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International Business

Strategy, Management, and the New Realities

S. Tamer Cavusgil

Michigan State University

Gary Knight

Florida State University

John R. Riesenberger

Executive in Residence, CIBER Michigan State University

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cavusgil, S. Tamer. International business : strategy, management, and the new realities / S. Tamer Cavusgil, Gary Knight, John R. Reisenberger. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-13-173860-7 (alk. paper) 1. International business enterprises--Management. I. Knight, Gary, 1939- II. Riesenberger, John R., 1948- III. Title. HD62.4.C389 2008 658'.049--dc22 2007041181

Editor-in-Chief: David Parker Senior Development Editor: Lena Buonanno Product Development Manager: Ashley Santora Assistant Editor: Kristen Varina Editorial Assistant: Elizabeth Davis Director of Development: Steve Deitmer Media Project Manager: Ashley Lulling Marketing Manager: Patrice Jones Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Project Manager, Production: Kevin H. Holm Permissions Project Manager: Charles Morris Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Senior Art Director: Maria Lang Interior Design: Cover Design:

Cover Illustration/Photo: Illustration (Interior): Multimedia Artist: [If applicable] Director, Image Resource Center: Melinda Patelli Manager, Rights and Permissions: Zina Arabia Manager: Visual Research: Beth Brenzel Manager, Cover Visual Research & Permissions: Karen Sanatar Image Permission Coordinator: Angelique Sharps Photo Researcher: Sheila Norman Composition: Prepare Full-Service Project Management: Prepare Inc. Printer/Binder: R.R. Donnelly; Phoenix Color Corp. Typeface:

Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text (or on page 640). Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458. Pearson Prentice Hall All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Prentice HallTM is a trademark of Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson® is a registered trademark of Pearson plc Prentice Hall® is a registered trademark of Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson Education, LTD. Pearson Education Singapore, Pte. Ltd Pearson Education Canada, Ltd. Pearson Education­Japan Pearson Education Australia PTY, Limited Pearson Education North Asia Ltd Pearson Educación de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Pearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN-13: 978-0-13-173860-7 ISBN-10: 0-13-173860-7

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Dedicated to...

This book is dedicated to: my parents, Mehmet and Naciye Cavusgil, who never received much formal education but passed on a deep sense of appreciation for knowledge to their children; my wife Judy and my children Erin and Emre Cavusgil , who graciously provided much-needed understanding, support, and encouragement; and my students whom I had the opportunity to mentor over the years.

S. Tamer Cavusgil East Lansing, Michigan

To my wife Mari, for her patience, intellect and adventurous spirit, and to Bill and Audrey for being great parents and role , models.

Gary Knight Tallahassee, Florida

This book and the accompanying knowledge portal are dedicated to my parents, Richard and Marie Riesenberger, for their example, many sacrifices and love. To my wife and best friend, Pat, for her enthusiasm and loving support. To my daughters Jenny and Chris and their husbands, Martijn and Byron, of whom I am so very proud and thankful. To my amazing grandchildren Ryan and Paige--the future of the New Realities.

John R. Riesenberger Basking Ridge, New Jersey

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> About the Authors

S. Tamer Cavusgil

Michigan State University, University Distinguished Faculty, The John William Byington Endowed Chair in Global Marketing, Executive Director, Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER)

Professor Cavusgil has been mentoring students, executives, and educators in international business for the past three decades. A native of Turkey, Professor Cavusgil's professional work has taken him to numerous other emerging markets. Professor Cavusgil has authored over 160 refereed journal articles and three dozen books including Doing Business in the Emerging Markets (Sage). His work is among the most cited contributions in international business. He is the founding editor of the Journal of International Marketing and Advances in International Marketing. He serves on the editorial review boards of professional journals. Professor Cavusgil is an elected Fellow of the Academy of International Business, a distinction earned by a select group of intellectual leaders in international business. He also served as Vice President of the AIB, and on the Board of Directors of the American Marketing Association. Michigan State University bestowed him with its highest recognition for contributions to the international mission: the Ralph H. Smuckler Award for Advancing International Studies. He was named "International Trade Educator of the Year" in 1996 by the National Association of Small Business International Trade Educators (NASBITE). At Michigan State University, he also earned the distinction of University Distinguished Faculty, the highest award given to a faculty member. In 2007, he was named an Honorary Fellow of the Sidney Sussex College at the University of Cambridge. Professor Cavusgil holds MBA and Ph.D. degrees in business from the University of Wisconsin. Previously, he held positions at the Middle East Technical University in Turkey, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, and Bradley University. He also served as Senior Fulbright Scholar to Australia and taught at Monash University and other Australian institutions. He served as a visiting Professor at Manchester Business School, and as Gianni and Joan Montezemolo Visiting Chair at the University of Cambridge, the United Kingdom.

Gary Knight

Florida State University Associate Professor Director of Program in International Business

Professor Knight has extensive experience in international business in the private sector. In his position as Export Manager for a medium-sized enterprise, he directed the firm's operations in Canada, Europe, Japan, and Mexico, supervising the business activities of some 50 distributors in these regions. Previously, he worked for a leading manufacturer of electrical machinery at its headquarters in Tokyo, Japan, and for the Japan office of the State of Washington. Professor Knight developed the study Abroad Programs in business in Britain, France, Japan, and Spain, as well as the university's online courses in international business. He has won several awards for research and teaching, including best teacher in the MBA program and the Hans B. Thorelli Best Paper Award for his article "Entrepreneurship and Strategy: The SME Under Globalization." His

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About the Authors

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research emphasizes regional integration, international business strategy, international services, and internationalization of small and medium-sized firms. Professor Knight is a member of the Academy of International Business. He has authored three books and nearly one hundred refereed articles in academic journals and conference proceedings, including Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of World Business, International Executive, and Management International Review. He is on the editorial review boards of several international journals. The United States House of Representative's Committee on Small Business recently invited Professor Knight to provide expert testimony on terrorism's effects on international business. Professor Knight earned his MBA at the University of Washington and Ph.D. at Michigan State University, both in international business. Earlier degrees were in Finance and Modern Languages. He also attended the University of Paris in France and Sophia University in Japan, and is fluent in French, Japanese, and Spanish.

John R. Riesenberger

Michigan State University Executive in Residence Center for International Business Education and Research

John's international business career spans over three decades in the global pharmaceutical industry. He has conducted business transactions in 21 countries. His passion is to help students develop the managerial skills frequently required of new graduates entering careers in international business. Currently, John is a Principal in a "born global" science-branding communications agency with clients that include the majority of the leading global pharmaceutical companies headquartered in Europe, Japan, and the United States. John worked with Pharmacia & Upjohn and The Upjohn Company as a senior executive. His experience covers a diverse range of divisional, geographic, and functional accountabilities. His most recent position was Vice-President, Business Intelligence, Global Business Management. Previous assignments included: VicePresident of The Upjohn Company of Canada, Vice-President of Business Information, Executive Director-Worldwide Strategic Marketing Services, Executive Director-Worldwide Medical Sciences Liaison, and Director of Sales. Prior to joining The Upjohn Company, he served as a Customer Service Supervisor with the Chase Manhattan Bank. John served as a member of the Global Advisory Board of the American Marketing Association and as a member of the Business Advisory Board of the Michigan State University Center for International Business Education and Research. He served as Chairman, Industry Advisory Board, "Value of Marketing Program," SEI Center for the Advanced Studies in Management, The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He is the former Chairman of the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Association Marketing Practices Committee. John is the co-author, with Robert T. Moran, of The Global Challenge: Building the New Worldwide Enterprise (McGraw-Hill, London). John holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Economics-Business and a Masters of Business Administration in Management from Hofstra University. He attended the Harvard Business School's International Senior Management Program (ISMP 89).

