTvelo da misi Soreuli mezoblebi

romelTagan TiToeuli cdilobs, Seqmnas energetikuli derefani. saqarTvelo amjobinebs pirvel alianss, magram meoris ignorirebac ar SeuZlia da angariSi unda gauwios ruseTis survils, kavSiri hqondes somxeTTan.32 regionuli TanamSromlobiT ardaintereseba warmoadgens saqarTvelos strategiuli sisustis erT-erT mTavar faqtors. "gamouyenebeli potencialis" Tema am TavSi bevrgan vaxseneT: roca aSS-ruseTs Soris urTierTobaTa Cavardna an progresi Zlier gavlenas axdenda saqarTvelos sagareo politikaze, Tumca bolo 13 wlis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelosa da misi mezoblebis urTierTobaSi winsvla ar yofila. did saxelmwifoTa urTierTmetoqeoba xels uwyobs am tedencias. araviTari safuZveli ar gvaqvs velodoT, rom "regionuli TviTmyofadoba" xorcs Seasxams da gaaumjobesebs im regionis ekonomikur integracias, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia mravalferovneba da istoriuli undobloba. magram saqarTvelos elitam Tavis Tavze unda aiRos pasuxismgebloba im arCevanisaTvis, romelsac is akeTebs an ar akeTebs. legaluri vaWroba, rogorc aucilebeli piroba metad axlo urTierTobisaTvis kavkasiis qveynebs Soris, jer kidev SezRudulia. 2003 wels saqarTvelos udides eqsports warmoadgenda jarTi da xe-tye, rac mas umeteswilad aqcevs mrewvelobis uqonel qveynad, romelsac ara aqvs ganviTarebuli arc mrewveloba da arc mtkice suvereniteti. sasazRvro SezRudvebi, kontrabanda da damnaSaveoba anadgurebs yovelgvar, TviT mcire imedsac ki, rom saqarTvelos eqneba Tavisufali vaWroba da Ria bazrebi. aRniSnulma problemebma Seaferxa saqarTvelos ekonomikuri

32 iran-somxeTis gazsadeni "gazpromis" interesebs ewinaaRmdegeba, Tumca interfaqsis cnobiT (2004 wlis 2 Tebervali), ruseTis premier-ministris moadgilem, boris alioSinma erevanSi gamarTul konferenciaze ganacxada, rom iran-somxeTis gazsadeni ruseTis interesebSi Sedis, vinaidan es somxeTSi arsebul energogeneratorebze ruseTis uflebebs gazrdis. man Tqva, rom "gazpromi", SesaZloa, somxeTis teritoriaze arsebuli gazsadeni milis nawilis operirebas Caudges saTaveSi. SesaZlebelia, aRniSnuli mili saqarTvelos sazRvramdec gagrZeldes.

443

Tomas de vaali

SesaZleblobebi, misi usafrTxoebis stabiluroba da xeli SeuSala misi regionuli potencialis gamoyenebas. adgilobrivi da centraluri korumpirebuli liderebi sakuTari materialuri keTildReobiT ufro arian dainteresebulni, vidre saxelmwifos grZelvadiani perspeqtivebiT. saqarTvelos ganviTarebisTvis yvelaze imedismomcemia ori navTobsadenis mSenebloba. es daexmareba saqarTvelos, aRar iyos damokidebuli ruseTze da daukavSirdes evropas, Tumca navTobsadenebi saqarTvelos saxelmwifosTvis garkveul safrTxesa da pasuxismgeblobasac Seicavs. navTobsadenis dacvis uzrunvelyofa, romelsac mxars uWers dasavleTi, saqarTvelos Tavs axvevs usafrTxoebis ufro farTo problemebs, rasTanac mas aqamde saqme ar hqonia. mokled, saxmeleTo regionuli TanamSromlobis uqonloba zogadad, regionSi, kerZod, saqarTvelosa da mis samxreTkavkasiel mezoblebs Soris zrdis aSS-sa da ruseTis gavlenas da maT Soris winaaRmdegobas. Sedegad, saqarTvelo, saubedurod, ganicdis moskovsa da vaSingtons Soris urTierTobaTa cvlilebis gavlenas. marTalia, Tavis regionSi darRveuli mezobloba da misi gaurkveveli momavali marto saqarTvelos brali ar aris, magram manac cota ram gaakeTa yovelgvari bzarisa da barieris aRmosafxvrelad.

444

daskvna

saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

bruno kopitersi

saqarTvelo susti, regionebad danawevrebuli saxelmwifoa. mas Semdeg, rac 1991 wlis aprilSi igi sabWoTa kavSirs gamoeyo, damkvirveblebs ganuwyvetliv ebadebodaT kiTxva, SeZlebda Tu ara axali damoukidebeli saxelmwifo, daeZlia mosalodneli anarqia da daemyarebina suverenuli saxelmwifoebrioba. usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT, saqarTvelo da misi samxreT kavkasieli mezobeli saxelmwifoebi _ somxeTi da azerbaijani

minda madloba gadavuxado viaCeslav Cirikbas, jorj hiuits, magali rodrigess, qsiaoukun songs, dimitri trenins da sxvebs, vinc wvlili Seitana am naSromSi, Tavdapirvel teqstSi maT mier mocemuli SeniSvnebisaTvis. centr-periferiis modelis misadageba saqarTvelos saSinao da saerTaSoriso usafrTxo garemos mimarT warmodgenili iyo somxeTSi Catarebul konferenciaze: "samxreT kavkasia da sazRvargareTis politikis moTxovnebi", an arbori, miCigani, 21-24 oqtomberi, 2004; da "Sortir de l'Empire: le cas des Etats sud-caucasiens," parizi, 25-26 noemberi, 2004 w. periferiis sxvadasxva mniSvnelobebs Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb, rogorc es gamoyenebulia evropis kavSiris (EU) da saqarTvelos damoukideblobis adreul wlebSi (1991), ix. bruno kopitersis "saqarTvelo da evropa: periferiis cneba saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi" bruno kopitersis, aleqsei zverevisa da dimitri treninis gamocemaSi "saxelmwifo da damoukidebloba postsabWoTa evraziaSi (londoni, frank kasi, 1998), gv. 44-68. es damokidebuleba mocemulia bruno kopitersis "evropis kavSiris warmomadgeneli axal periferiaSi", dov lindis naSromSi "samxreT kavkasia: evrokavSiris moTxovnebi, Challiot Papers # 65, (dekemberi, 2003 w.), gv.161-170, da miSel emersoni, marius vali, bruno kopitersi, miSel huseni, Tamara kovziriZe, gergana nuCeva da naTali toCi, "gaevropeleba da dadgenileba konfliqtis Taobaze: evropis periferiis Sesaxeb" Journal and Minority Issues in Europe, 1 (2004), http://www.ecmi.de/jemie/

445

bruno kopitersi

­ warmoadgenen kavkasiis farTo regionis nawilebs, romlebsac mZime dro udgaT sam Zlier saxelmwifosTan ­ ruseTTan, iranTan da TurqeTTan ­ Tanaarsebobis gamo. am arastabilur regionSi arsebobs sami de faqto saxelmwifo ­ mTiani yarabaRi, afxazeTi da samxreT oseTi 1, rac metwilad gamowveulia mezobeli saxelmwifoebis gareSe mxardaWeriT. es situacia gviCvenebs masStabs, Tu ramdenad aris moSlili politikuri urTierTdamokidebuleba am erebs Soris. winamdebare naSromis SesavalSi aRwerilia "saxelmwifoebriobis usafrTxoeba" friad "arastabiluri da saSiSi samezoblos" konteqstSi da am usafrTxoebis ori sakiTxi, romelic saqarTvelom unda moagvaros. saqarTvelos xelisuflebam unda daamtkicos, rom SeuZlia Tavis moqalaqeTa uzrunvelyofa sazogadoebrivi keTildReobiT. aseTi saqmis Sesruleba gadajaWvulia usafrTxo regionalur garemos SeqmnasTan. am naSromis zogierTi Tavi eZRvneba saqarTveloSi "saSinao" usafrTxoebaze zrunvas, magaliTad, 1991-92 wlebis samoqalaqo omi, separatistuli moZraoba avtonomiur erTeulebSi ­ samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTSi an samxedro saqmeze samoqalaqo kontroli. sxva Tavebi ZiriTadad exeba saerTaSoriso urTierTobebs samxreT kavkasiaSi, agreTve mezobeli qveynebis rols, gareSe Zalebs da saerTaSoriso organizaciebs, ikvlevs, SeiZleba Tu ara, samxreT kavkasias ewodos regioni Tavisi sakuTari uflebebiT Tu is unda warmovadginoT, rogorc didi regionulierTeulis nawili. saSinao da saerTaSoriso perspeqtivebi, romlebic warmodgenilia am naSromSi, Tanxvdeba im TvalsazrisiT, rom regionis dayofa-danawilebis istoria aisaxeba saqarTveloSi mimdinare mcdar mimarTulebebsa da konfliqtebze; ne1999 wlis ruseTis samxedro intervenciis Sedegad CeCneTi, rogorc de faqto saxelmwifo, ganadgurebuli iqna. es ar niSnavs, rom am omma warmoSva CeCneTis ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba an konfliqti, romlis safuZvelic suverenitetis moTxovna iyo.

1

446

saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

bismieri progresi regionuli integraciis saqmeSi uTuod ukavSirdeba saxelmwifo da erovnuli Senebis procesebs samxreT kavkasiaSi. saqarTveloSi usafrTxoebis Seswavla ZiriTadad usafrTxoebis zogad gansazRvras efuZneba. is afasebs saxelmwifos institutebisa da regionulistabilurobisadmi arsebul Semdeg saSiSroebebs: separatistul konfliqtebSi cecxlis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb SeTanxmebaTa warumateblobas, mcire masStabis SeiaraRebis zrdasa da organizebuli danaSaulis saxelmwifo struqturebSi SeRwevas. SevardnaZis reJimis bolo wlebSi dominirebda sazogado diskusiebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu raoden saxifaToa korufcia da reformebis warumatebloba ekonomikis ganviTarebisa da saqarTvelos saxelmwifos arsebobisaTvis. saxelmwifos qmediTobis gaumjobesebis mcdelobisaTvis gverdis avla is samwuxaro niSani iyo, riTic SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis bolo wlebi gamoirCeoda. araviTari Sedegi ar mohyolia saqarTvelos mTavrobaze "megobruli" Zalebis mxridan ganxorcielebul gareSe zewolas, gansakuTrebiT SeerTebuli Statebis mTavrobis mxridan, raTa saqarTvelos moexdina SeiaraRebuli Zalebis restruqturizacia an Seecvala finansuri politika. saqarTvelo aRar aRiqmeba, rogorc ubralod Tanamedrove susti saxelmwifo im gansakuTrebul garemoebaTa gamo, rogorebicaa gegmuridan sabazro ekonomikaze gadasvla, ruseTTan daZabuloba an warumatebloba, separatistul erTeulebTan politikuri statusis Taobaze mSvidobiani SeTanxmeba. amis Seusrulebloba umetesad aRiqmeboda, rogorc daTmoba struqturuli mizezebis gamo. arsebobda gadaWarbebuli SiSi imisa, rom postSevardnaZis dro ar iqneboda mSvidobiani da gamoiwvevda bevr iseT movlenas, rac saqarTveloSi damoukideblobis adreul periodSi moxda. 1990-iani wlebis pirvel naxevarSi saqarTvelo iyo ara marto "susti saxelmwifo" saxelmwifoebrivi kriteriumebis TvalsazrisiT (rogorebicaa unari, moepovebina saWiro re447

bruno kopitersi

sursebi ZiriTadi saxelmwifoebrivi funqciebis Sesasruleblad, socialur urTierTobaTa mosawesrigeblad, mizanmimarTulad gamoeyenebina sazogadoebrivi resursebi, daefuZnebina legitimuri mmarTveloba)2 ­is garkveul momentSi CaiZira sisustis subkategoriaSi, romelic cnobilia "arSemdgari saxelmwifos" saxeliT. es moxda maSin, roca saqarTvelo konfrontaciaSi aRmoCnda samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTTan da roca pirveli demokratiulad arCeuli prezidentis, zviad gamsaxurdias gandevnis periodSi samoqalaqo ukmayofileba azvirTda. cneba "arSemdgari saxelmwifo" miuTiTebs iseT institucionalur saxeze, sadac politikur institutebs sruli daSla emuqreba. aseTi totaluri kolafsi, romelmac saqarTvelo "arSemdgar saxelmwifod" gadaaqcia, SeiZleboda yofiliyo SevardnaZis prezidentobisas mis Sesacvlelad brZolis Sedegi. is SeiZleba yofiliyo ruseT-CeCneTis omis Sedegi, romelic saqarTvelosac Seexo an kidev afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTSi cecxlis Sewyvetis SeTanxmebis darRveva. mogvianebiT siRaribis winaaRmdeg saprotesto moZraoba da korufcia, SesaZloa, saxalxo ajanyebis mizezi gamxdariyo, rac, Tavis mxriv, areulobasa da masobriv Zaladobas gamoiwvevda. magram aseTi ubeduri SemTxveva ar momxdara. 2003 wlis noembris movlenebs parlamentis gayalbebuli arCevnebi da sxva tipis reJimis damyareba mohyva. saqarTvelos uunarobam, gaetarebina reformebi, ar gamoiwvia anarqia da saxelmwifos daSla. piriqiT, man Sedegad miiRo mTavrobis winaaRmdeg kargad

2 winamdebare wignSi mocemuli "susti saxelmwifos" gia nodiaseuli ganmarteba efuZneba joel s. idgalis "Strong Societies and Weak States: StateSociety Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998), gv. 4. Cem mier ganxorcielebuli analizisas, me agreTve viyeneb saxelmwifos efeqturobis kriteriumebs, romelic warmoadgina biungki kimam konferenciaze "Comparative Regionalism: Cases in Europe and East Asia". konferencia organizebuli iyo CineTis renmimis universitetis mier, pekini, 2005 wlis 8-9 aprili. ix. Robert I. Rotberg, ed., When States Fail. Causes and Consequences (Priceton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004).

