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Literary Analysis

Activity Book

GOLD

PRENTICE HALL Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

Glenview, Illinois

Needham, Massachusetts

Copyright © 2000 by Prentice-Hall. Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Student worksheets may be duplicated for classroom use, the number not to exceed the number of students in each class. Notice of copyright must appear on all copies. No other part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and-retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America. ISBN 0-13-437571-8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 03 02 01 00 99

PRENTICE HALL

Contents

Unit 1: Spine Tinglers

"The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar Allan Poe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , l'

,

"The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 21

"Casey at the Bat" by Ernest Lawrence Thayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

"The Birds" by Daphne du Maurier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

"The Red-headed League" by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

"The Listeners" by Walter de la Mare

"Beware: Do Not Read This Poem" by Ishmael Reed

"Echo" by Henriqueta Lisboa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

"Caucasian Mummies Mystify Chinese" by Keay Davidson . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Unit 2: Challenges and Choices

from A Lincoln Preface by Carl Sandburg . . . . . . . . ...

~

. . . . ......... 8

"I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King

from Rosa Parks: My Story by Rosa Parks with Jim Haskins

"There Is a Longing ... to by Chief Dan George

"I Hear America Singing" by Walt Whitman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 9

"The Golden Kite, the Silver Wind" by Ray Bradbury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

"The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost

"New Directions" by Maya Angelou

"To Be of Use" by Marge Piercy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

"Old Man of the Temple" by R. K. Narayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

"Perseus" by Edith Hamilton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

"Slam, Dunk, &: Hook" by Yusef Komunyakaa

"The Spearthrower" by Lillian Morrison

"Shoulders" by Naomi Shahib Nye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Unit 3: Moments of Discovery

"Children in the Woods" by Barty Lopez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

"Rules of the Game" by Amy Tan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

"Checkouts" by Cynthia Rylant

"Fifteen" by William Stafford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

"Sympathy" by Paul Laurence Dunbar

"Caged Bird" by Maya Angelou

"We never know how high we are" by Emily Dickinson

from In My Place by Charlayne Hunter-Gault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

"The Interlopers" by Saki (H. H. Munro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

"The Rug Merchant" by James A. Michener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

"Combing" by Gladys Cardiff

"Women" by Alice Walker

"maggie and mOUe and mollie and may" by E.E. Cummings

"Astonishment" by Wislawa Szymborska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Unit 4: The Lighter Side

"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by James Thurber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

"The Inspector General" by Anton Chekhov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

"Go Deep to the Sewer" by Bill Cosby

"Fly Away" by Ralph Helfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

"An Entomological Study of Apartment 4A" by Patricia Volk ... , . . . . . . 25

"Macavity: The Mystery Cat" by T. S. Eliot

"The Problem With Hurricanes" by Victor Hernandez Cruz

"Jabberwocky" by Lewis Carroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

"Talk" by Harold Courlander and George Herzog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

"One Ordinary Day, With Peanuts" by Shirley Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Unit 5: Visions of the Future

from The Road Ahead by Bill Gates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

"The Machine That Won the War" by Isaac Asimov . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 30

"Fire and Ice" by Robert Frost

··All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace" by Richard Brautigan

"There Will Come Soft Rains" by Sara Teasdale

"The Horses" by Edwin Muir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

"If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth... " by Arthur C. Clarke

from Silent Spring by Rachel Carson

"To the Residents of A.D. 2029" by Bryan Wooley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

"Gifts.. by Shu Ting

"Glory and Hope" by Nelson Mandela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Unit 6: Short Stories

"The Gift of the Magi" by O. Henry . . . . . . . . · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c~i)

"Sonata for Harp and Bicycle" by Joan Aiken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

"The Scarlet Ibis" by James Hurst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

"Blues Ain't No Mockin Bird" by Toni Cade Bambara .

;::;. "UncI e Marcos" by Isabel Allende . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C'/ 3f!

"The Man to Send Rain Clouds" by Leslie Marmon Slim

"The Invalid's Story" by Mark Twain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

"The Necklace" by Guy de Maupassant

"The Harvest" by Thomas Rivera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Unit 7: Nonfiction

"Single Room, Earth View" by Sally Ride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

"The Washwoman" by Isaac Bashevis Singer

"On Summer" by Lorraine Hansberry

"A Celebration of Grandfathers" by Rudolfo A. Anaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

from A White House Diary by Lady Bird Johnson

"Arthur Ashe Remembered" by John McPhee

"Georgia O'Keeffe" by Joan Didion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

"Understanding Comics" by Scott McCloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

"Earhart Redux" by Alex Chadwick

In These Girls, Hope Is a Muscle by Madeleine Blais,

a book review by Steve Gietschier

In These Girls, Hope is a Muscle by Madeleine Blais, book jacket. . . . . . . . 44

Unit 8: Drama

The Dancers by Horton Foote. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

\." The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act I. by William Shakespeare . . . . . . 46

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act n. by William Shakespeare. . . ... 47

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act In. by William Shakespeare. . . ... 48

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act IV, by William Shakespeare . . . . . . 49

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act V. by William Shakespeare . . . . . . 50

Unit 9: Poetry

"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloudto by William Wordsworth . . . . . . . . . . . ... 51

"The Eagle" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson

"'Hope' is the thing with feathers-to by Emily Dickinson

"Dream Deferred" and "Dreams" by Langston Hughes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

"Blackberry Eating" by Galway Kinnell

"Memory" by Margaret Walker

"Women's Work" by Julia Alvarez

"Meciendo" by Gabriela Mistral

"Eulogy for a Hermit Crab" by Pattiann Rogers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

"Uphill" by Christina Rossetti

"Summer" by Walter Dean Myers

Ecclesiastes 3:1-8, The King James Bible

"The Bells" by Edgar Allan Poe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

"The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe

"The Seven Ages of Man" by William Shakespeare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

"On the Grasshopper and the Cricket" by John Keats

Sonnet 30 by William Shakespeare

Three Haiku by Basho and Chiyojo

"Hokku Poems" by Richard Wright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Unit 10: The Epic

from the Odyssey, Part I, by Homer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

from the Odyssey, Part 2, by Homer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

"An Ancient Gesture" by Edna St. Vincent Millay

"Siren Song" by Margaret Atwood

"Prologue" and "Epilogue" from the Odyssey by Derek Walcott

"Ithaca" by Constantine CavafY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Name ______________________________________________ Date ____________

"The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar Allan Poe (text page 5)

Literary Analysis: Setting and Mood

Throughout "The Cask of Amontillado." Poe uses specific words to create a particular mood. When reading the story. you can identify the mood from the descriptive details that Poe uses. For example, the words "with a leer" create a threatening mood in the following sentence: "He raised it to his lips with a leer." Often a single word can be used to describe the mood of a story. One important way Poe establishes the mood of the story is through the different settings. The setting of a story is the time and place of the action. Time can include not only the his torical period of the story (the past, present, or future) but also the time of year and even the time of day. The place may involve not only the geographical place (the country, state, or town) but also the social, economic, or cultural environment of the story. In "The Cask of Amontillado," the mood is related to the different settings of the story. As the setting changes, the mood changes too. Complete the chart to examine how the setting affects the mood. Identify the descriptive details in each of the settings listed, then identify the mood of each setting. The first one has been completed for you. Finally, answer the questions that follow.

DIRECTIONS:

Setting 1. Beginning of story: a street at dusk during carnival

2. Middle of story: the catacombs of the Montresors

Descriptive Details

i

Mood

"the supreme madness of the carnival season"

frenzied and delirious

3. End of story: interior crypt

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4. How do you think the mood of the story relates to the plot?

5. How does the mood shift as the characters move from one setting to another in the begin ning, middle, and end of the story?

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Literary Analysis Activity Book

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Name

Date __________________

"The Most Dangerous Garnett by Richard Connell (text page 16)

Literary Analysis: Connecting Elements of a Short Story

1. The plot of a story is made up of a series of related events that include the conflict, the climax, and the resolution. The conflict is a struggle between opposing people or forces. The conflict may be either external, between a character and another character or an out side force, or internal, within a character's mind. The climax is the turning point of the story, the point at which the conflict comes to a head. The resolution is how the conflict turns out. IdentifY the conflict, climax, and resolution of "The Most Dangerous Game." Cite passages from the story to support each answer.

2. Characters are the people, and in some cases animals, involved in the action of a story. A writer can reveal a character's personality through a variety of techniques, including direct statements about the character, the character's actions and comments, and what other characters say about the character. Briefly describe the two main characters in 'The Most Dangerous Game," and explain how Connell develops each of these characters. Cite exam ples from the story for support.

3. Point of view is the vantage point from which a story is told. In a first-person point of view, the narrator is a character who is involved in the action. In a third-person limited point of view, the narrator is not involved in the story and reveals the thoughts of a Single charac ter. In a third-person omniscient point of view, the narrator, who is not involved in the story, can see into the minds of all the characters. IdentifY the point of view of "The Most Dangerous Game," and explain how you think the point of view affected how you responded to the events in the story.

4. The setting is the time and place of the events in the story. IdentifY the setting of 'The Most Dangerous Game." Explain why the setting is a key element of the story. and analyze how the setting affects the story's mood, or atmosphere.