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> Brief Contents

Preface xxv

Part I Foundation Concepts 2

1. Introduction: What Is International Business?

MAP 2.4 Gross National Income in U.S. Dollars 38 MAP 2.6 The Growth of World GDP, Average Annual Percent Change, 1998­2007 48

2 28

2. Globalization of Markets and the Internationalization of the Firm

3. Organizational Participants that Make International Business Happen 4. Theories of International Trade and Investment 92

60

Part 2 The Environment of International Business 124

5. The Cultural Environment of International Business

MAP 5.6 World Religions 142

124 158 192

6. Political and Legal Systems in National Environments

MAP 6.9 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2006 182

7. Government Intervention in International Business 8. Regional Economic Integration 222

MAP 7.5 Countries Ranked by Level of Economic Freedom 208 MAP 8.2 The Most Active Economic Blocs 230 MAP 8.3 Economic Integration in Europe 232

9. Understanding Emerging Markets

254

MAP 9.1 Advanced Economies, Developing Economies, and Emerging Markets 259

10. The International Monetary and Financial Environment 284

MAP Closing Case Euro Zone Member Countries 305

Part 3 Strategy and Opportunity Assessment for the International Environment 312

11. Global Strategy and Organization 312 344 12. Global Market Opportunity Assessment

Part 4 Entering and Operating in International Markets 380

13. Exporting and Countertrade 380 450 14. Foreign Direct Investment and Collaborative Ventures 416 15. Licensing, Franchising, and Other Contractual Strategies 16. Global Sourcing 482

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Brief Contents

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Part 5 Functional Area Excellence 514

17. Marketing in the Global Firm 514 18. Human Resource Management in the Global Firm 546 19. Financial Management and Accounting in the Global Firm 578

Appendix: The Math of Currency Trading 416

Endnotes 614 Glossary 615 Photo Credits xxx Author Index 640 Companies Index 642 Subject Index xxx

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> Contents

Preface xxv

Part I: Foundation Concepts

>

2

1 Introduction: What Is International Business?

A Day in the Global Economy 2 4 What Is International Business?

2

What Are the Key Concepts in International Trade and Investment? The Nature of International Trade 5 The Nature of International Investment Services as Well as Products 8 10 6

5

The International Financial Services Sector

How Does International Business Differ from Domestic Business? The Four Risks in Internationalization 11 Who Participates in International Business? Multinational Enterprise (MNE) 13 13

11

Global Trend: DIESEL S.p.A.: A Smaller Firm's Smashing Success in International Markets 15 Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) 16 16 18 Why Do Firms Pursue Internationalization Strategies? Why Should You Study International Business? 18 Facilitator of the Global Economy and Interconnectedness Contributor to National Economic Well-Being A Competitive Advantage for the Firm 20 An Opportunity for Global Corporate Citizenship A Competitive Advantage for You 21 Recent Grad in IB: Ashley Lumb 22 Closing Case: Whirlpool's Dramatic Turnaround Through Internationalization 23

19 20

Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 25 Summary 25 Test Your Comprehension 26 Apply Your Understanding 26 globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 27

2 Globalization of Markets and the Internationalization of the Firm 28

>

Bangalore: The New Silicon Valley

28 31 34

ix

Why Globalization Is Not a New Phenomenon Phases of Globalization 31

An Organizing Framework for Market Globalization

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Dimensions of Market Globalization Drivers of Market Globalization 37

35

MAP 2.4 Gross National Income in U.S. Dollars 38

Technological Advances as a Driver of Market Globalization Information Technology 42 Communications 42

40

Global Trend: Globalization and E-Business in the Online World 43 Manufacturing 44 Transportation 44 44 Societal Consequences of Market Globalization Loss of National Sovereignty 44 Offshoring and the Flight of Jobs Effect on the Poor 46 47 Effect on the Natural Environment Effect on National Culture 47

MAP 2.6 The Growth of World GDP, Average Annual Percent Change,

45

1998­2007 48 Firm-Level Consequences of Market Globalization: Internationalization of the Firm's Value Chain 51 Closing Case: Diverse Perspectives on Globalization of Markets 53 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 55 Summary 55 Test Your Comprehension 56 Apply Your Understanding 56

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 57

MSB What is a C/K/R Management Skill Builder©? 58 MSB Corporate Social Responsibility: Coffee, Ethiopia, and Starbucks 59

3 Organizational Participants that Make International Business Happen 60

>

Born Global Firms

60 62 64

Three Types of Participants in International Business Participants Organized by Value-Chain Activity 63 An Illustration of an International Value Chain: Dell Inc. Focal Firms in International Business The Multinational Enterprise 66 Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises Born Global Firms 68 66 68

Foreign Market Entry Strategies of Focal Firms 69 A Framework for Classifying Market Entry Strategies 69 Focal Firms other Than the MNE and SME 71 75 Distribution Channel Intermediaries in International Business Intermediaries Based in the Foreign Market 75 Intermediaries Based in the Home Country 76

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Online Intermediaries

79 81

Global Trend: Online Retailers: Contemporary Global Intermediaries 80 Facilitators in International Business Recent Grad in IB: Cynthia Asoka 82 Closing Case: DHL International: An Ambitious Competitor in Global

Logistics Services 85

Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 87 Summary 88 Test Your Comprehension 89 Apply Your Understanding 89

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 90

MSB Finding and Evaluating Freight Forwarders 91

4 Theories of International Trade and Investment

92

>

Dubai's Successful Transformation into a Knowledge-Based Economy 92 Theories of International Trade and Investment Why Nations Trade 96 Classical Theories 96 How Nations Enhance Their Competitive Advantage: Contemporary Theories 102 The Competitive Advantage of Nations 102 Michael Porter's Diamond Model 103 National Industrial Policy New Trade Theory 108 106 107 National Industrial Policy in Practice: An Example Why and How Firms Internationalize 108 Internationalization Process of the Firm 108 94

Global Trend: Repositioning to Create National Comparative Advantage 109 Born Globals and International Entrepreneurship 110 110 How Firms Gain and Sustain International Competitive Advantage FDI-Based Theories 111 Non-FDI Based Explanations 116

Closing Case: Hyundai: The Struggle for International Success 117 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 119 Summary 119 Test Your Comprehension 120 Apply Your Understanding 121

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 122

MSB The Best Locations for Manufacturing 123

Part 2 The Environment of International Business 124

5 The Cultural Environment of International Business 124

>

American Football . . . in Europe?

124

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The Challenge of Crossing Cultural Boundaries The Meaning of Culture: Foundation Concepts Why Culture Matters in International Business Recent Grad in IB: Zhibo (Lawrence) Yu 133

126 129 131

National, Professional, and Corporate Culture 134 Interpretations of Culture 135 Cultural Metaphors 135 Stereotypes 135 Idioms 135 Hall's High- and Low-Context Cultures 136 Hofstede's Research on National Culture 137 Key Dimensions of Culture 139 Values and Attitudes 139 Deal versus Relationship Orientation Manners and Customs 140 Perceptions of Time 140 Perceptions of Space 141 Religion 141

MAP 5.6 World Religions 142

139

Symbolic Productions 144 Material Productions and Creative Expressions of Culture 144 Language as a Key Dimension of Culture 144 Culture and Contemporary Issues 146 Culture and the Services Sector 146 Technology, the Internet, and Culture 147 Globalization's Effect on Culture: Are Cultures Converging? Managerial Guidelines for Cross-Cultural Success

Analysis 150

147

148

Global Trend: Minimizing Cross-Cultural Bias with Critical Incident Closing Case: Hollywood and the Rise of Cultural Protectionism 151 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 153 Summary 153 Test Your Comprehension 154 Apply Your Understanding 155

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 156

MSB Developing an Incentive Plan for Sales Personnel from Different Cultures 157

6 Political and Legal Systems in National Environments

158

158

>

Doing Business in Russia: Evolving Legal and Political Realities What Is Country Risk? 160 How Prevalent Is Country Risk? Political Systems 164 Totalitarianism 164 Socialism 165 161 163

What Are Political and Legal Systems?