448

saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

organizebuli gadatrialeba da politikuri elitis didi nawilic mmarTvelobas Camoscilda. am TavSi me Camovayalibeb daskvnebs am sakiTxebisadmi miZRvnili statiebidan, romlebic exeba im faqtorTa urTierTqmedebas, ramac ganapiroba saqarTvelos nacionaluri da regionuli usafrTxoebis urTierTdamokidebulebani, gansakuTrebiT ki SevardnaZidan saakaSvilamde mravalaspeqtian gardamaval periodSi. robert legvoldma am Sromis SesavalSi ganacxada, rom saqarTveloSi nacionaluri da regionuli usafrTxoebis politikis bevrma aspeqtma kompleqsuri formiT moiyara Tavi. Semajamebeli Tavi aris imis mcdeloba, gaaSuqos wignSi warmodgenili analizis yvelaze reliefuri elementebi, gansakuTrebiT isini, romlebic Seexeba saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis politikas saSinao da saerTaSoriso sferoSi. am mizniT gamoviyeneb "centrisa" da "periferiis" koncefcias da saqarTvelos ganvixilav centrisa da periferiis kuTxiT. rogorc suverenulma saxelmwifom, saqarTvelom Tavisi Zalaufleba unda gaavrcelos mTel teritoriaze. am Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos saxelmwifo SeiZleba CavTvaloT centrad. saqarTvelo Zlier saxelmwifoebTan konfrontaciul mdgomareobaSi myofi patara saxelmwifoa, igi iRvwis da cdilobs, saerTaSoriso iuridiul doneze sxvebis Tanabari Candes. saerTaSoriso urTierTobis am perspeqtividan saqarTvelo Cans, rogorc periferia. suverenobis koncefcia ­ teritoriisa da mosaxleobis kontroli, agreTve imis ufleba, rom saerTaSoriso arenaze sxva saxelmwifoebis Tanabari legaluri statusi moiTxovos ­ metad mniSvnelovania am orive tipis urTierTobaSi.

centr-periferiis modeli

suverenobasa da hegemoniaze arsebuli im saSinao da saerTaSoriso konfliqtebis gasaanalizeblad, romelSic

449

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saqarTvelo aris CarTuli, centr-periferiis modeli, SesaZloa, gamosadegi aRmoCndes. es modeli tradiciulad gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva tipis procesebis gasaanalizeblad, rac sazRvrebiT sivrcobrivi daqucmacebidan gamomdinareobs.3 mas gaaCnia erTgvari geometriuli sawyisi, magram metaforulad gamoiyeneboda bevr sxva disciplinaSi politikuri geografiis, 4 arqeologiis, 5 politekonomiis, 6 SedarebiTi federalizmis CaTvliT.7 politikur geografiaSi dapirispireba centrsa da periferias Soris mWidrod ukavSirdeba iseT urTierTsapirispiro cnebebs (diqotomiebs), rogorebicaa qveynis "Suaguli" da "sanapiro". centris cneba agreTve dakvSirebulia terminebTan "Suaguli" "birTvi"

3 ix. Jean Gottmann, ed. Center and Periphery: Spatial Variations in Politics (London: Sage, 1980) ; Georges Prevelakis. Jean Gottmann's Relevance in Today's World. moxseneba warmodgenili erhart fondis konferenciaze sazogadoebrivi mecnierebebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb, bostonis universiteti, 6-7 dekemberi, 2002 w., http://www.bu.edu/uni/iass/conf/George%20Prevelakis,pdf; Claude Grasland. Center/Periphery, http://hypergeo.free.fr/article.php3?id_frticle=186. 4 Jean Gottmann. Confronting Center and Periphery // Gottmann, ed., pp. 11-25; Paul Claval. Center/Periphery and Space: Models of Political Geography // Gottmann, ed., pp. 63-71; George W. Hoffman. Variations in Center-Periphery Relations in Southeast Europe // Gottmann, ed., pp. 111-133. 5 Tim C. Champion, ed. Center and Periphery: Comparative Studies in Archaeology (London: Routledge, 1995). 6 ix. sxva mravalTa Soris Raimondo Strassoldo. Center-Periphery and SystemBoundary: Culturological Perspectives // Gottmann, ed., p. 42-44 è Immanuel Wallerstein. The Modern World System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press, 1974). 7 saSinao politikis analizisas tradiciulad centr-periferiis cnebebi gamoiyeneba, gansakuTrebiT ki federaluri urTierTobebis analizis dros. msgavs formulirebas aqvs adgili, magaliTad, ruseTis erovnul mTavrobasa da mcire geografiuli iurisprudenciis mqone mmarTvelobis dabali safexurebis analizis dros. ix. sxva mravalTa Soris, Daniel R. Kempton and Terry D. Clark, eds. Unity or Separation: Center-Periphery Relations in the Former Soviet Union (London: Praeger, 2002). mecnierebaTa istoriaSi misi gamoyenebisTvis ix. Center and Periphery Revisited: The Structures of European Science, 1750-1914 // Revue de la Maison Française d'Oxford, vol. I, no. 2 (2003), http:/ /www.mfo.ac.uk/Publications/Revue%20Fox/introduction.htm. sistemebis ZiriTadi Teoriis gamoyenebisaTvis ix. Strassoldo, p. 50.

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

"RerZuli are", xolo periferiis cneba _ "sazRvari or qveysnas" Soris, "sazRvrebi", "ori teritoriis gamyofi xazi". yvela es sityva msgavs ideebs badebs da gaaCnia evristiuli SesaZlebloba.8 centr-periferiis sqema pirvelad gamoyenebuli iqneba saqarTvelos saSinao wyobis da Semdeg saerTaSoriso arenaze saqarTvelos adgilis mimarT. magram centr-periferiis urTierToba metad gansxvavebul mniSvnelobas iZens Sida urTierTobebis Sesaxeb arsebul _ magaliTad, SedarebiTi federalizmisa da saerTaSoriso politikuri ekonomiis Sesaxeb literaturaSi. Cveni miznis misaRwevad kargi iqneba centrperiferiis cnebaTa standartizacia. amrigad, me zogadad ganvasxvaveb sxvadasxva tipis centr-periferiis urTierTobebs saSinao da saerTaSoriso sferoebSi. es gansxvaveba gamoiyeneba, rogorc mTavari ideuri iaraRi, romelic aRwers Rrma cvlilebebs Tbilissa da saqarTvelos avtonomiur erTeulebs Soris saSinao urTierTobaSi; agreTve Tbilissa da mTavar garegan ZalTa aqtivobas Soris am regionebSi, romlebic eqvemdebareboda saqarTvelos samive saprezidento reJims (gamsaxurdia 1991-1992 ww; SevardnaZe 1992-2003 da saakaSvili 2004- ). SesaZloa, ganvasxvavoT centr-periferiis urTierTobis oTxi tipi. oTxive tipi SeiZleba ganvalagoT saSinao an sagareo doneebze, rasac naTlad gamoxatuli sivrcobrivi ganzomileba eqneba. garda amisa, isini Sida da saerTaSoriso doneebze gamoxataven asimetrias materialur da normatiul wyaroebSi, romelsac mivyavarT damokidebulebiT da ierarqiul urTierTobebTan centrsa da periferias Soris. suverenobisa da hegemoniis koncefcia gviCvenebs, rom centri dominirebs periferiaze. pirveli, cneba "periferia" centr-periferiis urTierTdamokidebulebaSi ganekuTvneba konfrontaciis gansakuTrebul formas ­ sazRvrebs, sadac centrma unda daicvas

8

Claval, p.64

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Tavisi interesebi, an im sadavo xazs, sadac centri konfrontaciaSia garegan muqarasTan. meore, cneba "centri" da "periferia" SeiZleba gamoyenebuli iqnas integraciis procesis an centris mier periferiis progresuli asimilaciis gamosaxatad. am SemTxvevaSi es modeli gviCvenebs sivrcobrivi SidaurTierTqmedebis mudmiv dinebas or ukidures mxares Soris da gansakuTrebul swrafvas centris mimarTulebiT.9 mesame, "periferia" SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT raimes, rasac centrisTvis marginaluri mniSvneloba aqvs. maSin centri SeinarCunebs zedapirul damokidebulebas periferiis mimarT. meoTxe tipi centr-periferiis urTierTdamokidebulebaSi isaa, roca periferia warmoadgens erTgvar xids, romelic akavSirebs erT mikroraions (Sida doneze) sxva mikroraionTan an romelime makroraions (saerTaSoriso doneze) sxva mikro an makroraionTan. materialuri da normatiuli wyaroebis Zireuli uTanabroba centrsa da periferias Soris saerToa zemoT CamoTvlil centr-periferiis urTierTdamokidebulebis oTxive tipisaTvis. periferiis cnebis azri _ roca saqme exeba sazRvrebs, gansakuTrebiT ki konfliqtis gamyof xazebs an sadavo xazebs, sadac centri garegan muqarasTan konfrontaciaSi moicavs asimetriul da ierarqiul urTierTobas centrsa da periferias Soris _es igivea, rac integraciisa an asimilaciis procesis gamosaxatad am ori terminis gamoyeneba an periferiis daniSnuleba, Seasrulos damakavSirebeli xidis funqcia centrisTvis. centrsa da periferias Soris indiferentuloba aris agreTve asimetriuli urTierTdamokidebulebis sxvanairi gamoxatva. periferias centrisTvis SeiZleba hqondes marginaluri mniSvneloba, Tumca piriqiT ki iSviaTad xdeba. or poluss Soris asimetriuli da ierarqiuli urTierTdamokidebuleba SeiZleba asaxavdes ufro mets, vidre

9

centr-periferiis dinamikur xasiaTze ix. Hoffman, pp.111-133.

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

Tavad uTanabrobis mdgomareobaa. centris cneba dasavlur civilizaciasa da Zveli kulturis qveynebSi xSirad aRiqmeba, rogorc maradiuli, wmidaTawminda, gonismiRmeuli, maSin, roca periferia warmodgenilia, rogorc droebiTi, arapativsacemi fizikuri realoba. saxelmwifos Tanamedrove gagebiT, suverenoba gaaCnia mxolod centrs. saxelmwifos Zalaufleba vrceldeba mTel mis iurisdiqciaSi myof teritoriaze. sazRvrebi uCvenebs centris Zalauflebis zRvars, zRudavs gareSe Zalebs, akrZaluli xerxebiT Caerion saSinao saqmeebSi. teritoriuli mTlianobis princips es "wmidaTawmidis" mniSvnelobas aniWebs. rogorc raime idealuri tipis gansxvavebulobis SemTxvevaSi, centr-periferiis urTierTobis sxvadasxva tipebi ar gamoxatavs empiriul realobas, magram aqcents akeTebs, azviadebs an aidealebs gansakuTrebul empiriul ganxilvas socialuri realobis ukeT gasagebad. urTierTobis es sxvadasxva tipebi erTmaneTs ar gamoricxavs. dominirebis urTierTdamokidebulebani, romelnic xasiaTdebian konfliqtiT, integraciiT an ganurCevlobiT, SeiZleba Sereuli iyos saSinao an sagareo urTierTobasTan. Tu centri, sadac mmarTveloba da Zalaufleba imyofeba, qmnis Rirebulebebs da normebs, rasac iTvisebs periferia, maSin centr-periferiis urTierToba ganisazRvreba integraciiT. rogorc uuflebo periferiis asimilaciis alternativa, periferiam SeiZleba gamoTqvas ukmayofileba, daiwyos saprotesto moqmedeba da konfrontaciaSi Sevides centrTan. radganac centr-periferiis urTierTobis yvela forma asimetriuli da ierarqiulia, SeiZleba davuSvaT, rom ori mxaris urTierTobaTa transformaciaze zemoqmedebs TiToeul dapirispirebul mxareSi momxdari cvlilebebi, gansakuTrebiT ki, periferiisagan gansxvavebiT, centrSi momxdari cvlilebebi. centr-periferiis modelis gamoyeneba Semdgom uSvebs, rom or mxares Soris urTierTobaTa transformacia ufro Zireulad zemoqmedebs periferiaze, vidre centrze.

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centris arsi mkveTrad aisaxeba periferiaze, xolo periferiis arsi _ misi damokidebulebiT centrisadmi. centri aris Suaguli, romelic qmnis TavisTavs zemoaRniSnul urTierTobaTa erTi an meti tipis meSveobiT, rogorebicaa Tavisi periferiis asimilacia, sazRvrebis mtkiced dacva an periferiis sxva raionebTan damakavSirebel xidad gamoyeneba.10 magram periferiebic aqtiurad qmnian TavisTavs centrze damokidebulebis gziT, integraciis meSveobiT an centrTan konfrontaciiT. centr-periferiis urTierTobaTa warmoqmna ar unda gavigoT, rogorc statikuri mdgomareoba. ar unda gamoiricxos ukucvlilebani dapirispirebulobisas. garkveul garemoebebSi periferiam SeiZleba Seasrulos ganaxlebis funqcia da moiTxovos mniSvnelovani rolis TamaSi qveynis mTel sistemaSi, Secvalos Tavisi wyobileba an moiTxovos sakuTari centris Seqmna. aseTi ukusvla dapirispirebulobisas SeiZleba iyos centrsa da periferias Soris urTierTobaTa Zireuli cvlilebis Sedegi, rac ufro amyarebs am ukanasknelis mdgomareobas, gaxdes dominanturi centri. am tipis periferia SesaZlebelia aRmocendes, rogorc centri im SemTxvevaSic, roca imperiuli centri daiSleba. is TandaTanobiTi gadasvla damokidebulebidan damoukideblobisaken SeiZleba moxdes maSinac, Tu mopirdapire polusebi moiTxoven Tanabar funqciebs politikur sistemaSi. istoriaSi centridan periferiisaken dominirebis cvlilebis uamravi magaliTia ­ dawyebuli CineTis, makedoniisa da romis imperiebSi mimdinare procesebidan, damTavrebuli CrdiloeT amerikaSi britaneTis koloniebidan axal saxelmwifoTa warmoqmniT. 11 msgavsia ekonomikis istoriaSi arsebuli ukucvlilebani dapiris10 11

Strassoldo, pp. 27-61. ix. Owen Lattimore, "Thre periphery as Locus of Innovation," in Gottmann, ed., pp. 205-215; and Jean Gottmann, "Organizing and Reorganizing Space," in Gottmann, ed., pp.217-224.

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

pirebul polusebSi , rogorc erTi saxelmwifos regionebs, ise makroregionebs Soris msoflio sistemaSi. sivrcobriv urTierTobebSi wamyvani funqcia aqvT politikuri elitis warmomadgenlebsac . periferiebma SeiZleba damakavSirebeli xidis roli iTamaSos sxvadasxva centrebs Soris da am periferiebidan politikur liderebs SeuZliaT, xeli Seuwyon regionul TanamSromlobas, iTamaSon SemakavSireblis roli. raimondo strasoldo miuTiTebs, rom periferiebidan (alzas-loreni da raingebiti) mosulma "umniSvnelo" pirebma _ Jan monetma an konrad adenauerma gadamwyveti roli iTamaSes safrangeTisa da germaniis evropaSi integraciaSi. Tumca, agreTve SeiZleba periferiidan mosulma politikurma liderebma usityvo erTguleba daamtkicon centris mimarT, rac moxda napoleonis (korsikidan) da stalinis (saqarTvelodan) SemTxvevaSi.12 centr-periferiis modeli sivrcobrivi modelia da sivrcobrivi urTierTobani uaRresad mniSvnelovania, roca erovnuli moZraoba cdilobs, Secvalos garkveuli teritoriis sazRvrebi da gadaaadgilos qveynis mosaxleoba. es movlena warmoadgens periferiis protests Tavisi statusis, rogorc daqvemdebarebulis winaaRmdeg. magram separatizmi, romliskenac isini iswrafvian, ar aris absoluturi, radgan ukuqcevis nawilobrivi formebi mainc arsebobs. amrigad, periferia SeiZleba cdilobdes, Seasustos centrze Tavisi damokidebuleba raime formiT, TviTmmarTvelobis iseTi formebis ZiebiT, rogorebicaa avtonomia an federaluri urTierToba. damokidebuli mdgomareobis urTierTobaTa Sesustebis saSualebebi sxvadasxvaa _ centris saqmianobaSi CarTvidan mis mier gadawyvetilebaTa miRebisas (federaciis Seqmnis gziT) centrTan gaTanabrebuli saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mier aRiarebuli suverenuli saxelmwifos Seqmnamde (magaliTad, konfederacia).

12

Strassoldo, p.50.