5. Theme is the general idea about life that the author wants to communicate. Sometimes, the theme is revealed directly. More often, the theme is revealed indirectly through the characters and events in the story. State the theme of "The Most Dangerous Game," and identifY how it is revealed.

2 Literary Analysis Activity Book

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Name ______________________________________________ Date ___________

"Casey at the Bat" by Ernest Lawrence Thayer (text page 36)

Literary Analysis: Plot

The plot of a piece of writing is like a pyramid. Each event builds on the one(s) before, until the poem or story reaches the climax, the pOint of greatest interest or excitement, at the top. The anticlimax is a kind of letdown, when the ending is not what you expected--"Mighty ' Casey" does strike out.

DIRECTIONS:

Use the plot diagram and the lines provided to identifY the major events of the poem that lead to the anticlimax. IdentifY the anticlimax in item 8. The first entry has been completed for you. Then answer the question that follows.

anticlimax

1. The Mudville team was losing. but most of the crowd remained to see Casey. 2. _____________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________

4. __________________________________________________

5. ________________________________________________

6. ___________________________________________________

7. _________________________________________________________

8. _________________________________________________________

9. Look at your completed plot outline. How do the plot events in the poem lead you to believe that Casey will not strike out? _____________________________

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Literary Analysis Activity Book

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Name ________________________

Date _________

"The Birds" by Daphne du Maurier (text page 46)

Literary Analysis: Mood

Writers often use foreshadowing to create suspense by hinting at events to come. In sus penseful works of literature, foreshadowing can contribute to the mood or atmosphere. By using clues to suggest what has yet to occur, a writer can create a particular feeling in the reader.

DIRECTIONS: Complete the chart to examine how foreshadowing is linked to the mood of "The Birds." Read the clues in the first column. Then explain what events these clues foreshadow. In the last column, identify the mood created by the foreshadowing. When you have completed the chart, answer the question that follows.

Story Clues

l. Nat drew the blanket round him, leaned closer to the back of his sleeping wife, and stayed wakeful, watchful, aware of misgivings without cause.

Event Foreshadowed

the turmoil they will soon face

Mood

apprehension, uncertainty

2. "Householders are warned to see

to their windows, doors, and chimneys, and to take reasonable precautions for the safety of their children."

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3. Nat did not want to scare her. He thought it possible that she might not go to town tomorrow.

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4. And now, in the midst of many

problems, he realized that it was dance music only coming over the air. Not Children's Hour, as it should have been.

5. He was filled with misgivings. He ~ did not want his wife or the children to go down to the farm.

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6. In general, what kind of mood is created by the use of foreshadowing in "The Birds"? How is this mood created?

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Literary Analysis Activity Book

© Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Name ________________________

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"The Red-headed League" by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (text page 82)

Literary Analysis: Suspense in a Mystery

A mystery is a story of suspense that usually contains the following elements: a crime, a crime solver, suspects, a criminal, and key details such as clues, alibis, and characters' motives, The suspense. or feeling of curiosity or uncertainty, in the mystery is created by the writer's use of details that arouse the reader's curiosity by hinting at events to come. Complete the following chart to examine how Sir Arthur Conan Doyle creates sus pense in "The Red-Headed League." Read the description from the story in the first column. Then identify the details from the description that help to create suspense. Finally, explain how this suspense adds to the reader's interest in the mystery. The first one has been done for you.

DIRECTIONS:

Description From Story 1. "I went to the landlord ... and I asked him if he could tell me what had become of the Redheaded League. He said that he

had never heard of any such

body."

2. When I saw him that afternoon so enwrapped in the music at St. James's Hall I felt that an evil time might be coming upon those whom he had set himself to hunt down. 3. "And, I say, Doctor, there may be some little danger, so kindly put your army revolver in your pocket."

I

Details That Create Suspense Landlord said he never heard of Redheaded League.

How Details Increase Interest in Mystery Readers want to find out what had happened to the organization.

4. "It is our French gold," whis

pered the director. "We have had several warnings that an attempt might be made upon it."

5. "These are daring men, and though we shall take them at a disadvantage, they may do us some harm unless we are careful. "

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Literary Analysis Activity Book

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________

"The Listeners" by Walter de la Mare (text page 104)

"Beware: Do Not Read This Poem" by Ishmael Reed (text page 106)

"Echo" by Henriqueta Lisboa (text page 107)

Literary Analysis: Comparative Figurative Language

Poets use imagery to appeal to the reader's five senses-touch, taste. smell. hearing. and sight. Often this imagery relies on figures of speech. such as metaphor. personification. and hyperbole. These figures of speech create vivid impressions in the reader's minds. · A metaphor implies a direct comparison between two unlike things.

· Personification gives human characteristics to a nonhuman subject. · Hyperbole is exaggeration and overstatement for emphasis.

DIRECTIONS:

For each of the passages listed below. identify the figure of speech used by the poet. Then describe the impression created in your mind.

Poem 1. "The Listeners"

Example of Figures of Speech

And how the silence surged softly backward, When the plunging hoofs were gone. the hunger of this poem is

legendary

it has taken in many victims

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Type of Figure of Speech personification

Impression Created makes the silence seem almost lifelike. like one of the ghostly characters in the poem

2. "Beware"

I

it is a greedy mirror

3. "Beware"

!

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4. "Beware"

this poem aint got no manners

5. "Echo"

Thousands of parrots

screamed together

6. "Echo"

steely screams rained

and rained down.

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Literary Analysis.Activity Book

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________

"caucasian Mummies Mystify Chinese" by Keay Davidson (text page 112)

Literary Analysis: Fact and Opinion

A news article's main purpose is to inform the reader about the subject of the article by answering six basic questions: who. what;. when. where, why, and how. The opening sen tences of a news article, called the lead, are written to capture the audience's attention by summarizing the main pOints of the stoxy and answer as many of the six questions as possible. The main idea in a news article is supported by important details. Some of these details are facts. which can be proved true. Other details are expert opinions. which are what people think or feel about the main idea or what they believe to be true about it. An opinion can be supported, but it cannot be proved to be true.

DIREcTIONS:

Complete the following chart by writing one fact and one opinion from "Caucasian Mummies Mystify Chinese" that provide details about the main idea.

Main Idea

1. The discovexy was described by a scientist writing in Discover magazine in April 1994.

Fact

The first of the more than 100 mummies were found in 1978 and 1979.

Opinion

This discovexy could have a greater effect on our theories of evolution than the idea of a lone "ice man."

2. The discovexy of the mummies received little press attention in the West.

3. Only five years ago, Chinese authorities would not have granted Westerners access to tissue samples from the mummies. 4. The mummies are found at burial sites in a 500-mile wide region of northwest China.

5. It has taken a long time for the news of these Chinese mummies to get the attention of Western scholars. 6. When Matr first saw the Chinese mummies, he immediately recognized their faces as Caucasians.

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Literary Analysis Activity Book

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Name ____________~___________

Date __________

from A Lincoln Preface by Carl Sandburg (text page 129)

Literary Analysis: Anecdotes and Mood

Carl Sandberg uses anecdotes in A Lincoln Preface to entertain readers and to make certain pOints about Abraham Lincoln. But these anecdotes also help to create particular feelings in the reader. The feeling that a piece of writing creates is its mood. The mood of a work often is suggested by the descriptive details a writer uses-the kinds of details often found in anecdotes.

DIRECTIONS: Read each anecdote about Lincoln from A Lincoln Preface in the first column. Then identify the mood that the anecdote creates. In the last column. explain how the anecdote helps to create the particular mood. The first one has been done for you.

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Anecdote 1. As they were finishing their talk of the days of blood, he said, "I shan't last long after it's over."

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Mood

How Anecdote Creates Mood

eerie and sad

It foreshadows

Lincoln's

assassination.

2. "I don't intend precisely to throw the Constitution overboard, but I will stick a hole in it if I can," he told a Cabinet officer. The enemy was violating the Constitution to destroy the Union, he argued, and therefore, "I will violate the Constitution, if necessary, to save the Union."

3. When his white kid gloves broke into tatters while shaking hands at a White House reception, he remarked, "This looks like a general bustificaiton."

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4. He mentioned "the politicians," over and over again "the politicians," with scorn and blame. As the platoons filed before him at a review of an army corps, he asked, "What is to become of these boys when the war is over?"

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5. He threw a cashiered officer of hi the White house, crying, "I can bear censure, but not insult. I never wish to see your face again."

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Literary Analysis Activity Book

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Name ___________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King, Jr. (text page 140)

from Rosa Parks: My Story by Rosa Parks with Jim Haskins (text page 143)

"There Is a Longing... " by Chief Dan George (text page 145)

"I Hear America Singing" by Walt Whitman (text page 146)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Tone

Tone is the attitude a writer takes toward the subject of his or her writing. A writer's tone is often influenced by his or her purpose for writing. This Is especially true in the case of nonfic tion. For example, the tone of a persuasive speech might be forceful and resolute in order to make the writer's argument more compelling. To identify the tone of a literary work, pay atten tion to the words, phrases. and details a writer uses and the attitudes and feelings that these words. phrases, and details reveal.

For each of the following works, identify the author's purpose for writing. Then. identify the tone of each work. Last, briefly describe how the tone Is established in the work. The first one has been done for you.

