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Curriculum Framework To make room in the existing Curriculum Framework provided by Virgina Department of Education for the "Local History" column, the titles have been abbreviated to the following: E. U.= Essential Understandings E. Q.= Essential Questions E. K. = Essential Knowledge E. S. = Essential Skills

You may also note that throughout the following pages are online resources and proposed activities supplied by participating teachers from the Growing American History Teacher-Scholar Project (2004-2007).

STANDARD VS.1 a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i The student will develop skills for historical and geographical analysis including the ability to a) identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history; b) determine cause and effect relationships; c) compare and contrast historical events; d) draw conclusions and make generalizations; e) make connections between past and present; f) sequence events in Virginia history; g) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives; h) evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing; i) analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events.

The skills identified in standard VS.1a-i are cited in the "E. S." column of each chart for Virginia Studies with the exception of "h" (evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing). Students should have opportunities to practice speaking and writing, but these skills will not be assessed on the Standards of Learning test. All other skills will be assessed on the Standards of Learning test. Teachers should incorporate these skills into instruction throughout the year.

Proposed Activity, VS.1: "Women's History Month," submitted by Celestina Whittlesey

o Introduce Women's History Month using www.nwhp.org, and select national figures names to throw in a basket o Have students draw a name who they will research provide written and/or oral report to class.

o Suggested local link: pair national figures with their local counterpart. (Maggie Walker, http://www.nps.gov/malw/details.htm and Norfolk/Portsmouth born AfricanAmerican women, http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/scripts/jimc row/women.cgi?state=Virginia) and http://www.library.vcu.edu/jbc/speccoll/civ ilrights.html#list

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Virginia Board of Education, 2001

STANDARD VS.2a The student will demonstrate knowledge of the geography and early inhabitants of Virginia by a) locating Virginia and its bordering states on maps of the United States.

E. U.

Locations of places can be described in relative terms.

E. Q.

What are some ways that relative location can be described? What large bodies of water border Virginia? What states border Virginia?

E. K.

Relative location may be described using terms that show connections between two places such as "next to," "near," "bordering." Bordering bodies of water · Atlantic Ocean · Chesapeake Bay Bordering states · Maryland · West Virginia · Kentucky · Tennessee · North Carolina

E. S.

Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms and water features. (VS.1i)

Local History

1) http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/JefVirg.html This link provides a digital text of Thomas Jefferson's "Notes on Virginia," that outlines his various information on Virginia, from geographical accounts, to government expenses and First American tribes in the state, wonderful primary source.

2) Recommended activity: "Progressive Mapping," idea submitted by Kevin Jones and Michelle Kirkpatrick. Using a poster, or bed sheet, create a basic outline map of Virginia. For progressive maps, allow students to populate the map with details that strike at the heart of SOLs: riverways, topographical information, native societies, etc., while using hand-made symbols/key. Mr. Jones made the local connection by using the 1682 map of Norfolk, available online at: http://www.willoughbyontheweb.com/Celebrate%20Willoughby/original_town_of_norfolk%20map.htm and asks that students find familiarities to Norfolk today as a means of review and introduction to maps

Virginia Board of Education, 2001

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STANDARD VS.2b The student will demonstrate knowledge of the geography and early inhabitants of Virginia by b) locating and describing Virginia's Coastal Plain (Tidewater), Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and Ridge, and Appalachian Plateau.

E. U.

Geographic regions have distinctive characteristics. Virginia can be divided into five geographic regions.

E. Q.

What are the five geographic regions in Virginia? How do the geographic regions of Virginia differ? Where are the geographic regions of Virginia located?

E. K.

Terms to know · Fall Line: The natural border between the Coastal Plain (Tidewater) and Piedmont regions, where waterfalls prevent further travel on the river Geographic regions · Coastal Plain (Tidewater) ­ Flat land ­ Location near Atlantic Ocean and Chesapeake Bay (includes Eastern Shore) ­ East of the Fall Line · Piedmont (land at the foot of mountains) ­ Rolling hills ­ West of the Fall Line · Blue Ridge Mountains ­ Old, rounded mountains ­ Part of Appalachian mountain system ­ Located between the Piedmont and Valley and Ridge regions ­ Source of many rivers

E. S.

Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms and water features. (VS.1i)

Local History

1) Use local native tribes to define parameters of present day southside Hampton Roads: Chesopeans & Apasus/Skicoak

2) Coastal Plain Natives (The Chesapeakes) were wiped out by Powhatan because a prophet/Indian priest warned him in early 1600s that an enemy would come from the Chesapeake region and destroy his empire. This could have been a warning intended for the English who would arrive in 1607, but Powhatan destroyed the Chesapeans/Chesapeakes prior to 1607.

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STANDARD VS.2b (continued) The student will demonstrate knowledge of the geography and early inhabitants of Virginia by b) locating and describing Virginia's Coastal Plain (Tidewater), Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and Ridge, and Appalachian Plateau.

E. U.

E. Q.

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E. K.

Valley and Ridge ­ Includes the Great Valley of Virginia and other valleys separated by ridges (The Blue Ridge Mountains and the Valley and Ridge Regions are part of the Appalachian mountain system.) ­ Located west of Blue Ridge Mountains Appalachian Plateau (Plateau: Area of elevated land that is flat on top) ­ Located in Southwest Virginia ­ Only a small part of plateau located in Virginia

E. S.

Local History

3) Helen Roundtree's book, Pocahantas, Powhatan and Opechancanough, Three Indian Lives Changed by Jamestown, nice map of Powhatan's sphere of influence, p40. 4) Satelite google maps for topography 5) William de Bry's maps of English settlemtns are online: http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/Americana/17th_century.html These maps are from the late 1600s and the website provides details for each map.

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STANDARD VS.2c The student will demonstrate knowledge of the geography and early inhabitants of Virginia by c) locating and identifying water features important to the early history of Virginia (Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake Bay, James River, York River, Potomac River, and Rappahannock River).

E. U.

E. Q.

E. K.

E. S.

Local History

Proposed activity:Continuing your progressive map activity, and/or use color to represent each waterway according to salinity content. For example, the more salt in the water, the more green/blue it is, while the less salinity makes water appear brownish/brackish as on the James and York Rivers. Use food color and clear jars and have students write about their assigned jar ­ which waterway could they have and what lives in that water? Visit http://www.virginiaplaces.org/regions/16potomac.html for more information and ideas. And for first-hand accounts of the color of Dismal Swamp waters, go to: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/lhcbhtml/vamaincap.html For images of Natives on the water: http://www.csulb.edu/~aisstudy/woodcuts/001_001_0004_1335.jpg Interestingly enough, the Europeans believed that the Natives were savages for many reasons, the fact that they were not Christians of course was primary example. Other reasons of course were they way in which Natives lived, tatooed themselves, wore little clothing or how Native men were "lazy" between hunting parties. However, the English felt superior because they had harnessed the power of the wind through sails, and built enormous ships, something the Natives had not done. But the Natives lived in accordance with the environment around them, and using canoes and kayaks was quite smart and efficient given the various depths of the numerous waterways. Time and time again, you will read how the English had to lighten their ships to navigate the James River, among others.

Water features were important to the early history of Virginia. Many early Virginia cities developed along the Fall Line, the natural border between the Tidewater and Piedmont regions where the land rises sharply and where the waterfalls prevent further travel on the river. Rivers flow downhill to the sea. The four major rivers that flow into the Chesapeake Bay are separated by peninsulas. The Chesapeake Bay separates the Eastern Shore from the mainland of Virginia.