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de faqto saxelmwifos Seqmna, romlis gansazRvrebac Seicavs garkveul teritoriaze kontrols13 _ saerTaSoriso sazRvrebis Secvla _ roca separatistuli moZraoba warmatebulia aRiarebis miRweviT, SeiZleba Sedegiani iyos Tavis saxelmwifoSi umravlesobisa da umciresobaTa urTierTobis mosagvareblad, agreTve Zalauflebis gareregionuli wonasworobisaTvis. 14 separatistulma moZraobam SeiZleba gamoiwvios saerTaSoriso wyobis Secvla da misi centrisken mimarTva, maSin, roca damokidebuli urTierToba gadadis erTi centridan meoreze, an mravalferovani centrebis SeqmniT gamoiwvios damokidebul urTierTobaTa gadazrda SedarebiT pluralistur erTianobebSi.

13 teritoriis kontroli mniSvnelovania saxelmwifos gansazRvrebisTvis _ de faqto saxelwifoebis CaTvliT iuridiuli da politikuri mecnierebebis literaturis mixedviT. 1993 wels miRebuli montevideos konvenciis I Tavis Tanaxmad, "saxelmwifo rogorc saerTaSoriso samarTlis piri unda flobdes Semdeg monacemebs (kvalifikacias): a) mudmivi mosaxleoba; b) gansazRvruli teritoria; g) xelisufleba da d) unari sxva saxelmwifoebTan urTierTobisa." ix. Avalon Project at Yale Law School, Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, 20th Century Documents, Convention on Rights and Duties of States (inter-American), December 26, 1933, http://www.yale.edu/ lawweb/avalon/intdip/interam/intam03.htm#art1. skot pegi iZleva de faqto saxelmwifos ufro farTo ganmartebas: "sinamdvileSi, de faqto saxelmwifo arsebobs iq, sadac arsebobs organizebuli politikuri xelmZRvaneloba, romelic saTaveSi movida adgilobrivi saSualebebis garkveuli doziT gamoyenebiT; romelsac gaaCnia sazogadoebis mxardaWera da romelsac Seswevs Zala, uzrunvelyos garkveul teritoriaze mcxovrebi mosaxleoba saxelmwifo servisiT, razec efeqturi kontroli xangrZlivad xorcieldeba.de faqto saxelmwifo sakuTar Tavs ganixilavs, rogorc unarian saxelmwifos, urTierToba daamyaros sxva saxelmwifoebTan, Sesabamisad, moiTxovs srul konstituciur damoukideblobasa da Tavisi suverenitetis saerTaSoriso aRiarebas". ix. Scott Pegg. De Facto States in the International System. Working Paper no. 21 (Vancouver: Institute of International Relations, The University of British Columbia, February 1998), p. 1, http://www.iir.ubc.ca/pdffiles/webwp21.pdf. ix.: Scott Pegg. International Society and the De Facto State (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1998) è Dov Lynch. Engaging Eurasia's Separation States: Unresolved Conflicts and De Facto States (Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2004). 14 ix. Prevelakis

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

modelis gamoyeneba

saxelmwifo institutebs Soris sxvadasxva tipis urTierTobani xasiaTdeba saqarTvelos saSinao centr-periferiis TaviseburebiT. yoveli am tipisaTvis politikuri Zalaufleba moqmedebs sivrciT sazRvrebSi. pirveli saxelmwifos mimarT saxelmwifos damokidebulebaa, sadac saqarTvelos mTavroba warmoadgens saerTaSorisod aRiarebul saxelmwifos, samxreT oseTi da afxazeTi ki _ de faqto saxelmwifoebs. meore, saqarTvelos moqmedi konstitucia adgens federalur urTierTobas Tbilissa da aWaris avtonomiur respublikas Soris.15 mesame, mxedvelobaSi unda iqnas miRebuli regionalizaciis procesi saqarTveloSi. "raionebma", romlebic Seiqmna SevardnaZis reJimis dros da sadac saprezidento Zalauflebas adgilobriv doneze e. w. gubernatorebi warmoadgenen, ver miiRes Sesabamisi konstituciuri statusi. raionul doneze TviTmmarTvelobis sakiTxi "vardebis revoluciis" Semdegac politikuri dRis wesrigSi darCa.16 meoTxe, arsebobs raionebi

15 saqarTvelos konstituciis Tavi 3.3.-Si Setanil cvlilebaSi naTqvamia: "aWaris avtonomiis statusi ganisazRvros saqarTvelos konstituciuri kanoniT." 2004 wlis maisamde, roca aWaris lideri aslan abaSiZe gandevnili iqna, msgavsi kanoni saqarTvelos parlaments ar miuRia. 2004 wlis 7 ivliss miiRes, kanoni aWaris statusze, romelic regions aniWebs nominalur avtonomias, magram formalurad amowmebs mis, rogorc avtonomiuri respublikis mdgomareobas. saqarTvelos politikaze aWaraSi ix. International Crisis Group. Saakashvili's Ajara Success: Repeatable Elsewhere in Georgia? // Europe Briefing, August 18, 2004, http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/ index.cfm?id=2907&l=1. aWaris konstituciur statusze ix. The Report of the Committee on the Honouring of Obligations and Commitments by Member States of the Council of Europe (Monitoring Committee), Parliamentary Assembly, Council of Europe, Honouring of Obligations and Commitments by Georgia, Doc. 10383, December 21, 2004, particularly pp. 3, 10-11, http://assembly,coe,int/Documents/WorkingDocs/doc04/ EDOC10383.htm. 2002 wels., oficialuri statistikuri monacemebiT, aWaris mcxovrebTa raodenoba Seadgenda 376 016 adamians. 16 saqarTvelos regionalizaciis problemurobaze ix. Bruno Coppieters, Tamara Kovziridze, and Uwe Leonardy, "Federalization of Foreign Relations: Discussing Alternatives for the Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict," Caspian Studies Program Working Paper no.2, (Cambridge, MA: Caspian Studies Program, Harvard University, October 2003), p.16, http:// bcsia.ksg.harvard.edu/publication.cfm?program=CORE&ctype=paper&item_ id=405

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erovnuli umciresobebiT, magaliTad, azerbaijanTan mosazRvre qvemo qarTlis raioni (azerbaijanelebi), samcxejavaxeTi (somxebi), gansakuTrebiT axalqalaqi da misi Semogareni, pankisis xeoba (CeCnebis monaTesave qistebi). am umciresobaTa integracia saqarTvelos saxelmwifo struqturebSi sustia. maT mier politikuri avtonomiis moTxovnam SeiZleba saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daqucmaceba gamoiwvios. yvela am SemTxvevaSi arsebobs sivrciTi problema usafrTxoebis problematikis TvalsazrisiT: afxazeTi da samxreT oseTi Seadgens saqarTvelos teritoriis 15%-s, xolo sxva erovnuli umciresobani _ saqarTvelos mosaxleobis 16.3%-s.17 centr-periferiis igive konceptualuri sqema SeiZleba gamoviyenoT kavkasiaSi "saerTaSoriso wesrigis" mimarT, gansakuTrebiT "periferiuli" usafrTxoebis politikis SemTxvevaSi, rasac saqarTvelo aviTarebda warmatebul prezidentTa xelmZRvanelobiT moskovis, vaSingtonisa da briuselis mimarT.18 aqvea sivrciT ganzomilebaTa gamoyenebac. saqarTvelo aRiqmeba, rogorc erTaderTi centri Sida periferiebis mimarT da rogorc periferia saerTaSoriso centrebis mimarT. centr-periferiis es ormagi standarti saSualebas gvaZlevs, CavwvdeT Sida da saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis urTierTkavSirs, rac saqarTvelos samive prezidentis reJimebis dros emuqreboda.19

ix. gia nodias naSromi winamdebare krebulSi. qarTuli kulturis rolis analizisTvis saqarTvelos sagareo politikaSi ix. Stephen Jones, "The Role of Cultural Paradigms in Georgian Foreign Policy," in Rick Fawn, ed., Ideology and National Identity in Post-Communist Foreign Policies (London: Frank Cass, 2004), PP. 83-110. 19 am SemTxvevaSi centr-periferiis modeli gamoiyeneba sivrculad dafuZnebuli usafrTxoebis winaaRmdeg mimarTul saSiSroebaze.es ar gamoricxavs amave modelis gamoyenebas im safrTxeebis winaaRmdeg, romelic warmoiSoba korufciis, saxelmwifo struqturebisa da siRaribis kriminalizaciis an samoqalaqo-samxedro urTierTobebis safuZvelze, romelTac sivrculi ganzomileba aqvT.yvela am saxis saSiSroebebs uTuod uaryofiTi gavlena hqonda saqarTvelosa da misgan gamoyofil teritoriebze.

18 17

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

wina TavebSi gakeTebuli analizi iZleva imis safuZvels, rom SevamowmoT varaudebi, romlebsac iyenebs centr-periferiis modeli: saqarTvelos saSinao usafrTxoebis politikis gaTvaliswinebiT, Semcirda Tu ara centrsa da periferias Soris cvlilebebi periferiisgan gasxvavebiT centrSi viTarebis cvlilebis gamo? saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis politikis gaTvaliswinebiT, moskovSi, vaSingtonsa da briuselSi ganxorcielebul Zireul politikur cvlilebebs ufro Zlieri gavlena aqvT Tbilisze Tu im movlenebs, rac saqarTveloSi xdeba? am mosazrebebis uSualo Sedegi momavalSi saqarTvelos politikis arCevaze SesaZloa iyos, magaliTad, gandgomili provinciebis mierTeba an evropis kavSirTan daaxloeba. warmatebuli molaparakebebi samreT oseTis da afxazeTis politikur statusze nawilobriv damokidebuli iqneba politikur dinamikaze soxumsa da cxinvalSi,20 magram ufro metad _ TbilisSi mimdinare procesebze. dasavleTis organizaciebSi _ natosa da evrokavSirSi saqarTvelos Sesvla agreTve didad aris damokidebuli mis unarze, Caataros reformebi saxelmwifo struqturebSi. magram ufro metad damokidebulia am organizaciebis unarze, saqarTvelos problemebi ganixilon periferiuli saxelmwifos WrilSi. centr-periferiis modelSi saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis dasamyareblad warmodgenili mosazrebani ar niSnavs, rom separatistuli konfliqti aRqmuli iqneba, rogorc samxreT kavkasiaSi mTavar gareSe moqmed mxareTa Soris ZalTa balansis cvlileba. piriqiT, centr-periferiis modelis gamoyeneba saqarTveloSi separatistuli konfliqtis analizisaTvis fokusirdeba centris rolze saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi ­ mxedvelobaSia is moqmedi mxareebi, romlebic axorcielebdnen saqarTveloze zewolas sagareo politikuri kursis arCevisas. agreTve mxedvelobaSi miiReba saqarTvelos saxelmwifo

20 afxazebi weren "suxum"-s, qarTvelebi ­ "soxums" an "suxums"=s inglisurenovan publikaciebSi. osebi iyeneben "cxinval"-s, maSin, roca qarTvelebi amjobineben "cxinvali"-s.

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politika. magram mTavari gasaRebi centrsa da periferias Soris saSinao konfliqtebis gadasawyvetad saqarTvelos centris gardaqmnaa. saqarTveloSi safrTxisa da mTlianad kavkasiaSi arastabilurobis Tanxvedra gamoixata centridan daSorebuli ori periferiis moZraobaSi. pirveli, saqarTvelos centrs win aRudga periferia uwindeli sabWoTa avtonomiis erTeulis moTxovniT, erTi mxriv, meore mxriv, konfrontaciaSi aRmoCndnen erovnuli umciresobani. es gamomwvevi moTxovnebi SeiZleboda gadaWriliyo periferiis centrTan integrirebiT, politikuri warmomadgenlobebiT, umciresobaTa uflebebiT an federaluri mowyobiT. isini SeiZleba mivakuTvnoT konfrontaciis politikas. es, ra Tqma unda, asustebs centrs, Tu separatistul erTeulebs SeuZlia, isargeblon am sisustiT da Seqmnan axali suveneruli centri. dRemde centrma TbilisSi ver SeZlo urCi periferiebis SemoerTeba an konfrontaciis politikis saSualebiT maTi damorCileba. periferiaSi ganze gamdgarma "saxelmwifoebmac" ver SeZles saqarTvelodan Tavis daRweva maTi suverenobis saerTaSoriso aRiarebiT. meore, konfliqturi mdgomareoba, romelic SeiZleba Sefasdes, rogorc centrisgan gandgomis moZraoba, arsebobs internacionalur doneze: saqarTvelo mtkiced icavs Tavis periferiul statuss moskovTan mimarTebaSi, roca iTxovs dasavleTis organizaciebSi gaerTianebas. is cdilobs, Seicvalos erT centrze damokidebulis statusi did evroatlantikur sivrceSi mraval centrze damokidebulebiT. saqarTvelos natoSi da evrokavSirSi gawevrianebisken miswrafeba mianiSnebs am survilze. moskovi am moTxovnaze integraciisa da konfrontaciis daxlarTuli politikiT reagirebda. aseT SemTxvevaSi centrma ver SeaCera periferiebis Camocilebis procesi. magram verc periferiam SeZlo, daesrulebina Tavisi gaTavisufleba centrze damokidebulebisagan sxva centrTan mimarTebiT, magaliTad, natosTan an evrokavSirTan. saqarTvelo dasavleTis usafrTxoebis sistemis aRqmiT kvlav periferiad rCeba. misi Rrma arastabiluroba

460

saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

SeiZleba gagebuli iqnas, rogorc periferiis ori unayofo cdis Sedegi, Seecvala Tavisi urTierToba centrTan _ erT SemTxvevaSi nacionaluri, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi _ saerTaSoriso. centr-periferiis urTierTobaSi integraciisa da konfrontaciis ori piroba arsebobs. centr-periferiis urTierTobis sxva tipebi iZleva sasargeblo analitikur instruments saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis politikis gasagebad. magaliTad, saxelmwifo da erovnuli strategiis SefardebiTi mSeneblobisas, rac saqarTvelom gamoiyena avtonomiebis mimarT maT mier damoukideblobis gamocxadebis Semdeg, sainteresoa, gavigoT ara marto is ganzomileba, Tu romel konfrontaciul politikas efuZneboda es strategia, aramed isic, Tu ramdenad iRebdnen sxva arCevans mxedvelobaSi. am TvalsazrisiTmravali kiTxva SeiZleba gaCndes. ra moculobiT ganixilavdnen avtonomiur erTeulebs nacionaluri elementebi gamsaxurdias, SevardnaZis an saakaSvilis dros sazRvrebis darRvevisas, sadac erovnul umciresobaTa an gare Zalebis mZafr konfrontacias hqonda adgili? SeiZleba amJamindeli konfliqtis Cawynarebisas es avtonomiuri erTeulebi odesme warmodgenili yofiliyo , rogorc potenciuri SemakavSirebeli rgoli sxva regionebTan mTel kavkasiaSi, rac xels Seuwyobda TurqeTTan, ruseTTan an Crdilo kavkasiis sxva regionebTan TanamSromlobas? meore mxriv, iswrafvodnen ki es avtonomiuri erTeulebi, magaliTad, aWara, afxazeTi aseTi rolisaken? msgavsi kiTxvebi ibadeba saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa doneze, roca saqarTvelo ganixileba periferiad da centri ganlagebulia vaSingtonSi, briuselSi an moskovSi. ra politikas mimarTavs briuseli da vaSingtoni saqarTvelos, rogorc aziaevropis SemaerTeblis mxardasaWerad? nacionaluri an internacionaluri doneebi SekavSirebulia masStabiT, romlis mimarTac "erovnuli gegma" am mravalerovan saxelmwifoSi, nodias Tanaxmad, Semofarglulia qarTvel ersa da periferiis erebs Soris konfrontaciiT iseve, rogorc qarTuli periferia da ruseTis centri. ra saSinao Sedegi aqvs vaSingtonis mxridan saqarTvelosadmi damokidebulebas,

