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avtoris stili daculia

iv.javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti

laura kutubiZe

2000-2005 wlebis qarTuli presis ZiriTadi sazogadoebrivpolitikuri aspeqtebi

sadisertacio naSromi akademiuri xarisxis _ Jurnalistikis doqtori _ mosapoveblad

naSromi Sesrulebulia iv.javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetSi samecniero xelmZRvaneli, filosofiis doqtori JurnalistikaSi, profesori marina vekua

Tbilisi 2009

sarCevi: Sesavali _ gv.3 I Tavi _ ramdenime zogadi Strixi mediis arsisa da qarTuli presis daxasiaTebisaTvis _ gv.7

· · masobrivi komunikaciisa da masmediis Taobaze _ gv.7 axali aTaswleulis qarTuli mediis zogadi Strixebi _ gv.13

II Tavi _ saxelmwifo qarTuli presis prizmaSi _ gv.30

· · · · · saxelmwifos imiji _ gv.30 dasavleTi Tu ruseTi?

(saxelmwifos

orientaciis

problemis

aspeqtebi) _ gv.40

sagareo Temis ramdenime ZiriTadi aspeqti _ gv.47 destabilizaciis "sainformacio uzrunvelyofa" _ gv.78 afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT oseTis problemis ramdenime aspeqti _ gv.91

III Tavi _ saxelisuflo brZolebi _ presis ZiriTadi aspeqti _ gv.98

· · · zurab Jvanias "politikuri goni" _ miTi Tu realoba _ gv.99 parlamentisa da mTavrobis dapirispireba _ gv.102 dapirispireba mmarTveli partiis _ "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" wiaRSi _

gv.105

IV Tavi _ arCevnebi da politikuri speqtri _ gv.113

· · · · · 2000 wlis saprezidento arCevnebi _ gv.115 2002 wlis adgilobrivi arCevnebi _ gv.117 2003 weli _ permanentuli saarCevno reJimi _ gv.121 2004 wlis saprezidento da xelaxali saparlamento arCevnebi _ gv.134 arCevnebi postrevoluciur aWaraSi _ gv.145

V Tavi _ "vardebis revolucia" da postrevoluciuri periodi _

gv.148 · · · · postrevoluciuri/postSevardnaZistuli xelisuflebis Sefaseba

(presis aqcentebi) _ gv.157

"triumvirati" _ gv.163 aWaris movlenebi _ "vardebis revoluciis" logikuri gagrZeleba _

gv.168 saqarTveloSi jorj buSis vizitis rezonansi presaSi _ gv.187

daskvna _ gv.203

2

Sesavali

sadisertacio naSromi, ZiriTadad, eyrdnoba 2000-2005 wlebis presas

(gazeTebi _ "alia", "rezonansi", "24 saaTi", "dilis gazeTi", "axali Taoba", "kviris palitra", "axali versia", "kviris qronika", "jorjian Taimsi", "mTavari gazeTi", "dro", "droni", "meridiani", "axali epoqa", "saqarTvelos respublika", "xvalindeli dRe", "asaval-dasavali", "meridiani"/"axali meridiani", "7

dRe"/"axali 7 dRe", "marTali gazeTi", "ganaxlebuli iveria"; Jurnalebi _ "arili", "imiji", "sarke", "Tbiliselebi") da Sesabamis literaturas. Cveni presa, jerjerobiT, ar iZleva imis saSualebas, rom erTmaneTisagan mkveTrad gavmijnoT sazogadoebriv-politikuri da bulvaruli gamocemebi, an romelime gamocemas Tamamad vuwodoT avtoritetuli, gavleniani, akademiuri, soliduri (am SemTxvevaSi mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs ara mxolod romelime

calkeuli gamocemis profesiuli done, aramed misi tiraJic, gavrcelebis arealic da sxva parametrebi, naSromSi romelic erTianobaSi qmnis mis mimarT sazogadoebis Sesabamis damokidebulebas). sadisertacio "saxis lingvisturi realizacia sagazeTo

komunikaciaSi" (sakvlev masalad gamoyenebulia 1998-2006 wlis britanuli da qarTuli gazeTebi), avtori, Tornike gogolaSvili, ase ajgufebs qarTul presas: avtoritetuli ("saqarTvelos respublika", "Tbilisi", "24 saaTi",