Which water features were important to the early history of Virginia? How did water features influence the development of Virginia? How did the flow of rivers affect the settlement of Virginia? What is a peninsula? Where is the Eastern Shore located?

Terms to know · Peninsula: A piece of land bordered by water on three sides. Water features · Atlantic Ocean ­ Provided transportation links between Virginia and other places (e.g., Europe, Africa, Caribbean) · Chesapeake Bay ­ Provided a safe harbor ­ Was a source of food and transportation · James River ­ Flows into the Chesapeake Bay ­ Richmond and Jamestown located along the James River · York River ­ Flows into the Chesapeake Bay ­ Yorktown located along the York River · Potomac River ­ Flows into the Chesapeake Bay ­ Alexandria located along the Potomac River

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, and historical events. (VS.1i)

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STANDARD VS.2c (continued) The student will demonstrate knowledge of the geography and the early inhabitants of Virginia by c) locating and identifying water features important to the early history of Virginia (Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake Bay, James River, York River, Potomac River, and Rappahannock River).

E. U.

E. Q.

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E. K.

Rappahannock River ­ Flows into the Chesapeake Bay ­ Fredericksburg located on the Rappahannock River

E. S.

Local History

Chesopeans, the First Americans that inhabited present-day Norfolk and Virginia Beach (Skicoak and Apasus) whose name in the Algonquian langauge translates as "Mother of Water," or possibly "Great Shellfish Water People." Indeed, the Chesapeake Bay and surrounding waterways provided much-needed food for survival of First Americans and colonists alike. William De Bry's late 16th-century engravings provide images of the harvest, the fish and the fruits of hunting efforts by Native Americans. http://www.csulb.edu/~aisstudy/woodcuts/wood.coll.set.1.html

Each river was a source of food and provided a pathway for exploration and settlement of Virginia. The Eastern Shore is a peninsula bordered by the Chesapeake Bay to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.

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STANDARD VS.2d The student will demonstrate knowledge of the geography and early inhabitants of Virginia by d) locating three American Indian (First American) language groups (the Algonquian, the Siouan, and the Iroquoian) on a map of Virginia.

E. U.

E. Q.

E. K.

E. S.

Local History

1) Helpful Links, student-friendly, useful images

American Indians (First Americans) were the first people who lived in Virginia. American Indians (First Americans) lived in all areas of the state. There were three major language groups in Virginia.

Why are First Americans called Indians? What evidence is there that American Indians (First Americans) lived in all areas of the state? What were the three major language groups found in Virginia, and where was each located?

Christopher Columbus called the people he found in the lands he discovered "Indians" because he thought he was in the Indies (near China). Artifacts such as arrowheads, pottery, and other tools that have been found tell a lot about the people who lived in Virginia. Three major language groups · Algonquian was spoken primarily in the Tidewater region; the Powhatans were a member of this group. · Siouan was spoken primarily in the Piedmont region. · Iroquoian was spoken in Southwestern Virginia and in Southern Virginia near what is today North Carolina; the Cherokee were a part of this group.

Analyze and interpret maps. (VS.1i)

http://www.historyisfun.org/jamestown/powhatan.cfm http://www.mariner.org/chesapeakebay/native/nam002.html 2) Chesapeakes, or Chesipeans inhabited shores of Elizabeth and Lynnhaven River (present-day Virginia Beach and Norfolk). "Large" bones were dug up near Sewall's point prior to the 1907 Jamestown celebration. 3) William Strachey, secretary for the Jamestown settlement in 1612, recorded his account of native Americans, hurricanes, etc., excerpts of which are found online, in addition to other primary documents: http://www.virtualjamestown.org/fhaccounts_date.html For example, Strachey recorded the following: "Oysters there be in whole bancks and beds, and those of the best I have seene some thirteen inches long. The savages use to boyle oysters and mussels together, and with the broath they make a good spoone meat, thickened with the flower of their wheat; an yt is a great thrit and husbandry with them to hang the oysters upon strings (being shaul and dried.) in the smoake, thereby to preserve them all the yeare." Proposed Activity: (Shirley Plantation) Archival Dig in the classroom. Select some appropriate artifacts for each region/tribe/era and place them in dish tubs with sand. Allow students to find and map artifacts, describe the meaning of each and make conclusions as to what that artifact tells us about the people we study. http://www.shirleyplantation.com/

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STANDARD VS.2e The student will demonstrate knowledge of the geography and early inhabitants of Virginia by e) describing how American Indians (First Americans) adapted to the climate and their environment to secure food, clothing, and shelter.

E. U.

Virginia's American Indians (First Americans) interacted with the climate and their environment to meet their basic needs.

E. Q.

What are some characteristics of Virginia's climate? What are some ways Virginia's American Indians (First Americans) adapted to the climate and interacted with their environment to meet their basic needs?

E. K.

Climate in Virginia The climate in Virginia is relatively mild with distinct seasons--spring, summer, fall, and winter--resulting in a variety of vegetation. Forests, which have a variety of trees, cover most of the land. Virginia's Indians are referred to as Eastern Woodland Indians. Adaptation to environment The kinds of food they ate, the clothing they wore, and the shelters they had depended upon the seasons. · Foods changed with the seasons. ­ In winter, they hunted birds and animals. ­ In spring, they fished and picked berries. ­ In summer, they grew crops (beans, corn, squash). ­ In fall, they harvested crops.

E. S.

1)

Local History

Powhatans & others hunters for instance, used to shave the right side of their heads so not to tangle their hair in bow and arrows while hunting, hence the historic roots to a mohawk. Historian Thomas J. Wertenbaker claimed that sending a man to Virginia was "...like condemning a man to death." Starving Winter, 1609-1610: 90% of the population died from starvation because unlike the First Americans, Englishmen did not understand their environment and were unable to adapt to ensure their survival.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (VS.1i)

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3)

Proposed activity: throw some papers (the amount of students you have) in a basket or hat, and on 10% of the papers, write "You live," and on all others write "You died!" Then have the few that survived the winter stand before the class. You may make it more interesting to have one paper marked with "executed," to reveal the story of a man who was caught trying to salt his dead wife and eat her! Captain Smith would not allow cannibalism and the man was executed as a result! See Also: "Would I Survive Jamestown Game," by Tom Martin at www.exploretidewaterhistory.org. Designed for high schoolers, this game can easily be adapted for all levels.

Virginia Board of Education, 2001

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STANDARD VS.3a The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by a) explaining the reasons for English colonization.

E. U.

Some European countries, including England, were in competition to increase their wealth and power by expanding their empires to America. The first permanent English settlement in America was Jamestown, founded in 1607 as an economic venture.

E. Q.

What were the reasons for English colonization in America? What were the reasons why the Jamestown settlers came to America?

E. K.

Reasons for English colonization in America England wanted to establish an American colony to increase her wealth and power. · England hoped to find silver and gold in America. · An American settlement would furnish raw materials that could not be grown or obtained in England, while opening new markets for trade. Jamestown · Jamestown was primarily an economic venture.

E. S.

Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizatio ns. (VS.1d) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g) Analyze and interpret maps to explain historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

1) Great local example of why to come to Virginia is Adam Thorougood and his wife Sarah. Thorogood, first came to Virginia as an indentured servant in 1621 and by 1630 he served on the first established "court" in then Norfolk County. By the time of his death in 1640, Adam was only 35 years of age, but had title to over 7,000 acres of land on the Lynnhaven River... an economic success! Read more: http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/explorers/sitec55.htm 2) "Tiger Girls" These were the women that came to Virginia to become wives of early settlers in 1619. The Virginia Company thought that if the settlers had wives, then Jamestown would have a better chance to become a PERMANENT settlement! Settlers paid for the passage of these women in tobacco notes. 90 women set sail, "Young maids to make wives for former tenants..." (Mapp, 56) So for 150 pounds of your best tobacco, former indentured servants could purchase a wife!