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qveynisadmi, romelic esazRvreba irans an qveynisadmi, romelmac ver SeZlo daemyarebina kontroli Tavis teritoriaze da kars uRebs teroristul elementebs? bolos, SeiZleba daibados kiTxva: ra masStabisaa saqarTvelos politikis buneba Sida periferiebTan mimarTebaSi ruseTSi, SeerTebul StatebSi an euToSi mimdinare gardaqmnaTa fonze? am Sromis avtorebma ar Camoayalibes TavianTi analizi centr-periferiis urTierTobaTa cnebebisa, magram saamisod masala ki mogvces. amrigad, wigni warmogvidga "daSrevebuli" saxiT. Sida Sreebi ukavSirdeba nacionaluri usafrTxoebis moTxovnis saSinao da istoriul wyaroebs, gare Sreebi _ moTxovnis gare wyaroebs, ruseTis, dasavleTis CaTvliT, sxva Sreebis da problemebis kompleqsuri konfiguracia garemos Zalian arTulebs. saqarTvelos nacionaluri gegmis analizisas nodia ganixilavs orive Sres, rac moicavs erovnulisa da centris mier Tavisi periferiis kontrolis unifikacias, erTi mxriv, meore mxriv _ dasavleTTan srul integracias. orive Sre met-naklebi sicxadiTaa CarTuli am wignis yvela sxva msjelobaSi maSinac ki, roca mTavari yuradReba gadatanilia usafrTxoebis Sida an gare wyaroebze.

centr-periferiis urTierToba saqarTvelos saSinao doneze

centr-periferiis urTierToba saqarTvelos saSinao doneze moicavs gansxvavebul damokidebulebebs Tbilissa da sxvadasxva teritoriul avtonomiebs Soris, rogorebicaa teritoriulad koncentrirebuli erovnuli umciresobani. SidaurTierTqmedebis zogierTi forma SesabamisobaSia am konteqstTan. pirveli, konfrontaciaa erovnul sazogadoebebs Soris, rac moxda samreT oseTisa da afxazeTis periferiebSi da ramac gamoiwvia srulmasStabiani omi centrTan. 2003 wlamde konfrontaciiT xasiaTdeboda urTierToba Tbilissa da aWaras Soris. moxerxda konfrontaciisaTvis Tavis

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

arideba, magram darCa garkveuli safrTxe teritoriulad koncentrirebul umciresobebTan. meore, ver moxerxda saqarTvelos periferiebis gaerTianeba saxelmwifo da erovnuli mowyobis RonisZiebebSi. centris xelisufalT akldaT politikuri neba, wasuliyvnen radikalur kompromisebze, raTa moegvarebinaT konfliqti periferiaSi, radgan aseT kompromisebs SeiZleba daekarga saSinao legitimuroba an gamoewvia saxelmwifo arastabilurobis sxva mizezebi. mesame, miuxedavad krizisis mravalgzis afeTqebisa, rac gamowveulia saqarTvelos erovnuli mowyobis SeuZleblobiT, SidaurTierTqmedeba centrsa da periferias Soris xasiaTdeba gaurkvevlobiT. es gamomdinareobs konfrontaciis politikisa da kompromisidan. meoTxe, ar xdeba periferiis, rogorc sxva regionebsa da saxelmwifoebTan damakavSirebeli rgolis, potencialis gamoyeneba. SidaurTierTqmedebisa oTxive nimuSi erovnuli raobis Seqmnisa da gardaqmnis elementebs warmoadgens. centr-periferiis modeli uSvebs, rom SidaurTierTqmedebaSi cvlilebebi dapirispirebul mxareTa Soris ufro mZime formas miiRebs centrSi cvlilebebiT, vidre periferiaSi. es niSnavs, rom, magaliTad, ZalauflebaSi gamsaxurdias, SevardnaZisa da saakaSvilis monacvleobiT mosvla ufro mZime dartyma iyo Tbilissa da periferias Soris urTierTobaze, vidre periferiaSi romelime politikuri cvlileba.dapirispirebul mxareTa Soris asimetriuli da ierarqiuli urTierToba gulisxmobs, rom urTierTobis yovel cvlilebas ufro Rrma efeqti aqvs periferiaze, vidre centrze. saqarTveloSi centr-periferiis urTierTobaSi momxdari dramatuli cvlilebebi gulisxmobs damoukideblobis periodSi gardaqmnaTa amao mcdelobas da, Sesabamisad, Tbilisis imedgacurebas, kontroli daemyarebina samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTze; igive SeiZleba iTqvas 2003 wlis "vardebis revoluciis" Sedegebze aWarisa da samxreT oseTisaTvis.

sabWoTa periodi

sabWoTa periodSi gacxadebuli mizani iyo integracia, mTavari maxasiaTebeli niSani _ dominireba, sabolood ki

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eTnofederaluri konfrontacia. sabWoTa kavSiri warmodgenili iyo, rogorc sxvadasxva erebis integracia, romlebic Tavmoyrili iyvnen mefis imperiuli mmarTvelobis qveS. nagulisxmevi iyo, rom kompleqsuri federaluri wyoba, romelic moicavda mmarTvelobis zeerovnul dones da federalur erTeulTa xsvadasxva formebs (mokavSire Tu avtonomiuri respublikebi, avtonomiuri mxareebi), moagvarebda (an gadaWrida) nacionaluri TviTgamorkvevis problemas. moskovsa da mokavSire respublikebs Soris urTierToba warmoadgenda pirvel damakavSirebel rgols centr-periferias Soris. meore rgoli iyo urTierToba am kavSirsa da avtonomiur respublikas Soris. mokavSire respublikasa da avtonomiur regionebs Soris urTierToba kavSiris mesame formas warmoadgenda. sabWoTa centri yvela am urTierTobis mTavar gamgeblad rCeboda. sabWoTa eTnofederaluri wyobileba daingra. moiSala suverenobis ganawilebac, rac federaciulobis mTavar niSans warmoadgenda. nodia am struqturas aRwers, rogorc kvazifederalurs, sadac suverenobis gamoyeneba, faqtobrivad, xorcieldeboda centralizebuli gziT _ komunisturi partiis meSveobiT. konfrontacia kavSiris meore da mesame rgolis doneebze nacionalur erTobebs Soris sabWoTa centris daSlis Sedegi iyo. metic, roca konfrontacia daiwyo, sabWoTa eTnofederaluri tradiciebi Zalas matebda separatistebs da exmareboda nacionalistur elitas.21 afxazeTma da samxreT oseTma TavianTi identuroba gamoxates saqarTvelos xelisuflebasTan opoziciaSi dgomiT. amave dros maT konfliqti hqondaTTavianT teritoriaze myof qarTvel mosaxleobasTan. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg saqarTvelos mTavroba gulxeldakrefili ver uyurebda am konfliqts Tavis periferiaSi. am moTxovnebis paralelurad

eTnofederalizmis gamaerTianebel miznebsa da dacalkevebis Sedegebze ix. Henry E. Hale, "Divided We Stand. Institutional Sources of Ethnofederal State Survival and Collapse," World Politics, vol. 56 (January 2004), pp. 165-193 and Nancy Bermeo, "Position Paper for the Working Group on Federalism, Conflict Prevention, and Settlement," warmodgenili federalizmis mesame saerTaSoriso konferenciaze, briuseli, 2005 wlis 3-5 marti.

21

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

is eZebda saSualebas, rom aRedgina saqarTvelos kulturuli da politikuri kontroli mTel teritoriaze, rac dakarga sabWoTa periodSi. afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTze saqarTvelos teritoriuli moTxovnebi droiTi ganzomilebiT iyo gamarTlebuli. saqarTvelos istoriuli wyaroebis mixedviT, es teritoriebi Tavdapirvelad dasaxlebuli iyo qarTveluri tomebiT da droTa ganmavlobaSi maTgan Camoyalibda qarTuli mosaxleoba. 22 samxreT oseTis teritoriaze qarTvelebi "adgilobrivi" ZirZveli mosaxleobaa, osebi ki gvian _ Camosaxlebuli mas Semdeg, rac maT migracia ganicades CrdiloeT oseTidan ramdenime saukunis win. warmoSobis mixedviT es gansxvaveba qarTvelebs upiratesobas aZlevs osebTan SedarebiT, miuxedavad demografiuli suraTisa mas Semdeg, rac qarTvelebis umciresobaSi darCenis Semdeg Seiqmna. rac Seexeba afxazeTs, saqarTvelos kontrolis gasamarTleblad sxvadasxva argumentebs iyeneben, roca afxazebi iTxoven avtoxTonur statuss: bevri qarTvelis azriT, isini arian umciresoba (mosaxleobis 18%, 1989) da ricxobrioba uflebas ar aZlevs maT, Warbad iyvnen warmodgenili respublikis institutebSi, arc gansakuTrebul politikur privilegiebs aniWebs, rogorc wamyvan ers. metic, yvela qarTveli nacionalisti rodi iziarebs im Tvalsazriss, rom afxazebi avtoxTonuri eria. 1954 wels istorikosi mecnieri pavle ingoroyva mxars uWerda azrs, rom afxazebi afxazeTis ZirZveli mosaxleoba ki ar aris, aramed gadmosulni arian CrdiloeT kavkasiidan. mis mosazrebas bevri mimdevari hyavs saqarTveloSi. is uaryofs afxazebis uflebas, iTvlebodnen pirvelad erad da ukanonod Tvlis politikaSi maT Warbad warmodgenas.

22

Bruno Coppieters, "In Defense on the Homeland: Intellectuals and the GeorgianAbkhazian Conflict," in Bruno Coppieters and Michel Huysseune, eds., Secession, History, and the Social Sciences (Brussels: VUB University Press, 2002), p.105, http:// poli.vub.ac.be/.

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afxazebis msjeloba afxazTaeTnogenezisis Sesaxeb Seicavs mowodebas suverenitetis Sesaxeb. maTi istorikosebi uaryofen afxazeTSi qarTvelTa ZirZveli eris statuss da maT ganixilaven, rogorc migrantebs. isini imowmeben carizmisa da sabWoTa migraciul politikas, ramac afxazi mosaxleoba umciresobad aqcia.23 afxazebi eyrdnobian am istoriul interpretacias, raTa gaamarTlon afxazTa gansakuTrebuli statusi, agreTve saerTaSoriso suverenobis moTxovna. amas imitomac iyeneben, rom ukanonod cnon qarTvelTa moTxovna mmarTvelobaSi proporciuli warmomadgenlobis Sesaxeb.

gamsaxurdia

sabWoTa institutebis dasustebasTan erTad qarTvelebi da afxazebi Seecadnen, axali forma miecaT centr-periferiis urTierTobisaTvis TavianTi nacionaluri gegmebis mixedviT. es konfrontaciuli gegmebi dapirispirebul mxareTa msjelobebSi efuZnebda istoriul usamarTlobas, erovnul raobas da saxelmwifo suverenobas. qarTvelTa TvalTaxedviT, federalizmisadmi sabWoTa midgoma da federalur erTeulTa Seqmna saqarTveloSi miznad isaxavda qveynis dayofas da maTi suverenobis SeCerebas. afxazebi da osebi, rogorc saqarTvelos respublikis federaluri erTeulebis mcxovrebi titularuli erebi, ewinaaRmdegebodnen aRniSnul damokidebulebas, rogorc Seviwroebisa da diskriminaciis formas. maT eSinodaT, rom saqarTvelos damoukidebloba bolos mouRebda im SezRudvebs, rac sabWoTa centrma dauwesa saqarTvelos nacionalizms. rogorc nodiam warmoadgina, es ufro asatani iyo am ori umciresobisaTvis, vidre sxva mcire jgufebisaTis, romlebsac ar gaaCndaT avtonomiuri saxelmwifo institutebi, rom CamoeyalibebinaT TavianTi saCivari, nacionaluri gegma,

23

ix. sxvadasxva naSromebSi: George Hewitt, ed., The Abkhazians (Richmond, UK:Curzon, 1999).

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

Tavi moeyaraT erovnuli resursebisaTvis da garedan mieRoT mxardaWera, raTa win aRdgomodnen centrs. nacionalistur ZalTa mokrebas adgili hqonda saqarTvelos centrSi, osebsa da afxazebSi. man miiRo calmxrivi moZraobis forma, rac Seesabameboda msgavs moZraobebs sxva mxares. ase magaliTad, suverenobis an damoukideblobis calmxrivi gamocxadeba, arCevnebis Catareba, romelSic sxva mxare uars ambobda monawileobaze, konstituciuri cvlilebebi, romelsac meore mxare ar cnobda, axali enis SemoReba, rac zrdida erTi enisa da kulturis mniSvnelobas da akninebda meore mxaris statuss, zogjer xdeboda Zalis gamoyenebac. am konfrontaciaSi uxeS darRvevaTa aRzeveba saqarTvelos centrsa da periferiaSi calmxriv qmedebaTa nawils Seadgenda da SeiZleboda gagebuliyo, rogorc mravalgvar faqtorTa Sedegi. daviT darCiaSvili miuTiTebs, rom sabWoTa centris dasustebam saSualeba misca, Seqmniliyo paramilitaruli erTeulebi, romlebsac kavSiri hqonda SidaeTnikur konfliqtebTan 1980-iani wlebis bolos. saqarTvelos xelisuflebam ver SeZlo, Tavisi eris mxares mdgari paramilitaruli jgufebis erTguleba saxelmwifo institutebisaken miemarTa. qristefor ciurxeris azriT, es situacia qmnis xelsayrel garemos "movaWreTa ZaladobisaTvis", gamoiyenon Zaladoba Tavisi sargeblis saZieblad. gamsaxurdia iyenebda am Zalebs Tavisi politikuri ZalauflebisaTvis da awarmoebda oms samxreT oseTSi. magram saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sisustis gamo ver SeZlo, kontroli gaewia am moqmedebisaTvis an, bolos da bolos, Tavidan aecilebina mis winaaRmdeg maTi moqmedeba. saqarTvelos erovnuli gegma da nacionalisturi mobilizacia damoukideblobis dros ar uwyobda xels iseT politikas, romelic saSualebas miscemda periferiebs, emoqmeda, rogorc SemaerTebel rgols sxva centrebTan. rogorc Tomas de vaalma aRniSna, gamsaxurdia icavda uCveulo ideas kavkasieli xalxis eTnikuri da kulturuli bazisis Taobaze, magram ver gamoiCina praqtikuli iniciativa regionuli integraciisaTvis. aseT iniciativas saqarTvelos periferiebi

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unda CaerTo TanamSromlobis CarCoebSi. konfrontacia samxreT oseTSi xels uSlida regionTan TanamSromlobas. afxazeTis SemTxvevaSi gamsaxurdia xels uwyobda im azris damkvidrebas, rom afxazi ar iyo ZirZveli eTnosi im teritoriaze, is gadmosuli iyo CrdiloeT kavkasiidan.24 sazRvrismieri urTierTqmedeba gamoixateboda mxolod SeiaraRebuli dapirispirebis doneze. samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTSi omis dros orives SeiaraRebuli mxardaWera hqonda monaTesave xalxisa da politikuri mokavSireebis mxridan saqarTvelos sazRvris garedan.