"axali epoqa"), bulvaruli ("yovelkvireuli qronika", "idumalebis samyaro", "rao-rao", "es sainteresoa") da Sualeduri ("rezonansi", "alia", "axali Taoba", "asaval-dasavali", "axali era"). (13, 4) amasTan, aRniSnavs, rom saqarTveloSi ara gvaqvs gavleniani gamocemebi, britaneTSi ki ar aris Sualeduri gazeTebi. SeiZleba gansazRvreba "Sualeduri" marTlac mivusadagoT im gamocemebs, romlebSic aRreulia sazogadoebriv-politikuri gamocemebisa da bulvarulis standarti, Tematika, stili, masalebis mowodebis forma da a.S. magram ver daveTanxmebiT magaliTad Tornike gogolaSvils, da romelic erT an kategoriaSi aqcevs, gazeTad

"rezonanssa"

"asaval-dasavals",

avtoritetul

miiCnevs gazeT "Tbiliss", romelic sociologiuri gamokiTxvebis mixedviT zogjer pirvel oceulSic ar xvdeba (kiTxvadobis, ndobis da a.S. mixedviT). amasTan, misi klasifikaciis arealSi saerTod ar moeqca iseTi gazeTebi, rogoricaa: "kviris palitra", "jorjian Taimsi", "dilis gazeTi", "axali

versia", "xvalindeli dRe", "mTavari gazeTi" da a.S. 3

Cveni

sadisertacio

naSromis

mizani

da

sagani

ar

yofila

am

mimarTulebiT kvlevis warmarTva, magram am sakiTxze yuradRebas vamaxvilebT imdenad, ramdenadac saWiro iyo mogveZebna kriteriumi saanalizo gamocemaTa klasifikaciisaTvis _ sazogadoebriv-politikur TematikasTan maTi mimarTebisa da Sesabamisobis mixedviT. amgvar kriteriumad avirCieT maTi interesebis

arealSi sazogadoebriv-politikuri Temebis primati (es, ra Tqma unda, yvelas Tanabrad ar exeba); ara rac Seexeba Cveneul gansazRvrebas met _ "sainformacio aramed imaT,

amindis Semqmneli gamocemebi", romelsac xSirad viyenebT naSromSi, es ukve gulisxmobs romlebic yvela zemoaRniSnul, reitinguli 20-ze gamocemas, Tundac hqondaT Sesabamis da, da etapze Skalis pirvel aTeulSi

figurirebdnen zemoqmedebisa "masmediis

Sesabamisad,

upiratesoba

sazogadoebaze xolo (zogan,

saTanado

sainformacio

ganwyobis

Sesaqmnelad. gamocemebs

flagmanebSi"

vgulisxmobT

maRalreitingul

Sesabamis konteqstSi, plus, telekompania "rusTavi 2"-sac, romelic 2000-2003 wlis telereitingebSi erTpirovnuli lideri iyo). sainformacio kanonzomierebis suraTisa dasadgenad, da sainformacio rezonansis viSveliebdiT garkveuli qarTuli _

SedarebisTvis produqciasa da

telekompaniebis sainformacio

onlain-mediis meSveobiT

ucxouri mediis gamoxmaurebas saqarTveloSi mimdinare procesebze. rac Seexeba 2000-2005 wlebis qarTuli presis ZiriTadi sazogadoebrivpolitikuri disertaciaSi aspeqtebis mocemuli gansazRvras: aspeqtebis CvenTvis kvleva; TviTmizani piriqiT, am ar yofila aspeqtebis

prioritetuloba gamoikveTa swored kvlevisa da analizis procesSi. xazgasmiT unda aRvniSnoT, rom es, ra Tqma unda, ar aris presis aspeqtebis sruli (da srulyofili) suraTi. SevecadeT, paralelebi dagveZebna am mimarTulebiT

Tanamedrove qarTuli presis Sesaxeb Seqmnil samecniero kvlevebSi (pirvel yovlisa, mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs sadisertacio naSromebi). filologiis mecnierebaTa kandidatis samecniero xarisxis mosapoveblad Seqmnili ioseb WumburiZis naSromi _ "Tanamedrove qarTuli presis ZiriTadi tendenciebi" swored Cveni sakvlevi periodis identur periods exeba (2000-2006 wlebi). misi naSromis Sinaarsi: "ilias gza da mTavari Temebi"; "gazeTis

pirveli

gverdi",

"interviu

_

gabatonebuli sakiTxi",

Janri", "vardebis

"ena

da

stili. da

publicisturi

ostatobis

zogierTi

revolucia"

qarTuli presa" da Tavad kvleva, cxadyofs, rom aq aris mcdeloba ara

mxolod presis tendenciebis, aramed, Jurnalisturi ostatobis kvlevisac. Cveni interesis sagani am naSromTan mimarTebaSi iyo _ Tanamedrove presis 4

