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DETAILED INFORMATION DOSSIER (DID) ON IRON ORES IN INDIA

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GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA GOVERNMENT OF INDIA October, 2006

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Price: INR 4700/-

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Compiled by : Officers of Central Region, GSI Scrutinised by : S/Shri C. Chakravarti, Geologist(Sr.), S. Chattopadhyay, Geologist (Sr.) TCS Division, CHQ, GSI. Edited by : Officers of TCS Divn., CHQ, GSI.

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No part of this document may be quoted or reproduced in any form by Photostat, microfilm or by any other means, without written permission from the Director General, Geological Survey of India.

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ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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PART-I

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GENERAL INFORMATION ON IRON ORES ­ INDIAN AND WORLD RESOURCES IN BRIEF

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CHAPTER 1 : GENERAL INFORMATION ON IRON ORES

Iron has been known since antiquity. Iron is ubiquitous in the lithosphere as either a major constituent or in trace amounts. In abundance it ranks fourth behind oxygen, silicon and aluminum. By far the most important use of iron is in the making of steel, which is essentially an alloy of iron with carbons and other elements depending on end use. India is one of the earliest manufactures and users of iron and steel in the world. Literature survey reveals many documentary evidences such as making of various surgical instruments in the 3rd & 4th century B.C. Till 18th century iron and steel making in India was at par with that of Europe in the form of village crafts. The scene totally changed with the invention of the Bessemer process in 1856 and the Basic Open Hearth Process in 1878. These developments led to significant increase in the world steel production from 0.5 Mt. in 1870 to 28 Mt in 1900. The present annual capacity of primary steel production from the integrated steel plants is placed at about 26 Mt. from the main producers and about 70 Mt in the secondary sector by various processes.

Iron ore is used mainly for making pig iron, sponge iron and steel. Iron and steel together for the largest manufactured products in the world and each of them enters into every branch of industry and is a necessary factor in every phase of our modern civilization. Pure iron has relatively few and quite specialized uses. Ingot iron is galvanized for roofing, siding and tanks. In the form of corrugated pipe it is used for culverts. Because of its relatively high purity it is suited to oxy-acetylene welding, both as material to be welded and as welding rod. It is used in vitreous enameling. Its good ductility makes it suitable for deep drawing operation as in the manufacture of appliance parts e.g. washing machine tub, relatively low electrical resistance and high magnetic permeability lead to its use in many types of electrical equipments, generator fields, magnetic parts of relays, magnetic brakes and clutches. Iron ore is also used in ferro-alloy, cement, foundry, vanaspati and glass factories.

1.2 Commercial Grades and Specification

The typical compositions of cast iron are given in the following tables. The different grades of pig iron depend upon their contents of silicon, sulphur, phosphorus and manganese. TABLE 1.2.1: TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF CAST IRON

Composition Carbon Wt. Silicon Wt. Manganese Wt% White Iron 1.8-3.6 0.5-2.0 0.2-0.8 Malleable Iron 2.0-3.0 0.6-1.3 0.2-0.6 Grey Iron 2.5-3.8 1.1-2.8 0.4-1.0 Ductile Iron 3.2-4.2 1.1-3.5 0.3-0.8

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1.1 Uses

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Phosphorus Wt% Sulphur Wt.% 0.18 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.15 0.10 0.08 0.02

Source : IBM Monograph on Iron Ores (1998)

1.3. Market Price:

Prices are influenced not only by the intrinsic prices of the ore (base price) but also by freight rates. Freight rate demonstrates a more volatile behaviour to the basic price of the ore. The prices of the iron ores of different grades during 1999 to 2004 are given below in Table No.1.3.1 TABLE 1.3.1 : PRICES OF IRON ORE (DOMESTIC MARKET) 1999-2004 PER TONNE

Grades Lumps 63/63% Fe Market FOBT Marmango (Berth), Goa 19992000 USD 15.39 20002001 16.28 20012002 16.18

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FOBT Noamundi, Jharkhand

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Lumps 60/59% Fe Fines 63/63% Fe Fines 62/62% Fe Lump (average)

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12.99 13.11 12.73 RS 327

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13.74 13.68 13.28 314

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14.18 14.27 13.85 313

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20022003 15.97

20032004 17.39

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14.37 13.93 13.52 335

14.67 15.18 14.74 335

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Source : IBM Y.B. 2004

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CHAPTER 2 : WORLD IRON ORE RESOURCES

World identified Resources of iron ore to the end of 1991 are estimated to be over 8,00,000 Mt. (Kuck 1991). Iron ore deposits are distributed in different regions of the world under varied geological conditions and in different geological formations. The largest concentration of ore is found in banded sedimentary iron formations of Precambrian age. These formations constitute the bulk of world iron ore resources. The top ten countries in the world in the order of their iron resources were the Common-wealth of Independent States (erstwhile USSR), Australia, Canada, USA, Brazil, India, South Africa, China, Sweden and Venezuela. Ranking of iron ore producing countries was the Commonwealth of Independent States, China, Brazil, Australia, USA, India, Sweden, Canada, South Africa and Venezuela. World resource

Country Australia Canada USA Brazil India S. Africa China Sweden Mauritania Kazakhstan Russia Other countries

Reserve base (In million tones)

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World Total 25,000 2,500 4,600 12,000 6,200 1,500 15,000 5,000 1000 7,400 31,000 23,000 160,000

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Among the identified resources about 19% are classified as Economic Demonstrated Resources (EDR) by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. The EDR though small when compared with the total identified resources are sufficient to sustain present production rate for more than 160 years.

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(Source: Mineral Commodity Summaries 2003, USBM).

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CHAPTER 3 : INDIAN RESOURCES

Iron ores occur in different geological formations in India but the larger concentration of The economic deposits are found in sedimentary iron formations of Pre-cambrian age (BIF). older magnetite-dominant deposits with bands of magnetite are generally of Algoma type associated with banded magnetite quartzites whereas the younger haematite dominant deposits are similar to Lake Superior type, associated with banded haematite quartzite/jasper (BHQ/BHJ) and occur as cappings on hills. Major iron ore deposits in India, distributed in five zones designated as Zone ­ I to ZoneV, have been identified in the country on commercial ground (Plate - I). Zone-I group of iron ore deposits occur on the Bonai Iron Ore Ranges of Jharkhand and Orissa states and in the adjoining areas in Eastern India, Zone-II group comprises the iron ore deposits in the long (225 km.) North-south trend in linear belt in central India comprising the states of Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra (East), Zone ­ III deposits occur in Bellary-Hospet Regions of Karnataka while the Zone ­ IV deposits cover the rich magnetitic deposits of Bababudan-Kudremukh area of the same state in south India. Zone ­ V deposits cover iron ore of Goa state. In addition, in south India magnetite rich banded magnetite quartzites occur in parts of Andhra Pradesh near the East Coast while in Tamilnadu good deposits of magnetite occur in Salem district and in neighbouring areas.

Classification of BIF Gross (1965) distinguished two main types of iron formations from pre-Cambrian viz. Algoma and Superior. The Algoma type is dominantly Archean in age and characterized by thin banding and absence of oolitic and granular texture, limited in lateral extent and closely associated with volcanic rocks and gray sediments. Carbon and pyrite rich black shales are common.

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3.1.1

Banded Iron Formation of Pre-Cambrian Age : The BIF deposit is very well developed in India. Most of the Indian deposits are similar to those of Lake Superior regions of USA, Brazil, Venezuela. Extensive outcrops of BIF are found in the states of Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhatisgarh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Goa and Tamil Nadu. The most common names used in India to designate BIF are Banded Haematite Quartzite (BHQ) and Banded Magnetite Quartzite (BMQ). In other parts of the world, names like taconite (Lake Superior), itabirite (Brazil), jaspilite (Western Australia) and calico rocks (South Africa) have been in use to designate BIF. In recent years BIF has come to be generally acceptable both as field term as well as stratigraphic term to designate iron rich sedimentary rock.

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The iron ore deposits of India can be broadly divided into the following six groups on the basis of mode of occurrence and origin.

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3.1 Genetic Type

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Origin of BIF The origin of BIF is a controversial aspect on which no final opinion has been possible despite years of study in different parts of the world. However it is considered that larger and more widespread deposits are of sedimentary origin. The volcanic nature of the period during which Archean iron formation was accumulated has also been recognized (e.g. Isua Formation). A controlling factor was probably the composition of ocean water during Archean. The Eh and pH of ocean water were significantly different from those of later years. One view is that iron formation was deposited in shallow inland lakes, fresh water being considered as a more likely vehicle for transportation of silica & iron from crust similar to present day lateritic crust. Period of intense deposition was preceeded by a long period of accumulation of dissolved iron and silica in sedimentary basin. Another view is that iron formation is essentially a product of diagenetic replacement of primary carbonate. Although there are evidence of replacement but the process can not account for vast amount of iron in iron formation. The character of late Archean ­ early Proterozoic atmosphere is also taken into consideration for origin of BIF. The atmosphere at that time is believed to have been rich in carbon dioxide, nitrogen and deficient in oxygen. Vast quantities of iron thus get stored at in ocean and lakes. Later on when life first appeared photosynthetic release of bulk oxygen became possible. This oxygen combined with dissolved iron and precipitated it giving rise to iron rich band. But once the dissolved iron was used up there was no further formation of iron. But iron formation as old as 3000 MY indicates that the build of oxygen in hydrosphere took place much earlier.

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9 The superior type on the other hand has the characteristic formation of the Proterozoic and is laterally very extensive and closely associated with clastic sediments like quartzite and pelitic rocks without showing any direct relationship with volcanic associations. The BIF of India generally possess the characteristics of both Algoma and Superior types especially in Archean Schist belt. There is another distinct type of iron formation which is seen confined to granulite terrains. This is a weakly banded magnetite- quartzite forming part of a supracrustal sequence of quartzites, mica schists, marbles, metavolcanics and amphibolites completely engulfed in a voluminous mass of a tonalitic gneiss. The formation is highly folded and metamorphosed under granulite facies condition. Typical examples are iron formation from the granulite regions of South India (Tamil Nadu, parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala) that is different from those of the Archean schist belt. Thus the iron ore formation within the Indian shield can be divided into two main types : (i) those lying within the high grade region and (ii) those confined to Archean schist belt. Among these, the first type occurs as narrow, highly deformed and metamorphosed belt within Archean granulites and gneisses and represents formation of an older age group (>3000 My.) formed in distinct tectonic environment and later incorporated within high grade mobile belt. The second and the more extensive type having characteristic of both Algoma and Superior type, is the one confined to the schist belts formed during the period 2900-2600 My. This type of deposits are confined to states of Jharkhand, Orissa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Chhattishgarh and Goa. These form important repositories of rich iron ore deposits in India.

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10 The destructive chemical composition shown by iron formation restricted mainly to iron and silica to the exclusion of other metallic compounds and origin of uniform banding can not be explained through inorganic chemical precipitation alone.

Sedimentary iron ore deposits of siderite and limonitic composition: These ores are also known as Bog iron deposit. These ores of siderite and limonitic compositions are found associated with the iron stone shales of lower Gondwana age occurring in the coal fields of Jharkhand and West Bengal and the ferruginous beds in the Tertiary formations of Assam and the Himalayas due to hydration, the sideritic ore often changed to limonite stone near the surface. They are heterogeneous in grade and modes of occurrences. The iron minerals are accumulated as irregular bodies in stream beds and typically at the bottom levels of bogs and marshes where lower Gondwana sediments have deposited along with their organic debris. In upper Assam such deposits occur in Lakhimpur and Sibsagar districts and are mainly of two types: clay iron stone and impure limonite. In Ranigunj area the sedimentary iron ores occur in the form of thin beds of ironstone of variable thickness and frequently in the Ironstones shale Group of the Damuda series in Ranigunj coalfield. The ore is grey iron carbonate but near the surface it has been converted into brown hydrated oxide. Clay iron stones are also known to occur in the Karanpura and Auranga Coal fields. Laterite ores derived from the sub-aerial alterations: Laterite types of iron ores are derived from the sub-aerial alteration of rocks, such as gneisses, schists, basic lava etc. under humid tropical conditions. Some of the laterites of suitable composition may become exploitable ore but most of them contain too little of iron and too much of alumina along with other elements like titanium, nickel, chromium and manganese. The ores are generally concentrated at the top as a resultant alteration product of the iron bearing parent rocks and consist of oxidised and insoluble rock constituents. They may consist of nodular red, yellow or brownish haematite and goethite. The capping is usually thicker over the basic rocks which contain high concentration of primary iron associated with nickel, chromium, 3.1.3

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3.1.2

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There are diverse views and concepts of different workers on the origin of BIF. The existing knowledge about the BIF appears not adequate to build a satisfactory theory of origin. Therefore, a single mode of origin for all BIF cannot be thought of. Characteristics of Ore of BIF Type The BIF has given rise to vast accumulations of commercial grade iron ore deposits in India, more than 90% of the iron ore supplied to the industry comes from the BIF. The major ore minerals are haematite and magnetite. Important accumulations are in Singhbhum district (Jharkhand), Keonjhar district (Orissa), Bellary district (Karnataka), Bastar district (Chhatisgarh) and in Goa. Magnetite ore deposits are mainly confined to Chikmagalur district in Karnataka and Salem and North Arcot district in Tamil Nadu and Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh. The different types of iron ore derived from banded haematite rock met within the deposits of this group are (a) massive ore (b) laminated ore (c) blue dust. In addition float ore accumulation on the slopes and foot of the hills as a result of disintegration of in situ ore bodies are commonly met with. The float ores are of different sizes and of different degree of purity.

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11 manganese and titanium. Large stretches of Deccan Traps, the gneisses in the Western Ghats and the Chhotanagpur plateau in Jharkhand and the schistose rocks of many areas like those of Sandur are covered by such lateritic tops. 3.1.4 Ores formed by magmatic activity: A zone of apatite-magnetite rock is found closely associated with the copper belt of Singhbhum. These are supposed to have been formed by magmatic activity associated with preCambrian diastrophic cycle when the rocks of the shear zone were thrust and intruded by acid or intermediate igneous rocks. The rock is usually a mixture of apatite and magnetite with some biotite, chlorite and sub-ordinate quartz and is generally found on the hanging-wall side of copper lodes. The apatite magnetite ores are associated with granodiorite. 3.1.5

Fault and fissure filling deposits: Fault and fissure filling deposits of haematite are minor occurrences seen in Veldurty and Ramalla Kota in Kurnoor district of Andhra Pradesh. They occur in a fault zone traversing the gneisses and Cuddapah formation over a length of several km. The ore bodies form low hillocks or ridges which stand out well above the ground and are lens-shaped; they also form veins and stringers in the fault zone. The ore is generally haematite and is often slightly specular in character and also jaspery when it is siliceous.

3.1.6

3.2 Distribution and Brief Description of Deposits :The larger and rich iron ore deposits are mainly concentrated in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhatisgarh, Karnataka and Goa. Comparatively small deposits are situated in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Rajasthan. The occurrences of iron ore deposits are also reported from Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu-Kashmir. But these deposits are not economically significant. Detail description of the deposits belt-wise and sectorwise has been enumerated in Part ­ II of the volume. The age-wise distribution of Indian iron ore deposits is given in Table 3.2.1 and a brief description (statewise) of the deposits is given in Table 3.2.2.

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Titaniferous and vanadiferous magnetites: The vanadiferous-titaniferous magnetite deposits of south eastern Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar (Orissa) and Hassan districts( Karnataka) are associated with gabbroid and ultrabasic rocks. This type of ore of Jharkhand and Orissa occurs as thin veins, lenses and pockets in gabbroid and ultrabasic igneous rocks which are often altered to serpentine and steatite or to epidiorite. Both magnetite and ilmenite are present in these ores and in many cases, appreciable amounts of haematite are also seen. In Karnataka small lenses-like bodies of titaniferous magnetites occur in Tumkur district. These are generally associated with ultramafic rocks which occasionally contain chromite also. These deposit contain 55 to 61% iron. In Hassan district titaneferous magnetites occur as linear bands with prominent outcrops in a narrow belt of Dharwar rocks which are composed of amphibolites and hornblende schists surrounded by Peninsular Gneisses and intruded by an ultrabasic complex.

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12 TABLE 3.2.1 GEOLOGICAL SETTING Formation Nature of ore

Quaternary Tertiary Miocene & Eocene Jurassic Rajmahal Trap (intertrappean beds) Gondwana Barakar Mahadeva Triassic Ironstones & shale Laterite Ironstone Iron stones

OF INDIAN IRON ORE FORMATION Occurrence

Many states derived from many formations including Deccan Traps SouthIndia-Travancore, Malabar etc. Assam, NE states, U.P.Kumaon West Bengal (Birbhum), Jharkhand (Rajmahal)

Ironstones & siderite Siderite

West Bengal (Birbhum) Jharkhand-Auranga coalfield

Granodiorite

Apatite magnetite rocks

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Banded Iron Formation Magnetite-quartzite (metamorphosed)

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Banded Iron Formation

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Haematite (massive, shaly, powdery etc.)

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Granite

Magnetites (residual)

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Cuddapah Bijawar Gwalior Pre-Cambrian Basic & ultrabasic rock

Titaniferous and Jharkhand-SE Singhbhum; vanadiferous magnetite Orissa-Mayurbhanj; Karnataka Singhbhum

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Assam-Jaintia Hills; Karnataka-Kudremukh Orissa- Sundergarh,Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj; Karnataka - Simoga, Bellary Hospet,Dharwar; Jharkhand - Singhbhun West; Maharashtra - Ratnagiri and Chandrapur ; Chhattisgarh-Bastar (Bailadila) and Durg; Madhya Pradesh - Jabalpur Tamilnadu - Salem, Tiruchirapalli; Kerala; Andhra Pradesh - Guntur ; Karnataka - Shimoga & Chikmagalur; Himachal Pradesh - Mandi.

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Haematite & Madhya Pradesh-Gwalior, Indore etc.; ferruginous quartzite Andhra Pradesh-Cuddapah

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Ironstones & siderite Haematite & goethite

West Bengal ­Raniganj coalfield Kashmir

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Table 3.2.2 STATEWISE BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF IRON ORE DEPOSITS ( as on 01-04-2000, IMYB, 2002 ) Name of the State

JHARKHAND (including BIHAR)

General description of deposit

Iron ore, principally haematite in banded iron formation occurs in a number of prominent hills in south western part of Singhbhum district. Besides, titaneferous magnetite and apatite magnetite are also found in SE Singhbhum.

Name of the deposits

Ore Minerals

Haematite (BIF)

Total Reserve

3281 MT

Remarks

I. Haematite deposit A) Singhbhum Distt : Noamundi, Gua, Borajamda, Kiriburu, Neghatuburu, Manoharpur, Chiria B) Ranchi Distt : Sikorda, Bagdanr, Mahantol C) Minor occurrences in Santhal Pargana, Bhagalpur, Dhanbad, Hajaribagh, Sahabad Distts. II. Magnetite deposit : A) Singhbhum Distt. 1)Ramchandra Pahar, Kudada, Patharghora, Khejurdari 2)Dublabera, Sindurpur. B) Palamau Distt. : Gore village, Sua & Kauria areas, Biwabathan. I. Haematite deposit A) Keonjhar Distt.: Thakurani, Bolani, Jhillinglangallota, Joda, Gandhamardan, Malangtoli, Bansapani, Guali, Gurubera and minor occurrence from Jajang, Joribahal, Katamati, Bhadrasahi, Koira, Kasia, Kurbandh, Dulki, Jolahuri, Baldo etc. B) Sundargarh Distt.: Barsua, Mankarnacha, Balia Pahar, Khondadhar, Mithurda, Patroposi. C) Jajpur Distt. : Tomka, Daitari D) Mayurbhanj Disttt.: Gorumahisani, Sulaipet, Badampahar E) Nawarangpura Distt.: Hirapur Umrakot F) Sambalpur Distt.: Lohakhand-Naibassa Hill G) Dhenkanal Distt.: Malaygiri range

ORISSA

Precambrian Iron Ore Group of rocks of Singhbhum-Keonjhar Bonai belt containing high grade haematitic ore are running through Keonjhar and Sundargarh districts . Apart from haematite,magnetite (Ti bearing)also noted from several places.

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II. Magnetite deposit

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7.547 MT Ap-magnetite

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Ti-magnetite Magnetite Haematite (BIF) 4177 MT

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Magnetite

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a) Ti-bearing magnetite from Kumardubi, Betjharan, Nahapahari and SW of Baripada b) Puri Distt : Chilka Lake c) Dhenkanal Distt : Basudebpur, Murhi CHHATISGARH Precambrian Iron Ore Group of rocks consists of banded haematitejasper/quartzite, similar to Singhbhum-Keonjhar iron ore belt are found in several parts of MP and Chhatisgarh State. Large deposits of excellent quality of iron ore are found in Bastar and Durg districts. Precambrian Iron Ore Group of rocks consists of banded haematitejasper/quartzite. I. Haematite deposit A) Bastar Distt: Rowghat area, Chhotadongar deposit B) Dantewara Distt.: Bailadila range includes fourteen deposits numbered 1 to 14 C) Durg Distt.: Dalli-Rajhara, Kanchar, Jharandali, Kondekosa and minor occurrences near Khairagarh, Berla, Katul Kassa, Jurla Khar etc. D) Kanker Distt.: Ari Dongri. Besides this there are smaller deposits in Dulki, Kalwar, Dongar bar, Lohattar in bordering area of Durg district. E) District with minor occurrence : Jashpur, Bilashpur, Raigarh districts. I. Haematite deposit A) Jabalpur Dist: Kanhwar plateau, Agaria, Bijori, Ghosalpur, Lora hill, Ghoghra, Silondi, Saroli etc. B) Chattarpur Dist: Dalipur, Nimkhera, Deora, Chungwah etc. C) Districts with smaller occurrence: Betul, Jhabua, Nimar, Rajgarh, Sagar, Satna, Sidhi, Tikamgarh, Gwalior, Mandsaur, Narasimhapur etc. I) Haematite deposit A) Belary Distt.: Bellary-Hospet deposit B) Chitradurga Distt.: Sivaganga and Hiriyur, Medikeripura, Kadlegudam, Bhimasamudra, Vajra etc. C) Shimoga Distt.: Siddarahalli, Channagiri, Joldhal, Ganpur, Bhadigund, Shankargudda and Kumsi area, Chattanhalli, Agumbe-Visaniguda, Kodachadri, Kotebare. D) Bijapur Distt.: Amingarh, Bassargi, Bisnal, Aihole, (Ti-bearing) Magnetite (Sand) Magnetite (Lateritic) Haematite (BIF)

2278 MT

Reserve of both Chhatisgarh & MP are taken together.

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MADHYA PRADESH

Haematite (BIF)

152 MT

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KARNATAKA

Iron ore deposit of Kranataka are classified into three types : 1. Banded ferruginos quartzite of Dharwarian age containing haematite 2.Metamorphosed banded magnetitequartzite containing

Haematite (BIF)

1315.60 MT Most important iron ore deposit are Sandur hill of Bellary Hospet Sector, Bababudan hills,

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magnetite 3.Magnetic deposit containing titaneferous magnetite associated with ultrabasic rock. Hiremagi-Ramthal E) North Kanara Distt.: Halkhamba, Shiroli, Kunang, Kalinadi, Hudsa, Anmod, Kuveshi-Diggi, Joidu, Talaginkere, Mavingundi, Huntaganis, Yellapur. F) Tumku, district, Karikurikhi, Chikanayakanhalli, Janehara, Kuni, etc. G) Minor occurrences: Bijapur, Dakshin Kannada, Dharwar, Hassan, Mysore districts. II) Magnetite deposit A) Chikmagalur Distt.: Bababudam Hill, Kudremukh, Gangamula. B) North Kanara Distt.: Kodalgadde Apsarakonda C) Mandya Distt.: Muddur, Tippur, Husegu & Hullahalli. D) Chikmagalur Distt. Near Masanikere close to Bhadravati. Kudremukhgangmula range.

Magnetite (BIF)

3843.9 MT

GOA

A large number of iron ore deposits are concentrated here. The banded haematite quartzite rocks of precambrian age are generally confined to pink phyllite horizon. Ore minerals principally are haematite with smaller occurrences of magnetite, limonite and goethite. In Mahara-shtra,iron ore deposits are found associated with IOG of Archean. It comprises older schists and unclassified crystalline

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MAHARASHTRA

From NW to SE more than thirty iron ore deposits have been identified. These are-- 1) Advalpale 2) Nanora 3) Bicholem-Sirigao 4) Bordem-Savorna 5) Sanguelim 6) Arvalem 7) Cudnem Dignemsurla 8)Velguem-Pale 9) PissurlemSonshi 10) Usgao 11) Conquirem 12) Poient-Siudem 13) Sacorda 14) Sonal Deven 15) Gavarem-Malpona 16) Balcoruem 17)Bimbol-Sigao 18) Suetioli-Taitoli 19) Codli 20) Samtona-Quirlapale 21) Codli 22Dudal 23) Kalay 24) Manlinguem 25) Tolem-Motto 26) Barazan-Villena 27) Sirigal-Undorna-Angod 28) Rivona-Columba 29) Canvorem-Navelim 30) SulcornaVichundrem 31) Netrolim 32)Camona ­ Conda 33) Betul Haematite I) Haematite Deposit A) Sindhudurg Distt. Redi, Tirvade-Ajgaon-Guldave, (BIF) Satcli-Starda, Satcli-Talwane, Talesane-ajgaon, Kalne, Podye Degve-Banda, Galel, Galel North and Galel South. B) Chandrapur Distt.: Lohara, Pipalgaon, Asola

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Vanediferous magnetite Principally Haematite (BIF) with minor amount of magnetite, limonite and goethite

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729.85 MT

BicholemSirigaon & VelguemPale are the best deposit in the entire Goa state.

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273 MT

Economically viable deposits occur in Chandrapur, Sindhudurg

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overlain by metamorphosed sedimentary rock such as quartzite,BHQ, phyllite etc. Ores are derived mostly from the BHQ by leaching of silica. Most of iron ore deposits are found associated with rocks of Dharwar sediment or Purana formations. However low grade iron ore are also known from upper Gondwana and laterite cappings on Deccan Traps. Both haematite and magnetite deposits occur in the state. C) Gadchiroli Distt.: Surajgarh, Bhamragarh, Dewalgaon, Puser, Damkodwadvi hill range. D) Bhandara Distt.: Khursipar, Konholi. E) Ratnagiri Distt.: Malvan, Kunda, Savantvadi. F) Minor occurrences from Kolhapur, Nagpur, Satara(N) Nanded, Yeotmal Districts. district and Gadchirelli districts.

ANDHRA PRADESH

I) Haematite deposit A) Anantapur Distt.: Balapuram, Siddapuram, Rayadurg Taluk, Malapanangudi, Velpurnadugu, Kambadur, Gollapalle, Oddapalem, Muchalapalle B) Cuddapah Distt. : Chabali area, Rajampet, Ponduluri Venkatapalli, Erraguntakota, Mantapampalle, Pendlimari and Pagadalapalle C) Kurnool Distt. : Veldurti, Ramallakota. D) Nellore Distt.: Rassnapalem, Chundi hill, Polenane, Cheruvu, Swarnamukhi river valley. E) Khammam & Warangal Distts.: Cheruvupuram, Kottagudem, motala Timmapur, Nilanche, Bayyaram, Opulapuram II) Magnetite deposit 1) Prakasham Distt. 1.Ongole Gr.- Pernametta, Ongole, Konijedu, Sanampudi bands. 2. Gundal kamma gr. ­ Byrepalle, Errapale, Timmavaram and Manikeshvaram. 2) Khammam Distt. : Utla, Tatraiyapalli, Gopalpur 3) Vishakhapatnam Distt- Sitarampur, Darbanblom Konda 4) East Godavari Distt -Addatigala, Devipuram. Besides above deposits iron ores are also reported from Adilabad, Chittoor, Guntur, Karimnagar, Krishna, Medak, Nizamabad, Vishakhapatnam, Srikakulam,and Warringal districts of Andhra Pradesh.

Haematite (BIF)

89 MT

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Magnetite (BIF)

1309.7 MT

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TAMIL NADU The iron ore deposit of Tamilnadu is very small compared to other states. A number of magnetite quartzite bands are known to occur indifferent parts of state especially in the area north of Kaveri river. In this state numerous bands magnetitequartzite have been reported from charnockite and gneissic group of rocks. I) Magnetite Deposits A) Salem Distt.: Kanjamalai, Godumalai, Malathangi, Tumbal, Alangadu, Suryagaddi, Paduvalva, Tainandamalai, Kollaimalai, Pochaikalai, Abtur B) Tiruchirapalli Distt.: Valasirannani, Urakkari C) Dharampuri Distt.: Tithamalai, Alambadi. D) South Arcot & North Arkot Distts.: NW of Talankunam, Budamangalam. E) Nilgiri Distt.: Nilgiri Hill, Tatarvenu, Arvankadu, Devla. I) Magnetite Deposits A) Calient-Kozhikode Distt.: Cheruppa, Eleyettimala, Nanminda, Naduvallur, East & West Hill Banda, Alanpara. B) Kottayam Distt.: Kitapara, NW of Idikki Kallipara, South of Panamkutty, Nullaninad, Neriyamangalam; Ernalu, Rendar. C) Palghat Distt.: Attapaly Valley, Kilur, Mannambatti, Karivallur, Valur, Nadupati, west of Elival. D) Malappuram Distt.: Korattimala. Very minor occurrences in Quilon and Trichur districts. I) Haematite deposit A) Jaipur Distt.: Morija, Lalsot, Nimia, Rampura etc. B) Udaipur Distt: Nathara-ki-Pas Magnetite (BIF) 1.4 MT.

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KERALA

Magnetite (BIF)

39 MT

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RAJA STHAN

Small deposits and minor occurrences of iron ore are found in several parts of Rajasthan.Udaipur and Jaipur district contain exclusively haematite ore deposits confined to Alwar series of rocks of Delhi Supergroup. Whereas Jhunjhunu & Sikar dist. contain both haematite and magnetite confined to the rocks of Ajabgarh series.

Haematite

20 MT

II) Magnetite deposit A) Jhunjhunu Distt.: Tanoda, Raipur, Jaintapura, Kali Pahari, Gaonli B) Sikar Distt.: Narda-Nanagwas, Bagoli Sarai.

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Magnetite intermixed with haematite.

0.5MT

Magnetite is present in negligible amount.

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ARUNA CHAL PRADESH

ASSAM

NAGALAND

JAMMU & KASHMIR

A number of small occurrences of iron ore have been reported from Subansiri and Siang distt. Here large `boulders' of magnetitehaematite are associated with quartzite and shaly to phyllotic unit. Low grade iron ore deposit occurs mainly in the lower Brahmaputra valley. Here Banded magnetite-haematite quartzite rocks occur in association with gneisses, amphibolite of pre-Cambrian age. Iron ores in the form of magnetite with Ni, Co, and Cr. occur in association with the ophiolite suite of rocks of Nagaland. Haematite ore bearing beds have been found to underlie chest litho-unit of the Bafliaz Formation of Precambrian age in Poonch district. In Udampur district haematite chert band are found in association with Sirban limestone.

A) Subansiri Distt.: Lamdak, Godak village, western flank of Simmi river, Taia, Kimin, Jaihing. B) Siang Distt.: Tribin, Late, Yomcha

Haematite & magnetite (BIF)

Iron ore deposits are not economically significant.

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A) Goalpara Distt.: Chandardinga, Kumri, Lengupara, Dipika, Chatabari-Pandoba Pahar-Bamandanga B) Bongaigaon Distt.: Malai C) Kokrajhar Distt.: Chakrasila Minor occurrence in Khasi & Jaintia hill, Lakimpur, Sibsagar and Mikir hill districts.

Haematite & magnetite (BIF)

Iron ore deposits are not economically significant.

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Largest magnetite deposit occur in Pokphur village in Tuensang Distt. Other deposit is found in Phek district in its ophiolite complex.

Haematite deposit A) Poonch Distt. : Khandi Iron ore. B) Udhampur Distt.: Matah, KotalaSangar.

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Magnetite

Iron ore deposits are not economically significant. Iron ore deposits are not economically important.

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HIMACHAL PRADESH Small occurrences of both haematite and magnetite have been reported from different district occurred in association of quartziteschist-phyllite host rock. I) Haematite deposit : A) Kulu distt.: Roshal, Gargi and south of Garahan. B) Lahul & Spiti distt.: Thango Formation, south east of Muth. C) Shimla Distt.: Rohru tehsil, Narain, Shekal, Pujarli Shil. II) A) B) C) Magnetite deposit : Kangra Distt.: Dharamsala, Bir and Kohad Kinnair Distt.: Mangru La. Mandi Distt.: Rama Bhet, Sangalwara, Jhungi, Kohar Khas, Baragoran, Multhan. Sirmaur Distt.: Kanhari, Nahan, Lana Chetta. Purulia Distt.: Manbajar, Surpur, Gaurangdih, Jhalda, Buroajora, Bauch, Panchet hill, Tamakhun, Aspani. Bankura Distt.: Biharinath hill, Porapahar, Ambikanagar, Ruparhir, Tepra, Bagjobra, Kharidungri, Mukutnanipur, Barda, Dedua, Salua Jamda, Dhargram Purnapani, Kuchaipal, Manla, Pukuria, Bishmapur, Saltora. Midnapore Distt.: Bhankhabhanga, Sarisabasa, Jarma, Dublakona. Burdwan Distt.: Ranigunj coal field, iron shale of Barren Measure. Birbhum Distt.: Namgulia, Tamre, Ganpur, Deocha, Seepahadi, Deodiha, Konda. Darjeeling Distt.: Sambalbong, Lohagarh. Jalpaiguri Distt.: Buxa Bazar, Raimatong and Goapota. Haematite deposit: Mahendra garh Dist.: Rajawas-Sohk Haematite Iron ore deposits are not economically significant.

Magnetite

WEST BENGAL

HARYANA

West Bengal does not contain iron ore deposits of economic importance. However, occurrences have been reported from different geological formations such as iron bearing sand of some river of Recent age, lateritic iron ore capping. Gondwana and Rajmahal Trap., ironstone and titaneferous magnetite ore associated with Archean rocks. Here magnetite-rich iron ore deposit occurs as discontinuous bands within dolomitic and siliceous marbel of Ajabgarh group of rock of Precambrian age.

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D) A) B) C) D) E) F) G) I) A)

II) Magnetite deposit : A) Mahendragarh distt.: Anti-Biharipur Area, DhandtaDhancholi area.

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Both magnetite & haematite.

Iron ore deposits are not economically significant.

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Haematite

8.08 MT

Magnetite

The deposits are not economically important.

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Haematite also seen within calcareous quartzite as pockets and lenses. Here magnetite occurs as patches in a large alkaline ultramafic carbonatite complex in Sung valley.

MEGHALAYA

I) Sung block II) Muscot block

Magnetite

NA

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3.3 Reserve of Iron ore in India

Haematite and magnetite are the most important iron ores in India. Of these haematite is considered to be superior owing to its high grade. Major deposits of haematite iron ore are located in the states Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh , Karnataka and Goa. Magnetite is the other principal ore occurring in the form of oxide, which is either of igneous or metamorphosedbanded iron formation. Important magnetite deposits are located in Karnataka, A.P. and Tamilnadu. The reserve of iron ore are classified both category-wise i.e. Proved (measured), Probable (indicated) and possible (inferred) and gradewise. As per the recommendation of the Mineral Exploration Committee two other categories i.e. conditional resources and prospective resources have been included in the National Mineral Inventory. The conditional resource and the prospective resource of Iron ore in India are as follows :In-situ Reserve 22,108 MT (as on 1.4.2000) Recoverable Reserve (as on 1.4.1995) 13460 MT

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Conditional Resource Prospective Resource 1480 MT

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( Proved 6637 MT Probable 3149 MT Possible 3674 MT)

Source : IBM Year Book 1999,2004

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Table - 3.3 RESERVES OF IRON ORE (HAEMATITE AND MAGNETITE) (BY GRADES AND STATES)

State / Grades HAEMATITE Total: By Grades : Lump.high grade Lump.medium grade Lump.low grade Lumps unclassified Fines high grade Fines med. gr.

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Proved 5106 410 1056 488 77 224 1600

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(In million tonnes) Recoverable reserves (as on 1.4.1995) * Probable Possible Total 2360 294 751 204 91 95 441 2577 106 582 358 470 17 356 10052 810 2389 1050 638 336 2397

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The grade-wise and state-wise category-wise reconsable reserves of haematite and magnetite are shown in the table 3.3.

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Fines low grade Fines unclassified Lumps & Fines high grade Lumps & Fines medium grade Lumps & Fines low grade Lumps & Fines unclassified Blue dust Blace Iron ore Others Unclassified Not known By States Andhra Pradesh Bihar Goa Karnataka Madhya Pradesh ( including ChHatisgarh ) Maharashtra Orissa Rajahsthan MAGNETITE Total By grades Metallurgical Coal Washery Foundry Others Unclassified Not known By States A.P. 900 21 44 429 48 -275 296 7 1604 365 51

150

1

7

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1

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74

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28

46

76 2 3 -14 2 1825 405 665 771

4 6 3 -1 4

-4 4 4 13

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80 12 10 4 28 51 2657 745 1072 1998

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528 173 219 531

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58 850 6 781 258 2 ++ ++ 521 ++ 380

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227 3294 9 3408 1337 5 ++ ++ 2061 5 418

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1530 870 1 ++ 659 ++ 38

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Bihar Goa Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajahsthan 1 64 1427 ++ 2 4 371 24 ++ 2 96 986 12 ++ 1 5 164 2784 36 ++ ++ 1

++ *

not available negligible Statewise in situ reserve as on 01-04-2000 are given on Table 3.2.2

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CHAPTER 4 : PRODUCTION OF IRON ORE 4.1 World Scenario

During 1980-88, the global iron ore market came down heavily on the reason of imbalance in supply and demand for the ore. But towards end of 1988, the world economy started recovering with sign of strong growth of iron ore production as noticed from 1993 onwards (Table-4.1a). Among the iron ore producing countries, China (25%), Brazil (18%), Austrialia (14.5%), India (7%) and USA (6%) are the principal producers constituting about 70% of the world the production. World production by the principal countries are given in the (table No.2).

1993 936

1994 992

1995 1062

1996 1050

1997 1035

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Table 4.1a : World Production of Iron Ore (in Million tonnes)

2002 1104

of

2001 1059 181 210 29 217 86 16 NA 83 35 19 55 46 17 65

1085

Country World total Australia Brazil Canada China India* Kazakstan Mauritinia Russia S.Africa Sweeden Ukrain USA Venezuela Other countries

2000 1085 172 213 37 224 81 16 17 87 34 21 56 63 17 64

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Table 4.1b: World Production by the principal countries (in `000,000 tonnes)

2002 1104 187 212 29 230(e) 97 18 NA 84 36 20 59 52 17 63

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4.2 Indian Scenario

Among the states in India, Chhatisgarh (formerly within Madhya Pradesh) is the largest producer of iron ore. Other important states are Goa, Orissa, Jharkhand and Karnataka. A

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Source : World Mineral Statistics.1998-2002

Source: World Mineral Statistics 1998-2002

25

brief account of the production of iron ores by principal states and in terms of types is given below : Table 4.2a: Production of Iron Ore from 1999-02, in MT

Total Lumps Fines Concentrates

1999-00 77604 32086 38800 6718

2000-01 80762 33567 41189 6006

2001-02(P) 83367 33025 43988 6355

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States Andhra Pradesh Chattisgarh Goa Jharkhand Karnataka Madhy Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa

1999-2000 347 20582 15418 11833 17213 87 26 12086

2000-2001 336 20016 14564 12403 11902 126 22 14382

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Table ­4.2b:Production of Iron ore by Principal states (Lumps + Fines), in MT

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PART II

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STATEWISE DISTRIBUTION AND DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF IRON ORE DEPOSITS OF INDIA

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CHAPTER 1 : ANDHRA PRADESH 1.1 General Description

Most of the iron ore deposits of Andhra Pradesh are found to be associated with rocks of Dharwar sediments or the Purana formations. However, some low grade iron ore deposits are reported from the upper Gondwanas and within the laterite capping on the Deccan traps. Mode of occurrence The deposit may be classified into the following four typesa) Fracture filled deposit: The deposits of this type are found in the fracture zones of the Archaean rocks. b) Bedded deposit: This is mostly banded-haematite-quartzite that occurs within the Dharwars and Cuddapahs. c) Detrital or float ore: It is derived from the weathering and transportation of pre-existing deposit and are of comparatively limited distribution. d) Lateritic deposit : It is associated with the Deccan Traps. In Adilabad district, iron ore occurs associated with upper Gondwana rocks in Sirpur area whereas BHQ are reported from Chityala, Kallada and other places. In Anantapur and Chittoor districts iron ore (BHQ) is associated with Dharwars. In Karimnagar district the Yerabali ferruginous quartzite contains iron ore. In Khammam and Warrangal districts iron ores are associated with Pakhals and also Dharwars. In Krishna and Khammam districts float ore is collected whereas in Kurnool there are rich haematite concentrations. Magnetite ores through banded magnetite quartzites contribute the main ore in Prakasham and East Godavari districts. In the Kasipatnam areas of Visakhapatnam district magnetite was originally mined in association with vermiculite and apatite. Reserve and grade : In -situ reserve of magnetite is placed at 1309.7 million tonnes and that of Haematite reserve in the state is estimated at 89 million tonnes. Chemical analysis of samples from different areas is as follows : Elements/Major oxides Fe2O3 SiO2 Al2O3 MnO S P Magnetite ore of Ongole, Haematite ore of Krishna and Prakasham districts (in %) Kurnool districts (in%) 47.10-53.13 69.20-92.27 46.08-55.64 3.68-28.84 0.20-2.47 0.09-0.21 0.08-1.79 Trace

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28 Mining and Production : Mining of iron ore is essentially a manual open cast operation extending over vast spreads in space and limited by depth factor. By and large pits are shallow (<3m from ground level). The workings are confined to Rayadurg area in Anantapur district, Bayyaram in Khammam district, Gani- Ramallaokota and Veldurthi areas in Kurnool district, Gaudrai area in Krishna district and around Konijedu in Prakasham district. Production of iron ore in recent past is given in the following table. Year 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 Production (tonnes) 151000 184000 152000 149000 180000 173000 187000 188000 Value in Rs. 6196 8316 7968 N.A. N.A. N.A. 9262 8937

1.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits

Pakhal

Shales, slates and phyllites with intercalated bands of limestone and haematite bodies Grit, sub-arkose and quartzites with haematite bodies ................................... Unconformity ...................................................... Archean Hornblende, granite and gneisses with dolerite and amphibolite intrusives Banded magnetite-haematite quartzites (Dharwar ) The banded magnetite-haematite quartzite rocks show alternating bands of quartz and iron oxides ( mostly magnetite with little haematite ). The iron amphiboles namely cummingtonite and grunerite are also noticed.

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Regional geology : The rock types met within the area are classified as follows :

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Iron ore deposits exist between Cheruvupurem and Kottagudem. These deposits are classified as - i) Iron ore associated with Pakhals and ii) Iron ore associated with banded­ haematite­quartzite of Dharwar age. The deposits associated with Pakhals are comparatively large and rich. Haematite- quartzite suitable as iron ore is also traced in Motala-Timmapur area. The iron ore bearing area in Khammam and Warangal districts is bounded by latitude 17°30'17°55'N and longitude 80°0'-80°10' E (Toposheet No. 65C/NW).

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1.2.1 Khammam and Warangal Districts Introduction :

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29 Structure : The general strike of the banded magnetite-haematite quartzite is in a NNW-SSE direction with steep or vertical dip. Minor folds with fold axes plunging at low angle towards NW and SE are observed in the southern part of the area. Developments of profuse quartz ribbon are noticed at different places. (i) Iron Ore in Pakhals : Detached lense shaped bodies of haematite of all grades are seen discontinuously all along the 48 km long Pakhal belt of rocks extending in a NNW-SSE direction from Cheruvupuram to Kottagudem. The ores occur mostly within the grits and arkoses through west of Motala-Timmapur. They are within the shales and slaty phyllites too. It is persistently found that the ore bodies are almost exclusively confined to the peaks. The hill tops ranging in elevation from 1030m to330m above the foot of the hills. The shale generally dip at 5-30° towards SE and show many minor folds with their axes plunging at varying angle towards NW or SE. The ores are essentially ferruginous grits and quartzites which imperceptibly grade into high grade haematite ore bodies to the near exclusion of silica. In addition to haematite, the ore consists of limonite, jasper and chert and some siderite too. It is observed that when ores are poor in iron content they show concretionary and botryodal structures on a large scale. The iron ore bands are conformable to the country rock. The thickness of the ore bodies varies from 10-50 ft. Among all the deposits Bayyaram is the thickest deposit in this area. Since the haematite ore bodies occupy the hill tops, mechanical disintegration of them during geological past resulted in considerable amount of released float haematite boulders. Total reserve of the area is about 11 million tones of which half may be of high grade. Fe content varies from 42.53%-65.50 %. The deleterious element like P, S are within permissible limit. Major occurrences : Cheruvapuram : About half a mile northeast of Cheruvupuram and on the top of the hillock north of the tank a 5m thick band of low grade haematite is seen for a length of 180m within the ferruginous grits. It trends in a general NE-SW direction and dip towards SE. It is very siliceous and shaly. About 60000 tonnes of ore are estimated to be available from the exposed portion of thin band. Bayyaram : The 1905 hill 4.8 km north of Bayyaram contains by far the maximum tonnage of high grade haematite ore in this region. There are two bands of iron ore on this hill, one of them between 300m and 450m contours and the other between 510m contour and the top. The peak is made up of iron ore only. The iron ore band at lower elevation (lower band) has an average thickness of 6m and is seen for a length of about 1.6km along the strike. It dips 10-20° towards NE. In the eastern part the band has been terminated by a minor transverse fault. The major portion of the band is formed at low grade haematite.