SevardnaZe

1992 wlis ianvarSi gamsaxurdias gandevnas da saqarTveloSi SevardnaZis dabrunebas ramdenime Tvis Semdeg dramatuli Sedegi mohyva Tbilisis periferiebTan damokidebulebis TvalsazrisiT. SevardnaZis mier Zalauflebis mopovebam ruseTis daxmarebiT xeli Seuwyo oseTSi omis Sewyvetas. 1992 wels SevardnaZis mier afxazeTSi SeWris mTavari azri misi nacionalisturi ganwyobis demonstrireba iyo im dros, roca muqara grZeldeboda gamsaxurdias mxridan, romelmac dasavleTSi Tavi mouyara SeiaraRebul jgufebs. ciurxeri SeniSnavs, rom 1992 wlis agvistos omamdec ki afxazeTSi Sidasazogadoebrivi Zaladoba SeiniSneboda, magram mas farTo masStabis samoqalaqo omis forma ar miuRia. aseTi omi centris Carevis Sedegad moxda. gamsaxurdias erTguli SeiaraRebuli jgufebi damarcxdnen mxolod afxazeTis omis Semdeg 1993 oqtomberSi da isec ruseTis Carevis Sedegad. teritoriis didi nawilis dakargvis miuxedavad, SevardnaZis mTavrobam SeZlo saxelmwifoebriobis elementebis aRdgena. "gansacdelis Jamis" bolo, rogorc ciurxeri ambobs, simbolizebuli iyo 1995 wlis konstituciis

24

ix. Coppieters, in Coppieters and Huysseune, eds., pp.91-94.

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

miRebiT da mTavrobis Zalauflebis ganmtkicebiT. saparlamento organizaciebi dakninda an Seeria axal SeiaraRebul Zalebs. mravalerovani saqarTvelos erT saxelmwifod gaerTianeba gaxda SevardnaZis reJimis mTavari moTxovna. marcxi afxazeTSi, saqarTvelos armiis sisuste, ruseTis uari, ZaliT gadaeWra sakiTxi, mxolod diplomatiis arCevansRa tovebda, rom gadaeWra afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis statusis sakiTxi. molaparakebebi male CixSi Sevida da am mxriv dRemde araferi Secvlila. saqarTvelos midgoma kvlav gaerTianebisadmi moicavs asimetriul federalur models, romelSic afxazeTi da samxreT oseTi aWarasTan da saqarTvelos sxva raionebTan erTad miiRebs sxvadasxva donis avtonomiebs. es miuRebelia separatistTa liderebisTvis. aseTi federaluri kavSiri, maTi azriT, damokidebulebas mudmiv urTierTobad aqcevs. agreTve mudmivi iqneba konfrontacia centrsa da periferiebs Soris. afxazeTis liderebi, Tavis mxriv, upiratesobas aniWeben konfederacias an "Tavisufal asocirebul saxelmwifos" saqarTvelosTan. orive arCevani saSualebas miscems afxazeTs, aRiarebuli iqnas, rogorc saerTaSoriso samarTlis sruluflebiani subieqti da SeinarCunos Tavisi suvereniteti Tu gamoyofis calmxrivi ufleba. es Zireulad Secvlis centr-periferiis urTierTobas saqarTveloSi. Tbilisma uaryo es pozicia, ramdenadac igi qveynis erTianobis SenarCunebisaTvis miuReblad CaTvala. afxazeTSi centrisa da periferiis konfrontacia darCa mTavar sakiTxad SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis dros. 1999 wels afxazeTis liderebma daikaves radikaluri pozicia da moiTxoves, rom damoukidebloba an asocirebuli damokidebuleba ruseTis federaciasTan iyo erTaderTi misaRebi pozicia. molaparakebis gaWianurebis sanacvlod saqarTvelos xelisufleba Zalis gamoyenebiT imuqreboda. igifarulad exmareboda afxazeTSi moqmed partizanebs. saqarTvelosa da

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afxazeTis xelisufleba 1997 wlidan molaparakebas awarmoebdnen ekonomikur TanamSromlobaze da orive mxarisaTvis saintereso sakiTxSi SeTanxmdebodnen, konfrontaciasac Tavidan aicilebdnen.25 magram afxazeTis statusis sakiTxi mkvdari wertilidan ver daiZra _ verc ekonomikuri da verc sxva saxis TanamSromlobiT. ekonomikuri integraciis ganviTarebis politika samxreT oseTSi ukeTesi aRmoCnda, vidre afxazeTSi. am SemTxvevaSi politikuri statusis sakiTxma ekonomikuri integraciis yvela Zalisxmeva daCrdila. SevardnaZis mTavrobasa da samxreT oseTis xelmZRvanelobas Soris molaparakebaSi davis mTavar sakiTxs pasportebi da samgzavro sabuTebi warmoadgenda. samxreT oseTis xelmZRvanelebisaTvis es saqme mniSvnelovani iyo ruseTis federaciasTan vaWrobisa da komunikaciisaTvis. samxreT oseTis liderebma iTxoves nebarTva, Tavad gamoeSvaT piradobis mowmobebi da sxva iuridiuli sabuTebi, magram saqarTvelos mTavrobam amisganxorcieleba ar dauSva. afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis perspeqtividan gamomdinare, ruseTis mimdebare sazRvarTan vaWroba unda gaumjobesdes, sanam saboloo politikuri SeTanxmeba iqneba miRweuli. ruseTis regionebTan, gansakuTrebiT ki CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi gaxSirebuli kontaqti, maTi azriT, sasargeblo iqneba ara marto maTi ekonomikuri ganviTarebisaTvis, aramed gaaumjobesebs maT berketebs saqarTvelos xelisuflebasTan molaparakebisas. SevardnaZis periodSi legaluri reJimis arqonaver SeaCerebs samxreT oseTis gavliT didi raodenobis saqonliT vaWrobas, romlis umetesoba kontrabanda iqneba. SevardnaZis mTavroba upiratesobas aniWebs tolerantobas aseT iniciativebTan SedarebiT da zogjer ganixilavs maT, rogorc qarTvelebsa da osebs Soris TanamSromlobis sasargeblo formas, rogorc imis dasabuTebas, rom qarTvelebsa da osebs Soris eTnikuri SuRli ar arsebobs.

25

aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT ix. Coppieters, Kovziridze, and Leonardy.

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

rogorc nodia xsnis, Tbilissa da aWaris avtonomiur respublikas Soris daZabuloba ar gamomdinareobs separatizmis moTxovnidan an nacionaluri identurobis gamo Seqmnili konfliqtidan. misi TvalsazrisiT, arsebobs mkveTri gansxvaveba zemoT ganxilul or SemTxvevas Soris. centr-periferiis konfliqti am SemTxvevaSi momdinareobs aWaris umaRlesi sabWos Tavmjdomaris, aslan abaSiZis mier Tbilisis mTavrobis arcnobidan. fiskalur saqmeebSi aWara nebas ar rTavs Tbiliss, akontrolos sabaJo TurqeTis sazRvarze da ar ricxavs Tanxas wliuri Semosavlidan. usafrTxoebis sferoSi abaSiZe mWidrod TanamSromlobda aWaraSi ganlagebul ruseTis bazasTan da qmnida damoukidebel, adgilobriv SeiaraRebul Zalebs. darCiaSvilis mixedviT, 2003 wels aWaras hqonda 20 tanki, sabrZolo manqanebi, vertmfrenebi, sanapiro katerebi da sagangebo SeiaraRebuli erTeulebi. periferiidan mosuli liderebi SeiZleba warmogvidgnen, rogorc patriotebi da aCvenon upirobo erTguleba nacionaluri sakiTxis mimarT. aseTi iyo abaSiZis saqme. rogorc nodiam aRniSna, igi arasodes icavda aWaris erovnul gegmas, samagierod "uyvarda Tavis warmodgena, rogorc saqarTvelos erTianobis erovnuli liderisa" an SeeZlo gamxdariyo gavleniani politikuri figura nacionalur doneze arCevnebis gziT, gansakuTrebiT xmebis gayalbebiT da arasasurvel amomrCevelTa ardaSvebiT. aseTi saarCevno manipulaciebi bevr adgils aZlevda mis partias saqarTvelos parlamentSi. aWaras intensiuri savaWro urTierToba hqonda mezobel TurqeTTan, man xeli moawera ramdenime ormxriv SeTanxmebas ruseTis federaciis regionebTan da, rogorc evropis re-

26 1985 wels Seqmnili evropis regionis asamblea (era) aris forumi, romelic xels uwyobs evropis 30 qveynis 250 regions Soris Tanamegobrobas. 2004 wlis noemberSi aWara da saqarTvelos ori regioni (imereTi da Sida qarTli) iyvnen era-s wevrebi, or regions ki (guria da kaxeTi) damkvirveblis statusi hqonda. ix. http://www.are-regions-europe.org/.

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gionuli asambleis wevri, kavSirebs amyarebda evropis sxva regionebTan.26 aWara iyo pirveli regioni kavkasiaSi, romelic seriozulad Seecada, gaerTianebuliyo interregionuli TanamSromlobis panevropul qselSi. magram aWaras xeli moecara imaSi, rom SemaerTebeli rgolis roli eTamaSa sxva qveynebTan an regionebTan, radgan baTumma da Tbilisma ver SeZles federaluri urTierTobis gaformeba da, maSasadame, sabaJos saqme an aWaris saerTaSoriso legaluri statusis gadawyveta. metic, Sida konfliqti Tbilissa da aWaras Soris warmoebda saerTaSoriso doneze. magaliTad, aWaris wevrobas evropis regionul asambleaSi swrafad mohyveboda imereTis mxaris wevroba, romlis mmarTvelic saqarTvelos prezidentis rwmunebuli iyo am asambleaSi. Tbilisma es nabiji gadadga baTumis mcdelobis winaaRmdeg saerTaSoriso doneze. saqarTvelos am ori regionis warmomadgenlebi male waekidnen erTmaneTs da Riad aCvenes SidauTanxmoeba. aman xeli SeuSala evropis regionuli asambleis sxva wevrebTan TanaSromlobas. centrsa da aWaras Soris konfrontaciisaTvis sakmarisi niadagi arsebobda, magram SevardnaZes da abaSiZes saerTo interesebi gaaCndaT, ramac SesaZlebeli gaxada maT Soris politikuri SeTanxmebis miRweva. magaliTad, aWaris lideri dahpirda SevardnaZes pirad mxardaWeras saprezidento arCevnebSi 2000 wlis aprilSi, Tu saqarTvelos konstituciaSi Seitandnen dasaxelebas "aWaris avtonomiuri respublika". SevardnaZis Sexeduleba saxelmwifos momaval federalizaciaze iyo kidev erTi faqtori, romelmac SeaCera baTumsa da Tbiliss Soris normalizacia. SevardnaZis azriT, baTumTan federaluri kavSiris mowesrigebas mohyveboda afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis reintegracia. SevardnaZis survilis arqona, moewesrigebina es sakiTxi, efuZneboda centrisgan de faqtod gamoyofili aWaris winaSe uZlurebas. misi SedarebiTi indiferentuloba Tavisi reJimis gasul wlebSi gamowveuli iyo saqarTvelos parlamentis opoziciasTan uTanxmoebiT.

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

SevardnaZis meTaurobiT ganixileboda regionalizaciis sakiTxi, magram reformebi sadavo da gadauWreli rCeboda. aWarisa da afxazeTis garda, saqarTvelo Sedgeba aTi regionisagan, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, dayofilia raionebad. 27 prezidentis rwmunebuli (misi warmomadgeneli) an gubernatori flobs did Zalauflebas ufro dabali erTeulebis mimarT raionul da municipalur doneebze. demokratizaciis procesi da saxelmwifos ganmtkiceba 1990-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi marcxiT damTavrda, radgan regionebSi ver daamyares Sesabamisi konstituciuri statusi da TviTmmarTveloba. gadauWreli separatistuli konfliqti reJimis erTi mTavari argumenti iyo centralur mTavrobasa da regionul xelisuflebas Soris demokratiuli Zalauflebis gayofis sakiTxSi. Tbilisi daJinebiT moiTxovda, rom aseTi reforma unda gadadebuliyo, sanam saqarTvelos mTlianoba ar aRdgeboda. SevardnaZes eSinoda, kontroli ar daekarga mmarTvelobis dabal doneebze, gansakuTrebiT saarCevno procesze, romelSic gubernatorebi regularulad ereodnen. saqarTvelos momavali administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis Sesaxeb kamaTSi "raionistebi" ewinaaRmdegebodnen "regionalistebs". raionistebisTvis kontroli unda yofiliyo centraluri, raTa SeenarCunebina saxelmwifos stabiluroba da gadaerCina arsebuli reJimi. maT sjerodaT, rom afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis separatizmi da stabilurobis safrTxe SeuZlebels xdida radikalur reformebs.

27 aT regions warmoadgens (aWarisa da afxazeTis gamoklebiT) Semdegi: (1) imereTi (669 666 mcxovrebi), (2) qvemo qarTli (497 530), (3) samegrelo da zemo svaneTi (466 100), (4) kaxeTi (407 182), (5) Sida qarTli (samxreT oseTis gamoklebiT, 314 039), (6) samcxe-javaxeTi (207 598), (7) guria (143 357), (8) mcxeTa-mTianeTi (125 443), (9) raWa-leCxumi da qvemo svaneTi (50 969), (10) Tbilisi (1 081 679).mocemuli monacemebis mowodebisaTvis madloba minda gadavuxado gia nodias, romelsac, Tavis mxriv, monacemebi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo statistikis departamentisgan aqvs miRebuli.