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Democracy 165 Democracy's Link to Economic Freedom 166 How Political Systems Influence Economic Systems Legal Systems 168 Five Types of Legal Systems 169 172

167

Actors in Political and Legal Systems Government 172 International Organizations 172 Regional Economic Blocs 172 Special Interest Groups 172 Competing Firms 173

Types of Country Risk Produced by the Political System 173 Government Takeover of Corporate Assets 173 Embargoes and Sanctions 174 Boycotts against Firms or Nations 174 War, Insurrection, and Revolution 174 Terrorism 175 Types of Country Risk Produced by the Legal System 175 Country Risk Arising from the Host Country Legal Environment 175 Country Risk Arising from the Home-Country Legal Environment 177 Global Trend: E-Commerce and the International Legal Environment 178 Managing Country Risk 181 Proactive Environmental Scanning 181 Strict Adherence to Ethical Standards 181

MAP 6.9 Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2006 182

Allying with Qualified Local Partners 184 Protection through Legal Contracts 184 Safeguarding Intellectual Property Rights 184 Closing Case: Pillaging Patents: The New War on Pharmaceutical

Drugs 186

Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 188 Summary 188 Test Your Comprehension 189 Apply Your Understanding 189

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 190

MSB Performing a Preliminary Country Risk Analysis 191

7 Government Intervention in International Business

192

192

>

India's Path Away from Government Intervention and Bureaucracy Government Intervention in International Business Rationale for Government Intervention Defensive Rationale 197 Offensive Rationale 198 Instruments of Government Intervention Tariffs 200 Nontariff Trade Barriers 202 196 194

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Investment Barriers

204 205

Subsidies and Other Government Support Programs

Government Intervention, Economic Freedom, and Ethical Concerns 207

MAP 7.5 Countries Ranked by Level of Economic Freedom 208

Evolution of Government Intervention

210

Global Trend: The World Trade Organization and International Services: The Doha Round 211 How Firms Should Respond to Government Intervention Strategies for Managers 212 212

Closing Case: Airbus versus Boeing: When is Intervention Not Intervention? 215 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 217 Summary 217

Test Your Comprehension 218 globalEDGE

TM

Apply Your Understanding 218 220

Internet Exercises

MSB Harmonized Code Tariffs as Trade Barriers for Developing Country Exporters 221

8 Regional Economic Integration

222

224

>

The European Union

222 225

Regional Integration and Economic Blocs Types of Regional Integration Leading Economic Blocs 228 The European Union (EU) 228

Global Trend: Integrating Eastern Europe and Turkey into the EU 229

MAP 8.2 The Most Active Economic Blocs 230 MAP 8.3 Economic Integration in Europe 232

European Free Trade Association (EFTA) El Mercado Comun del Sur (MERCOSUR) The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN)

234 234 236

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 236 237

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) 237

237

Australia and New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement (CER) 238 Economic Integration in the Middle East and Africa Why Countries Pursue Regional Integration Success Factors for Regional Integration 239 241 240 243 238

Drawbacks and Ethical Dilemmas of Regional Integration Management Implications of Regional Integration

Trade 246

Closing Case: Russell Corporation: The Dilemma of Regional Free Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 249 Summary 249 Test Your Comprehension 250 Apply Your Understanding 251

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globalEDGETM Internet Exercises EU Member States 253

252

MSB Entering the Retailing Sector in the New

9 Understanding Emerging Markets

254

>

The New Global Challengers: Newly Internationalizing MNEs from Emerging Markets 254 The Distinction between Advanced Economies, Developing Economies, and Emerging Markets 256 Advanced Economies 257 Developing Economies 257

MAP 9.1 Advanced Economies, Developing Economies, and Emerging Markets 259

Emerging Market Economies

260

Global Trend: China: Growing Role in International Business 264 What Makes Emerging Markets Attractive for International Business 265 Emerging Markets as Target Markets 265 Emerging Markets as Manufacturing Bases Emerging Markets as Sourcing Destinations 265 266

Estimating the True Potential of Emerging Markets 266 Per-capita Income as an Indicator of Market Potential 267 Middle Class as an Indicator of Market Potential 268 Use of a Comprehensive Index to Measure Market Potential 269 Risks and Challenges of Doing Business in Emerging Markets Political Instability 271 Weak Intellectual Property Protection Partner Availability and Qualifications Dominance of Family Conglomerates 271 271 271 272 272 Bureaucracy, Red Tape, and Lack of Transparency 270

Strategies for Doing Business in Emerging Markets Partnering with Family Conglomerates 273 Marketing to Governments in Emerging Markets Skillfully Challenge Emerging Market Competitors 273

274

Catering to Economic Development Needs of Emerging Markets and Developing Economies 275 Fostering Economic Development with Profitable Projects 275 Microfinance to Facilitate Entrepreneurship

Firm 277

276

Closing Case: Arcelik: International Aspirations of an Emerging Market Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 279 Summary 279 Test Your Comprehension 280 Apply Your Understanding 281

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 282

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MSB Learning About and Assessing Emerging

Markets 283

10 The International Monetary and Financial Environment 284

>

The Complex Monetary and Financial Relationship between China and the United States 284 Currencies and Exchange Rates in International Business Convertible and Nonconvertible Currencies 287 Foreign Exchange Markets 288 288 290 Exchange Rates Are in Constant Flux How Exchange Rates Are Determined Economic Growth 290 Interest Rates and Inflation Market Psychology Government Action 292 292 293 291 286

Development of the Modern Exchange Rate System

Global Trend: Is the U.S. Trade Deficit Good or Bad? 294 The Exchange Rate System Today 295 The International Monetary and Financial Systems International Monetary System 296 Global Financial System 297 Key Players in the Monetary and Financial Systems The Firm 298 National Stock Exchanges and Bond Markets Commercial Banks 300 Recent Grad in IB: Chip Besse 301 Central Banks 302 The Bank for International Settlements International Monetary Fund World Bank 304 302 302 298 298 296

MAP Closing Case Euro zone Member Countries 305

Closing Case: The European Union and the Euro 305 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 308 Summary 308 Test Your Comprehension 309 Apply Your Understanding 309

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 310

MSB Identifying the Best Location for a Bank Branch Abroad 311

Part 3 Strategy and Opportunity Assessment for the International Environment 312

11 Global Strategy and Organization 312

>

IKEA's Global Strategy

312

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The Role of Strategy in International Business 315 Strategy in Multidomestic and Global Industries 316 The Integration-Responsiveness Framework Pressures for Local Responsiveness 318 Pressures for Global Integration 318 317

Distinct Strategies Emerging from the Integration-Responsiveness Framework 319 Organizational Structure 322 Centralized or Decentralized Structure? 322 Alternative Organizational Arrangements for International Operations 323 Export Department or International Division 324 Decentralized Structure (Geographic Area Division) 325 Centralized Structure (Product or Functional Division) 326 Global Matrix Structure 327 Building the Global Firm 328 Visionary Leadership 329 Organizational Culture 331 Global Trend: Global Corporate Social Responsibility Rises to the Top of

the MNE Agenda 332

Organizational Processes 333 Common Organizational Processes Designed to Achieve Coordination 333 Putting Organizational Change in Motion

Success 336

334

Closing Case: Carlos Ghosn and Renault-Nissan: Leading for Global Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 338 Summary 339 Test Your Comprehension 340 Apply Your Understanding 340

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 342

MSB The Critical Role of Negotiations in International Business 343

12 Global Market Opportunity Assessment

344

>

Estimating Market Demand in Emerging Markets and Developing Countries 344 Global Market Opportunity Assessment: An Overview 346 Task One: Analyze Organizational Readiness to Internationalize 347 Task Two: Assess the Suitability of the Firm's Products and Services for Foreign Markets 351 Factors Contributing to Product Suitability for International Markets 351 Key Issues for Managers to Resolve in Determining Product Potential 352 Task Three: Screen Countries to Identify Target Markets 353 Targeting Regions or Gateway Countries 354 Screening Methodology for Potential Country Markets 354

Global Trend: Global Macro Trends That Affect International Business 355 Screening Countries for Direct Investment and Global Sourcing 360

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Task Four: Assess Industry Market Potential 362 Practical Methods for Managers to Assess Industry Market Potential 364 Data Sources for Estimating Industry Market Potential Task Five: Select Foreign Business Partners Recent Grad in IB: Javier Estrada 366 Criteria for Selecting a Partner 367 Searching for Prospective Partners 367 Task Six: Estimate Company Sales Potential 368 Determinants of Company Sales Potential 368 Practical Approaches to Estimating Company Sales Potential In Conclusion

Export 372

365

365

370

371

Closing Case: Advanced Biomedical Devices: Assessing Readiness to Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 375 Summary 375 Test Your Comprehension 376 Apply Your Understanding 376