ZiriTadi

tendenciebidan

ra

moeqca

kvlevis

yuradRebis

arealSi.

ilia

WavWavaZis mier dasaxuli orientiri _ "mamuli, ena, sarwmunoeba", rogorc WumburiZe askvnis sakvlevad SerCeuli sami gazeTis magaliTze, ar qceula Tanamedrove presis mTavar Temebad (raSic savsebiT veTanxmebiT), sxva ZiriTadi Tema (Tu ar CavTvliT "vardebis revolucias") naSromSi ar ikveTeba,

ramdenadac Semdgom mkvlevaris interesi inacvlebs Jurnalisturi ostatobis sferosken. (76) Cveni periodSi; brZolebi, cxovrebaze sadisertacio pirvel naSromis mudmivi Tema, arealSi moqceuli presis Seswavlam gamokveTa ramdenime ZiriTadi aspeqti, romelic figurirebs mTel saanalizo yovlisa, yuradRebis sagareo centrSia: saxelisuflo qveynis

destabilizaciis

faqtorebis

gavlena

(saqarTvelo-ruseTi-aSS),

saarCevno

kampaniebi,

"vardebis

revolucia" da misi Semdgomi rezonansi da a.S. xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT, rom mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs ara qveynis sazogadoebriv-politikuri aspeqtebis asaxva presaSi, radganac qveynis sazogadoebriv-politikuri SesaZloa cxovrebis romelime

umniSvnelovanesi aspeqti piriqiT. amTaviTve mniSvnelovani brZolebis kavSirSia saarCevno unda Tu

arc iqces presis mTavar aspeqtad da

SevniSnoT, ganixileba.

rom am

mediis

prizmaSi mainc

gatarebuli saxelisuflo mWidro

umniSvnelo

movlenebi

ZiriTadad

konteqstSi saxelmwifos, bataliebisa

TvalsazrisiT prezidentis,

erTmaneTTan

xelisuflebis, da sxva

postSevardnaZistuli Temebis

periodis, politikuri speqtris, kancelaria-parlamentis urTierTmimarTebis, sazogadoebriv-politikuri mediaaqcentebi; konfliqtur regionebTan _ afxazeTsa da e.w. samxreT oseTTan dakavSirebuli sainformacio sababebic umeteswilad swored politikur

bataliebs ukavSirdeba. arc qveynis orientaciisa da sagareo urTierTobebis Tematikaa amdenad, yuradReba dazRveuli saWirod politizebisa da personificirebis calke TavSi presaSi. tendenciisagan. gagvemaxvilebina aseve, naSromis

miviCnieT

disertaciis

saxelisuflo brZolebze, viTarebis

rac arsebiTad ganapirobebda qveynis diskurss

sazogadoebriv-politikuri

yuradRebis arealSi movaqcieT destabilizaciuri procesebi, romelic xSir SemTxvevaSi arc ganviTarebula, magram sainformacio fonis Semzadeba aqtiurad mimdinareobda (magaliTad, "saxelmwifo gadatrialebis" scenarebis ganviTareba, pankisSi ruseTis intervenciis safrTxe da a.S.) miuxedavad imisa, rom sadisertacio Tema TiTqmis 5,5 wels moicavs da 25ze meti gamocemis mixedviT Seqmnil suraTs, winamdebare naSroms ara aqvs 5

sruli da, miT ufro, qronologiuri, suraTis Seqmnis pretenzia. Cveni mizani iyo yuradRebis arealSi mogveqcia is ZiriTadi aspeqtebi, romelTa erTad Tavmoyra, Cveni azriT, ara mxolod presis, aramed, garkveulwilad, qveyanaSi mimdinare tendenciebsac asaxavs. sagulisxmoa erTi garemoebac: sadisertacio TemaSi warmodgenili presa, ZiriTadad, Seswavlilia Tanmimdevrulad, imave 2000-2005 wlebSi; presis publikaciebis, da, saerTod, am wlebis qarTuli masmediis bevri aqcenti da maTze dayrdnobiT ganviTarebuli prognozebi, drois axlandeli gadasaxedidanac marTebuli Cans; es garemoeba, vfiqrobT, ufro zrdis presis kvlevis mniSvnelobas saqarTvelosaTvis am umniSvnelovanesi periodis Seswavlisa da gaazrebisaTvis.