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"regionalistebis" mixedviT, arademokratiuli saarCevno praqtikisaTvis regionul doneze ufro Zneli iqneboda, SeenarCunebinaT regionuli decentralizacia da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba. orive mimdinareoba warmodgenili iyo saqarTvelos mTavrobasa da parlamentSi. SevardnaZis reJimis bolomde Rrma reformebi, romelsac "regionalistebi" moiTxovdnen, SeuZlebeli Canda. SevardnaZis dros, gamsaxurdias periodisagan gansxvavebiT, eTnikur umciresobas aRar miawerdnen "stumris" saSiS statuss. SevardnaZis reJimma ver SeZlo, ganeviTarebina erTiani civiluri koncefcia saqarTvelos moqalaqeobisa da erovnebis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. umciresobaTa elitas mudmivad mfarvelobda centri. es sabWoTa wyobilebis dros mudmivs xdida politikuri loialobis sanacvlod elitaSi korufciis daTmenas.

saakaSvili

politikurma mmarTvelobam, romelmac Zalaufleba aiRo saqarTveloSi "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg, brZola gamoucxada korufcias, miznad daisaxa evroatlantikur blokSi gaerTianeba, ruseTTan normaluri urTierTobis damyareba da Tavisi politikiT dRis wesrigSi daayena qveynis gaerTianeba. axali liderebis azriT, SevardnaZisdroindeli xelmZRvaneloba cru dapirebebs iZleoda am sakiTxebze.axali mTavroba eZiebda radikalur cvlilebebs. erTi SexedviT, ise Canda, rom erovnuli gaerTianebis sakiTxSi TvalsaCino Sedegebis miRweva iyo SesaZlebeli. erTxel kidev, rogorc saakaSvilis ori winamorbedis SemTxvevaSi, progresi miRweuli unda yofiliyo konfrontaciis politikis meSveobiT. saakaSvili darwmunebuli iyo, rom axali reJimi kavSirs gawyvetda Zvel reJimTan aWaris mimarT gansxvavebuli politikiT, romlis lideric Zlier opoziciaSi edga "vardebis revolucias". saakaSvilma

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

imarjva da 2004 wlis maisSi abaSiZe aiZula, daeTmo Zalaufleba. 28 SevardnaZis mier prioritetebis ganxilvisas afxazeTis sakiTxi pirvel planze iqna wamoweuli, rasac mohyva samxreT oseTi da aWara. saakaSvilma Seabruna es midgoma. aWaraSi misi warmatebis Semdeg axali reJimi konfrontaciaSi Sevida samxreT oseTTan, gamoiyena Zala da Tan daxmarebis xeli hqonda gawvdili samxreT oseTis mosaxleobisaken. rogorc samxreT oseTis Sesaxeb saerTaSoriso krizisis jgufis moxseneba aRwers, saqarTvelos mTavroba erTmaneTs anacvlebda "SeteviT sixarbes" elitis doneze, "duxWirTa mzrunvelobas" mosaxleobis doneze.29 samxreT oseTsa da mis midamoebSi 2003 wlis dekemberSi daiwyo da 2004 wlis maisSi gaZlierda antikontrabanduli operaciebi . yvelaze TvalsaCino mcdeloba iyo Zalismieri

28 imis gasagebad, Tu ratom ar hqonda abaSiZes ruseTis sruli mxardaWera saakaSvilTan konfrontaciis dros 2004 wlis maisSi, saWiroa ganvasxvaoT ruseTis damokidebuleba konfliqtebisadmi saqarTveloSi erovnul dasaxlebebs Soris, erTi mxriv da Sida-qarTul dapirispirebebSi, meore mxriv. samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis eTnikur konfliqtebSi ruseTma erovnul umciresobaTa mxare daiWira, maSin roca moskovma SedarebiT frTxili pozicia daikava SidaqarTuli konfliqtebis ZaladobaSi gadazrdis dros. igi ar Seecada saqarTvelos saSinao mdgomareobis stabilizacias gandevnili prezidentis momxre samxedro Zalebisadmi daxmarebis gaweviT maSin, roca gamsaxurdias winaaRmdeg ganxorcielda putCi 1991 wlis bolos. SemdgomSi, 1993 wlis bolos man mxari dauWira SevardnaZes progamsaxurdias samxedro Zalebis winaaRmdeg, maSin, roca saqarTvelo Zlieri ki ara, SevardnaZis TqmiT, "daCoqili" iyo. 2003 wlis noemberSi ruseTma Tavi Seikava SevardnaZis winaaRmdeg revoluciuri Zalebis mobilizaciaSi monawileobisagan, agreTve, 2004 wlis maisSi man uari ganacxada, samxedro ZaliT daxmareboda aslan abaSiZis reJims aWaraSi, piriqiT, abaSiZis mier qveynis datovebis mediatoric gaxda.es gansxvaveba ori tipis konfliqts Soris SeiZleba aixsnas saqarTveloSi totaluri destabilizaciis SiSiT. ruseTisTvis SidaqarTul konfliqtSi Careva ufro didi riski iqneboda, vidre separatistul konfliqtebSi monawileoba. 29 International Crisis Group,"Georgia: Avoiding War in South Ossetia," Europe Report, no. 159, November 26, 2004, pp. 11-12, http://www.icg.org/home/index.cfm?1=1.

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daSineba SeiaraRebuli Zalebis SeyvaniT da ergneTis bazris daSla, romelic funqcionirebda, rogorc savaWro punqti ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris. es vaWroba, romelSic CarTuli iyvnen osebi da qarTvelebi, Zveli reJimis mier iTvleboda, rogorc mosaxleobaTa Soris kontaqtis gaumjobesebis gza. Sesabamisad, fiqroben, rom amas hqonda xangrZlivi dadebiTi efeqti Tbilisis mier konfliqtis mogvarebis RonisZiebebisaTvis. saakaSvilis mTavrobis TvalsazrisiT, am bazris pirveladi efeqti is iyo, rom ekonomika kriminaluri gaxda da konfliqtis mogvarebas xeli SeeSala. metic, aman moSala saqarTvelos biujeti da xeli SeuSala sabaJo da sagadasaxado reformebs. SevardnaZis indiferentulobis mizezi, axali xelmZRvanelebis azriT, is iyo, rom saqarTvelos gavlenianma wreebma sakmao materialuri sargebeli naxes am vaWrobidan. amave dros, saqarTvelos axalma mTavrobam gaaZliera fizikuri zewola samxreT oseTis xelmZRvanelebze, agreve dahpirda osur mosaxleobas pensiebis gadaxdas, amoqmedda tele da radio gadacemebi osur enaze. saakaSvili da misi momxreebi sayvedurobdnen imas, rom saqarTvelo-oseTis konfliqti gamowveuli iyo ufro Zarcvis surviliT, vidre gulwrfeli wuxiliT da, amdenad, samxreT oseTis xelmZRvanelebs akldaT saxalxo legitimuroba. maT miaCndaT, rom mosaxleobisaTvis mcire daTmobebiT Secvlidnen xalxis gaWirvebas. am iniciativebma Sedegi ver gamoiRo: samxedro dapirispireba 2004 wlis agvistoSi SeiaraRebul Setakebamde mivida, rasac mohyva msxverpli, gansakuTrebiT, qarTvelTa mxareze. aqedan gamomdinare, saakaSvilma gadawyvita, Seewyvita konfrontacia da gamoeyvana qarTuli jari konfliqtis zonidan.30 avtonomiur doneze, rogorc damien heli da giorgi gogia aRniSnaven, ergneTis bazris daketvam dafanta kriminaluri jgufebi, magram ver Secvala adgilobrivi mo30

ix. Ghia Nodia, "Europeanization and (Not) Resolving Secessionist Conflict, Journal on Ethnopolitics and Miorit Studies in Europe, issue 1 (2004), http://www.ecmi.de/jemie

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

saxleobis ekonomikuri mdgomareoba. amrigad, SeiaraRebuli konfrontacia samxreT oseTis xelisuflebTan da imis cda, rom SeekavSirebina adgilobrivi mosaxleoba, amao gamodga. saerTaSoriso krizisis jgufis moxsenebis Tanaxmad, konfliqtis remilitarizaciam Seaferxa mcire xnis SedarebiTi progresi. situaciam samxreT oseTSi Zireulad gaauaresa TbilisTan urTierToba, rac xazs usvams samxreT oseTis statuss, rogorc samudamo periferias. saqarTvelosTan vaWrobis moSlis gamo is mTlianad damokidebuli gaxda sxva centrze, ruseTze. amJamad moskovi mxars uWers osebis biujets, infrastuqturas da sapensio sistemasac ki.31 darCiaSvili aRwers, Tu rogor mivyavarT gandgomili mxareebisgan centraluri xelisuflebis Camocilebas maTi avtoritetis dacemasTan mezobel teritoriebze. msgavsi ram xdeba saqarTvelo-afxazeTis cecxlis Sewyvetis xazTan mimdebare teritoriazec. axali mTavroba cdilobda, emarTa afxazeTis teritoriaze moqmedi partizanuli jgufebi da sdevnida maT kriminaluri moqmedebis gamo. oqsana antonenkos mixedviT, politikis moqmedebam am jgufebis winaaRmdeg 2004 wlis TebervalSi gaaumjobesa usafrTxoebis mdgomareoba saqarTvelosa da afxazeTSi. saakaSvilis reJimis mcdelobis miuxedavad, gadaewyvita saqarTvelos nacionaluri gaerTianebis problema, aRmoCnda, rom calmxrivi RonisZiebebi ver muSaobs afxazeTis SemTxvevaSi. samxedro doneze moqmedebaTa ganxorcieleba, rogorc es iyo samxreT oseTSi, ver xdeboda ruseTis samSvidobo Zalebis gamo. afxazebisaTvis ekonomikuri daTmobisa da xelsayreli pirobebis SeTavazeba moiTxovda urTierTSeTanxmebis struqturas, rac im dros SeuZlebeli iyo. mcire xnis Semdeg afxazeTi gamoeyo saqarTvelos da yoveli sainterviuebi, romlebic "saqarTvelo-oseTis dialogis" damswreebTan Catarda samxreT oseTidan mowveul pirvel eqspertTa Sexvedraze, 2005 wlis 15-19 marts, brnoSi, sloveniaSi. Sexvedra organizebuli iyo oqsana antonenkos mier, strategiuli kvlevebis saerTaSoriso institutidan.

31

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sargeblo savaWro kavSiri saqarTvelosa da afxazeTs Soris gamkacrda. socialuri, kulturuli da ekonomikuri SidaurTierTqmedebani afxazeTsa da saqarTvelos Soris dartymas ayenebda saxelmwifo da erovnuli mSeneblobis process afxazeTSi. amiT aixsneba is, rom saqarTvelosTan molaparakeba araviTar rols ar TamaSobda saprezidento arCevnebis dros afxazeTSi _ 2004 wlis 3 oqtombers, arc im krizisSi, rac Semdeg gamovlinda. am arCevnebSi ori kandidatidan arc erTi ar gamoxatavda uTanxmoebas afxazeTis suverenitetis Sesaxeb an saqarTvelos mimarT dadebiT pozicias. es iyo periferia, romelic centris mimarT gamoxatavda indiferentulobas, rac aisaxa am urTierTobaTa bunebaSi Zireuli cvlilebebiT da afxazeTis damoukideblobis kursis SecvliT ruseTis centrisadmi. saqarTvelos SeeZlo, mxolod pretenzia hqonoda, rom centrad CaTvliliyo afxazeTis mTel teritoriaze Zalauflebis gavrcelebiT, afxazeTis saerTaSoriso aRiarebis blokirebiT da mkacri usafrTxoebis dafuZnebiT. antonenko SeniSnavs, rom ruseTi Suamavlobda 2004 wels afxazeTSi saprezidento arCenvebis dros SeTanxmebas or kandidats Soris, rCeboda erTaderT garegan Zalad, romelic pirdapir gavlenas axdenda afxazeTis saqmeebze. is faqti, rom ruseTis mier SerCeuli kandidati ver gaxda prezidenti, naTlad uCvenebs misi Zalis zRvars. ruseTsa da afxazeTs Soris urTierToba, maSasadame, asimetriulicaa da ierarqiulic, magram ara srulad damokidebuli. rac Seexeba periferiebis SemoerTebas, saqarTvelos axalma reJimma wamoswia nacionaluri identurobis, nacionaluri mowyobisa da moqalaqeobis idea, rac gansxvavdeboda maT winamorbedTa nacionalisturi ideologiisagan, ramdenadac isini aRizardnen sabWoTa reJimis dros. amrigad, am SemTxvevaSi ganxvavebulia saakaSvilisa da mis winamorbedis politika. sabWoTa periodis ganmavlobaSi SevardnaZe, rogorc kompartiis lideri, icavda "orTodoqsul" nacionalur politikas. qarTuli enis dacvaze misi pozicia sabWoTa konteqstSi iyo

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

orTodoqsuli. gamsaxurdia, mTavari disidenti sabWoTa reJimis dros, warmoadgenda "araorTodoqsuli" nacionalizmis mimdevars. is akritikebda mraval daTmobas, romelsac axorcielebdnen sabWoTa (saqarTvelos CaTvliT) xelisuflebi nacionalur umciresobaTa mimarT. orive banaki SeTanxmda, rom saqarTvelos titularuli eri daicavda Tavis kulturul hegemonias sxva erebze saqarTvelos respublikaSi. rogorc prezidentma, gamsaxurdiam gaakeTa daTmoba afxazebis, rogorc titularuli eris mimarT, magram es integraciis cda Zalauflebis ganawilebis sabWour tradiciaSi ar iTvaliswinebda Zalauflebis gamoyofas iseve, rogorc politikur diferenciacias erovnul sazogadoebaSi. 1991 wels man afxazeTis liderebs SesTavaza, mieRoT saarCevno kanoni, romelic dafuZnebuli iqneboda eTnikur kvotaze. es maT iseTsave Warbi warmomadgenlobis garantias aZlevda, rogorc sabWoTa reJimis dros gaaCndaT. afxazeTis mxarem es winadadeba miiRo da daaweses momavali adgilobrivi arCevnebi, magram ver SeZles konfliqtis mSvidobiani mogvareba or mTavar erovnul erTobas Soris. SevardnaZe afxazeTSi marcxis Semdeg sxva gziT eZebda kompromiss gandgomil saxelmwifoebTan da erovnul umciresobebTan, romlebic kvlav sabWoTa tradiciebiT cxovrobdnen. 1995 wels SevardnaZem ramdenjerme SesTavaza afxaz da osur mxares, SeeqmnaT asimetriuli federaluri saxelmwifo. misi winadadebebi ZiriTadad gamoxatavda avtonomiuri uflebebis sabWour praqtikas teritoriulad koncentrirebuli umciresobebisaTvis, xolo maT elitas angariSs ar uwevda. is ar fiqrobda, Tu rogori unda yofiliyo federaluri meqanizmebi, rac sabWour tradiciebs scildeboda da ar gaaCnda imis gageba, Tu ra rols Seasrulebda mravalpartiuli sistema saxelmwifos erTianobis mxardaWeraSi. gandgomili qveynis liderebi mis winadadebas "warsulisken dabunebas" uwodebdnen. axali xelmZRvaneloba saakaSvilis meTaurobiT da umetesad dasavleTSi ganaTlebamiRebuli elita ufro pluralisturad msjelobda periferiis SemoerTebis civilur

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strategiaze da erovnul mSeneblobaze. magram darCiaSvili da nodia xazs usvamen winaaRmdegobas liberalur da demokratiul gadaxrebs axali elitisa da farTo popularul tradiciulnacionalistur grZnobebsa da saqmianobas Soris, rasac isini unda ebrZodnen. unda aRiniSnos erTi ram, rom axali elitis SiSi radikalurad ar gansxvavdeba winamorbedTa SiSisgan. axali xelmZRvaneloba kvlav Zveli dilemis winaSe dgas: rogor daukavSiros sabWoTa eTnofederaluri praqtika demokratiul formebs, roca demokratiaze dafuZnebuli federalizmi momavalSi SeiZleba aRmoCndes qveynis daSlis saSiSroebis winaSe. Sedegad, roca adgens saqarTvelos, afxazeTis da samxreT oseTis gamaerTianebeli momavali federaluri sistemis gegmas, axali xelmZRvaneloba upiratesobas aniWebs federaluri mowyobis TanamSromlur Taviseburebebze zewolas da ara aqvs survili, Camoayalibos konstituciuri meqanizmebi, romelic Zalauflebis ganawilebis garantias miscemda. ucxo Zalebis CarTvis aucilebloba, gansakuTrebiT ruseTis federaciisa afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTisaTvis usafrTxoebis garantiis micemaSi, warmoSobs kidev erT problemas, rac gamoixateba imaSi, rom saqarTvelos mTavroba arCevs, ar mimarTos maT.32 garda amisa, afxazebisa da samxreT oseTis xelmZRvanelebis uari, ganixilon sakiTxi, Tu rogor SeiZleba federalurma

samxreT oseTTan samSvidobo gegmis Taobaze gakeTebul moxsenebaSi evropis sabWos winaSe saakaSvilma euTo daaxasiaTa, rogorc "samSvidobo damkvirvebeli", evrokavSiri _ rogorc "mSvidobis garanti", amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi ­ rogorc "mSvidobis mxardamWeri" da ruseTi ­ rogorc "sasurveli da konstruqciuli samSvidobo partniori". SesaZloa, es formula ritorikulad kargad formulirebulia, Tumca aranairad ar iZleva warmodgenas imaze, Tu rogor unda miiRon monawileoba sxvadasxva saerTaSoriso aqtorebma politikurad gamarTlebul samSvidobo garantiis samomavlo meqanizmis SeqmnaSi. ix. Mikheil Saakashvili, "Address by the President of Georgia on the Occasion of the First Part of the 2005 Ordinary Session of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly," Strasbourg, January 24-28, 2005, http://www.coe.int/T/E/Com/Files/PA-Sessions/janv2005/Saakashvili.pdf.