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 378

MSB Global Market Opportunity Assessment for Cancer Insurance 379

Part 4 Entering and Operating in International Markets 380

13 Exporting and Countertrade 380

380 382 383 385

>

Exporter's Dogged Pursuit of International Customers An Overview of Foreign Market Entry Strategies The Internationalization of the Firm 383 Diverse Motives for Pursuing Internationalization Characteristics of Firm Internationalization 384 Exporting as a Foreign Market Entry Strategy Exporting: A Popular Entry Strategy 387 Service Industry Exports Advantages of Exporting 388 389 390

Disadvantages of Exporting

Global Trend: The Emergence of SME Exporters 390 A Systematic Approach to Exporting 391 Importing 394 394 Managing Export-Import Transactions Documentation 395 Shipping and Incoterms 396 396

Methods of Payment in Exporting and Importing Cash in Advance 397 Letter of Credit 398

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Open Account

399 399 400

Consignment Sales

Cost and Sources of Export-Import Financing Commercial Banks 400 Factoring, Forfaiting, and Confirming Distribution Channel Intermediaries Buyers and Suppliers 401 401 401 402 Intracorporate Financing 400 401

Government Assistance Programs

Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)

Identifying and Working with Foreign Intermediaries Working with Foreign Intermediaries 402 When Intermediary Relations Go Bad 404 406 Countertrade 405 The Magnitude and Drivers of Countertrade Types of Countertrade Risks of Countertrade Why Countertrade?

Launch 409

402

407 407

408

Closing Case: Barrett Farm Foods: A Small Firm's International Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 411 Summary 411 Test Your Comprehension 412 Apply Your Understanding 413

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 414

MSB Identifying An Attractive Export Market 415

14 Foreign Direct Investment and Collaborative Ventures 416

>

Deutsche Post's Global Buying Spree 416 An Organizing Framework for Foreign Market Entry Strategies Trends in Foreign Direct Investment and Collaborative Ventures

418 419 419

Low, Moderate, and High-Control Foreign Market Entry Strategies

Motives for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Collaborative Ventures 421 Market-Seeking Motives 421 Resource or Asset-Seeking Motives Efficiency-Seeking Motives Foreign Direct Investment Key Features of FDI 424 Service Multinationals 426 Leading Destinations for FDI 427 Factors to Consider in Selecting FDI Locations 427 429 Types of Foreign Direct Investment 429 Greenfield Investment versus Mergers and Acquisitions 423 423 425 422

Who Is Active in Direct Investment?

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The Nature of Ownership in FDI 430 Global Trend: Consolidation in Global Industries 430 Vertical versus Horizontal FDI 432 International Collaborative Ventures 432 Equity Joint Ventures 432 Project-Based, Nonequity Ventures 433 Differences between Equity versus Project-Based, Nonequity Ventures 433 Consortium 434 Cross-Licensing Agreements 434 Managing Collaborative Ventures 435 Understand Potential Risks in Collaboration 435 Pursue a Systematic Process for Partnering 435 Ensure Success with Collaborative Ventures 437 Success Factors in Collaborative Ventures 437 The Experience of Retailers in Foreign Markets Challenges of International Retailing 439 International Retailing Success Factors 439 438

Foreign Direct Investment, Collaborative Ventures, and Ethical Behavior 440 Closing Case: AUTOLATINA: A Failed International Partnership 443 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 445 Summary 445 Test Your Comprehension 447 Apply Your Understanding 447

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 448

MSB Selecting a Site for a Manufacturing Plant 449

15 Licensing, Franchising, and Other Contractual Strategies 450

>

Harry Potter: The Magic of Licensing 450 The Nature of Contractual Entry Strategies in International Business 452 Unique Aspects of Contractual Relationships 453 Types of Intellectual Property 453 Licensing 454 Trademark and Copyright Licensing 456 Know-How Licensing 456 Who Are the Top Licensing Firms? 457 Advantages and Disadvantages of Licensing Advantages of Licensing 457 Disadvantages of Licensing 459 Franchising 460 Who Are the Top Franchisors? 462 463 457

Advantages and Disadvantages of Franchising The Franchisor Perspective 463 The Franchisee Perspective 464 Other Contractual Entry Strategies 464

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Turnkey Contracting 465 Build-Operate-Transfer Arrangements (BOT) 466 Management Contracts 466 Leasing 466 The Special Case of Internationalization by Professional Service Firms 467 Recent Grad in IB: Jennifer Knippen 468 Management of Licensing and Franchising 469 Global Trend: Internationalization of Management Consulting Firms 469 Careful Selection of Qualified Partners 470 Managerial Guidelines for Protecting Intellectual Property 470 Closing Case: Subway and the Challenges of Franchising in China 475 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 477 Summary 477

Test Your Comprehension 478 globalEDGE

TM

Apply Your Understanding 479 480

Internet Exercises

MSB Choosing the Best Entry Strategy 481

16 Global Sourcing

482

>

Global Sourcing of Pharmaceutical Drug Trials 482 Trends Toward Outsourcing, Global Sourcing, and Offshoring 484 Decision 1: Outsource or Not? 486 Decision 2: Where in the World Should Value-Adding Activities Be Located? 487 Global Sourcing from Subsidiaries versus Independent Suppliers 487 Contract Manufacturing: Global Sourcing from Independent Suppliers 488 Offshoring 489 Limits to Global Sourcing 490 Strategic Implications of Outsourcing and Global Sourcing 490 Evolution of Global Sourcing 491 Phases in the Evolution: From Global Sourcing of Inputs to Offshoring Value-Adding Activities 491 Magnitude of Global Sourcing 492 Diversity of Countries That Initiate and Receive Outsourced Work 492

Global Trend: China: Rivaling India in the Global Sourcing Game 493 Benefits and Challenges of Global Sourcing for the Firm 494 Cost Efficiency 495 Achievement of Strategic Goals 495 Implementing Global Sourcing through Supply-Chain Management 497 Logistics and Transportation 500 Transportation Modes 500 Risks in Global Sourcing 501 Strategies for Minimizing Risk in Global Sourcing 502 Implications of Global Sourcing for Public Policy and Corporate Citizenship 504 Potential Harm to Economies from Global Sourcing 504

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Ethical and Social Implications of Global Sourcing Potential Benefits to National Economy Public Policy toward Global Sourcing 506 507

506

Closing Case: Good Hopes for Global Outsourcing 508 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 510 Summary 510 Test Your Comprehension 511 Apply Your Understanding 511

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 512

MSB A Smarter Approach to Global Sourcing 513

Part 5 Functional Area Excellence

17 Marketing in the Global Firm 514

514

>

Zara's Unique Model for International Marketing Success Global Marketing Strategy 516 Targeting Customer Segments and Positioning 516

514

Standardization and Adaptation of the International Marketing Program 518 Standardization 519 Adaptation 521 522 523 Standardization and Adaptation: A Balancing Act Global Branding and Product Development Global Branding 523 Global Product Development 525 526 International Pricing 526 Factors Affecting International Pricing

Global Trend: Designing Global Products with Global Teams 527 A Framework for Setting International Prices 529 Managing International Price Escalation Transfer Pricing 531 533 535 530 Managing Pricing under Varying Currency Conditions 531 Gray Market Activity (Parallel Imports)

International Marketing Communications International Advertising 535 International Promotional Activities Global Account Management International Distribution 537 538 537

Ethical Dimensions of International Marketing

538

Closing Case: MTV India: Balancing Global and Local Marketing 540 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 542 Summary 542 Test Your Comprehension 543 Apply Your Understanding 543

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 544

MSB Developing a Distribution Channel in Japan 545

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18 Human Resource Management in the Global Firm 546

>

International Human Resources: Management at Johnson & Johnson 546 The Strategic Role of Human Resources in International Business Three Employee Categories 549 Differences between Domestic and International HRM 549 Key Tasks in International Human Resource Management 551 International Staffing Policy 551 Searching for Talent 553 Expatriate Failure and Culture Shock 548

555

Preparation and Training of Personnel 556 Preparing Employees for Repatriation 557 Cultivating Global Mindsets 557 Charting Global Careers for Employees 558 International Performance Appraisal Compensation of Personnel 559 558