6

Tavi I

ramdenime zogadi Strixi mediis arsisa da qarTuli presis daxasiaTebisTvis

· masobrivi komunikaciisa da masmediis Taobaze masmediis bunebisa da specifikis, misi funqciebis

Tanamedrove CamoyalibebisaTvis

arsebiTia misi arsis gaazreba ara

mxolod masobrivi

komunikaciebis Teoriis, aramed, zogadad, postindustiuli/postmodernistuli epoqis paradigmebis konteqstSi. gaazreba imisa, Cvens Tvalwin rogor rogor

Caanacvla

materialisturi

realoba

virtualurma;

Seicvala

urTierTmimarTeba marketinguli urTierTobebis ganmsazRvrelma komponentebma (moTxovna produqtze ukve mniSvnelovanwilad emyareba ara aucileblobasa da saWiroebas, aramed Tavad marketinguli komunikaciebis mier warmoSobil moTxovnilebas). mosazreba globalizaciis periodis masobrivi komunikaciis

yovlisSemZleobis Taobaze, Cveni azriT, TandaTan miTiur saburvelSi exveva. miuxedavad imisa, rom masobrivi komunikaciis arsis kvleva Cveni kompetenciisa da sadisertacio Temis farglebs scildeba, mocemuli periodis presis

analizis

marTebulobas

mniSvnelovnad

ganapirobebs

zogadad

Tanamedrove

sainformacio sivrcis Tavisebureba da masmediis SesaZleblobebi. amdenad, SevecdebiT amasTan, mokled mimovixiloT gvexmareba is ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebi, romelTa

gaazreba warmodgenas gviqmnis Tanamedrove mediis bunebasa da daniSnulebaze; garkveulwilad Cvens realobaSi mimdinare procesebis axsnasa da gacnobierebaSi. presis mogveyara funqciis Tu gansazRvrisas pirveli SevecadeT da miiCnevs, cneba presas SeZlebisdagvarad SedarebiT masobrivi meore _ Tavi axali masobrivi orivegan magram

tradiciuli sistemis

Sexedulebebisa nakadi Semadgenel nawilad. nawilad marTalia,

gansazRvrebisaTvis. Jurnalistikis komunikaciis figurirebs

informaciis,

saSualebaTa da

"masobrivi"

"informaciis"

cnebac

"komunikaciis"

fundamentia,

zogierTi mkvlevari maT Soris mkveTr mijnas avlebs, zogi ki identur, an TiTqmis identur cnebebad miiCnevs. (15; 21; 22; 57; 66; 67) 7

"media, aRniSnulia komunikacia" Tanamedrove komunikaciis radiosa da

masmedia, revaz (66,

masobrivi

informaciis da eldar

saSualebani iberis

da

masobrivi "masobrivi

komunikaciis saSualebani umeteswilad paralelur cnebebad gamoiyeneba", _ surgulaZisa 21), romelSic ZiriTadi ufro wignSi

Sejerebulia koncefciebi, srulad

masobrivi _ "termini

komunikaciis "masobrivi presis, is

Teoriebis saSualebani"

gamoxatavs Tumca,

Tanamedrove

televiziis socialur rom "Jurnalistikis"

funqciebs, cnebas

angariSgasawevia

mosazrebac,

ufro

"masobrivi

informaciis

saSualebebi" Seesabameba. (saerTod ki, Tu bolomde logikuri viqnebiT, unda vaRiaroT, rom "masobrivi komunikaciis saSualebani" ufro zogadi, saerTo cnebaa, xolo "masobrivi informaciis saSualebani" misi is arsebiTi nawilia, romelsac informaciis perioduli da operatiuli gavrceleba evaleba)." (66, .21) "riT gansxvavdeba Jurnalistika komunikaciebis sxva formebisagan da ra aris misi Zireuli sawyisebi" _ am problemis garkveva daisaxes amocanad 1997 wlis ivnisSi, harvardis klubSi Sekrebilma aSS-is wamyvani mediasaSualebebis gavlenianma "problema warmomadgenlebma is aris, rom da Jurnalistikis mowmeni _ varT mowinave specialistebma. gaTqvefisa