Proposed Activity: Many teachers such as Brian Leiberman from the elementary level to Mary Korty at the high school level suggested that students create an advertisement poster to entice people to come to Colonial Virginia. And while the Library of Congress has some images/documents pertaining to early colonial era, so too does the following, which also could be used to demonstrate the broader English motivations for colonization:

http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/exhibns/Americana/17th_century.html

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The stockholder s of the Vi i i

Virginia Board of Education, 2001

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STANDARD VS.3b The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by b) describing how geography influenced the decision to settle at Jamestown.

E. U.

Location and physical characteristics influenced the decision to settle at Jamestown.

E. Q.

Where is Jamestown located? Why did the settlers choose the site at Jamestown?

E. K.

When the settlers arrived in 1607, Jamestown was located on a narrow peninsula bordered on three sides by the James River. Today, Jamestown is located on an island in the James River. Reasons for site choice · The location could be easily defended from attack by sea (Spanish). · The water along the shore was deep enough for ships to dock. · They believed they had a good supply of fresh water.

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

1) John Smith, and many others agreed that Jamestown was perfect island/penninsula from which to defend against a possible Spanish attack. Within weeks of their arrival, the English settlers constructed a fort, seen on this virtual tour online: http://www.virtualjamestown.org/quicktime/jamestown_fort.html 2) Smith and other exploration parties in 1607-1608 searched for the "lost colonists" and mapped out the area now known as Norfolk and Portsmouth. And though in 1607 Smith claims to have been attacked by Chesapean Indians in the region, it was more likely members of the Nanesmond Tribes that repopulated the area after Powhatan wiped out the Chesapeakes. (Helen Roundtree) \ 3) For MUST SEE collection of maps, visit http://www.history.org/History/museums/online_exhibits.cfm#

Virginia Board of Education, 2001

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STANDARD VS.3c The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by c) identifying the importance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London in establishing the Jamestown settlement.

E. U.

The King of England had the power to grant charters allowing settlement in North America.

E. Q.

What was the importance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London to the Jamestown settlement?

E. K.

Importance of Virginia charters The King of England granted charters to the Virginia Company of London. · The charters gave the Virginia Company the right to establish a settlement in North America. · The first charter of the Virginia Company of London established companies to begin colonies in the New World. · The charters extended English rights to the colonists.

E. S.

Identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history. (VS.1a) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History

http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/score_lessons/tah/resource/17th2.html

Proposed Activity: by Johnna Dillow (4-5 days) Using Melissa Metusevich Posters at: http://chumby.dlib.vt.edu/melissa/posters/posterset.html The Kings Charters, Government in the New Colony & The House of Burgess images, write on the board: "After 12 years, is the Kings' Charter enough to maintain peace and order in the English Settlement?" Giving them examples: What if Mr. Smith stole your pigs? Or if Mr. Brown was trading with unfriendly Native Americans? The governor would send for word from the King, which would take months, so what to do in the meantime? At the close of day one, define Governors Council, Burgess, VA Assembly & General Assembly. On day two, have students role play as governor, burgess, assemblymen, council. Close by having the Governor read aloud the agreed upon laws. On day 3, review with students & use venn diagram for each group, burgesses, etc. By day 4, review the SOL using graphic organizer. Also, using online posters, cover up words and run off a copy for each student and allow each group to discuss what the poster is about. They should be able to match proper vocabulary words from the word wall or notebooks to the appropriate poster. On day 5, assess student learning in SOL test format including at least one question from each VS. 3a, 3b & 3c.

Proposed Activity: By Chanell M. Payneter, PPS. Using brown paper bag sheets, markers, dictionary & Jamestown-Yorktown Resource guide, or http://www.nps.gov/colo/TEACHERS/teacornr.html These materials will help students recreate their own charters and write three effects that their charter will have. Roll and tie charter as a scroll and allow a few students to share their charters with the class.

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Virginia Board of Education, 2001

STANDARD VS.3d The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by d) identifying the importance of the Virginia Assembly (1619) as the first representative legislative body in English America.

E. U.

As Jamestown grew, the system of government evolved.

E. Q.

What was this system of government called? What was the Virginia House of Burgesses, and why was it important?

E. K.

System of government In 1619, the governor of Virginia called a meeting of the Virginia Assembly. The Assembly included two citizen representatives (called "burgesses") from each of the divisions of Virginia, the governor's council, and the governor. (At that time, only adult men were considered citizens.) By the 1640s, the burgesses became a separate legislative body, called the Virginia House of Burgesses. Virginia House of Burgesses

E. S.

Identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history. (VS.1a) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f)

Local History

1) Adam Thorowgood House offers various activities to meet SOLs, http://www.vbgov.com/dept/arts/adam_thoroughgood/0,1740,1042 5,00.html 2) Captain Thorowgood not only militia captain, erected first parish on southside in 1636, served as a member of the House of Burgess from 1630, and presided as justice in legal disputes. http://www.vbgov.com/dept/arts/historical_register/0,1748,13905,0 0.html

Proposed Activity: Divide the class into small groups and have each group appoint (agree on!) a representative, or Burgess, to meet with the Governor (teacher/student?). Have each group come up with two proposals for the assembly: one realistic approach as to how the colony can be successful (money and/or survival, and create a colonial holiday). Keep in mind what population figures from the colonial era reveal about the challenges this 1619 assembly faced:

1607: 24,000 Algonquians living in Virginia 1669: 2,000 Algonquians living in Virginia Between 1607 and 1624: 14,000 colonists came to Virginia By 1624 only 1132 settlers were alive By 1670: 110,000 colonists in Virginia

Virginia Board of Education, 2001

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STANDARD VS.3e The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by e) identifying the importance of the arrival of Africans and women to the Jamestown settlement.

E. U.

Jamestown became a more diverse colony by 1620.

E. Q.

What was the impact of the arrival of women on the Jamestown settlement? What was the impact of the arrival of Africans on the Jamestown settlement?

E. K.

The arrival of women in 1620 made it possible for the settlers to establish families and a more permanent settlement at Jamestown. Africans arrived in Jamestown against their will. It is believed that they arrived as baptized Christians and therefore were labeled indentured servants for a period of 5 to 7 years. The arrival of Africans made it possible to expand the tobacco economy.

E. S.

Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History

Landing at Old Point Comfort of three new groups of people, all of whom were sent to make this colony/company more permanent and thereby profitable! "Tiger Girls," because they arrived on a ship called the Tiger. These 90 women were sent to marry the colonial men who paid 500 pounds of their best tobacco for their voyage to Virginia! Missionaries such as George Thorpe arrived to help "Christianize" the savage Native Americans. Africans from Spanish/Portuguese colonies arrived as servants who had converted to Catholicism ­ names such as Antonio, Isabella, Don Pedro. The roster suggested "Mary a Negro Woman, and Choupouke an Indian, James a Frenchman and James and John, Irishmen" also arrived as servants. Mary would eventually bcome the wife of a free black man who owned property on the Eastern Shore, Mr. Johnson who had also worked to secure his freedom from servitude.

Virginia Board of Education, 2001

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STANDARD VS.3f The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by f) describing the hardships faced by settlers at Jamestown and the changes that took place to ensure survival.

E. U.

The English colonists found life in Jamestown harder than they had expected.

E. Q.

What hardships did the Jamestown settlers face? What changes took place to ensure survival?