International Labor Relations 561 Distinctive Features of Labor around the World 563 The Cost and Quality of Labor 563 Workforce Reduction 564 Trends in International Labor 565 Firm Strategy in International Labor Relations 566 Diversity in the International Workforce Women in International Business 566

Resource Management 567

566

Global Trend: Global Corporate Citizenship in International Human Success Strategies for Women Managers in International Business 570 Closing Case: Sony's Evolving Human Resource Challenges 571 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 573 Summary 573 Test Your Comprehension 575 Apply Your Understanding 575

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 576

MSB Evaluating International Locations for Quality of Life 577

19 Financial Management and Accounting in the Global Firm 578

>

How a Small Firm Rides Foreign-Exchange Waves Task One: Decide on the Capital Structure 582 Task Two: Raise Funds for the Firm 582 Financial Centers 583 Sources of Funds for International Operations

578 580

Primary Tasks in International Financial Management

584

Global Trend: Emerging Markets as International Investment

Destinations 586

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Debt Financing 587 Intracorporate Financing

588 588

Task Three: Working Capital and Cash Flow Management Methods for Transferring Funds within the MNE 589 Multilateral Netting 590 Task Four: Capital Budgeting 591 Net Present Value Analysis of Capital Investment Projects

591

Task Five: Currency Risk Management 592 Three Types of Currency Exposure 593 Foreign Exchange Trading 594 Types of Currency Traders 595 Exchange Rate Forecasting 596 Management of Exposure to Currency Risk through Hedging Best Practice in Minimizing Currency Exposure 599

597

Task Six: Manage the Diversity of International Accounting and Tax Practices 599 Transparency in Financial Reporting 600 Trends toward Harmonization 600 Recent Grad in IB: Maria Keeley 601 Consolidating the Financial Statements of Subsidiaries International Taxation 604 603

Closing Case: International Financial Operations at Tektronix 607 Chapter Essentials: Key Terms 609 Summary 609 Test Your Comprehension 611 Apply Your Understanding 611

globalEDGETM Internet Exercises 612

MSB Understanding Currencies: Big Macs and Dell Computers 613

Appendix: The Math of Currency Trading 614

Endnotes 417 Glossary 615 Photo Credits xxx Author Index 640 Companies Index 642 Subject Index xxx

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> Preface

Why We Created This Book And Teaching System

The book you are holding, International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities, is a component of an innovative educational system we have been developing over the past several years. The system represents an innovative and exciting approach to teaching international business. The insights we gained from comprehensive research and discussions with hundreds of practitioners, students, and faculty have been instrumental in refining our pedagogical philosophy and resources. The book attempts to impart the core body of knowledge in international business in an interesting and lively manner. Our teaching system works from the ground up, where cases, exercises, and management skill builders are seamlessly integrated and matched to the topics covered in each chapter. The accompanying knowledge portal, the C/K/R Educator's Consortium©, is designed as a clearinghouse for learning, networking, and sharing for International business educators worldwide. The C/K/R Educational System is based on the following guiding principles:

New Realities

There are new realities in international business that are critical for today's students to embrace. We are witnessing remarkable changes in the cross-border flow of products, services, capital, ideas, and people. Today's volume of international trade, ease of communication and travel, and technological advances compel, and help, large and small firms to internationalize. We designed the content, organization, and features of the book and other resources to motivate and prepare future managers to grasp these new realities. These include: global sourcing; the impact of technological advances on globalization; globalization of finance; and the success of the smaller firm in international markets. Three other new realities are worth elaborating here: emerging markets, the diversity of international business participants, and corporate social responsibility. Emerging Markets Students need an improved understanding of the changing nature of the international business landscape, not just the Triad regions (Europe, North America, and Japan). Over the past two decades, some 30 high-growth, high-potential countries have sprung into the forefront of cross-border business with rapid industrialization, privatization, and modernization. We introduce emerging markets in Chapter 1, "Introduction: What is International Business" and discuss how companies such as Renault and Microsoft achieve efficiencies by sourcing to countries such as Romania and India. In Chapter 9, "Understanding Emerging Markets," we explain what makes emerging markets attractive for international business and the risks and challenges of doing business in these markets. We also discuss in Chapter 9 Mexico's Cemex, Egypt's Orascom Telecom, and China's Shanghai Automotive. The Diversity of International Business Participants Multinational enterprises (MNEs) have historically been the most important type of focal firm. However, students need to be familiar with a variety of firms active in international business. We therefore provide balanced coverage of MNEs, small and mediumsized enterprises (SMEs), and born globals. We introduce these three types of firms in Chapter 1 and revisit them throughout the book. Here are a few examples of the firms we discuss: · Diesel, a fashion design company that grew from an SME into an MNE (Chapter 1, "Introduction: What is International Business?")

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· Electrolux, a Swedish MNE in the kitchen appliance industry (Chapter 2, Globalization of Markets and the Internationalization of the Firm") · Geo Search, a Japanese born global in the electronics industry (Chapter 3, "Organizational Participants that Make International Business Happen") · L'Oreal, a French MNE in the cosmetic industry (Chapter 5, "The Cultural Environment of International Business") · The challenges MNEs and SMEs encounter in Russia (Chapter 6, "Political and Legal Systems in National Enviroments") · How trade barriers affect SMEs (Chapter 7, "Government Intervention in International Business") · IKEA, a Swedish MNE in the furniture industry (Chapter 11, "Global Strategy and Organization") · PMI Mortgage Insurance Co., a U.S. service firm (Chapter 13, "Exporting and Countertrade") Corporate Social Responsibility Firms are increasingly aware of their role as good corporate citizens. We introduce corporate social responsibility in Chapter 1, "Introduction: What is International Business?" and provide examples from firms such as Starbucks and McDonald's. In Chapter 6, "Political and Legal Systems in National Environments," we summarize ethical practices and values. In Chapter 9, "Understanding Emerging Markets," we cover how firms foster economic development with profExplore countless resources including a direct link to FT.com. itable projects. In Chapter 16, "Global Sourcing," we address ethical and social implications of global sourcing. In Chapter 18, "International Human Resource Management," we discuss · how firms can create more equitable working environments for foreign employees.

Search for information & tools by keyword, chapter, type, and region.

·

Educator's Consortium©

Instructors need an innovative educational solution that goes beyond the textbook and its traditional supplements. We address this need with the C/K/R Educator's Consortium©. The Educator's Consortium© is the first online, global community to bring together international business instructors who are dedicated to preparing today's students to be creative, openminded, and socially responsible. The CKR Educator 's Consortium© is a dynamic virtual library of pedagogical content and tools: It is designed to make every instructor look good in the classroom, as well as to save them time. The Educator 's Consortium© offers these advantages:

· ·

·

Share information, teaching tips, and tools with other instructors of international business­you can download course materials posted by other members, post your own materials, or join a discussion forum.

Customize your news feed to read the latest developments around the world.

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· Connects IB educators all over the world, providing opportunities for collaboration through the Educator's Directory. · Gives the instructor the ability to customize material to suit his or her own needs and teaching style by searching through community-generated material that is constantly updated. · Offers an asynchronous bulletin board, inviting all adopters to exchange teaching ideas, post questions, and dialog through threaded discussions with one another and with the author team. The authors ensure quality content by screening contributed material. · Includes unlimited access to ft.com, the portal of the Financial Times.

globalEDGETM Knowledge Portal

globalEDGETM was developed at Michigan State University's Center for International Business Education and Research (CIBER) under the direction of S. Tamer Cavusgil. globalEDGETM has become the leading knowledge portal for professionals in international business, providing a gateway to specialized knowledge on countries, crossborder transactions, culture, and firm practice. In each chapter, the authors provide several globalEDGETM exercises as the basis for student assignments and projects.