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30 The iron ore band at higher elevation (higher band) seems to include haematite of higher grade than the former. The average thickness of the band is about 15m and occupies an area of about 20 hectors. A total in-situ reserve of 7.96 million tonnes of high grade haematite ore has been estimated from the lower and upper bands. Float ore (detrital haematite ) situated around .1905 hill. At the southern flank of .1905 hill, an area of 0.42 sq. km and is held under mining lease of M/S Universal Minerals Ltd. The ore is found in the form of boulders of haematite of all grades embedded in matrix of soil. Chemical analysis of samples shows Fe content varying from 58.4064%. Haematite boulders are encountered up to 3m. NE of above hill and close to Ramugundal float ore is 2.1sq km in extent and the whole area falls in the reserve forest area. It is leased out to M/S B. Bhaskar Rao & Co. Haematite boulders are encountered up to average depth of .45m and 2/5th by volume of the total earth dug out constitutes ore of mix grade. The reserve of float ore is of the order of 1.98 million tonnes. Both the ore bands in Bayyaram are yet to be exploited. All productions are confined to float ore only. Opulapuram : A persistent band of ferruginous grits crops out discontinuously for a length of about 4km on the top of the hill range immediately east of the village Opulapuram. It seems to be very low in its iron content. Motla Timmapur: Many lenses of haematite of mixed grade occur over a length of 3.2 km capping all the peaks of the hill Yerrammaguta (.1596) west of Motla Timmapur and the sadle between peaks of the barren rock. The ore bodies are within a thin bed of ferruginous shale overlying the grits and do not show concretionary structure. The country rocks strike in a NNW-SSE direction with easterly dips varying between 15-25°. In addition to the occurrence on the hill tops another band of haematite is seen on the 330m contour due east of the peak .1596. The total exposed strike length of this band is about 360m and it is seen for a depth of 15m down the dip, its thickness being 3.6m. Besides these, detrital haematite are found immediately west of Motla Timmapur covering an area of 50sq km. The ores occur as boulders in a loose matrix of soil and is found to an average depth of .60m. A total in-situ reserve of .338 million tonnes and float ore of about .25 million tonnes have been estimated of which half the tonnes may be of high grade. Nilancha : The ore occurs within gritty sandstone which trend in a WNW-ESE direction and dip towards NNE at 10-25°. A lens shaped haematite band with an average thickness of 6m is seen for a distance of 270m along its strike on the southern slope of .1284 hill and is exposed up to 90m down the dip . The ore is mixed grade.

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31 About .80km south-east of this occurrence, there is a band of haematite on a small mound, consisting of a few thousand tonnes of haematite. Float ore is available up to average depth of .75m over an area of 34.13 acres. A total reserve of 3,60,000 tonnes of in situ ore and 92,920 tonnes of float ore are estimated in this area. The half of the ore may be of high grade only. Gopalpur : About 3.2km WNW of Gopalpur, a 1.8m thick band of haematite is seen for a distance of 60m on a low mound of gritty sandstone. Most of the iron ore is of low grade. (ii) Banded Magnetite-Haematite-Quartzite : The hill west of Archaean-Pakhal contact and the village Utla, Tatraiyepalli and Gopalpur contain low grade iron ore in the form of banded magnetite haematite quartzite with their iron ore content ranging between 22-28%. In these ferruginous bands iron oxides forms only about 1/3rd of the total rock, the remaining being mostly silica and silicate minerals. Here magnetite predominates over haematite sometimes to the exclusion of silica. It is estimated that a total of about 40 million tonnes of low grade ore may be available in these hills down to ground level. 1.2.2 East Godavari District : The magnetite deposits are located in the eastern part of the Eastern Ghats. Here magnetite deposits in association with apatite and vermiculite occurs as sills and dykes in close association with charnockite and pegmatite of Addatigala and as veins associated with Khondalite series and charnockite of Devipatnam. Addatigala Deposit (T.S. 65K/2&3) : Location : The magnetite deposit is located 6.4km NE of Addatigala which is connected with Kakkinada port by 70km all weathered road. Geology : The lithological formations associated with magnetite ores of Addatigala are khondalite group of rocks, charnockite, hornblende- gabbro, norite, pyroxinite and amphibolite of charnockite series and pegmatites. The charnockite series occurs as sills in khondalite series and shows concentration of magnetite. Pegmatite also shows concentration of magnetite along with quartz and feldspar. The magnetite ores occur as reef trending NW-SE with a dip of 60°SW. The magnetite bearing pegmatite dykes cut across the khondalite series and behave like other muscovite and biotite pegmatites. Economic geology : The magnetite ore shows two different association ­ one with charnockite series forming both hanging wall and footwall of magnetite reef and the other with orthoclase and quartz of the pegmatite. In the hanging wall magnetite content increases towards reef. Then the magnetite reef

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32 consists entirely of magnetite and passes into gabbro of footwall till the footwall contains very few grains of magnetite. The length of the reefs varies between a few m. to few hundred metre, the width varies between .35m to 15m and depth may be about 15m. The magnetite ore in the pegmatite is lens shaped with the maximum thickness of 1.5m with a length of about 15m and depth of about 9m. Reserve and grade : On preliminary investigation, the reserve is estimated to be a few hundred thousand tonnes considering a depth of 15m and known length and breadth of the deposit. Chemical analysis of ore samples shows that total Fe ranges from 62.00-70.00% with minor percentage of TiO2. Devipatnam Area (T.S. 65G/11) : Location : The magnetite deposit is located 3.2km north of Devipatnam, which is connected with Kakkinada port, by102 km all weathered road. Geology : The lithological formation associated with ore deposits are khondalites, charnockites, gabbro, leptinites and pegmatites etc. The magnetite ore occurs as veins and reef trending in general E-W. Some veins coalesce and other split up thus increasing or reducing the thickness. The magnetite veins occur in disconnected patches along a length of about 1500m with width below 3m and with varying depth. Economic geology : Magnetite ore occurs in association with quartz and feldspar of the pegmatite and khondalite series. Magnetite is also associated with pyroxene and haematite near Mattavadi , 4.8km NW of Devipatnam. Magnetite makes up the bulk of the ore deposit with ilmenite and ulvospinel as accessories. Haematite is absent in the main deposit. Reserve and grade : Like deposit of Addatigala the reserve is estimated to be a few hundred thousand tonnes. Chemical analysis of ore samples shows that total Fe ranges from 62.81-64.30% with minor percentage of TiO2, Al2O3, P and S. 1.2.3 Anantapur District : Velpumadugu : Here pockets of haematite ore occurs associated with banded ferruginous quartzite in an area of 60m x 60m., on the north-western slope of the ridge, NE of Velpumadugu. Malapagundi : Iron associated with banded haematite quartzite occurs in a locality, 4.8 Km NW of Malapagundi. An iron ore band of 9m thick is traced for about 1.5 Km along the strike which extends into adjoining Karnataka.

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33 Siddapuram and Balapuram : Here high-grade iron ore occurs within Dharwars in Rayadurg taluk. 1.2.4 Adilabad District : Isolated patches of banded haematite quartzites occur near Chityal, Kallada, Dasturabad and Robanpalli in the Adilabad district. About 16 million ones of low grade ores are estimated from these deposits. 1.2.5 Cuddapah District : Chabali : Irregularly distributed patches of haematite iron ore are found in association with Pulivendra quartzite and shale. The ore of this area is generally hard and often shaly in appearance and tends to be soft on exposure. Fe content in ore varies from 54-68%. The largest patch occur just to the west of the pond called Salla-Meclu- Kunta, while a smaller one lies S30°W of Chabeli. The ore is shaly in texture and chocolate coloured. Pagadalapalle : Similar occurrence like Chabeli is noted from a Km west of Pagadalapalle. 1.2.6 Karimnagar District : Banded ferruginous quartzite occur near Chandoli, Yerrabali, Kommegudem and Manal. In Chandoli area a reserve of about 15 million tonnes of low grade ore has been estimated whereas in Yerrabali, the reserve of iron ore with 60% Fe has been estimated to be of 0.68 million tonnes. 1.2.7 Kurnool District : A number of high grade haematite deposits occur near Ramallakota along a prominent fault zone traced for some kilometer between Archaeans and Cuddapahs. The ore body strikes ENE-WSW and a steep dip towards NNW. The haematite ore is of good quality and consists 50-60% Fe, 3-18% silica and traces to 0.04% P. A reserve of 3,706,000 tonnes was estimated, a part of which has been worked out. 1.2.8 Krishna District : Discontinuous patches of float ore (haematite) occur over an area of 7 Km between Takkalapady, Shermahmadpet and in some area near Appalanarasimhapuram in the adjoining Khammam district. A reserve of about 1.3 million tonnes of ore has been estimated in portions lying in the Krishna district. 1.2.9 Nellore District : Lenticles and thin bands of haematite occur associated with Dharwar quartzites near Rasyapalam, 13 Km from Nayadupeta in Nellore district . There are other minor occurrences in the Chendi hills, west of Polenanecheruvu and in the Swarnamukhi river valley between Iresalemare and Ircola.

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34 The reserves are estimated to be of the order of 6,00,000 tonnes, a part of which has been worked out. 1.2.10 Guntur District : Large reserve of low grade ore containing up to 35% Fe have been reported near Tummurkota in Guntur district. 1.2.11 Prakasham District : Important iron ore deposits in the form of bands of magnetite ­ quartzite occur in different parts. These bands are grouped into two groups - Ongole group and Gundal Kamma group. Ongole group : This group comprises Pernametta, Ongole, Konijedu and Sanampudi bands. In Ongole area banded magnetite quartzite folded into asymmetrical anticlines and synclines occur in Konijedu hill and in adjoining Marlapads hill 12 Km SW of Ongole. During 1969-70 a Japanese team drilled nearly 10 bore holes in this area and estimated reserves of 99 million tonnes and 6 million tonnes of BMQ ore in these two areas. Taking together four bands a reserve of about 292 million tonnes had been estimated. Gundla Kamma group : This group comprising the Byrepalle, Errapalem, Tummavaram and Manikeshvaram deposits. This ore deposit is of less importance than the Ongole group both in quality and quantity. The Bayarapalle deposit consists of two thick and fairly rich bands which are apparently connected. The Manikeshvaram band is more than 1.6km long and situated at 2.4km NNW of the above. The total estimated reserve is about 4 million tonnes . Conclusion : Taken as a whole the banded magnetite haematite quartzite of Prakasham district contains iron ore reserves of 295 million tonnes (30.6-37.1% Fe, 46.1-55.6 % SiO2, 0.04-0.22 % P2O5 and 0.09-0.23% MnO2 ) besides 93 million tonnes of very low grade ore containing about 25% Fe. 1.2.12 Chittoor District : Iron ore reported from Gollakhandriga, Kamachimapalle and Sirasanambedu. Here haematite occurs in quartzites associated with hornblende schists in hillocks near Sirasanambedu. A reserve of about 6,50,000 tonnes iron ore of all grades had been estimated. The iron ores are generally of low grade but in places contain up to 60% Fe.

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35

CHAPTER 2 : ARUNACHAL PRADESH

2.1 General Description : No iron ore deposit of economic importance has been so far located from Arunachal Pradesh, though there are reports of the occurrences of magnetite-haematite from a number of places. These occurrences are mainly reported from Subansiri district and Siang district.

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36

CHAPTER 3 : ASSAM 3.1 General Description :

In Assam Banded Iron Formations probably of Precambrian age are found in different parts such as Chandardinga hill, Kumri hill, Garo hill, Khasi and Jaintia hill, lakhimpur and Lengupara etc. Banded haematite magnetite quartzite rocks are associated with metasedimentary sequence of micaceous quartzite, phyllite and hornblend-schist with occasional carbonaceous slates. This metasedimentary assemblage bear some resemblance to the Iron Ore Series of Chottanagpur. The Assam plateau lies along the continuation of the Archeans of Bihar but is separated from the later by Ganga-Brahmaputra valley. The plateau comprises the Garo,Khasi and Jaintia hills and its north-east is the detached area of Mikir hills. The Archeans are represented by gneisses, schist and granites having a general NE-SW strike direction of foliation. The oldest unit seems to be banded, composite, biotite granite gneiss. This gneissic complex is apparently overlain by Shillong Group which is regarded as younger. The Shillong Group is mainly of sedimentary origin and composed of quartzite, conglomerate, phyllite, chlorite-mica-hornblende schist with occasional carbonaceous slates and banded ferruginous rock. Similar rocks are exposed in the Simsang valley in the Garo hill and also in the parts of Mikir hill.

3.2.1 Goalpara District Chandardinga : The Chandardinga hill covers an area of 6 sq km (Toposheet Nos.78 J/8 &K/5) on the northern bank of Brahmaputra. The banded ferruginous deposit represents a meta-sedimentary sequence of amphibolite, micaceous phyllite. Iron ore exposed at the surface have been weathered to block and fragmentary masses. Ores are of two types - hard and compact massive banded ore, soft and porous sandy ore. The ore contains of variable amounts of goethite. The magnetite-haematite band alternate with quartzite having a variable width of 1 mm. to 1 cm. and extends for a strike length of about 750 m. The BIF forms the ridge line of the Chandardinga hill, striking NW-SE with moderate dip towards SW. A number of rolled boulders are present along the southern slope of the hill and on the basis of their disposition a second band is interpreted in the area along NE-SW direction. Leaching out of silica and enrichment of the residual masses within iron oxides were less pronounced. As a result, ore is of low grade. Sulphide is present in trace amount. The reserve is of the order of 10 mt. at 42% Fe. Kumri : A precambrian inliers form the Kumri hill (Toposheet No. 78J/8 &K/5). Dominant rock is muscovite-quartz schist with subordinate proportion of calc granulite, biotite gneiss and ferruginous quartzite. Three bands of ferrugenius quartzite are exposed in this area. Among the three bands the largest one occurs on the western slope. The largest band trends N-S to NW-SE with dip from 60° due east to vertical. Due to steepness of the band depth

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3.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits :

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37 extension is not known. The structure of the ore body is very complex and like other associated rocks deformed by isoclinal folding plunging towards south. A reserve of 9 mt. has been estimated at 22 to 47% Fe. Lengupara : Banded magnetite haematite quartzite rocks occur in association with biotite-gneiss, amphibolite and intruded by quartz veins. In Lengupara hill (Toposheet No. 78J/2 ) there are two iron ore bands trending ENE-WSW dipping 50°-60° southerly. The thickness of the bands are 200 m. and 10m. with strike extension of about 1700m. and 700m. respectively. The iron ore bands are flanked by amphibolite masses in the south while in the north the contact is not seen. The iron ore bands are isoclinally folded and follow the trend of the hillocks. A reserve of 7.5 mt. at 23.85 to 69.30% Fe has been estimated. 3.2.2 Bongaigaon District : Malai : The deposit is located about 60 Km away from Chandardinga iron ore deposit. A band of BMQ is found on the Malai hill (Toposheet No. 78 J/11) on the western bank of Manas river, south of Abhayapuri. The BMQ band is associated with amphibolite and gneiss . Ore bodies are coarse grained, generally well bedded and often gneissic in appearance. Magnetite occurs both as dispersed as well as concentrated in bands, generally about 1 cm in thickness .The BMQ is about 150-200 m. wide and exposed intermittently over a length of about 300 m. Titanium is present in trace amount only. 3.2.3. Kokrajhar District : Chakrasila range : The banded iron formation is associated with pyroxenite, ferro-quartzite, calc-granulite , biotite-gneiss, chlorite schist etc. The strike of the ore band like other associated rocks is NE-SW to ENE-WSW with dip varying from 15° to nearly vertical. The plunge direction of the lineation varies from NW to NE and to SW. Iron ore band in Bandarmuri areas is the largest and has been traced for about 1200 m. along strike. The Dibli Thakur band is 500 m. long.

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38

CHAPTER 4 : CHHATISGARH General Description :

Large deposits of excellent quality iron ore are found in Bastar, Durg, Dantewara districts of Chhatisgarh (formerly M. P.). Smaller deposits occur in Raigarh, Raipur, Bilashpur, Rajnandgaon, Kanker and Jashpur districts. Geological set up : Most of the deposits of Bastar and Durg districts are associated with Bailadila Iron Ore series of rocks of Archaean age. The Bailadila iron Ore Series of rocks resemble iron ore series of Singhbhum-Keonjhah- Bonai of Orissa and Jharkhand. The detailed geological succession of Jeypur ­Bastar tract is as follows : Upper-Limestone, purple shale and slates Purana

The Bailadila iron ore series forms a synclinorium with N-S axis and a central eroded anticline flanked by two synclines, which form ridges with prominent bands of iron ore. Ore geology : Most of the deposits are composed of haematite ore. A few are small deposits of magnetite ore. The ore bodies are not confined to any particular horizon. They attain their maximum development near the junction of haematite-quartzite and the underlying ferruginous schist. The ores are divided broadly into laminated and massive ore. Blue dust ores are formed by physical degradation of laminated ore. Patches of laminated ores are found locally, mostly enveloped in shale unit. In general near the surface the ore is massive and compact where the original banding disappeared. Quite often at the surface the high grade lateritic ore is underlain by good compact ore. Float ore in large quantity is also found on the hillsides surrounding

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Lower Pale sandstone and shale, purple shale, quartzite etc. ....................................... Unconformity................................................... Igneous rock : Dolerite dyke, pegmatite, charnockite, granite-gneiss. ........................................Unconformity.................................. Khondalite : Position uncertain ........................................Unconformity...................................................... Bailadila Iron : Banded haematite quartzite, grunerite-quartzite and white quartzite. Ore Series ........................................Unconformity.................................... Bengpal Series : Andalusite-gneiss, anthophyllite­quartzite gneiss, garnetiferous-schist ........................................Unconformity.......................................................... Sukma Series : Sillimanite ­quartzite, grunerite-schist, biotite-cordierite gneiss etc.

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39 major deposits. At places recemented ore comprising blocks of iron ore of varying sizes cemented together by a ferruginous matrix is also found.

4.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits

4.2.1 Bastar District 4.2.1.1 Rowghat Area Location : The Rowghat iron ore deposits located 20 k.m. NNW of Naraingur fall in Toposheet No.65E/1. The iron ore bodies occurring on the top of the three ridges starting from a point about 5 k.m. west of Kolur to a point about 5 k.m. NW of Kokragaon are referred to as Rowghat iron ore deposits. Quantum of work done : Nature of work i. Regional mapping (1:31.680) ii. Large scale mapping (1:2000) iii. Sampling iv. Drilling v. Exploratory mining (pitting )

Geology and structure : The iron ore deposits form a chain of discontinuous hillocks forming a horseshoe shaped loop around the plain of Kolur. These iron ore deposits are associated with the banded haematite quartzite of the Bailadila Iron ore series of Archaean age. The other rock types are basic and meta basic rocks, granites and granite gneisses and schists (sericte-quartz schist, mica schist and chlorite /hornblende schist ) and amphibolite. The outcrops are "M" shaped with an antiform enclosing the plain of Kolur and complementary synform in east and west of the deposit. The area comprises metasediments of Bengpal group which occurs as isolated patches and enclaves within the granite trending NE-SW and dipping 30°-70° towards SW. The granite gneisses and schists are unconformable overlain by BHQ with associated iron ore of Bailadila group. These are intruded by basic rock and quartzepidote veins. Iron Ore Series : The Bailadila iron ore series of Bastar is represented by quartzites, ferruginous quartzites and banded haematite quartzites with associated iron ore deposits in the Rowghat area. Owing to their hard and compact nature they stand out in relief and are seen as hills. They are very intricately folded as evidenced by the development of drag fold in the banded haematite quartzite. They are generally exposed on the eastern flank of the ridges and at times on the top. The quartzites are grey, greyish white to pinkish and are essentially composed of quartz and varying proportions of iron ore. The quartzites are at places thinly bedded and show minor folds. These thinly bedded quartzites occur in between thick quartzite bands as seen SW of Korgaon and Kolur. Concordant quartz veins and pockets and lenses of quartz occur in these quartzites.

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Total work done 100 sq.k.m. 1 sq.k.m. 1000 nos. 1200 mts. 300 mts.

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40 The banded haematite quartzite is composed of alternating layers of quartz and black to red metallic mineral haematite. The thickness of the individual layers varies between a mm. to a cm. These rocks exhibit minor folds, joint, displacement of bands and veins, slickenslided grooves, brecciation at places, suggesting they have undergone deformation. The occurrence of banded jasperoid quartzite, though comparatively rare in this area is seen, about 5 km. SSW of Pulpar on the slopes of 3030' (917 m ) hill. The rock is composed of alternating bands of iron ores and jasper besides quartzites. The thickness of the jasper bands seldom exceeds 4 cm. Laterite occurs more or less as continuous outcrop and at the periphery of the deposits as disconnected patches along the ridges and south of Korgaon block. The thickness of laterite varies between less than a meter to as much as 6 meters. Description of the Deposit : Iron ore deposits occur on the top of the ridge constituted by the banded hematite quartzite. the iron ore occurrences in this area are broadly divided into 6 major deposits namely a, b, c, d, e & f deposits. Among these the f deposits is the largest and richest and is sub-divided into three blocks namely a, b and Anjrel blocks. Except deposit "E" all other deposits (A, B, C, D & F) are located in eastern limb of Rowghat and they start from the nose of Rowghat synform and with Takrel block. The deposit "E"is located in the western limb of Rowghat synform, south-east of Phulper village. The main synform runs NE-SW and plunges 20°-25° towards SW. The main types of ore recognized in the deposit include(1) massive (2)laminated (3)lateritic/limonitic and (4)canga or recemented ore. Of the four types the massive ores have limited occurrences and can be seen in the northern part of block `A `and in Anjrel block. The majority of the ores belong to laminated and lateritic types. Deposit `A' :These deposits occur about 3 kms. WNW of Kolur village and covered an area of 0.03 sq km. The ore is mostly soft, porous and covered by laterite. The deposit strikes northsouth, dipping westerly. The southern and western sides are covered by laterites. Deposit `B' : This deposit measuring about 800 m x 150m is situated 2 km. south of deposit `a' and occupies an area of 0.12 sq km covered by laterite and quartzite. The dimensions of the exposures are 600m x 150m and the thickness of ores is about 30m. The ores are finely laminated, occasionally lateritic with rare pockets of massive ores. The canga type of ore is also noticed at the south of the block. The strike of the deposits is roughly n-s with 60° to 70° westerly dip. the reserve estimated from the deposit is 10.8 million tonnes with an average Fe content of 50.29 %. Deposit `C' : This deposit is covering an area of 0.48 sq km measures 2400m x 200m with disconnected outcrops of iron ore and occurs about 1.3 km. south of the deposit `b'. The intervening area is covered by extensive laterites and a few patches of iron ores. The cumulative length of the iron ore exposures is about 800m.having an average width about 150m.The average thickness is about 20m. The ore is finely laminated, frequently lateritised, rarely goethetic, folded and crumpled. The strike of the deposit is N20°E- S20°W

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41 dipping 60° to 70° westerly. The estimated reserve is about 9.6 million tonnes with an average grade of 63.84% Fe contents. Deposits `D' : The deposit `d' covering an area of 0.40 sq km occurs 1.3 km roughly south of deposits `c'. The intervening parting between these two deposits is partly covered by quartzite and partly by laterite. The exposures measure 600 m. x 100m. having an strike length of about 2000 m.. The thickness of the deposits is about 20 m. the ore is massive/laminated, frequently lateritised in the northern part of the deposits and intricately folded. The southern portion of the deposits is comparatively richer and mostly massive /laminated. The strike of the deposits is N15° E ­ S15°W with 70° westerly dips. The estimated reserve is 4.8 million tonnes with an average grade of 64.36% Fe. Deposit `E' : This deposit covering an area of 0.25 sq km occurs about 800m NNE of .917 m on the eastern flank of the Rowghat hill range and about 6 km. ssw of phulpar village. two detached exposures having cumulative length of 500m with an average width of 150m have been seen in the deposits. the estimated thickness is about 30 to 35 m in the exposures located sw of the deposits. the ore is massive / laminated and mostly free from lateritisation unlike that of other deposits and as such fairly rich. The strike of the deposits is roughly NE - SW dipping 15° to 30°easterly. The total quantity of ores estimated from these deposits are 7.5 million tonnes with tentative grade of 63.96% fe content. Deposit `F' : This is the largest (area: 2.20 sq.k.m.), richest and the best deposit of this area with promising blocks namely block A, block B ( korgaon block) and Anjrel blocks. The deposit `F' extends practically along the whole length of the eastern ridge of rowghat hill ranges measuring in length about 11 k.m. The ore body is generally confined to the crest of hill ranges, followed by quartzites /bhq on the eastern flank occasionally giving rise to steep cliffs and laterites on the western flank forming plateau. the ore is massive, steel grey, laminated,porous, lateritic,medium hard and soft. The ores found in exposures north of the korgaon block is comparatively free from lateritisation and mostly compact/ laminated with pockets of massive ore. The strike of the deposit is generally NE-SW with northwesterly dips up to the anjrel block and then southeasterly till the end of the ridge. The amount of dip varies from 30° to vertical. Block A : The block A (area :1.15 sq.k.m.) occurring about 500m. SSW of 886m. extends over 1.8 km. in length with an average width of about 500m. The iron ores occupy an areas of about 1.1 sq. km. out of 1.15 sq. km. of total area The ore types seen in the area are: a) massive, b) laminated, c) limonitic and d) canga. In the northern most part of the block the thickness of the ore body is about 500m. However, further south the thickness of the ore body is likely to be less. Block B (Korgaon Block) : The block (area : 0.3sq.k.m.) occurs in southern part of the deposit ` F' commencing from the point, 2k.m. WNW of Korgaon village and west of Korgaon ­ Anjrel foot path and continuing to the point which is 2.2 k.m.WNWof Korgaon village. This block contains three small mounts of iron ores mostly laminated with patches of massive ores at places. The top portion of the exposed ore is affected by wide spread latertisation. The intervening area is mostly covered with soil / lateritic boulders. The block extends over a strike

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42 length of about 2 km. along NNE-SSW direction with an average width of 150m. The ore body dips from 45° to 60° towards east. The thickness of the deposit is not much as the B.H.Q. is found 15 to 20m. below the mounts. Anjrel Block : The block (area: 0.45 sq. km) measuring 1500m. in strike length with an average width of 300m. has been demarcated between A and B blocks of deposit F and is located about 1k.m. east of Anjrel. The ore is massive /laminated and mostly free from lateritisation unlike that of Korgaon block. The average thickness of the ore in this block is assumed to be 30m. The sections having thickness about 35 to 40m. are exposed in the western part of the block. Chemical analysis : The analytical results of some typical samples of different deposits are given in the following tableDeposit A B C D E F Fe % 64.21 NA 59.86 63.13 65.80 66.00 SiO2 % 1.75 NA 3.41 2.13 1.52 0.91 P% 0.156 NA 0.10 0.072 0.047 0.055

Deposit A B C D E F Block A B Anjrel

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Reserve and grade : Depositwise and blockwise reserves and grades are shown in the table below : (in million tonnes) 0.06 10.80 9.60 4.80 7.50 264.00 (in million tonnes ) 120 24 54 Grade (Fe % ) 62.58 59.29 63.64 64.36 63.96 64.63 (Fe % ) 64.87 63.84 65.78

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4.2.1.2 Chhotadongar Area Location : The iron ore deposit of Chhotadongar area is located about 50 kms. from Narainpur and fall falls in Survey of India degree sheet No. 65E.

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43 Geology and structure : The iron ore deposits of Chhotadongar occur in the Dharwarian rocks known as Bailadila Iron Ore Series. The Bailadila series with or without other Dharwarian formations comprise more or less a continuous belt, about 100miles long, which starts from the Bailadila range, about 65 miles south of Chhotadongar and continues past Chhotadongar as far as Rowghat and beyond in the north with a general N-S trend. The sequence of the different rock types so far observed in the area under reference is given below : Dolerite and epidiorite } Granite gneiss } Banded haematite quartzite } Bailadila Series Ferruginous shale } Quartz-sericite schist } Basic lava } Banded haematite-quartzite and ferruginous shale are the country rocks in which the iron ore bodies are found. The strike of both the rock types varies from NW-SE to NE-SW with an easterly dip of 40° to 80°. The rock types of the Bailadila Series are folded into anticlines and synclines, and the iron ore deposits are mainly confined to the troughs of the synclines. The anticlines are generally devoid of iron ore bodies. A major fault with a general N65°W-S65°E trend has developed about 1 mile North of Mundatika displacing the rock-types of the series for a distance of about two miles. The iron ores of this area on physical characteristics, can be classified mainly under two heads: i. ii. Massive and massive laminated type. Laminated and porous laminated type including the lateritic ore.

The laminated type forms the major portion of the deposits. Massive and massive laminated type, however, also comprises considerable portion of the deposits. Laterite and lateritic ores are mainly associated with the laminated and porous laminated types of ores. Of the types of ore mentioned, massive ore is the purest haematite ore with a high Fe content of above 66%. Description of the deposits : Iron ore deposits are located on top of two hill ranges: (i) On the hill, NNW of Chhota Dongar locally known as Bargaon Dongri and (ii) On the hill, WSW of Chotta Dongar known as Dhauja Dongri. Both the ridges rise about 1000 feet from the ground level. For the matter of convenience, the deposits have been numbered 1 to 5, no. 1 being the deposit on the Bargaon Dongri and Nos. 2 to 5 on the Dhauja Dongri. The deposits are described below : i) Deposit on Bargaon Dongri : Deposit No. 1 : The iron ore deposit No 1 is on top of the Bargaon hill near its southern end where it takes a westerly turn from its N-S trend . The ore body with a N-S trend can be traced for a length of about 131m,its average width being about 33.5meter. It mainly consists of

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44 massive and massive laminated types of ore. The deposit is flanked by banded haematite quartzite on the west and by shale on the east. About 400 meter S20° W of this, a small exposure of massive variety of iron ore (30.5m X9 m) occurs on the southern slope of the Bargaon Dongri. It strikes N70°W ­ S70°E, and the ore is somewhat siliceous in nature. ii) Deposits on Dhauja Dongri : Deposit No. 2 : It consists of three ore bodies between the contours 762 m and 838m in the bulge about one and a quarter mile west of Dhauja hill. Starting from north to south the ore bodies are: 1. 152 m X 45.7 m ft of laminated and porous laminated type of ore with intermittent soil patches strike in N50°E ­ S50°W and bounded by B.H.Q. to the north and south. 2. 152 m by 76 m of laminated and porous laminated type of ore with much of soil patches trending N50°E ­ S50°W and bounded by B.H.Q. to the north and shale to the south. 3. 30.5m by 7.6 m of massive type of ore in the saddle east of (b). Deposit No. 3 : The deposit, 884m by 122m, is exposed about 1.6km west of Dhauja hill running in a N50°W-S50°E direction with a cliff of about 30.5m to the east. The ore body is flanked by B.H.Q. to the west. It consists mainly of laminated and porous laminated types of ore with lateritisation. Deposit No. 4 : This deposit crops out at the triangulation station of Dhauja hill trending N10°E to the north of Dhauja hill and to the south it bends in a S15°E direction. It is 808m long with an average width of 61m. The ore is mainly laminated and porous laminated type with patches of laterite. There is also some massive laminated type on the east on Dhauja hill. Deposit No. 5 : This deposit starts from about three-quarter of a mile S-E of Dhauja hill and runs in a S-Ely direction for a length of about 402m with an average width of about 30.5m. It is bounded by B.H.Q. to the east and shale to the west. The ore is mainly of laminated type with massive laminated at places. Reserve and Grade : The following table gives the details for the estimated reserves of iron ore deposits. Deposits Bargaon Dongri Dhauja Dongri

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Deposit No.1 Deposit No.2 Deposit No.3 Deposit No.4 Deposit No.5

Total reserves

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Gross estimated reserves (in million tons) 0.50 2.02 23.20 5.30 1.32 32.34

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45 4.2.2 Durg District : Iron ore deposit of Dalli- Rajhara Pahar Location : The Rajhara deposit is located on the ridge called Dalli and Rajhara hills. The deposits are connected with Bhilai. Geology and structure : The rocks of the area comprise Dharwar,intrusives and laterites. Dharwarians include schists, banded haematite quartzite grading into ferruginous grit and iron ore. Structurally, the Dalli-Rajhara range forms the southern limb of a horse shoe shaped pitching synclinal basin comprising Dharwar metamorphites. The iron formation constitute the fringe of the basin where as the center is composed mainly of a series of lava flows having occasional inliers of iron ore formations. The iron ore formations are undulated and have rendered the shapes of the basin to be a synclinorium. Description of the deposit : The iron deposit at Rajhara occupies the ridge of the hill and extends down for some distance along the slopes on the north and south .The deposit extends for about 2400 m. from west to east in a crescent shape with variable width ranging between 375 m. and 100 m. On the eastern extremity the ore body mainly extends on the southern slope of the hill. This end gradually tapers and is covered further east by laterite. In the other part the boundary of the deposit on the southern slope is clearly delineated by a band of banded haematite quartzite and on the north by a steep escarpment covered with intense lateritisation. By virtue of the distribution of the types of ore at Rajhara Pahar, the entire ore body may suitably be divided in two separate blocks ­ (i) An eastern block consisting mainly of massive type (ii) A separate exposures. The two massive patches are separated by a small extent of laminated ore. Few other laminated ore patches are also exposed. The laminated ore, to the contrary, constitutes the major portion of the ore body in the western sector of the hill. At places, they have been found to be quite hard and planes. There are, of course, pockets and lenses of massive iron ore amidst laminated type. In many exposures sit has been observed that the banded haematite quartzite is grading into the iron ore. On the southern slope, the laminated ore is found to grade from banded haematite quartzite in such a manner that in all places it has an appearance of book leaves, the intermediate layers of silica being leached out. On the northern slope of the deposits similar gradation of the massive, laminated ore from the ferruginous grit and quartzite is also noticed. On the steep slope of the southern side of the hill thick float has accumulated covering a large area extending nearly for 500 m. at the base. The float ore is entirely derived from the massive ore. The iron ore met within the area are of three types: i) ii) iii) Compact massive ore, containing pure hematite with very little impurities. Laminated ore, compact or loose with distinct lamination and sometimes with clay particles. Recemented ore containing both massive and laminated ore cemented later, the matrix being laterititic mass.

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46 Chemical analysis : The ore of this area is generally of high grade and deleterious elements like sulphur, phosphorous etc are within permissible limit. Chemical analysis of bore hole samples and surface samples are given belowElement Fe P SiO2 Surface samples 66.35% 0.0058% 1.44 Bore hole samples 68.56%0. 0.064% 0.71%

Reserve : Proved reserve as estimated by IBM and Hindustan Steel Limited are as follows-

Geology and structure : The iron ore deposit occurs in association with Dharwarian banded ­haematite- quartzite (BHQ) belonging to Bailadila Iron Ore Series. The BHQ is overlain and underlain by ferruginous shale and phyllites. The Dharwarian metasediment are traversed in this region by igneous rocks showing variable degree of metamorphoses effects. The BHQ forms prominent ridges and has been folded into series of anticlines and synclines. Several ore bodies comprising massive and laminated haematite are found at or near the top of the ridge. The rocks show steep dips with frequent reverse of direction. Current bedding has been recorded in these banded haematite quartzite. The Kauchar iron ore deposit extends over a strike length of 3.2km. with an average width of 200m.,the minimum and maximum width recorded at places being 50m and 350m. respectively. The ore body consists mainly of massive laminated and haematite. Earthy-

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Kauchar deposit Location : The Kauchar deposit lies at an aerial distance of 12 km. to the S-W of Rajhara . This is the largest of the 16 deposits located within the area included in Toposheet No. 64D/15. The Kauchar deposit is located within Balod tahsil which forms the southernmost part of Durg district. It consists of a single ore body running almost parallel to and forming a part of N-S trending ridge popularly known as Kauchar Dongri in the area. It lies about 2 km. west of the line joining Kumurkatta (T.S. No. 64H/3) and Kopedera ( T. S. No 64H/3).

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Name of the mine Rajhara mine Jharandali semi mechanised mine Jharandali mechanised mine-----Chikhli mine Total

111.0 0.1 163.1

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Reserve in million tonnes 46.0 06.0

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Grade (Fe%) 66.68%

47 limonitic brecciated and lateritic types are also present in subordinate quantities. A precise demarcation of the laminated and massive varieties within the ore body is not possible as the transition from laminated to massive variety is seen within short distances. The northern part of the ore body is flanked on either side by shales whereas the part of the ore body in the south is exposed as banded haematite quartzite. Reserve and grade : The deposit is of high grade with iron content ranging between 64 to 69 %. Its reserve is 82 million tonnes. 4.2.3 Deposits of Bordering Area of Durg and Kanker District Introduction : Sixteen iron ore bodies are located at the bordering area of Durg and Kanker districts and fall in Toposheet No 64D/15. These deposits in the bordering area probably represents the western extension of Dalli-Rajhara iron ore deposit. Geology : The rocks of the area comprise Dharwars, Puranas and laterites. Banded haematite quartzite in the metasedimentary sequence of Dharwar overlies phyllitic shales and quartzsericite schist and constitutes the most prominent ridge. The BHQ in the Lohatter ridge and in the area south east of Hilchur forms the limbs of an isoclinal anticline whose axis trends in a NNE-SSW direction. An axial fault passing through Hilchur has probably separated the two limbs. The individual deposits are described belowi. Dulki Area : The BHQ ridge situated one kilometer south ­east of Dulki contains two iron ore bodies. The top of Burgal Dongri (2432 )lies within the ore body comprising massive and laminated ores. The western end of the ore body is partially mantled by laterite. The ore body peters out on the eastern slope of the ridge, about 100m. east of peak 2432, after running for about 1200 m. The average width of the ore body is 150m. Further east another ore body appears in the same horizon after a barren zone of 400m. This deposit represents mainly massive ore of superior grade. The ore body is crescent shaped. The southern slope of the ridge containing the deposit has a large reserve of float ore. A few minor pockets of iron ore are noticed further east. The ore body has a linear extent of 500 m. with an average width of 150 m. ii. Kalwar area : The best quality iron ore occurs in Kalwar area . Six iron ore bodies containing hard, predominantly massive and steel grey haematite are located at the top of bifurcating banded haematite quartzite ridges west of Kalwar village. The two groups of deposits, denoted by three ore bodies in each group tend to converge at a point 2.5 km. west of the village marking the westernmost extension of these deposits. In the northern group, the biggest ore body is exposed on the ridge 2 km. N 65 ° W of Kalwar. The deposit extends in NE-SW direction for 500 m. with an average width of 125 m. A large quantity of float ore in the form of boulders of massive ores is strewn in the valley towards Kalwar. The other two smaller ore bodies of this group lie within a distance of one kilometer to

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48 the west of the above deposit. The total length of these two ore bodies is over 600m. and average width is 100m. All the three ore bodies lie within Durg district. The southern group of deposit lying in Kanker district consists of three small ore bodies. The limit of western ore body starts from the top of .2364 ridge, about 2 km. west of Kalwar. The ore bodies crop out further east along the ridge. The total strike length of all the three ore bodies is approximately 600 m. and average width is 100m. iii. Dongar Bor area : In Dongar Bor area, the following ore bodies are exposed on the converging ridges of B.H.Q. : a. Kukrel dongri : An ore body containing limonitised ore along with laminated type , occurs two km. S25°E of Kukrel , towards the northern margin of banded haematite quartzite in contact with shale . A few old workings are noticed. Total length of ore body is about 300 m. with an average width of 50m. b. Pulkachar dongri : Numerous pockets of massive and laminated ore are noticed towards the southern slope of the ridge, particularly in the region of old workings .The largest ore body occurs on the southern slope one km. north of .2394 hill. This along with minor pockets covers an area of 22,500 sq.m. c. Jab dongri (.2402 hill ) : The ore body capping Jab dongri forms the best and the largest deposit of this group, and is comparable with Kalwar deposits in quality .The iron ore is at places laminated . It has a strike length of 500m. with an average width of 130 m. d. Dongar bor ( .2394 hill ) : The Dongar bor peak contains massive and laminated iron ore .The ore body extends westward from the top and then takes a southerly swing .The total length of the deposit is about 300m.and average width is about 100m. A minor ore body is also noticed on the ridge 800m. east of Dongar bor peak. iv. Lohattar area : The B..H.Q. ridge, to the east of Lohattar, possesses only three iron ore bodies of importance Quality of iron ore in these deposits is inferior to most of the deposits described above . The ore bodies are confined to the core of the ridge, raising about 250m.above the surrounding ground, in the following area: a. On the ridge 1.5 km. NE of Shitalpur : The lenticular iron ore body stretches southward for about 550 m. commencing from a point 250 m. south of the top .2113 hill. The maximum width in the central portion is 150m. The laminated and limonitised ores form the bulk of the deposit. This represents the largest ore body of Lohattar area. b. On the ore ridge 1.5 k.m. east of Bejhar : A small ore body , about 300m. long and 75m. wide, occurs on the ridge 1.5km.east of Bejhar . The quality of the ore is similar to the one described above. c. On the ridge 1.5km. south of Khandighat dongri : The southern extremity of the B.H.Q. ridge contains limonitic and laminated haematite ore which extends into the area falling in the contiguous Toposheet 64 D/16 in the south.

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49 Reserve and grade : Table showing the estimated reserves (as on 1971) in different areas: Locality Dulki area: (i) Burgal dongri (2432)deposit (ii) Deposit east of Burgal dongri Kalwar area: Northern group (iii-iv) Deposit 2 km. n. 65° w. of Kalwar (v)&(vi) West of deposit No. iv Southern group (vii),(viii)&(ix) Deposit 2km. west of Kalwar Dongar Bor area: (x) Kukrel Dongri (xi) Pulkachar Dongri (xii) Jab Dongri (xiii) Dongar Bar Lohattar area: (xiv) Deposit 1.5km. N.E. of Shitalpur (xv) Deposit 1.5 km. east of Bejhar (xvi) Deposit S. of Khandighat Reserve (in million tonnes) 24.30 10.12

8.43 8.10 8.10 2.02 3.03 8.77 4.05 6.00 3.03 2.00 87.95

4.2.4 Dantewara District Bailadila deposit Location : The iron ore deposit of Bailadila hill range (Toposheet No. 65F/1,2,5,6) occupy a large tract of land in southern and western parts of Dantewara dist. in Chhattisgarh. The area is at 35 km. from Dantewara. Geology and structure: The Bailadila hills of the Baster district Chhatisgarh contain vast deposits of high grade iron ore, ranked among the richest in the world. The iron ore deposits of range so far observed are seen to occur in the Dharwarian rocks known as Bailadila Iron Ore series. The rocks of this series have great resemblance with those of iron ore series of Jharkhand and Orissa. The rocks of the "Bailadila Iron Ore Series" consist of banded haematite quartzite, ferruginous or haematite

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The ores of these deposits (massive and laminated) are of high grade with iron content ranging between 64 to 69%. A number of iron ore bodies containing good quality iron ore suitable for utilization in steel plants have been located within the B.H.Q. A preliminary estimate of the reserve of iron ore containing more than 60% of Fe available in these deposits is of the order of 150 million tonnes.

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50 schist, phyllites, massive quartzites (BHQ), grits etc. They have been intruded by extensive patches of granites and amphibolite. The B.H.Q. usually form ridges parallel to the strike direction but are at places irregular due to complicated folding. Large lenses and pockets of massive iron ore are found within the haematite quartzite. The Bailadila range comprises two NS ridges separated from each other by a narrow valley. Principal members of the Bailadila Iron Ore series viz. ferruginous shale and B.H.Q. with the associated iron ore bodies constitute these two ridges. B.H.Q. normally occurs along the upper portion of the eastern flank of the eastern ridge and the upper portion of the western flank of the western ridge. At places, B.H.Q. is also seen on the top of the ridges. The two main ridges are about 1219m in height above sea level. Structurally, the Bailadila range is a synclinorium, the ridges having a general synclinal structure but including numerous subsidiary anticlinal and synclinal gently plunging folds, whereas the valley in between is anticlinal. It is these synclines in the ridges that the major deposits of iron ore are found, and more so when the trough of the synclines consists of B.H.Q. At places, iron ores are also associated with the underlying shale. The anticlines are, however, characterized by deposits in small patches or by their absence altogether. The iron ore is haematite which can be classified mainly under two types viz. massive and laminated. Variants of these two main types include massive laminated under massive type, and porous laminated, shaly laminated, and biscuity under laminated type . Of the different types of iron ore present in the area, massive variety is of the purest quality. Laterites are normally associated with the laminated ore either as capping of varying thickness and / or along the lamina of the ore. In addition to the above types of ore, there are floats of iron ore intermixed with soil scattered all round the deposits, especially on the slopes and at the foot of the cliffs. At places, recemented ore comprising blocks of iron ore of varying sizes cemented together by a ferruginous matrix is also found.