dRes

Jurnalistikis

komunikaciebis ufro did samyaroSi. Cven unda vecadoT, rom Jurnalistika kvlav gamovyoT am didi samyarodan", ase Seajama diskusia kolumbiis

universitetis profesorma jeims kerim." (34, 11-12) Jurnalisti paata nacvliSvili, Tavis sadisertacio naSromSi _ "qarTuli Jurnalistikis genezisisaTvis" sainteresod xsnis marSal makluenis cnobili formulis _ "The Medium is the message" _ arss (amasTan, misi Targmani _ "mediumi aris mesiji" ufro zustad gamoxatavs makluenis koncefcias, vidre misi qarTuli Sesatyvisi _ "saSualeba aris Setyobineba"): "mediumi, anu

komunikaciis saSualeba, Tavad aris mesiji (Setyobineba, ambavi, Sinaarsi) im TvalsazrisiT, rom igi gansazRvravs da gamoxatavs drois ama Tu im konkretul monakveTSi socialuri organizaciis princips, gvevlineba rogorc pirovnuli, ise sazogadoebrivi aRqmis generatorad. sensoruli balansis

Secvla xdeba Sinaarsisagan damoukideblad, komunikaciis erTi saSualebidan meoreze gadasvlis Sedegad da Sesabamisad. ase, rom makluenis es cnobili formula SeiZleba amgvaradac iqnas gagebuli: "masobrivi informaciis

saSualeba Tavad aris informacia" da aqedan _ gacilebiT mniSvnelovania ara is, ra informacias gawvdian, aramed is, vin gawvdis, sad, rogor, da ra saSualebiT; da kidev ufro martivad _ forma aris Sinaarsi." (54, 19) 8

komunikaciis

saSualebis

arsisa

da gavlenis

gadmosacemad

maklueni

ganmartavs: "komunikaciis saSualebis gavlena Zlieri da intensiuri xdeba swored imis wyalobiT, rom mas "Sinaarsis" saxiT eZleva isev komunikaciis romelime sxva saSualeba." (magaliTad, kinofilmis Sinaarsia romani, piesa an opera). (47, 22) am postulatis gaazreba, Cveni mxolod mediis/masobrivi bunebis da azriT, uaRresad mniSvnelovania ara informaciis Tavs rTuli aramed da maTi

komunikaciis/masobrivi asaxsnelad da gansazRvrisTvisac.

winaaRmdegobrivi daniSnulebisa

gadmosacemad,

funqciebis

uflebas

mivcemT,

masmediasTan mimarTebSi makluenis es mravlismomcveli "formula" amgvarad davakonkretoT a.S. aqedan _ Jurnalistika advili (misi ganStoebebiT) da isevea masobrivi moCans

komunikaciis saSualebebis Sinaarsi, rogorc reklama, garTobis industria da gamomdinare, gaTqvefa asaxsnelia alogikurad did aRar

"Jurnalistikis

komunikaciebis

ufro

samyaroSi",

masobrivi

informaciis saSualebaTa mTavar funqciad garTobis miCneva da sxva amgvari daskvna Tu Tvalsazrisi, romelTa erTi nawilis moxmoba Cvens naSromSic vcadeT; radgan am fonze ufro marTebulia gaanalizeba, ganviTarebis ra stadiazea qarTuli presa, Sesabamisad _ misi perspeqtivis gaazrebac. masmediis SesaZleblobebze, mis funqciebsa da zemoqmedebis xarisxze msjelobisas isev makluens moSveliebT. wignSi, "mediis gageba", igi wers, rom papi pius XII did mniSvnelobas aniWebda komunikaciis Tanamedrove saSualebaTa seriozuli kvlevis aucileblobas. 1950 wels mas ubrZanebia: "gadaWarbebuli ar iqneba Tu vityviT, rom Tanamedrove sazogadoebis momavali da misi Sinagani cxovrebis stabiluroba didwiladaa damokidebuli wonasworobis