Textbook Features Of Special Note

Maps

In today's globalized world, it is more important than ever for students to understand world geography. Our maps are large, easy to read, and colorful. Here is an example of a map from Chapter 9: Note the clear labeling of countries, the use of color coding, and the cut-out of Europe to make countries easy to identify:

GREENLAND

ARCTIC OCEAN

Y

A

R

O

ED

ALASKA

W

ICELAND

E

FINLAND

SW

N

R

ESTONIA LATVIA

U

S

S

I

A

C A N A D A

IRELAND

UNITED KINGDOM

DENMARK

N

NETHERLANDS BELGIUM

GERMANY

POLAND

LITHUANIA RUSSIA BELARUS

LUXEMBOURG

FRANCE LIECH.AUSTRIA

SWITZ. SLOVENIA

CZECH SLOVAK REP. REP.

UKRAINE

MOLDOVA

KAZAKHSTAN MONGOLIA

KYRGYZSTAN AZERBAIJAN UZBEKISTAN ARMENIA TURKMENISTAN TAJIKISTAN AFGHANISTAN GEORGIA NORTH KOREA SOUTH KOREA

HUNGARY

PACIFIC OCEAN

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

MONACO

CROATIA BOSNIA-ROMANIA HERZEGOVINA

YUGOSLAVIA BULGARIA

ANDORRA

NOR TH ATLANTIC OCEAN

SPAIN

PORTUGAL

ITALY

MACEDONIA ALBANIA

GREECE TUNISIA

TURKEY

CYPRUS

SYRIA

LEBANON

MOROCCO

ISRAEL JORDAN

IRAQ

KUWAIT

IRAN

PAKISTAN

NEPAL

C H I N A

BHUTAN

JAPAN

ALGERIA

WESTERN SAHARA

LIBYA

EGYPT

HAWAII

MEXICO

CUBA

SAUDI MALI

BURKINA FASO

QATAR UNITED ARAB EMIRATES OMAN

BANGLADESH

PACIFIC

TAIWAN

JAMAICA BELIZE GUATEMALA HONDURAS EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA COSTA RICA PANAMA

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC HAITI PUERTO RICO TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

MAURITANIA

SENEGAL

GAMBIA GUINEA-BISSA GUINEA U SIERRA

ARABIA NIGER CHAD SUDAN

NIGERIA

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

ERITREA YEMEN DJIBOUTI

INDIA

MYANMAR (BURMA) LAOS

OCEAN

VIETNAM

THAILAND

GHANA TOGO BENIN

CAMBODIA

PHILIPPINES

VENEZUELA

GUYANA

SWEDEN DENMARK

LATVIA

GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

COLOMBIA

FRENCH GUIANA SURINAME

IVORY COAST LIBERIA

SOMALIA ETHIOPIA

SRI LANKA

BRUNEI

CAMEROON

LITHUANIA RUSSIA

ECUADOR

EQUATORIAL CONGO GUINEA REPUBLIC GABON

UGANDA

MALAYSIA

BELARUS

NETHERLANDS BELGIUM

B R A Z I L

PERU BOLIVIA

KENYA CONGO DEMOCRATIC RWANDA REPUBLIC BURUNDI (ZAIRE)

INDIAN OCEAN

SINGAPORE

INDONESIA

TANZANIA

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

GERMANY

POLAND

LUXEMBOURG

CZECH REP. AUSTRIA

SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN

ANGOLA

ZAMBIA MALAWI

MOZAMBIQUE NAMIBIA ZIMBABWE

SOLOMON ISLANDS

SLOVAKIA MOLDOVA

LIECHENSTEIN

L

MONACO

SLOVENIA CROATIA SAN BOSNIAMARINO HERZEGOVINA

E

SWITZERLAND

HUNGARY

MADAGASCAR

MAURITIUS RÉUNION

VANUATU

FIJI

ROMANIA

PARAGUAY

BOTSWANA SWAZILAND

Black Sea

AUSTRALIA

NEW CALEDONIA

ANDORRA

YUGOSLAVIA BULGARIA

MACEDONIA ALBANIA

SOUTH AFRICA

LESOTHO

URUGUAY

I

GREECE

ALGERIA

H

T U R K E Y

ARGENTINA

NEW ZEALAND

C

TUNISIA

MALTA

CYPRUS

FALKLAND ISLANDS/ MALVINAS

Advanced Economies Developing Economies Emerging Markets

LIBYA

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Recent Grad in IB

Select chapters include a special feature entitled Recent Grad in IB, which highlights IB graduates now working in exciting international careers. We hope this feature will motivate today's students to travel, learn another language, and be open to working internationally.

Closing Case

Each chapter closes with an extensive case study that is new, developed specifically to address the learning objectives in the chapter and written by the authors. The cases help students build their managerial skills by applying what they have learned in the chapter to a situation faced by a real-world manager. Questions accompany the case for assignment as homework. Class discussion helps students sharpen their analytical and decision-making skills. Here are a few examples of the closing cases: Chapter 1: Whirlpool's Dramatic Turnaround through Internationalization Chapter 4: Hyundai: The Struggle for International Success Chapter 5: Hollywood and the Rise of Cultural Protectionism Chapter 6: Pillaging Patents: The New War on Pharmaceutical Drugs Chapter 7: Airbus Versus Boeing: When is Intervention Not Intervention? Chapter 11: Carlos Ghosn and Renault-Nissan: Leading for Global Success · Chapter 12: Advanced Biomedical Devices: Assessing Readiness to Export · Chapter 14: AUTOLATINA: A Failed International Partnership · Chapter 15: Subway and the Challenges of Franchising in China · Chapter 17: MTV India: Balancing Global and Local Marketing Additional cases are provided at the Educator's Consortium©. · · · · · ·

C/K/R Management Skill Builder©

As future managers, students must learn how to gather and analyze market information. We have devised an entirely new educational tool--the C/K/R Management Skill Builder (MSB)©. The MSB is a practical exercise that helps students gain familiarity with key managerial challenges they are likely to encounter as entry-level professionals. Students complete their C/K/R MSBs© by starting out with author-provided guidelines and a suggested presentation template available on the student knowledge portal. The MSBs will give students practical, real-world skills that will help them perform well in their careers. Here are a few examples of the MSBs: · Chapter 2: Corporate Social Responsibility: Coffee, Ethiopia, and Starbucks · Chapter 5: Developing an Incentive Plan for Sales Personnel from Different Cultures · Chapter 6: Performing a Preliminary Country Risk Analysis · Chapter 9: Learning About and Assessing Emerging Markets · Chapter 12: Global Market Opportunity Assessment for Cancer Insurance · Chapter 14: Selecting a Site for a Foreign Manufacturing Plant

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This Book Supports Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International Accreditation

Each chapter ends with two sets of questions: "Test Your Comprehension" and "Apply Your Understanding." "Test Your Comprehension" questions assess the student's overall knowledge of the chapter terms and concepts. "Apply Your Understanding" problems require students to apply concepts of the chapter to a business situation. The globalEDGETM internet exercises, the closing case questions, and Management Skill Builder© provide additional assignment options. We use the AACSB logo to help instructors identify those questions and problems that support that organization's learning goals. What is the AACSB? AACSB is a not-for-profit corporation of educational institutions, corporations and other organizations devoted to the promotion and improvement of higher education in business administration and accounting. A collegiate institution offering degrees in business administration or accounting may volunteer for AACSB accreditation review. The AACSB makes initial accreditation decisions and conducts periodic reviews to promote continuous quality improvement in management education. Pearson Education is a proud member of the AACSB and is pleased to provide advice to help you apply AACSB Learning Standards. What are AACSB Learning Standards? One of the criteria for AACSB accreditation is the quality of the curricula. Although no specific courses are required, the AACSB expects a curriculum to include learning experiences in such areas as: · · · · · · Communication Ethical reasoning Analytical skills Use of information technology Multiculturalism and diversity Reflective thinking

These six categories are AACSB Learning Standards. Questions that test skills relevant to these standards are tagged with the appropriate standard. For example, a question testing the moral questions associated with externalities would receive the Ethical Reasoning tag. How can I use these tags? Tagged questions help you measure whether students are grasping the course content that aligns with AACSB guidelines noted above. In addition, the tagged questions may help to identify potential applications of these skills. This, in turn, may suggest enrichment activities or other educational experiences to help students achieve these goals.