Types of ore Massive Massive laminated Laminated Lateritic

Physical characteristics

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Characteristics of different types of Bailadila ore are as follows-

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Dense and compact Compact and hard laminated

Specific gravity 5.11 4.69 4.19 4.46

Fe in % 68.26 67.00 63.47 47.46

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Laminae somewhat loose held/soft laminated Porous,lateritic material enclosing gains of haematite

51 The iron ore deposits of Bailadila range are numbered from north to south, No. 1 to 5 being the deposits on the western ridge, No.6 to 12 deposits on the eastern ridge and Nos. 13 to 14 on the E-W southern range. Each of them are quite large ranging in length up to several thousand metres and in width up to several hundred metres. The names of the deposits are as followsSonadehi Dongri, Pargal hill, Khandighat Dongri, North Hahaladdi hill, South Hahaladdi hill, Tarai Kholi hill, Bajimari Dongri, Dorkenhur Dongri, Ghoradar Dongri, Pitehur Dongri, Hill west of Amapara, Hill north west of Kawachi Katel, Berahus Donger and Hakirihur Donger. Deposit 1 : The deposit extends from the hill .3400 to about 300 m NW of .3700. The deposit consists of four major and a number of minor ore bodies, which are separated by flats of laterite . It consists mostly of laminated ore with some patches of massive and massive laminated variety. For the convenience of description the major ore bodies may be numbered from north to south as 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D. These are described below: (1A) This ore body extends from north of latitude 18°50' to 600 m south of .3400. It is about 750m long with an average width of 240m (maximum width 300 m). It consists mostly of laminated ore with a small patch of dull massive ore, 270 m wide. The laminated ore at places shows lateritisation along the laminated planes. The ore body is surrounded by shale and soil on the east and by lateritisation on the west. About 360 mt SW of .3400 a small patch of laminated and massive laminated ore runs for 210 m in a N ­S direction with an average width of 60 m (maximum width 90 m). It is surrounded by lateritisation on all sides. (1B) The ridge at 900m south of .3400 is completely formed of laminated ore with very little of massive and massive laminated type. It is separated from the ore body 1A by a 90 m gap of BHQ and soil. It is about 330 m wide (maximum width 420m). The laminated ore is highly contorted. It shows a little lateritisation at places and is practically surrounded by laterite on all sides with patches of shale on the west. Three small ore bodies of laminated and massive laminated ore occur to the of ore body 1B. The western most of them is 300m long with an average width of about 45m (maximum width 60 m). The southern 180mt portion of this ore body consists of good massive ore. (1C) The ore body occurring at .3387 is an irregular one and runs for about 900m all along the cliff on the west .It is about 300 m wide for the northern 450m and is reduced to a thin band of about 30 m width for the southern 450m. By far the major part of the ore body consists of good laminated ore, with some massive laminated and dull massive ore to the NW of .3387. It is surrounded by laterite on all sides .A small patch of good laminated ore occurs about 300m north of .3387. It is about 120m long with an average width of about 90 m. between ore bodies 1C and 1D there are four other small occurrences of very good quality. The northern most of these extends for about180m with an average width of 60m (maximum width 105m). It consists of laminated ore. Further south of this, on the eastern side there is another band of massive ore which is 150m long and about 1 5m wide. About 780m SW of .3387 the third ore body runs in a EW direction and consists of high grade massive and massive laminated ore and is about 360m long with an average width of 75m. The last ore body is about 300m to the north of point .3387 and runs in a NW-SE direction over a distance of 600m . The southern portion of the ore body

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52 consists of very good bluish grey massive ore, while the northern portion consists of massive and laminated ore with associated laterite. All these ore-bodies are separated from one another by flats of laterite and are surrounded by laterite on all sides. (1D) This is the most extensive amongst all the four major ore bodies of deposit No.1. It extends in a NW-SE direction over a distance of 1500m with an average width of 240mt (maximum width 450m) and tapering in the SE at about 660m NW of .3700. For the first 450m it is about 60m wide, for the next 660m the width increases to 450m, and then for the last 570m it again reduces to 150m. As regards the quality of the ore, by far the major portion of the ore body consists of laminated and biscuity type of ore, the middle part being occupied by massive and massive laminated type. The laminated and biscuity ore is highly folded and shows lateritization at places along lamination planes .The massive ore is mostly excellent steel grey variety with a little dull massive ore .It is surrounded by laterite and shale on the NE and by laterite and BHQ on the SW. Another new patch of good massive and dull massive ore was noted on the steep slope of .3700.It is about 120m wide. Besides these a band of excellent steel grey massive ore and a patch of laminated ore were noted in the valley just after the cliff, west of .3700.These are surrounded by laterite on the NE and by BHQ on the SW. Deposit No. 2 : A new ore body, about 300m. long and 120m. wide, has been found on ridge 3500. The deposit is patchy and consists of two major ore-bodies with a number of patches and bands of massive and laminated ore. For the sake of description the major ore bodies may be numbered as 2A and 2B from north to south, as described below:(2A) The ore-body at hill .3500, north of Y (.3700) is a new find and is about 480m. long with an average width of 120m. (max width 180m.). By far the major part of the ore body consists of excellent steel grey and dull massive ore except the western portion, 300m long by 30m wide, and consisting of good laminated ore. At the SW of the ore body there is a patch of recemented ore, 150m long by 30m wide .The ore body is surrounded on all sides by laterite and soil. (2B) Separated from 2A by about 90m gap of recemented ore and laterite, this ore body is forming the ridge .3700. It extends for 390m to the north and for about 120m to the south of .3700with an average width of about 120m ( maximum width 180m ), and tapering towards the north. It is very high grade, excellent steel grey to bluish grey, compact massive and massive laminated ore. At the northern tip of the ore body there is a small patch of about two feet thickness of recemented ore. The small patch of recemented ore occurs also south of .3700 .The ore body is surrounded by laterite on all sides, and the eastern and western slopes are strewn with huge boulders of very good massive ore float South of the ore body 2B and separated by a 15m gap of laterite, there is a small high knoll completely made of very high grade compact massive ore. It is quite probable that the laterite gap is just a capping and that the ore-body is connected with 2B. It is 120m long with an average width of 60m. It is surrounded by laterite and rich floats on all sides. A patch of recemented ore has also been noted on the eastern side.

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53 South of .3700 there is a wide flat plateau of laterite and shale in which many small patches and bands of massive, massive laminated and laminated ore are seen. Three bands of good laminated and massive laminated ore occur south-west of .3700. About 60m north of .3786 a good band of massive and massive laminated ore, running in a E-W direction, was noted. It is about 300m long and about 36m wide. About150m north-east of .3786 there is another band of high grade compact massive ore which is 120m long and about 45m wide. Further north in the same direction two more patches of massive ore of the same grade occur, and it is quite probable that they are part of the same ore-body separated by caps of laterite. At .3786 there is lateritised laminated shaly ore, which extends for 18m to the north and for 180m to the south with an average width of about 60m. To the west of .3786, there are three bands of good laminated ore, the major one of which is 180m long and about 24m wide and runs in N.W.-S.E. direction. All these ore-bands and patches occur in laterite. Deposit No.3 : The patch running from the Bailadila Guest House garden towards Timinar crosses the crest of the western ridges, and then descends for a short distance till it reaches some cliffs along the base of which it runs for about 130m. These cliffs, which are about 60m in height, consist of iron ore. Different varieties of ore were noted, viz., a slump ore like that in Deposit No.1, a massive steel-grey compact ore, and a black, somewhat porous ore. The bulk of the deposit is formed of the steel-grey and black ores. Partial analyses of ores of both types showed the iron content to be 68 to 69 per cent. The ore covers an area of about one-eighth of a square mile. Assuming that it averages 22.5m in thickness, there should be about 26 million tons of in-situ ore. In addition there is a large quantity of float. Deposit No.4 : This is a relatively small deposit and the ore occurs as a thin band among the haematitequartzites at the top of the ridge, lying close to the junction of ferruginous schists and the haematite-quartzites. The quality of the ore is far from uniform. Deposit No.5 : The high ridge 4 km. north of Loa is composed almost entirely of iron ore. This completely fills the region between the ferruginous schists on the west of the ridge, and the grits and breccias on the east, so that no true banded haematite-quartzite is exposed here(Loa). The ore body dies out rather suddenly to the south-west, but extends to the north-east as a long tapering wedge separating the ferruginous schists from the banded hamatite-quartizites. This protrusion is at least 300m below the top of the ridge, and is separated from Deposit No.4 by a great thickness of banded haematite-quartzite. The ore body rises in a gigantic cliff some 150m in height, and extends for about 3.2 km. The width of the exposure cannot be determined accurately, as its margin is hidden under ferruginous conglomerates of Recent age along its south-eastern side. The deposit covers an area of about .8 sq.km. Allowing an average thickness of 60m, there should be 155 million tonnes of ore here. Beneath the great cliffs, `float' ore can be seen to extend along the steep slopes for 1.6 km or more. The deposits along the eastern ridge of the Bailadila Range are not as large as those on the western ridge. They occur in two well-defined bands, one on the top of the ridge, and other

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54 on the eastern flank of the ridge about 330m below its summit. Between theses two bands there is a great thickness of almost vertically dipping banded haematite-quartzite. The ore deposits and the associated haematite-quartzites are surrounded to the north and east by ferruginous schists, and also older rocks. There is a fault across the southern end of the eastern flank of the Bailadila ridge. Deposit No.6 and Deposit No.9 : Deposit No.6 is situated near the base of the ridge two miles north by east of the Bailadila guest house. The ore-body extends for nearly a mile along the base of the ridge. The ore occurs near the base of the banded haematite-quartzites, and seems to dip into the range. How far down it follows in the dip direction is not known. The ore is exposed in a steep scarp at least 60m in height. no estimate of the quantity has been made, but there is no doubt that there are many million tons of high grade ore. Deposit no.9 that occurs 2.4km further to the south and at the same level as that no.6 is similar but smaller. Deposit No.7,8 and 10 : These deposits cover a large area on the top of the high ridge south and east of the Bailadila guest house. Deposit No.10 is the largest of the three and is 1.75 miles in length and 330 yards in average width. assuming an average depth of only 9m, this should contain 28 million tons of ore. the ore seems to be rather less uniform in quality than that in the great cliffs, but it should average 60 per cent iron. Deposit No.11 : Considering the extent of deposit No.11 (Toposheet No. 65 F/2) which is about 7.2 km in strike lengths, it was divided in three distinct operational blocks viz. 11A, 11B and 11C Deposit No.11 forming a part of the eastern range of Bailadila iron ore deposits, occupies the northern most portion of 7.2km long deposit No.11 and forms the southerly continuation of deposit No.10. The deposit is about 2500 m long along N-S direction and towards south it passes into deposit 11B with a gap of about 500m at the Gidium valley. The main ore body covers approximate an area of 1.2 sq km (excluding the eastern float horizon). The ore is confined to the elongated hill range, almost running N-S and the altitude attains a maximum of 1248m above MSL in the Southern part of the block. Within the area covered by mapping the eastern slope comes down to a height of about 1000m above MSL while the western slope falls to about 1150m level. Comparatively the eastern flank has a steep gradient than the western flank. Higher elevations are separated at places by flat saddles. Vertical cliff faces with a fall of about 20 to 30m are noticed on both the flanks of the hill. Deposit No.11A : The entire surface area of the deposit was covered by contouring at 3m interval and 27 cross sectional lines at every 100m interval. The deposit is divided into two blocks for exploring the ore viz. i) North Block and ii) South Block.

North Block : The ore here has been developed from ferruginous shales, in the form of lenses and pockets of laminated ore and friable shaly ore of a loose to medium hard nature. The width of these lenses varies from 15m to a maximum of 300m. The distribution of these ores patches is very irregular and erratic, both in regard to their lateral extension and continuity in depth. In

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depth the ore is seen to merge into loose powdery ore. The maximum depth continuity has been seen to be around 15m. South Block : The ore body here has a strike length of 1500m with width varying from 50 to 250m. The constituent ore types are laminated, hard massive and shaly ore in order of thick abundance on the surface. The ore body behaves consistently in the strike direction and the lithological contacts of the constituent ore types are seen to be more or less parallel to the strike maximum depth of around 45m.

The ore belongs to mainly to the hard massive and laminated types. Besides these powdery, float and recemented type of ores are also found. Deposit No. 11B : The deposit extends over a length of 3300m but the main ore concentration is restricted to 1500 to 1800m. The width of ore zone varies from 250 to 650m. The width extension is mainly towards the eastern side of the main ridge. The ore is found to have developed from the topmost part in the hill 1277.03 to 950m level places along the eastern side. Westward, the isolated elongate mounds on the top merge with the laterite platform ending at elevations ranging from 1130m and in the south to 1170m in the N. The high part on the Bailadila ranges 4185 is situated in this block. The general strike of the eastern range in this deposit is NNW-SSE. Eastern face is a notable feature consisting of steel grey haematite analyzing over 66% iron comparable to the ore cliffs of deposit No.5 and 14. The western margin is generally composed of laterities, the weathered counterpart of the ferruginous shale. It is interesting to note that deposit No.12 another group of small detached outcrops of ore, occurs on the eastern slopes of this deposit in between 2700 and 3000 contours. The deposit can be divided in 3 natural zones viz. i)Northern zone extending from Gidium valley to cross section 1300 consisting of equal proportions of massive ore and altered ore and banded haematite quartzite, the former occurring as a capping on the ferruginous shale; laterite dominating on the western flats and slopes, ii) Central zone stretching from cross section 1400m to 900m forming the cream of the deposit consisting of excellent massive ore cliff extending over a distance of 500m with a steep fall on the eastern face, the western massive ore and mixed ore mounds occurring as capping on the ferruginous shale and the mixed ore ridge between cross section 1400 to B7, and iii) Southern zone from cross section 900m to 800m forms very poor ore concentration and consisting of minor outcrops. Deposit No. 11C : 11C is the southernmost block of deposit 11 extending from Kodenar valley to the Jhuvvam pass near deposit 14 on the eastern range of Bailadila. The iron ore occurs as a series of capping on the hill top over a length of 2300 m and with a varying width of 125-740m. The deposits are subdivided into three blocks namely northern, central and southern block. The deposits show equal proportion of massive ore and laminated ore with appreciable amount of

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56 altered ore. The ore occurs from 1213m level to 957m level varying in depth from 30-85m. mostly in the form of steeply sloping ridges. No major cliffs of iron ore like deposits 5 and 14 are present in the deposit. Total estimated reserve including float ore is 114 MT. Deposit No.12 : The deposit No.12 consists of small isolated pockets of massive ore in BHQ. Three ore bodies comprising high grade massive iron ore have been located. The details of these deposits are as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) 275m. x 45m band, 600 m. in the north 250 m. x 120 m.band, 1km. south of northern deposit (i) and 300 m. x 120 m. band, 2 km. south of deposit no. (ii) Total inferred reserves of these ore bodies are of the order of 4 million tonnes. Deposit No.13 : It is one of the best deposits of Bailadila range, occurs on the ridge .3996 and .3836 forming the northern and western watershed of the Malengar Nadi (65F/2 ) . The ore body with an average width of 210m ( maximum width 274 m) runs in a E-W direction for 630 m. It then thins down and takes a southwesterly turn and runs in a N-S direction for about 780 m with an average width of 210m (maximum width of 300m) . The portion of the ore-body with the E-W trend consists of highly jointed, steel grey massive ore. Towards the northern limit it forms about 75m to 90m. high cliffs of massive ore, and to the south, steep slope, with laterite on either side. The N-S running portion of the ore-body consists of high grade, compact bluish grey massive ore, which unlike the ore at .3996, is not highly jointed. It forms 45m to 60m. high cliffs of massive ore in the west and steep slope in the east. The eastern boundary of the ore-body is marked by laterite, the surface of which is strewn with large quantities of rich floats of highgrade ore. How far this float-ore area extends on the slope could not be ascertained because of its being very thickly forested, but most probably it extends up to the valley. There is a newly located ore-body which extends from the bend of the E-W portion of the deposit about 152 m WSW of .3996, in a south-easterly direction for a distance of 364 m with an average width of 105 m. It is surrounded on all sides by rich floats of massive ore. It is quite probable that this patch is a part of the N-S running portion of the ore-body and is separated by laterite capping only. Another patch of laminated ore, 210m. by 150m., has also been located on the flat topped mound 600m south-east of .3836. A separate band of 120m. by 30m. of laminated ore also occurs north of this occurrence. Another band of massive, massive-laminated and laminated ore occurs 450m. east of .3996. It is 300m. in length with an average width of about 30m. Deposit No.14 : It occurs on the NW-SE trending .4030 ridge which forms the eastern portion of the northern watershed of the Malenger Nadi. The deposit consists of two more or less parallel ore bodies running for about 2.6 km along the ridge top. The western ore body is more persistent and

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57 uniform than the eastern one, which thins down and widens up alternately. The two ore bodies are separated by a thin gap of 6 to 15 m of soil and laterite with rich floats. The eastern ore body starts about 270m NW of .4030 as a thin band of about 15m width which widens up to 135m at .4030 and after thinning and widening southward at three more places, finally dies out at 540m SE of .4030. It consists of high grade massive ore with some massive laminated variety. It has an average width of 91 m in the north-eastern, south-western and southern sides of recemented ore. At places, the laterite horizon is covered by a thick blanket of massive iron ore floats. The western band, as already mentioned, is more uniform and persistent than the eastern one. It starts at 390m N60°W of .4030 and ends at about 960m SE of .4030 forming a vertical cliff over 1200m length of high grade steel grey massive ore. The average width of this band is about 105m with a maximum width of 210m. The foot of the cliff in the Malenget valley is strewn with huge boulders of massive iron ore, forming a rich float deposit spread over a wide area. Immediately to the SE of the western band there is a band of lateritised shally laminated ore, which is 300m long with an average width of 30m. It is surrounded by BHQ on the west and shale on the east. To the north of the northern extremity of the western band, after about 45m gap, there is a small patch of 60m by 58m of high grade massive ore. Further north of this there are two more patches of laminated ore. A good patch of high grade dull massive and massive laminate ore occurs about 540m NW of .4030. It is about 200m long with an average width of about 24m. Another patch of laminated and massive laminated ore occurs about 540m NE of .4030. It is about 210m long with an average width of 36m. Reserve and Grade : Estimates of all these deposits indicate a total reserve of 1135 MT including both indicated and inferred ore.

Depo1 sit No. 138 Reserve in m. tonnes

23

38

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11 197

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14 34

108

209

Not estima -ted

Small deposits 27

Total reserve 1135

*Deposit Nos. 6&7 are included with the reserve of other small deposits. The iron content of Bailadila ores generally varies from 60-69%. The siliceous haematite ore contain 55-60% iron and lateritic haematite 45-55%. 4.2.5 Kanker District Ari Dongri Deposit : Location : The deposit forms a part of the 4.8 km. long ridge extending in a N-S direction west of the village Kachche which is located at about 26 km from the Rajhara mines on the fair weather road between Balod and Narainpur.

58 Geology and structure : This deposit measures approximately 240 m and up to an average depth of 30m.The ridge comprises of five hills rising to a maximum height of about 195m from the ground level and the peak at the northern most hill reaches the highest point (388m) above M.S.L. The geological formations that are encountered in this region are older metamorphics consisting of mica schist and gneisses in the plains and massive quartzite and B.H.Q. at the top of the ridges. Dolerite dykes are seen locally appearing as prominent topographic features. The general strike of the B.H.Q. / quartzites in the Ari Dongri ridge is conformable to the trend (N-S) of the hills, the dips varying from 25°- 40° in a west to WNW direction. They are also traversed by two sets of horizontal and vertical joints. Description of the iron ore : The B.H.Q. have given rise to a few narrow bands or lenses of iron ore bodies, the most significant of which is located in the hill at the northern extremity, having the peak 1959. It is a narrow lenticular ore body commencing at about 60m south of the peak, having a length of about 225m to240m with an average width of about 37m. The eastern half of the ore body is mostly made up of hard granular, compact, dull, greyish black haematite having a massive appearance. The western part of the ore body is mostly composed of soft micaceous haematite exhibiting good foliation, often with a wavy surface and splendent lusture. Reserve and grade : The reserve of ore available in the Ari Dongri hill range has been estimated at 6 millon tonnes of hard ore and 20 million tonnes of micacious ore, over a stretch of about 4.8 km. 4.2.6 Raigarh District : Jashpur : So far no iron ore deposit capable of producing any significant output has been found in Jashpur. A deposit of magnetic iron ore occurs in a decomposed basic rocks about 80km north of Gatibwa. Magnetite derived from weathering of phyllites and mica schist are located at Ambakachar near Dumaria and Jharmunda and that from weathering of granite gneisses are deposited near Seila. The ferruginous laterite occurring on the flat topped ridges of Jashpur is at times so rich in iron that it is locally smelted by village blacksmith for iron. Smaller occurrences of haematite­quartzite have been reported from SSE of Saramdaga. Highly ferruginous shale containing 20.64 -31.28% Fe occurs near Padigaon.

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59

CHAPTER 5 : GOA

5.1 General Description : Goa lies along the western coast of India, embracing the Arabian sea, marked by Marmugao Port, the only port on the western seaboard of the country with a sophisticated high capacity Mechanical Ore Handling Plant (MOHP) for iron ore. Accounting for nearly 50% of the country's total iron ore exports, Goa has exported more than 14 million tons of iron ore for the year 1996-97. With iron ore deposits covering both North and South Goa and with estimated reserves of up to 400 million tons, today the iron ore mining industry is the backbone of Goa's economy. In Goa the northern and central parts contain rich deposits of iron ore and only minor occurrences and small deposits of low grade manganese ore. The south Goa sector on the other hand is enriched in rich high-grade manganese ore deposits and only shallow iron ore deposits. Location: The iron ore deposits of Goa can be broadly divided into three sectors : a) North Goa Sector (Area to the north of river Madei), b) Central Goa Sector (Area between the river Madei in the north and Sanvordem railway station in the south), c) South Goa Sector ( Area to the south of sanvordem railway station). The areas fall in part of Survey of India Toposheet Nos. 48 I / 2, 3, 4, 8, 48 E/14, 15 and 16.

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60 Quantum of work done :

Nature of Work Geological mapping Scale 1:50000 --Preliminary evaluation of Fe and Mn ores reserve estimation Estimated a total indicated reserves of 411m.t. Fe ore, 3.57m.t. of Mn North Goa contains 75% of total Fe ores in Goa Result B (Possible 1203mt) C1(Indicated)- North Goa alone Area (Sq Km) Year 1963-1967 Results Geological and Mineral map of Goa brought out By whom GSI Gokul et. al. GSI Gokul et. al.

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1981

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Geological Mapping and Exploratory drilling in Bicholim (LSM,DM at every 100m strike interval,exploratory drilling without active mines,collection of mines data in areas with active mines, synthesis of all available data. 1:25000 800 1975-1982

GSI Ramachandra Rao

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215 FS 1977-78 1978-79

Geophysical mapping (area south of 1:25000 Sanguem) TSp no. 48I/4/1,2,4,5,6 and 48I/8/1

Geophysical mapping Large scale mapping of Bicholim formations. Grab sample collected ­ 518 No. in TS. No. 48 I/2/6, 48 I/3/1,2,3,4,5,6, 48 I/4/2,4,5,6, 48 I/8/3, 48 E/15/4 and 48 E/18/5

1:25000

435

FS 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85

12 Km mineralised zone of Fe and Mn ore. Shallow mineralized zone of Mn and Fe scattered in area of 100 sq.km. Inferred reserves ­ 2.3 m.t. manganiferrous Fe ore (Mn-18%) & 3.57 m.t. Iron ore(Mn -10%) Rich mineralized zones occur for a strike length of 3.5 Km with width varying from 1 to 1.5 Km and ferro-manganese ore mineralisaton zone is found to occur for a length of 2.5 Km with a width of 10-15 m.

GSI Harinadha Babu Abhinaba Roy

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61 Geophysical surveys

Nature of Work Rapid reconnaissance ­ mag. survey (i) along dip slope (ii) along a particular type of ore occurrence (iii) in barren areas Aim To determine the feasibility of conducting regular geo physical surveys for investigating the various aspects of of problem of Fe ore exploration, the identification of ore zones, determination of thickness of iron ore bearing formation i.e. pink phyllite To establish a methodology in search of iron ore deposits in regions of fast depleting resourses Year/F.S Jun & Jul, 1974 Remarks/ Results 1. Laterite formation shows highly erratic magnetic response. 2. Phyllite shows fairly uniform and ready magnetic response 3. Response of powdery ore is somewhat higher than that of lumpy ore. Recommendations 1. Determine the thickness of pink phyllite by deep electrical soundings 2. Surface mag. surveys should be supplemented by field and lab susceptibility measurements Reference: Unpublished GSI Report, Oct 1975 " A Short report on the Joint Reconnaissance of Goa Fe ores" by PK Bose and RK Mazumdar

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Geophysical survey employing gravity, magnetic and electrical methods in north Goa

F.S. 1975- 78

1. Significant responses identified over exposed ore hands 2. Not possible to establish any unequivocal relationship between magnetic, resistivity, S.P. anomalies and the sub surface ore horizons. 4. Mag method has not brought out any significant changes in the laterite covered areas where known ore body exists at shallower depths.

1. Combination of various geophysical methods may provide informations. 2. Gravity method may possibly help in delineating ore bands in virgin areas.

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Unpublished GSI Report, Aug., 1978 "Report on result of Experimenting Geo Physical surveys of Fe ores of North Goa " by BGK Murthy Aloke Bagchi, S Raman M Kesava Mani

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Gravity, magnetic and I.P. surveys in north Goa

To gather more information about Fe ores in North Goa combining more geo physical surveys

F.S. 1975- 78

1. Parallelism between geo physics survey and regional ore band is continuous but ore concentrations along these ore bands are discontinuous. 2. Gravity, Mag. and I.P. better suited than S.P. and resistivity. 3. I.P./ Resistivity depth probes successful to a depth exceeding 80 m

1. Drilling recommended in specific areas to identify causuative bodies.

GSI Report Aug, 1979 "Grav, Mag and IP surveys for Fe ores in North Goa by BGK Murthy, Aloke Bagchi M Appa Rao C Bhanumurthy BK Adhikari

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Stratigraphy : The schist belt of Goa forms the northern extension of Dharwar, Shimoga schist belt belonging to Chitradurga Group of Dharwar Super Group. The litho package of this belt has been grouped into Goa Group of Dharwar Super Group of Archaen to Proterozoic era. The Goa Group can be divided into four formations. Except for a narrow strip on northeastern border of Goa which is covered by Deccan trap of upper Cretaceous to lower Eocene in age, the rest of the area is covered with rocks of Precambrian age consisting of quartzite, quartz-sericite-schist, metavolcanics, metagreywacke, conglomerate(tilloid), pink phyllite with lenticular bodies of banded ferrugineous quartzite and limestone intruded by ultrabasic and basic sills and dykes. All these are intruded by gneissic granite, pegmatite and vein quartz etc. The pink phyllite horizon with banded ferruginous and manganiferous quartzite constitute the manganese and iron ore bearing horizon and extends over the entire length of Goa from north to south. Lithostratigraphy of the Region is given below :

Mineralisation :

The ore zones follow the regional trend. Rich mineralized zones of iron ore have been traced for a cumulative strike length of 46 Kms with a width varying from 10 meters to 1 Km. The minerals of iron ore are chiefly hematite, magnetite and limonite/ goethite. Two planar surfaces have been noticed in laterite and the ores are confined here. The most significant geological factor of the deposits is the widespread and deep laterisation which has affected almost all geological formations in the region. Below this thick cover of laterite, the iron ore deposits contain comparatively thinner zone of soft, and more porous ore. The ores are mainly of two types-lumpy ore essentially made up of haematite and powdery ore essentially made up of magnetite. Goethite and limonite occurs as alteration products. Mode of occurrence : The iron ore deposits are confined to the pink phyllite horizon (Bicholim Formations) which has wide distribution. The ore is of lateroid type and occurs as irregular lumpy or powdery fine pockets in laterite of mangeniferous clay. The ore occurs as blanket and lensoid bodies of varying dimensions. The depth of ore concentration vary from place to place depending on the disposition of the parent rock to the slope of the ground in addition to the richness in iron content. Generally close to the surface the ore deposits consists of hard lumpy ore followed at depth by friable and powdery ore (blue dust). In general if the lumpy ore at

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The litho units are intruded by the Usgaon layered complex. The rocks trend in NWSE to NNW-SSE in central Goa and the trends swerves to EW in South Goa probably due to cross foldings. Litho units are highly folded and the rocks have attained green schist facies grade of metamorphism. Extensive development of laterite in the form of cappings over the rocks is seen and further, the rocks show the effect of deep weathering. The laterisation might have taken place between Tertiary and Recent. Bicholim formation contains all the important deposits of Fe and Mn. It has a length of over 185 kms and width varies from 1km to 22kms. The general trend of this belt is NW-SE to E-W. It covers an area of 1450 sq.km.

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Structure :

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surface is good in grade and thickness, the powdery ore below is also good in quality and quantity and vise-versa. Sometimes powdery ore is either earthy or absent. A generalised vertical section of the iron ore deposits is given below :Laterite with or without hematite and limonite Friable and laminated haematite powdery haematite Mangeniferous clay Banded magnetite/ haematite quartzite 10 to 30 m

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5 to 25 m

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5 to 10 m Form core

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Types of ore : The ores near to the surface is hard and compact while at depth it tends to be friable and powdery. Depending on their physical properties ores are classified as:

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Distribution of ore : The iron ore deposits are localised in a general NW-SE direction over a length of 95 Km from Naibagha in the northwest on the Goa-Maharastra border, to Saliguinim in the southeast near Goa-Karnataka border. A broader pattern of distribution of deposits can be clearly observed from north Goa to south Goa. From NW to SE, there is a distinct decrease in iron concentration and increase in manganese concentration so that the best and the largest iron ore deposits are situated in north Goa. In central Goa iron ore deposits are medium size, moderate grade and fairly regular, associated with small pockets and lenses of manganese ore, in south Goa narrow irregular lensoid and pockety iron ore deposits of medium to low grade are associated with large and better grade manganese ore deposits.

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Type of ore Massive Bedded

Fe content At the 63 % surface At and 59-62% near the surface At and 58-62% near the surface

Depth

Other remarks Sp. gravity 4.2 Hard compact and massive 3­3.4 Hard and compact

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Colour Cherry red to steel-grey Cherry red to bluish-black and steel-grey

3.

Platey

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4.

Brecciated

At and 56-62% near the

2.8-3.2

Thin plates of iron ores; thickness 2-3cm cemented by Ferruginous or clay material. Small angular pieces of

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surface to 3­8m

5.

Mixed

At surface

45-59%

2.5-3

haematite cemented in lateritic / ferruginous matrix. Patches, lenses and bands of haematite mixed with laterite Bluish green to yellowish green Ribbed appearance, friable crumble into powder

6.

7.

Quality of ore : The lumpy ores are comparatively soft, porous in nature and low in iron content owing to the varying proportions of laterite and shaly mixture in them .The powdery ore or blue dust ore is extremely fine grained, friable and includes considerable amount of pores and voids. The average chemical analysis of Goan samples are given belowTypes of ore Lumpy Fe% 56-64 SiO2 % 1-5 1-4.8 Al2O3 % 2.8-8.4 1.064.82 Mn TiO2 % % 0.06- 0.20-0.23 0.76 0.03- 0.22-0.26 1.46 S% 0.0200.028 0.0210.023 P% 0.0480.057 0.0420.047 Combined H2O % 2.16-7.92 1.57-6.5

Powdery 60-67

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Consists of fine Blue haematite and blackish magnetite grains loosely packed with lot of voids with lot of voids and pore spaces.

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Below 55-58% laterite/ Mixed ore zone Laminated/ Between. 59-65% Biscuity Surfaci-al Ore lumpy and deep blue dust Concretion Present in 57-62% -ary ore laterite in (bouldery, 20-30% botriodal, mamilary forms of limonite Blue dust/ Below 63-68% powdery hard compact ore and laminated ore

Earthy ore

3.0

2.9-3.1

3.1-3.4

Partly haematite

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Origin : Iron ore deposits of varying dimensions occurs as blankets and lensoid bodies at and near the surface above ground water level in the pink phyllite horizon, having resulted partly due to residual concentration in the banded haematite-magnetite-quartzite and partly due to replacement of the phyllite by iron oxide. Reserve: Goa's Recoverable Reserves (as on 01 April, 1995) (in million tonnes) are as follows: Ores Haematite Magnetite Proved 405 64 Probable 173 4 Possible 167 96 Total 745 164

5.2 Description of the Individual Deposit on the Basis of Genetic Type

The following is the list of iron ore deposits in Goa with important deposits being projected in bold letters: North Goa Deposits 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Advalpale Deposits Nanora Deposits Bicholim-Sirigao Deposits Bordem-Sarvona Deposits Sanquelim Deposits Aravalem Deposits Cudnem-Dignem-Surla Deposits Velguem Pale Deposits Pissurlem-Sonshi Deposits Sonal-Davem Deposits Govanem-Malpona Deposits Balcornem Deposits

Central Goa Deposits 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Dudal Deposits Khasti-Codli-Dabhal Deposits Suctoli-Tatodi Deposits Kale Deposits Sakvorde Deposits Paikul-Suidem Deposits Kankere Deposits Usgaon Deposits Bolkhane-Gavane-Patwal Deposits Sanvarde (Minor) Deposits Sinnavar (Minor) Deposits

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24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

Santona-Quirlapale Deposits Sacorda Deposits Calay Deposits Tolem - Motto Deposits Barazan - Viliena Deposits Conquirem Deposits Bimbol-Sigao Deposit Malinguem Deposit Costi Deposit

South Goa Deposits 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. Nuvem-Kanagini Deposits Sirigao-Undorna Deposits Rivona-Columba Deposits Convorem Deposits Neturlim Deposits Camona-Conda Deposits Betul-Nuem Deposits Sulkorna-Vichundrem Deposit

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Bicholim-pale type Sacorda-Pisurlem type Codli-Sigao type Costi-quirlapale type Barazan-Viliena type Rivona-Columba type Netorlim-Camona type Betul-Nuem type

5.2.1 Bicholim-Pale Type This includes deposits between Advalpale in the NW to Usgaon in the SE and this constitutes the best and the largest deposits in Goa. Characteristics of the deposits : The surface indication of this type of deposit consists of the presence of bands, beds and laminae of haematite arranged in a regular pattern along the strike of bedding of rocks, in laterite. Generally the lumpy ore zone occurs below a narrow 2-4 m thick mixed ore zone at the surface and sometimes when the concentration is rich, the lumpy ore zone may even occur right from the surface. The lumpy ore zone varies in thickness from 8-12 m. and below this a 2-4 m thick zone of friable ore, followed by a 15-40 m thick high grade blue powdery ore zone is present.

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All the deposits can be broadly classified into following eight types of deposits on the basis of nature and mode of occurrence and origin of the ore ­

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Both the footwall and the hanging wall to this deposits are made up of phyllites and the footwall phyllite is manganeferous in nature. Generally the hanging wall phyllite is either eroded away or converted into laterite. The iron content in lumpy ore varies from 58%-62% and in the powdery ore from 63%-67%. The recovery in lumpy ore ranges from 65-80% and in the powdery ore from 95100%. In the powdery ore zone bands of friable silica belonging to the parent banded ferrugenous quartzite can often be seen. At the same time narrow lenses and bands of phyllite replaced by iron also seen. These deposits have resulted essentially due to residual concentration in the banded ferrugenous quartzite and partly due to replacement of phyllite by iron oxide. The deposits falling in this type are discussed belowAdvalpale : Location : The deposit is located about 1.5 Km north of Assonora and immediately south of Aadvalpale along the northern dip slope of Cansua hill. Description of the deposit : The deposit extends in a WNW-ESE direction over a strke length of 3.5 Km and has a steep north-northeasterly dip and is traversed by as many as seven dip and oblique faults. A major portion of the deposit occurs right at the surface. The width of the deposit varies from 120 m. at the central part; to about 75 m on either side. On the eastern side the deposit pinches off in banded ferrugenous quartzite and in western side it abruptly ends near Quel against a NE-SW trending fault. The thickness of the ore body ranges from15 m-60 m. The deposit shows varying degree of replacement of phyllite by iron oxide. Reserve and Grade : Type of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore

Indicated reserve in (MT) 0.14 3.51

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to the WNW of Nanora village on the either side of the

The deposit to the east of the road trends WNW ESE, dipping 65° towards NNE and to that to the west of the road trends in ENE-WSW, dipping 50° towards NNW. The eastern deposit is about 600 m long, 60m wide and thickness varies from 15-20m. The western deposit is about 300m long, 40m wide and 15m thick on average. The deposit is overlain by thick laterite overburden.

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Reserve and grade : Type of ore Lumpy Powdery Indicated reserve in MT 0.18 1.044 Grade of Fe in % 57-60 60-64

Bordem : The deposit is located between Bordem in the NW and Sarvona in the SE. Description of the deposit : A dozen of low grade small deposits occupying the crest of low mounds and scarps of plateau are seen here. The general strike of the deposits is NW-SE with dip towards NE and SW. The deposits vary in length from 30-180m, in width from 20-65m and in thickness from 10-15m. Lumpy ore is intercalated with with laterite, phyllite and quartzite. Practically all the lumpy ore has been mined out and what is remaining is powdery in nature.

Description of the deposit : Among all the deposits, two deposits situated to the NW and SE of the falls are important and form a part of a tightly folded anticline with its axis trending N60º W and having steeply digging beds. The deposit to the north west of the falls is about 600m long, 75m wide and 21m thick. The ore quality is adversely affected by phyllitic intercalations in both lumpy and powdery ore zone. In the southeastern part the deposit is about 1 Km long,170-215m wide and 17.5-60.8m thick. Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 02.541 10.155 Grade of Fe in % 57-59 61-64

Sanquilim : Location : The deposit is located about 500m south of Sanquilim town.

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Aravalem : Location : The deposit is located on either of the Aravalem waterfall, situated about 2.5Km SE of Sanquilim town. The smaller deposits located on SSW & SSE of the falls are also included in this group.

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Type of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore

Indicated reserve in MT 1.428

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Grade of Fe in % 54-59 60-62

Reserve and grade :

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Description of the deposit : The deposit extends over a length of about 3 km in a general N30º W direction. The iron formation is folded into a plunging anticline overturned towards SW in the central portion near hillock (.9703). The ore concentration decreases from crest of the hillock towards NW and SE. The deposits consists of two nearly parallel ore bands, discernable the south eastern part of the deposit forming the two limbs of the fold. The north-eastern ore band is about 900m long, 120-160m wide, and 25-36m thick. The south-western ore band is about 1100m long, 150-170m wide and 25-36m thick. On the either side of the river Sanquilim the ore tends to be siliceous. In addition to the main deposits four small isolated patches are located between Sanquilim and Poriem. Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 0.648 7.063 Grade of Fe in % 58-61 62-65

Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Bicholim-Sirigao :

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Description of the deposit : The deposit forms the southernmost extension of northwesterly plunging Sanquilim deposit of north Goa. The deposit trends in NNW-SSE to almost N-S direction. The ore bands are isoclinally folded. The eastern band is about 220m long,120m wide and 21m thick and the western band is considerably of small size. A typical vertical section of the deposit shows that 6m thick lumpy ore zone occurs below 5-6m thick laterite cover. Below the lumpy ore zone 6-7m thick powdery ore zone occur.

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Indicated reserve in MT 0.224 1.000

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Usgaon : Location : The deposit is located about 2.5 Km NE of Usgaon village, on the southern bank of the river Madei.

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It is the best deposit in the entire territory of Goa and is situated between Bicholim in the south-east and Sirigao in the north-west.

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Grade of Fe in % 58-61 63-65

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Quantum of work done : Type of work Pitting & trenching Drilling Prospecting Adits Shafts Trenches Quantum 20 cu.m. 30 boreholes 365 boreholes 28 nos 4 nos Carried out by M/s Dandecoy & Co. M/s Dempo and Souza & Co. M/s Chawgule & Co. French Company

Geology of the ore body : The deposit consists of two ore bodies, southwestern one is larger and the northeastern smaller. The southwestern ore body is in the shape of "S" it occurs on the overturned south-western limb of the anticlinal fold and also on the refolded nose portion of the fold. The northeastern ore body occurs on the other limb of the fold. Both the ore bodies are present along the dip slope. The southwestern ore body extends from Bicholim-Piligao road via Sirigao hill upto Sirigao nala for a length of about 6.25 Km and the width varies from 70m to 550m and thickness varies from 25m to 93m.The greater thickness of about 75m to 93m and the best concentration are seen between Lamgao and Sirigao hill. To the southeast, the thickness gradually decreases to become about 25m near Mosque hill. On the northern and western slopes of the Sirigao hill, the thickness again diminishes and ranges from 20m ­35m. The ore is also seen to be admixed with thin laminae of phyllite and laterite. But at places, the concentration is extremely rich to result in a very high grade lumpy ore. In the conical portion between Sirigao and Poira the thickness varies from20m-35m. and the grade of the ore is comparatively low. The northeastern ore body is about 1.75 Km . long and the width varies from 115 m to140 m. The thickness of the ore body as revealed by data from adit varies from 35 m to 60 m and the average is about 40 m.

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Structure : The iron ore formation is folded into a N50°-60° W trending anticlinal fold, overturned to the southwest; its nose portion refolded in the shape of "S" with a plunge of about 22°-27° towards N60° W direction. The southwestern limb of the fold extends for a length of about 4Km from Bicholim -Piligao road in the south-east to about 500m north-east of Sirigao hill (.161.54m) in the north-west while the northeastern limb extends for a length of about 2Km from bordem in the south-east to about 500m north-east of Sirigao hill in the north-west. Between the two limbs of anticlinal fold, which are ore bearing , there is a barren phyllite tract, about 250m wide, which represents the axial portion of the fold. Along this axis A NW-SE trending fault appears to be present as indicated by a perennial discharge of water. The general strike of the beds on the two limbs is N50° W and the dip varies from 35°to 85° towards northeast.

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Reserve : The total gross reserve of lumpy and powdery ore is given below in the tableArea Indicated million Lumpy 17.000 in Reserve tonnes Powdery 96.836 Grade of Fe Lumpy in % powdery

Area under lease hold by Dempo & Souza a. Southwestern ore body b. Northeastern ore body Monte De Sirigao area Area between Sirigao & Poira Total

57-63 5.990 59-61

61-64 62-66

2.930

16.200 12.200 125.236

58-63 55-59

62-66 60-63

25.920

Zone Mixed ore zone Lumpy ore zone Powdery ore zone

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The northeastern ore body is about 1.75 Km long and 115 to140 m wide. A generalised profile along with % of recovery of ore is given below: Thickness in (m ) 2--3 8--10 28--37 Nature of ore Lumpy Lumpy Powdery % of recovery 15--20 60--70 90--95

The southwestern ore body has been prospected by borehole drilling and aditting in different parts such as Mosque hill, between Becholim-Maem road and Lamgao, between Lamgao and Sirigao hill, and in north and northwestern slope of Sirigao hill. A generalised profile along with % of recovery of ore is given below : Zone Mixed ore zone Lumpy ore zone Thickness in (m) 3--6 8--10 Nature of ore Lumpy Lumpy %of recovery 15--20 50--60

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1. M/S Dempo and Souza...Area includes the major portion of southwestern and entire northeastern ore body. 2. M/S V. N. Bandecar & CO.......Montede-Sirigao area. 3. M/S Chowgule & CO.........Area between Sirigao and Poira known as Sirigao area.

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Other relevant information : The deposit is presently held under lease of the following companies :

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In addition to the above reserve 15 MT of low grade lumpy ore present in the Sirigao area which will yield 4MT of lumpy ore with 58% Fe after treatment in the Stripa plant. If it is included with gross the lumpy ore reserve will rise to 29.92 MT.

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Powdery ore zone

15--20

Powdery

75--80

Quality of ore in the Southwestern ore body is shown in the table below: Area Between Lamgao and Sirigao Hills Mosque hill area (Low Grade) Between Bicholim-Mayem road and Lamgao (Medium Grade) North and NW slopes of Sirigao hills (Medium to Low Grade) Lumpy Ore 60-63% 57-59% 57-61% 57-59% Powdery Ore 64-66% 61-63% 63-65% 61-64%

The lumpy ore in Montede-Sirigao area is very hard compact and is of high grade. It constitute the best lumpy ore available in the entire territory of Goa, except Saniem mines. A genaralised profile of the deposit along with % recovery of ore is given below: Zone Mixed ore zone Lumpy ore zone Powdery ore zone Thickness in (m) 3-5 8-10 15-20 Nature of ore Lumpy Lumpy Powdery

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The powdery ore gives place at depth to ocherous and shaly low grade ore at places to the footwall phyllite. The lumpy ore is generally associated with varying proportions of laterite and phyllite. Hence the grade of ore is low with the Fe content varying from 55% to 59%. 8.Velguem-Pale : Location : The deposit extends from the river Madei in south to Sonus village in north over a distance of about 6 Km in a general N30° W direction. Description of the deposit: The deposit forms the crest and on the south western limb of an assymetrical anticlinal fold whose axis runs in a N30° W direction. The important sections are -

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Zone Mixed ore zone Lumpy ore zone Powdery ore zone

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Thickness (m) 3-4 6-8 12-18

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The area between Sirigao and Poira is about 1.5 km long and extends in the form of a "V" with its apical portion towards N60º W direction. The apical portion constitutes the tip of the anticlinal nose. In this portion the ore is present as two strips on the two limbs of the anticlinal fold for length of about 500 m each with about 150m width. A generalised vertical section of the deposit along with % of recovery of ore is given below-

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% of recovery 20-25 65-70 85-90

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% of recovery 15-20 55-65 80-90

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Velguem section : The north western part of the deposit between Sonus and Velguem stretching over a length of about 2.5 Km is generally referred to as Vellguem section. This part consists of four lensoid bodies of ore, out of which the central one is the largest and it is about 550m long , 250m wide and 30m thick. In Matto-Dando area the deposit is about 650m longand width ranging from 150300m and thickness ranging from 25m to 53m. Pale section : Here deposit extends from the NE-SW flowing nala, about 500m east of Velguem in NW to the river Madei in SE for a distance of about 3.5 Km. In the northeastern part of the deposit maximum ore concentration is on the Wrest and southwestern limb of the anticlinal fold. The ore body is about 1.5 Km long,150-300m wide and 30m to 50m thick. In the southeastern part of the area the deposit extends for a length of about 800m and has maximum width of about 720m. In the southernmost portion of the area lying immediate to the north of Madei river the deposit is about 1.1 Km long and has maximum thickness of about 260m in the central portion on the crest of the hillock and it tapers down on either side along strike. Reserve and grade : Area Velguem section Pale section

Description of the deposit : The deposit has a length of about 3.5 Km and a varying width of 100m in southeastern part to about 200m in northwestern part. The northwestern part of the deposit for a length of about 800m is referred to as Cudnem section, to the southeastern part stretching for a distance of about 600m it is called as Dignem section and the remaining part of the deposit to the SE is known as Surla section. The deposit occurs on the asymmetrical anticlinal fold whose axis trends in a N40° W direction in the surla section and in N55° W direction in Dignem and Cudnem section. In Cudnem section, the northwestern limb has much better concentration of ore than the southwestern limb. In Dignem section ore concentration is also higher in northeastern limb. The lumpy and powdery ores are also similar in nature to that in Cudnem area. In Surla area lumpy ore has already been mined out from northwestern part of the deposit. The southeastern part of the deposit is about 1250m long and 150m wide. The deposit occurs below a thick laterite cover.