DIRECTIONS:

"I Have a Dream"

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Author's Purpose to persuade

Tone powerful, optimistic

How Tone Is Established King uses very powerful images and uplifting language to create a persuasive and moving speech.

Rosa Parks: My Story

"There Is a Longing.....

"I Hear America Singing"

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Literary Analysis Activity Book

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"The Golden Kite, the Silver Wind" by Ray Bradbury (text page 152)

Literary Analysis: Figurative Language in a Fable

In this fable, the author uses figurative language to emphasize the theme and moral of the story. Figurative language is not meant to be taken literally. It is a heightened use of language to create vivid and striking impressions by setting up comparisons between unlike ideas, objects. and concepts. There are different kinds of figurative language. A simile makes the comparison using the words like or as. A metaphor makes comparison directly. Personification gives human qualities to a nonhuman thing.

DIRECTIONS: Read each passage from "The Golden Kite. the Silver Wind" in the first column. Then. in the second column. identify the type of figurative language used by the writer. Finally, describe what association and impressions this figurative language brings to mind. The first one has been done for you.

Example of Figurative Language 1. Death rattled his cane in the outer courtyard.

2. Fireworks were set off and

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Type of Figurative Language personification

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Idea, Feeling, or State of Mind Created by Figurative Language I Death becomes a physical i presence, like a human character in the story.

the demons of death and poverty, did not linger, as all worked together.

3. But the pleasure was like

a winter flower; it died swiftly.

4. The Mandarin's heart

sickened within him like an autumn fruit upon an ancient tree.

5. liTe II my stonemasons," said the whisper that was a falling drop of rain.

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6. Like a rusted machine,

the city ground to a halt.

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Literary Analysis Activity Book

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Name ________________________

to

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost (text page 166)

"New Directions" by Maya Angelou (text page 168)

"To Be of Use" by Marge Piercy (text page 171)

Literary Analysis: Figurative Language and Theme

Figurative language is writing or speech not meant to be interpreted literally. It creates vivid impressions by connecting an abstract idea to a concrete thing. Figurative language is often used by writers to emphasize the theme of their works. The theme of a work. or its cen tral message about life. can be stated directly or implied. When the theme is not stated directly. you have to read between the lines to discover it.

DIRECTIONS:

Read each example of figurative language in the chart. Then. explain what ideas or concepts are being compared and how this comparison relates to the theme of the selec tion. Finally, answer the question that follows.

Passage

l. Two roads diverged in a wood, and 1

1took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference -"The Road Not Taken 2. "I looked up the road 1was going and back the way I come, and since 1wasn't satisfied, 1decided to step off the road and cut me a new path."

II

Comparison Theme The writer is compar The theme of the poem ing choosing two roads is that choosing a "safe" to travel on to choosing path in life is not always two paths in life. the most rewarding.

-IINew Directions" 3 .... if the future road looms ominous or un promising, and the roads back uninviting, then we need to gather our resolve and, carrying only the necessary baggage/ step off that road into another direction. -"New Directions"

4. 1 love people who harness themselves, an ox to a heavy cart, who pull like water buffalo, with massive patience ...

-liTo Be of Use

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5. What similar ideas about life do these three works share?

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Name _ _~__

Date _ _ _~_ _ _ __

"Old Man of the Temple" by R. K. Narayan (text page 176)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Narrators

A narrator is someone who tells a story. The narrator of a story can be a character in the story or an outside observer who does not participate in the action of the story. The type of narrator a writer uses will determine the amount of information revealed to you as you read. Often. if the narrator is a character in the story. you will only get as much infor mation as that character knows. This is first-person narration. When the narrator is an outside observer, you usually have access to what all the charac ters think, know, and feel. This kind of omniscient, or all-knowing, narration is referred to as third-person narration.

DIRECTIONS:

Compare the type of narration used in "Old Man of the Temple" to that used in 'The Most Dangerous Game." Complete the chart. Then answer the question that follows.

Is Narrator a Character in Story?

I

Story 1. "The Most Dangerous Game"

Type of Narration Used

2. "Old Man of the Temple"

3. How does the type of narration used in each story affect the mood?

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Name ____

~

________________________________________ Date _________________

"Perseus" by Edith Hamilton (text page 186)

Literary Analysis: Judging Character

The hero in a myth is a character who performs great acts of strength and courage. The hero usually finds himself or herself in a story involving supernatural beings and fantastic events and is often aided by magical elements. In addition. the hero exhibits admirable quali ties such as courage, loyalty. and fairness. A hero's character traits cause him or her to behave in a certain way, just as a character in realistic fiction does. By examining these traits, you can better understand the hero's actions and make judgments about him or her.

DIRECTIONS: Examine the character of Perseus. Complete the following chart with information about Perseus's character and how his character influences the action in the story. Identify what character trait is revealed in each episode and then tell what happens as a result. The first one has been done for you. Then answer the question that follows.

Episode in Story 1. Perseus attends the king's celebration.

2. Perseus meets the Gray Women.

Character Trait Revealed He wants to prove himself better than the king's other guests.

I

I

I

What Happens as a Result He offers to kill Medusa and bring her head back to the king.

3. Perseus finds Medusa.

i

4. Perseus sees Andromeda.

5. Perseus returns home.

6. Perseus returns to Greece to see his grandfather.

7. How would you describe Perseus's character, based on his actions in this story?

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________________

"Slam. Dunk. &: Hook" by Yusef Komunyakaa (text page 198) "The Spearthrower" by Lillian Morrison (text page 200) "Shoulders" by Naomi Shihab Nye (text page 201)

Literary Analysis: Repetition in Poetry

Repetition is the use of an element of language more than once. whether it is a sound, a word, a phrase, or a sentence. Poets often use repetition for musical effects or to emphasize an idea or feeling. A poet can repeat the initial sound of a consonant letter. known as allitera· tion; the sound of a word, known as rhyme; or the rhythm of words and phrases. These sound patterns can create striking effects when the poem is read aloud.

Examine the use of repetition in the three poems in this section. For each poem in the chart, identify the kind of repetition used by the poet and then provide an example from the poem.

DIRECTIONS:

Poem 1. "Slam. Dunk. & Hook"

Type of Repetition Used

Example

2. "The Spearthrower"

3. "Shoulders"

\

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Na~e

______________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"Children in the Woods" by Bany Lopez (text page 215)

Literary Analysis: Tone

People wrtte essays to make a point. One way to make a point is to state a central idea and then support it with details. However, a wrtter can also make his or her point in more subtle ways. The wrtter's tone. or attitude toward his or her subject, influences the reader's reaction to the essay. A wrtter's tone can often be described in one word, such as formal or informal, serious or playful, bitter or ironic. When you listen to a speaker, you can easily detect the speaker's attitude through gestures, faCial expression, and tone of voice. When you read, you can detect tone through the wrtter's choice of words. Complete the following word web in order to examine Barry Lopez's tone in "Children in the Woods." In the outer ovals, identifY words and phrases from the essay that you think help to create the tone. Then, describe the tone in the center oval. When you have completed the web, answer the question that follows.

DIRECTIONS:

How does understanding the wrtter's tone help you understand his or her message?

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________________

"Rules of the Game" by Amy Tan (text page 224)

Literary Analysis: Point of View

When we read a short story. we learn about events through the narrator, or the person who tells the story. The writer's choice of narrator determines the story's point of view, or perspective. Waverly, the narrator of "Rules of the Game," is a young girl who was born in America. Her mother, who comes from a different generation and a different culture, sees the story events differently. A generational conflict, like the one between Waverly and her mother, usually occurs because people who are in different generations have different pOints of view.

DIRECTIONS:

Examine how the choice of narrator affects a story's point of view. Retell the story events in "Rules of the Game" from Mrs. Jong's point of view.

beginning

middle

end

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Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"Checkouts" by Cynthia Rylant (text page 236) "Fifteen" by William Stafford (text page 241)

Literary Analysis: Comparing the Use of Irony

Irony is a literary technique in which the writer says or shows the opposite of what is expected. When writers use words that suggest the opposite of what they really mean, it is called verbal irony. Writers who show a contradiction between what readers know and what the characters think are using dramatic irony. Irony of situation involves a contradiction between a character's or reader's expectations of what will happen and what really happens in a story.

DIRECTIONS:

Complete the following chart by first identifYing whether each passage is an example of verbal irony, dramatic irony, or irony of situation. Then explain why the the passage is ironic. When you have completed the chart, answer the question that follows.

Passage 1. Then one day the bag boy dropped her jar of mayonnaise and that is how she fell in love.

Type of Irony

Why It Is Ironic

irony of situation

We expect customers to feel angry if the bag boy drops their groceries.

2. He believed he must have looked the jackass in her eyes, and he envied the sureness of everyone around him ...

3. For some perverse reason she would not have been able to articulate, the girl did not bring her cart up to the bag boy's checkout when her shopping was done. And the bag boy let her leave the store, pretending no notice of her. I

4.

I led it gently to the road and stood with that companion, ready and friendly, I was fifteen.

5. He ran his hand over it, called me a good man, roared away.

6. Why do you think each writer uses irony? How does the irony contribute to the overall

impact of the story and the poem?