E. K.

Hardships faced by the settlers · The site they chose to live on was marshy and lacked safe drinking water. · The settlers lacked some skills necessary to provide for themselves. · Many settlers died of starvation and disease. Changes that ensured survival · The arrival of two supply ships, the forced work program and strong leadership of Captain John Smith, and the emphasis on selfsustaining agriculture ensured survival of the colony.

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History

Captain John Smith "...he that will not work, shall not eat!" 1608 Proposed Activity. By Deborah Reynolds, Oceanair Elementary, NPS, VS.3g. Materials: 3 sheets chart paper with essential questions, sentence strips, current VA maps, Venn Diagram, blue beads, copper, plastic knife, animal skin, corn, moccasins, box grits, index cards, string, atlas, selected readings/images to demonstrate differences between Natives/Colonists. Procedures: Show students grits, moccasins & a picture of possum and ask if they have seen it before. (note, all these things are American and Colonists had never seen before) ASK: Where do these items come from? TSW draw Venn diagram to suggest similarities/differences between colonists and Powhatans. TTW model a trade session between the two groups as to how one can obtain a writing instrument by trading a fork! TTW assign 6 Colonists and 6 Powhatans to conduct trade. The students should recognize what items they find valuable as well as understand how this business relationship could lead to conflict. Using string and index cards, TSW create a sequence of events that led to conflict between the English & Natives. Closure: Students will write an answer to each essential question posed and read answers aloud as the class uses their fingers to suggest which question was answered. The students will tape their answers on the class chart & explain.

Virginia Board of Education, 2001

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STANDARD VS.3g The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent English settlement in America by g) describing the interactions between the English settlers and the Powhatan people, including the contributions of the Powhatans to the survival of the settlers.

E. U.

The Powhatan people and the English settlers at Jamestown established trading relationships and for a while had positive interactions.

E. Q.

How did the Powhatan people and the English settlers interact? Why did the relationship between the Jamestown settlers and the Powhatans change?

E. K.

Captain John Smith initiated trading relationships with the Powhatans. The Powhatans traded food, furs, and leather with the English in exchange for tools, pots, guns, and other goods. The Powhatan people contributed to the survival of the Jamestown settlers in several ways. · Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, believed the English and American Indians (First Americans) could live in harmony. · Pocahontas began a friendship with the colonists that helped them survive. · The Powhatans introduced new crops to the English, including corn and tobacco. The Powhatan people realized the English settlement would continue to grow. · The Powhatans saw the

E. S.

· Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g) ·

Local History

Francis Yeardley (Sarah Thorowgood's third husband) would mimmick Smith's approach to natives as he traded with Natives such as the dangerous Chowans along the Albamarle and Currituck sounds of North Carolina. Yeardley lived at the Thorowgood property in present-day Virginia Beach, then Norfolk County. Interesting story, Yeardley took on the son of an Indian chief, upon the chief's request, to educate and baptize him. The chief came for a visit to the Yeardley/Thorowgood property to check on his son, only to find Mr. Yeardley out of town. The neighbors were threatened by the chief, and made threatening gestures for him to leave, but Sarah escorted him to church and vouched on his behalf!

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Virginia Board of Education, 2001

STANDARD VS.4a The student will demonstrate knowledge of life in the Virginia colony by a) explaining the importance of agriculture and its influence on the institution of slavery.

E. U.

The success of tobacco as a cash crop transformed life in the Virginia colony and encouraged slavery.

E. Q.

What effect did agriculture have on the Virginia colony? How did agriculture in the Virginia colony influence the institution of slavery?

E. K.

Terms to know · Cash crop: A crop that is grown to sell for money rather than for use by the growers The economy of the Virginia colony depended on agriculture as a primary source of wealth. Tobacco became the most profitable

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f)

Local History

Tobacco, the thirteen month crop would move colonists further west, encroaching on Indian lands, which would lead to the massacres of 1622 and in 1644. (Side note: No Africans were killed in the 1622 massacre, though there were 22 living in Virginia by that time.) Problems with tobacco: 1) require heavy/constant labor, 2) large tracts of land 3) deemphasized the need for SKILLED labor, 4) depletion of soil made way for monoculture, 5) marked transition from servitude to slavery for life

Hail thou inspiring plant! Thou balm of life, Well might thy worth engage two nations' strife; Exhaustless fountain of Britannia's wealth; Thou friend of wisdom and thou source of health. -from an early tobacco label Tobacco, that outlandish weed It spends the brain, and spoiles the seede It dulls the spirite, it dims the sight It robs a woman of her right. -Dr. William Vaughn, 1617

http://www.historypoint.org/education/teaching/history_backyard/tobacco_slavery_virginia_colonies.asp Agrigulture depend on so many variables: Hurricanes, droughts for instance could change the crop's value immediately. For instance: 1639, a meal would cost you 6 pounds of tobaccor, or 18 pence... a year later, the same meal only cost 12 pence, but still 6 pounds of tobacco, and by 1641, it was only 10 pence, but still 6 pounds of tobacco. What does this suggest? (The Virginia Experiment, A, Mapp, 209)

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STANDARD VS.4b The student will demonstrate knowledge of life in the Virginia colony by b) describing how European (English, Scotch-Irish, German) immigrants, Africans, and American Indians (First Americans) influenced the cultural landscape and changed the relationship between the Virginia colony and England.

E. U.

Cultural landscapes reflect beliefs, customs, and architecture of people living in those areas. Although a colony of England, Virginia developed a unique culture different from that of England.

E. Q.

How do cultural landscapes reflect beliefs, customs, and architecture of people? Where did the various cultural groups settle? How did the relationship between the Virginia colony and England change over time? !

E. K.

Cultural landscapes Whenever people settle an area, they change the landscape to reflect the beliefs, customs, and architecture of their culture. Examples of cultural landscapes include · Barns · Homes · Places of worship (e.g., churches) Place names reflecting culture · English--Richmond · American Indian (First American)--Roanoke Settlement areas · English settled primarily in Tidewater and Piedmont regions. · Germans and Scotch-Irish settled primarily in the Shenandoah Valley, which was along the migration route. · Africans settled primarily in the Tidewater and Piedmont regions, where agriculture required a great deal of labor.

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, and historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

Missionary George Thorpe, who arrived in Jamestown in 1619, built Opencacanough (Powhatan's successor) an English-style home. The house came equipped with a front door and a lock, which Opencacanough was so consumed with, he was witnessed opening and closing the door several times a day!

Adam Thorowgood was responsible for naming the city/county of Norfolk and the Lynnhaven River ­ both named after towns in England, King's Lynn being his "home" town of the Old World. His 17th century home(seen online) is good example of architecture. Also, Bacon's Castle (Nathaniel Bacon) in Surry is prime example of English architecture. Typical, but not always: Names of cities/counties: English, while Rivers/Waterways: Retain Native Names

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STANDARD VS.4b (continued) The student will demonstrate knowledge of life in the Virginia colony by b) describing how European (English, Scotch-Irish, German) immigrants, Africans, and American Indians (First Americans) influenced the cultural landscape and changed the relationship between the Virginia colony and England.

E. U.

E. Q.

Proposed Activity: by Angela H. Geth Dividing students into three groups, the students will first play a true/false flash card game in response to "Pathway's Anticipation Guide," readings. TTW show images to the class and TSW guess which culture the picture reflects and why. ·

E. K.

American Indians (First Americans) were primarily in the Tidewater and Piedmont regions and the Appalachian Plateau, where their traditional homelands were located.