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Cudnem -Dignem-Surla : Location : The deposit extends from a point 2.25 Km SE of Onda and west of the Onda-Usgaso asphalt road in the northwest to Surlahill, located about 1 Km east of Durgunvado in southeast.

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Indicated reserve in MT Lumpy ore Powdery ore 1.173 17.752 6.374 39.209

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Grade of Fe in % Lumpy ore Powdery ore 57-62 63-67 57-62 62-67.5

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About 500 Km SW of Durgunvado and immediately east of Codguinem there is a small isolated deposit known as Surla deposit. It consist of ferrugenous laterite with concretions and angular pieces of rich haematite and limonite ore. Reserve and grade : Area Cudnem area Ddignem area Surla area Surla deposit Indicated reserve in MT Lumpy ore Powdery ore 0.320 6.800 0.263 6.210 0.900 15.075 0.950 Grade of Fe in % Lumpy ore Powdery ore 57-62 62-66 57-62 62-66 56-62 60-66 57-62 -

Characteristics of the deposits Surface indication consists of brecciated ore containing angular pieces of haematite cemented by laterite material. A generalised statement of various parameters along a vertical section of the deposit is given below: Zone Brecciated ore zone Lumpy ore zone Fines & smalls Thickness in (m) 6-8 8-12 4-6 Nature of ore

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% of recovery 50 75-80 75-80

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5.2.2 Sacorda-Pissurlem Type The deposits located between Sacorda and Suidem and near Pissurlem come under this type.

The conventional blue dust ore is absent in this area. the lumpy ores are generally hard, compact, dense and bedded in nature. The smalls and fines are actually smaller pieces of phyllite replaced by iron oxide. The ore present in these deposits indicate clear evidence of replacement of phyllite by iron. The portion of the phyllite which has escaped replacement by iron are generally converted into laterite at the surface while the portion replaced by iron and converted into iron ore remains intact and the rock as a whole present a brecciated outlook. The deposits included in this type are discussed below : Pissurlem-Sonshi : Location : Pissurlem-Sonshi deposit includes six medium size deposits distributed in an area about 4 Sq. Km between Pissurlem village in east and Vanvorlem village in west, on the Pissurlem hill (216.81m).

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Lumpy Lumpy Fine

Grade of Fe in % 58-64 58-63

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Description of the deposit : The deposits are present in two horizons, a lower and an upper horizon separated by a 22m to 40 m thick manganeferous clay horizon. The location and dimensions of the six deposits are given below : Block Location A Southeastern corner of Pissurlem hill and 750m SSE of Pissurlem village B On the crest of Pissurlem hill and 1.25 Km SW of Pissurlem village C 600m east of Vanvoliem village D 500m north of Vanvoliem village E 750m SW of Pissurlem village F 1.25 Km WNW of Pissurlem village Dimention 425m-115m-25m 800m-125m-25m 400m-75m-15m 300m-75m-10m 1100m-500m-30m 720m-90m-20m Horizon Lower Lower Lower Lower Upper Upper

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Reserve and Grade: Type of ore Lumpy ore Smalls,fines and powdery ore

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Indicated reserve in MT 06.80 18.78 Grade of Fe in % 57-61 60-63

Poicul-Siudem : Location : The deposits are located to the north and north-west of Poicul village and 500m east of Siudem village immediately east of river Rio Rogare. Description of the deposit : The deposits varying in length from 20-150m and in width from15-20m, strike NWSE with north-easterly dip ranging from 45°-80°. The largest deposit is located on the northern bank of river Rio-Rogaro. The ore consists of haematite which occurs as bands and lenses. The ore concentration is meagre and irregular and in the form of lumpy ore and smalls. Reserve and grade : The total indicated reserve of lumpy ore is 0.17 MT and of fines is about 0.04 MT. Fe content varies from 58%-63%. Sacorda : Location : Between Udolxem in NW and Dongarwado in SE, there are a number of small deposits, grouped as Sacorda deposit.

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Description of the deposit : All these deposits have a general NW-SE strike and northeasterly dips varying from 20°-50°. The best grade of ore is present in two deposits located about 750m south of Udolxem village and south of river Rogaro. The deposits show an en-echelon pattern separated by a barren strip of laterite about 80m wide. The ore is entirely made up of haematite. Besides these, small lensoid deposits are found in Mallen area, Sacorda temple area and Dongarvado area. Practically one and the same ore horizon has been cut by a series of dip and oblique faults which result in a number of deposits. Reserve and grade : Type of ore Lumpy ore Smalls and fine Indicated reserve in MT 0.061 4.593 Grade of Fe in % 60-66 59-62

5.2.3 Codli-Sigao type: Deposits are similar to the Bicholim-Pale type except for the fact that the deposits are poorer in quality and smaller in size. Surface indication in these deposit consists of angular pieces, lenses and bands of haematite in laterite. A generalised vertical section of the deposit along with % of recovery of ore may be described as given belowZone Mixed ore zone Lumpy ore zone Friable & powdery ore zone Thickness in (m) 5-7 4-5 Nature of ore

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% of recovery 20-25 60-80 80-95

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Grade of ore 57-62 59-63

Both the footwall and the hanging wall are phyllites the former is manganiferous in nature. The powdery ore is silicious and magnetic in nature. The deposits are formed essentially due to residual concentration in them and partly due to replacement of the associated phyllites. The deposits included in this type are discussed below. Bimbol-Sigao : Location : The deposits are located between Colem-Molem road in the east and Estabulo PilatoDe Datta in the west and between Sigao in the south to Borcolem in the north. Description of the deposit : These deposits extend in the form of an arc from ENE-WSW to E-W and WNW-ESE occupying the tops and slopes of low mounds and hillocks. The largest deposit lies in the Bimbol area on the hill point. 180 and extends for a length of 1 Km having width of 150m. Other two important deposits vary in length from 500m-600m,in width from 120m-180m and in thickness from 16m-20m. Besides these, small lenticular deposits are located NW of Sigao and Barcolem.

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15-20

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Reserve and grade : Type of ore Lumpy Powdery Indicated reserve in MT 3.638 16.24 Grade of Fe in % 58-61 60-63

Suctoli-Tatodi : Location : Between Darbonda-Molem road and Suctoli and Tatodi village, a number of small to medium size deposits are located. Description of the deposit : In Suctoli area the deposits are distributed in WNW-ESE direction for a length of 1.75 Km and the individual deposit varying in length from 45-200m, in width from 25-110m. It appears that two banded haematite quartzite bands have given rise to these smaller deposits. In Tatodi area there are three large NW-SE trending deposits located on the Tatodi hill. All three deposits are highly jointed. Reserve and grade : Type of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 0.28 5.29

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Indicated reserve in MT 10.138 16.836

Codli : Location : A number of small deposits are located between Dauconda in the north and Quirlapale in south and the Condeaper river in the east and Dabal in the west. Description of the deposit : The deposit trends in NNW-SSE direction for a length of 11 Km and the width varies from 0.25-1 Km. The deposit forms the western limb of Codli antiform and the corresponding Khasti synform. Below the surface lumpy ore there is always blue dust ore containing thin bands of quartzite. The ore concentration is not uniform and the contact between the ore proper and the laterite is irregular and gradational. Reserve and grade : Type of ore Lumpy ore Fines and powdery ore Grade of Fe in % 57.5-63 62-65

Dudal : Location : Between Columba and Costi village in the north and Calay-Sanguem road on the south, there are seven small lensoid iron ore deposits.

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Grade of Fe in % 57-60 61-64

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Description of the deposit : The deposits extends in a general NW-SE direction and exhihibits dips both towards NE and SW. These deposits are varying in length from 50-250m,in width from 30-80 m and in thickness from 4.5-7.6m. and they appear to belong to one and the same ferrugenous quartzite band. Reserve and grade : Type of ore Lumpy ore Powdery and Friable ore Indicated reserve in MT 0.04 0.46 Grade of Fe in % 56-59 59-62

Description of the deposits : About 1 Km NW of Sirigal, low grade shaly ore extends in a N30°W direction and the ore body is 230m long 40m wide and 15m thick. Small lensoid ore bodies are noticed from SE of Undorna west bank of river Sanguem. Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore

Characteristics of the deposits : The deposits show comparatively poor concentration of iron ore and occupies the slopes and the crests of the low undulating mounds. A generalised table stating the vertical section of the deposit is given belowZones

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5.2.4 Costi-Quirlapale Type The Costi,Quirlapale and Columba deposits belong to this type.

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Thickness in (m) 2.5-4 3-4 6-7

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Indicated reserve in MT 0.51 0.09

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Grade of Fein 5 55-60 58-63

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Nature of ore

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Laterite ore zone Lumpy ore zone Friable and Powdery ore Zone

Lumpy Lumpy Powdery

% of recovery of ore 10-15 70-80 80-90

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Sirigal & Undorna-Angod : Location : The deposits are distributed in a N-S direction between Dandi in the north and Angod in the south, mainly lying to the east of Sanguem-Curdi road.

Grade of Fe in % 56-59 59-63

The soft and clayey nature of lumpy ore, the presence of phyllitic bands and lenses in the lumpy and powdery ore zone and the presence of bands of friable quartzite which are the remnants of banded ferruginous quartzite suggest the parent rock giving rise to these deposits

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was a phyllite with thin lenses and bands of ferruginous quartzite and that the concentration is less intense. Santona-Quirlapale : Location : The deposits are located at north of Costi and north of the railway line and west of the north-westerly flowing stream from Costi. Description of the deposit : There are as many as sixteen deposits distributed in a general NW-SE direction dipping towards NE at 28°-80°. These deposits vary in length from 150m to 800m, in width from 30m to 150m and are associated with thin bands of manganese ore or black iron ore. The most important deposit located 1 Km NW of Santona village consists of two bands of iron ore alternating with two bands of manganeferous laterite. Out of these two bands the eastern band is rich in iron content.

Type of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore

Indicated reserve in MT 2.85 12.77

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Description of the deposit: The main costi deposit extends in a NNW-SSE direction for a length of about 485m in north and 150m in south. There are two iron ore bands of which the top one is completely eroded away and the lower band constitutes the main iron ore band.

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Indicated reserve in MT 0.74 3.17

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Costi : Location : The costi deposits lie to the west of Costi village and south of railway line.

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Grade of Fe in % 56-59 59-62 5.2.5.Barazan-Viliena type Location : The deposits present between Viliena in the south to Motto in the north and comparatively small and poor deposits come under this type. Characteristics of the deposits The deposits are medium to small in size with limited extensions laterally and in depth The surface indication in this type of deposits consists of the presence of angular pieces of magnetite and haematite ore in soil. Generally this extends in depth for about 3-5m and it is followed by 5-6m thick zone consisting of bands, lenses and pieces of iron ore with friable

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Grade of Fe in % 57-62 60-66

Reserve and grade :

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silica followed further down by a zone consisting of powdery ore with friable silica and banded ferruginous quartzite. The Fe content in ore ranges from 60-64%. The recovery of ore ranges from 30%50%. The deposits have formed due to concentration of a highly siliceous banded ferruginous quartzite. The deposits included in this group are discussed belowCalay : Location : The deposits are located about 1 Km NW of Calay railway station and occupies the mound south of Vergel and east of Davamal. Description of the deposit : The deposits extends in N-S to NNW-SSE direction for about 30m-150m in length and width varies from 15m-45m and thickness from 4.5m-9.0m. Reserve and grade : Type of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 0.05 0.22 Grade of Fe in % 57-59 60-63

Type of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore

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Description of the deposit : These apparently isolated deposits belong to one and the same ferruginous quartzite band. The thickness of the ore band varies 13.5m to 18.25m and is folded in the form of an asymmetrical anticline plunging towards N60° W.

Indicated reserve(in MT) 0.05 0.42

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Maulinguem : Location : The five small deposits are located to the south of Caley-Sanguem road and on either side of the small rivulet, 1.5 Km south of Maulinguem.

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Tolem-Motto : Location : The deposits lying between Sanguem river in the south to Darguem village in north are included in this group. Description of the deposit : The deposits have a general strike in NW-SE strike with varying dip of 10°-35° both towards NE and SW. In Tolem area deposits have a varying length of 45-120m and width of 15-30m.In Motto area three smaller deposits are found to be aligned in a general WNW-ESE direction.

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Grade of Fe % 57-60 59-64

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Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Friable and powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 1.55 0.34 Grade of Fe in % 60-63 61-64

Barazan­Viliena : Location : The deposits are distributed over an area of 8 sq. Km south of Potrem river, between the village Velxem and Talauli. Description of the deposit : All the deposits exhibit a general WNW-ESE strike with dip towards NNE or SSW. The largest magnetite-haematite deposit is located to the north of Velxem, east of Batti and between Barazan and Talauli. The ore concentration is observed upto the depth of 27m.Some irregular deposits containing bouldery concretions of limonitic ore are observed to the NNE of Viliena. Reserve and grade: Types of ore Lumpy ore Friable and powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 1.22 0.42

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Description of the deposit: These deposits are similar to the Barazan-Viliena type but they are comparatively small in size and poor in quality. The Sulcorna deposits vary in length from 30-210m, in width from 15-90m and occupies the crest of the low mounds. In Vichundrem area smaller deposits consisting laterite with angular pieces of ore at the surface are observed. Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore

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Indicated reserve in MT 0.622 0.050

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Sulcorna-Vichundrem : Location : The deposits are located to the immediate north and east of Sulcorna and Vichundrem.

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5.2.6 Rivona-Columba-Canvorem Type Location : The deposits lying to the south of Rivona upto Canvorem come under this type. Characteristics of the deposits Deposits are in close association with Mn-ore. The ore concentration is irregular, sporadic and in the form of bouldery concretion and consequently the extent of the deposit both laterally and in depth are limited.

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Grade of Fe in % 60-64 62-65 Grade of Fe in % 57-61 60-63

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The surface indication of the deposit consists of presence of concretion, narrow bands and pieces of haematite, limonite, black iron ore and some Mn-ore in laterite. Generally this extends in depth to about 5m-6 m followed by 6m-10 m thick lumpy ore zone consisting of large bouldery concretions, pebbles and lenses of ore in laterite. The conventional blue dust ore is absent. From this deposit generally only lumpy ore is recoverable and sometimes a small quantity of powdery ore. The Fe content varies from 56%to60% in lumpy ore and 59%to 62% in powdery ore. The recovery of ore with over 58% Fe content ranges from 30%to 45% in the lumpy ore zone. The deposits appear to result by the residual concentration in a ferrugenous phyllite. The deposits included in this type are discussed below. Rivona-Columba : Location : This includes the deposits on the Borgancho-Dongar (280.93), the Devacho-Dongar situated near Rivona temple and the deposits located to the east of Columba temple. Description of the deposit: The important Borgacho-Dongar deposit is a "Y" shaped deposit and is about 1 Km long and 65m wide. The Devacho-Dongar deposit near Rivona temple extends in N10°W direction for a length of 500m with an average width of 90m. Besides these, isolated smaller deposits are also observed.

Canvorem-Navelim : Location : The deposits are located on the Canvorem hill(.210),Tatel hill(279.79) around Navellim village and about 2 Km N-W of Navellim village. Description of the deposit : Iron ores are essentially haematite and partly limonite, occurs as irregular lenses, patches, bouldery concretions in laterite. Generally recoverable lumpy ore are found at a depth of about 10-13.5 m below a laterite cover. Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 0.68 0.15 Grade of Fe in % 56-60 59-63

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Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore

Indicated reserve in MT 3.937 0.176

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Reserve and grade :

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Grade of Fe in % 56-60 60-63

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5.2.7 Netrolim-Camona Type Location : Deposits south of Netorlim and those south-east of camona come under this type. Characteristics of the deposits : The deposits occur as irregular bouldery concretions and lenses essentially of limonite in association with black iron ore and Mn-ore in laterite. The surface indication consists of hard ,bouldery concretions of limonite(75%) with some black iron ore and Mn-ore concretion (25%)in laterite. The laterite with ore concretions extends in depth for about 3m from the surface and further below the size and number of limonite concretions increases while manganeferous concretions decreases and at depth of about 12m-15 m it gradually turns soft, ocherous and earthy. The concentration of ore in these deposits appear to have resulted in colloidal state. The deposits that comes under this type are discussed below : Conquirem : Location : The deposit lies to the immediate west of village Conquirem.

Netorlim : Location : The deposits are located on the northern slope of Netorlim hill(379.63m) and to the NE and NW of Netorlim village. Description of the deposit : The iron ore boulders composed of limonite and haematite are present at the surface extending to a depth of about 3m-5m followed by manganese ore boulders about 3-8m in thickness. The deposit varies in length from 25m-300m, and in width from 10m-15m. Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 0.925 0.389 Grade of Fe in % 58-62 63-65

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Indicated reserve in MT 0.042 0.024

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Description of the deposit : The deposit extends over a length of about 135m in a N30'W direction. Bedded limonitic ore of about 7.5 m thick occurs below a 9m thick cover of laterite. The limonitic ore is hard, massive and compact.

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Grade of Fe in % 56-59 58-60

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Camona-Conda : Location : The deposits are located on the hill,1.5 Km SE of Camona and 1.5 Km NW of Conda. Description of the deposit : In the Camona area as many as seven deposits are found and they are comparable to the Netorlim deposit. The deposits have a general trend of N25'W trend and they vary in length from 23m-240m and in width from 20m-120m.In Conda area there are three small irregular deposits ranging in length from 30-`100m and in width from 20-75 m. Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 0.59 0.31 Grade of Fe in % 57-61 62-65

5.2.8 Betul-Nuem Type Deposit The deposits situated near Cananguinium and Nuem village and Gavanam deposit come under this type. Characteristics of the deposit : The deposit is shaly in nature with low iron content. Surface indication in this type of deposits consist of ferruginous laterite with thin bands, laminae and pieces of ore arranged along the relict bedding and foliation planes preserved in the rock and hence the rock assumes a laminated look. A table depicting the generalized vertical section of the deposit along with % recovery of ore is given below: Zone

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Laterite with thin bands and pieces of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore zone admixed with ferruginous clay

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Thickness in (m) 3-4 7-9 2-4

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% Recovery of ore 25-40 50-70

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Nature of ore Lumpy Lumpy Powdery

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Grade of Fe in % 50-58 55-60

The deposits have been formed as a result of resudial concentration within ferrugenous phyllite. The deposits included in this type of ore are discussed below : Sonal Davem deposit : Location : The deposits are located near Sonal and Davem village, about 5.5 Km ENE of Valpoi.

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Description of the deposit : In Sonal area the deposit extends in a N80º W ­S80º E direction .The ore body measures 250m long, 30m wide, and 20m thick. The deposits near Davem are smaller in size and poorer in quality compared to Sonal area. Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 0.101 0.173 Grade of Fe in % 57-59 61-63

Gavanem-Malpona : Location : The deposits are located immediately north of Gavanem and also to the north of Malpona. Description of the deposit : In Gavanem area the deposit extends in a NNW-SSE direction and it is about 820m long,70m-200m wide and 8m-23m thick. In Malpona area ore body exibits NW-SE strike with a southeasterly dip. The deposit is about 200m long,70m wide and 18m thick.

Description of the deposit : The deposits are extended in a rough NNW-SSE direction over a length of about 2 Km. Out of these Bindal deposit is the largest. It is about 480m long,15m wide and 30-40m thick. In the SW of Bindal deposit smaller deposits are noticed. Reserve and grade : Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore Indicated reserve in MT 0.577 0.387 Grade of Fe in % 58-61 62-65

Betul-Nuem : Location : To the SW of Betul village there are two isolated deposits, one near Cananguinium village and the other near Nuem village.

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Balcornem deposit : Location : The deposits are located to the west of Balcornem village.

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Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore

Indicated reserve in MT 0.647 3.016

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Grade of Fe in % 58-61 62-65

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Description of the deposit: In Cananguinium area the deposit extends in the form of an arc varying from a ENEWSW trend to N-S. It extends over a length of about 300m with average width of about 75m. In Nuem area the deposits are smaller in size and poorer in quality compared to the former one. Reserve and grade: Types of ore Lumpy ore Powdery ore

Indicated reserve in Mt 0.19 -

Grade of Fe in % 55-59 -

5.2.9 Other deposits : In addition to the above deposits few minor deposits are reported from different parts of Goa which are as follows : Vaguriem : The deposit near Vaguriem falls consists of a lateritic cover of about 20-30m on the surface. Below the lateritic cover powdery ore zone extends for a total length of about 1000m with average width of 40m and thickness of about 20m. The estimated reserve is about 2.2 mt. Verlem : It lies about 500m north of Verlem village. The deposit is about 180m long and 50m wide. Surface indication consists of bouldery concretions of limonite and haematite simillar to the Netorlim deposit. Fe content ranges from 57%-62%. in lumpy ore and 60%-68% in powdery ore. The reserve is estimated at 0.16 mt of lumpy ore. Sakvorde Melka : The deposit occurs at 1 Km west of Sakvorde and extends for about 4 Km towards Melka. The deposit is about 100m wide and 40m thick. Here hard lumpy ore predominates over the powdery ore. Fe content ranges from 64%-67% in lupy ore and 60%-68% in powdery ore. Kankere : The deposit extends in NNW-SSE direction for a length of about 2 Km and joins with Pissurlem deposit of North Goa. The deposit is characterised by high grade ore with its blended nature. Fe content in lumpy ore is 63.65% and in powdery ore 67.55%. Bolkhane-Gavane-Patwal : The deposit has been traced for a length of 8 Km from Bolkhane in south to Patwal in north. It is about 100m wide and 5-25m thick. The southern part of the deposit has low Al. content whereas in northern part it ranges from 3-6%.Fe content ranges from 56%-61% in lumpy ore and 61%-64% in powdery ore. Sanvarde : It is a small and minor deposit with low grade banded haematite /magnetite quartzite with phyllitic intercaletions exposed around Sanvorde. Fe content in laminated ore is 60.3 %.

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Singnavar : The deposit is exposed from Kumbharwadi to north of Singnaver along Khandepar Nadiand represent the relict of Dabhal deposit. The deposit extends in N-S to NNW-SSE direction for about 1 Km having width of 20m and thickness varies varies from 10-20 m . Fe content in lumpy ore is 58% and in powdery ore 62% on average.

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CHAPTER 6 : HARYANA 6.1 General Description :

Rocks of Delhi Super Group comprising arenaceous, calcareous and argillaceous sediments with iron rich bands of tuffaceous beds are exposed in the southern part of Haryana. These iron bands are correlated with iron formation of Lake superior region of Canada. Mode of occurrence of the deposits Two types of iron bands are observed in the field namely :i) Iron bands (magnetite) of sedimentary origin : These bands extend from Donkhera to north of Antri- Biharipur and from Mukuta-Azamabad to Dhanchali-Dhanota and on Dagria to Kaliyana which are discrete but concordant in nature and exhibits pinching and swelling character. In Antri-Biharipur area individual band never exceeds 7 m. and is mostly found associated with biotite schist. No alteration signatures has been observed. Occasionally fericrite (pelloids) has also recorded from these bands. In Nimbi area magnetite and haematite bearing ferruginous bands never exceeds 4 cm. in thickness and have been traversed by specularite veins. In Dadhar area magnetite occurs as dissemination within the ferruginous quartzite, which alternate with tuffaceous bands. The magnetite-quartzite occurs interbanded with the ortho quartzite and contains ripple mark, cross bedding etc. and ii) Vein type magnetite : These are mostly associated with quartz and or calcite veins and exhibit cross cutting relationship with country rock.

6.2.1 Mahendragarh District Antri-Biharipur area : Description of Deposit : This deposit extends over a strike length of 4 Km with thickness varying from 1-6m, as discontinuous bands within dolomitic and siliceous marble of Ajabgarh Group. In the southern continuity magnetite bands are also exposed in Donkhera ridge. Reserve and grade : A total of 1.205 million tones of ore is estimated up to 40m depth. The grade of this deposit varies from 55-60%. Dhanota-Dhancholi area : Description of Deposit : This deposit is exposed for about 2.5 Km strike length as bands and lenses of magnetite with pinch and swell behavior. These bands occur in feldspathic quartzite of Ajabgarh group.

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6.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits

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Reserve and grade : A total of 1.5 million tonnes of ore has been estimated up to a depth of 75m. with its grade from 53.2-67.2% Fe. Rajawa-Sohla area : It is reported that the total iron ore resource of Mahendragarh district are of the order of 8.084 million tonnes out of which 3.398 million tonnes is indicated and rest inferred.

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CHAPTER 7 : HIMACHAL PRADESH General Description :

Iron ore in Himachal Pradesh occurs in the form of banded iron formation in metamorphosed Proterozoic sequence. Occurrences are reported from Kangra, Kinnaur, Kulu, Lahul and Spiti, Mandi and Sirmaur districts but are of little significance.

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CHAPTER 8 : JAMMU & KASHMIR General Description :

Minor deposits of haematite are reported from Punch district and Udhampur district. In Punch district haematite deposit found associated with Dogra slate of Precambrian age and in Udhampur district with Sirban limestone. These deposits contain iron ore of low grade.

8.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits

8.2.1 Poonch district Khandali deposit : Location : A haematite deposit noticed at Khandali in the vicinity of Gargot area on the southern slopes of southernmost range of hills . Description of deposit : The beds of haematite have been found to underlie chert lithounit of the Bafliaz Formation (Dogra slate ) of Precambrian age. The thickness of the ore body varies from 0.84.0 m. Reserve and grade : Indicated reserves of the order of 49042 tonnes have been estimated for these deposits and inferred reserve for an assumed down dip extension equivalent to half of the exposed length of the bands have been calculated at about 25 million tonnes. Chemical analysis shows that Fe content of ore varies from 10-60% .Of the total inferred reserve only 6940 tonnes are with 43 % Fe, b) 94,490 tonnes with 31-39% Fe, c) 1340 tonnes with 23-28 % Fe and d) 1180 tonnes with 16% Fe. 8.2.2 Udhampur District Matha : Description of deposit : Haematite chert bands in the Sirban Limestone are reported from the right bank of the Chenab river. Here iron ore occurs in a 2.13 m. thick bed of haematite chert, where it is concentrated within 1.2m (average Fe content 19.24%). The footwall portion of the bed being 0.3m thick constitutes the richest ore (average Fe 29.07%). Reserve : The indicated reserve of the whole 1.2m thick portion upto a depth of 33.5m is 2.54 million tonnes of which 0.3 m. thick footwall portion contain 0.76 million tonnes. The corresponding estimates for inferred reserves are 22.96 million tonnes for the hole 1.2m portion and 6.71 million tonnes for 0.3m thick footwall portion.

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Kotala Sangar : Description of deposit : The deposit is also in the geologic continuity of Matha deposit and haematite chert band occurs in Sirban limestone. Reserve and grade : A reserve of 0.2 million tonnes of very low grade ore with average 23.71% Fe has been estimated.

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CHAPTER 9 : JHARKHAND 9.1 Introduction :

In Jharkhand (formerly within Bihar) the minimum iron content of ore that is being mined is around 50%Fe and it is essentially haematite and magnetite. The country rock exposed in this region consists of series of metamorphosed Precambrian sedimentary rocks known as Banded ferruginous quartzite and lava intruded by basic intrusives. These rocks are folded and have given rise to series of ridges, the top of which are caped with thick deposits of hematite ore. Sometimes the ore is found also at lower level. The folds are synclinal and a limb consists of alternate bands of hematite and jasper and the rocks are best described as BHJ. The BHJ frequently changes to hard, massive ore and some times passes also to bands or lenses of thinly laminated ore of shaly appearance . The types of ore found there are as fallows: a) Massive ore : Massive, compact and commonly form tops of the deposits. Fe content ranges from 66% to 70 %. b) Shaly ore: Shaly, silky in luster, is as rich as hematite ore and content 50% or less iron. c) Laminated ore: Laminated with open spaces between laminae, biscuit like, individual lamiae hard and shaly. The ore containing about 55- 66 % iron. d) Lateritic : product of alteration of former types , porous, contain 56-58 % Fe. e) Blue dust : Fine grayish blue, occurs in pocket, contains 65-68 % Fe.

9.2 Districtwise Description of Deposits

General description : Important iron ore deposits (principally hematite) occur in a number of prominent hills in the southern part of the district namely Noamundi, Gua, Barajamda, Kiriburu, Meghahatuburu, Monoharpur and Chiria etc. The Chiria deposit is reported to be the single largest deposit in the country. The area comprises the northern part of the so called `horse shoe' of the iron ore bearing belt of Singhbhum. The hills consisting of iron ore deposits started from southwestern part of Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, extend into the Keonjhar and Sundergarh district(s) of Orissa forming the famous Singhbhum-Keonjhar-Bonai group of deposits. There are two prominent parallel hill ranges namely(1) Gua-Kiriburu hill ranges (2) Noaumundi-Thakurani Pahar hill range associated with Jamda-Koira valley. They are 15 Km. apart and both have NNE trend. Both the ranges are made of mainly iron formation exposed along traces of antiformal axes of two macro-folds. Regional Geological Setting : Two different sedimentary sequences are encountered in this area namely older Iron Ore Series containing iron formation and younger Kolhan Series. These sequences are

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9.2.1 Singhbhum District 9.2.1.1 Banded Iron Ore Deposit

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separated by angular erosional unconformity. Both the sequences are Precambrian in age and practically unmetamosphosed. Depositional setting in the iron ore basin can be viewed in terms of four district phases of sedimentation. Phase - 1 Volcanic suite( pillow lava )associated with vertical displacement. Phase - 2 Phyllite, banded manganiferous ferruginous shale(BMNF) units connected to a deeper level deposit. Phase - 3 BIF ­ chemical (and or biochemical) deposit - rhythmic sedimentation, stable condition of slopes. Phase - 4 Shale unit (upper), slow cession of restricted condition of deposition. Both syngenetic and epigenetic natures of iron and manganese ore deposition in the basin are of economic importance. The basic geometry is controlled by one trending regional folds which is the secondgeneration structure and the dominant cleavage with NNE-SSW strike is parallel to the axial plane of the folds. The first generation is represented by minor folds, which have been subsequently folded. The third generation deformation has given rise to series of structural basins and domes in this area. The area has undergone multiple episodes of deformation. The general strike of the formations in the northern Singhbhum is E-W but generally changes over to NW-SE in the eastern part and in the adjoining areas of Mayurbhanj. Structure : The area has undergone multiple episodes of deformation. The general strike of the formations in the northern Singbhum is E-W but generally changes over to NW-SE in the eastern part and in the adjoining areas of Mayurbhunj. Analysis of structural elements reveals that the rocks have undergone deformation in two successive stages (D1&D2). The folds D1 are isoclinal, generally overturned towards east, with NNE trend of fold axis and ranging in magnetite form meso to mega structure. The D2 folds are asymmetrical but simple possessing low amplitude and trending WNW Interference of these two systems has resulted in the generation of doubly plunging meso / macro folds which are reflected in the pattern of outcrop given by the iron formation. Two major faults are noticed here. The Barai ­ Gua fault having NNE trend flows the course of Karo river along foothill of Gua-Kiriburu hill range and the other one is Raikora (Roika) fault having NNW trend cuts across the general trend of rock structure. The various linear structure developed in this area include ­ i) S1-S2 intersection lineation, ii) striation, iii) mineral lineation iv) minor fold axes etc. The bedding in iron ore is most disordered and possibly it is result of slumping during leaching. Most of the ore occur in the hinge region of the antiformal fold. The ore body tends to be thickest where dips are near horizontal. The base of the ore body has considerable undulation but it is slightly convex upward. From this it is observed that there is lateral extension of ore body at depth.

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Stratigraphy : The general geological sequence in Singhbhum is as followsEast Singhbhum (South of shear zone ) Dhanjhori Lavas Stage Quartzite - conglomerate Unconformity Iron Ore Phyllites and tuffs with lenticular arkose, Stage conglomerate and quartzite Banded quartzite, including haematite quartzite (impersistent) Phyllites, lenticular conglomerate and basic igneous rocks. South Singhbhum Kolhan series (Purana) Unconformity Phyllites and tuffs with manganese and rare dolomite Banded haematite quartzite (overlap) Phyllites and tuffs, Sangramsai conglomerate and basic igneous rock.

IOG

Mode of Occurrence : There are jaspilite horizons alternating with two other beds of haematitic rock having a variable thickness of 100- 350 m which cover the entire iron formation. These rock occupy the hogh ridges in Gua- Kiriburu hill range in west the and Noamundi-Thakurani pahar hill range in the east. In both horizons upper and lower haematite rocks displays conspicuous banded structure, being a uniformly layered mass. The banding is not always regular as the bands slightly buldge or thin down when followed over some distance. Due to extreme folding , the apparent thickness is often deceptive. Bedding is quasi- parallel. Of the two horizons of haematite rock, the lower one comprises a more persistent and productive bed yielding better quality ore having average thickness of 150m whereas the upper one represents comparatively low grade ore being shaly in character and habing variable thickness ranging from 50-70m. Zone of secondary enrichment in these haematite rocks are located specially at the hinges of the fold where deformational cracks, joints, fractures and similar open spaces have developed quite profusely.

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The rocks of volcanic affinity make up a pile of volcanic flows which stretches across the area and constitute the base of the sequence. The iron formation, which overlies the volcanic pile, consists of beds of jaspilite and haematitic rock. The BHJ consists of alternating bands of jasper and chalcedony and haematite containing varying proportion of iron oxide and silica. The clastic sediments which are chiefly represented by manganiferous shale, Phyllitic shales, succeed the iron formation.

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Clastic facies - a result of clastic sedimentation. Transitional chemofacies - developed by chemical sedimentation. Volcanogenic facies - a result of volcanic flows.

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The iron ore group of rocks can be classified into three broad divisions depending on their mode of origin. These are ­

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Types of ore : The iron ore occurs as hill masses confined to a depth of 100 m from the surface. The main ore types are hard, soft, friable, blue dust, lateritic etc. each varying in its physical and chemical properties. The ore contacts are highly irregular and sometimes one variety merges with other. Description of individual deposit Chiria Deposit : Introduction : Chiria iron ore deposit is the largest single hematite ore in India. It was explored by Mineral Exploration corporation Ltd. and has been in active exploitation by M/s Indian iron and steel Co. Ltd. Geographical extention and location : The deposits occur as a tabular blanket over the high topo points of Saranda reserve forest namely the peaks of Budha Buru and Baichandgi buru. The body is in a continuous stretch of 16 Sq.Km. where the strike length of 6.5 Km.is fortified with a wide expanse of 3.5 Km. of outcroup breadth. The deposit can be approached by a 22Km. long road from Manoharpur station on the Howrah-Bombay line of S.E. Rly. Quantum of work done : Sl. Nature and item of work No. i. Topographic and geological mapping ii. iii. Shallow pitting/trenching

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First phase 16 sq.km.

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Second phase 16 sq.km.

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6989X90X(400X400)

159 nos 8845X85(200X200m)

Core drilling (Meter X No. of BH X grid ) Geological section (Scale/ X interval) Exploratory excavation a.Aditing (no of adit X meter) b.Deep pitting (no. of pits X meter) Sampling and chemical analysis (Primary,composite,check) Minerographic sample and petrological

iv.

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1:5000 X 400m -

1:2000 X 200m

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5 X 1299 20 X 200 8696 nos. 8703 nos

vi.

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39 nos.

174 nos

viii. Bulk density determination

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31 nos.

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Bulk sample collection (No. of samples X total quantity drawn)

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4 X 400 tonnes

Mineralisation : The chiria iron ore deposit was geologically classified into the following ore types. a. Lumpy ore zone (wet drilled) : Laterite ore Hard and massive ore Shaly massive ore Thickly laminated ore (>1cm) b. Powdery ore zone (dry drilled) : Thinly laminated ore (<1cm) Red powdery ore and red ochrs Yellow ocherous ore Blue dust

Other relevant technical information: a) Bulk density Ore type Laterite Yellow ochre Hard laminated Soft laminated Blue dust Over all Non-ore associate Av. Bulk density 2.50 2.50 3.30 3.10 3.00 3.00 2.00

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Reserve (MT) 521 682 409 353 1970

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Accuracy (%) 72 76 59 66

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Reserve and grade : Inferences from the first stage of work may be summarized as Av.Fe% 62.26 61.53 62.65 62.59 62.17 Accuracy Av.% 99.5 99.5 99.5 99.6

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Depending on geological and physiographic heterogeneities, the deposit was divided into north, west central, east central and south block. The second phase of intensive exploration was confined to in the north and the west central blocks.

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(b) Reserve : Reserve and chemical constituents deploying four parallel methods in West Central block and North block as follows : West Central block Method deployed

Reserve (M.T.)

Chemical constituent (%) Fe 62.09 61.75 61.90 61.88 Al2O3 2.54 2.66 2.66 2.58 SiO2 2.83 2.48 2.50 2.74 P 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

Cross sectional Slice plan based Bench based Borehole influence North block Method deployed

450 439 376 545

Reserve (M.T.)

Chemical constituent (%) Fe 62.60 62.26 62.24 62.49 Al2O3 2.52 2.66 2.66 2.61

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Dominant ore type

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North block

(d) Ore type chemical variation : The general variation of the chemical composition in term of major radicals for the ore types are : Ore type Fe 57.97 62.37 West central (%) Al2O3 4.53 2.10 SiO2 3.44 1.47 P 0.07 0.06 Fe 58.57 62.69 North block (%) Al2O3 4.55 2.26 SiO2 2.97 1.47 P 0.06 0.07

Laterite Hard laminated

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Cross sectional Slice plan based Bench based Borehole influence

369 353 266 350

SiO2 2.57 2.23 2.66 2.49

P 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

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Soft laminated Blue dust Yellow ochre

61.68 65.05 66.08

2.61 1.57 2.96

3.22 2.01 1.89

0.06 0.05 0.05

61.19 66.46 58.73

2.63 1.44 3.29

3.22 2.01 1.89

0.06 0.04 0.08

(e) Overburden ratio and cut off grade : Cut off grade in Chiria iron ore deposits is about 50% Work phase 1st 2nd 1st 2nd Borehole no. CH-23 CH-120 CH-74 CH-167 Overburden thickness (in meter) 1.05 Nil 1.50 Nil Deep pit number DP-3 DP-10 DP-14 DP-1 Overburden thickness (in metre) 2.50 4.65 5.00 4.30

Noamundi Iron Ore Deposit : Introduction : Noamundi iron ore deposit, one of the largest concentrations of iron ore deposit of India, lies in southern Singbhum dist. of Jharkhand. The area falls in Toposheet No. 73F/8 and 12. The place is connected by rail with Chaibasa district head quarter through Tatanagar-Gua branch of S.E. Railway. Quantum of work done : i. Geological mapping on aerial photos (1:31000) ii. Exploratory drilling iii. Grid of drilling iv. Geostatistical survey

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Average ore breaking fragment size Lump ore >40mm(%) Sinter feed (<48mm &>10mm%) Pellet feed (<10mm &>100mesh)(%)

West central 35 57 14

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North block 40 44 16

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Mineralogy : Noamundi iron ores are geologically classified into following ore typesType of ore Hard massive, ore, hard laminated ore Soft ore (laterite type ) Flaky ore Blue dust BHJ Canga Ore minerals Haematite followed by goethite, trace of martite, magnetite, rutile Goethite , Limonite & haematite Haematite, martite Traces of goethite Haematite, martite Goethite , limonite and minor amount of haematite Fe % 66.00-69.20 67.60-69.20 60.10-65.50 64.40-68.40 66.40-68.20 18.30-48.40 60.00-63.20 SiO2 % 0.38-0.70 0.38-0.52 0.52-1.58 0.32-0.67 0.48-0.54 28.61-62.00 0.92-1.88 Al2O3 % 0.21-1.54 0.21-1.40 4.80-7.15 0.70-5.06 0.62-2.05 0.92-1.10 4.43-9.43

Sample length No of samples Mean Variance Standard deviation Coefficient of variation

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4m 1882 62.80 41.52 6.44 0.103

From this it can be seen that the variance decreases with increasing composite sample length and this relation is known as volume- variance relationship. The coefficient of variation suggests the suitability of data for geostatistical evaluation. The dimensional variogram were calculated for all three radicals viz. Fe, Al2O3 & SiO2 in horizontal and vertical direction. Gua Iron ore Deposit : Location : The deposit (Toposheet No. 73F / 7,8) is located in Singhbhum district and presently under the exploitation of TISCO.

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1. Quantum of work done i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi Geological mapping on 1: 31000 scale Detailed geological mapping on 1:2000 & 1:1500 scale Geological cross section Geological longitudinal section Geological bench plan Drilling : 280 sq km. : 50 sq km. : 5-9 nos. : 5 nos. : 34 nos. : 16,660 m

Geology : The Gua iron ore deposit comprising the rocks belonging to Iron Ore Group (IOG) is overlain by "Kolhan group of rocks". The iron ore group is represented by phyllite, shale, chert, BHQ etc associated with basic meta -volcanics and porphyry rocks. Economic geology : Haematite occurs in the ridges formed of BHJ and BHQ trending NE-SW in the central and western part of the area. Haematite occurs extensively on the western side of Bariaburu, Gua and Nuia. In central part of the area haematite occurs at a number of places in the form of small patches in BHQ/BHJ ridge west of Ghatkuri ­ Gangda. The thickness of the individual band varies from a few mm to about 3.0 cm. However at places the banded nature can not be recognized and the ore appears to be massive and lumpy. Different ore types include hard ore, moderately hard ore, soft ore, lateritic ore. The BHJ generally changes into hard massive and laminated ore at or near the surface and sometimes below the ground level. BHJ/BHQ often occurs as " Horses " within the haematite or haematite as pocket within the rock. Besides above, iron was also extracted to some extent in the past from iron ore conglomerate and from ferruginated cherty rock as evidenced by the presence of abandoned quarries, south of Gua. Reserve : The ore reserve was estimated at 234 million tones upto depth of 50m. Meghahatuburu Deposit : Location : This deposit is situated in the midst of thick Saranda forest in western Singhbhum district, Jharkhand just near Orissa border. It is located at a distance of 5 Km from Kiriburu deposit. Quantum of work done : The area was thoroughly explored by SAIL. The mine has been planned for excavation of 5m of r.o.m. with additional 1m of waste excavated annually. The ore is available to a depth of 120m. Subsequent exploratory drilling of 60m interval proved the extension of ore body up to a depth of 132 m.7336m drilling has been done in this area. Mineralisation : The ore body occurs on a undulatory hill with central portion rising to 918m (above msl). The deposit slopes down to valley both in northern and southern direction. The

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mineable block in this mine has strike length of 960m with average width of 450m. The ore body trends roughly N15°E - S15°W. The major ore types found in this area are1. Laterite/ lateritised limonite ore. 2. Soft laminated biscuity ore. 3. Hard laminated ore 4. Porous laminated ore 5. Powdery / blue dust ore. Reserve and grade : The estimated reserve upto depth of 120m is in the order of 121.8 million tones. The average grade of Fe is 63.29 %. Kiriburu Deposit : Location : This deposits are situated in the midst of thick Saranda forest in west Singhbhum district of Jharkhand, just near the Orissa border. The deposits found on western limb of famous Bonai iron ore range. The Kiriburu area is located at a distance of 24 Km from Barajamda. Mineralisaton : The ore body occurs as a cap over number of flat topped hills with three hills rising to about 900m (above msl). The area slopes down to steep valley both to NW and SW directions. The ore body situated in north block of Kiriburu mines is approx. 2000m in length and 300m in width. The general trend of the ore body is roughly N15°E to S15°W. The deposit is worked out seperately separately in three diferent hills. Grade of ore : Average Fe content in ore is 63.56% with 1.77% silica, 4.77% alumina and 0.069 % phosphorous. Deposit around Sangramsai-Barananda and Hamsada : Location : An area of about 200 sq km. was covered by photogeological mapping on 1:31000 scale around Sangramsai, Barananda and Hamsada, Singbhum dist. Jharkhand. The area falls in survey of India Toposheet No.73F/7 &12) This area is connected with Chaibasa by metallic road. Mineralisation : The iron ore i.e. haematite occurs within the banded haematite jasper both as flaky and banded ore and are being worked by some private party into a number of small open cast quarries just WSW of Sangramsai and north of Noamundi- Barajamdaroad. Besides dark brown, ferruginous sandstone, the basal Kolhans are also being worked in small irregular pits west of Robenta.