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Name ____________________________________________ Date ____________

"Sympathy" by Paul Laurence Dunbar (text page 246)

"Caged Bird" by Maya Angelou (text page 247)

"We never know how high we are" by Emily Dickinson (text page 249)

from In My Place by Charlayne Hunter-Gault (text page 250)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Symbols and Theme

A symbol is a word or image that has another meaning beyond its literal meaning. Writers, especially poets, often use symbols to emphasize the theme, or central message about life, of a work.

DIRECTIONS: In the first box, describe what you think the caged bird symbolizes in each poem. Then. in the second box. state the theme of each poem. When you have finished. answer the question that follows.

"Sympathy" Meaning of Symbol

"Caged Bird"

Meaning of Symbol

Theme

Theme

Compare the symbol of the caged bird used by Dunbar and Angelou in their poems. What other symbols do you think the poets could have used to emphasize their themes?

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"The Interlopers" by Saki (H.H. Munro) (text page 262)

Literary Analysis: Conflict and Resolution

Stories are usually built around conflict. or a struggle between opposing forces. A conflict may be internal. or inside the mind of a character. An external conflict is between a charac ter and an outside force. That outside force may be another character or an aspect of society or nature. The resolution is the part of the plot in which the conflict is finally resolved. However. not all stories offer resolution to their conflicts, or a writer may only imply the reso lution to a conflict without stating it directly. Identify the conflict in each passage listed in the following chart. Tell whether it is internal or external and name the two opposing sides in the conflict. Then tell how each con flict is resolved. When you are done. answer the question that follows.

DIRECTIONS:

Passage 1. Ulrich von Gradwitz patrolled the dark forest in quest of a human enemy. 2. A fierce shriek of the storm had been answered by a splitting crash over their heads, and ere they could leap aside a mass of falling beech tree had thundered down on them. 3. In the pain and languor that Ulrich himself was feeling the old fierce hatred seemed to be dying down.

Opposing Forces Ulrich von Gradwitz and Georg Znaeym

Type of Conflict external

Is Conflict Resolved? yes

4. "I can see figures coming through the wood. They are following in the way I came down the hillside."

i

I

5. How do you think the final external conflict between the two men and the wolves will be resolved? Why do you think Saki chose not to resolve this conflict in the story?

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________________

"The Rug Merchant" by James Michener (text page 272)

Literary Analysis: Characterization and Tone

In his essay, Michener relates his experiences with a rug merchant in Afghanistan. In fact. the subject of his essay is the rug merchant himself. When nonfiction writers write about a person, they use the same techniques to create and develop their characters that fiction writers do. As with fiction, the goal is to create a striking portrait of a person in words. Because the rug merchant is the subject of Michener's essay, you can use his characteriza tion to help you determine the tone of the work. Tone is the particular feeling or attitude that a writer has toward his or her subject. By paying careful attention to the writer's choice of words, you can identifY the tone. Note, however, that a writer can have more than one tone and can also change his or her attitude toward a subject or topic over time.

DIRECTIONS:

As you read "The Rug Merchant." you may have noticed that Michener's attitude toward the merchant changes. Complete the following diagram by identifying the ways Michener characterizes the rug merchant from the start of his essay to the end. Then use this informa tion to determine the tone of the essay at the beginning and then at the end.

Rug Merchant

Tone

"perSistent rascal" who is confident he could wear Michener down

+

~

+

+

ingenious man who spent days persuading Michener to buy rugs

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"Combing" by Gladys Cardiff (text page 282)

"Women" by AlIce Walker (text page 283)

"maggie and milly and molly and may" by E.E. Cummings (text page 284)

"Astonishment" by Wislawa Szymborska (text page 285)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Sensory Details

A poem's exploration of ideas and feelings frequently results in a moment of insight, or a flash of understanding when you see something in a whole new way. These moments of insight are brought about through a poet's use of particular images and details, which often appeal to your five senses-sight, sound. touch. taste, and smell. By identifying these sensory details in a poem, you can make your reading experience more rewarding.

DIREcTIONS:

For each passage in the following chart, first list the sensory details used by the poet. Then identifY the senses being appealed to. Then answer the question that follows.

Passage My daughter's hair 1. Curls against the comb, Wet and fragrant-orange Pairings.

-"Combing"

Sensory Details wet. fragrant. orange

Senses Appealed To sight, touch, smell

2.

Beneath My mother's hands I feel The braids drawn up tight As a piano wire and singing, Vinegar-rinsed. -"Combing"

3. How they battered down Doors And ironed Starched white Shirts -"Women"

4.

Why... do I sit and stare into a dark corner, just as it looks up, suddenly raising its head, this growling thing that is called a dog? _"Astonishment"

5. In "Combing" and "Women," how do the sensory details contribute to the overall effect of the poems? Why do you think each poet chose to use these details?

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Name ___.___________- __________

Date ____- -_ _ __

"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by James Thurber (text page 299)

Literary Analysis: Point of View and Narration

The narrator is the speaker or character who tells a story. James Thurber tells the story of Walter Mitty's secret life from the limited third-person point of view. The narrator is not a character in the story, but he or she does have access to Walter's thoughts and feelings. However, to an observer who can't see into Walter's mind as the reader does, Walter's actions might seem very different. Take the role of one of the other characters in "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" and narrate a part of the story. Tell the story from that character's point of view. Make sure your point of view remains consistent with the character you choose.

DIRECTIONS:

The Secret Life of Walter Mitty by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ (character's name)

----_

....

_-------------------------------

--

---

---------------------

------------------_

...... _ - ...

_----,-------------

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Name ________________________________________________ Date _________________

"The Inspector-General" by Anton Chekhov (text page 310)

Literary Analysis: Characterization

Writers use irony to show that things may not be as they appear by creating a contrast between an expected outcome and the actual outcome. Much of the irony in Chekhov's play results from the ways the Inspector-General is characterized. A writer reveals the personality of a character through the technique of characterization. Direct characterization occurs when a writer makes direct statements about a character's traits. In indirect characterization, the reader must draw conclusions about the character based on the way he or she looks, acts, and thinks, as well as what other characters think of him or her. Complete the following character web to examine the character traits of the Inspector-General. In each oval, identifY a trait of the Inspector-General and then write whether the trait is an example of direct or indirect characterization.

DIRECTIONS:

Inspector-General

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Name _______________________________

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"Go Deep to the Sewer" by Bill Cosby (text page 319)

"Fly Away" by Ralph Helfer (text page 324)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Theme

A theme is the central message about life that is revealed in a literary work. Sometimes a work's theme is stated directly by the writer. Other times, the theme is implied and you must draw conclusions based on details in the work.

DIRECTIONS:

Use the passages in the following chart to help you identify a major theme in each work. Then answer the question that follows.

Passage

1. The essence of childhood, of course, is play, which my friends and I did endlessly on streets that we reluctantly shared with traffic. As a daring receiver in touch foot ball, I spent many happy years running up and down asphalt fields, hoping that a football would hit me before a Chevrolet did.

"Go Deep to the Sewer"

Theme of Work

2. Sometimes affection training was not the

only answer. One could not "pet" a fly or earn its respect. I knew I would have to resort to the laws of nature for the answer to this one. I'd had the opportunity to work with various insects in the past. But 5,00011 hoped I hadn't bitten off more than I could chew. -"Fly Away"

3. How do you think the use of humor impacts upon the theme of each work?

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________________

"An Entomological Study of Apartment 4Att by Patricia Volk (text page 332)

Literary Analysis: Feature Articles and Author's Purpose

Feature artIcles, which often appear in newspapers and magazines, are lengthy news stories that focus on the experiences, problems, or ideas of a person or group of people. Often, the author's purpose, or reason, for writing will influence the subject matter and style of the article. Authors generally write to inform or explain, to express an opinion, to entertain, or to persuade readers to do or believe in something. When you determine an author's purpose for writing, you can better understand and interpret what you read. Patricia Volk's feature article is meant both to entertain readers and provide infor mation about insects. Complete the following chart by providing three examples from the article that illustrate each of these purposes for writing.

DIRECTIONS:

Purpose

Examples

1.

to entertain

2.

3.

to inform

1.

2.

3.

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Name ____________________________________________ Date _________

"Macavity: The Mystery Cat" by T.S. Eliot (text page 346)

"Problems With Hurricanes" by Victor Hernandez Cruz (text page 350)

"Jabberwocky" by Lewis Carroll (text page 352)

Literary Analysis: Fantasy and Reality

These poems not only rely on humorous diction for comic effect, but also blend together fantasy and reality in highly amusing ways. Fantasy allows our imaginations to run wild because it is a realm in which events are not dictated by reality-where the impossible can happen.

DIRECTIONS:

Choose one of the poems in this section and complete the following chart. In the first column. list those elements from the poem that are realistic or true to life. In the second column, list the fantastical elements. Poem: _________________________________________

Realistic Elements

Fantastical Elements

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Name ______________________________________________ Date ______________

"Talk" by Harold Courlander and George Herzog (text page 358)

Literary Analysis: Folk Tale

Folk tales are stories that have been passed down orally through generations. They are part of a particular culture's heritage. The stories in folk tales typically follow simple plots and involve either human characters interacting with animals or animals alone. Folk tales often rely on humor and exaggeration to entertain listeners, but they also provide an important function by expressing a culture's values and beliefs.