E. S.

th

Local History

Early 18 -century architecture often in Flemish bond, two-story brick homes such as William Byrd's Westowver and Gov. Spotswood's Capital in Williamsburg. Proposed Activity: by Norman Colpitts, Park View Elementary, PPS. TTW inquire how many studnets have lived in other cities? Other countries? Using small postit notes, TSW write name and stick your note on world map reflecting current/ previous residences. TTW ask how living there was same as living in Portsmouth? Different? How? Why? Buildings? Language? Next, lead student discussion to contemplate how living in Virginia in 1607 was different than living in Virginia today. In small groups, TSW consider features such as waterways, food, homes, barns, languages, places of worship,etc. that make up cultural landscape. Each group will create a poster that highlights the contributions of the following: 1) American Indian, 2) African, 3) English and 4) Scot-Irish. Posters should include images/illustrations, 3 place names from the VA map that reflect each culture. Closure: Present poster to class and explain. Discussion, evaluation and award prizes

Migration and living in new areas caused people to adapt old customs to their new environment. The culture of Virginia reflected American Indian (First American), African, and European origins.

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STANDARD VS.4c The student will demonstrate knowledge of life in the Virginia colony by c) explaining how geography influenced the relocation of Virginia's capital from Jamestown to Williamsburg to Richmond.

E. U.

Geographical factors often influence the location of a capital.

E. Q.

What are some factors that influenced the move of the capital from Jamestown to Williamsburg? What factors influenced the move of the capital from Williamsburg to Richmond?

E. K.

Factors related to move from Jamestown to Williamsburg · Drinking water was contaminated by seepage of salt water. · Dirty living conditions caused diseases. · Williamsburg was situated at a higher elevation than Jamestown. · Fire destroyed wooden buildings at Jamestown. Factors related to move from Williamsburg to Richmond Population was moving westward. · Richmond was a more central location. · Richmond's location was better for trade. · Moving to Richmond increased the distance from attack by the English.

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

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STANDARD VS.4d The student will demonstrate knowledge of life in the Virginia colony by d) describing how money, barter, and credit were used.

E. U.

Money was not commonly used in early agricultural societies.

E. Q.

What forms of exchange were used in the Virginia colony? Proposed Activity: by Pamela Powell, NPS "Buying without money," is to encourage trade among students using items such as beads, copper necklaces, animal furs, fishing pitchforks, cotton, spears, knives, ceramics and pottery. Allow students free time to trade/barter until they get something they want. Stage a three-way trade with a merchant, farmer and Englishman. Ask students who would have what items and what items would these people have sought? Closure: Lead students in a discussion of supply/demand, and consider what detrmines the value of something? How effective were these methods of trade? Do people still use these kinds of methods today? How is credit different than trade? What makes credit successful? Why are tobacoo notes not valuable today?

E. K.

Terms to know · Money: A medium of exchange (currency, which includes coins and paper bills) · Barter: Trading/exchanging of goods and services without the use of money · Credit: Buying a good or service now and paying for it later · Debt: A good or service owed to another · Saving: Money put away to save or to spend at a later time Few people had paper money and coins to use to buy goods and services. Barter was commonly used instead of money. Tobacco was used as money. A tobacco farmer could use his tobacco to pay for goods and services. Farmers and other consumers could also buy goods and

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f)

Local History

Governor Berkely's "tributary tribes," or friendly Natives were often used in business deals in the mid-1600s. The Susquehannas to the North for instance, provided furs to the colonists. Business growing with population, 1640: 8,000 Virginians, by 1660: 33,000 (Stewart, Durable Dominion) Proposed Activity: by Celestina Whittlesy Using materials such as jewelry, artifacts, tools, fur swatches, blue beads, corn, baskets, arrowheads and pottery, have students role play in small groups. IN preparation of this trading session, have students view www.unitedstreaming.com on colonial forms of exchange. In close, students should write an essay that compare/contrasts colonial and modern methods of currency & exchange.

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STANDARD VS.5a The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the American Revolution by a) identifying the reasons why the colonies went to war with England as expressed in the Declaration of Independence.

E. U.

Conflicts developed between the colonies and England over how the colonies should be governed. The Declaration of Independence gave reasons for independence and ideas for selfgovernment.

E. Q.

How did the colonists' ideas about government differ from those of the English Parliament? Why is the Declaration of Independence an important document? Proposed Activity: by Angela Sample-James, Brighton Elementary, PPS "Chain of Events" Separate class into groups while playing a teacher-made recording of the Declaration of Independence. Groups: English & Loyalists, Patriots in Virginia, Founding Fathers, Diverse Religious Believers and Slaves. Next, ask students what they just listened to and list their responses on board. Reiterate the basic path to war(Chain of Events): First: Population Increase- Land ShortagesIncreased Diversity (Non-English Europeans, African-Americans & Africans). Second: Diminished equality, Enlightened Ideas and Religious diversity. Third: Taxation from War (French & Indian War). TSW think-pair-share how their group was effected and share findings with class. Next, use Venn Diagram to compare/contrast each group's responses to events. Accompany with webquest. Closure: Why was Declaration drafted? Why taxes a main concern? Play Think Fast with tennis ball allowing only 20-30 seconds for a response to questions posed about the activity.

E. K.

The colonists and the English Parliament disagreed over how the colonies should be governed. · Parliament believed it had legal authority in the colonies, while the colonists believed their local assemblies had legal authority. · Parliament believed it had the right to tax the colonies, while the colonists believed they should not be taxed since they had no representation in Parliament. The Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson, states that authority to govern belongs to the people rather than to kings and that all people are created equal and have rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

E. S.

Identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history. (VS.1a) Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History

1713 the building of tobacco warehouses was instituted and government appointed local inspectors to determine the quality of the notes Portsmouth's Town Trustees were established in 1763 Inner-colonial relations troubling at times. The story of Edward Teach, or better known as Blackbeard, reveals the varying perceptions of government responsibility. Blackbeard was hiding off the Carolina coast, with what VA Governor Spotswood suspected was the protection from the NC Governor. Spotswood dispatched several sloops who successfully captured, and beheaded the dreaded pirate. 13 others were tried and executed in Virginia, while the NC governor complained that Virginians had invaded his colony without permission! (autonomy from King!)

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STANDARD VS.5b The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the American Revolution by b) identifying the various roles played by Virginians in the Revolutionary War era, with emphasis on George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry.

E. U.

Virginians made significant contributions during the Revolutionary War era.

E. Q.

What contributions did Virginians make during the Revolutionary War era? Proposed Activity:

E. K.

Varied roles of Virginians in the Revolutionary War era · Virginia patriots served in the Continental Army and fought against the English, leading to the English surrender at Yorktown. · Some Virginians were neutral and did not take sides. · Other Virginians remained loyal to England. · African Americans from Virginia were divided about the war. Some slaves fought for the English because they were promised freedom. · James Armistead Lafayette, a slave from Virginia, served in the Continental Army and was given his freedom after the war. · During the war, women took on more responsibility. Contributions of Virginians during the Revolutionary War era · George Washington provided military leadership by serving as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army.

E. S.

Identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history. (VS.1a) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History

Often overlooked incident in Virginia history is that of Patrick Henry's Five Resolutions. As a member of the House of Burgess and in response to the Stamp Act 1765 (passed without the approval of the assembly ­ repealed March 18, good day for a celebration!) Henry proposed five measures/ resolves which were passed by the House of Burgess, but rescinded the next day. Henry suggested that only the General Assembly had the right to levy taxes in the colony, otherwise, Henry suggested that British and American freedom could be destroyed! The House passed Henry's Five Resolutions, 20-19, but the following day when Henry was not present, the assembly had a change of heart! The taverns of colonial America was the setting by which all ideas, especially those contained in Thomas Paine's Common Sense, were debated and spread among the colonists, and this was especially true in Norfolk where taverns were one of its most important institutuions in the Colonial era. In fact, the printing press in Norfolk was siezed by the Tories , the press, the ink ­ the paper was completely shut down due to their Patriot sympathy.