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9.2.1.2 Titaniferous Magneite Deposit, Singbhum District : Location : Occurrence of titaniferous magnetite deposit has been reported from several parts of south Singbhum namely at Dublabera, Sindurpur and at Kudada Occurrences were also reported from Porapahar and Kotawar pahar area. Mode of occurrence : The ores occur as thin veins, lenses and pockets in gabbroid and ultrabasic igneous rock but they do not form conspicuous outcrop. Their presence is usually shown by abundant debris scattered over the surface. The Turamdi deposit occur in some foothills at the north base of Dhoba hills in the village Talra, Turamdih and Kudada. The magnetite ore is found to be associated with schistose magnesium rocks essentially constituting steatite. The ore occurs here in four ways. As large patches of irregular shape, ii) as scattered pieces, iii) as definite veins traversing the magnesium rocks, iv) as veins upto 3 ft thick composed of magnetite with vein quartz, secondary limonite and chert. Ore mineralogy : Both ilmenite and magnetite are present with minor occurrence of haematite, coulsonite, rutile and goethite. Some silicate minerals are also found. Haematite is found to replace magnetite to varying degrees, may be partly due to weathering and partly due to exsolution. The ores are genetically related to the gabbroid rock. The magnetite generally contain a variable but small amount of vanadium ranging from 0.59% - 2.0 % and titanium from 10- 25 %. Analysis of titaniferous magnetite from several locations of Dublabera, Singbhum district are given below :

SiO2 TiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 FeO Cr2O3 MnO CoO MgO H 2O P2O5 V 2O 5 Total

9.76 16.84 42.88 24.22 0.53 Trace 0.94

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Elements (in %)

Ghos's pit, Dublabera

Boulder, Dublabera

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East of Chatterjee's pit Dublabera Dublabera 2.03 10.06 2.38 52.69 26.70 0.22 Trace 0.31 1.66 0.31 2.20 99.46 8.48 21.80 0.79 40.24 23.63 0.13 0.33 Trace 0.78 1.73 0.51 2.01 100.43

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West of Dublabera 1.00 10.20 0.75 60.68 20.01 0.13 0.05 0.59 2.79 0.89 1.92 99.01

2.45 0.34 2.20 100.15

1.27 24.70 4.00 34.95 28.67 0.19 0.29 0.13 Trace 0.69 0.48 4.84 100.21

Reserve : The deposits have not been examined in detail. So data regarding estimation of reserve is not available.

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9.2.1.3 Apatite,Magnetite Deposit of Singbhum Distirct Location : A zone of apatite-magnetite rock is found closely associated with the copper belt of Singbhum, especially between Dhadkhidih in Seraikela in the west to Kherjurdari in southeast Singbhum. Important locations containing abundant magnetite in apatite- magnetite rocks are Patharghara, Kumharia, Ramchandrapahar, Khariatola, Kanyaluka, Badia Sungri etc. Lithology and structure : The rock is usually a mixture of apatite and magnetite with some biotite, chlorite and very small amount of quartz. It is generally found on the hanging wall side of copper lodes. It forms lenses of varying sizes in the enclosing ancient schists of Archean age. The lenses varies in thickness from a few inches to a few feet with a maximum of 900 ft and pinches out at either end. The lenses are usually arranged in en-echelon pattern and sometimes bordered by granite. They are confined to the shear zone which afforded suitable conditions for the formation of veins and lenses derived from the soda-granite. After formation the rocks have again been folded and sheared in Precambrian and penetrated by later Singbhum granite. Mineralogy : Apatite is generally the dominant mineral but proportion of magnetite and apatite varies considerably from place to place. Reserve : The deposits are comparatively small and of no importance as a major source of iron though if systematically worked and the apatite separated by beneficiation, the magnetite can be utilized. No data are available regarding reserves of magnetite in these deposits. 9.2.2. Palamau District General Description of the Deposits : Three types of iron ore are reported from Palamau district viz. 1. Magnetite occurring as bands in metamorphic rocks. 2. Siderite and hematite occurring as beds in shale or as concretionary masses in sandstone of Barakar Formation. 3. Laterite ore in laterite beds on the plateaus. Of the three types the first one has economic significance in present day. Magnetite deposits occur in the Ladi estate near Daltonganj. Two big deposits are known viz. Gore deposit and Biwabathan deposit. Besides these other important deposits have been recorded from Sua -SE of Daltongunj. Fragments and lumps of magnetite are found at small villages especially near Rajhara, Lunkha ,Kopah ,Hosir ,Kurahi etc. The detail description of important deposits are given below ­ Magnetite deposit of Biwabathan and neighboring areas : Location : This deposit is situated about half a mile SE of Biwabathan village and falls in Toposheet No. 73A/1.

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Quantum of work done : i. Large scale mapping ( 1:1000 scale) ii. Detailed mapping ( 1:31680 scale) iii. Channel samples

: 0.15sq.km. : 40 sq km. : 225 Nos.

Geology of the area : The area comprises Precambrian rocks represented by Chottanagpur granite-gneiss complex. The rock contains the inclusion of older metamorphites represented by marble, tremolite schist, amphibolite and ultramafic rocks. Based on field evidence Chottanagpur sequence of the rock formation of the area is represented by ­ Pegmatite, apatite, quartz vein Chottanagpur granite- gneiss Ultramafites-chlorite schist, chlorite- magnetite schist and serpentine rocks Marble, tremolite schist and amphibolite Foliation, predominantly displayed by granite-gneiss, generally trend E-W with northerly dips. Mineralization : Magnetite occurs as bands dissemination within the chlorite schist and serpentine rocks which extends over a strike length varying from 20m to 240m with a width of 3m to 30m and occur as older metamorphites within the country rock of Chottanagpur granitegneiss. Host rock as well as magnetite lode strike mostly in E-W direction with northerly dip. The magnetite lodes vary greatly in length ranging from 140m near Datan to 3m in Biwabathan area. The lode has a sharp contact with host rock chlorite schist or chlorite magnetite schist. But the chlorite schist containing rich magnetite dissemination has a gradational contact with the poorly mineralized chlorite schist. Magnetite occurrences have been investigated at Datan, Biwabathan, Mahawat Muria. Grade : Sample collected from Datan area assay more than 60% iron with FeO varies from 20.7%-26.1% and SiO2 of 40 sq km varies from 2.4%-4.8%. Sample collected from Mahawat Muria area assay more than 60% iron with FeO 26.5% and SiO2 1.4%. Chemical analysis of samples from Biwabathan area is as follows :

Radi cal In % Fe2O3 85.54 FeO 11.67 SiO2 0.68 Al2O3 0.26 TiO2 0.13 CaO 0.36 MgO 0.01 P2O5 0.01 Comb H 2O 1.22 Undeter mined 0.10

Reserve : Magnetite bands in Biwabathan, Mahawat Muria. areas are very small in dimension . But the band in Datan area is more persistent in nature. Total reserve of magnetite in Datan deposit is estimated as 29874 tonnes approximately.

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Gore deposit Location : Iron ore occurs in the hills which are seen near Gore village and which extends for a distance of over 912 m in NNW-SSE direction and width of about 319 m and height of hillock 61-106 m ft from general level of country. Geology : The geological sequence of this formation noted in these hills is as below : Dolerite Granite Beds of magnetite and magnetite schists Tremolite- schist with or without magnetite Calciphyre and limestone The deposit occurs on top of the hills. The main ore body is more or less massive magnetite which passes below into magnetite schist. The richer and more massive main ore body is about 608 m. in length and the average width is about 28 m. Grade : The chemical analysis carried out by M/s R.V. Briggs is given below :

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Reserve : The Reserve on the strength of surface observation calculated would be of the order of 300,000-400,000 tonnes. Sua magnetite deposit : Location : This deposit is lying about 6 Km ESE of Daltongunj town and falls in Toposheet No 72D/4 & 73A/1. It is connected by the Dehri- on- Son ­ Gomoh branch line of the Eastern Railway. Quantum of work done i. ii. iii. Large scale mapping ( 1:1000 scale) Detailed mapping ( 1:31680 scale) Channel samples : 0.25 sq km : 14 sq km : 185 nos.

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The analysis given above are those of ore which is definitely richer than average. The average iron content is 55 %.

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Radical (%) Gore Sample (a) Gore Sample (b)

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77.49

14.25

4.24

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21.60

5.54

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Fe2O3

FeO

SiO2

Al2O3

TiO2

CaO

MgO 0.11

P2O5 0.02

0.62

Comb H 2O 2.15

Undeter mined 0.07

0.12

2.15

0.04

0.06

1.11

0.04

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Geology of the area : The area comprises Precambrian rocks represented by Chottanagpur granite-gneiss complex, older metasediments like dolomite and tremolite schist and metabasite as amphibolite, chlorite-schist and serpentine rocks. Veins of quartz and pegmatite are found to have intruded into all these formations. The chronological sequence of the rock formation of this area is represented by Pegmatite and quartz veins Chottanagpur granite- gneiss Chlorite- schist, serpentine rock Ultramafites Amphibolites Dolomite and tremolite schist Structure : Foliation is the principal planar structure that trends WNW-ESE with subvertical southerly dips southern directions. Local swerves and swings of this trend are observed in many places indicating fold. Mineralization : The mineralized belt consist of magnetite bearing chlorite-schist in association with dolomite and tremolite-schist within the country rock of Chottanagpur granite- gneiss and has been traced over a strike length of 350m. Magnetite occurs as massive bands and dissemination within chlorite-schist. The host rock as well as the magnetite lodes strike in N-S direction with almost vertical dips. The individual magnetite bands are 1-7m in thickness and upto 70m in length. The magnetite is highly jointed both vertically and horizontally. The joints are so closely spaced that the magnetite ore becomes highly friable. Grade : The samples collected from massive lodes are of high grade and total iron as Fe2O3 ranging from 81.20-90.00%. But in the sample, which was taken across chlorite-schist band containing magnetite dissemination, iron content is varying between 45.80-68.40%. Reserve : The chlorite schist hosting the magnetite lodes extends over a strike length of at least 350m. of this 120m stretch has already been covered by quarring down to a depth of the 25m. The possible reserve of the rest of 230m strike length down to a depth of 10m is about 9200 tonnes.

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CHAPTER 10 : KARNATAKA 10.1 Introduction

The iron ore deposits of Karnataka are classified into three groups ­ 1. 2. 3. Banded haematitic quartzite of Dharwarian age. Metamorphic deposit comprising magnetite-quartzite. Magmatic deposits which include titaneferous magnetites associated with basic and ultrabasic rock.

The most important iron ore deposits of the states occur in Sandur hills of Bellary Hospet sector, Bellary District and Bababudan hills and Kudremukh-Gangmula range of Chikmagalur district. Other districts which contain smaller iron ore deposits are Chitradurga, Shimoga, Bijapur, North Kanara, South Kanara and Hassan. Minor occurrences are reported from Belgaum, Bidar, Dharwar, Mandya and Raichur districts. Titaniferous magnetite ores are reported from Bangalore, Hassan, North Kanara and Tumkur districts. Mineralogy : The principal ore minerals found in the various types of deposits are magnetite, haematite, limonite, siderite and pyrite. Of these, the most common which is used for production of iron and steel is haematite, the red oxide ore of iron. Magnetite ore of metallurgical grade is produced only in Karnataka. Mode of occurrence of various types of ore : A. Sedimentary type : It occurs mainly in the form of banded haematite quartzite and magnetite quartzite rocks. This type is frequently encountered in the Archaean greenstone belts of Karnataka and occurs three district horizon. 1. Greywake Association (Rani bennur, Haveri, Gadag) 2. Chitradurga Group : (Chikkanayakana halli, Chitradurga) (oxide-carbonatesulfide association) 3. Bababudan Group : (Kudremukh Bellary, Sandur volcanic association ) Among these Bababudan and Chitradurga Groups are most important from economic point of view. Commercially valuable ore bodies are the result of residual concentration of iron contained in BIF either through replacement of silica by iron or leaching of silica. B. Metamorphic type : It occurs in association with the granulites as magnetiteQuartzite (Sargurs association). Magmatic : The vanadium and titanium bearing magnetite bands associated with gabbro-ultrabasic layered complex forming a component of the ancient supracrustals (Sargurs).

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D. E. F. G.

H.

Physically there are three different types of ore derived from the banded haematite rock viz. Massive ore, laminated ore and Blue dust. Massive ore : Laminated ore : Blue dust : The massive and laminated ore at depth passes on to a zone of blue dust. The ore is high grade contained >63% Fe. Float ore : It is generally the ore dislodged from the main outcrop and segregated around the ore body in the form of boulders and pebbles as part of the top soil. The ore is generally of high grade. Laterite : It is a most common type of ore in Karnataka. It is a residual formation sitting as a cover over the earlier formations and contain about 15 to 30% Fe.

Reserve : Karnataka occupies the fourth position in India. Other leading states are Jharkhand(previously Bihar), Orissa and Chhattisgarh. Recoverable reserve of iron ore in Karnataka is as follows (in million tonnes) as on 1.4.95.

Proved 665 1427 Probable 219 371 Possible 188 986 Total 1072 2784

Haematite Magnetite

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Mining : Karnataka produces the highest grade of Iron ore with 65% of Fe. Bulk of the iron ore produced is by opencast mining. The mining properties of public sector organizations like those of the NMDC (Donimalai) and Kudremukh Iron ore Company (Kudremukh Mines) are fully mechanized and produce large quantities solely intended for export. The rest of the industry is dependent on manual labour both for mining and transport. One mine in the Bellary-Hospet region worked by Dalmia Cement Co. is unique in mining properties where very high grade iron ore occurs in the form of two distinct beds separated by 16 m wide phyllitic bed. The ore is hard and lumpy and exceptionally pure analyzing +68% Fe. Average production from the mine is about 5,00,000 tonnes per year. Till the development of Donimalai deposit by NMDC it was the single largest producer mine in the Bellary-Hospet region. Karnataka had the unique situation of transporting such a cheap commodity as iron ore over long distances by road. High grade ore for export was transported by truck from Hospet to Karwar by road, a distance of 280 km. Transport of iron ore even from a mine in Tumkur district to Mangalore port was ventured. The whole of iron ore trade in Karnataka is export oriented. A very small fraction of production is consumed by Visveswaraya Iron and Steel at Bhadravati. All exports are channelised through MMTC.

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Taking note of the large number of actively worked deposits and their actual production, the reserve estimation given can only be considered as highly conservative. The Geological Survey Of India as a result of exploration have estimated the following quantities of proved reserve in three of the principal ranges of the Sandur Belt of Bellary District. i. Donimalai range ­ 151 MT (+64% Fe)

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ii. Ramandurga range ­ 212 MT (+62% Fe) iii.Kumaraswamy range ­ 182 MT (+64% Fe) Another 447 MT are estimated to be available in the private lease blocks in the Ramandurg (45MT), NEB range (280MT), Kumaraswamy (90MT), Belegal range (12MT) and other mine blocks (20MT). The extensive deposit of magnetite-quartzite in Uttar Kanada district, Agumbe and Kodachadri range of Shimoga district. and quartz magnetite ore of Maddur-Malavalli region of Mandya district have not been taken into consideration in the above estimate. The full potential of the deposits is still to be ascertained. Resources of Haematite in the different district of Karnataka (in million tones) *

Proved 427.62 22.10 16.00 Probable 237.57 1.68 8.96 1.43 6.61 3.76 Possible 48.08 12.81 8.39 14.50 0.32 15.47 67.16 Total 714.18 1.68 34.91 17.35 15.93 16.32 22.08 70.92

Year 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99

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Production of Iron Ore from Karnataka (Qty in 000 tonnes)

Lumps 4862 4681 5021 4829 Fines 1924 2167 4977 4940 Concentrate 6060 5560 6125 5042 Total 12846 12408 16123 14811

Production of Iron Ore gradewise in 1998-99 (Qty in 000 tonnes)

A Lumps Below 60% 60-62% 62-65% 65% & above Total 208 1991 2630 4829 B Fines 147 1927 2866 4940 C Concentrate 5042 5042 Total (A+B+C) Production

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Production : Iron ore produced in Karnataka is in the form of lumps, fines and concentrates. Concentrate is exclusively from the Kudremukh Mine. Production of these are furnished in the following Table :

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Production of Iron Ore Sectorwise in 1998-99 (Qty. in 000 tonnes)

Sector No. of Mines Lumps 62-65% 65% & above 374 1056 1617 1991 1574 2630 Fines 6265% 65% & above 453 1071 1474 1927 1797 2866

Below 60% -

Public Sector Private Sector Total

6 47

6062 % 66 142 208

Total

Below 62% 147 147

Total

1496 3333 4829

1524 3416 4940

Mine head stock in 1998-99 (Qty. in 000 tonnes)

Lumps 6265% 106 141 Fines 6265% Total 65% & above -

At Begining At end

-

Negligible Negligible

132 176

The deposits being exploited are confined to the following ranges. 1)

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2)

Ettinhatti range Ubbalagandi Rajapuram Konanharavu

3) 4)

Thimmapangudi range NEB range Bharatarayanharavu (Dalmia property) Gogga property

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10.2.1.Bellary District General Description : The iron ore deposits of Bellary-Hospet sector are confined to two main bands forming the spindle shaped Sandur schist belt- (1) The Eastern Copper Mountain belt (2) The western Sandur belt. The Sandur schist belt is within the Survey of India Toposheet No.57A/8. The area is approachable from Guntakal-Hubli section of S-E Railway and N.H.No.13. The banded haematite quartzites forming in this area have been altered and lateritized giving rise to cappings of hard, compact haematite.

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10.2 Districtwise Description of Banded Iron Formation

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Below 60%

60-62%

65% & above 26 36

Total

Below 62%

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Ingligi Jambunathanhalli Sankalapuram 5) Ramandurg range Vyasankere Ramandurg 6) 7) 8) Donimalai range Devadari range Kumaraswamy range

Among these deposits Donimalai, Devadari, Kumaraswamy and Ramandurga ranges have rich ore deposits. Quantum of work done : The G.S.I. in 1947 estimated the available reserve of iron ore in the Sandur Belt at 129 M.T. G.S.I. prospected Donimalai and Ramanadurg range in 1968 and Kumarswamy C was explored by G.S.I. in 1972. Besides this following exploratory work was done in this area between 1975 and 1979.

Sl.No. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) Type of work Large Scale Mapping (Scale 1:15840) Plane table mapping (Scale 1:1000) Trenching (2m3) Shallow pitting (1m3) Deep trenching (2m x 2 m x 15 m) Core drilling Primary Fe sampling Borehole Deep Pit Composite (Fe,Al2O3, SiO2, S, P, TiO2) sampling Borehole Deep Pit Complete chemical analysis

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Quantum 100 sq km 3.7 sq km 5 Nos. 16 Nos. 108 Nos. 3273 as ( 54 borehole) 2672 Nos. 8015 Nos. 646 Nos. 357 Nos. 90 Nos.

Lithology and Stratigraphy : Lithology : Sandur schist belt is characterized by a thick pile of volcanic rocks with minor amount of sedimentaries. Volcanics are represented by basic to acid varieties whereas the sedimentaries are both mechanically transported and chemically precipitated type. Iron ore and bounded ferruginous chert/quartzite are intimately associated metabasalt and both have been traversed by gabro of pre-tectonic and post tectonic origin. Stratigraphy : Closepet granite Deformation Nandihali Formation Donimalai Formation

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Younger volcanics Iron ore formation which consists of iron ore, Banded ferruginous chert, banded ferruginous Quartzites bedded chert and metabasalt Phyllite and argillites with Mn ore

Deogiri Formation

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Yeshwantnagar Formation

Older volcanics

--------------------- Tectonic contact ------------------Basement not known (Probably gneiss) The stratigraphy of the schist belt has been established by GSI. Control of structure : All the hill ranges are oriented in NNW-SSE direction, representing the regional tectonic trend of the Sandur schist belt. The area has undergone two phases of deformation F1 & F2 and metamorphism. The F1 having NNW-SSE axial trace is refolded by open F2 deformation having axial from ENW-WSE. Primary structure in BIF are bedding and penecontemporaneous faults. Diastrophic structures are minor folds of two generation, schistosity and fractures cleavage. Repetition of iron ore bands represents diastrophic folds which cause thickening of ore at place. The ore bottom contfigrocations are generally isoclinally synolinal in close/occurrence with the general structural pattern. Economic Geology : Iron ore is both primary and secondary in origin where the former one shows uniformity of width and chemical composition and the latter is characterized by non uniformity of the same. The ferruginous minerals in BIF were deposited in the form of magnetite and subsequently altered to haematite and ore is devoid of primary iron sulphide, silicate and carbonate minerals. In the hill range enriched profile of iron ore is confined to an elevation between 630 m contour to over 1000 m contour. The economic deposit of ore form narrow and elongated patches on the surface with average length about 50-60 m. Process of lateritisation has degraded the ore in laterite profile. The ore minerals are haematite 50-55%, limonite-goethite 35-40% and magnetite 515% with small amount of martite, specularite and grunerite. Physically the ore can be divided into following types ­ (1) Primary ore : Hard massive ore with Fe content 62% - 68% (2) Secondary ore : (a) Lateritic ore with 50% - 55% Fe (b) Thickly and thinly laminated ore with 62%-68% Fe (c) Shaly ore with 55%-58% Fe (d) Biscuity ore and blue dust with 60%-69% Fe Cut off grade : The natural cut off grade defined by the tail of the negatively showed frequency histogram of Fe% value in Bellary-Hospet area as 55% Fe. Generally iron content in the ore varies from 55% to 69%. The local mining has adopted this cut off grade. Reserve : The ore mineral is principally Haematite with estimated reserve of 714.18 MT of which 427.62 MT is proved, 237.57 MT probable and 48.08 MT possible reserve. In order to prevent haphazard exploitation, by small operators, are area of 89 sq miles including some rich deposits in the Donimalai, Devadari, Kumaraswamy and Ramandwega range have been reserved. Out of these reserved area a portion of Donimalai range had been leased to NMDC to develop a major mine.

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Production : Production in this region has started since 1952. Initiaiy it was 10,000 tonnes for export which gradually increased to 4.1 M.T. in 1998. Brief Description of Major Deposits In Bellary-Hospet Sector : Ramandurg deposit : It covers an area of 16.8 km2 and forms part of the southern section of Ramandurg range. It can be approved from Hospet Rly. Stn. The deposit was explored by IBM and GSI by 3800 m of exploratory drilling, 839 m of aditing and sinking of 614 shallow pits. Geologically and lithologically. The deposit belongs to Sandur group of Dharwarian Supergroup of Precambrian age and indicates a typical eugeosynclinal succession. Ore bearing iron formations are confined to underlain metapelites and overlain newer volcanics and are highly metamorphed. The ore bodies are generally form on top of the hill range and lateritized. Lumpy ore constitutes 25% while the powdery ore are 75%. The iron ores show variation from massive through laminated to powdery ores along the increasing depths, from the surface was recovered. The ore mineral is mainly haematite with small amount of magnetite, limonite and goethite. Fe content is + 62%. Donimalai deposit : It is located in the SSE arm of the Sandur schist belt and covers an area of 12 km2 The nearest Rly. stn. is Torangallu on Bellary Hospet Railway. The deposit has been investigated by GSI by drilling, pitting, trenching and aditing. The deposit belongs to Dharwarian Supergroup of Precambrian age. The ore deposit has been divided into the north and south block. The ore is of high grade. The deposit is being developed by NMDC and 2 MT of sized and graded ore are produced every yr. Very large quantities of taconite having Fe content 35.79% are also available in the range. Lumpy ore constitutes 37% while the powdery ore 63% of the total reserve. The ore mineral is principally haematite and the Fe content is + 64%. Kumaraswamy deposit : It is located on the Kumaraswamy range of hills about 15 km from Sandur Town. The range is in the form of a plateau measuring 20 km in length and 15 km in width. The deposit had been explored by geological mapping in (1:1 mile scale). Contour survey of 3.5 sq.km area, shallow pitting and trenching core drilling of 5391 m in 104 boreholes, deep pitting and aditing and sampling and assaying. It is in the same geologic continuity of Sandur schist belt and belongs to Precambrian, Dharwar Supergroup. Ore bearing iron formations are characterized by banded ferruginous chert/quartzite and meta basalt. Structurally it is a isoclinally folded synclinorium plunging NW. Ore bodies occupy ridge tops and show broad parallalism with the elongation of ridges. The ore minerals are altered to limonite argoethite as a result of alteration at the surface. Physically ores are massive with/without laminations, soft laminated, blue dust, lateritic and powdery. Principal ore minerals are haematite with magnetite, goethite, limonite Fe range from 62.7% Fe in lump to 65.5% in blue dust.

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Other blocks held under private leases : There are 100 mining lease blocks of different sizes held by private parties. The largest of the block is granted to Sandur Manganese and Iron ore company an aerial extent of 29 sq. miles. 10.2.2 Chikmagalur District In Chikmagalur district major iron ore deposits are found in (1) Bababudan Hills range (2) Kudremukh-Gangumala range. 10.2.2.1 Bababudan Hills Range : Igeneral Description : The Bababudan Hills form one of the most magnificent hill ranges in Karnataka in the shape of a horse-shoe. Magnetite and haematite quartzite ore bands occur all along the 40 km stretch of the horse shoe covering an area of 400 sq km. The area is in the Survey of India toposheet No. 48 O/10 and 48 O/14. The chain of hills is about 22 km wide in E-W direction and 19 km in N-S direction. On the tops of this chain of hills, iron ore, some hundred meters thick occur in discontinuous masses. The maximum thickness of 200 m is in the southern section (Rudragiri, Attigundi and Mahal). Detail mapping in this area shows concentration of iron ore in Kemmanugundi, Kalhattigiri, Totlukhan Hebbegiri, Jensari, Attigundi Shankasole nala, Virupakshivan area.

General geology : Bababudan belt consists almost entirely of the rocks of Dharwar Supergroup and shows typical development of quartzite basic lava and iron association. Bababudan Group is divisible into four major formation 1) Kalasapura formation 2) Allampur formation 3) Santaeveri formation 4) Malaingir formation (iron ore bearing) The rock types in the area are formed in the following order of super position :

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Malaingir Formation Bababudan Group Senteneri Formation

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i) ii) iii) iv)

Large scale geological mapping on 1:15840 scale Geophysical survey (Magnetic and S.P in Attigundi block Core drilling sample analysis Sampling

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Top soil/laterite/quartz vein Basic intrusive, meta dolerite, metagabbro Iron ore (banded magnetite quartzite with occurrence of phyllite. Meta basalt, hornblende schist/chlorite phyllites

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Structure : The area has undergone three generations of deformation and metamorphism. Folds of second generation are dominant. Few oblique faults and joints are noticed. Bedding and penecontemporaneous slumps are primary structure found in BMQ. Economic geology : Banded magnetite quartzite bands consists of alternate bands of magnetite partly oxidized to haematite, limonite in top layers and fine to medium grained quartz. Banded haematite bands are also located in Shankosole nala and Virupakshivan area. In the northern part of the belt one major BMQ band of thickness ranging from 120240 meter occurs uninterruptedly over a strike length of 2.5 to 11 kilometer. Below this band two minor persistent BMQ bands of five to ten meter thick separated from the major band by schistose meta basalt and phyllite. Apart from beds of quartz magnetite ore weathering and enrichment have resulted in bands of higher grade ore over a surface extent of 30 sq km extending from near Kemmangandi to Attigundi and between Kalhattigiri and Virupakshivan. Except for the top few metres where the ore is hard, the rest of the material is friable and soft. The ore is generally of low grade with Fe content varying from 53 to 60% with high alumina content. Reserve : The total proved, indicated and inferred reserves are placed at 3656 MT. Benefication tests on a pilot plant scale indicated that it is possible to produce concentrates analyzing 66% Fe. The NMDC investigated the extent of the ore body in the southern section and has proved a potentiality of 300 MT of following varieties of magnetite ore.

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Reserve in MT 20 31 66 183 300

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Average Fe content in the ore is 35%. Brief Description of Major Deposits in Chikmagalur : Attigundi Block : This block in Bababudan is located at about 20 km from Chikmagalur town and connected by highway with Bangalore and Mangalore port. The nearest railway station is Kadur. The area falls under Survey of India toposheet nos. 48 O/11 and 48 O/15. The ore deposit occur mainly at the crest of the ridges of the Bababudan hill range. Ore bodies are concentrated in the iron formation of Bababudan group of Dharwar Super group of Precambrian age. The area has undergone intense deformation and metamorphism. Rocks are highly folded and faulted. The geophysical survey and mapping revealed that the large low grade magnetite deposit is distributed over a length of 25 km. The ore is concentrated into high grade pellets. Haematite occurs as patches associated with vast deposit of BMQ. BMQ bands are exposed on N-W slope of the hill with strike direction ENE-WSW and have

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moderate dip. The BMQ bands overlies cherty ferruginous shale, and altered traps are exposed on N-W slope where ore bands are not exposed. The principal ore mineral is magnetite. Rudragiri Block : It is located in the southern section of Bababudan hill range and well connected Chikmagalur town.The block is bounded by Lat. 13°15' to 13°30'N and Long. 75°30' to 75°45'E and falls under Survey of India Toposheet No. 48 O/11. It is geologic continuity of Attigundi block and is of Precambrian age. In this block two BMQ bands striking E-W to ESE-WNW are exposed, each having a width varying from 40 to 60 m on the ridge. These two bands are separated by traps/amphibolite rocks whose width vary from 40 to 100 m. Iron ores are mainly of 4 types ­

1. 2. 3. 4. Soft weathered BMQ (Fe 38 to 42%) Medium hard BMQ (Fe 35 to 40%) Hard weathered BMQ (Fe 30 to 35%) Fresh hard BMQ

The principal ore mineral is magnetite. Kemmanagundi Block : It is located in the northern part of Bababudan Hill ranges. The deposits of Kemmanagundi and Dhupadgiri are being exploited by M/s Visveswarya Iron and Steel Works, Bhadravati. It is in the same geologic continuity of Bababudan group of rocks of Dharwa Supergroup. The ore minerals are concentrated as thinly magnetite-banded quartzite bands. The deposits are mined by open cast method. The ore contains about 57-62%Fe with phosphorous content ranging from 0.05 to 0.09%. A monocable ropeway was constructed to convey the mined ore to the base of the hill at Tanigebail. The principal ore mineral is magnetite. Kalhattigiri Region : The deposit is in the south eastern portion of the chain of hills and is in the same geologic continuity of Bababudan group of rocks and of Precambrian age. Iron ore covers an area of about 10 km2. The ore exposed is chiefly haematite with some amount of limonite. Iron content varies from 55.11 to 64.22% with average 58% Fe. Jensarigudda : This is a hill within crecsent shaped range at an elevation of 1475 m. The deposit is located 20 km from Chikmagalur town and belongs to Dharwa Supergroup and of Precambrian age. Ores are concentrated in banded ferruginous quartzite of iron formation and occurs as capping over ferruginous shale beds. Ore body extends to a depth of 20 m. Concentration of Fe has taken place through lateritezation of the underlying shale. The principal ore mineral is heamatite. Shankasole deposit : It is in the same geologic continuity of Bababudan group of rock. The deposit contains two parallel bands of haematite separated by phyllite. The bands are (a) 450 m x 60 m x 30 m and (b) 350 m x 40 m x 20 m. The bands strike N60°W-S60°E and dip varies from 20-45°SW. Ore contains 63-68% Fe. The principal ore mineral is heamatite.

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Virupakshivan deposit : It is located to the east of Virupakshivan on the Kemmanagundi-Chikmagalur road and is in the same geologic continuity of Bababudan Group. Here also two bands of haematite are separated by phyllite. The bands strike NW-SE and dip at 30° due NE. These bands measure (i) 420 m x 20 m x 20 m and (ii) 350 m x 20 m x 20 m. Ore contain 63-68% Fe. The principal ore mineral is heamatite. 10.2.2.2 Kudremukh-Gangumala range : General Description : The deposits at Kudermukh range fall in Survey of India Toposheet No.43 O/4. The area is accessible from Korha a small township which is 110 km away from Mangalore on Mangalore-Chikmagalur highway. The area has rugged topography and the highest elevation touches 1200 meter and more above MSL. The hill ranges between Kudremukh and Gangumala contain extensive deposit of magnetite ore at Gangrikal, Nellibidu and Aroli sector. Quantum of work done : Major exploratory works have done by NMDC, GSI and MECL i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Topographic survey ­ (at 5 m interval ) Regional mapping Detailed geological mapping (in 1:1000 scale) Core drilling Trenching, pitting Photo interpretation.

General geology : The area consists of metasediments and metavolcanics of Dharwar Super-group of Precambrian age Lithologically the region consists of rocks of varying nature. They include fine and coarse grained hornblende schist, amphibole-garnet schist, quartz-sericite-talc schist, banded magnetite-quartzite, opalescent quartz gneiss etc. The amphibolite occurs as massive outcrop and forms the base of BMQ. The deposit is mainly composed of magnetite and quartz minerals. Calcite is present in a few bands; silicate rich layers with actinolite, cumingtonite grunetite are common. In its premetamorphic state the rock represented mostly cherts and shales. Two main types of BIF are recognized - cherty type and shaly type. Structure : The area has undergone more than one phase of deformation and metamorphism. The iron ore bands generally strikes N-S to NNW-SSE with dip varying from 30° to 85° due east. Two sets of joints are observed with one set perpendicular to fold axis. Bedding and penecontemporaneous slumps are major primary structure. The joints have played crop role in weathering and oxidation of BMQ. Mode of occurrence : The iron ore formations near the surface has undergone weathering that caused leaching out of silica and alumina leaving unfilled space between the layers. This form the upper horizon of BHQ in which magnetite is partially oxidised. The depth of weathered zone

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varies from place to place and is thicker in ridge than in valleys. The soft weathered zone varies in depth from 30 to 50 m. Underlying this zone, a transitional hard weathered zone occurs of about 30 m. thickness. Below the transitional zone fresh magnetite quartzite bands are observed which are partly oxidised or not. Beds of magnetite quartzite range in thickness from 120 to 200 m and are traceable along the strike for nearly 50 km forming the lofty ranges of Kudremukh, Gangamula and Gangrikal along the western border of the Chikmagalur district. The importance of these beds lies in the fact that they are within a distance of 100 km of a major port along west coast. Economic geology : In both the weathered zone and partly oxidized zone iron content varies from 38 to 40%. Below the transitional zone in the primary magnetite-quartzite band Fe content is about 31%. Along with magnetite and quartzite iron silicates are also present other minerals like pyrite and calcite also occur within ore. The iron ore produced from Kudremukh area is fully amenable to beneficiation and it can be concentrated to produce concentrate analyzing 67% iron . Reserve : Total estimated reserve in this region is about 1233 MT.

Nellibidu deposit : It is also located in Mudigere taluk and falls in Survey of India Toposheet No. 40 O/8. It is same geologic continuation of Gangrikol deposit. The ore deposit measures 600 m x 200 m x 50 m. The deposit is weathered and oxidised in different degree. Fe content varies from 36.40 to 67.48%. The principal ore mineral is magnetite. Aroli deposit : It is in same geologic continuity of Kudremukh-Gangumala belt. BMQ occurs above amphibolite and it forms a series of asymmetrically overturned folds. The thickness of the bands is about 100 m. The iron ores are highly weathered and oxidised into haematite in upper part. Fresh primary ore lies beneath the weathered zone. In weathered zone Fe content varies from 38-40% whereas in the primary zone it is about 31% Fe.

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Brief Description of Major Deposits in Kudremukh-Gangumala Gangrikal deposit : The deposit is located in Mudigere Taluk of Chikmagalur district falls in Survey of India Toposheet No. 48 O/3 and 48 O/4. It occurs in the geologic continuity of KudremukhGangumala belt forming a part of western ghat belt of Dharwar Supergroup. Large scale geological mapping in 1:15,840 scale covering about 18 sq km, pitting, trenching and sample analysis had been done in this area. The deposit has a strike length of 3000 meter, 1000 m width and 50 m thickness. Depending upon physical characters ores are classified into softweathered, hard-weathered, primary massive ore with Fe content ranging from 15.40 to 42.00%. The ore mineral is magnetite.

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Kudremukh block : It is the richest sector in this belt and BMQ occurs in association with metapelites and volcanics of Dharwar Supergroup. Ore bearing magnetite bands ranges in thickness from 120 m to 200 m and continue along strike for a long distance. Ores are mainly weathered hard massive type. The principal ore mineral is magnetite. 10.2.3 Shimoga District In Shimoga district numerous iron ore deposits are observed in many parts. The ore found is either haematite or compact limonite. The important occurrences are Kodachadri, Shankargudda, Chattanhalli, Agumbe and Nisanigudda, Kotebare etc. Among these Kodachari is economically most important. 10.2.3.1 Kodachadri region General Description : The Magnetite-quartzite deposits in Kodachadri region fall in survey of India T/S No. 48K/12 and can be approached by a trunk road from Sigmoga through Hasangar. HasangarKollar ghat road passes through the area connecting the West Coast National Highway (NH47) at Coondapur.

Geology of the area : The Kodachadri region exposes a group of Precambrian meta-sedimentary rocks with associated iron formations (Banded magnetite quartzite) and basic metavolcanic rocks, intruded by dykes. Granite/granite gneiss are probably intrusive into the schistose group.. The tentative stratigraphic succession deciphered in the Kodachadri region is as follows.

Products of Weathering

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-Ferruginous laterite, soil -Laminated and lateritic iron ore -Quartz veins -Basic dykes -Granite and granite gneiss -Quartz-chlorite schist, sericite-chlorite schist Quartz schist, Ferruginous Quartz-sericitechlorite schist -Banded-Magnetite quartzite (20 to 30 m) -Ferruginous Quartz-sericite

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Schistose Group (Dharwar) -Chlorite schist banded chert-chlorite schist. -Banded magnetite quartzite (60 to 30 m) -Quartz-sericite-chlorite schist-chlorite schist schistose and massive metabasalt. -Amygdular-metabasalt,gabbroid-metabasalt amphibolite, with quartz-chlorite schist.

schistose

Basement crystalline rocks exposed beyond the area Structure : The regional trends of the rocks vary from E-W with 25 to 55 N dip in the eastern and southern parts of the area to NNW-SSE to NW-SE with 15 to 40 ENE to NE dip in the area to north west and north of Doddabetta and Manjugalbare ridges. The formations are isoclinally folded into a major syncline. The trend of the fold axis corresponds to regional trend of the rocks. The beds strike N-S with 30 to 45 E dip between Kattinhole in south and Shirur in the north. Two major faults are also identified trending ESE-WNW corresponding to the major joint direction. The whole assemblage of formations is characteristic of eugeocynclinal suite of rocks. Intrusive granite and dolerite dykes indicate post tectonic igneous activity. Brief description of major deposits: Kodachadri : In Kodachadri area, iron ore formation (BMQ deposits) constitutes the major rock type. They occupy highly elongated ridges usually forming dip slope and a scarp in the opposite slope with relief ranging from about 300 to 507 m. over the adjacent terrain 610 to 780 m above M.S.L. The BMQ consists of thin bedded fine granular alternating steel grey to dark grey magnetite rich layer and light grey to buff quartz (recrystallised chert)layers with Fe content over 20%. In Kodachardi area total iron content ranges between 30% to 40% with friable BMQ (16%) with 40% Fe, weathered hard BMQ (9%)with 30% Fe and primary hard BMQ(75%)with 24% Fe were recorded. Total indicated reserve is more than 500MT. Shankargudda : A sizeable deposit of hard limonitic ore forms the deposit of Shankargudda, some 16 km west of Harnahalli station on the Shimoga-Talaguppa railway. Here iron ore are mixed with manganese. Average grade of ore analysis shows Fe content 57.25%. Chattauhalli : It is located close to Shankargudda and lying within the Kumsi state forest. Ore is limonitic, somewhat siliceous but low in phosphorous. Grade of Fe ranges from 54.30% to 58.20%. Agumbe and Nisanigudda : The iron ore bands of Kudremukh, Gangumala and Gangrikal continue northwards to form the Agumbe and Nisanigudda range. These iron ore bands are located within 100 km of Mangalore port.

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Kotebare : It is located north of Kodachadri with the Nagodi-Kollar road separating the two. The deposit consists of lateritic and limonitic ore analyzing 45-58% Fe. Beneath the laterite cap is a band of weathered haematite and magnetite quartzite. A zone of blue dust analyzing 6062% Fe is also encountered. The deposit was explored by NMDC by means of deep pits and boreholes. 25 MT of different grades of ore were estimated to be available. Of this 10.3 MT are lateritic ore, 4 MT haematitic and the rest of 10.8 MT blue dust. 10.2.4 Chitradurga District General description : The area is bounded between lat. 14°00'to 14°15', Long. 76°11' to 76°20' and falls in Survey of India toposheet No. 57 B/4 and 57 B/8 and is well connected by ChikjajurChitradurga, Bangalore-Harihar, Birur-Talguppa metre gauge railway. Prominent bands of iron formation are exposed forming a continuous chain of hills with local concentration of iron ore. Localized concentration occur along the margin of the Tumkar-Chitradurga schist belt. The important deposits are near Vajra and Kudrekanna, Lakkihalli, Kenkere, Bheemasamudra and Medkeripura. Quantum of work done : Large scale geological mapping was done covering an area of 150 km2 on 1:63,360 scale. General geology : The Chittradurga schist belt is represented by a thick pile of volcanic flows and sediments. Iron formations occur in both off shore volcano- sedimentary sequence as well as in platformal sedimentary sequence. The stratigraphic succession at the Holalkere-Chikjajur section of the Chitradurga schist belt is as follows : Quartz-dolerite schist and acid volcanics Banded Haematite quartzite (Iron ore formation) Phyllite, cherts (Mn ore formation) Limestone, dolomite Taly a conglomerate Actinolite-chlorite schist and associated hornblende rocks and orthoquartzite Structure : The regional trend of the bands are NNW-SSE with steep easterly dip. The trend of the foliations more or less parallel to banding. The iron formations show three types of banding viz. Macroband, mesoband and microband. Penecontemporaneous deformation structure are present in the banding. The area has undergone intense deformation and metamorphism. Economic geology : Localized concentration of haematite ore bodies are secondary residual cappings formed over the Fe ore formation due to leaching of silica and enrichment of Fe. Ores are mainly hard laminated, soft laminated and laterite type.

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Description of major deposits of Chitradurga district : Medikeripura : Medikeripura deposit is located 3 km ESE of Medikeripura village .The linear ore body consists of fair proportion of hard steel grey ore cropping out boldly with the intervening areas composed of relatively soft laminated ores. At places the ore is lateritu. The ores are of two types according to their modes of occurrence a) in situ and b) float. In situ ore body measures 2000m x 80m x 14m with estimated reserve 5.4 MT. Float ore covers an area of 450000 sq. mt. with average depth of 1.5 m and reserve is 0.55MT. The ore is haematite with average grade of 63.5%Fe. Kadlegudda : The ore lies along the southern slope of hill,2 km SW of Kadlegudda. Two small parallel ore bodies are present within the BHQ. The lower portion of ore body is laminated hard steel grey ore. Two types of ore are found here.-a)in situ ore body located on western side measures 640m x 110m x 10m with reserve of 1.62MT and the other in situ ore body located on eastern side of the deposit measures 300m x 80m x 3m with estimated reserve of 0.42 MT. b) rich concentration of float ore spread over wide areas along the eastern and southern slope of area covering an area of 1,04,800 sq.m. with estimated reserve of 0.106 MT. The principal mineral is haematite with 62% Fe. Bhimasamudra : The ore body is located at 3.2 km WNW of Bhimasamudra and is made up of fragments of iron ore varying in size from a few mm to maximum of 1 meter poorly cemented in a matrix of lateritic soil. At places surface section show hard laterite, embedded with brecciated fragment of haematite. In situ ore covers an area of 1,52,000 sq. m. area in northern part and 9000 sq.m in southern part. Rich concentration of float ore occurs on the eastern slopes of hills covering an area of 180000 sq.m. The principal ore mineral is haematite with 64% Fe. Vajra Deposit : This deposit is located at 8 km north of Elandre which is again 8 km away from Hulujar on Hulujar ­Sosadurga main road. The ore body occurs as capping on isolated mount flanked on all sides by ferruginous chlorite schist. Along northern extension of mound, a small magnetite quartzite band occurs. Ores are mainly hard and lumpy. Of the two modes of occurrence of ores in situ ore body measures 400m x 100m x 10m. Float ore covers an area of 162,800 sq.m. grade of the float ore is very high, almost +65%Fe, Haehmatite from 59.20% to 68.10%. 10.2.5 North Kanara District General Description : In this district most of the part are covered with dense forest and lines of communication area few. Now the new Konkan railway lands importance to the mineral occurrences in this jungle covered area. The western most schist belt in Karnataka extends intermittently upto Bhatkal and Honnavar. Outcrops of banded iron formations concealed under a thick cover of laterite are seen here and there.