DIRECTIONS: Complete the following web to examine how "Talk" exemplifies the characteristics of a folk tale.

simple plot

Folk Tale

humor and exaggeration

expresses a culture's values and beliefs

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Name ______________________________________________ Date ______________

"One Ordinary Day, With Peanuts" by Shirley Jackson {text page 364J

Literary Analysis: Rising Action and Climax

The plot for "One Ordinary Day, With Peanuts" does not follow the usual pattern of exposi tion, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution. Instead, the plot is mostly rising action with a steep turn in the last few paragraphs of the story-a typical scenario for stories with surprise endings.

DIRECTIONS:

Use the rising action and climax diagram and the lines provided to identify plot events in the story that lead to the climax. Then identify the climax in item 5 and the ending of the story in item 6. The first entry has been completed for you.

3

2

1

1. Mr. Johnson watches a young boy as his mother moves out of an apartment.

2.

3. ____________________________________________________________

4. __________________________________________________________________

5. __________________________________________________________

6.

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _______________

from The Road Ahead by Bill Gates (text page 385)

Literary Analysis: Main Idea in Expository Writing

Expository writing. such as a newspaper or a magazine article. informs or explains some thing. When reading expository writing. it is helpful to identify the main idea and the support ing details that provide more information about this idea. Sometimes. the main idea is stated directly: other times the main idea is only implied. and you must read between the lines to determine what it is.

DIRECTIONS: Read the following paragraphs from The Road Ahead. Then. in the second column. identify the main idea. either stated or implied. and give two details that support the main idea. You can summarize these details in your own words. The first one has been done for you. Then answer the question that follows.

Paragraph

l. Paragraph 2. page 385.

Main Idea Conventional television allows us to decide what we want to watch but not when we watch. it.

Supporting Details The technical term for this sort of broadcasting is "synchronous."

beginning. "Conventional television ... " 2. Paragraph 3. page 385. beginning. "In the early 1980s ... "

3. Paragraph 5. page 385. beginning. "Once a form of communication ... "

4. Paragraph 6. page 386. beginning. "Television has been around ... "

5. Paragraph 11. page 387. beginning. "The digitized data ... "

6. In your own words. sum up the main idea of the entire work.

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Name ____________________________

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"The Machine That Won the War" by Isaac Asimov (text page 394)

Literary Analysis: Fantasy and Reality

In science fiction. a WIiter creates settings. characters, and situations that are not found

in reality. These changes rely on real scientific knowledge and on predictions based on that

knowledge. Science fiction frequently is set in the future and/or on other planets. Writers con sider the effects of scientific possibilities on human beings. Unlike fantasy. science fiction depends on situations that are true to life or possible in the real world. even though the set ting is made up. Examine the elements of 'The Machine That Won the War" that are real and those that are fantasy. For each category in the following chart. list examples from the story that are science fact and science fiction. The first one has been started for you.

DIRECTIONS:

Category 1. Characters

Science Fact real people, with thoughts and feelings we recognize

Science Fiction

2. Setting

3. Plot

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"Fire and Ice" by Robert Frost (text page 412)

"All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace" by Richard Brautigan

(text page 413)

"There Will Come Soft Rains" by Sara Teasdale (text page 414)

"The Horses" by Edwin Muir (text page 415)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Theme

The theme of a poem is its central idea. It is not necessarily the subject of the poem, but a generalization about human nature or life. Often, in a poem, the theme is not stated directly. Instead. you need to think about what the poet Is trying to say about human nature.

DIRECTIONS:

Compare the themes of "There Will Come a Soft Rain" and "The Horses." First list details from each poem that you think develop the theme. Then identifY the theme of each poem. Finally. answer the question that follows.

Details from "There Will Come Soft Rains"

Details from "The Horses"

Theme: __________________________

Theme: ___________________________

How are the themes of the two poems similar? How are they different?

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Name ________________________

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth ... " by Arthur C. Clarke (text page 426)

from Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (text page 430)

"To the Residents of A.D. 2029" by Bryan Woolley (text page 434)

Literary Analysis: Exhortation and Theme

An exhortation is an urgent appeal or warning. The warning can be stated directly in the

text. or it can be implied by the author's words. Directly stated exhortations more often occur in nonfiction because the writer often tries to persuade you to agree with his or her theme.

DIRECTIONS:

Read each exhortation in the chart. In the second column. write the meaning of the exhortation in your own words. In the next column, write the theme of the work. Then, in the last column, explain how the exhortation relates to the theme.

Exhortation

1. There was no sign that men had ever explored this land, but once they passed the skeleton of a crashed rocket, and beside it a stone cairn surmounted by a metal cross.

Meaning of Exhortation Take care of and preserve our planet so it isn't destroyed.

Theme It is impor tant that we protect our planet.

-"If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth ... "

2. In the town the doctors had become more and more puzzled by new kinds of sickness appearing among their patients. There had been several sudden and unexplained deaths....

How Exhortation Relates to Theme If we don't protect our planet, one day we will be forced to abandon it because life here will be impossible.

-Silent Spring

3. The roadsides, once so attractive, were now lined with browned and withered vegetation as though swept by fire. These, too, were silent, deserted by all living things.

-Silent Spring

4. Scientists say the last wisp of pure, nat

ural air in the continental United States was absorbed into our generally polluted atmosphere over Flagstaff, Arizona, sev eral years ago. Parts of our land are over crowded, parts neglected, parts destroyed.

-"To the Residents of A.D. 2029"

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Name ________________________________________________ Date __________

"Gifts" by Shu Ting (text page 442)

"Glory and Hope" by Nelson Mandela (text page 443)

Literary Analysis: Tone and Author's Purpose

Tone is a writer's attitude toward his or her topic. Sometimes a single work reflects several different tones. A writer uses specific words and details to create a tone, so it is important to think carefully about the writer's choice of words in order to understand how and why the selection makes you feel a certain way. When examining the tone of a work, it helps to think about the author's purpose for writ ing. Often, the tone of a work is related to the reasons the writer is writing it. Complete the following chart to examine how the tone of a work is related to the author's purpose. Read each passage. Then, identify the key words that create a tone. Next, identify the tone. Finally, identify the author's purpose. The first one has been done for you. Then answer the question that follows.

DIRECTIONS:

Passage

l. My joy is the joy of sunlight. In a moment of creation I will leave shining words In the pupils of children's eyes Igniting golden flames.

-"Gifts" 2. We would also like to pay tribute to our security forces ... for the distinguished role they have played in securing our first democratic elections and the transition to democracy, from bloodthirsty forces which still refuse to see the light. -"Glory and Hope" 3. We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continu ing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suf fering, gender and other discrimination. -"Glory and Hope"

Key Words joy of sunlight

Tone joyful

Author's Purpose to entertain, to express an an opinion

4. In each work, how does the author's purpose for writing affect the tone?

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Name ________________________

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"The Gift of the Magi" by O. Henry (text page 459)

Literary Analysis: Conflict

Like a novel, a short story has a plot. However. the plot of a short story is usually simpler than that of a novel because the writer must accomplish his or her purpose in relatively few words. The plot. therefore, typically involves one or two main characters who face one major problem. or conflict. A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces and can be external or internal. An external conflict involves a struggle with an outside force, such as another char acter or an aspect of society. When a conflict occurs within a character, it is internal.

DIRECTIONS:

In the following chart. identity the external and internal conflicts in 'The Gift of the Magi." Use the information in each box at the top to help you identity each conflict. Then answer the questions that follow.

Information It is Christmas. Della has no extra money after paying the bills. External Conflict

Information Della wants to buy Jim a gift. The only way she can make money for a gift is to sell her hair. Internal Conflict

1. How do you think these two conflicts are related?

2. How do you think these conflicts contribute to the impact of the story?

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Name ______________________________________________ Date ________________

"Sonata for Harp and Bicycle" by Joan Aiken (text page 470)

Literary Analysis: Foreshadowing

Foreshadowinl is the use of clues that hint at what will happen later in a story. Foreshadowing helps create suspense-a feeling of curiosity or anxiety in the reader, which helps keep his or her attention and build excitement. However, authors must be careful they don't want to give away too much and ruin the story for readers!

Complete the following chart after reading "Sonata for Harp and Bicycle. Read each event from the story. Then list at least one clue from the story that foreshadows each event. If you don't find all of them the first time through. don't worry. Sometimes these hints are easier to see on a second or third reading.

DIRECTIONS:

H

Event or Outcome 1. Jason enters the buildIng after 5:00.

Foreshadowinl

2. The ghost of the Wailing Watchman threatens Jason in the corridor.

3. Jason and MIss Golden fall in love.

4. Miss Bell answers the phone.

5. The estranged lovers meet.

6. Jason Jumps off the fire escape.

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Name ________________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

"The Scarlet Ibis" by James Hurst (text page 484)

Literary Analysis: Symbol

At the very end of Hurst's story, the narrator calls Doodle "my fallen scarlet ibis." By linking Doodle and the ibis in this way, Hurst makes clear what you already may have suspected that the bird symbolizes Doodle. A symbol is an object. a person, or an event that stands for itself but also represents some thing else. A flag, for instance, may symbolize a country. Writers use symbols in many ways to help illuminate a story's theme, or to show an aspect of a character or situation cannot be described easily.