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Virginia Board of Education, 2001

STANDARD VS.5b (continued) The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the American Revolution by b) identifying the various roles played by Virginians in the Revolutionary War era, with emphasis on George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry.

E. U.

E. Q.

·

E. K.

Thomas Jefferson provided political leadership by expressing the reasons for colonial independence from England in the Declaration of Independence. Patrick Henry inspired patriots from other colonies when he spoke out against taxation without representation by saying, "...give me liberty or give me death."

E. S.

Local History

Author Richard Bland stated that the Norfolk Sons of Liberty held, "... patriotic spirit and love of their country," by which they supported the "glorious cause of liberty!" 1766 (Stewart, 79)

·

Proposed Activity: Ed Jacobs's five minute play about Lord Dunmore's Proclamation.

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STANDARD VS.5c The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the American Revolution by c) identifying the importance of the American victory at Yorktown.

E. U.

The last major battle of the Revolutionary War was fought at Yorktown, Virginia.

E. Q.

What was the importance of the American victory at Yorktown?

E. K.

The American victory at Yorktown resulted in the surrender of the English army, bringing an end to the war.

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.d) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships between water features and historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

Hero of the Battle of Great Bridge, William Flora, would also go on to fight at the Battle of Yorktown. Flora, an African-American volunteered for service for the Patriot cause, and had his own gun upon admission to the militia. This was highly unusual since it was prohibited by law for African-Americans, free or slave, to own a weapon.

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STANDARD VS.6a The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the establishment of the new American nation by a) explaining why George Washington is called the "Father of Our Country" and James Madison is called the "Father of the Constitution."

E. U.

The actions and ideas of Virginians formed the basis for the new constitutional government of the United States.

E. Q.

Why is George Washington referred to as the "Father of Our Country?" Why is James Madison referred to as the "Father of the Constitution?"

E. K.

George Washington, a Virginian, was elected as the first President of the United States of America. He provided the strong leadership needed to help the young country and provided a model of leadership for future presidents. Thus, he is often called the "Father of Our Country." James Madison believed in the importance of having a United States constitution. He kept detailed notes during the Constitutional Convention. His skills at compromise helped the delegates reach agreement during the difficult process of writing the Constitution of the United States of America. This earned him the title "Father of

E. S.

Identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history. (VS.1a) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History

Proposed Activities: 1)Reenactment of the Constitutional Convention, demonstrating compromise, Madison's role, as well as Henry, Mason, TJ and Washington ­ have students assume the identity and sign the document. Visit: http://www.mehs.educ.state.ak.us/constitutional/convention.html for specific requirements to complete this activity. 2)Have groups of students examine primary sources such as Gilbert Stuart's portraits of Washington, letters to Martha, images of GW as a farmer, soldier, & president found at http://gwpapers.virginia.edu/education/kids/teacher.html while asking each group "Why Would Washington be a father and to whom?" Each group should be given different documents/images and then collaborate as a class on their findings. This activity was presented by Michelle Kirkpatrick, Nancy Ruben, Angela Peterson and Norman Colpitts.

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STANDARD VS.6b The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the establishment of the new American nation by b) identifying the ideas of George Mason and Thomas Jefferson as expressed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom.

E. U.

Ideas expressed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom served as models for the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United States of America.

E. Q.

What was the influence of the Virginia Declaration of Rights on the Constitution of the United States of America? What was the influence of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom on the Constitution of the United States of America?

E. K.

The Virginia Declaration of Rights, written by George Mason, states that all Virginians should have certain rights, including freedom of religion and freedom of the press. The document became the basis for the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United States of America. The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, written by Thomas Jefferson, states that all people should be free to worship as they please. This document was the basis for the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America, the amendment that protects religious freedom.

E. S.

Identify primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history. (VS.1a) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom marks such a 180 degree turn from traditional Virginian past, or as King Charles II stated, his "loyal Old Dominion!" during the Cromwellian years in England, 1653-1659,Virginians remained steadfast in their commitment to Charles II, although some Puritans were members of the local government. Virginia had a history of banning non-established ministers including Puritans in the early 17th century, and Quakers were exiled from Hampton Roads in the 18th century. Baptist and Methodist ministers were heard preaching from their jail cells on the eve of the War for American Indepdence! James Madison's response to the jail sentences in a letter: "There are at this time...not less than five or six well-meaning men in close jail for publishing their religious sentiments which in the main are very orthodox. ...I have squabbled and scolded and abused and ridiculed so long about it to little purpose, that I am without common patience. So I beg of you to pity me, and pray for liberty of conscience to all" (1773)

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STANDARD VS.6c The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the establishment of the new American nation by c) explaining the influence of geography on the migration of Virginians into western territories.

E. U.

Geography influenced the movement of people and ideas as Virginians moved to and beyond the Virginia frontier.

E. Q.

What geographic factors influenced Virginians to move to the western frontier of Virginia and beyond?

E. K.

After the American Revolution, Virginia's agricultural base began to change, and as a result large numbers of Virginians moved west and to the deep South to find better farmland and new opportunities. · Tobacco farming was hard on the soil, causing many farmers to look west and south for new land to farm. · Virginians migrated into western territories looking for large areas of land and new opportunities. · As Virginians moved, they took their traditions, ideas, and cultures with them. · Settlers crossed the Appalachian Mountains through the Cumberland Gap as they migrated to new lands in the west.

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

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STANDARD VS.7a The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by a) identifying the events and differences between northern and southern states that divided Virginians and led to secession, war, and the creation of West Virginia.

E. U.

Because of economic differences between the North and South, they were unable to resolve their conflicts and the South seceded from the United States. Virginians were divided about secession from the Union, which led to the creation of West Virginia.

E. Q.

What conflicts developed between the northern and southern states in the years following the American Revolution and led to the Civil War? Why did Virginia secede from the Union? How did West Virginia become a state?

E. K.

Differences between northern and southern states · The economy in the northern part of the United States was industrialized, while in the southern part it was agricultural and relied on slave labor. · Northern states wanted the new states created out of the western territory to be "free states," while the southern states wanted the new states to be "slave states." Events leading to secession and war · Nat Turner led a revolt against plantation owners in Virginia. · Abolitionists campaigned to end slavery. · Harriet Tubman supported a secret route that escaped slaves took; it became known as the "Underground Railroad." · John Brown led a raid on the United States Armory (Arsenal) at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He was trying to start a slave rebellion. He was captured and hanged.

E. S.

Identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history. (VS.1a) Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g) Analyze and interpret maps to explain historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

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STANDARD VS.7a (continued) The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by a) identifying the events and differences between northern and southern states that divided Virginians and led to secession, war, and the creation of West Virginia.

E. U.

E. Q.

·

E. K.

After Abraham Lincoln became President of the United States in 1860, some southern states seceded from the Union. Later, other southern states, including Virginia, seceded to form the "Confederate States of America."

E. S.

Local History

Proposed Activity: Have your students write their own newspaper accounts about the Civil War, use the following web address as a template for your lesson plan. Consider making the local connection stronger by using local newspaper accounts. http://www.itdc.k12.ca.us/curriculum/civilwar.html Diaries, journals, letters and newspaper accounts for Virginia soldiers available online: http://www.vmi.edu/ARCHIVES/manuscripts/msguide2.html

Creation of West Virginia · Conflict grew between the eastern counties of Virginia that relied on slavery and western counties that favored abolition of slavery. · The disagreement between the two regions of the state led to the formation of West Virginia.