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The rocks are of two types (a) Platformal type (2) Eugeosynclinal type. The plat formal types are characterized by orthoquartzite-limestone, manganiferous chert/quartzite, argillite, banded magnetite quartzite and a thick sequence of argillite and greywacke. The rock types of Eugeosyncline are thick sequence of greywacke an argillite associated with volcanic rocks. Major ore deposits which have come to light so far are described here. Kalinadi Hydroelectric project area : The area falls in the under the Toposheet Nos.48I/7,8,11 &12 and is located in the castle rock area of Shimoga-Goa schist belt. The ore bearing banded iron formations occur in association with orthoquartzite, manganiferous chert, quartzite, argillite greywacke and ferruginous laterite soil of Precambrian age. The rock formations are isoclinally folded. A major fault trending NNW-SSE makes a boundary between the platform to the west and eugeosyncline to the east. The iron ore occurs as capping as a result of laterisation of iron formation. Primary ore is magnetite converted into haematite by the process of laterisation. Iron ore of economic importance (haematite with minor amount of magnetite and limonite) are found in hatkhamba, Shiroli, Kunang, Avarcha and Siddhi hill area with Fe percentage varying from 58%to 60% and a total reserve about 15MT. Hudsa, Supa Taluk : It is located on hill,3 km from Hudsa village. Hudsa village is situated in 4.2 km SW of Joida village situated on the Belgaum ­ Sadashivagad state highway. The deposit falls on the Toposheet No.48I/12. The area was explored by large scale geological mapping on 1 : 15840 scale, detailed mapping on 1 : 1000 scale, pitting and trending and by sampling. Stratigraphically, the ore bearing banded ferruginous quartzite underlain by quartz-chlorite schist and phyllite and is overlained by limestone, granite gneiss,basic dyke and laterite. The ore bands trend N-S to NNW-SSE with easterly dip of 50 to 70.Massive and laminated ore occur as thin bands and pockets in laterite. Selective leaching of silica from banded magnetite quartzite is responsible for formation of deposit. Thickness of individual band is about 0.6mm with a few bands reaching a thickness of 6 mm. Ores are mainly three types ­ laminated, massive and lateritic. The ore is haematite with magnetite and goethite; Fe content varies from 36.29 to 66.45%. The deposit is not economically important. Apsarakonda : This deposited is located at 3 km south of Honavar facing the Arabian sea. It occurs in western most Shimoga schist belt. The BIF is concealed under a thick cover of laterite. The primary ore is banded magnetite quartzite with iron content ranging from 30-35% Fe. Alumina content is high upto 6%. It is mainly magnetite. About 1,60,000 tonnes of ore were mined and exported 20 yrs ago. Detailed explanation of the area is likely to reveal larger tonnages. At present three is no mining activity. Anmod : It is on the road from Belgaum to Goa. Prominent exposures are seen from western Ghat demarcating boundary between Karnataka and Goa. The southern extension of the deposit is close to Castle rock railway station. Large scale geological mapping, pitting and trenching had been carried out in the area. The iron formation consists of banded haematite quartzite beneath a cover of laterite soil forming a continuation of Shimoga-Goa schist belt,

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and is associated with metapelites. Here haematite is the main ore with minor occurrence of magnetite and limonite. There were two or three mining leases producing on an average about 50000 tonnes of ore annually. At present there is no mining activity. Kuveshi-Diggi : It is the southward continuation of Anmod deposit. It is in the geologic continuation of Shimoga-Goa schist belt. The area was covered by large scale geol. Mapping, pitting, trenching and sampling. Massive iron ore beneath laterite capping is seen at Ivoli. Other prominent ridges are 0.772 m and 0.769 m high exposing iron ore, 2 km south of Dudmala and Gavaldari deposit. Canga type of ore found on surface. Haematite contains Fe 58-62%. At present there is no mining activity. Joida : It is located on 2 km south of Hudsa village. The distance of this deposit to the Kadra loading point is 30 km. It is in the geologic continuation of Hudsa deposit. Steep cliffs exposing solid iron ore are noticed along the eastern margin of the ore body. Haematite contains 61.98% Fe. The deposit is not economically important. Talaginkera : It is seen in the low hills west of Sanjogankere. The distance to the nearest Tadri port is about 26 km. The deposit can be approached via Heggadkatte and Talaginkere. Banded haematite quartzite occurs beneath a cover of laterite. At places good concentration of Manganese is also seen. The deposit is not economically important. Mavingundi : It is located to the north of Talaguppa-Honnavar road. The range is locally known as Henkiligudda and Matanigudda. A prominent band of iron ore is seen here. Because of weathering most of the ore is limonitic and highly lateritised. The riverside loading point at Gersoppa is 16 km away. The deposit is not economically important. Kuntagani,Ankola Taluk : It has the lateritic iron ore. It is well worth exploring for gold in laterite. The ore type is haematite. For iron ore this deposit is economically not important. Yellapur : Yellapur is located near Karnar port. Small deposits of iron ore analyzing 58-60% Fe are located in this area. The Fe ore band continues southward and crosses the YellapurKarnar road at Ramanguli. Magnetite ore is friable and amenable to concentration. The ore type is magnetite. 10.2.6 Tumkur District Introduction : A few important iron deposits are revealed within the Chitradurga-Tumkur schist belt, namely Chiknayakanhalli area, Janehara area,Vajra deposit, Kunigal-Yammabetta area. Individual description of the deposits are given below -

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Chitradurga ­ Tumkur Schist Belt General Description : The iron ore deposits of this belt are covered by Survey of India Toposheet No. 57C/11. The deposits have been divided into 3 groups for the purpose of description. a) Karekurchi area b) Chiknyakanhalli area c) Janehara area The other important deposits are Kondli, Doregudda, Shivasandra and KunigalYammabetta. Quantum of work done :

i) Large scale Geological Mapping (1:31680) 100 sq.km. 2.3 sq.km.

ii) Rapid contouring with contour interval of 500 m (1:2000)

Geology : The tentative stratigraphic sequence of the area is as follows: Laterite (Recent) Quartz veins Younger (?) quartz-chlorite-actinolite schist Phyllite Ferrugenious quartzite Manganiferous phyllite Dolomitic limestone and limestone Quartz sericite schist Actinolite-chlorite schist Structure : The regional trend of all the formations in the area varies from N15°W-S15°E to NS. The foliation planes in the schists and phyllites dip both towards E and W and of dip varies from 40° to 70°. The formations are folded into series of folds with fold axis plunging in either direction. The primary structures seen in the area is bedding. Economic geology : The important ore minerals of all the deposits is haematite with minor quantities of magnetite and goethite. Limonitisation of all these minerals has been quite extensive in some places, particularly in the laminated type of ore. Limonite occurs as irregular bands within the ore body. Also it is found with the laterite cover. Large tonnage of lateritic ore is available which on beneficiation can yield suitable material for the production of pellet. Beds of Mn ore, limestone and dolomite are closely associated

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iii) Sample collection

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Brief description of deposits : Karekurchi area : There are 7 detached iron ore bodies in this area. The ore body trends N-S having width a 30-100m and depth of lateritisation varies from 0.5 ­9.0 meters. The ore is hard and lumpy in eastern deposits and mostly porous laminated in the western deposits. A large deposit of float ore has been worked out in the southern part of the area. Float ore occurs in small pieces (19 mm to 40 mm). Ore rust has been derived from adjoining in situ ore bodies and deposited on the phyllite by the eastern drainage system. Physical parameters and grades for five important deposits are as follows :

Deposit No. 1. Averagelength of ore body 405.6 m Average width of ore body 100 m Average depth of ore body 18 m Average Natue of depth of ore laterite 5m Med.Hard and Lumpy 3m -doIron (%) Av.Gr. Fe % 61 -62

61.98 to 66.19 50.8 to 63..3 63.66Fe No sample collected 61.44

4.

391 m

40 m

10 m

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511 m

50 m

15 m

1m

Laminated & soft -do-

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70 m

15 m

59-60 60 61 -62

5.

387 m

70 m

20 m

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Soft, laminated

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2.

Located 500 m SSE of 3516 hill. Ore body has an irregular shape, gradually widening towards north. Very small deposit, devoid of good outcrops

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Deposite No. 1.

Small deposit located 750 m NWW of 3294 hill

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Location of ore body

Average length

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Chiknayakanhalli area : The area consists of two major and six minor deposits. These are being described below in tabular form :

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Average width 20 m

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Average Depth 5m

100 m

Average depth of laterite 1m

Nature of ore Lamina ted occurre nce of blue dust Mediu m hard porous with bands of laminat ed ore. Soft laminat ed

Chemical analysis (Fe %) 56.97 to 64.51

Av. grade (Fe %) 60.74

Total surface area 1,89,698 Sq.m.

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3.5 m

53.89 65.07

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59.44

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Total surface area 11,228 sq.m.

15 m _

3m

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4.

Very small deposit, devoid of good outcrops Located 100 m north of deposit Most important deposit flanked by phyllite in the W and manganiferous phyllite in the E. on. In northern most part, the ore body is covered by recemented ore. Caps the Kempannagudd a ridge (3581) along the entire length. Flanked on all sides by manganiferous phyllite. Very little soil cover. (Float ore body ­ 90 m max. width depth ­ 0.5 ­ 0.7 m, % recovery : 50%) Located 2.4 km N-W of 3581 (Kemponnagud da) hill. (Float Ore : Area : 26440 sq.m. Av. depth: 0.5 m Recovery: 50%)

5.

Total surface area ­ 11,228 sq.m. 250 m

20 m

10 m

90 m

20 m

3.5 m

6.

Total surface are 134,620 sq.m.

15 m

1.5 m

Soft, laminat ed with blue dust Hard and lumpy Hard and lumpy

62.82

62.82

61.98

61.98

62.57 66.72

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Janehara area : Two iron ore deposits occurring near 3235 hills NW of Janehara are described in the following table.

Deposit No. Average length Average width Average depth Average (ore body) (ore body) (ore body) depth (laterite) 540 m 46 m 10 m 1m Nature

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1.5 m Soft, laminat ed with a few hard bands.

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760 m

90 m

15 m

1m

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Hard and lumpy

Sample No. C-24 63.66

60 .5

Soft, porous, laminated and blue dust

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2.

140 m

35 m

10 m

1.5 m

Soft, porous and laminated.

- Fe content of the two deposits varies from 59 to 61%. Besides, there are float ores covering a total area of about 76,000 sq.m. Vajra deposit : The deposit is located 8 km N of Elanadu which is 8 km from Huliyar (on HuliyarHosadurga main road) and occurs as a capping as an isolated mound, flanked on all sides by the ferruginous chlorite schist. Along northern extension of the mound a small magnetite quartzite band occurs. Average Fe content is 64%. Deposit Average type length(ore body) In situ 400 m Average width Average depth Grade (ore body) (ore body) (Fe%) 100 m 10 m 65-67 Nature of ore Hard and lump. Ore is very heavy and contains micaceous haematite. Soft, porous and laminated.

10.2.7 Bijapur District : General description of the Deposits : In Bijapur district, haematite beds are found in the Kaladgi group of rocks at Ameongarh, Bassargi and Bisnal. In this district, four bands of haematite-quartzite are located workable iron ore deposits occur in Aihole and Hiremagi-Ramthal localities of Hungund taluk. 1. The Hiremagi-Ramthal deposit contains hard massive and soft friable types of ores. The Fe content in ore varies from 58 to 66%. 2. The Aihole deposit is in continuation of Hiremagi-Ramthal deposit and is of hard laminated and soft laminated types.

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Kunigal ­ Yammabetta : The quartz-magnetite ore is similar to those found in the Maddur-Malavalli region It occurs prominently in Yammabetta to the west and in south west of Kunigal. This region is also the site of ancient iron and steel industry. The deposit has not been explored.

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A number of bands of BFQ occur in the area, some continuous for as much as 7 km. The bands usually contain BHQ with minor amount of magnetite. Thickness ratio between the ferruginous and quartzite bands varies. Average Fe content is 30-35%.

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Float ore

Area: sq.m.

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0.5 m

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3. The Ameengarh deposit occurs in Ameengarh hills. The deposit is worked by M/s Doddannavar Brothers of Belgaum. Iron ore occurs in the form of an elongated lense in close association with BIF. The nearest railway station is Bagalkote which is 30 km away. 10.2.8. South Kannada District : General description of the Deposits : A prominent iron ore band is seen from the Arbadagudda, north of Sunkadakatte, Bhutagudda in the Yenakal reserve forest of Puttwa taluk. Most of the ore is limonitic and lateritic. Other deposits are seen near Kanyana in Bantwal taluk, near Kesadi in Gondapur taluk and Nidle in Belmangadi taluk. A preliminary estimated reserve is about 70 MT analyzing 54-56% Fe. 10.2.9. Dharwar District : General description of the deposits: A number of lenticular outcrops of BIF occur in close association with greywacke in Ranibennur Formation. These are of low grade and are not of commercial importance. Recently gold has been found in association with sulphidic and carbonaceous iron formation as at Chinmulgund and Karjagi in Hirekerur and Ranibennur taluks. Prominent bands of iron formation stand out forming the Kappatgudda hill ranges in Gadag taluk. A small quantity of ore is produced from a mining lease block in Doni area. Important occurrences are Kusalpur, Majjar, Sirhatti, Dubhanmandi, Niralkatti, Mangalgatti, Hirevadvatti. 10.2.10 Hassan District : There is only one important iron ore range forming the Dodguda, west of Bageshpur in Arsikere taluk. It could be a source of magnetite concentrate if the oxide facies magnetitequartzites could be beneficiated. Except the band of titariferous magnetite ore in Nuggilalli schist belt, there are no other major occurrence of iron ore in this district. 10.2.11 Mandya District : In Maddur-Malavalli and Halagur-Shivasamudram regions quartz-magnetite iron ore bands occur in association with granulite facies charnockite rock. Each of the bands made up of quartz and magnetite with minor garnet and hypersthene is traceable over length of 3 to 5 km. The ores are amenable to magnetic separation. The principal exposures are found near Maddur, Iggalur, Hosgur, Hullahalli, Karalkatte, Chattarhalli, Bommanaikanhalli and Arlapura. 10.2.12 Mysore District : Ore is similar to Maddur-Malavate deposits of Mandya district, belonging to an older sequence of high grade schist are seen near Sargur, Mota and Itna. These have not been explored. 10.2.13 Raichur District : Banded iron formation forming an integral part of the Kushtagi schist belt are traced for several kms along strike. The deposits have not been examined in detail.

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10.3 Districtwise Description of Titaniferous and Vanadiferous Magnetite Ore Deposits :

Apart from the residual concentration of iron ore over the sedimentary banded iron formation, there is an other class of deposits ore, magnetic in character associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks in several parts of the state. The chief among these occurrences are those forming the Nuggihalli schist belt. Here titaniferous ore occurs in the form of continuous beds associated with anorthositic gabbro and contain titanium and vanadium with magnetite. Districtwise description of the deposits are given below. 10.3.1 Shimoga District : Introduction : A number of outcrops of titaneferous magnetite ore within mafic-ultramafic rocks are seen Channagiri taluk, Ubrani, Masanikere area, Tavarekere area, Magyathahalli and Devaranasipur. Ore bands are usually lenticular often long and narrow but some times travelling into larger masses. Ore analyses 55 ­ 60% Fe and upto 12% TiO2, 0.50% V and P, silica. Detail description the deposits are given below. Magnetite deposits in Channagiri taluk : Location : The magnetite deposits of Channagiri Taluk lie in the Survey of India Toposheet No. 48 O/13 and 57 C/1. These deposits are also known to contain vanadium, which is important allaying metal in the steel and allied industry. The deposit can be approached by Bukkambadu-Bhadravathi Road. The nearest railway station is Sivane which is 8 km from this deposit. Type of work done : i. Geological mapping (1:63,360) ii. Drilling iii. Bulk sampling and chip sampling

The magnetite deposits and the associated rock types form the southeastern continuity of Shimoga schist belt. The magnetite bodies occur bold outcrops elongated lenses or ribbons tapering towards the ends. On the top of hills or mounds the length of the outcrops may vary from a few meters to as much as a kilometer or more with minor breaks and in width they may extend upto 35 meter. They are bluish-grey or steel grey medium to coarse grained (rarely fine grained) and generally compact. Ubrani area : A minimum reserve of 1,162,000 tonnes have been estimated. upto 100 m. depth.. Analysis of samples indicates- Fe 50.25 to 53.62% , TiO2 6.86 to 7.07% and V 0.33 to 0.42%. Masanikere area : A minimum reserve of about 2,083,000 tonnes of ore upto a depth of 100 meters have been estimated. Analysis of the samples indicates presence of Fe 50.82 to 51.39% Fe TiO2, 5.87 to 6.02% V and 0.17 to 0.33%.

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Tavarekere Area : Minimum reserve about 586,000 tonnes upto depth 50 m. Analysis of the samples indicate the presence of Fe - 49.71%, TiO 2 7.10% and V- 0.17%. Magyathahalli Deposits : Minimum reserve 174,000 tonnes upto a depth of 50 m. Sample analysis shows Fe 52.49% Fe, TiO2- 6.76% and V- 0.33%. These are promising deposits of vanadium bearing magnetite in Channagiri Taluk, which are worthy of further investigation. A tentative reserve of about 2,093,000 tonnes has been estimated based on surface exposures. 10.3.2 North Kanara District General description : Titaneferous magnetite bodies of large strike length associated with layered gabbroanorthosite-pyroxenite and minor units of talc-trenolite-schist are found in parts of Ankola taluk, Kumta taluk, Joida taluk and Bedi river area. Prominent outcrops are seen near Madangiri, Hiregutti, Angedibail, Sanyasigudda, Subguli, Mulemane, Suryakatyanigudda and Husli-Khandgar. These deposits deserve to be mapped in detail and explored for platinum group of elements besides vanadium and titanium. This area comprises a part of the Western Ghat marked by high and precipitous hills and deep valley extending more or less in N-S direction in the eastern portion of the area and comparatively flat topped knolls and mounds along the coast towards west. General geology : The area consists of the Precambrian schists represented by Quartz-sericite schist chlorite-sericite schist and actinolite Tremolite schist. These are intruded by mafic basic and acid suite of igneous rock, represented by pyroxenite and gabbro, granodiorite and granite respectively. The vanadiferous/titaneferous magnetite are associated with basic intrusive rock, mainly gabbro Intense lateritisation has taken place on weathering of basic and acid suit of rocks. Structure : The magnetite ore bodies are generally exposed along the ridges of the hills, striking roughly N-S to NNE-SSW and dipping 50°-55°. At few places closely spaced fracture cleavage are observed in quartz-schist and whereas in the phyllite that minor puckering, corrugations and drag folds with plunge towards north are noticed in the area. Economic geology : The close association of vanadiferous/titaneferous magnetite with pyroxenite and gabbro indicates that Ti and V bearing magnetite has derived from same parental magma as that of basic suits of rocks and occurs as late magmatic segregation product. The magnetite ores being highly resistant to weathering occur in the form of discontinuous lensoid bodies, over a length as long as 200 mt. The ore is generally granular but massive forms are not uncommon. More or less martitised magnetite is seen with exsolved bands and irregular masses of unaltered magnetite.

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Except few exposures, the ore bodies over northern and southern extension occur as small pods and lenses with insignificant individual length (as small as 3 m at places) and width as low as 1 m. Reserve : A rough estimate places the total reserve at 8 MT in this region. Chemical analysis : Chemical analysis of in situ and float ore samples in this region is as follows.

Fe2O3 TiO2 V 2O 5 FeO Cu Cr In situ (%) 41.89-52.49 9.75-12.92 0.60-0.90 0.18-2.69 185-950 ppm 150-300 ppm Float (%) 43.06-52.49 9.25-14.45 0.65-0.85 0.18-3.23 180-605 ppm 50-100 ppm

Ankola taluk : The area is located at 60 km from Hubli on Karwar-Hubli highway under Survey of India Toposheet No.48 J/9. It forms part of Precambrian Dharwar schist belt of North Kanara. Ore bodies are hosted within pyroxenite gabbro anorthosite rock. A major magnetite band trending NW-SE over a strike length of about 3000 m is noticed. Ore bodies also occur as lensoid bodies associated with basic rocks. Magnetite bands are of both massive and coarse grained varieties. Chemical analysis shows TiO2 ­ 6.4%, V ­ 0.39%, with minor amount Cr, Cu Co, Ni. Fe content in concentrate is 56.37%. Hilsagura Range in Kunta and Ankola taluks : The deposit can be approached by Mangalore-Karwar highway No.17 and nearest railhead is Hubti. and falls under Survey of India Toposheet No. 48J/6 & 2. It is in the same geologic continuity of Ankola taluk deposit Ore bosdies generally occur as small pods and lenses. But or bands may be as long as 200 m long with width varying between 1 m to 25 m with averaging 3.5 m. Ore bodies are granular or massive in form. At the top the ore bodies are lateritized. A few xenomorphic grains of pyrrhotite noticed occupying the cracks and cleavage. Chemical analysis of insitu ore shows Fe content in concentrate 41.89% to 52.49%, whereas that in float ore varies from 43.06 to 52.49%. In borh insitu and float ore TiO2 varies from 9.00% to 14% with minor amount of V2O5, FeO, Cu and Cr.

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Description of individual deposits : Bedi River area : The area is located near Kaiga village, 100 km away from Hubli. Here the ore bodies are associated with layered gabbro-anorthosite-pyroxenite and minor amount of talc-tremolite schist. A few minor and insignificant ore deposits are found on the southern half of the area. Ore bodies measure maximum 10 m in length and width varies from 0.6 m to 2.5 m. In most case ore bodies are insitu and occur within laterite capping except in few places where they occur in close association with basic dyke. Chemical analysis shows V2O5-0.56 to 0.84%, TiO2 7.63 ­ 15.25% with minor amount of Ni and Co. Fe content in concentrate is 57.67%.

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Joida taluk : This area falls on Survey of India Toposheet No.48J/6. The Mangalore-Panjim road (NH-17) runs through west of the area and the location is about 150 km from Hubli railway station. Ore bodies are closely associated with pyroxenite and gabbro. Ores are granular and massive type and topped with laterite capping. Ore bodies generally occur as pods and lenses. Chemical analysis of sample shows Fe2O3 content 55.85% to 66.80% with TiO2 9.20% to 14.80% and V2O5 0.42% to 0.77% and minor amount of Cu, Ni, Co. A reserve of about 3.2 million tonnes upto 25 m depth and with an average Fe content of 57% (in concentrate) has been estimated. 10.3.3 Mandya District Tegnahalli, Krishnarajpet taluk : Discontinuous bands and lenses of ore have recently been traced over a strike length of 1 km at Tegnahalli. The TiO2 content is stated to range from 4 to 13% and the Fe content in concentrate from 45.56% to 50.92%. 10.3.4 Hassan District Main outcrops are found near Belgumba, Byrapur, Chikkonhalli, Goblihalli, Tagadwo and Jambur. Chemical analysis of magnetite sample from Tagadur, Channaprayapatna taluk is as follows :

Wt% Raw ore

On a rough estimate the Tagdur occurrence may yield 8 MT worked to a depth of 30 m.

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SiO2 Fe TiO2 S MnO Al2O3

0.52 11.44 10.21 0.024 0.52 1.93

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Magnetite concentrate 0.44 65.44 5.17 0.012 0.37 -

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CHAPTER 11 : KERALA 11.1 Introduction

Numerous bands of iron ore (magnetite) varying in strike length from a few tens metres to few kilometres have been reported from charnockite and gneissic groups of rocks. The more important bands are those around Calicut ­ Kojhikode town and in the Nilambur ­ Manjeri area. The important occurrences are Cheruppa, Eleyettimala, Nanminda, Naduvallur,East and West hill, Alampara, and Korattimala.

11.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits

11.2.1Calicut-Kojhikode Districts Regional geological set up: Regionally the area represents a Precambrian meta-sedimentary sequence. The main rock type forming the chain of the hillocks appear to be fine to medium grained garnetiferous and non-garnetiferous biotite gneiss with a little diopside, hypersthenes and blue green amphibole at places and constitutes the country rock. Discontinuous sheets and lenses of fine to medium grained quartz- grunerite- diopside gneiss (QGD-gneiss) with varying proportion of magnetite are seen within the country rock (biotite gneiss). The QGD- gneiss can be divided into the following groups1. QGD- gneiss with 5 to <30% magnetite by weight. 2. Magnetite-quartz- grunerite- diopside gneiss (MQGD- gneiss) with 30% and over magnetite by weight. 3. Quartz- diopside- hypersthene- hornblende gneiss with only accessory magnetite and intercalated with thin bands of ganrnetiferous biotite-diopside and biotite- hornblende gneiss. Among these MQGD gneiss constitutes the iron formation of Calicut area. Structure: The sequence of rock has undergone more than one phase of deformation synchronous with metamorphism. The earlier structural elements are greatly modified by later deformation. But the general boundary of formation follows the variation in the trend of foliation. The major shear has effected the iron formation resulting in a break in the outcrop continuity. In some places dolerite dyke intersects iron ore but no prominent mineralogical changes are observed in the iron ore formation. Genetic consideration : A meta-sedimentary origin may be attributed to the iron ore formation based on the following observations1. The iron ore formation is a sheet like body without showing any cross cutting or intrusive relationship. 2. The alternate laminae are regular and continuous over a long distance. 3. The association of calc-granulite and impure crystalline limestone are sedimentogenic within iron formation. 4. The prominent mineral assemblage of grunerite. 5. The deficiency in elements like Ti, V that feature is characteristics of meta-sediments.

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Economic geology : The MQGD-gneiss can be broadly divided into oxidized and unoxidized zone. On the surface the iron ore are generally in oxidized state. It is limonitised, leached and lateritised to a varying degree. The unoxidized iron ore rock is dark coloured, massive, hard and compact. It is usually coarse grained being composed of quartz, magnetite and grunerite. Depending on proportion of constituent minerals and intensity of oxidation the iron formations are categorized in different grades. Generally in the oxidized zone the total iron content is much higher than in the unoxidized part. Chemical analysis of samples from both oxidized and unoxidized part shows that deleterious elements like S, P, TiO2, V etc are within permissible limit. Utility and mineability : There is no standard specification for utilization of magnetite deposit as an ore of iron. For minability following criteria to be considered as potential source 1. It should contain over total 20% Fe in the form of oxide. 2. It should yield at least 1/3 of its weight as magnetic concentrate. 3. The magnetic concentrate should contain 60% total Fe. Description of individual deposits: Eliyettimala block : Location: It is located 4 Km NW of 8/2 mile stone of Kojhikod-Balusseri asphalt road and falls are toposheet no. 49 M/15.

Geology: The ore bearing MQGD gneiss is a 1520m long NE-SW trending ridge rising to a height of 161.5 m. from m.s.l. It is in the form of a SW plunging overturned anticline cross folded at its eastern end into SW plunging synform. The general boundary has a "v" shaped outline. Joints are very prominently developed. Economic geology : Ore in the MQGD-gneiss on the surface is in oxidized state. Preliminary exploration aided by drilling indicates that iron formation has an average true thickness of 21m.on southern limb and 15m. on the northern limb and 14-50m on the crest of the fold. The formation universally grades upward, downward and laterally into a pyroxene gneiss and granulite with 5-30% magnetite by weight and finally into the country rock. The zone of intense oxidation extends to an average depth of 40m from surface.

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Reserve and grade: The reserves estimated up to drainage level are as followsNature of ore Grade of Fe in % Reserve in million tonnes Probable Possible Total 1.49 3.01 31.46(25.23% in magnetite form) 4.50 7.35 7.30 39.44 (9.27% in magnetite form) 14.65 0.05 0.05 Do _ 8.84 10.36 19.20

Insitu unoxidised Insitu oxidised Float ore Total Reserve

Quantum of work done:

Mapping ( 1:2000 ) Drilling logg required Sampling

Economic geology: Preliminary investigation by drilling reveals that vertical thickness of ore body varies from 2m. near the margins to slightly over 16m in the middle portion of synformal strips. Most of the formation is exposed on the surface and is entirely in a highly oxidized state. There is little float ore though a few individual and detached boulders of the formation are seen. The ore can be mined, powdered and concentrated easily as it is in a highly weathered and friable state. The whole formation is lateritised, intensely limonitised and leached as exposed fully on the surface. Reserve and grade: The reserve estimated up to drainage level is as followsNature of ore 1st and 2nd synform 3rd synform Total Reserve

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Geology: The iron bearing QGD- gneiss is underlain by medium to fine grained biotite gneiss (country rock) and shows gradational contact with other rock types. The formation is exposed as three doubly plunging synforms. There are a number of cliff and scarps in MQGD-gneiss especially in the eastern spur.

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Grade of Fe in % 41.24 41.24 -

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Nanminda block : Location : It is situated about 3 Km ENE of Eliyettimala and just to the west of 12th milestone on Kojhikode- Balussari road and falls in Toposheet No.49M/15.

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Naduvallur block : Location : It forms the western part of the twin hillocks situated just to the west of 12th milestone on the Kojhikod- Balusseri road the block falls in Toposheet No. 49M/15. Quantum of work done:

Geological mapping( 1:2000 ) Drilling Sampling and chemical analysis : 1.3 sq. km. : 1581.60 m : 165 ( core), 17 (chip)

Geology: Geology and structure are similar to Nanminda block. The iron ore formation occurs as three doubly plunging synformal patches and is mostly exposed on the surface. Economic geology : The total exposed area of the band is about 0.17 sq. km having three synclinal patches covering 0.05, 0.075 and 0.04 sq. km respectively. The whole iron formation in this area is intensely lateritised , limonitised and leached. In the exposed area the formation is in oxidized state and in unoxidised state at few places where overlain by other formation. Preliminary investigation by drilling indicates that the vertical thickness varies from just 1m near margin to 40-50m in the trough of synclines and in the areas of local recumbent folding.

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Nature of ore Insitu unoxidized Insitu oxidized Oxidized (slump) Total Reserve

Cheruppa : Location : The area falls under the Topo sheet No.49M/15. Quantum of work done :

Geological mapping ( 1:2000 ) Drilling Sampling and chemical analysis : covering the entire area : 200 m. : Nos. not available

Geology : Iron ore occurs as magnetite-quartz-diopside-hypersthene rock in the form of steeply dipping discontinuous band over an aggregate strike length of 675m in ENE-WSW direction.

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Reserve in million tones Probable Possible 3.73 5.46 0.38 0.22 9.19 0.60

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Grade of Fe in % Total 3.73 5.84 0.22 9.79 33.70 (24.10% in magnetite form) 38.99 (16.44% in magnetiteform) do

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Economic geology : Drilling has indicated that iron ore body has thickness varying from 44-56m. above the drainage level(10m. m.s.l.) with a reduced thickness . The ore is oxidized in the top 40m depth. Reserve and grade :

Oxidized ore (M t) 3.24 Unoxidized ore (Mt) 7.48 Total (in million tones) 10.72 Average grade of Fe(%) 31.74

East and West hill bands : Location : The area falls under the Topo sheet No.49M/15. Quantum of work done :

Geological mapping ( 1:2000 ) Drilling and logging Sampling and chemical analysis : 0.1 sq. km. : 1400 m. : 167 Nos.

Reserve : Reserve is in the order of 68000 tonnes of unoxidised ore. Alampara area : Location : It is situated at a distance of about 20 Km NNE of the Nanminda- Naduvallur block and about 6 Km east of Peruvannamuzhi, the site of irrigation dam on Kuttiyadi river Toposheet No. 49M/14. Quantum of work done :

Geological mapping ( 1:2000 ) Drilling Sampling and chemical analysis : 0.90 sq. km. : 3768.51 m. : 439 drill core sample, 65 chip sample.

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Economic geology : Drilling has indicated that band is about 40m in width and extends for a length of about 1700m. The East and West band actually forms the southern and eastern part of funnelshaped east plunging isoclinal trough, the northern limb of which is disconnected as seen from the detached outcrops on the Tourist Bunglow hill . Unlike the other major deposits the east and west hill band makes up a low ridge (hardly 10m above the surrounding plain in the heart of Kozhikod town.

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Geology : The band of magnetite- quartzite skirting the East and West hill in the northern part of Kojhikode town occupies an area of 0.1 sq. km. It occurs in the form of a hook shaped body with a strike varying from E-W to ENE-WSW and finally E-W at the eastern extremity.

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Geology : Regionally the area forms a part of Precambrian metamorphic complex. The chief rock types are biotite and biotite-hornblende gneisses belonging to the gneissic group . The following succession of the rock formations is established from the outcrops and borehole dataDolerite dyke Quartz-pegmatite & aplite veins Quartz- sericite- chlorite schist Biotite- gneiss and granulite Grunerite gneiss and granulites Magnetite-quartz- grunerite- gneiss (MQG-gneiss ) Biotite and biotite-hornblende gneisses Structure : Iron ore formation (MQG- gneiss ) interbedded with biotite- hornblende gneiss occurs in the form of an isoclinal synform plunging at 50-55° towards SSE with reverse eastern limb and normal western limb both dipping towards ENE at an angles varying from 60°-80°. The general boundary of MQG- gneiss outcrops sympathetically follows the variation in the trend of foliation and consequently attains a "U" shaped outline around peak point at the northern end of Alampara ridge. Strike and dip joints are well developed in MQG gneiss. Lateritization took place along the joint planes. Economic geology : The ore bearing MQG-gneiss is well exposed in the area forming cliffs and steep dip slopes. The iron ore formation exposed as bands and lenses stretching over a total length of 2660m. with an outcrop width generally varying from 20m-40m and spread over a total strike length of 3200m. On the surface the MQG gneiss as a whole is weathered and oxidized due to which magnetite is altered in varying degree to haematite, limonite and goethite .The iron ore formation exposed as two sub parallel discontinuous bands trending in a general NNW-SSE direction. The western band is exposed over a total distance of 1560m with a gap of 540m and eastern band is exposed over a strike length of 100m with a gap of 60m. Both the bands are connected at the northern end and distance between them gradually increases towards southward. The true thickness as indicated by bore hole data varies from 20m-60m.on the limb and attain a maximum of 145m on the trough of the fold . The zone of oxidation extends to a depth varying from 30-40m from the surface. Reserve and grade : The total reserve of iron ore estimated above drainage level of 44m m.s.l. is 35.2 million tonnes made up of 8.99 million tonnes of oxidized ore containing an average of 35.58% total Fe and 26.21 million tonnes of un-oxidized ore with an average Fe content of 35.22%. In addition, a possible reserve of 16.6 million tonnes of un-oxidized ore is estimated in 100m depth range below drainage level. In both types of ore deleterious elements are found within permissible limit.

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11.2.2 Mallapuram District Korattimala deposit : Location : The Korattimala hillock is situated at a distance of about 4 Km north of Chungathara village on Nilambur- Gudalur road and falls in Toposheet No. 58/7 and nearest railway head is Nilambur town. Quantum of work done :

Geological mapping ( 1:2000 ) Drilling Sampling and chemical analysis : 0.71 sq. km. : 821.59 m. : 244 Nos.

Economic geology : The ore body spreads over a strike length of about 1920m. in an approximate N-S alignment with a gentle curve or arcuate shape with its convexity towards east with a minor break in the middle. Dilling has indicated that in south of this break the ore body stretching over a strike length of 1180m has an average thickness of 20m and in north the band spreads over a length of 740m having an average thickness of 8m. There is a considerable thickening and thinning of ore body along strike. On the surface, iron ore formation is generally in oxidized state . It is limonitised , leached and lateritised to a varying degree. Depending on proportion of constituent minerals and intensity of oxidation the deposit of wider southern half of 1180m strike length is comparatively of good quality than the northern 740m where it is thinner and of inferior quality. Reserve and grade :

Type of ore Southern part of ore band Reserve in Grade of Fe Million Tonnes in % 1.89 37.72 2.52 33.57 Northern part of the ore band Reserve in Grade of Fe Million Tonnes in % 0.22 35.2

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Oxidized ore Un-oxidized ore

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Structure : The MGQ is characterized by alternate layering of magnetite-grunerite and quartz. The banding shows parallelism with formational contact. At the southern end of the ridge the litho layers in the MGQ strike in E-W direction. Towards north the strike gradually swing from ENE to NE. The dips steeply towards NNW or NW at 70-85° except in the northernmost part where dip varies between 50-80° towards SE and ESE. Locally the ore body is vertical.

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Geology : The principal rock types encountered here are hornblende-biotite-gneiss, biotitegneiss, granulites, grunerite schist and magnetite-grunerite-quartzite (MGQ) or iron formation.

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11.2.3 Kottayam District Minor magnetite iron ore bands occur west of Kaliyar Estate, in Kotapara, northwest of Idikki, Kalliparamudi, south of Panamkutty and in Nullaninad area. The magnetite quartzite bands are impersistent and magnetite content in these bands is low. An impersistent band of magnetite quartzite with a maximum width of about 25m was noticed between Render and Eranalu. 11.2.4 Palghat District Numerous thin bands of magnetite quartzite were located in Palghat district. In the Attapady valley five such bands were locatedi. ii. iii. iv. v. Between Galachimala, Narosimanokai, Malleshwaram Malli. Near Anakatti check-post. Between Sriveni estate and Munarghat. South of Sriveni estate. Between Sriveni waterworks Muttikulum and Singaparai.

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11.2.5 Quilon District Lateritic iron ore occurrences are seen in the vicinity of Mulavana and Tonipana near Nellitti. The iron content varies from 25.17 to 37.13 %.

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Other occurrences worth mentioning include the magnetite-quartzite bands in the vicinity of Kilur, Mannambatti, Karivallur, Valur, Nadupati, NW of hill 2031, and west of Elival.

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CHAPTER 12 : MADHYA PRADESH 12.1 Introduction :

Most of the major iron ore deposits of former M.P are now located in newly formed Chhatisgarh state. In the present Madhya Pradesh smaller iron ore deposits occur in Jabalpur, Chattarpur, Gwalior, Betul and minor occurrences in Jhabua, Nimor, Rajgarh, Sagar, Satna, Sidhi, Tikamgarh, Mandsaur dist. etc. Among these districts, Jabalpur is the richest in comparison with other districts. In most of the areas iron ores are developed in association with Bijawar (Dharwarian) rocks consisting mainly of micaceous, siliceous and manganeferous haematite with some limonite. The Banded ferruginous rocks are the chief source of iron ore. Lateritic ore consisting of limonite and goethite are also common. The ore bodies may be massive, hard laminated or lateritic. 12.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposit 12.2.1 Jabalpur District The iron ores of Jabalpur are confined to the north eastern part of the district. It is associated with a belt of Bijawar (Dharwarian) rocks and consisting of mainly micaceous, siliceous and manganeferous haematite with some limonite and lateritic ore. Description of the major deposits are given belowDeposit of Kanhwara Plateau: Location : The iron ore bearing Kanhwara plateau is located at a distance of about 11 km. NE and falls on (T/S No. 64 A/5) of Katni town. The village Kanhwara is at 3 km from Patwara in Murwara tehsils. Three iron ore bands occur here correspond to top, middle and lower band in the plateau. Geology and structure : The iron ore deposits occur within rocks of Bijawar series of Archaean age. The Bijawar series consist of phyllite, quartzites, marbles with mangniferous banded hematite jasper, quartzites and micaceous laminated iron ores are exposed extensively in the middle part of the region. They show a general strike in ENE ­ WSW direction with variable dip. Description of Iron ores : The iron ore occurs as irregular and detached bands. It occurs intimately associated with the lower pisolitic and oolitic laterites in the form of bands separated by weathered lateritic material. The iron ore is oolitic as well as pisolitic and mixed type with ferruginous and siliceous groundmass. It varies in thickness from few cm. to as much as 1.4 m . There are three prominent bands of iron ore. The ore bodies exhibit disturbances, as they are not horizontal in the central parts of the plateau. On the flanks they show gentle dips in the slope direction. Besides the main Kanhwara plateau, the iron ore bands are also located near village Chaka, Parwara, Kailwara.

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Reserve and grade : Out of the 10.52 sq. k.m. area of Kanhwara plateau, the iron ore covers 10.267 sq. k.m. Total estimated reserve of iron ore is 23.29 million tonnes under 71.178 million tonnes of over burden of rock laterite out of which 14.158 million tonnes ore are recoverable with an economic stripping ratio of 1:3 (iron ore: overburden). Grade of the reserve is good with 57% Fe content. Other occurrences/deposits : Agaria : The ore consists of soft micaceous haematite with a thin capping of laterite exposed on a hill half a mile to the south of the village. The laterite capping might supply about 750000 tonnes of ore, containing 45.67-58.58% Fe. Bijori : The pisolitic limonite ore occurs in inconsistent bands at a depth of 2-3 ft below the surface. The average thickness of the ore body is 3-9 ft. Two sample from this area yielded 56.84% Fe and 50.20%Fe respectively. Dharampur-Goshalpur : Numerous bands of micaceous and manganeferous haematite having apparent thickness of 50 ft are found in this region. The ores are of lateritic character and do not continue at depth. A sample from Goshalpur yielded 57.10% Fe and 1.69% P2O5. Ghogra : The ore here is similar to Goshalpur deposit. The haematite ore contains 46.43 % Fe,12.26% Mn. Jauli : The ore is a semi-ocherous haematite interbanded with quartzose layers with a total thickness of about 150 ft. Imilia : Pisolitic limonites containing 52.66% to 54.47% Fe have been reported from this area. Saroli : Two hillocks at the south of the village consist schistose and micaceous haematite. A reserve of 3 million tones with 64.55--68.20% Fe had been estimated. Silondi : Two bands of siliceous haematite, occur close to the Sihora railway station. The ore is fairly hard but irregular in quality containing only 45-50% Fe. A part of the ore is manganeferous containing 20% Mn. 12.2.2 Chhatarpur District : General Description : The iron ore deposits are mainly associated with the Bijawar series, although lateritic iron ores of Vindhyan age are also found. The Bijawar series lies over the Budelkhand Gneiss, the rocks being conglomerate, breccias, quartzite jaspery quartzite, haematitic shale and quartzite, slates, fine grained and compact sandstone limestone and basic volcanic rocks. Excepting the basic volcanic rocks the Bijawar series is in general of sedimentary origin. The rocks of this series have a general ESE-WNW strike and dip towards SSW, the amount of inclination varying between 30° and 40°. Three varieties of iron ore are met with (1) The massive hematite, occurring in bands of red hematite shale. (2) The nodular variety found practically at all levels in the lower Bijawars. (3) The lateritic iron ore of Vindhyan age. The massive hematite occurring in the haematitic shale overlies the ferruginous quartzite of the Bijawars and has been found at places to underlie the Semri sandstone of Vindhyan age with a zone of unconformity in between.

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Description of the Deposits : Dalipur : The Dalipur hill (1599), immediately to the east of Dalipur village contains band of massive haematite which occur at a height about 60m from the surrounding country level. It is the only bedded deposit of fairly large size. Haematitic shale begins to outcrop in the NNE, end of this hill from a height of 45m. and continues up to a height of about 60m. It overlies the ferruginous haematitic quartzite of the Bijawars. These deposits had been considerably worked in the past. The reserve is of the order .024 million tonnes. Nimkhera : A bed of lateritic iron ore is met with at Nimkhera near Shahagarh resting at the top of the Vindhyans with which it is genetically connected. The ore body appeared to extend in SW towards Chandanpura in the erstwhile Panna state and several small iron ore pits were also observed.

12.2.3 Balaghat District : Earthy lateritic iron ore is worked on a small scale about 1452m ENE of Baspahra. 12.2.4 Dewas District : Iron ore occurs in the area between Bainand Sendrani. The original rock appears to have been a haematitic shale at the base of the Vindhyans, but iron ore also occurs lining fissures and hollows in the underlying Bijawars and in the form of nodules and lumps in the disintegrated surface rock. P.N.Bose mentions two localities where iron ore had been worked namely-NE of Bhaurikhera, where the ore is said to be very rich, occurring close to a fault line between the Vindhyans and Bijawars and SE of Jhirpania.

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Chungwah : About 1.6 km to the east of the Barkhan quarry another old quarry locally known as Chungwah khadan is located on the Barkhan hill where the haematitic shale bed outcrops at an altitude of 405m. and continues upward up to a height of 420 m In Chungwah quarry , the solid band of haematite is about 6m thick and occupies the bottom portion of the shale bed. Besides the above described iron bodies occurring high up on the scarps, a kind of nodular iron ore is found practically at all levels in the lower Bijawars. The following villages are worth mentioning for the working of this variety of iron ores : Gulat, Andhiar, Amronia, Chopra , Bajno, Karri and Kotta.

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The Brankhan hill, south of Deora is the location of another iron ore deposits . Haematitic shale begins to outcrop in the western end of the hill from an altitude of about 411.48 m. and continues up to the height of about 426.72 m. Here it overlies the quartzitic sandstone of the upper Bijawars and underlies the Semri sandstone with a zone of unconformity between them. The massive haematite occurs as a bedded formation of about 3.66 m. thickness with ENE-WSW strike and a gentle slope towards SSE. The reserve has estimated of about 2.0 million tonnes.

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12.2.5 Dhar District : Extensive quarries of iron ore are mentioned by Oldham having been formerly worked in the neighborhood of Bagh. The ore is light yellow haematite occurring as a vein having a thickness of 3m to 4.5m. thickness in sandstone. 12.2.6 Gird District : Iron ore was formally worked on a somewhat extensive scale at Par hill and other localities in the neighborhood. The ore consists of haematite occurring as thin laminae in variegated clays resulting from the decomposition of jaspideous shales and forming the lower portion of the Morar Group, or upper member of the Gwalior series. Layers of haematite occur throughout the whole formation, the thickness of which amounts to about 600m, but it is only in places where the silica has been dissolved away that the ore is workable. Mines were also worked at Mangor and Santow and to a smaller extent at intervening places. In all cases the ore occurs under the same conditions as at Par hill. A series of samples from varies localities gave an average yield of 66% Fe. P.N.Bose mentioned occurrences of iron ore at Barwa. The ore occurs in Bijawars breccia in a band 3m to3.5m thick. The ore was also obtained from Chiktimodri, Karondia, Mendikhaira and Nandnia. 12.2.7 Betul District : Iron ore occurrence have been located at Kamatpur hill near Amdhana and Ankawari. 12.2.8 Jhabua District : Small deposits of iron ore occur at Pipled and on the Sanar river. 12.2.9 Nimor (Khandwa) District : Iron ore occurs in the northern part of the district along the valley of the Narbada river. The ores are invariably haematite obtained from breccias occurring in the Bijawar series near their junction with the Vindhyans or from surface accumulation of debris formed by disintegration of the same rock. Important localities are Bellora Chandgarh, Khudia and Mohla, Matniand in Bijawar breccia. Simillar ores have also been worked near Kajberi, Nimkhera and Lemekheria and Sonatalai in the adjoining Hoshangabad district. 12.2.10 Rajgarh District : Haematitic laterite derived from alteration of Deccan trap occurs over a wide area near Khilchipur. Analysis of laterite sample shows 63.57% Fe, 15.00 % Al2O3 and 12.09 % SiO2. 12.2.11 Sagar District : Lateritic iron ore associated with Bijawar rocks occurring at Hirapur 1.6km north of Dewal and about .8 km west of Samos is highly ferruginous. Occurrence of ferruginous laterite have also been reported from Jamundana and Babukabari. Analysis shows 64.25% Fe2O3 and 0.02% P. 12.2.12 Satna District : Iron ores in the form of limonite occurs as segregated patches in laterite about 1.6km west of Amgar.