DIRECTIONS:

Complete the following chart by comparing the ibis to the character of Doodle. Reread the description of the scarlet ibis and then, in the left column, list the bird's qualities. In the right column, list traits or aspects of Doodle's character that seem Similar that of the bird. Then answer the questions that follow. Scarlet Ibis Doodle

I

1. What do these similarities seem to say about Doodle?

2. How does the use of this symbol illuminate the story's theme?

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Name ______________________________________________ Date ___________

"Blues Ain't No Mockin Bird" by Toni Cade Bambara (text page 498) "Uncle Marcos" by Isabel Allende (text page 504)

Literary Analysis: Dialect

A dialect is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or group of people. It is a form of language that reflects where someone is from and the community in which he or she lives. A writer often uses dialect to give a sense of local color to a story and to be true to a specific region or people. Using dialect can help a writer add depth to characters by letting the reader hear 1ww a character speaks, as well as what he or she says. In "Blues Ain't No Mocking Bird," Barnbara writes the story from the granddaughter's perspective and uses an African American dialect of the rural South. Bambara's ear for dialect makes her story rich and dis tinctive because of the attention she pays to capturing the feel of the setting and the people who inhabit the story.

DIRECTIONS:

Complete the following chart by finding examples of dialect in the story (either in the narrator's voice or the speech of other characters). Then, rewrite each example you find them in standard, formal English. Finally, answer the question that follows.

Example of Dialect

l.

Rewritten in Standard English

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. What difference do your rewrites make? What is lost in terms of character?

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Name ________________________

Date ____________

"The Man to Send Rain Clouds" by Leslie Marmon Silko (text page 522) "The Invalid's Story" by Mark Twain (text page 526)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Tone

If the setting of a story can contribute to its atmosphere or mood, so can the tone that a writer uses. Tone refers to the writer's attitude toward his or her subject. This tone can be angry, tender, hopeful. or sarcastic. Tone is expressed not only in what the writer says but also in the words and phrases that he or she chooses to express himself or herself.

Look carefully at "The Man to Send Rain Clouds" and 'The Invalid's Story." Both stories deal with the death of a loved one, but their tones are very different. Compare the tones by completing a web for each story. (You'll need to make another copy of the web.) In the outer ovals, record the words, phrases, and details in the story that stand out in your mind. Then look at what you have recorded. What tone do you think is revealed by these words, phrases, and details? Record your answer in the center oval.

DIRECTIONS:

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Name __________________________________

Date ____________

"The Necklace" by Guy de Maupassant (text page 536) "The Harvest" by Tomas Rivera (text page 542)

Literary Analysis: Irony

Irony is a powerful technique that a writer can use for communicating the theme of a story. Irony occurs when there is a difference between appearance and reality, expectation and result, or meaning and intention. Verbal irony is the simplest form of irony. This occurs when a character says the opposite of what he or she means. For example, when the narrator of "Uncle Marcos" deSCribes Marcos as suffering a "deep depression," she is using verbal irony because the depression can't be very deep if it lasts only two or three days. Dramatic irony occurs when there is a difference between what the characters believe is going on and what the reader knows to be true. For example. in "The Invalid's Story," the reader knows the casket the narrator is traveling with is full of guns and Limburger cheese, but the other characters believe the terrible odor to be coming from a dead body. Irony of situation occurs when events in a story directly contradict the expectations of the characters or the reader.

DIRECTIONS:

Complete the following chart to examine the use of irony of situation in both "The Necklace" and 'The Harvest." In the first column, record your expectations while reading each story. Then, in the second column. record the actual situation in each story. Finally, answer the question that follows.

Story 1. "The Necklace"

My Expectations

Actual Situations

2. "The Harvest"

I

3. How does the use of irony contribute to each story's theme?

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Name ___ " _ _ _

~

_________________

Date _________

"Single Room, Earth View" by Sally Ride (text page 559)

Literary Analysis: Observation

Sally Ride's essay is an observation-firsthand account of travel in a space shuttle. But observation, or what we see and how we go about looking, is also the subject of her essay. As Ride describes the details of her "view," she also gives readers a chance to view their own world from a new perspective and makes a point about the difference good observations can make.

DIRECTIONS:

Complete the following chart. Describe the thing or event as you might see it from Earth. Then, describe the thing or event as seen from the space shuttle. The first one has been done for you. Then answer the question that follows.

Thing or Event 1. islands or continents

2. storms

i

View From Earth I View From Space Shuttle can't see details of landscape ! see maplike outline of islands

3. ocean

,

4. New York City

I

I

5. pollution

I

6. sunrise

I

I

7. How does the view from the space shuttle change our perspective on Earth?

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________

"The Washwoman" by Isaac Bashevis Singer (text page 568)

"On Summer" by Lorraine Hansberry (text page 572)

"A Celebration of Grandfathers" by Rudolfo A. Anaya (text page 576)

Literary Analysis: Modes of Writing

The essays in this section all have different purposes and use different kinds of writing. However. all of them contain examples of other modes. or kinds, of writing. The four main modes of writing are exposition. narration, description. and persuaSIon. All of them are used in every kind of writing. from drama to essays to poetry.

· Exposition defines, explains. or presents information. This definition is an exam ple of expository writing. · Narration tells a story or describes a series of related events. Narration answers the question, "What happened?" · Description is intended to create a mood. or to paint a portrait in words of a person, place. or thing. Description often works by creating images that appeal to the senses. · Persuasion attempts to convince the reader to agree with a partIcular opinion or follow a course of action. Persuasion can use logic to appeal to reason. or use lan guage that appeals to the emotions.

DIRECTIONS:

As you read the essays. note passages that fit each of the following categories.

Exposition Essay 1. 'The Washwoman" First paragraph sets the scene and introduces his topic.

Narration

Description

Persuasion

i

2. "On Summer"

I

3. "A Celebration of Grandfathers"

I

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________

from A White House Diary by Lady Bird Johnson (text page 586) "Arthur Ashe Remembered" by John McPhee (text page 590) "Georgia O'Keeffe" by Joan Didion (text page 592)

Literary Analysis: Objective and Subjective Writing

An important aspect of autobiographical writing is the access it allows into the subject's feelings and thoughts. Biography, on the other hand. often gives a broader view of the sub ject's life, including background and details the subject couldn't have known. Another way to put this is that biographical writing is usually more objective, while autobiography is more subjective.

· Objective writing reports, without revealing the author's personal emotions, opin ions, or judgments. We expect objectivity when we read newspapers, history books, or science articles. · Subjective writing reveals the author's judgments, biases, and feelings. We expect this kind of writing in editorial pages, personal essays, and autobiographies.

This distinction, however, is not always so clear. A biographer may have strong feelings about the subject that he or she wants to communicate or share. In the two biographical selections listed above, the authors' admiration for their subjects clearly comes across. Lady Bird Johnson describes her own experience, but she also includes some factual details that she could not have known at the time.

DIRECTIONS: As you read the selections, record passages from each that are objective and sub jective in the following chart. Then answer the question that follows.

Selection

1. A White House Diary

i

Objective descriptions of other people's reactions to the event

Subjective

2. "Arthur Ashe Remembered"

3. "Georgia O'Keeffe"

i

i

i

4. Why do you think it's important to distinguish between objective and subjective writing?

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Name ________

~

___________________________________

Date _______

from "Understanding Comics." by Scott McCloud (text page 606)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Types of Essays

At first, a visual essay may seem to have little in common with the other essays you've read. However, a closer look may uncover more similarities than you expect. How is each kind of essay structured? What purposes can it serve? How do the authors communicate meaning in each?

DIRECTIONS:

Use the following Venn diagram to compare a written essay with a visual essay. Record the differences in the outer portions of both circles. Record the similarities in the overlapping center space of both circles.

express author's point of view

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Name ___________.______

~

_ _ _ _ __ Date __ . ~_ _ _ _ __

"Earhart Redux" by Alex Chadwick (text page 618)

In These Girls, Hope Is a Muscle by Madeleine Blais. a book review

by Steve Gietschier (text page 621)

In These Girls, Hope Is a Muscle by Madeleine Blais. book jacket (text page 623)

Literary Analysis: Writing With a Purpose

The selections above are all examples of workplace writing: They were all written as part of the writer's employment. Yet each has a very different purpose-to convey information about a historic flight, to express an opinion about a recent book. and to persuade potential readers to make a purchase. That purpose helps a writer make choices and affects his or her approach and tone.

DIRECTIONS: Choose a selection from this textbook. Imagine that you've been asked to write an interview with the author, a review of the work, or book jacket copy. Write a draft in the space below. Think about your purpose--and your audience-before you start. What information will useful to include? What details or examples will help you achieve your aims?

_.__._-----------_.

-----~---------------.~~--------

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Name ___________________

~

__ Date _________

The Dancers by Horton Foote (text 640)

Literary Analysis: Drama

Drama is a genre of literature wtth its own particular characteristics. · Plot. Like other works of fiction, a work of drama Is made up of series of events involving both characters and a central conflicts. · Characters. A work of drama contains characters similar to those kinds found in prose stories. · Dialogue. A work of drama uses spoken conversations between characters to

reveal character and to advance the plot.

· Stage DirectioDs. A work of drama includes notes to describe how the work is to be performed or staged. These instructions give information about the setting, scenery. and props as well as how characters move, look, and speak.

DlREcTIONS:

Identify the characteristics of The Dancers that make it a drama by completing the chart that follows.