Resources in Support of the Text

Instructor's Resource Center

At www.prenhall.com/irc, instructors can access a variety of print, digital, and presentation resources available with this text in downloadable format. Registration is simple and gives you immediate access to new titles and new editions. As a registered faculty member, you can download resource files and receive

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immediate access and instructions for installing course management content on your campus server. If you ever need assistance, our dedicated technical support team is ready to help with the media supplements that accompany this text. Visit www.247.prenhall.com for answers to frequently asked questions and tollfree user support phone numbers. The following supplements are available to adopting instructors · Instructor's Resource Center (IRC) on CD-ROM--ISBN: 0-13-156318-1 All instructor resources in one place. It's your choice. The Instructor's Resource Center on CD-Rom includes the following supplements: · Instructor's Manual · Test Item File · Image Bank · PowerPoints · Printed Instructor's Manual--ISBN: 0-13-232241-2 Authored by Professor Carol Sanchez of Grand Valley State University and Professor Marta Szabo White of George State University, the Instructor's Manual offers much more than just the traditional, limited chapter outline and answers to the end-of-chapter materials. In addition to these basic items, you will find suggested teaching strategies for 45-, 90-, and 180-minute sessions, chapter coverage suggestions for semester and quarter-length courses, and modular suggestions for courses focused on general management, strategy, and/or organizational behavior. The coverage for each chapter includes a variety of resources such as exercises, critical-thinking assignments, debate topics, and research assignments. Two appendices contain complete PowerPoint slides and an in-depth Video Guide. · Printed Test Item File--ISBN: 0-13-156319-X The test bank, authored by Cara Cantarella of Acumen Enterprises, Inc., contains approximately 75 questions per chapter, including multiple-choice, true/false, short answer, and essay questions based on a short business scenario. Cara is an assessment expert with extensive experience in test authoring. Each question for each chapter has been carefully reviewed and edited by the authors and Professor Candan Celik of Michigan State University to ensure accuracy and appropriateness. Test questions are annotated with the following information: · Page number from the main text of where the question's topic is covered · Learning Objective from the main text · Difficulty level: Easy for straight recall, Moderate for some analysis, or Analytical for complex analysis · Topic: the term or concept the question supports · Skill: concept or application For each question that tests a standard from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), we use one of the following annotations: · Communication · Ethical Reasoning · Analytical Skills · Use of Information Technology · Multicultural and Diversity · Reflective Thinking

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TestGen Test Generating Software--Available at the IRC online

This easy-to-use software allows instructors to custom design, save, and generate classroom tests. Instructors can edit, add, or delete questions from the test bank; edit existing graphics and create new graphics; analyze test results; and organize a database of tests and student results. It provides many flexible options for organizing and displaying tests, along with a search-and-sort feature. · PowerPoint Slides--created by the authors--are available at the IRC (online or on CD-ROM). · Image Bank--Visit the IRC on CD-ROM for this resource All of the exhibits from the textbook are available electronically for instructors to download, print, display in class, or produce customized materials. · Custom Videos on DVD--ISBN: 0-13-232207-2 The new DVD (ISBN: 0-13-232207-2) accompanying International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities, contains both short and full-length clips highlighting international business issues. The Instructor's Manual offers the complete Video Guide.

Knowledge Portal Online Courses

The Knowledge Portal online courses offer the best teaching and learning online resources all in one place. It is all that instructors need to plan and administer their courses and all that students need for anytime, anywhere access to online course material. All of the materials for International Business: Strategy, Management, and the New Realities, are conveniently organized by chapter in the Knowledge Portal. The Knowledge Portal online courses are available in three course management platforms: BlackBoard, CourseCompass, and WebCT and features the following materials: · For the Student: Student PowerPoints · Link to FT.com for an additional $25 six-month subscription · Market Entry Strategy Project · Chapter quizzes · Link to www.globaledge.msu.edu · Selection of short video clips · Management Skill Builder exercises · For the Instructor: All of the instructor's supplements, including the materials from the Instructor's Resource Center--(Test Bank, Instructor's Manual, and PowerPoint® slides)--have been pre-loaded into the Knowledge Portal online courses. Instructors choose can easily modify these materials for their online courses. The Knowledge Portal online courses require an access code, which can be shrink-wrapped free of charge with new copies of this text. Please contact your local sales representative for the correct ISBN.

Knowledge Portal Companion Website

The Knowledge Portal Companion Website (for those who do not desire course management functionality) at www.prenhall.com/cavusgil contains valuable resources for both students and professors. This content is open access except as indicated. An access code is shipped with each copy of the book.

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· · · · · · ·

Student PowerPoints Link to FT.com for an additional $25 six-month subscription Market Entry Strategy Project (Pass Code Protected) Chapter quizzes Link to www.globaledge.msu.edu Selection of short video clips (Pass Code Protected) Management Skill Builder exercises (Pass Code Protected)

Vango Notes

Study on the go with VangoNotes (www.VangoNotes.com), detailed chapter reviews in downloadable MP3 format. Now wherever you are and whatever you're doing, you can study on the go by listening to the following for each chapter of your textbook: · Big Ideas: Your "need to know" for each chapter · Key Terms: Audio "flashcards"--help you review key concepts and terms · Rapid Review: Quick-drill session--use it right before your test VangoNotes are flexible: Download all the material (or only the chapters you need) directly to your player. And VangoNotes are efficient: Use them in your car, at the gym, walking to class, wherever you go. So get yours today, and get studying.

CourseSmart eTextbooks Online

CourseSmart is an exciting new choice for students looking to save money. As an alternative to purchasing the print textbook, students can purchase an electronic version of the same content at a savings of up to 50 percent off the suggested list price of the print text. With a CourseSmart etextbook, students can search the text, make notes online, print out reading assignments that incorporate lecture notes, and bookmark important passages for later review. For more information, or to purchase access to the CourseSmart eTextbook, visit www.coursesmart.com.

Feedback

The authors and the product team would appreciate hearing from you! Let us know what you think about this textbook by writing to [email protected] Please include "Feedback about Cavusgil/Knight/Reisenberger 1e" in the subject line. For any questions related to this product, please contact our customer service department online at www.247.prenhall.com.

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> Acknowledgments

Our Reviewers

Through three drafts of the manuscript, we received guidance and insights at several critical junctures from many trusted reviewers who provided specific recommendations on how to improve and refine the content, presentation, and organization. Their contributions were invaluable in crystallizing our thinking. We extend our gratitude to: Raj Aggarwal, University of Akron Richard Ajayi, University of Central Florida Allen Amason, University of Georgia Bulent Aybar, Southern New Hampshire University Nizamettin Aydin, Suffolk University Peter Banfe, Ohio Northern University Eric Baumgardner, Xavier University Lawrence Beer, Arizona State University David Berg, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Jean Boddewyn, Baruch College, State University of New York Kirt Butler, Michigan State University Tom Cary, City University, Seattle Aruna Chandra, Indiana State University Tim Curran, University of South Florida Madeline Calabrese Damkar, California State University-East Bay Seyda Deligonul, St. John Fisher College Peter Dowling, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Bradley Farnsworth, University of Michigan David Griffith, Michigan State University Tom Head, Roosevelt University Bruce Heiman, San Francisco State University Ali Kara, Pennsylvania State University-University Park Daekwan Kim, Florida State University Ahmet Kirca, Michigan State University Tatiana Kostova, University of South Carolina Chuck Kwok, University of South Carolina Yikuan Lee, San Francisco State University Bijou Lester, Drexel University Barbara Moebius, Waukesha County Technical College Bruce Money, Brigham Young University Bill Murray, University of San Francisco Matthew B. Myers, University of Tennessee Jeffrey W. Overby, Belmont University Susan Peterson, Scottsdale Community College Iordanis Petsas, University Scranton Zahir Quraeshi, Western Michigan University Roberto Ragozzino, University of Central Florida Hakan Saraoglu, Bryant University Carol Sanchez, Grand Valley State University Kurt Stanberry, University of Houston-Downtown John Stanbury, George Mason University Philip Sussan, University of Central Florida Charles Ray Taylor, Villanova University Deanna Teel, Houston Community College Thuhang Tran, Middle Tennessee State University Cheryl Van Deusen, University of North Florida Linn Van Dyne, Michigan State University William Walker, University of Houston Marta Szabo White, Georgia State University Betty Yobaccio, Bryant University