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STANDARD VS.7b The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by b) describing Virginia's role in the war, including identifying major battles that took place in Virginia.

E. U.

Virginia played a significant role in the Civil War and became a major battleground between Union and Confederate troops. Virginians played a significant role in the Civil War.

E. Q.

What major Civil War battles were fought in Virginia? Who were some of the leaders of the Civil War?

E. K.

Major Civil War battles fought in Virginia · The first Battle of Bull Run (or Manassas) was the first major clash of the Civil War. Confederate General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson played a major role in this battle. · General Robert E. Lee, Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, defeated Union troops at Fredericksburg, Virginia. · Richmond was the capital of the Confederacy. It fell to General Ulysses S. Grant and was burned near the end of the war. · Lincoln used the Union navy to blockade southern ports. An important sea battle between the Monitor (Union) and the Merrimack (Confederate), two iron-clad ships, took place in Virginia waters near Norfolk and Hampton. The battle was fought to a draw.

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

Colored regiments, three infantry and two calvary, are formed by Butler at Fort Monroe,all of which saw combat. Finally, in 1885, the City Council is persuaded to dedicate a war memorial to those veterans which is located at West Point Cemetary in Norfolk. The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 was celebrated by a huge parade in Norfolk that culminated with the burning in effigy of Jefferson Davis. All residents of Norfolk and Portsmouth were required to swear an oath of allegiance in order practice their professions or trades. The War's end and Virginia's (provisional) Constitution of 1864 restored the city government and the prior confiscated property to the former slaveowners and rebels, leaving blacks with no right to vote or any recourse. Thomas Bayne (the former Sam Nixon) returns to Norfolk and leads a campaign of over 2,000 blacks and 150 whites for black suffrage. That campaign produces an "Address from Colored Citizens of Norfolk, VA to People of United States". In 1866, Congress votes to strike down Black Codes, and Radical Republican take over Congress and turn Norfolk and Portsmouth into Military District No. 1. The 1868 Virginia Constitutional Convention creates first black public school system in Norfolk (although it does not fund it), disenfranchises whites who aided secession and gives blacks the right to vote.

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STANDARD VS.7b (continued) The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by b) describing Virginia's role in the war, including identifying major battles that took place in Virginia.

E. U.

E. Q.

·

E. K.

The Civil War ended at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, where Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to Union General Ulysses S. Grant in April, 1865.

E. S.

Local History

Proposed Activity, by Norman Colpitts, Park View Elementary, PPS. "Battle of the Iron Clads, Nauticus Style," Using primary source eye witness accounts, (http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/ironclads.htm) divide and assign students to represent various ships involved in the battle. Use tables as boats and stage in accordance with Hampton Roads harbor. Have paper balls prepared to use as cannons, while tables (boats) are pushed into position upon command. FIRE! Boats are set on fire with red paper. Each table (boat) should have a big picture that demonstrates which ship it is. Class discussion to follow the reenactment, supporting resources: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2001/fall/civilwar-navy-1.html http://www.mariner.org/monitor/

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STANDARD VS.8a The student will demonstrate knowledge of the reconstruction of Virginia following the Civil War by a) identifying the effects of Reconstruction on life in Virginia.

E. U.

Virginians faced serious problems in rebuilding the state after the war.

E. Q.

What were some of the problems Virginians faced during the period of Reconstruction following the Civil War? What measures were taken during Reconstruction to resolve Virginia's problems?

E. K.

Terms to know · Reconstruction: The period following the Civil War in which Congress passed laws designed to rebuild the country and bring the southern states back into the Union Problems faced by Virginians during Reconstruction · Millions of freed slaves needed housing, clothing, food, and jobs. · Virginia's economy was in ruins: ­ Money had no value. ­ Banks were closed. ­ Railroads, bridges, plantations, and crops were destroyed. Measures taken to resolve problems · The Freedmen's Bureau was a government agency that provided food, schools, and medical care for freed slaves and others in Virginia and the rest of the South. · Sharecropping was a system common in Virginia after the war in which freedmen and poor white farmers rented land from a landowner by promising to pay the owner with a share of the crop.

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History

Collaborative submission by Deborah Reynolds, Pamela Powell, Angela SampleJames, Linda Pugh, Celestina Whittlesey Use a photo of the Norfolk Shipyard in ruins and the quadrant worksheet (I See, I Think, I Feel, I Wonder) to introduce students to the cause/effects of war and the need for reconstruction. Supporting resources: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VA-news/VAPilot/issues/1996/vp960204/02030110.htm and http://www.tcc.edu/history/picture.htm

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STANDARD VS.8b The student will demonstrate knowledge of the reconstruction of Virginia following the Civil War by b) identifying the effects of segregation and "Jim Crow" on life in Virginia.

E. U.

The freedoms and rights promised to African Americans were slowly taken away after Reconstruction, and it would take years to win them back.

E. Q.

What happened to the rights of African Americans after Reconstruction?

E. K.

Terms to know · Segregation: The separation of people, usually based on race or religion · Discrimination: An unfair difference in the treatment of people During Reconstruction, African Americans began to have power in Virginia's government, and men of all races could vote. After Reconstruction, these gains were lost when "Jim Crow" Laws were passed by southern states. "Jim Crow" Laws established segregation or separation of the races and reinforced prejudices held by whites.

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History

West Point Cemetery & Elmwood Cemetery serve as a primary example of the segregation between white & black society in life and in death. For photos : http://static.flickr.com/53/158072199_0cadf1f275_m.jpg http://static.flickr.com/57/158072201_7d026a0a77_m.jpg http://static.flickr.com/54/158072202_84e1882451_m.jpg The African-American side of the cemetery was maintained with private funds from the Black community. The momument raised in honor of James Fuller and the section dedicated to African-American soldiers who fought in the Civil War and SpanishAmerican War was funded by local Black churches and political activists thorugh bake sales and raffles. (similar to the private funding efforts for the contemporary MLK monument on Church Street)

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STANDARD VS.8b (continued) The student will demonstrate knowledge of the reconstruction of Virginia following the Civil War by b) identifying the effects of segregation and "Jim Crow" on life in Virginia.

E. U.

E. Q.

E. K.

E. S.

Local History

For infromation on the Virginian Piliot during the Byrd Administration, see: http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/2004/thomas/4c.htm For Bios on Virginia Civil Rights Activists: http://www.library.vcu.edu/jbc/speccoll/civilrights.html#list

"Jim Crow" laws had an effect on African American life. · Unfair poll taxes and voting tests were established to keep African Americans from voting. · African Americans found it very difficult to vote or hold public office. · African Americans were forced to use separate drinking fountains. · African American and white children attended separate schools.

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STANDARD VS.8c The student will demonstrate knowledge of the reconstruction of Virginia following the Civil War by c) describing the importance of railroads, new industries, and the growth of cities to Virginia's economic development.

E. U.

After the Civil War, industry and technology, transportation, and cities began to grow and contribute to Virginia's economy.

E. Q.

What changes took place in Virginia to boost the economic growth?

E. K.

Virginia began to grow in many areas after the Civil War and Reconstruction. · Virginia's cities grew with people, businesses, and factories. · Railroads were a key to the expansion of business, agriculture, and industry. They facilitated the growth of small towns to cities. Railroad centers stimulated the growth of factories where clothing, furniture, and other useful items were made. Roanoke became a railroad center. Richmond, Norfolk, and Newport News were bustling with activity as the railroad brought new jobs and people to the areas. Petersburg, Alexandria, and Lynchburg also grew rapidly. · Other parts of Virginia grew as other industries developed. Coal deposits, discovered in Tazewell County after the Civil War

E. S.

Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

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STANDARD VS.8c (continued) The student will demonstrate knowledge of the reconstruction of Virginia following the Civil War by c) describing the importance of railroads, new industries, and the growth of cities to Virginia's economic development.