Characteristics of Drama

1. Plot

Examples from The Dancers

2. Characters

3. Dialogue

4. Stage directions

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Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act I. by William Shakespeare (text page 674)

Literary Analysis: Dramatic Foils

The characters in a play are the people or animals who take part in the action. A main character's personality usually is revealed through his or her interactions with other charac ters, When characters in a play have contrasting character traits and 'personalities, they are known as dramatic foils. By using a foil, a writer can call the reader's attention to a main character's particular qualities and traits.

DIRECTIONS:

Romeo and Mercutio are dramatic foils in Act I. Compare and contrast these two characters in the following diagram, Use the dialogue in Act I to help you. Then use this infor mation to draw conclusions about each of the two characters.

Characters

Alike

Different

Conclusion

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The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Act U, by William Shakespeare (text page 698)

Literary Analysis: Verse and Character

The way a character speaks in Shakespeare's plays is often an important clue to his or her character. Lower-class or comic characters speak in prose, while the aristocratiC, more serious characters usually speak in blank verse. Blank verse expresses the characters' passions. thoughts, and deepest feelings. The prose of the lower characters is often filled with jokes. puns. and ribald humor.

DIRECTIONS:

Examine the ways a character's traits are related to the way he or she speaks. Read both excerpts from Act II. Then fill in the chart with the appropriate information.

JULIET. Tis almost morning. I would have thee gone-

And yet no farther than a wanton's bird,

That lets it hop a little from his hand,

Like a poor prisoner in his twisted gyves,

And with a silken thread plucks it back again.

So loving-jealous of his liberty.

I'll take him down,

and 'a were lustier than he is, and twenty such Jacks; and if I

cannot, I'll find those that shall. Scurvy knave! I am none of

his flirt-gills; I am none of his skainsmates. And thou must

NURSE. And 'a speak anything against me,

stand by too, and suffer every knave to use me at his pleasure!

I

j

Character

1. Juliet

Manner of Speaking

Character's Traits

2. Nurse

I

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Name _____________.________________

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act nl, by William Shakespeare (text page 721)

Literary Analysis: Conflict

Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces or characters in stories. novels. and plays. While some conflicts are expressed in dialogue between two or more characters. others are expressed by one character speaking in a monologue or soliloquy. There are two kinds of con flict-external and internal. In external conflict. a character struggles against an outside force. This outside force can be another character. nature, or society. Internal conflict involves a character in conflict with himself or herself.

DIRECTIONS:

Analyze the kinds of conflicts found in Act III of Romeo and Juliet. Read each speech below. Then fill in the information in the chart by identifying whether it is a monologue or soliloquy. to whom it is addressed, the conflict the speech expresses, and whether the con flict is external or internal.

1. NURSE. Will you speak well of him that killed your cousin?

JULIET. Shall I speak ill of him that is my husband?

Ah, poor my lord, what tongue shall smooth thy name

When I, thy three-hours wife, have mangled it?

But wherefore, villain, didst thou kill my cousin?

That villain cousin would have killed my husband.

Back, foolish tears, back to your native spring!

Your tributary drops belong to woe.

Which you, mistaking, offer up to joy.

My husband lives, that Tybalt would have slain;

And Tybalt's dead, that would have slain my husband.

All this is comfort; wherefore weep I then?

Type of Speech: Whom Is Addressed: Conflict Expressed and Type of Conflict:

2. FRIAR. 0 deadly sin! 0 rude unthankful ness!. .. This is dear mercy, and thou seest it not. ROMEO. 'Tis torture, and not mercy. Heaven is here, Where Juliet lives; and every cat and dog And little mouse, every unworthy thing, Live here in heaven and may look on her; ... But Romeo may not, he is banished. Flies may do this but I from this must fly; They are freemen, but I am banished. And sayest thou yet that exile is not death?

Type of Speech:

r--.~-~~~~-__.------------------------------~

Whom Is Addressed:

Conflict Expressed and Type of Conflict:

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The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Act IV, by William Shakespeare (text page 747)

Literary Analysis: Foreshadowing and Dramatic Irony

Foreshadowing is the use of clues in a play or story to suggest events that have yet to hap pen. This literary technique, often used by Shakespeare. helps to create suspense and help readers predict what may happen later in the plot. Dramatic irony, another technique used by Shakespeare. points out the differences between appearance and reality. Dramatic irony also can help foreshadow an event.

DIREcTIONS:

Read each excerpt from Act IV and look for the dramatic irony and what is fore shadowed. Then, answer the questions that follow each excerpt.

1. PARIS. Happily met, my lady and my wife!

JULIET. That may be, sir, when I may be a wife.

PARIS. That "may belt must be, love, on Thursday next.

JULIET. What must be shall be.

What Paris thinks: What the audience knows: What is foreshadowed:

2. CAPULET. Her blood is settled, and her joints are stiff; Life and these lips have long been separated. Death lies on her like an untimely frost Upon the sweetest flower of all the field.

What Paris thinks: What the audience knows: What is foreshadowed:

,

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Name ____________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

~

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Act V, by William Shakespeare (text page 761)

literary Analysis: Mood

Mood, or atmosphere, is the feeling created in the reader by a literary work. In a work of prose, the author can create the mood through descriptive detail. A playwright can do the same through the words spoken by the characters as well as the settings in which the action occurs. The mood of a scene often relates directly to the kind of play, whether it is a comedy or a tragedy. Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy, and the mood of many scenes is filled with impending violence and death. However, there also are instances in which the mood is much lighter. as when Romeo and Juliet first meet at the party.

DIRECTIONS:

Explore the different moods created in Shakespeare's tragic play. Read each pas sage from Act V below. IdentifY the mood created by the passage and then identifY details that contribute to this mood. The first one has been done for you.

L ROMEO. If I may trust the flattering truth of sleep, My dreams presage some joyful news at hand. My bosom's lord sits lightly in his throne, And all this day as unaccustomed spirit Lifts me above the ground with cheerful thoughts.

Mood: joyful. hopeful Details That Set Mood: joyful news. spirit lifts me, cheerful

2. PARIS. Sweet flower, with flowers thy bridal bed I strew

(0 woe! thy canopy is dust and stones)

Which with sweet water nightly I will dew;

Or, wanting that, with tears distilled by moans.

Mood: Details That Set Mood:

3. ROMEO. Thou detestable maw, thou womb of death, Gorged with the dearest morsel of the earth, Thus I enforce thy rotten jaws to open, And in despite I'll cram thee with more food. [Romeo opens the tomb.]

Mood: __._________________________________ Details That Set Mood: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

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"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" by William Wordsworth (text page 789)

Literary Analysis: Rhyme Scheme and Couplets

A rhyme scheme is a pattern of the rhyming words at the end of lines in a poem. You can indicate the pattern of a poem's rhyme with letters of the alphabet. using a new letter for each new rhyme. Sometimes a poet uses the same rhyme scheme in all the stanzas of a poem; sometimes the poet uses a different rhyme scheme in different stanzas. A couplet is a pair of rhyming lines, usually of the same length and meter, that express a single idea. Understanding the relationship between the couplet and the other lines in a stanza can help you better understand the poem.

DIRECTIONS: As you read "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud," complete the following chart by pro viding information about the rhyme scheme and the couplets. The first stanza has been done for you. When you have completed the chart, answer the questions that follow.

Stanza 1

1. The rhyme

ababcc

Stanza 2

Stanza 3

Stanza 4

scheme

2. The rhyming

couplet

the last two lines: Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

3. Meaning of

the couplet

The poet suddenly saw the daffodils waving in the breeze.

4. What image do you see in your mind when you read the couplets in each stanza?

5. How does the overall image created by the couplets relate to the theme of the poem?

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________

"The Eagle" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson (text page 796)

"'Hope' is the thing with feathers-" by Emily Dickinson (text page 797)

"Dream Deferred" and "Dreams" by Langston Hughes (text page 798-799)

Literary Analysis: Effects of Figurative Language

Figurative language is often used by writers to present their ideas in fresh, imaginative ways and to make unfamiliar ideas easier to understand. This type of language is not meant to be taken literally because it sets up comparisons between very dissimilar things. Often, these comparison create striking impressions in the reader.

DIRECTIONS: For each of the examples listed in the chart, classify the type of figurative language used by the writer. Then describe the idea, feeling, or state of mind that the use of figurative language conveys to you. What associations and impressions do the words language bring to mind? When you have completed the chart, answer the question that follows.

Poem l. ''The Eagle"

Example of Figurative Language

He clasps the crag with crooked hands ... And like a thunderbolt he falls.

Type of Figurative Language perSOnification

Idea. Feeling. or State of Mind Conveyed Personifying the eagle in this way makes it seem like a old man.

2. ''The Eagle"

3. " 'Hope' is the thing with feathers-"

4. " 'Hope' is the thing with feathers-" 5. "Dream Deferred"

"Hope" is the thing with feathers

Yet, never, in Extremity, It asked a crumb-of Me. Does it stink like rotten meat?

6. "Dreams"

Life is a barren field Frozen with snow.