Focus Group Participants

We were also fortunate that so many colleagues generously gave their time and offered perspectives on our teaching resources and the Educator's Consortium. We met with these colleagues in person, teleconferenced with them, or otherwise received their input. The insights and recommendations of these educators were instrumental in the design and format of the C/K/R Portal. We extend our gratitude and thanks to the following reviewers and colleagues: Yusaf Akbar, Southern New Hampshire University Victor Alicea, Normandale Community College Gail Arch, Curry College Anke Arnaud, University of Central Florida Choton Basu, University of Wisconsin, Whitewater Paula Bobrowski, Auburn University Teresa Brosnan, City University, Bellevue Nichole Castater, Clark Atlanta University Mike C.H. (Chen-Ho) Chao, Baruch College, State University of New York David Chaplin, Waldorf College Dong Chen, Loyola Marymount University

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Acknowledgments

Chen Oi Chin, Lawrence Technological University Patrick Chinon, Syracuse University Farok J. Contractor, Rutgers University of Scraton Christine Cope Pence, University of California, Riverside Angelica Cortes, University of Texas-Pan American Michael Deis, Clayton State University Les Dlabay, Lake Forest College Gary Donnelly, Casper College Gideon Falk, Purdue University-Calumet Marc Fetscherin, Rollins College Charles Fishel, San Jose State University Frank Flauto, Austin Community College Georgine K. Fogel, Salem International University Frank Franzak, Virginia Commonwealth University Debbie Gilliard, Metropolitan State College Robert Goddard, Appalachian State University Kenneth Gray, Florida A&M University Andy Grein, Baruch College, State University of New York Andrew C. Gross, Cleveland State University David Grossman, Florida Southern College Seid Hassan, Murray State University Xiaohong He, Quinnipiac University Wei He, Indiana State University Christina Heiss, University of Missouri-Kansas City Guy Holburn, University of Western Ontario Anisul Islam, University of Houston-Downtown Basil Janavaras, Minnesota State University Raj Javalgi, Cleveland State University Yikuan Jiang, California State University-East Bay Ken Kim, University of Toledo Anthony C. Koh, The University of Toledo Ann Langlois, Palm Beach Atlantic University Michael La Rocco, University of Saint Francis Romas A. Laskauskas, Villa Julie College Shaomin Li, Old Dominion University

Ted London, University of Michigan Peter Magnusson, Saint Louis University Charles Mambula, Suffolk University David McArthur, Utah Valley State College Ofer Meilich, Bradley University Lauryn Migenes, University of Central Florida Mortada Mohamed, Austin Community College Robert T. Moran, Thunderbird Carolyn Mueller, Stetson University Kelly J. Murphrey, Texas A&M University William Newburry, Florida International University Stanley Nollen, Georgetown University Augustine Nwabuzor, Florida A&M University David Paul, California State University-East Bay Christine Pence, University of California Riverside Heather Pendarvis-McCord, Bradley University Kathleen Rehbein, Marquette University Liesl Riddle, George Washington University John Rushing, Barry University Mary Saladino, Montclair State University Carol Sanchez, Grand Valley State University Camille Schuster, California State University-San Marcos Eugene Seeley, Utah Valley State College Mandep Singh, Western Illinois University Rajendra Sinhaa, Des Moines Area Community College John E. Spillan, Pennsylvania State University&-DuBois Uday S. Tate, Marshall University Janell Townsend, Oakland University Sameer Vaidya, Texas Wesleyan University Robert Ware, Savannah State University Marta Szabo White, Georgia State University Steve Williamson, University of North Florida Lynn Wilson, Saint Leo University Attila Yaprak, Wayne State University Rama Yelkur, University of Wisconsin&-Eau Claire Christopher Ziemnowicz, Concord University

Our Colleagues, Doctoral Students, and Practitioners

Numerous individuals have contributed to our thinking over the years. Through conversations, conferences, seminars, and writings, we have greatly benefited from the views and experience of international business educators and professionals from around the world. The senior author also had many rich conversations with the doctoral students whom he mentored over the years. Their names appear below if they have not been previously mentioned above. Directly or indirectly, their thoughtful ideas and suggestions have had a significant impact on the development of this book. Some have also contributed specific content to the Educator's Consortium. Our appreciation goes to many individuals including: Billur Akdeniz, Michigan State University Lyn Amine, Saint Louis University Catherine N. Axinn, Ohio University Ted Bany, The Upjohn Company Nigel Barrett, University of Technology Sydney, Australia Christopher Bartlett, Harvard Business School Simon Bell, University of Cambridge Daniel C. Bello, Georgia State University Muzaffer Bodur, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Nakiye Boyacigiller, Sabanci University

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John Brawley, The Upjohn Company Roger Calantone, Michigan State University Erin Cavusgil, Michigan State University Brian Chabowski, University of Tulsa Emin Civi, University of New Brunswick, St. John, Canada Tevfik Dalgic, University of Texas at Dallas Guillermo D'Andrea, Universidad Austral - Argentina Angela da Rocha, Univer. Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Deniz Erden, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey Felicitas Evangelista, University of Western Sydney, Australia Cuneyt Evirgen, Sabanci University Richard Fletcher, University of Western Sydney, Australia Harold Fishkin, The Upjohn Company Esra Gencturk, Koc University Pervez Ghauri, University of Manchester, U.K. Tracy Gonzalez, Michigan State University Sangphet Hanvanich, Xavier University Tomas Hult, Michigan State University Destan Kandemir, Bilkent University Irem Kiyak, Michigan State University Tunga Kiyak, Michigan State University Phillip Kotler, Northwestern University Tiger Li, Florida International University Karen Loch, Georgia State University Mushtaq Luqmani, Western Michigan University Robert McCarthy, The Upjohn Company Vincent Mongello, The Upjohn Company Robert T. Moran, Thunderbird

G.M. Naidu, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater Robert Nason, Michigan State University Glenn Omura, Michigan State University Gregory Osland, Butler University Aysegul Ozsomer, Koc University Morys Perry, University of Michigan-Flint Alex Rialp, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain Tony Roath, University of Oklahoma Carol Sanchez, Grand Valley State University Peter Seaver, The Upjohn Company Steven Seggie, Bilkent University Linda Hui Shi, University of Victoria Rudolf R. Sinkovics, The University of Manchester Carl Arthur Solberg, Norwegian School of Management, Norway Elif Sonmez-Persinger, Eastern Michigan University Douglas Squires, The Upjohn Company of Canada Barbara Stoettinger, Wirtschaftuniversitaet Wein, Austria Berk Talay, Michigan State University David Tse, University of Hong Kong Kathy Waldie, Michigan State University Marta Szabo White, Georgia State University Fang Wu, University of Texas at Dallas Shichun (Alex) Xu, University of Tennessee Goksel Yalcinkaya, University of New Hampshire Ugur Yavas, East Tennessee State University Sengun Yeniyurt, Rutgers University Poh-Lin Yeoh, Bentley College Eden Yin, University of Cambridge Chun Zhang, University of Vermont Shaoming Zou, University of Missouri

Our Prentice Hall Team

This book would not have been possible without the tireless efforts of many dedicated professionals at our publisher, Prentice Hall. We are especially grateful to David Parker who was an acquisitions editor when we started this project three years ago. His positive outlook, professional demeanor, and good sense of humor provided the motivation for us to persist with this effort. We were also very fortunate to have highly competent and professional assistance of Lena Buonanno throughout the entire project. Her careful editing and creative ideas were instrumental in enhancing the content and composition of the final product. Gina Huck Siegert provided able and cheerful coordination through two rounds of revisions with our reviewers. Kathleen McLellan helped organize numerous focus groups with insightful educators and assisted with marketing efforts. Our appreciation goes to many other individuals at Prentice Hall, including: Linda Albelli, Robert Aleman, Alvelino Alves, Cara Cantarella, Stephen Deitmer, Jerome Grant, Kevin Holm, Patrice Jones, Brian Kibbey, Maria Lange, John LaVacca, Judy Leale, Patrick Leow, Ben Paris, Ashley Santora, and Kristen Varina.

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