E. U.

E. Q.

·

E. K.

Tobacco farming and tobacco products became important Virginia industries.

E. S.

Local History

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STANDARD VS.9a The student will demonstrate knowledge of twentieth century Virginia by a) describing the economic and social transition from a rural, agricultural society to a more urban, industrialized society, including the reasons people came to Virginia from other states and countries.

E. U.

During the twentieth century, Virginia changed from a rural, agricultural society to a more urban, industrial society. After Reconstruction, Virginia's cities began to grow.

E. Q.

Why did Virginia change from an agricultural to an industrial society? What caused Virginia's cities to grow?

E. K.

Decline of agricultural society · Old systems of farming were no longer effective. · Crop prices were low. Growth of Virginia's cities · People moved from rural to urban areas for economic opportunities. · Technological developments in transportation, roads, railroads, and streetcars helped cities grow. · Coal mining spurred the growth of Virginia towns and cities as people moved from the countryside to find jobs. People have moved to Virginia from many other states and nations for jobs, freedom, and the enjoyment of Virginia's beauty and quality of life. Since the end of World War II, Northern Virginia has experienced growth due to increases in the number of federal jobs located in the

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g) Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events. (VS.1i)

Local History

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STANDARD VS.9b The student will demonstrate knowledge of twentieth century Virginia by b) identifying the social and political events in Virginia linked to desegregation and Massive Resistance and their relationship to national history.

E. U.

After World War II, African Americans demanded equal treatment and the recognition of their rights as American citizens. As a result of the Civil Rights Movement, laws were passed that made racial discrimination illegal.

E. Q.

What changes occurred in Virginia as a result of the Civil Rights Movement?

E. K.

Terms to know · Desegregation: Abolishment of racial segregation · Integration: Full equality of all races in the use of public facilities Desegregation and Massive Resistance in Virginia · The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 1954 (Brown v. Board of Education) that "separate but equal" public schools were unconstitutional. · All public schools, including those in Virginia, were ordered to integrate. · Virginia's government established a policy of Massive Resistance, which fought to "resist" the integration of public schools. · Some schools were closed to avoid integration. · The policy of Massive Resistance failed, and Virginia's public schools were integrated. · Harry F Byrd Sr led a

E. S.

Determine cause and effect relationships. (VS.1b) Compare and contrast historical events. (VS.1c) Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Sequence events in Virginia history. (VS.1f) Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives. (VS.1g)

Local History

A decade before Brown v.s Board of Education, a Norfolk black Chemistry teacher at Booker T. Washington, Aline Black, petitioned the School Board for an $300.00 increase in pay to match the $600.00 annual salary of white teachers in the District. That set off a lawsuit filed by Maryland lawyer, Thurgood Marshall of the NAACP, against the Norfolk School Board claiming that uequal pay was a violation of the Alien Black's equal protection rights under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. When the case was dismissed by the local court on a technicality, the Norfolk School Board refused to renew Ms. Black's contract for the 1939-40 scool year. For the first time ever, 1,200 Norfolk blacks and a few whites staged a protest demonstrtion at St. John's AME Church with children carrying banners with such slogans as "Norfolk's School Board Must Go", "Dictators: Hitler, Mussolini, Norfolk School Board" and "Our School Board has Vetoed the Bill of Rights". In 1940, the U.S. Circuit Court of Apppeals heard the case entitled Alston vs. Norfolk School Boar ( which was the NAACP's successor class action suit filed uner the name of Melvin Austin, the President of the Norfolk Teachers Association), and ruled that unequal pay was a violation of 14th Amendment. Sincce the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear the case, the Norfolk School Board was forced to rehire Ms. Black and to begin paying black teachers salaries commensurte with those paid to white.

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STANDARD VS.9c The student will demonstrate knowledge of twentieth century Virginia by c) identifying the political, social, and/or economic contributions made by Maggie L. Walker, Harry F. Byrd, Sr., Arthur R. Ashe, Jr., and L. Douglas Wilder.

E. U.

Many individuals made social, political, and economic contributions to Virginia life in the twentieth century.

E. Q.

What contributions to twentieth century Virginia life were made by Maggie L. Walker, Harry Flood Byrd, Sr., Arthur R. Ashe, Jr., and L. Douglas Wilder?

E. K.

Maggie L. Walker was the first African American woman to become a bank president in the United States. She was also the first woman to become a bank president. Harry F. Byrd, Sr., as governor, was known for a "Pay As You Go" policy for road improvements, and he modernized Virginia state government. Arthur R. Ashe, Jr., was the first African American winner of a major men's tennis singles championship. He was also an author and eloquent spokesperson for social change. L. Douglas Wilder, former governor of Virginia, was the first African American to be elected a state governor in the United States.

E. S.

Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history. (VS.1a) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e)

Local History

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STANDARD VS.10a The student will demonstrate knowledge of government, geography, and economics by a) identifying the three branches of Virginia government and the function of each.

E. U.

Virginia state government is made up of three parts (branches) that ensure Virginia laws agree with the state constitution.

E. Q.

What are the three branches of government in Virginia and what are the powers of each branch?

E. K.

The government of Virginia is divided into three branches. · The General Assembly is the legislative branch of the Virginia government that makes state laws. It is divided into two parts--the Senate and the House of Delegates. · The governor heads the executive branch of the state government. The executive branch makes sure that state laws are carried out. · The judicial branch is the state's court system. The judicial branch decides cases about people accused of breaking the law and whether or not a law agrees with Virginia's constitution.

E. S.

Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d)

Local History

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STANDARD VS.10b The student will demonstrate knowledge of government, geography, and economics by b) describing the major products and industries of Virginia's five geographic regions.

E. U.

The state of Virginia can be divided into five geographic regions. Different products and industries characterize each region.

E. Q.

What are the major products and industries of each region in Virginia?

E. K.

Coastal Plain (Tidewater) Products: Seafood Industries: Shipbuilding, tourism, federal military installations Piedmont Products: Tobacco products, information technology Industries: Technology, federal and state government, farming, textiles Blue Ridge Mountains Products: Apples Industries: Recreation Valley and Ridge Products: Poultry, apples Industries: Farming Appalachian Plateau Products: Coal Industries: Coal mining

E. S.

Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e) Analyze and interpret maps. (VS.1i)

Local History

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STANDARD VS.10c The student will demonstrate knowledge of government, geography, and economics by c) explaining how advances in transportation, communications, and technology have contributed to Virginia's prosperity and role in the global economy.

E. U.

Advances in transportation, communications, and technology have facilitated migration and led to economic development in Virginia. Industries in Virginia produce goods and services used throughout the United States.

E. Q.

How have advances in transportation facilitated migration and economic growth? How have advances in communications and technology helped the economy grow? In what ways is Virginia part of the U.S. economy?

E. K.

Virginia's transportation system (highways, railroads, and air transportation) moves raw materials to factories and finished products to markets. Virginia exports agricultural and manufactured products, including tobacco, poultry, coal, and large ships. Virginia has a large number of communications and other technology industries. Tourism is a major part of Virginia's economy. Because many federal workers live and/or work in Virginia, the federal government has a significant impact on Virginia's economy.

E. S.

Draw conclusions and make generalizations. (VS.1d) Make connections between past and present. (VS.1e)

Local History

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