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12.2.13 Sidhi District : Iron ore deposits associated with banded haematite quartzites of Bijawar series are noted over a distance of 32 km at a number of localities, the important ones being, Namboah, area between Khoddi and Baropole where several million tones of ore of all grade are expected to be available. Two veins of magnetite associated with basic and ultra basic rocks have been recorded near Bugawari and Panwar. 12.2.14 Tikamgarh District : Iron ore associated with banded haematite quartzite occurs on a small scale with ferruginous shale in the hillocks of Dhaukan, Majaryana, Toria and Urdauria, situated to the north of village of Dhaurra. 12.2.15 Gwalior District : Occurrence of iron ore was reported near Mangor. Lenticular ore bodies are found in the banded haematite jaspery shale of the Morar stage by local enrichment. Total estimated reserve is about 0.13 million tones. 12.2.16 Mandsaur Jat area (Toposheet No. 45L) : The iron ore occurs in association with sandy and ferruginous shales mostly within Rewa quartzite. Iron ores are found in the vicinity of village Taroli and Amartia. In the Taroli village siliceous haematite band is about 80 m long with a thickness of 0.60m. In Amartia ore body is about one metre thick and extends over a length of 100m. and the ores are mainly limonite and ferruginous laterite. The ore body is massive, concretionary haematite irregularly concentrated in ferruginous earthy sandstone. The ores in Toroli have been mined to a considerable extent in the past. Chemical analysis of the samples show maximum iron content up to 46.33%. The quality of the ore is vary poor and economically not important. Besides this minor occurrences, iron ore have also been reported from Pardha, Ratangarh, Ghati, Lalpura and Loharia. 12.2.17 Narsimhapur District : Tendukhera-Umrepani area (Toposheet No. 55I) A patch of cherty ferruginous Bijawar quartzite together with dolomite is seen occupying the low mounds in the area south of Umrepani. The iron ore horizon measures roughly 300m ­50m. where mining was carried out on a small scale in the past. The trend of the dolomitic bands in general NE-SW. Although the continuity of the ore body has not been traced out the major portion of the ore body appears to have been worked out for smelting of iron in the past. The ore consists mainly of massive haematite with average 67.87 % Fe. But the deposit is not considered to be of any economic importance due to large scale exploitation in the past.

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CHAPTER 13 : MAHARASHTRA 13.1 Introduction :

In Maharastra, iron ore deposits are found associated with the iron ore group of Archaeans. It comprises older schist and unclassified crystalline overlain by metamorphosed sedimentary rocks such as quartzite, banded ferruginous quartzite, schist, phyllites etc. These metasedimentary rock formations are intruded by dolerite, granite, gneisses etc. The iron ores are derived from banded ferruginous quartzite by leaching of silica. The economically viable deposits in Maharastra occur in Chandrapur, Gadchiroli, Bhandara and Sindhudurg districts. Minor occurrences are reported from Nagpur, Nanded, Satara and Yavatmal districts of Maharastra. They are mostly concentrated in the Vidarbha region where ore bodies occur as lenses in banded haematite quartzite belonging to `Iron Ore Series'. The ore minerals are mainly haematite and magnetite. Ore geology : Most of the deposits are BHQ of sedimentary origin. The alternating bands are the products of chemical sedimentation. This banded iron ores are enriched by process of weathering and leaching of iron. It may get concentrated near the surface and form laterite deposit which are very extensive in Maharastra. Besides this, titaneferous magnetite deposits of igneous origin are also found here e.g. Khursipur deposit of Bhandara district. The types of ores are mainly lateritic, massive, laminated or biscuity and friable or powdery (blue dust) and also partially leached BHQ. Reserve: Total reserve of iron ore in the state have been estimated to be 235 million tonnes out of which 182 million tonnes are in Vidarbha region. 13.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits 13.2.1 Sindhudurg District : In this district there are several localities where iron ore deposits are found to occur. Among these Redi deposit is highly potential and major one. Geology : The geological formations of this area belong to Dharwarian age. The ore bodies are associated with Banded haematite quartzite, ferruginous quartzite,and ferruginous phyllite which occur mostly below thick cover of laterite. The geological succession is as follows. Laterite Igneous intrution Granite and granite schist Quartzite and BHQ and phyllite The iron ores are derived from BHQ by supergene alteration and leaching away of silica and simultaneous enrichment of iron oxide. Description of the individual deposits are given below.

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Redi deposit Location : Redi is a small village situated on the west coast just north of the Goa border on the southernmost part of the Sindhudurg dist. restricted Toposheet No.48E/10. The area is approached by a motorable road from Savantvadi, a distance of about 48 km. which remains open throughout the year. Vengurla port is at a distance of 19.7 km. from north of Redi. Quantum of work done :

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Reconnaitory geological mapping ( 4" - 1 mile ) Detailed geological mapping ( 1: 2500) Topographical survey with theodolite Pitting, trenching and sampling Drilling Chemical analysis of samples : Not available : 3.36 sq.km.

: 40 bore holes : Nos. not available.

Geology : The area comprises the rocks of Dharwar of Precambrian age which includes mainly BHQ, phyllite, ferruginous quartzite and are covered by thick capping of laterite. Granites and granitic gneisses have been seen intruded into Dharwar rocks. The general strike of the geological formation is found to be WNW-ESE to almost EW dipping towards north and the amount varies between 20° to 60°. The Dharwa of rocks are folded. Ferruginous quartzite and B.H.Q. are the most important rock types giving rise to extensive deposits of iron ore mainly in Redi area. The entire area is under a thick cover of laterite. Three borehole drilled by GSI indicate a total stratigraphic thickness of 350m. assuming that the dip is 45° towards north. The geological succession around Redi deposit is as follows.

Recent and sub-Recent Extrusives Intrusives Kadadgi series Archaeans Laterite and alluvium Deccan trap Dolerite, chromite-serpentine rock Phyllite, schist, granulite, sandstone and quartzite. Banded haematite quartzite, ferruginous quartzite, phyllite.

Iron ore : In Sindhudurg district, the largest occurrence of iron ore are found in Redi area. The original extensive B.H.Q. rocks have given rise to thick deposit of iron ore. The B.H.Q. forms a ridge 3 km. in length and 67m. in height and the width varies from 200 to 500m.; thickness varies from 5 to 75m.The deposit is isoclinally folded. The ore is mainly of haematite and goethite; haematite content appears more. In Redi, laminated ore is massive, compact and grade into powdery and shaly with depth. The deposit has WNW-ESE to almost E-W strike and the beds dip towards NNE with 20° to 60° dip. Physically five types of ore found in this area are lateritic iron ore, massive iron ore ,laminated or biscuity ore and friable or powdery (blue dust) iron ore and also partially leached banded haematite quartzite as ore. 1. The lateritic ore is mainly confined to the horizon between the laterite and compact iron ore in a zone of 1.5 to 4.5 m immediately beneath the lateritic capping, consisting of limonite, goethite etc.

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2.The massive or hard massive iron ore are found beneath the lateritic capping and also below the lateritic iron ore. Its thickness may be as much as 3 to 6 m. 3.The laminated or biscuity ore, which also occurs below the lateritic iron ore or some lenses below the massive ore are soft and porous. 4.The friable or blue dust ore occurs as pockets and lenses within the laminated ore. 5. Partially leached banded haematite quartzite are very hard and compact rocks.

Grade :

Types of ore Fe content in % Lateritic 55-58 Massive 62-65 Biscuity 58-62 Blue dust 63-66 Partially leached BHQ 45-48

Iron ore : The area comprises four iron ore bodies measuring 300 to 750m in length and spread over a strike length of about 2km. The ore bodies are thin and lenticular, 5 to 35m in width and persist up to a maximum depth of 100m below ground level. The ore bodies are vertical or steeply dipping at 75° to 80° N. In addition 2 to 3 small iron ore bands also occur in the area, which may be extension of the four major iron ore bodies. The iron ore bodies do not appear on the surface, which may be due to pronounced lateritisation of the iron ore outcrops. These iron ore bodies occur as narrow linear tabular bodies extending E-W, generally following trend of the host rock. The ore being powdery in nature is derived generally from ferruginous quartzite intercalated with ferruginous phyllites. The iron ore in the area comprises mainly haematite with less magnetite and goethite. Near the surface it is compact, massive and generally low grade while in depth, the ore is friable powdery with improvement in the grade. There is another block namely Trivade "B" which is covered by laterite. The strike length of the deposit can be traced up to 300 m. Ore is low grade and friable in nature containing 58.03% Fe.

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Geology : The area is represented by the rocks of Dharwar of Precambrian age which include B.H.Q., ferrugenious quartzite, quartzite, phylite, talc schist and chlorite schist, hornblende schist and granitic gneisses. These rock formations are mostly covered under lateritic capping.

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Trivade-Ajgaon-Guldave deposit, Sawantwadi Tehsil : Location : The deposit comes under Souratwadie Tehsil falling on the Toposheet No. 48 E/5,9,13 & Toposheet No. 48E/10,14.

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Reserve : Total workable reserve estimated is 36.66 million tonnes of which 33.96 million tonnes are of blue dust and powdery ore and remaining 2.7 millon tonnes are of massive ore. Average Fe content in blue dust is 61.74% and that of massive ore is 59.97%. A 80m thick band of iron ore is exposed in the Deccan quarry and it has an E-W strike with a dip of 45° N.

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Reserve : Estimated total reserve is 1.79 million tonnes. Out of these 1.52 million tonnes are of high grade iron ore having on an average 60-63% Fe. Remaining 0.27 million tonnes of iron ore are of low grade containing about 54% Fe. Banda iron ore deposit : Location : The deposit is located at the southern part of the Sawantwadi tehsil and falls in the Toposheet No. 48E/13. Nearest rail-head is Belgaon Quantum of Work Done :

Geological mapping ( 1: 1250 ) Pitting and trenching 8 trial Drilling in North : 1.43 sq. km. : Pits and 1 trench covering a strike length of 100 m. : 10 boreholes Galel area

Reserve : Estimated reserve of low-grade ore is 0.8 million tonnes with 51.25% Fe and that of high grade ore is 2 million tonnes of laminated ore with 60.27 % Fe. Sateli ­ Satarda deposits : Location : The area falls in the Survey of India Toposheet no - 48 E/5-9, 48E/13,48E/14 and is located at the extreme southern end of Sawantwadi taluk. Nearest railway station is Belgaum. Quantum of work done :

Geological mapping ( 1: 63,360 ) Drilling in m. : 20 sq. km. : 710.40 m.

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Ore geology : The area exhibits parallel alternate stretches of laterite and schist, the laterite stretches often coinciding with belts of iron ore and called as Mn ore bearing iron ore formation. The alternate parallel iron formation and schist zone follow closely the N-S trend of the hill ranges on the east of the Terekhol river. Near Galet, the N-S trend changes to E-W trend. The area lying east of Banda exhibits a peculiar semicircular outcrop pattern, which is attributed to a major axial depression having NE-SW trend. Two subparallel laterite covered iron formation stretches were identified containing both low-grade laterite ore; having 47 to 54% Fe and high grade laminated ore with 55 to 65% Fe content.

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Geology of the area : The area comprises mostly metasedimentary rocks of middle Dharwar age consisting of quartz chlorite, biotite, hornblende, schist, talc chlorite schist, granulite, ferruginous quartzite and B.H.Q. These rocks are overlain by thick layer of laterite, both primary and secondary type. Primary laterite occurs at highest levels of the hills, whereas the secondary type covers the plains and low-lying areas. Iron ores occur in three hills North Galel hill, Galel-Dingre hill, and West Dongaral hill.

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Geology: Geological formations in Sateli area belong to Dharwars of Precambrian age. Stratigraphic sequence in this area as revealed from borehole data is as follows : Recent Mid Dharwar Laterite Phyllite Partially leached BHQ/iron ore Quartzite/unleached BHQ Talc-chlorite--hornblend schist etc.

Description of the bands: (1) Occurrence of banded haematite quartzite with thin ore bands are seen WSW of the village cutting the nala and the road from Banda to Aronda. This is a westward continuation of Kinala, Kauthani and Satarda deposit. The BHQ appears to be partially leached and the area appears to be promising. (2) About 2.5 Km south of village Thakwana large outcrop of BHQ are seen cutting the nala and the road and extends for a considerable distance towards east and west. Iron ore patches and also manganese ore patches are seen associated with BHQ. (3) The third outcrop in the area is about 400 m. to the east of the road and in the eastern continuation of the deposit described above. It is the laterite covered low lying hill. Thin iron ore bands are seen for a distance of 152 m. with width varying from 9-12m. Reserve and grade : The estimated reserve is 1.79 million tones. The iron is of poor grade which shows 55-56 % Fe and 5.72-6.98 % SiO2. Talwane-Ajgaon deposit : In this deposit iron ore occurs for a strike length of 500 m. The ore body strikes WNW-ESE with high dip towards north. The estimated reserve is 0.62 million tonnes. Average Fe content in ore is about 54.3%.

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Sateli -Talwane deposit : Location : In the vicinity of the Talwane village three discontinuous lenses ranging from 200 m. to 425 m. in length are noticed. The ore body strikes WNW-ESE to NW-SE with 40-50° dip towards NNE-NE.

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Reserve and grade : The estimated reserve is about 2.27 million tonnes of probable category ore. The ore is of low grade which contains Fe 50.71-59.79 %.

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Ore geology : Iron ores are associated with banded haematite quartzite. BHQ are of three types-a) Unleached BHQ, b) Partially leached BHQ, c) Completely leached BHQ i.e. iron ore. In the entire area BHQ has been leached to give rise laminated ore, which can be traced as an ore body for nearly 60 m. having width of 5 m. on average. The ore on outcrop is lateritised and contain 55 % Fe on average.

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Kalne deposit : The iron ore body of this deposit extends for about 500 m. in length and 100 m. in width. This area also contains black iron ore. The estimated reserve is about 3.40 million tones. The Fe content in iron ore varies from 54-56 %. Degva- Bandye deposit : In this deposit the general strike of the ore body is N10°W-S10°E to NS with 58°-70° dip towards west. Friable ore body extends over a strike length of 300 m. The thickness of the ore zone varies from 5-25 m. The lateritic iron ore of this deposit analyses 47.62- 50.85 % Fe and in friable ore Fe content is about 57.93-62.37 %. Phondye deposit : The iron ore body extends for about 800 m. in length and 25 m. in width. The strike of the ore body is in E-W to ESE-WNW direction and the dip varies from 40°-80° towards S or SW. The ore is generally of poor grade containing 52.50-59.20% Fe, 1.28-5.18 % SiO2, 4.1217.32% Al2O3 and 0.66-8.25 % Mn. Dabholi area : Fairly thick bands and lenses of iron ore associated with BHQ occurs about 3.2 Km north of Vengurla on the road leading to Khanoli from Vengurla. Though there has been partial leaching near the surface, workable bands of ore may be met with at depth. Quality of ore is good. 13.2.2 Gadchiroli District : One of the biggest iron ore deposits of Maharastra, Surjagarh deposit is in this district. The other deposits/occurrences of iron ore reported from this district are Bhamragarh hill range, Dewalgaon, Fuser, Damkod-Wadvi hill range etc. Surjagarh deposit : Location : Iron ore deposits of Surjagarh are situated about 3.2 km north of village Bande in Surjagarh hill range falling in Yetapalli forest range in Sironcha tehsil. The deposits can be approached from Chandrapur up to Ahiri by an all weather road and fall in Toposheet No. 65A/2 and A/6. Quantum of work done:

Geological mapping ( 1: 2000 scale ) Drilling Analysis of samples

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Geology : On an average the plain country has an elevation of about 182 to 213 m above mean sea level. The crescent shaped Surjagarh hill range rises to about 608m high above the ground level and is 70km long. The general geological succession of this area is as fallows: Basic dykes Granitic rocks Newer Dharwars : BHQ, quartzite, phyllite and schist. Older Dharwars : Hornblende gneiss/schist and quartzite.

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: 2.5 sq. km. : 1289 m. (14 borehole) : 239 Nos.

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The regional trend of the metamorphics is more or less parallel to that of the arcuate Surjagarh hill range with dip varying from 60° /70 °to 90°. Regionally Surjagarh hill range represent a major isoclinal fold in which the purple phyllite represent the crest of the fold and the two B.H.Q./ cherty quartzite beds and the metabasic schist bands on either side represent the two limbs of the anticline. The fold plunges towards west. This major anticline has itself been cross folded along a N-S plane and further affected by a series of west plunging folds and a set of strike-slip faults. Iron ore deposits occur on the top of the west Wureer and on east Wureer hill and on their flanks and on a ridge trending NNE-SSW about 1km NE of east Wureer hill. These deposits are represented as Malabar deposit. There is no development of iron ores on the northern flank of Wureer hill except some minor bands of sandy ore. In the Malabar deposit 5 lenticular ore bodies have been recorded. All these are located in the southern limb of the Surjagarh isocline. The iron ore occurs with the B.H.Q. and phyllite both but always near their contact with each other. Close association of iron ore with phyllite is seen at some place on the southern slope of the hill. The iron ore here has developed as reef like bodies within the phyllite. In other section it is more prominently associated with B.H.Q. with phyllite, generally as footwall. The ore bodies show trends parallel to the formation boundaries. The development of ore and its depth of leaching and enrichment appears to be more on anticlines than on synclines. The exposed ore can be classified into 3 types:- i) laterite ore ii)massive laminated ore and iii) friable laminated ore. Iron ore: The iron ore of this area appears to have been formed by the combination of the two processes viz (i) by leaching out of silica and further reconstitution and consolidation of the remaining iron with or without any significant replacement of silica by iron. (ii) by replacent of phyllites and B.H.Q. rocks by iron carried by circulating waters. These are primary residual and replacent deposits. There are in all 14 iron bodies of varying dimensions located in the Wureer hill. Apart from these, there is a small iron ore body in the Laiya hill, which is to the east of the Wureer hill. Reserve and grade : The total estimated reserve in Wureer hill in Surjagarh is 138 million tonnes out of which 59 MT is proved ore and 66.6 MT is probable and 12.7 MT is float ore. In Surjagarh range other small deposits with their probable reserves are as follows :

Name of Puski deposit Meta Reserve in 0.450 million tonnes

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Nagal Meta 1.500

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Adoda Gudra 3.000

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The analysis of iron ore (average of 145 samples) at Surjagarh is as follows :

Fe % 63.7566.59 Al2 O3 % 0.84-2.83 SiO2 % 1.82-6.10 P % 0.017-0.076 S % 0.010-0.032

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Katcha & Total Reserve Liaya Meta 2.500 7.450+0.495(float ore)=7.945

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Fuser deposits : Location : The iron ore deposits of Fuser are located about 3.2 km ESE of Mutnoor village and fall in the Toposheet No. 65 A/1. Geology : Banded ferruginous quartzite occupies the central position of the Dharwar inlier. The BFQ is about 181.81m wide towards the eastern margin of the inlier and tapers downward towards the western end. The strike of the B.H.Q. is almost E-W and the dip is towards south at angles varying from 50°- 60°.The iron ore is confined to three lenses. The ore consists of haematite and magnetite. Ore geology : The iron ore is confined to the three lenses and consists of haematite and magnetite. The major block of ore is situated at the western margin of the area. The other blocks are situated to the east. Four small isolated patches of float ore are found on the southern slope of the main iron ore outcrop up to a depth of 1.5 m. Reserve and grade : Fe varies from 60.87-69.81 %, SiO2 from 0.0050-3.02 % and P is about 0.002%. Reserve as estimated by DGM, Maharastra up to a depth of 30 m. is as follows: Dewalgaon deposit : Location : The deposit is situated 0.8 Km south of Dewalgaon village near mile-stone No.14 on the Gadchiroli-Brahmapuri road area falls in the Toposheet No. 55P/11. Warsa is the nearest railway station. Geology : The Kandeswar Pahar, south of Dewalgaon consist of banded haematite quartzite which is associated with the iron ore of this area. The ore bands extends downward from Kandeswar Pahar. The length of iron ore outcrop is about 503 m., width 9-18 m. and depth about 9 m. Reserve and grade : The estimated reserve is 0.23 million tonnes including 5000 tonnes of float ore with average Fe content of 66.09 %. Damkod-Wadvi Hill Range deposits : The range is situated about 12.8 Km east and south east of main Surjagarh deposit and falls in Toposheet No. 65A/10. The area is approachable from village Gatta. In this hill range there are nearly fourteen deposits /occurrences of iron ore. The description of the important individual deposits are given below. a.Damkod Meta deposit-I : The hill is located at about 12 Km from Gatta village. The iron formation BHQ is underlain by quartzite and phyllite and overlain by iron ore and float ore.There are two lenses of iron ore occurring at top of the hill and parallel to each other.

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The ore bodies strike NNE-SSW and measure 47 m x 15 m and 301m x 21m. The grade of the iron ore is 64.51%. The estimated reserve is 2.277m. tonnes. b.Damkod Meta II deposit : It is located at NE of Damkod meta I hill. Among the two ore bodies the main one is at higher altitude and runs almost the entire length of the hill and other at lower level runs in NNE direction along slope. The ore is of high grade. The ore bodies measure 240m x 18m and 109m x 18m.The grade of the ore is 65.23% and the total estimated reserve is3.465 m. tonnes. c. Wadwai-Meta deposit : The deposit is located about 1.6 Km SE of Wadwai village. Ore body outcropping on the top of the hill runs continuously in NE-SW strike direction dipping 65-70° towards NW. The length and width of ore body are 456m and 9-54m respectively. The ore exhibits needle shaped, spherulitic and botroydal forms, characteristics of secondary enrichment. Ore minerals are haematite and limonite. The grade of the ore is 62.83% Fe and the estimated reserve is 2.970 m. tonnes. d. Matvarsi deposit : It is situated at about 2.4 Km south of village Wadwaiand falls under Toposheet No.65A/10. Lenticular iron ore outcrops have been encountered on the top of the hill. Ore body strikes in NE-SW direction dipping 65-70° towards NW. There are in all four iron ore lenses which at places show botryoidal and vesicular structure. The grade of ore is 64.73% and the estimated reserve is 4.477 m. tonnes. e. Chotta Wadwai deposit : It is located at SW of Wadwai hill and NE of Matvarsi hilland falls under Toposheet No.65A/10. Iron ore occurs in the SW part of the hill. The ore is massive haematite and resembles ore of Matvarsi type. The grade of the ore is 63.13% and estimated reserve is 0.866m. tonnes. f. Udakoti deposit : The deposit is situated at 6 Km due SW of Gattaand falls under Toposheet No.65A/10. Iron ore body strikes in NNE-SSW direction dipping 65-70° due NW. Ore body pinches out at both end and at places exhibits botryoidal structure. The grade of the ore is 62.56% and estimated reserve is 1.633m. tonnes. g. Mesmeta deposit : It is situated at 6 Km due SW of village Gatta. It is the largest deposit in this range. There are 9 ore bodies of massive, compact and laminated type. Some ore bodies are secondary,porous with infillings of siliceous and clay materials. Strike of the ore bodies vary from E-W to NNE-SSW. The grade of the ore is 65.91% and estimated reserve is 4.825m. tonnes. h. Kakadguda Meta deposit : It is located at NE of Girdwara village. The ore body connects Layurmeta in the north and Murwada in south. The ore is of very good quality. The estimated reserve is 2.700 m. tonnes. i. Gurunger Meta deposit : It is located at SE of the village Gurunger and 8 Km from Gatta. The deposit strikes in NE-SW direction and dips in NW direction. Ores are massive compact and cherty showing botryoidal andstalactitic structure. The estimated reserve is 1.800 m. tonnes. Bhamragarh hill range deposit : The Bhamragarh hill range falls in Toposheet No. 65A/15 and is located to the south of Surjagarh deposit. In this deposit iron ore occurs as pockets and lenses on the top and the slope of the hill. The general trend is N-S. The iron is lateritic and massive and quality of the

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ore is generally poor. The main deposits with their estimated reserve are given below :

Name of the deposit 1. Padkawada Gudra 2. Ghangra Meta 3. Puhurhur Meta 4. Gundruwaya Meta 5. Pirandil Padvi Meta 6. Float ore Total Reserve in million tonnes 3.725 2.405 0.030 3.091 0.094 0.934 10.279 Grade (Fe%) Data not available

13.2.3 Chandrapur District General Description of the Deposits : Deposits of Chandrapur district are relatively small and are located at Lohara, Pipalgaon, Asola, Dewalgaon etc. Here the rocks of the Pre-Cambrian age consists of a series of schist and banded hematite quartzite which are believed to have been enriched at places to form iron ore. Among these deposits Lohara is the most important deposit. The individual deposits are described below. Asola deposit : Location : The iron ore deposits, located in some low lying hills about 4.0 Km west of Asola inspection bungalow in Brahmapuri tehsil falls in Toposheet No. 55 P/16 and are 19.3 Km from Sindewahi railway station. Ore geology: Lenticular bodies of ore occur in ridges. The strike of the quartzite beds here is N70°W-S70°E. The iron ore lenses appear to be isolated from each other. The ground surface is covered with float and debris. The ridge constitutes three humps and knolls. In the eastern knoll the banded formation is present and the ore has become inferior due to presence of quartz. The iron ore occurs as crystalline haematite having fine to medium grained texture. Reserve and grade: The total estimated reserve in this deposit is 0.4 million tonnes with average Fe content of 62.91%. Chemical analysis of a high-grade ore sample is given belowName of element Percentage the Fe2O3 81.22 FeO 7.90 SiO2 8.25 Al2O3 2.48 P 0.08 S 0.11

Lohara deposit : Location : The deposit is located on the hill .1034 situated at about 1.6 Km south of Lohara village falling in Toposheet No. 55P/11. Alwahi is the nearest railway station. Geology : The iron ore body is associated with the iron ore series which comprises of quartzite and banded haematite quartzite. It is surrounded and intruded by granite. The general strike of

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iron ore body is N30°E-S30°W and shows steep dip of 60° to 80° either towards east or west. The reason of variable dip direction is the dislocation caused by the granitic intrusion in the area. The ore body is seen to have intruded by the granitic material all along its strike length and also along the joint planes in the ore body. Ore geology : The iron ore minerals are haematite and magnetite. The magnetite ores are formed due to granitic intrusion near the contact of the iron ore and granite in the northern and the southern portion of the ore body. The length of the iron ore body is 411 m. and width varies from 131m. at the top to 60.90m. at the northern end. Reserve and grade : The iron ore reserve in this deposit is proved to be 1.5 million tonnes. The quality of ore is found to be very good and average analysis of three types of ores is as follows :

Element in % Fe SiO2 Al2O3 TiO2 P Reef ore 63.1-69.23 0.14-3.24 0.08-1.83 Trace 0.008-0.024 Float ore 51.37-68.68 01.38-11.16 0.02-1.52 Trace 0.010-0.029 Spoiled ore 27.92-54.62 10.70-58.19 00.4-01.40 Trace 0.014-0.028

Reserve and grade : The estimated reserves are of the order of 0.29 million tonnes of which about 63000 tonnes are float ore. The quality of iron ore is very good with average iron content average being 69.62%. 13.2.4 Bhandara District Khursipur deposit : Location : The deposit lies in Gondia tahsil of Bhandara district between Khursipur and Ambetalao and falls in Toposheet No. 64 C/7 titaneferous magnetite ore body containing vanadium occurs in metapyroxinite and amphibolite of Amgaon Group. Ore geology : Magnetite is of high grade, mostly fresh with irregular fractures. Ore is banded, fine grained and is composed of magnetite with minor amount of sulphides, martite, haematite and goethite. Vanadium is present in the lattice of magnetite.

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Geology : Geology of the deposit is similar to that of the Lohara deposit. The deposit forms a lenticular band flanking the hill located about 0.8 Km south of the village. The iron ore body consists of two bands, composed of medium to coarse-grained crystalline haematite. The ore body is 182.8m long, 12.19m wide and 9.14 m thick.

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Pipalgaon : Location : The deposit falls in Toposheet No. 55P/6 and is situated at a distance of 27.3 Km from Talodhi near milestone No. 70 on the Nagpur-Chandrapur road.

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The major band occurs south-west of Khursipur and is 2.6 Km long and 6-45m wide. The ore body strikes NNE-SSW. The form of ore body is lenticular and it gives rise to hills and mounds, which have wide exposures showing insitu boulders of fresh massive magnetite. Limonite and haematite are present as alteration product. The second ore body occurs on the hill .1268 and trends NNE for about 0.8 Km. The average width is about 18.2 m. On the east, float ore has been traced for several Km. in the nala sections. Near Ambatalao the third ore body is exposed on the mounds and strikes NW-SE for 0.4 Km. Insitu boulders occurs along with the rugged exposures. The magnetite veins are genetically related with the pyroxinites, which have been later metamorphosed into amphibolites. Apart from the major ore bodies minor veinlets, lenses and clots of magnetite occur within the associated amphibolites. It is quite likely that, in general, the magnetite is of segregation origin. Reserve and grade : The conservative estimate of reserve of major magnetite bodies in this area up to a depth of 30.4 m. is as followsMajor band 4.30 million tonnes Second ore body 1.60 ,, ,, Third ore body 0.33 ,, ,, ___________________________________ Total 6.23 Million Tonnes

13.2.5 Satara (N) District : Iron ore in the form of nodular haematite associated with laterite is stated as being worked at Mahebaleswar.

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Sample No. 1 2 3

Fe % 54.08 54.66 52.94

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TiO2% 19.67 18.46 14.52

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V2O5% 0.88 (V=0.49) 1.16 (V=0.6) 0.94 (V= 0.52)

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CHAPTER 14 : MEGHALAYA 14.1 Introduction :

In Meghalaya craton, a large alkaline ultramafic carbonatite complex occurs within Proterozoic Shillong Group of rocks around Sung valley in the East Khasi and Jaintia hill districts. It is an oval shaped body covering an area of 26 sq. km and consists of mainly pyroxenite-serpentinite associated with other rocks. 14.2 District wise Description of the Deposits 14.2.1 Jaintia Hill District Apatite-Magnetite occurrences in the Sung Valley Complex, Jaintia Hill district Location : The deposit is located near Sung village; Toposheet No. 83C/2.

Ore geology : In the Sung block apatite mineralisation in the form of apatite-magnetite rock of 6 % P2O5 grade occurs in large lenses of primary segregate along fractures in pyroxenite and in close association with cabonatite. Surface studies and subsurface exploration by drilling established three sub-vertical lenses of apatite-magnetite rock along NE-SW trending fractures. Apatite is often concentrated in the soil around carbonatite and other apatite bearing rocks in Muscot block. Reserve : Data is not available.

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General geology : The major rock types developed within the complex are pyroxenite, serpentinite, ijolite, carbonatite, uncompahgrite (mellite-pyroxene rock) and syenite in reducing order of abundance. In the northwestern part, the pyroxenite with patches of uncompahgrite and magnetite rich pockets predominate up to a NNW-SSE fault plane closely corresponding with the closure of Sung Nala. Drilling and geochemical results indicate significant concentrations of apatite in the southern part of this complex.

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Geological mapping ( 1: 2000 scale ) Chemical sampling Drilling Geophysical Survey Magnetic observation Analysis of samples Radiometric observation

: : : : : : :

0.345 sq. km. 250 Nos. 1200 m. 0.336 sq.km. 863 Nos. 239 Nos. 761 Nos.

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CHAPTRER 15 : NAGALAND 15.1. Introduction :

Iron ores in the form of magnetite with Ni, Co and Cr occur in association with the ophiolite suite of rocks in Nagaland. The ophiolite suite comprises a spectrum of mafic and ultramafic rocks together with some oceanic sediment. It has six lithological units as follows:

i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Ultramafic complex comprising tectonised peridotites and cumulate ultramafics. Gabbroic complex comprising layered gabbros and massive gabbros. Diabasic dykes. Ultramafic and volcanic complex. Plagio-granite. Salumi formation comprising sedimentary deposits interbeded with volcanics The largest deposit occurs near Pokphur village in Twensang district.

General geology : The magnetite occurs on a N-S trending ridge locally known as Matung Sekien hill. The general attitude of the rock is NNE-SSW to NE-SW with dip varying from 35° to 40°W. The sequence of the rock met in this area is as follows : Red and grey soil Rare trace boulder beds Shale, slates and phyllites of `Disang' type Pyroclastic and pebble conglomerate Biotite muscovite Schist Magnetite biotite schist Serpentinite and associated ultramafics Shale, slates and phyllites The magnetic body with pockets of chromite occurs immediately at the base of the pyroclastic and conglomerate with a sharp contact.

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i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

General geological appraisal from air photograph in the scale of 1:50000. Detailed geological mapping on 1:2000 scale. Geophysical investigation (magnetic, electrical, resistivity and S.P) Plane table mapping (1:1000) - 0.61 sq km . Sampling and chemical analysis. Exploratory Drilling

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15.2.1 Twensang District Pokhpur deposit : Location : The magnetite deposit occurs about 2.5 Km east of Pokhpur village and is almost touching the international boundary between India and Myanmer (Toposheet No. 83K/NE). It is connected to Kiphire, which is connected with Dimapur railway station.

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15.2 Districtwise Description of Deposits

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Ore geology : The magnetite band has a strike extension of about one Km and dip extension of about 300 m. The thickness of the ore body varies from 1.2 ­ 12 m. The magnetite ore body occurring on the ridge top strikes NE-SW and dip 30° towards west. At places ore bodies are highly jointed. There is a distinct structural dissimilarity between magnetite and overlying pyroclastic and conglomerate bed. The dark magnetite body is sheet like and bedded, massive with slickensided surfaces and apparently contain little impurities. Generally ore bodies are very fresh looking, its top surface is probably martitised at places. Towards the footwall side the magnetite body imperceptively grades into dark slickensided serpentinite but at places sharp contact are also observed. Reserve and grade :

Name of the block North Block South Block Reserve in million tonnes 1.83 1.62 Remark Exploration by GSI covering 0.17 sq. km area Exploration by DGM, Nagaland, covering 0.14 sq. km area

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CHAPTER 16 : ORISSA

16.1 Introduction : The iron ore deposit of the state occur in five distinct geographic zones namely1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bonai- Keonjhar Gandhamardan Tomka- Daitari Gorumahisani-Badampahar Hirapur

The parent rocks of the iron ore deposits is Banded Iron Formation (BIF), represented mainly by Banded Haematite Jasper (BHJ) or Banded Haematite Quartzite (BHQ) and ferruginous shales. The iron bands are also represented by magnetite, martite, goethite and magnetite-haematite. The BIF along with volcano-sedimentary rock piles constitute Iron Ore Group (IOG). BHJ consists of alternate layer of dark bluish- grey haematite and red coloured jasper and the thickness of the bands varying from 0.5 cm to 1.15 cm. The iron ore bodies are considered to be product of surface alteration of BHJ. The percolating surface and ground water leaching out the silica and fortifying the BHJ with additional iron. Fe content of unaltered BHJ is around 2%-30% while iron content of enriched BHJ varies from 55%-70%. The northern part of the state of Orissa being occupied by the cratonic block of Singbhum is the main repository of iron ore. The Iron Ore Group of rocks with rich iron ore deposits occurs in Keonjhar, Sundergarh, Jajpur, Mayurbhanj, Nawrangpur and Sambalpur districts. These occur in three major belts. The most important belt is the classic Bonai- Keonjhar horse shoe shaped iron ore synclinorium of the Jamda- Koira valley, which occurs over the western fringe of Singhbhum craton, Keonjhar and Sundergarh districts. The elongated horse shoe shaped synclinorium trends NNE-SSW, open on NNE and is spread over an area about 60km X 25 km. The eastern limb features Thakurani, Joda east, Joribahal, Jiling-Langalotta, Jajang and Malangtoli. The western limb features Kiriburu, Bolani, Kalta, Barasua and Khandadar deposits. The top of the ridges of the synclinorium contain high grade ore. The second belt lies in the northeastern part of the state and includes Gorumahisani, Sulaipet and Badam Pahar deposits hosted by Archean greenstone belts. Here the deposits are associated with banded haematite / magnetite-grunerite quartzite and BHJ. The third belt comprises east- west trending deposits of Tomka, Daitari and extending further north westward into Malaygiri of Jajpur and Keonjhar district. A fourth and least important belt lies in Nawarangpur district in the WSW extremity of the state. This belt is co relatable with the supracrustal rocks of adjoining Baster craton of Chhattisgarh-M.P. All these deposits are high grade haematite ore derived from Banded Iron Formation (BIF).

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Geological setting : The area has undergone multiple phases of deformation. The basin geometry is controlled by NNE trending regional fold which is second-generation structure. Depositional setting in the iron ore basin can be viewed in term of four distinct phases of deformationPhase-I Phase-II Phase-III Phase-IV : Volcanic suits (Pillow lava) associated with vertical displacement. : Phyllite, Banded manganese iron, shale units connected to deeper level deposits. : BIF-chemical (and/or biochemical ) deposit- rhythmic sedimentation, stable condition of slopes : Shale unit, slow cessation of restricted condition of deposition.

Stratigraphy : Kolhan group

The major, trace and REE geochemistry of the BIF of this region like their world counterparts indicate one persistent feature and that is these chemogenic rocks devoid of clastic fractions are uniformly deficient in elements other than iron and silica.The BIF shows absence of CO2 S and C and low value of AL2O3 Cao and MgO.

Ore types :

The following table summarises the various iron ore types and their Fe content.

Ore type Massive Laminated Shaly Lateritic Powdery (blue dust) Recemented ore or Canga Characteristics Often hard and compact, widely jointed Soft, porous, friable and often biscuity Shaly texture and brittle Product of alteration of the former types, porous Fine greyish blue, occurs in bands and pockets Brecciated flat beds with subangular haematite boulders and embedded in lateritic matrix Fe content in % 64-68 62-65 61-63 56-58 65-68 58-60

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a) Iron ore band represented by haematite/ magnetite/martite/goethite/specularite. b) The silica band represented by chert/jasper, quartzite. At times these bands are replaced by shale (iron rich) and the rock exists as banded chert shale or banded haematite shale.

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There is a great variation in BIF in term of lithology/ mineralogy of band as follows :

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Newer dolerite Sandstone with shale band .................. Unconformity............................................................ Mafic lava Singbhum granite Iron Ore Group Phyllite and tuffs with manganese and rare dolomites Banded haematite quartzite (overlap) Phyllite and tuffs, Sangramshi conglomerate and basic igneous rock

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About 70% of the total production of iron ore in the state is being contributed by only 7 mines out of about 103 ore producing mines. Status of reserve in Orissa Orissa has remained the second highest producer of iron ore for over last three decades. Most of the deposits are high grade haematite ore derived from banded iron formation (BIF). Veins and lenses type of minor deposits of magnetite particulalrly titaniferous and vanediferous are also present in the state. According to IBM, the recoverable reserve of haematite iron ore in country as on 1.4.95 is of the order of 10,057 million tonnes. Of that, reserve in Orissa is estimated at 3294 million tonnes but DGM inventory as on 1.1.96 reported reserve in the order of 3475 million tonnes.

16.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits

16.2.1 Keonjhar District Thakurani deposit : Location : It covers an area about 19.95 sq. km. (Toposheet No. 73F/8) and located near Noamundi railway station. Quantum of work done:

i. ii. iii.

General geology : Iron ore group of rocks of Precambrian age form the northernmost ore bodies next to Noamundi on the eastern limb of the `U' shaped synclinorium. The ore bodies are little metamorphosed. Major lithounits are banded haematite quartzite, shale, volcanics, sandstone, granite etc. Within the iron formation ore bearing banded haematite quartzite (BHJ) is underlain by tuffs and variegated shale and capped with lateritic soil. Major ore is present between Dhanjori volcanics and Thakurani volcanics. Structurally the deposit consists of three semi parallel ridges forming `W'shaped structure. Rocks are disturbed by numerous NE-SW trending faults. Ore characteristics : Ore bodies are mainly of four types-massive/ hard laminated, soft laminated, powdery and lateritic. Besides these blue dust, float and canga ore are also common as thin capping over BHJ. Soft laminated, blue dust and powdery ore have gradational contact with BHJ. Sometimes pods and lenses are also common. Haematite is the principal ore mineral. Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI, IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 374.00 324.00 439.00 Grade of Fe in % 63.88 64.00 63.66

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Geological mapping (1:1000/2500/10000/15840 scale) Shallow and deep pitting Exploratory drilling and mining

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: 50 sq km. : 46 cu.m. : not known

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Appahatu- Bansapani deposit : Location : It covers an area of 20 sq km. Nearest railway head is Barajamda on SE Rly. Quantum of work done :

i. ii. iii. iv. Large scale geological mapping, topographical survey on (1:1000) Shallow pitting Drilling - 285 m. Core logging and sample analysis. : Data not available : 62 (in Appahatu) 102 ( in Bansapani ) : (12 bore holes in Appahatu and 8 in Bansapani ) : Data not available

Reserve and grade :

Bolani deposit : Location : Ore bearing area occupies 5 km long stretch in eastern slope of Bonai range. Lease covering an area of 1321 hectors held by SAIL. Quantum of work done

i. ii. iii. Geological mapping on 1:2000 scale. Drilling Aditing and deep trial pitting : Data not available : 1500 m. : 1200 m.

Geology : The area is a part of NNE-SSW trending ridge of Bonai-Keonjhar-Singbhum belt and the whole clan of deposit is rested in Iron Ore Group of rocks. Stratigraphically iron ore bearing BHQ is underlain by clayey shale and older volcanics (slightly metamorphosed) and overlain by phyllite, tuffs and newer dolerite.

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Total reserve in million tonnes 17.86

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Geology : The area is a part of NNE-SSW trending ridge of Bonai- Keonjhar- Singbhum belt and comprises little metamorphosed volcano sedimentary sequence of Precambrian age. Ore bodies are associated with BHJ and to lesser extent ferruginous shale and chart. IOG of rocks are underlain by volcanic tuffs, sandstone, conglomerate and overlain uncomformably by Kolhan Group of sediments. The ore exhibits `U' shaped structure with general trend of rocks NNE-SSW and the rocks are subjected to two sets of folding where earlier F1 fold was refolded by F2 giving rise to doubly plunging nature of F1 fold. Ore characteristics : Ore bodies are mainly hard massive/ laminated, soft laminated, friable to powdery and lateritic. The physical and chemical character of ore varies from place to place. Laterite ore occurs mostly at the top of the deposit. Powdery ore occurs in parting and joint filling.

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Grade of Fe in % 64.51

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The area has suffered extensive folding and faulting resulting in transverse creep, brecciation and cross displacement. Two parallel BHQ bands an interspaced by laterite and underlined by tuffaceous shale. Ore characteristics : Iron ore caps the ridge but is better developed on hill slopes as open lenses. Ore types encountered are hard, soft, powdery, friable and lateritic. The grade of ore increases with depth. Silica and alumina contents decrease with depth from 4% to 1% and 5% to 1% respectively. Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 388.00 324.00 324.00 Grade of Fe in % 62.00 63.00 63.00

Malangtoli deposit : Location : There are 48 deposits in this sector covering an area of 200 sq km. (Toposheet No. 73 G/5) Quantum of work done :

i. ii. iii. iv. Geological mapping (on different scale). Drilling Deep pits Shallow pits ( 296 nos)

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Geology : It forms an important part of Singbhum ­ Keonjhar- Bonai group of deposit and occupy the southern tip of famous horse shoe shaped synclinorium. Iron ore group of rocks includes schists, shale, tuffs, phyllite, basic rock, BHJ and BHQ. Stratigraphy is similar to Singbhum-Keonjhar-Bonai belt. Structurally the Bonai range is a folded synclinorium with southern closure comparatively open in nature and plunging gently towards NNE. The whole area undergoes superposed folding. Ore characteristics : Ore bodies are restricted to the top of the ridges and rarely come down to the flanks. Except small patches of massive ore, ore bodies are mainly of laminated variety. Other types o ore are also found here. Weathering has altered the ores to a great extent. Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 608.00 608.00 608.00 Grade of Fe in % 63.00 63.00 63.00

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: : : : 20.0 sq km 20826 m. (in 560 boreholes) 265.50 m. ( in 20 nos.) 533.50 m. (296 nos.)

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Hormoto-Guali deposit : Location : It covers an area of 137 sq. km. and located near Barbil town. Quantum of work done : Large scale geological mapping ( 1:10000 ) :

25 sq km.

Geology : The IOG of rocks consisting phyllite, chert, sandstone, dolomite and BHJ are underlain by volcanic tuffs and overlain by Kolhan sediments capped with laterite. The regional trend of the sedimentary sequence is NNE-SSW to NE-SW with dip varying from 15°-60° towards NW. Ore characteristics : Ores are of many types like massive, laminated, lateritic, recemented (canga) ore. The Fe content varies greatly in different parts of ore bodies.

Name of the estimator GSI, 1984

Total reserve in million tonnes 7.46

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Grade of Fe in % 63.00

Reserve and grade :

i. ii. iii.

Regional mapping ( 1:15000 ) Detailed geological mapping ( 1:2000 ) Shallow pitting, exploratory core drilling, sampling and analysis

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Gandhamardan deposit : Location : It is located 16 km away from Keonjhar and connected to Gaddih on BansapaniDaitari rail line of SE Railway.

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Note : The total estimated reserve in this are a is 27.7 M.T. out of which 7.46 M.T. in Guali sector.

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: 40 sq km . : 4.5 sq km . : Data not available

Geology : It is an outlier of Bonai Keonjhar BIF having aerial extent of 3 sq km. It rests around high relief geomorphic unit of Gandhamardan pahar at the south eastern end of synclinorium of Bonai-Keonjhar range. Iron ore group of rocks consists of BHQ, BHJ, phyllite, shale with intercalation of lava flow and dolerite and gritty quartzite. The whole area is folded into series of asymmetrical or slightly overturned anticlines and synclines. The rocks have NNE-SSW strike with generally westerly dip. Ore characteristics : The various types of ore found are massive, laminated, shaly, powdery and micaceous ore. Fe content is generally +63% and it is hard and massive in character and gradually becomes soft at depth.