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mowyobam daasustos an mospos ierarqiuli urTierToba erovnul erTobliobaTa Soris da uzrunvelyos saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis garantiebi federalur saxelmwifoTaTvis, xels ar uwyobs politikuri wesrigis damyarebaSi. kidev ufro sainteresoa 2005 wlis ianvarSi saakaSvilis mier gamoTqmuli winadadeba, samxreT oseTis politikuri statusis sakiTxi daukavSirdes ruseTis federaciasTan sazRvarze TanamSromlobas.33 saakaSvilis azriT, samxreT oseTis konstituciuri avtonomia ufro farTo iqneba, vidre sabWoTa kavSiris dros da, marTlac, ufro farTo, vidre amJamad CrdiloeT oseTi flobs avtonomias ruseTis federaciaSi. samxreT oseTis kompetencia adgilobrivi ekonomikis kontroli iqneba. saakaSvilma Semdeg ganacxada, rom samSvidobo SeTanxmeba Sedegad moitans sazRvris gadaWris gamartivebas CrdiloeT da samxreT oseTs Soris da Tavisufali ekonomikuri zonis Seqmnas. magram oseTis federalur statusze es Sexedulebaim saxiT, rogorc warmodgenili iyo evrosabWos winaSe, Zalian bundovania. 2004 wlis ivlisSi saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo konstituciuri kanoni aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis statusis Sesaxeb.34 man daamtkica aWaris federaluri avtonomiuroba, magram, amave dros, gamoxata xelmZRvanelobis SiSi mmarTvelobis uflebrivi pasuxismgeblobis regionuli erTeulebisaTvis gadacemis Taobaze. evrosabWo eyrdnoba veneciis komisiis moxsenebas35 da gamoxatavs SeSfoTebas uaRresad

ix. Ñì. Liz Fuller. South Ossetia Rejects Georgian President's Offer of Autonomy // RFE/RL Caucasus Report, vol. 8, no. 4, January 28, 2005, http://www.rferl.org/reports/ caucasus-report/2005/01/4-280105.asp da Saakashvili. Address by the President of Georgia. 34 ix. International Crisis Group. Saakashvili's Ajara Success: Repeatable Elsewhere in Georgia? 35 ix. European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission), Opinion on the Draft Constitutional Law of Georgia on the Status of the Autonomous Republic of Ajara, Adopted by the Venice Commission at its 59th Plenary Session (Venice, June 1819, 2004), CDL-AD(2004)018, Strasbourg, June 21, 2004, http://66.102.9.104/ search?q=cache:j1bAtuP3w4IJ:www.venice.coe.int/docs/2004/CDL-AD(2004)018 e.asp+Opinion+on+the+draft+constitutional+law+of+Georgia+&hl=nl.

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"SezRuduli avtonomiis" gamo. ufro metad imaze, rom "saqarTvelos prezidents SeuZlia, daiTxovos aWaris umaRlesi sabWo, Tu es ukanaskneli ramdenjerme uaryofs, miiRos prezidentis mier wardgenili kandidati regionis premierministrad da rom misi (umaRlesi sabWos) wevrebi iniSneba TbilisSi ministrebis mier. es SezRudvebi amcirebs aWaris statuss nominalur avtonomiamde mcire praqtikuli SedegiT."36 "vardebis revolucia", maSasadame, ver mivida radikalur reformebamde regionalizmis an adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sakiTxSi. es aris nawilobriv qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdgenis problemis gadauWrelobis bralic. 2004 wlis oqtomberSi parlamentma daamtkica adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis evropis qartia, magram Tavi Seikava im paragrafis miRebisagan, romelic ganixilavs adgilobrivi xelisuflebis TanamSromlobas sxva qveynis Sesabamis organoebTan.37 regionis SesaZlebloba, momavalSi iyos SemaerTebeli rgoli sxva regionebTan da qveynebTan, naklebad mimzidvelia saqarTvelos politikuri elitisaTvis. saakaSvilma Seqmna komisia teritoriul-administraciuli reformisaTvis teritoriul organizaciaTa kompleqsuri sistemis Sesacvlelad. mTavroba acxadebs, rom momavalSi adgilobriv mmarTvelobaSi yvela wamyvani adgili arCeviTi iqneba.38 magram erovnul umciresobaTa integracia erT-erT rTul sakiTxad rCeba, gansakuTrebiT im regionebSi, sadac isini geografiulad arian koncentrirebulni. nodias mixedviT, nacionalur umciresobaTa raodenoba saqarTvelos parlamentSi 2004 wels umniSvnelo iyo. "vardebis revoluciis" Sedegad centris cvlilebam Zlieri dartyma miayena periferias, miuxedavad imisa, rom konfron36 Report of the Committee on the Honoring of Obligations and Commitments by Member States of the Council of Europe. 37 Civil Georgia, October 26, 2004, http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=8174. 38 Report of the Committee on the Honoring of Obligations and Commitments by Member States of the Council of Europe, p. 11.

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

tacia da antiintegracia grZeldeba. axali xelmZRvaneloba iyenebs ufro civilur da gansakuTrebul nacionalistur ritorikas prioritetebisadmi nacionaluri gaerTianebis strategiaSi. aWaris SemTxvevaSi adgili hqonda cvlilebaTa demokratiul process. magram aWaris reintegracia moxda mkacri ierarqiuli nimuSis mixedviT da aWaris respublikas mxolod nominaluri saxelwodeba darCa. samxreT oseTis SemoerTebis unayofo cdam seriozulad SeaferxaRonisZiebebi ndobis aRdgenisa da TanamSromlobis sferoebSi. Tbilisis damokidebuleba afxazeTsa da samxreT oseTTan kvlav konfrontaciulia. teritoriuli erTianoba, regionizacia da erovnul umciresobaTa sakiTxi kvlav gadauWrelia. magram im mouTmenlobas, rogoriTac axlandeli xelmZRvaneloba eqceva am sakiTxebs, saqme mihyavs, rogorc es samxreT oseTis SemTxvevaSi iyo, naCqarev da sarisko moqmedebebamde. es Zalian gansxvavdeba im SedarebiTi indiferentulobisagan, rogoriTac SevardnaZis reJimi eqceoda am problemas.39

39 2005 wlis ianvarSi evrokomisiis saparlamento asambleam miiRo rezolucia saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, romelic am winaaRmdegobebis SesaniSnav sinTezs warmoadgenda da romelsac saqarTvelo erovnuli integraciisa da saxelmwifos mSeneblobis procesSi awydeba: "vardebis revoluciam" da momdevno orma arCevnebma Sedegad Zlieri xelisufleba moitana, romelic iTamaSebs mniSvnelovan rols saqarTvelos politikuri, ekonomikuri da usafrTxoebis problemebis mogvarebaSi, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom Zlieri xelisufleba iarsebebs masze Zlieri da moqmedi monitoringis meqanizmis arsebobis paralelurad. dResdReobiT saqarTvelos aqvs Zlieri saprezidento ZalauflebiT aRWurvili naxevrad saprezidento sistema, TiTqmis ar hyavs saparlamento opozicia, hyavs Zalian susti samoqalaqo sazogadoeba, aqvs sasamarTlo sistema, romelic jerjerobiT arasakmarisad damoukidebeli da araefeqturia, ganuviTarebeli Tu ararsebuli adgilobrivi demokratia, TviT cenzori media da aWaris avtonomiis araadekvaturi modeli." Parliamentary Assembly, Resolution 1415 (2005), "Honoring of Obligations and Commitments by Georgia,"http:/ /assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=http://assembly.coe.int/Documents/AdoptedText/ta05/ ERES1415.htm. es rezolucia dafuZnebulia zemoT aRniSnuli evropis sabWos komitetis moxsenebaze (Doc. 10383).

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centr-periferiis damokidebuleba saerTaSoriso wyobaSi

savaraudoa, rom moskovsTan, vaSingtonsa da briuselTan saqarTvelos urTierToba SeiZleba aRwerili iqnas, rogorc damokidebuli urTierToba centr-periferiis nimuSis mixedviT. pirveli, es gulisxmobs imas, rom centrSi or dapirispirebul mxares Soris urTierTqmedebaze cvlilebebi ufro Rrma gavlenas axdens, vidre cvlilebebi periferiaSi. meore, urTierTqmedebebSi cvlilebebs ufro Zlieri gavlena aqvs periferiaze, vidre centrze. am varaudebs mivyavarT Semdeg xuT sakiTxTan: sabWoTa kavSiris mravalerovani wyobis daSla; 1990-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi kaspiis zRvis energiis usafrTxoebis politika SeerTebul StatebSi; ruseTis samxreT sazRvarze misi usafrTxoebis garemos Secvla CeCneTis omis dawyebisas 1999 wels da vladimer putinis prezidentad gaxdoma; amerikis globaluri usafrTxoebis politikis dawyeba 2001 wlis 11 seqtembris Semdeg da euTos samxreT kavkasiis politikis gafarToebis Sedegebi. xuTive sakiTxi aCvenebs, rom saqarTvelos usafrTxoeba Rrma gavlenas ganicdis am samive centris politikis reorganizaciis gamo ufro metad, vidre saqarTvelos Sinauri cvlilebebis gamo. xuTive SemTxvevaSi TbilisSi politikosebma Secvales erovnuli usafrTxoebis parametrebi. es aCvenebs saqarTvelos, rogorc periferiuli qveynis pozicias saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi.

sabWoTa kavSiris daSla

wignis winamdebare statia aRwers, Tu rogor iyo gansazRvruli Tbilissa da moskovs Soris urTierToba sabWoTa kavSiris daSliTa da gardaqmnebiT, rac gzas uxsnida saqarTveloSi nacionalur-liberalur moZraobas, rogorc centrSi

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

(Tbilisi), ise periferiaSi (oseTi, afxazeTi). saqarTvelos damoukideblobisaTvis moZraoba gulisxmobda mTel saqarTveloSi politikuri da kulturuli hegemonis damyarebas, rogorc ganuyofel nawils maTi mcdelobisas, Tavi daeRwiaT sabWoTa reJimisa da, sabolood, ruseTis mmarTvelobisagan. Sida suvereniteti ar unda yofiliyo gancalkevebuli sagareo suverenitetisagan. magram moskovTan mijaWvulobam saqarTvelos ar misca saSualeba, ganexorcielebina avtonomiur erTeulebze sruli kontroli. saqarTvelos nacionalurma moZraobam 1980-ian wlebSi TandaTan gamoiwvia konfrontacia mis periferiebTan. vidre saqarTvelo warmoadgenda sabWoTa kavSiris nawils, Tbiliss ar SeeZlo hyoloda SeiaraRebuli Zalebi, rom saSinao konfliqtSi Careuliyo. darCiaSvilis mixedviT, Jandarmeriis msgavsi nacionaluri gvardia, romelic am mizniT Seiqmneboda, SeiZleboda dapirispireboda sabWoTa centrs. moskovTan konfrontacia mainc ver iqna Tavidan acilebuli orive mxridan calmxrivi nabijebis gamo. sabWoTa centrma daiwyo adreuli poziciebis gadasinjva, romelic Seexeboda saqarTelos avtonomiur erTeulebs. sabWoTa komunisturi partia adre yovelTvis uaryofda afxazebis ganuwyvetel moTxovnas, gamoyofoda saqarTvelos da uSualod daqvemdebareboda sabWoTa centrs. rogorc ciurxeri aRwers, mixeil gorbaCovi Seecada, moexdina sabWoTa federaluri sistemis reforma, rac saWiroebda mokavSire respublikebis avtonomiebSi, maT Soris, saqarTveloSic nacionaluri moZraobis mxardaWeras. 1990-iani wlebis TviTgamorkvevis sabWoTa kanoni SeTiTxnili iyo aseTi aliansisaTvis. es kanoni uflebas aZlevda respublikebSi umciresobebs, romlebic damoukideblobisTvis ibrZodnen, darCeniliyvnen sabWoTa kavSirSi. aseTi iniciativa amZimebda Tbilisis mdgomareobas, radgan teritoriul erTianobas saSiSroeba emuqreboda ara marto Signidan, aramed garedanac. ruseTisa da saqarTvelos interesebi SeuTavsebeli iyo. sabWoTa kavSiris gagebiT, saqarTvelo "aviwroebda sxvas". (devdariani) Sedegad, es iwvevda calmxriv nabijebs da

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kulminacias miaRwia 1991 wlis damoukideblobis deklaraciis dros. sabWoTa kavSiris kontrolis Sesustebam gamoiwvia sabolood uaris Tqma centralizebuli komunisturi partiis marTvaze, ramac gamoiwvia federaluri institutebis daSla sabWoTa wyobis (sadac centr-periferiis molaparakebasa da mowesrigebas SeiZleba hqonoda adgili) yvela doneze.40 mas agreTve hqonda gansakuTrebuli Sedegi axal damoukidebel respublikebSi, romlebic sabWoTa kavSirs gamoeyvnen. 1991 wlis bolos saqarTveloSi ar iyo arc ucxo qveynis da arc ruseTis politika, rasac SeeZlo moewesrigebina nebismieri konfrontacia an Tavi daeRwia calmxrivi nabijebisgan diplomatiis saSualebiT. 1990 wlis oqtomberSi saqarTvelos parlamentis arCevnebSi gamarjvebis Semdeg 1991-92 wlebSi samoqalaqo omamde, gamsaxurdias mokle xniT ZalauflebiT sargeblobisas, ruseTTan konfrontaciis periodia, gansakuTrebiT moskovis pirdapiri da arapirdapiri Carevisas samxreTSi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis dros, romelic daiwyo 1991 wlis ianvarSi da grZeldeboda gamsaxurdias mmarTvelobis mTeli xnis ganmavlobaSi.41 rac mTavaria, gamsaxurdia uaryofda damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobas. devdariani wers, rom gamsaxurdia gamomwvevad eqceoda moskovis usafrTxoebis interesebs mTel kavkasiaSi. saqarTvelo aSenebda, rogorc devdariani uwodebs, "Seupovar TavisTavadobas" gare Zalebis mimarT. magram ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris konfrontaciis zrda ar SeiZleba aixsnas martooden saqarTvelos nacionaluri gegmiTa da erovnuli TviTmyofadobis ZiebiT. devdariani miuTiTebs, Tu rogor daemTxva sabWoTa kavSiris daSla identurobis kriziss

Nancy Bernmeo, "Position Paper for the Working Group on Federalism, Conflict Prevention, and Settlement," warmodgenili iqna 2005 wlis 3-5 marts briuselSi Catarebul federalizmis mesame saerTaSoriso konferenciaze. 41 cecxlis Sewyvetis xelSekruleba samxreT oseTSi iqna xelmowerili 1992 wlis ivnisSi, mas Semdeg, rac gamsaxurdiam dakarga Zalaufleba.