7. Why do you think figurative language is so well suited for the genre of poetry?

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"Blackberry Eating" by Galway Kinnell (text page 804)

"Memory" by Margaret Walker (text page 805)

"Woman's Work" by Julia Alvarez (text page 806)

"Meciendo" by Gabriela Mistral (text page 807)

"Eulogy for a Hermit Crab" by Pattiann Rogers (text page 808)

Literary Analysis: Poetry

The elements of poetry include: Form--Poetry is written in lines, which mayor may not be complete sentences. Often, the lines are divided into groups, known as stanzas. Sound Devices-Poems typically are meant to be read aloud. Thus. poets choose words to create specific sounds and effects. Three common sound techniques are rhyme, rhythm, and repetition. Imagery-Poetry uses language in highly descriptive ways. Often. a poem creates a picture in the reader's mind through sensory details that appeal to the five senses. Figurative Language-Figurative language enables the reader to picture something familiar in a new way. Figures of speech make comparisons between unlike things. Three common figures of speech are simile. metaphor. and personification. DIRECTIONS: Complete the following word web by identifying the poetic elements of Pattian Rogers's "Eulogy for a Hermit Crab." The web has been started for you.

Imagery:

Form:

Sound

devices:

Figurative language: Simile: soft,

II

wormlike grip"

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Name ____________________________________________ Date ___________

"Uphill" by Christina Rossetti (text page 814)

"Summer" by Walter Dean Myers (text page 815)

Ecclesiastes 3:1-8, The King James Bible (text page 817)

"The Bells" by Edgar Allan Poe (text page 818)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Sound Devices

Lyric poetry is musical-sounding verse that expresses the obseIVation and feelings of a single speaker. All poetry. including lyric poetry. relies on sound devices. Sound devices are poetic elements that call attention to the sounds and musical qualities of words. Some sound devices include rhyme. rhythm. alliteration. and onomatopoeia.

DIRECTIONS: Complete the following chart by comparing the sound devices used in "Summer" with those used in "Blackbeny Eating" (text page 804). For each poem. identify examples of the different sound devices used by the poet. If the poem does not use a particular sound device, then leave the column blank. Then answer the question that follows.

Poem I. "Summer"

Rhyme

Rhythm

Alliteration

Onomatopoeia

2. "Blackbeny Eating"

!

3. What are the effects of the sound devices in each poem? Why do you think each poet uses the sound devices he does?

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"The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe (text page 832)

"The Seven Ages of Man" by William Shakespeare (text page 836)

Literary Analysis: Imagery and Sensory Details in

Narrative and Dramatic Poetry

"The Raven" is a narrative poem-a poem that tells a story-. It has a plot. characters, and a setting. 'The Seven Ages of Man" is dramatic poetty, which is spoken by one or more characters in a play. Like other of poetty, narrative and dramatic poetty use imagery- and sensory- details to encourage readers or listeners to form mental images of what is happening in the poem.

DIRECTIONS:

Read the lines from each poem in the chart. Then, list the important details from the lines of the poem. Next, identify the senses that these details appeal to. Finally. describe the mental image you form as you read the lines from the poem.

Unes From Poem

1. Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door- Perched, and sat, and nothing more.

-"The Raven" 2. Then into the chamber turning, all my soul within me burning, Soon I heard again a tapping

somewhat louder than before.

-"The Raven"

Details perched upon a bust; perched, and sat. and nothing more

!

Senses

Appealed To sight

Mental Image the eerie sight of a raven sitting quietly on a bust

I

3. And then the whining schoolboy, with his satchel, And shining morning face, creeping like snail

Unwillingly to school.

-"The Seven Ages of Man"

i

4. His youthful hose well saved,

a world too wide For his shrunk shank; and his big manly voice, Turning again toward childish treble, pipes

And whistles in his sound.

-"The Seven Ages of Man"

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Name ______________________________________________ Date _________

"On the Grasshopper and the Cricket" by John Keats (text page 842) Sonnet 30 by William Shakespeare (text page 843) Three Haiku by Basho and Chiyojo (text page 844) "Hokku Poems" by Richard Wright (text page 845)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Sonnets and Haiku

The poems by Keats and Shakespeare are sonnets. A sonnet is a lyrtc poem consisting of fourteen lines. A sonnet typically is written in rhymed iambic pentameter (ten-syllable lines in which every second syllable is accented). Sonnets can differ based on their form and rhyme schemes. In a Shakespearean sonnet. the rhyme scheme is abab cdcd efef 99. A Petrarchan sonnet. such as Keats's poem. consists of eight lines with the rhyme scheme abbaabba. and six lines with a rhyme scheme that can vary. A haiku is a very brief poem that originated in Japan. The first and third lines have five syllables each. while the second line has seven syllables. In very few words. a haiku creates a strong impression of a specific event, feeling. or experience.

DIRECTIONS: Compare and contrast the sonnet with the haiku by completing the following Venn diagram. In the outer portions of each circle. record the characteristics of each type of poem that are different. In the overlapping section. record those that are similar. The diagram has been started for you.

Sonnet

Haiku

uses sensory details to create vivid impressions

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from the Odyssey, Part 1. by Homer (text page 860)

Literary Analysis: Characterization of Odysseus

A writer creates and develops characters through characterization. In direct characteriza tion. a writer makes direct comments about a character's nature and personality. In indirect characterization, it is up to you to draw conclusions about a character based on the charac ter's appearance and what he or she says and does, as well as what other characters say and do in relation to that character. Much of Homer's characterization of Odysseus relies on indi rect information from which you can draw conclusions about this epic hero.

DIRECTIONS: Complete the following chart to examine how Odysseus is characterized in Part I of the Odyssey. The left column contains examples of what Odysseus says and does, as well as what other characters say and think about him. Use these details to examine what this information reveals about the character of Odysseus. The first one has been done for you.

What Odysseus Says and Does! What Other Characters Say and Think About Odysseus I. Odysseus brings along wine and food to the Cyclops' cave.

2. Odysseus lies to Polyphemus about his ship being destroyed.

What This Information Reveals About the Character of Odysseus Odysseus is a wise man because he knows that it is important to be well prepared by bringing food and drink.

3. After being attacked, Polyphemus removes the stone from the doorway and stands with is arms open, hoping to catch who ever tries to run out. Odysseus and his men escape by hiding under Polyphemus's sheep as they pass out of the door. 4. After they escape from Polyphemus, Odysseus and his men evenly divide up the flock sheep. The men believe that Odysseus should get the prized ram. 5. Odysseus reminds his men that he was able to keep his nerve and use his wits in order to escape from Polyphemus.

6. Odysseus says that he never would have been able to make it past Scylla had Zeus not been protecting him.

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Name _______________________

Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __

from the Odyssey, Part 2, by Homer (text page 895)

Literary Analysis: Epic Poems

An epic poem, such as the Odyssey. deals with the adventures of a great hero. EpiCS origi

nally began in the oral tradition and were later written down for people to read and enjoy. Because these stories were long and involved. they were often developed in poetic form to help the storytellers remember them. In addition. there was usually musical accompaniment to make the stories more entertaining. Besides these qualities, what else makes a poem an epic poem? Traditionally, epic poems contain the following elements: · · · · · · · · heroes of larger-than-life status a lengthy and complicated journey fateful or prophetic actions and deeds divine interventions a vast setting a mixture of historical events and figures with fictional events and characters formal speeches made by the characters universal themes that teach readers about life

IdentifY the characteristics of an epic poem in the Odyssey by completing the fol lowing chart. You can use examples from Part 1 as well as Part 2. The first one has been done for you.

DIRECTIONS:

Characteristic 1. hero of larger-than-life status

2. a lengthy and complicated Journey

Example From the Odyssey Odysseus

3. fateful or prophetic actions and deeds

4. divine interventions

5. a vast setting

6. a mixture of historical events and figures with fictional events and characters

~

.....

7. formal speeches made by the characters

8. universal themes that teach readers about life

58

Literary Analysis Activity Book

© Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Name ____________________________________________ Date _______________

"An Ancient Gesture" by Edna St. Vincent Millay (text page 926)

"Siren Song" by Margaret Atwood (text page 927)

"Prologue" and "EpUogue" from the Odyssey by Derek Walcott (text page 928)

"Ithaca" by Constantine Cavafy (text page 930)

Literary Analysis: Comparing Tone

The four poems in this section are contemporary interpretations of Homer's Odyssey. Each writer takes a particular attitude toward the Odyssey. This attitude is commonly known as the tone of a literary work. A writer's tone often can be described by a single adjective, such as joyful or somber. In order to identifY the tone of a poem, consider how the writer feels about the subject of his or her poem. Pay attention to the words, phrases, and details the writer uses and the feelings that these words, phrases. and details reveal. In the following chart, examine each poem's tone. Reread each poem. As you read, identifY the words. phrases, and details that reveal each writer's attitude toward the charac ters and events in Homer's epic poem. Then describe the tone of each poem. Be sure to sup port your ideas. The first one has been done for you.

DIRECTIONS:

Poem 1. "An Ancient Gesture"

Words. Phrases. and Details wiped my eyes; arms tired; neck tight; burst into tears; Penelope, who really cried

Tone of Poem The poem is sad and angry. Millay seems to feel that women are always put in a position of pain and suffering. whereas men only pretend to feel those emotions for other ends.

2. "Siren Song"

3. "Prologue" and "Epilogue" from the Odyssey

I

4. "Ithaca"

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Literary Analysis Activity Book

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