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Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 249.51 253.00 253.00 Grade of Fe in % 63.00 63.45 65.00

Joda and Khondbandh area : Location : The area forms a part of Singhbhum-Keonjhar iron ore belt. Quantum of work done

i. ii. Drilling (100m X 100m , 50m x 50m) Metallurgical testing of bulk samples Data not available Data not available

Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM

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Jhilling ­Langalotta deposit : Location : The deposit is located in Jhilling pahar and Langalotta pahar and falls in Suvey of India Toposheet No 73J/5. Quantum of work done :

i. ii. Large scale mapping ( 1:15840 ) Detailed mapping ( 1: 2000 ) : 5sq.km. : 2.5sq km

Geology : This is an important part of Singbhum ­ Keonjhar iron ore belt. Iron ore in this area usually occurs on the hilltop of Jhilling and Langalotta pahar. Stratigraphycally BHJ in iron formation is overlain and underlain by shale. The Kolhan group of sediments lie unconformably over the IOG.

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Total reserve in million tonnes 251.80 264.00 342.00

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Ore characteristics : Iron occurs as hill masses and confined within the depth of 100m from the surface. The main ore types are soft, friable/flaky and hard laterite. This deposit is devoid of blue dust and powdery ore. Ore contact is highly irregular and sometimes one variety merges with other.

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Geology : The deposit is disposed in the form of a N-S trending hill mass and form a part of the eastern limb of synclinorium. Stratigraphycally IOG of rocks consist lower phyllitic shale, BHJ in the middle and shale with mafic lava in upper part. Regionally it is a low NNE plunging synclinorium overturned towards SE. Antiformal folds are common.

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Grade of Fe in % +64.00 64-66 64-66

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Structurally it is an asymmetrical synclinorium plunging towards north. The west limb of synclinorium is slightly overfolded and the eastern limb is complicated by folding. In BHJ alternate layers of haematite and jasper are of uniform thickness but local thinning is observed. Ore characteristics : Ore minerals occur as coarse, bladed, fine needles as well as anhedral to subhedral grains. Goethite is the alteration product of haematite and and occurs as replacement product along haematite grain boundary. Massive, brecciated, recemented ore of high grade are common. Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 22.39 87.00 88.00 Grade of Fe in % 62.39 64.00-66.00 64.66

Geology : The unleased iron ore deposits in these areas occur in the central part of the eastern limb of `U' shaped synclinorium plunging in NNE direction, in the north western part of Orissa and adjoining areas of Jharkhand. Ore minerals are found in BHJ/BHQ. The IOG of rocks containing epidiorite, BHJ/BHQ, shale ore overlain by sandstone, grit and capped with recent lateritic soil. Structurally it is similar to Bansapani area. The ore bodies are well jointed and joint direction varies from NNE-SSW to ENE-WSW with steep dip towards east. . Ore characteristics : Ore bodies are mainly laminated and massive steel grey haematite with subordinate amount of limonite and goethite. Often ore is of brecciated variety with subangular fragments embedded in haematite matrix. A large portion of the hillock covered with soil and float ore with occasional isolated outcrop of lateritized haematite and goethite. Reserve and grade :

Area Reserve in million tonnes Grade of Fe in %

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Gorubera 4.5 65.72

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Jolohuri 3.5 +63.00

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Location : These deposits fall in Toposheet No. 73G/5. The whole area has been geologically mapped on 1:63,360 scale.

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Palsa 2.0 66.73 Bamebari 4.0 65.00

Unleased iron deposit of Gorubera, Jolohuri, Kurband, Palsa, and Bamebari in Bansapani area :

Minor occurrences : There are some minor occurrences, which have been reported from different parts of Keonjhar district. Detailed investigation reports are not available about these deposits. But

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estimation of reserve carried out separately by GSI, IBM and DGM, Orisssa is tabulated below :

Name of the deposit Principal ore mineral Haematite (BIF) Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Do Reserve in million tonnes 31.00 42.52 1.84 3.96 5.95 84.00 121.00 8.00 8.00 63.00 40.00 55.00 8.00 59.00 8.94 11.36 8.34 210.00 Grade of Fe in % 62.00 63.80 +63.00 +63.00 64.00-66.00 64.00-65.00 64.00-66.00 64.00-66.00 63.00-65.00 Reserve estimated by GSI GSI GSI GSI GSI GSI DGM IBM DGM IBM IBM DGM IBM GSI GSI GSI GSI DGM

1.Gonua- Gurda and Satkuria 2. Dulki (Thakurani mines) 3. Tiring Pahar 4. Joruri I&II 5. Balda (Burda) 6. Jajang 7. Joribahal 8. Thakurani- BhadrasahiBelkundi 9. Katamati 10. Seramda- Bhadrasahi 11. Bhadrasahi- Koira 12. Kasia 13. Kasi-Barpada 14. Roida I&II 15. Others

Quantum of work done :

i. ii. iii.

Detailed mapping ( 1:2500 ) Drilling Channel and core sampling

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16.2.2 Sundargarh District Balia Pahar, Kherjurdihi, Badampahar : Location : It lies in the eastern part of Malangtoli block and nearest railway station is Barsua.

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Geology : The area forms south-eastern part of Bonai-Keonjhar-Singbhum belt. Ore body extends over a strike length of 2.7 Km from northern slope of Kherjurdihi pahar to Sundargarh-Keonjhar district boundaries in Koira state. The rock types are represented by ferruginous shale, BHJ and chert and stratigraphycally they belong to Iron Ore Series. Lamination in the ore body is most important planar structure trending NNE-SSW to N-S with westerly dip. Ore characteristics : The average width of the ore body is 600m with maximum of 900m in E-W direction in central peak region. Ore types are massive, laminated, blue dust, lateritic, limonitic and

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64.00-66.00 63.00-65.00 63.00-64.00 +65.00 +63.00 63.00 ......... .........

: 1.8 sq.km. : 417.57m. : 450 Nos.

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canga. Ore bodies are generally medium hard and porous to some extent. Goethite, the altered product of haematite occurs along fracture planes and dip slopes. Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 68.80 169.00 Grade of Fe in % 62.30 62.00-64.00

Khandadhar group : Location : The area falls in the Toposheet No.73G/1&2. The nearest railway station is Dumaro. Quantum of work done :

i. ii. Geological mapping (4"=1mile) Pitting, trenching : 70 sq km. : Not available

Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI, 1984 IBM (As on 01.04 95) DGM (As on 01.10.96)

Barsua, Taldi, Kalti area : Location : The area lies on the western limb of horse shoe shaped iron ore synclinorium. Geology : Systematic exploration of iron ore carried out by IBM and drilling was carried out by SAIL at 100m apart in this block. Ore bodies are associated with BHJ/BHQ and ferruginous shale and strikes NE-SW. Ore characteristics : The thickness of the ore body ranges upto100m with an average of 48.8m . Ore types include massive, laminated (hard & soft) lateritic and blue dust.

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Total reserve in million tonnes 200.00 50.00 100.00

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Geology : This is an important sector of Bonai-Keonjhar-Singhbhum belt with high grade ore. Stratigraphycally IOG of rocks are unconformably overlain by Dhanjhori group of rocks and underlain by older metamorphics. Structurally it is a folded synclinorium with southern closure attaining open nature and plunging gently towards NNE. Ore characteristics : The ore of this area is mainly soft and laminated type though hard, massive, brecciated types are also common. Lateritization is widely observed in laminated variety.

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Grade of Fe in % 61.00-63.00 61.00-64.00 62.00-64.00

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Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 451.30 232.00 232.00 Grade of Fe in % 55.00-67.00 59.00-63.00 60.00-63.00

Minor occurrences : There are some minor occurrences, which have been reported from different parts of Sundargarh district. Detailed investigation reports are not available about these deposits. But estimation of reserve carried out separately by GSI, IBM and DGM, Orissa is tabulated below :

Name of the deposit 1. Mankarnacha 2. Mithurda, Diringburu, Rokme, Basada 3. Patraposi group 4. Others Principal ore mineral Haematite (BIF) Reserve in million tonnes 176.00 176.00 24.44 110.00 70.00 100.00 Grade of Fe in % 64.00 62.00-64.00 62.00-64.00 Reserve estimated by GSI DGM GSI DGM DGM DGM

Geology : The deposit is widely separated outcrop towards south-east of Bonai-Keonjhar iron ore belt. Stratigraphycally IOG of rocks are overlain and underlain by metapelites and capped with recent lateritic soil. The area undergoes extensive deformation resulting in isoclinal folding. Almost all rocks are sheared and faulted which resulted in dislocation of beds and formation of breccia along fault plane. Ore characteristics : Haematitic iron ore of laminated and blue dust variety is most common. Gradual changes in mineralogy of iron formation are frequently observed within a short distance. Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 37.72 40.00 40.00 Grade of Fe in % 63.00 62.00 63.00

Tomka deposit : The detailed investigation report is not available about this deposit. The reserve has been estimated separately by GSI and IBM.

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16.2.3 Jajpur District Daitari deposit : Location : The deposit lies to the border of Jajpur and Keonjhar district. Exploratory mining work was done by OMC.

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62.00-64.00 +62.00

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Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI IBM Total reserve in million tonnes 9.70 10.00 Grade of Fe in % ....... 64.00

16.2.4 Nawarangpur District Hirapur-Umrakot deposit : Location : The area falls in the Toposheet No. 65 I/NW. The nearest railway station is Vizinagaram. Quantum of work done :

i. ii. iii. Geological mapping (1:12,6720) Detailed mapping (1:2500) Sampling (channel) : 80 sq km. : 0.503 sq.km. : Data not available

Reserve and grade :

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM

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16.2.5 Mayurbhanj District Gorumahisani, Sulaipat, Badampahar deposit : Geology : The Gorumahisani hill mass with its prominent peak and numerous flank and spurs form a conspicuous feature in topography of this area. Ore bearing IOG of rocks consist of BHJ/BHQ, shale, phyllite etc. There are three distinct parallel lodes measuring respectively 2.3 km, 1.8 km and 1 km. in length and varying from 100 250 m in breadth occur here. Ore characteristics : Ore consists of haematite and limonite. But magnetite is reported from foothill region of Gorumahisani, at south of Kulaisila and east of Sundhal. Ore bodies are massive, laminated. The Sulaipet ore is hard and lumpy.

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Total reserve in million tonnes 2.65 2.12 5.00

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Ore characteristics : Iron ore is associated with BHQ and mostly restricted to hilltop forming a continuous outcrop. Ore body occupies the core of the plunging synform and are classified into insitu massive,laminated, float and lateritic types.

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Geology : It is at the WSW extremity of the state, in small outlier of BIF and probably of same age as Bailadila ore. Stratigraphycally IOG of rocks consisting BHQ, ferruginous schist, shale are underlain by amphibolite, quartzite and overlain by lateritic soil. Ore body occupies the core of the westerly plunging synform. Localised small folds are observed with their axes at high angle with major synform.

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Grade of Fe in % 61.00 60.00-62.00 Not available.

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Reserve and grade a) Gorumahisani area

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 1.00 4.50 7.00 Grade of Fe in % +63.00 63.00 63.00-64.00

b) Sulaipet area

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 0.20 1.50 1.50 Grade of Fe in % +63.00 66.00 66.00

c) Badampahar area

Name of the estimator GSI IBM DGM Total reserve in million tonnes 9.61 5.00 5.00 Grade of Fe in % 58.60 60.00 60.00-62.00

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16.2.6 Sambalpur District A minor occurrence has been reported from Lohakhand- Naibassa hill about which detailed information is not available. GSI has estimated reserve in the order of 50.00 million tonnes.

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CHAPTER 17 : RAJASTHAN 17.1 Introduction :

Small deposits of iron ore are found from Udaipur, Jaipur, Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Alwar, Bharatpur, Bhilwara, and Bundi districts of Rajasthan. Among these the deposits of Udaipur, Jaipur, Jhunjhunu, and Sikar are of some importance. The iron ores are mainly hosted within the Delhi super group of rocks of Precambrian age. The ores of Udaipur and Jaipur districts contain exclusively haematite ore whereas Jhunjhunu and Sikar districts contain both haematite and magnetite deposits. The iron ores are associated with quartzite, mica-schist etc. The Precambrian regional stratigraphy of this area is given below : Phanerozoic group of rocks .................................Unconformity............................................................ .................. P Delhi Super Gr. of rocks Ajabgarh Gr. Quartzite & basic flow, mica schist, phyllite, R slate, dolomite Amphibolite, carbon-phyllite. O Alwar Gr. Quartzite,conglomerate,amphibolequartzite,mica-schist ,and arkosic T quartzite. E Rialo Gr. Marble, dolomite, conglomerate and R quartzite. ....................................Unconformity...................................................... O Alwar Gr. (Aravallis) Z O I C Jhalore Gr. Udaipur Gr.

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....................................Unconformity...................................................... A Pre Aravalli Gr. of rocks...................Banded Gneiissic complex,phyllite, slate, R marble, C Conglomerate,magnetiteH quatrzite. E A N Rajasthan state contains about 9.5 million tonnes of total recoverable reserve of which about 9.1 million tonnes are haematite ore and 0.4 million tonnes are magnetite ore. The deposit of Udaipur and Jaipur districts contain about 85% of the total iron ore reserves of the state.

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Quartzite, phyllite and mica-schist. Volcanics, phyllites, gray-wacke, micaschist, marble, Carbon-phyllite, quartzite,arkosicconglomerate.

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17.2 Districtwise Description of Deposits

17.2.1 Jaipur District Morija deposit : Location : Morija is located at about 38 Km N-W of Jaipur at Morija-Banol village and 3 Km from Chomuon the national highway No.11. Quantum of work done : Geological mapping=whole area. Sampling=43 chip samples . Geology : The iron ore at Morija occurs in between feldspathoid-schists and quartzite of the Precambrian Delhi super group of rocks. The succession worked out as follows : Intrusive Precambrian Delhi Super Group Pegmatite and quartzite veins. Kalidungri quartzite Iron ore with bands of quartzite Mica schist with intercalated quartzite Samod quartzite.

Description of the different sections : Banol section : This constitutes the northernmost part of the Kalidungri hill and contains thick bands of iron ore. The second mentioned band in the table below is seen over a distance of 800m along the eastern limb. A fault runs across the hill is NW-SE direction cutting the western limb. The section is exposed as follows :

Kalidungri quartzite Iron ore IV Quartzite Iron ore III Ferruginous breccia &quartzite Iron ore II Ferrugenous quartzite & schist Thickness 0.6-1.0 m 0.6-1.0 m 1.0-2.4 m 2.0-5.0 m 1.5-3.6 m 2.5-15 m

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Structure: The deposit extends over a strike length of 4.5 Km. The Kalidungri hill contains the iron ore deposit. The beds are folded into a NE-SW trending asymmetrical doubly plunging syncline The eastern limb extends for a strike length of about 4Km with downdip extension of 120 m. and the western limb extends for about 3 Km with 80 m. down dip extension.

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The iron ore deposit at Morija is one of the largest deposit in Rajasthan and contains fairly rich ore. It occurs as bands of massive haematite intercalated with coarse ferruginous grit of Alwar series and considered to be of sedimentary origin. The outcrops are divided into the following six section - 1.Banol, 2.Mayurbhunj, 3.Morija, 4.Kankeria, 5.Banberia, 6.Chorghati.

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Iron ore Ferrugenous breccia & augen gneiss

1.8-3.9 m 0.5-1.5 m

Mayurbhunj section : Only one band of iron ore is found here and it is exposed over a strike length of about 850m.The section is exposed as follows : Thickness

Kalidungri quartzite Ferrugenous breccia Quartzite Ferrugenous breccia Iron ore 05.0 m 30.0m 04.0 m 04.0 m

Reserve and grade : The estimated indicated reserve is about 1.15 million tones. The iron ores are mostly fine grained specular haematite with small amount of magnetite. The chemical analysis of the samples shows-Fe2O3-94.55%, Al2O3-02.38%, SiO2-02.15%, P-0.018%. Nimia-Railo deposit : Location : Nimia and Railo Nimia is situated about 24 Km north of Dausa railway station of Jaipur district. Important deposit is located at 0.6 Km east of Nimia and occurs as 1.5 Km long ridges. Ore geology : The iron ores are associated with crystalline limestone and forms iregular lenticular masses with alternate thickening and thinning. The width of the ore body varies from 2.12.4m and probably formed due to metasomatic replacement of calcite by iron oxide. The chemical analysis of samples reveals that Fe-56-60%, Fe2O3-91.54%, Al2O3-8.46%, Ptrace.

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Morija section : This comprises the entire section of iron ore exposed from the fold-closer SW of Morija up to 0.6 Km NE of the village. The two subsections of the deposit are as follows : i) Morija east : Two ore bands are seen. The upper band is siliceous, impersistent and lower band has 1800m strike length and 6m thick at the western end which gradually thins out to the eastern end to become only 0.6m ii) Morija west : Only one iron ore band is seen of 2.5-4.0m thick. The iron ore in the Morija West section is along the same horizon as that in the Morija east but is displaced by a N50oE-S50oW fault. Kankeria section : The ore body has strike of 120 m. The upper band is 1.2m thick and the lower band is 2.4m thick. Ferruginous breccia of 1.5m thickness lies between them. Banberia section : There are two iron ore bands extending over a strike length of 300m, the lower & upper bands are 1.4-3.3m and 1.0m thick respectively. The ferruginous breccia lying between them is about 10 m thick. Chorghati section : Only one iron ore band of 1.5 m thickness extends over a strike length of 150m.

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17.2.2 Jhunjhunu District Taonda deposit : Location : The iron ore deposits are located on the western slope of NNE-SSW trending hill, and 0.8 Km ESE of Taonda village. Geology : The deposit covered an area of 0.26 sq. Km. The deposit has been mapped on 1:1000 scale using plan table. The ore bodies occurs as lenses and sheets mostly parallel to the strike of host calc-gneissic rock. The ore body strikes in NNE-SSW direction. Ore body : The length of the ore body varies from 10-60 m and thickness less than a metre to 20 m. The ore is composed of magnetite and haematite intermixed with each other. The lenses of the ore body shows pinch & swell structure. Reserve and grade : Reserve has been estimated at about 0.25 million tones. The ore may be classified into two types - a) high grade ore containing 65-70 % Fe b) low grade ore containing 5565% Fe. Kali Pahari deposit : The deposit is located 3 Km N85°E of Kali Pahari in a hillock composed of feldspathise Quartzite. Iron ore bodies occurs as lenses and bands. There are four quarries and a few prospecting pits on the hill. The largest quarry is located on the western slope of the hill in NW-SE direction and measures 125 m. As the ore bodies are highly irregular and are exposed only on walls of the quarry, it is difficult to decipher the exact extent of them. Jaitpura and Raipur deposits : Bands of micaceous haematite schist, quartz veins with haematite crystals and irregular haematite masses in limestone are found in Ajabgarh Formations. About a mile west of Raipur there are two vertical beds of massive haematite varying from five yards to one yards in thickness in mica schists and extending over two miles along the strike. Dabla deposit : Several scattered segregations of iron ore are located west of Dabla railway station. Massive, pockety haematite and magnetite ores are found to be irregularly hosted in the country rock. A hillock about 3 Km west of Nizampur R.S. extending in NE-SW direction exposes two bands of iron ore (haematite) of about 3-4m., separated by 8 m. thick band of quartzite. Kotputli area-Bagawas,Tateri and Bania-ka-Bas : Minor occurrences with estimated reserve of 0.48 million tones of ore.

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17.2.3 Sikar District Nim-ka-Thana deposit : Location : The area falls in the Toposheet No. 45M/NE. Geology : The strike of bedding is N-S to NNE-SSW with varying dips of 50°-80° towards west. Rocks are highly folded giving rise to isoclinal folds with eastern limbs generally overturned. Iron ore occurs as narrow bands of haematite in quartzite in two places-a) Thoi area and b) Toda area. Ore body : Iron ores is located near Thoi and west of Toda. Ores occur in the form of haematite rich bands in Alwar and Ajabgarh quartzites. Ore bands run parallel to the country rock for a considerable distance and are folded with the latter. The ores are massive and well jointed and feebly magnetic in nature. Fe content in ore is less than 50%. Thoi area lies on a synclinal hill (30m above ground level).Iron bands are exposed on the northern and eastern slopes and partially on the western slope. On the eastern slope it measures 500m in N20°E direction and dips 50°-60° towards west. Ore band is 8m thick. Only lower 2m thickness is of medium grade (55.7% Fe) and rest is of very poor grade (3040%Fe). Iron ore in Toda area occurs as narrow bands in the N-S trending hill extending from north of Saidala to west of Toda for about less than 5 Km. In general there are three parallel bands of ore. The ore body extends in N-S direction over a length of 0.8-3.0 Km and thickness varies from 2-7 m. They are massive to crystalline, coarse grained, well jointed and feebly magnetic. The grade of ore is poor (30-40% Fe). Chemical analysis of three grab samples from each deposits is given below :

Average Fe2O3% Fe % Toda deposit 37.64 26.31

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17.2.4 Udaipur District Nathara-ki-Pal deposit : The deposit is located near Thana village of Sarada tehsil of Udaipur district. The ore body is about 800 m. long, 30 m. wide and depth of the ore body varies from 30-130 m. The quality of ore is poor. Parsola deposit : Near south of Parsola ferruginous bands comprising massive goethite, ochre and ferruginous shale occur mainly within an impersistent shale horizon and less commonly within dolomite-calc-silicate horizon of the basal Aravalli formation. Rajpura ­Dariba deposit : Rich limonite bands in quartzite are found here.

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Thoi deposit 85.16 59.6

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17.2.5 Bundi and Bhilwara District General Description of the Deposits : The region forms parts of the Aravalli ranges in the NW and Vindhyans in the SE. Bands of dolomite, slate and quartzite of Gwalior System contain thin stringers and bands of iron ore in the form of haematite and goethite. Old workings are present at 2 Km SW of Datunda (within dolomite) and 1.5 Km NE of Khinia (within quartzite). Location : Bundi is located about 25 Km from Kota and is well connected by an all weathered road running between Kota and Jaipur. The area has been mapped on 1:63360 scale. Geology : The area is occupied by rocks of Gwalior System and Vindhyan Super Group. Iron ore bodies are located between Deshi and Bundi, at Loharpura, Bhairorpura, Umor Khenia, Narunpur and Datunda din Bundi district, and between Raipuria and Gangar, between Jewakhera and Dhoni and at 2.5 km south of Kamalpura in Bhilwara district. Magnetite quartzite deposit of Pur Banera belt , Bhilwara district Location : The deposit extends in NE-SW direction from Pur and Balayakhera area to Banera area and falls in the Toposheet No. 45K/11. Geology : In this belt the metasediments are hosting the iron ore (BMR) The magnetite quartzite occurs as a marker horizon along a series of discontinuous ridges in the Pur-Banera belt, extending for a strike length of 29 Km .It generally occurs as two prominent and persistent bands. Magnetite and haematite form the chief ore minerals but in south-east of Banera, the rock is richer in haematite. Ore body : The ores are fine to medium grained, banded and massive but the ferruginous carbonate rock shows granular texture. The width of the ore body varies from 3m-10 m. The banded magnetite quartzite and the ferruginous carbonate rock interlayered with mica schist occur as persistent horizon and are exposed along a series of discontinuous ridges in this belt. Grade : Average grade of iron ore is 44.42%. The chemical analysis of samples is given below :

Chemical constituents % Fe 28.23-60.56 SiO2 0.6-3.2 Fe (average) 44.42 S 0.02-0.05 P2O5 0.2-1.61

17.2.6 Jodhpur District Mixture of haematite and magnetite are found at Ponnagarh hill near Bomadra railway station in association with quartz veins in schist. Similar occurrence is found near Giri and Barotia. But these sources are not economically important.

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17.2.7 Bharatpur District Ancient mining has been reported in a big trench, two miles south of Hathori. The ore probably a breccia cemented by haematite, and is too impure for economic use. 17.2.8 Alwar District The district constitutes the north eastern part of Rajasthan and falls in the Survey of India Toposheet Nos. 54A,53D and 54E Iron ore deposits of little economic importance are found in the following areas. Rajgarh : About 2 Km south of Rajgarh town near Purana Rajgarh and Tharkli, two large trenches, pits and a few shafts have been reported. The rock units comprise ferruginous marble, gritty sandstone and quartz sericite schist. The iron ore occurs in the form of haematite and limonite in the marble for a depth of 30 m. Raipur : A number of old workings in the form of pits and line shafts are reported from about 1.0 Km south west of Raipur. These pits trend in N-S direction for a strike length of about 200 m. The workings are located in a highly ferruginous and brecciated quartzite. Bileta : About 1 Km N-W of Bileta, iron ore occurs in a highly ferruginous marble and quartzite of Ajabgarh group. Bhangarh-Tehla : Micaceous haematite schists have been worked out for iron from Tehla. At Bhangarh, magnetite and ilmenite have been reported. Iron as high as 59.6% with 12.7% of manganese has been found in one of the samples. Kayasa : Impressive old workings in the form of four long trenches occur south of the Kayasa.

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CHAPTER 18 : TAMIL NADU 18.1 Introduction :

A number of magnetite quartzite bands of variable thickness and length are known to occur all over the state, especially in the area north of Caveri river. The deposit of SalemTrichonopally - Arcot region constitutes the most valuable group of iron ore deposits in Tamil Nadu. Besides these, minor occurrences are also reported from other parts of the state but most of them appears to be uneconomical. The district wise detailed descriptions of the deposits are given below.

18.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits

18.2.1 Salem & Tiruchirapally Districts General Description of the Deposits : The major deposits are located within Salem,Attur, Harur, Nammakal and Rasipur taluks of Salem district and the Musiri and Perambalur taluk of Tiruchirapally district. All these areas lie in Survey of India Toposheets No. 57 L/12, 58 I/2-12,15,16. The iron ore region is hilly and divided into two unequal portions by the Attur valley which extends in easterly direction from Salem towards Cuddalore. The northern area comprises Kollamalai, Pachaimalai, Talamalai and Bodamalai. The best-known deposits are found in the Kanjamalai and Godumalai, both of which are comparatively small isolated hills in western part of Attur valley.

The main geological formations met here areBasic dykes (youngest) Granite and pegmatite Charnockite Ultrabasic rocks with magnesite and chromite Amphibolite and pyroxenite Hornblende-gneisses, steatite-chlorite schist, quartz schist and quartz-magnetite schist Biotite-gneiss (oldest) Economic Geology : A varying amount of haematite less than 5% is generally found in most magnetitequarztite bands but sometimes it may be entirely absent. Ores are of three types- banded, gneissic and fine grained. The banded variety consists of alternate bands of magnetite and quartz. The thickness of the layers varies from .12 cm. to 2.54 cm. The bands show minute folding, crumpling and fracture. In the gneissic variety magnetite generally tends to be segregated into fairly coarse lenticular or augen shaped grains. This arrangement makes the banding irregular. The third type is granular being

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The rocks belong to Precambrian Dharwarian sequence and pre- charnockite in age. The ore consists of banded magnetite quartzite, which is the metamorphosed equivalent of the original sedimentary beds.

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General geology :

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composed of more or less uniform mixture of grains of magnetite and quartz. Most of the ores are of banded variety; the gneissic and granular type being developed only locally. Grade : Chemical analysis of samples collected from different areas show 35-40% Fe, 50% silica with little or no sulphur and phosphorous. Reserve : The estimated reserve up to a depth of 100m from outcrop is about 257.13 million tonnes. Description of the individual deposits Kanjamalai : Location : The Kanjamalai hill is about 4 miles WSW of Salem town. Nearest railway head is Virapandi road. Geology : The hill has a basin shaped structure. The long axis of the structure lies just north of the main ridge. A generalized section of Kanjamalai shows the following successionGarnet- amphibolite gneiss, sometimes fairly rich in quartz (summit of hill ) Flaggy light coloured gneiss Magnetite- quartzite (band C ) Massive garnet amphibole rock Magnetite- quartzite (band B ) Alternating hornblendic and feldspathic gneiss Massive garnet- amphibole gneiss Magnetite- quartzite (band A ) Talcose schist Light coloured flaggy gneiss with or without garnet (base of hill ) Description of magnetite-quartzite bands (ore bodies) : Three bands of magnetitequartzite rock form concentric elliptical ring because of basin shaped structure of hill. Band A - It is seen as a series of curved outcrops on the northern and southern flanks. The bands show variable thickness in different parts of the hill and concentration of magnetite mineral is also variable in different parts of the band. This band disappears on the northern side of Kanjamalai for nearly 3.2 km.. The total length of Band A is nearly 16 km.and its average thickness 18 m. Band B - The second band of magnetite- quartz rock is found some distance up the flank of the hill. It also encircles the hill except for a short gap on the southern slope. It runs 304 m. above Band A though it goes further up in the western part of the hill. The total length of the Band B is estimated to be about 9.6 km. and its average thickness 9.1 m. Band C - It runs parallel to and above the band B . Except for a gap in the north-western part of the hill, the outcrop of this band makes a complete ellipse. It caps the peak .201 at the

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eastern extremity of the hill. The total length of the band is estimated to be about 9.6 km. and the average thickness 9.1 m. Minor bands - There are few extra bands in the neighbourhood of the peak 1992. The subsidiary bands have a length of 1.6 Km and an aggregate thickness of 22.9 m. Reserve : The reserve estimated up to 100m depth is of the order of 55 million tonnes. Attur Valley Deposits : The long narrow plain extending from Salem on the West to Talaivasal on the east is known as the Attur valley. The deposits in the valley area are discussed below : i) Godumalai : Location : It is situated at a distance of 17.6 km. east of Salem town. Then nearest railway head is Seshanchavadi. General geology : Both Kanjamalai and Godumalai lie more or less along the same strike and these are also resemblances in their lithology. The magnetite- quartzite band is traced along the entire length of the hill. At western end, only one band is noticeable whereas near the eastern end two bands appear to be present. Description of the band : The band of the ore which forms the central ridge of Godumalai runs east to west for nearly 4.8 km.. The ore bands show variable thickness in different parts of the hill. Reserve : The reserve estimated up to 100m depth is of the order of 12.45 million tonnes. Besides the above deposits minor occurrences of little economic importance are also noticed from Agraharam. ii) Area south of Godumalai In south of Godumalai there are at least 10 conspicuous runs of magnetite- quartzite bands of varying dimensions and richness. The hills .2157, .1944, .1968 and .1916, east of Vellakundam near Vellalakundam are composed of feldspathic and amphibole gneisses and magnetite-quartzite traversed by a few basic dykes in the south eastern part. The important bands are : a) Perumamalai-On the western flank of Perumamalai (.2157) there are two bands of magnetite- quartzite, one at a height of 122 m. from the base and the other further up. The average thickness of the band 3 m. each. b) There is a band of 3 furlong long and 4.5 m. thick on the east of hill .1944.Here magnetite content is poor. c) Hill .1976-Here a band of magnetite-quartzite runs E-W from top of this hill for a distance of 4.8 km. and dips southward.

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Reserve : In this region only those bands appear to be fairly rich in magnetite content have been taken into consideration for calculating ore reserve. The total estimated reserve in five sectors is 9.636 million tonnes. iii) Puduppalaiyam : The band referred to have appears to be the continuation of the hill .1500 SW of Puduppalaiyam. It extends in ENE-WSW direction for a mile and dips at 30° towards SSE. The band is not fully exposed all through its length and average thickness of the band is 30 ft. Reserve : Total estimated reserve of ore is 0.792 million tonnes. iv) Attur The several hills in Attur valley between Kalrayan and Kollaimalai hills rocks containing magnetite-quartzite bands are noticed. v) SW of Attur : Three miles SW of Attur, a band of magnetite-quartzite fairly rich in magnetite is seen on the northern flank of hill .2103, dipping into the hill. It has an E-W trend and a length of nearly 1.5 miles with average thickness of 25 ft. At the foot of the Kalrayan hill north of Ramanayakkanpalaiyan there is a band of ore half a mile in length and 40 ft thick. The magnetite content is rather low.

Description of bands (ore bodies) : a) Running E-W on hill .1196 about a mile NNW of Thammampatti there is 6.1 m. thick band of poor quality ore. b) Near Ulipuram in a magnetite- quartzite band is traced for a total length of 4 miles ENE-WSW direction. The magnetite content is in general rather poor. c) An ore band running from 1.2 km. in E-W direction is found on south of hill .1668, 1.6 km. south east of Nagaiampatti. d) On hill .1717 a 3 m. thick ore band is noticed. It is parallel to general strike but of poor quality. e) The hill .1093, 1.6 km. WSW of Sendarapatti shows four short bands of ore trending ENE-WSW. The average length of ore band is 91 m. and the thickness about 21 m. Reserve : The total estimated reserve is of the order of 1.688 million tonnes.

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Thammampatti area : Location : Soth of Attur valley there is minor valley around the village of Thammampatti. . The rocks here are the usual gneisses with a general E-W strike and southerly dip.

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Reserve : The minimum ore reserves in this area is 1.98 million tonnes.

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Singiliyankombai There are four bands having rich concentration of magnetite ore found in this area. a) A 152 m. long and 3.6 m. thick band runs through the small hill south of Singiliyankombai. b) In south of hills .2194 and .1536 there is a band running E-W for nearly 3.2 km. The ore band is in average 15 m. thick and quality of ore is fair. c) On north of Singiliyankombai another band striking NE-SW is going over hill .1706. d) At Mallikkarai a band 0.8 km. long and 4.5 m. thick is noticed. Reserve : The total reserve estimated is of the order of 7.056 million tonnes. Tainandamalai and Chitteri hills : The Chitteri hills lie to the east of Shevaroys and have a length of 40 km. in a NE-SW direction with Belur to their south and Kottapatti to their north. The rocks forming these hills are similar to those in the Godumalai and include gneisses, amphibolites, hornblende- chlorite schist, talcose schist and magnetite quartzites. The strike varies from NE-SW (in southern part) to NNE-SSW ( in northern part ) and the dips are steep towards north-west. Two important deposits are that Belur area : The following five bands of iron formation are important in the area : a) An ore band can be seen near the temple on the road to Kurichchi. The general trend indicates that it may be the continuation of the Godumalai band. The total length of the band is 4 km. with average thickness of 9.1 m. the quality of ore being fair. b) Parallel to and about 1.6 km. east of the above there is a band issuing from hill. 1941 continues in the northeastern direction. This band is parallel to previous one. The total length of the band is 14.8 km. and the average thickness about 9.1 m. The magnetite content is around 50-60%. c) A band parallel to and located at less than .8 km. east of (b) band runs in NE-SW direction for 14.5 km. The magnetite content is around 50%. d) A band about 3.2 km. west of Tumbal can be observed over a distance of 6.4 km. passing through the hills .2009, .1304, .2360 to the east, and parallel to the band described above. e) A band further east of band (d) has a length of 4.8 km. It is rather poor in magnetite Finally there are few small and thin beds in the vally west of Idaipatti. Reserve : The total estimated reserve is of the order of 40.656 million tonnes. Sittilingi area : The following fine bands of magnetite-quartzite are prominent :

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a) A band of magnetite ­ quartzite is seen 2 km. WNW of Sittilingi and east of the hill .2016. It is 0.8 km. long and 21.3 m. thick. The ore is fairly rich and contains a small proportion of haematite. b) About 200 m. west of Malatangi another band of ore is observed for a length of 180 m. in a NE-SW direction. c) Suriyagadai- Kattiripatti band is 9.6 km. long (NE- SW) and its south-western end is .8 km. NE of Suriyagadai. The average thickness of the band may be taken as 6.4 m. Reserve: The total reserve is of the order of 14.76 million tonnes. Area between Rasipur and Namakkal : The area between Rasipur and Namakkal is a plain studded with few hills e.g. Alvoy, Nainarmalai. The following bands of magnetite-quartzite have been observed in this area : a) Pattanum : There are two bands on the hill .1040 running E-W for a total length of about 400 m. The thickness varies from 3-10 m. The southern band appears to pass eastward into a garnetiferous quartzite with practically no magnetite. These bands are too poor in iron content to be regarded as workable ore. b) Puduchattram : On hillock .940 about 1.6 km. NE of Puduchattram contains magnetite- quartzite. These bands are also poor in iron content. c) Belukkurichi : A bed of magnetite quartzite nearly 14.5 km. in length runs from Makkalapudur in the south west to Belukkurichi in NE. The average thickness of the band west of the Salem road is around 12.0 m. The ore on the hill .1500 is of fair quality. d) Namagiripettai : 3.2 km. south-east of Namagiripettai there are two bands. The northern band is seen on the northern flank of hill .1680 and is of 9.0 m. thick. The southern band runs through hill .1680. The average thickness of this band is 9.0 m. but the magnetite content is rather low. e) Narasimhapudur : This band is 6 miles long and located at about .8 km. south of Narasimhapur. The thickness varies from 6m.-15m. in different parts. Iron content in magnetite is poor. f) Kondamanayakanur : Two parallel bands of magnetite- quartzite are seen run in an ENE-WSW direction for a distance of 7.2 km. starting from western flank of Nainarmalai and terminating near Murtinayakkanpatti. The average thickness of northern band is 12 m. and of the southern 7.5 m. The northern part appears to be richer in magnetite. Reserve : The total estimated reserve is of the order of 33.924 million tonnes.

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Kollaimalai : The Kollaimalai mass is 32 km. long (N-S) and about 19 km. broad (E-W). The general strike direction of the rocks in these hills is NE-SW. Two bands of magnetitequartzite are present, one near Tottikkadu and the other in the east of Valavandinadu. Area between Namakkal and Talamalai : Location : In this area two important bands of magnetite- quartzite are seen in the western part of the area between Kirambur and Salem ­ Trichinopally road. a)Kirambur : Two bands are seen between .8 km. ESE of Kirambur and the hill .1630 north of Tolur Karadu. The northern band is seen about .8 km. S-W of Tottiyapatti and continues southeastward with a thickness of 6-9 m.. The ore is fairly rich in magnetite. The southern band can be seen on foot of hill .897 and it has average thickness of 9 m.

c)Mahadevi hill : This hill is about 4.8 km. northwest of Tattayyangarpettai and the south eastern foot of the Kollaimalai. The rocks are highly folded and consist of garnetiferous and amphibole gneisses in the main amidst which are beds of magnetite- quartzite. There are five bands noticed in this hill, one on .1329 hill and other four on .1344 hill. Among these, three bands are important from economic point of view. Reserve : The total reserve is of the order of 67.452 million tonnes. Pachaimalai : Only a small area near the southern margin of this hill mass was examined. The rocks have a E-W strike and northerly dip of around 40°. A band 9.6 km. long is seen north of Ledapuram, exposed on the southern flank of this hill in an E-W direction. Near Talen Hamlet the band contains much haematite and is 15 m. thick. Near Kanavoy and Elambalen two magnetite- quartzite bands are observed. But on whole these bands are poor in ore.

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There are five bands in this region namely VT1 to VT5. Band VT1 is an important band, more or less continuous over a distance of 40 km. east to west, though there are several apparent breaks in it. The average thickness of the band is 9 m. Band VT2 is to the north of the main band and extends for 2.4 km. in ENE direction. Band VT3 is in the south of the main band and consists of two branches. The total length of the band is about 13 km. with average 15 m. thickness. Band VT4 on northern foot of hill .732 is rather poor in magnetite. Band VT5 is of 200 m. length and situated between the Vta and Vtb band, having a fair proportion of magnetite.

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b)Villiyappanpatti-Tattayyangarpettai :

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Reserve : The total estimated reserve is of the order of 11.088 million tonnes. Other occurrences : a) Magnetite-quartzite bands of varying length and thickness are traced near Malathangi, Alangadu, hill .3131 in Salem district. The ore contains 35-37%Fe. A 7 Km long band with an average width of 5 m traced near Vadavattur is estimated to contain 3.7 million tonnes of ore up to a depth of 30m.Besides, a number of magnetite- quartzite bands have been traced in Salem district. b) In Trichinopally district, magnetite-quartzite bands have been traced near Valasiramani and Urakkarai and a total reserve of 37.81 million tonnes of ore has been estimated to a depth of 30 m. 18.2.2 Dharampuri District Tirthamalai deposit : Location : The Tirthamalai and associated hills are geographically the northern extension of Chitteri and Kottapatti hills. The deposit is 14 miles east of Morappur railway station. General geology : The general trend of the hill as well as strike direction of the rocks is N-S, but near the Ponnaiya river the strike is more nearly NE. The dip is very steep to the west or often vertical. Lithologically the rocks are similar to Kanjamalai deposit. There are four bands magnetite- quartzite on this hill separated by gneisses and other rocks. These bands are designated a,b,c,d with the prefix T to indicate Tirthamalai. Description of the bands : Band (Ta )

Band (Tb)

Band (Tc) Band (Td)

This band is noticed on the western slope of the hill and runs for about 11.0 km. For purpose of calculation of reserve a 3.2 km. length of the band on the south of Kottappatti road is taken as having a thickness of 45.7 m. and a 6.4 km. length with a thickness of 7.5 m. This lies a short distance east of band Ta and has a length of nearly 9.6 km. It forms the peak.3220 and the conspicuous ridge of the hill. In the southern part it is roughly parallel to band Ta and separated by granite. The average thickness is 30 m. in southern part and beyond Ponnaiyar about 10.5 m. This appears to be merely an offshoot of the second band and runs as prominent ridge NNE of peak .3220 for over 0.8 km. This is seen at the southeastern base of Tirthamalai, 0.8 km. south of Andiyur.

Besides the above four bands, magnetite- quartzite bands of lesser extent are noticed in Modukuli, NE of Alambadi. Reserve : The estimated reserve up to a depth of 30 m. is of the order of 47.52 million tonnes.

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18.2.3 South Arcot and North Arcot District : The UNDP Mineral Development project in Tamil Nadu carried out exploration for iron ore in South Arcot and North Arcot district. In the area around Tiruvannamalai, probable reserves are estimated as more than 150 M.T. In South Arcot district a magnetite-quartzite band was traced north west of Manmalai and between Budamangalam and Talankunam and a total reserve of 3,45,000 tonnes of ore are estimated. 18.2.4 Niligiri District Fairly rich bands of magnetite occur with the gneissose rocks of Nilgiri hills. The most important beds were found near Karachola about 2.5 Km. west of Kotagiri and on a spur of Dodabetta. Pure stringers of haematite interfoliated with gneiss are noted at Jackatalla. Other areas where iron ore occurrences are found with Dharwarian rocks are Tatarvene, Arvankadu and Devala.

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CHAPTER 19 : UTTAR PRADESH 19.1 Introduction :

Banded-Haematite-Quartzite-Jasper constitutes the iron bearing horizon of preVindhyans age in the district which is possibly equivalent to Bijawar.

19.2 Districtwise description of the deposit

19.2.1 Mirzapur District Bargaon deposit : Location : The deposit forms a ridge trending almost E-W. It extends from south of Bargawan to Bharhari over a distance of 19 Km and falls in the Toposheet No. 63 L/14. The nearest railway station is Chopan. Quantum of work done :

Large scale mapping (1:15,840) Sampling ( 30m interval) Surface (30 m. interval) : 200 Pit : 141 Trench : 451 Pitting & Trenching Chemical analysis

ur

Geology : Formation constituting the deposit belong to pre ­Vindhyans which are possible equivalent of Bijawar. The geological succession is as follows : Ferruginous sandstone Banded haematite-quartzite- jasper with limonite Clay ironstone Maure shales Grey slates Banded haematite-quartzite-jasper constitutes the iron bearing horizon extending from the west of the river Son to Bharhari village over a linear extent of 10 Km. Generally dip the rocks 55-60° towards south. Ore geology : Ore minerals are very hard and compact siliceous haematite. Goethite and limonite are also present at places but magnetite is rare. Individual haematite band rarely exceeds 5 cm in thickness. Base of the northern slope of the ridge is covered with float ore. Available quantity is small possibly due to compact nature of ore. At places haematite is in the scoriated form as well as in the form of stringers and lenses.

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: 106 cu. m. : 729 nos.

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: 0.25 sq.km. : 200nos.

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Reserve and grade : Approximately 6 million tonnes of possible reserves of inferior ore containing 35% Fe2O3 have been estimated in an area of about 0.37 sq. km. Of this available reserves are of the order of 4 million tonnes.

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CHAPTER 20 : WEST BENGAL 20.1 Introduction :

The state of West Bengal does not contain any economic deposit of high grade iron ore. However occurrence of iron ore are reported from western and northern districts of the state namely Purulia, Bankura, Midnapur, Burdwan, Birbhum and Darjeeling district. Only the Ironstone shale formation of the Barren Measures (L.Permian) in the Ranigunj coal field and the laterite iron ore, capping the Archaean, Gondwanas & Rajmahal traps may be of little interest.

20.2 Districtwise Description of the Deposits

20.2.1 Burdwan District : In Barren Measure (Middle Damuda) of the district the iron stone shale has a thickness of about 336m. and stretches for a distance of 53 Km in an east-west direction covering an area of about 114 sq. km. Sideritic ore of sedimentary origin occur in shales as numerous thin bands. The ore were found to have been converted into limonite near the surface. Ore and shale ratio is approximately 1:20 and the average iron content is about 4045% with high silica (15-20%) and alumina (5-12%) and high phosphorous (0.1-0.9% ). The proved reserve is 508 million tonnes while 3032 million tonnes is possible reserve in the area. 20.2.2 Birbhum District : Lateritic iron ore itself is found capping the Archeans, Gondwanas and the southern margin of Rajmahal hill. Iron content was reported to vary from 28- 59%.

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