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

TviT ruseTSi. ruseTis xelmZRvaneloba sabWoTa kavSiris daSlas Rebulobda, rogorc TviTgaTavisuflebis formas, magram misma elitam igrZno Rrma urTierTwinaaRmdegoba warsulis mimarT. zogi kvlav fiqrobda qveynis warsulis statusze, e.w. "derJavnost"-ze da Zlier nanobda sabWoTa kavSiris sidiadis dakargvas. es iyo mizani, romelsac ruseTi eswrafvoda susti periferiebis mimarT. rogorc robert legvoldi SesavalSi SeniSnavs, ruseTi susti iyo uwindel sabWoeTTan SedarebiT, magram mainc SeeZlo mezobel qveynebze dominireba. imave periodis ganmavlobaSi dasavleTis saxelmwifoebi indiferentulni iyvnen saqarTveloSi konfliqtebis mimarT, agreTve Tbilisis xelmZRvanelobas da moskovs Soris dapirispirebulobisadmi. maT ar moswondaT gamsaxurdias nacionalizmi, romelic emsgavseboda balkaneTis radikalur gancxadebebs, magram aRiqvamdnen am konfliqts, romelic exeboda dasavleTis usafrTxoebis interesebs. isini uars ambobdnen, daemyarebinaT diplomatiuri urTierToba gamsaxurdias mTavrobasTan an saqarTvelo mieRoT saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis organizaciebis wevrad. aman gamoiwvia saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso izolacia, romelic grZeldeboda iqamde, vidre 1992 wlis martSi SevardnaZe ar dabrunda TbilisSi. saqarTvelos situaciis axsnisas devdariani wers, rom qveyanas hqonda memkvidruli miswrafeba, gaeziarebina evropuli politikis praqtika, magram ara misi gamocdileba. 42 evropasTan urTierTobis istoriis uqonloba niSnavs, rom

42 aRniSnulTan mimarTebaSi erTaderTi gamonaklisi 1918-1921 wlebSi saqarTvelos damoukideblobis xanmokle periodi iyo da Semdgom 1921 wels saqarTvelos bolSevikuri okupacia, maSin, roca evropis socialurma demokratiam qarTveli menSevikebis dasaxmareblad wamoiwyo solidarobisa da maTTan TanamSromlobis aqtiuri kampania. Tumca am moklevadianma gamocdilebam veranairi pozitiuri memkvidreoba ver Seqmna: 1980-ian da 1990-ian wlebSi saqarTvelos moZraobas damoukideblobisaTvis araviTari simpaTia ar gaaCnda menSevikuri ideologiuri tradiciis mimarT.

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SeuZlebelia (rogorc es baltiis saxelmwifoebSia), magaliTad, ilaparako saqarTvelos damoukideblobaze, rogorc evropisken an dasavleTis sazogadoebisaken miqcevaze. amave periodSi, afxazeTis omis dros, saqarTvelos gaWirveba Zlier ar aisaxa moskovis, vaSingtonis an briuselis usafrTxoebis programaze. arc erT am qalaqs ar hqonda naTeli warmodgena, Tu rogor unda Careuliyvnen am areul mezoblobaSi, igive iTqmis ruseTze. antonenko aRwers ruseTis politikis gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis dabneulobasa da azrTa sxvadasxvaobas saqarTvelos mimarT, gansakuTrebiT misi intervenciis dros afxazeTis omSi. ruseTis xelmZRvanelobis zog nawils undoda, mxari daeWira teritoriuli erTianobisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT ruseTis samxreTis myife sazRvarze. magram ruseTis samxedro xelmZRvanelobam mxari dauWira adgilobriv ajanyebas saqarTvelos samxedro intervenciis winaaRmdeg da es mxardaWera iqca ruseTis rolis mTavar niSnad 1992-93 wlebis omSi. ruseTis xelmZRvanelobis uunaroba, SeezRuda adgilobrivi samxedroebi, nawilobriv, SeiZleba aixsnas moskovis politikuri krizisiT aRmasrulebel da sakanonmdeblo organoebs Soris. konfliqtma ruseTis prezident elcinsa da umaRles sabWos Soris, romelmac piks 1993 wels miaRwia da namdvili samoqalaqo omi gamoiwvia, daCrdila ruseTis rolis yvela SesaZlebloba afxazeTis konfliqtSi. afxazeTSi saqarTvelos jaris damarcxebis Semdeg (1993 wlis 27 seqtembers) ruseTis jaris daxmarebam ar gamoiwvia saqarTvelos mTavrobasTan konfrontacia. saqarTvelo daaCoqes, rogorc maSin SevardnaZem Tqva. is daTanxmda, Sesuliyo damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa TanamegobrobaSi da neba darTo ruseTs, saqarTvelos teritoriaze ganelagebina bazebi. am daTmobam mas moupova ruseTis mxardaWera, gaenadgurebina gamsaxurdias erTguli Zalebi. ruseTisadmi Semdgomi daTmoba iyo vardiko nadibaiZis, ruseTis moqmedi oficris, Tavdacvis ministrad daniSvna 1994 wlis aprilSi. imave wlis bolos SevardnaZem mxari dauWira ruseTis samxedro intervencias CeCneTSi.

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

dasavleTis saxelmwifoebi indiferentulni darCnen afxazeTis bedis mimarT.43 rogorc heli da gogia aRniSnaven, es saxelmwifoebi gverds uvlidnen am regionSi daZabulobas da mTavari pasuxismgebloba ruseTis samSvidobo moqmedebas daakisres. dasavleTi mxars uWerda mxolod gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis sazedamxedvelo misias afxazeTSi, sadac CarTuli iyo zogierTi dasavleTis qveynis samxedro. isini SeSfoTebas gamoxatavdnen ruseTi samxedro Zalis yofnis gamo samxreT kavkasiaSi. evropis Cveulebrivi Zalebis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis safuZvelze regionuli stabiluroba gamomdinareobda dasavleTis usafrTxoebis interesebis win wamoweviT, Tumca es ar iyo dasavleTis pirdapiri CarevisTvis iZuleba.44 aq iyo agreTve dasavleTis energousafrTxoebis interesebi, rac mniSvnelovnad aZlevda biZgs dasavleTis yofnas samxreT kavkasiaSi. zrunvis mesame sfero, rac moiTxovda dasavleTis Tanamonawileobas, iyo SiSi samxreT kavkasiaSi saxelmwifoTa arSedgomisa. rogorc aRniSnes helim da gogiam, dasavleTis humanitaruli daxmareba 1990 wlis dasawyisSi progresulad Seicvala sxvadasxva saxis daxmarebiT, demokratizaciis mxardaWeriT da sxva saxelmwifo reformebis politikiT.

antonenkos dakvirvebiT, boris elcini Tavis memuarebSi saqarTeloafxazeTis konfliqtze ar saubrobs, rac kontrastulia imasTan, Tu ra mniSvnelobas aniWebs is dsT-s. amaSi vlindeba SedarebiT indiferentuli pozicia.msgavsi ram aRiniSneba germaniis sagareo saqmeTa ministr hansditer genSerTan dakavSirebiT."saqarTvelos megobris" reputaciis da im faqtis miuxedavad, rom germaniam mniSvnelovani daxmareba gauwia saqarTvelos 1992 wels SevardnaZis qveyanaSi dabrunebis Semdeg, saqarTvelo metad iSviaTadaa moxseniebuli genSeris memuarebSi. es miuTiTebs saqarTvelosa da misi problemebisadmi interesebis marginalobaze, iseve, rogorc es elcinis SemTxvevaSi iyo. ix. Hans-Dieter Genscher, Erinnerungen (Berlin: Siedler, 1995). 44 ix. Alexei Zverev en Bruno Coppieters, "Verloren evenwicht. Georgie tussen Rusland en het Westen ." Oost-Europa Verkenningen, no. 134 (August 1994), pp. 38-47.

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dasavleTis energousafrTxoebis politika

darCiaSvilis mixedviT, saqarTvelos saqmeebSi dasavleTis CarTvis interesi daiwyo 1995 wels SevardnaZis reJimis ganmtkicebis Semdeg. saqarTvelos mTavroba cdilobda, gadaelaxa dasavleTis gulcivobis pozicia saqarTvelos geografiuli mdebareobis, agreTve sakomunikacio da satransporto rolis gamoyenebiT azia-evropas Soris. saqarTvelos liderebi imedovnebdnen, rom konfrontaciuli politika ruseTTan miiqcevda dasavleTis yuradRebas. magram arc amerikas da arc evrokavSiris qveynebs ar surdaT, CarTuliyvnen aseT konfrontaciul politikaSi ruseTTan. roca saqarTvelom wamoayena natos wevrobis idea, Crdiloatlantikurma aliansxma ar uaryo es, miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebi cud mdgomareobaSi iyo da ar gaaCnda demokratiuli standartebi Tavdacvis politikaSi. rogorc legvoldi aRniSnavs, saqarTvelos miswrafebam natos wevrobisaken am ukanasknels xelT misca berketebi, raTa gaetarebina Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi reformebi, romlebic dasavleTis interesebs Seesabameboda. 1990-91 wlebSi saqarTvelos saqmeebSi dasavleTis monawileobis gafarToebam, gansakuTrebiT amerikis energetikuli politikis meSveobiT, rac gamoixata baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis proeqtSi, gadamwyveti gavlena moaxdina saqarTvelos strategiaze usafrTxoebis sferoSi. darCiaSvili aRwers Tbilisis erTmniSvnelovan arCevans dasavleTze orientaciis sasargeblod 1998 wels, rodesac saqarTvelom gaaaqtiura Tavisi TanamSromloba natosTan. erTi wlis Semdeg is gamovida dsT-s saerTo xelSekrulebidan, gaxda evrosabWos wevri. am wevrobis pirobebi iyo demokratiuli saxelmwifo reformebis gatareba da umciresobaTa uflebebis pativiscema. dasavleTis saxelmwifoebma gamoiyenes zemoqmedebis berketebi politikis sxvadasxva sferoebSi. samxedro saqmeSi amerikeli da dasavleTis sxva eqspertebi cdilobdnen, gaetarebinaT radikaluri reformebi saqarTvelos SeiaraRebul ZalebSi. reforma iTvaliswinebda piradi samxedro Semadgenlobis ricxovriv

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

Semcirebas, korufciis amoZirkvas, samxedroTa moqmedebaze samoqalaqo kontrolisa da nacionaluri usafrTxoebis koncefciis SemuSavebas. reformebis gatarebis cdam fiasko ganicada. dasavleTze orientacia ar unda gavaigivoT radikaluri demokratiuli reformebis sasargeblod arCevanTan, yovel SemTxvevaSi, SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis periodSi. darCiaSvilis azriT, gamWvirvale TavdacviTi politika safrTxes Seuqmnida naTesauri niSniT TanamdebobaTa darigebis korumpirebul sistemas. analogiuri daskvna SeiZleba gakeTdes politikis sxva aspeqtebis mimarTac. magaliTad, samxreT kavkasiaSi regionuli TanamSromlobis mimarT, rac evrokavSiris erTerTi prioritetuli amocana iyo. saqarTvelom yurad ar iRo mowodeba, gamoeyenebina es "gamouyenebeli potenciali" (de vaali) Tavisi ganviTarebis politikaSi. amrigad, dasavleTis mcdelobas, daxmareboda saqarTvelos regionuli integraciis sferoSi, mniSvnelovani warmateba ar mohyolia. SesaZlebeli gaxda mxolod baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis proeqtis realizeba amerikel momxreTa gegmis Tanaxmad. es proeqtic ki ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos miRwevad regionuli integraciis TvalsazrisiT, Tumca man Seqmna grZelvadiani materialuri stimuli dasavleTis mier regionuli stabilurobis mxardasaWerad. rogorc de vaali aRniSavs, swori iqneboda, Tu am navTobsadensvuwodebdiT, rogorc araruseTis da ara-iranis navTobsadens. SevardnaZis imedi, rom garedan mieRo daxmareba afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis problemis gadasaWrelad, ar gamarTlda. CeCneTis pirveli omis dros man sruli mxardaWera gamoucxada ruseTis mTavrobis cdas, Zalismieri meTodebiT moexdina CeCneTis reintegracia, im imediT, rom ruseTi daexmareboda saqarTvelos, analogiuri kursi gaetarebina afxazeTis mimarT. es mxardaWera ar Seesabameboda dasavleTis mkacr kritikas imis Taobaze, rom ruseTis samxedroebi yurad ar iRebdnen saerTaSoriso humanitarul uflebebs am omis msvlelobisas, kerZod, CeCneTis dedaqalaqis _ groznos dabombvisas. magram SevardnaZis mxardaWeram araviTari Sedegi ar gamoiRo.

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ramdenime wlis Semdeg, 1999 wels, SevardnaZe mTlianad dauWers mxars natos oms kosovoSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom iugoslaviis mTavroba oms awarmoebda separatizmis winaaRmdeg da gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis uSiSroebis sabWoc ar daeTanxma natos intervencias. is imedovnebda, rom SeerTebul Statebs aseve SeuZlia, Caataros calmxrivi samxedro aqcia afxazeTSi. rogorc heli da gogia aRniSnaven, aSS-s mTavrobam mas agrZnobina, rom ara aqvs ganzraxva, gaimeoros kosovos scenari afxazeTSi. vaSingtonis uari ar iyo principis saqme an ganurCevlobis dasturi. aSS-s da evropis mTavrobebs ar SeeZloT, calmxrivad gadaeWraT separatistuli konfliqtebi, saqarTveloSi ruseTTan dapirispirebis riskis gareSe. saqarTvelos diplomatiuri mcdelobebi, gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis CarCoebSi uzrunveleyo samxedro gziT afxazeTis problemis gadaWra, agreTve ar iZleoda araviTar realur safuZvels warmatebisaTvis. winadadebebma imis Taobaze, rom gaeros mieRo rezolucia Zalis gamoeyenebis mxardasaWerad, raTa saqarTvelos aRedgina teritoriuli mTlianoba, aseve ver hpova mxardaWera dasavleTis qveynebis sabWos mudmivi wevrebisagan.

meore CeCneTis omi da putinis prezidentoba

1990-iani wlebis meore naxevarSi saqarTvelo-ruseTis urTierTobaSi mTavar Taviseburebad rCeboda konfrontacia. ruseTis yoveli cda, mimarTuli Tavisi samxreT mezoblis integraciisaken, saqarTvelos mxridan aRiqmeboda, rogorc dominirebis muqara, rac ganamtkicebda "identurobis winaaRmdegobas" da Seqmnida ruseTis mimarT dapirispirebis politikis axal motivaciebs. samxreT kavkasiaSi dasavleTis TandaTanobiT damkvidreba iwvevda ruseTis ufro met Zalisxmevas, pozicia daekavebina regionSi Tavisi interesebis dasacavad, gansakuTrebiT im periodSi, roca sagareo saqmeTa ministris posti ekava primakovs (1996-1998 ww.). am gabedulma nabijma gavlena moaxdina gaerosa da ruseTis metoqeobaze

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saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis modeli "centri-periferia"*

saqarTvelo-afxazeTs Soris Suamavlis rolisaTvis. primakovi aqtiurad cdilobda, yofiliyo Suamavali saqarTvelosa da a