SenarCunebaze _ komunikaciis saSualebaTa teqnikur simZlavreebsa da adamianis individualur aRqmas/reaqcias Soris." (47, 25) makluenis komentariT,

saukuneebis manZilze am wonasworobis SenarCunebis uunaroba, komunikaciis saSualebaTa zemoqmedebis qvecnobierad da morCilad miReba adamianebs maT "ukedlebo tyveebad" aqcevda. (46, 181) sazogadoebasa zemoqmedebis (sociologebi, metad da individze masobrivi komunikaciis totaluri mkvlevarebi ufro komunikaciis

damkvidrebuli fsiqologebi,

Sexedulebis filosofosebi,

paralelurad, masobrivi

kulturologebi...) sul

amaxvileben

yuradRebas

ukuprocesze,

demasifikaciis tendenciis gaCenaze (samomavlod, ufro gaZlierebaze) elvin tofleri, cnobili amerikeli sociologi da futurologi

(Tavdapirvelad, Jurnalisti) Tavisi naSromis _ "mesame talRis" erT-erT Tavs 9

swored ase asaTaurebs _ "masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa demasifikacia". tofleri ayalibebs axali, mesame talRis zeindustriuli civilizaciis (pirveli talRa _ agraruli civilizacia, meore _ industriuli) niSnebs, gamowvevebs, safrTxeebs... es civilizacia ukve radikalurad cvlis

industriuli civilizaciis masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa mier masobriv cnobierebaSi Canergil unificirebul saxeebs/xatebs da qcevis standartebs. magaliTad, videoTamaSebi ara mxolod angrevs teleauditoriis masivs, aramed milionobiT samyaroSi mimRebidan adamians aswavlis televizorTan am TamaSs, misTvis "pasuxis pasiuri axla is gacemas", masze zemoqmedebas. es erTgvari varjiSia, romelic eleqtronul cxovrebisTvis adamiani gvamzadebs. procesSi informaciis xdeba da

informaciis video

gamgzavni/gadamcemi ki TiToeul

manipulirebs

televizoriT.

momxmarebels

saSualebas

aZlevs Tavad iyos sakuTari ase rom, Zlevamosili

produqciisa da sakuTari "saxeebis" Semqmneli. tradiciuli masobrivi auditoria

televiziis

meCxerdeba, demasificirdeba. (68, 22-26) tofleris "mesame talRis" daweridan or aTeul welze meti gavida. masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi jer isev inarCuneben aqtualobas, aRrmavebs mkvlevarebic informaciul individeos maT demasifikacias. varaudoben, saSualebebze ufro rom komunikativistebi moTxovnilebebi Semcirdeba interaqtiur da magram

yvela sasicocxlo sferos kompiuterizacia, interneti marTlac TandaTan Jurnalistikis masobriv dauTmobs axali

Cveulebriv da adgils rom

TandaTan

daxvewil

saSualebebs;

teqnologiebis bazaze warmoqmnili multimedia (romelic SeiTavsebs JurnalgazeTebis, televiziis, radios, qseluri gamocemebis SesaZleblobebs) adamians saSualebas interesis miscems da mocemul momentSi Tavad SearCios teqsti, da miiRos misi _

saWiroebis

Sesabamisi

informacia,

gamosaxuleba

beWduri, vizualuri Tu xmovani. (66, 21; 15, 267-271) XIX saukunis SuaxanebSi balzaki werda: "Jurnalizmi... Tanamedrove sazogadoebis religiaa"; "...Cven, RmerTi mefistofelis namdvilma mimdevrebma, ijariT aviReT sazogadoebrivi azris SeRebva..." (4, 66-68). faqtobrivad, am ironiuli fraziT balzakma Jurnalistikis/masmediis is umTavresi funqcia Camoayaliba, romelsac mTeli am saukunenaxevris ganmavlobaSi aqtualoba ar daukargavs, oRondac transformirdeboda _ sazogadoebrivi azris

Seqmna/warmarTva/manipulireba... masmediis funqciebis gansazRvrisas TiTqmis yvela TvalsazrisSi

saerToa postulati, rom media unda emsaxurebodes sazogadoebas. adamianis 10

uflebaTa dacvis evropulma sasamarTlom daadgina, rom presis Tavisuflebas sagangebo dacva sWirdeba, imisaTvis rom mas hqondes saSualeba Seasrulos "sazogadoebrivi guSagis sasicocxlod aucilebeli roli" da "gaavrcelos sazogadoebrivi interesis Semcveli informacia." (35, 164) gazeTebis msoflio asociaciis kvlevisa da informaciis marTvis

ganyofilebis direqtori, tatiana repkova, masmediis funqciis gansazRvrisas, sazogadoebis "modaraje nagazis" (repkovas wignSi, "nagazis" nacvlad, "ZaRli" gvxvdeba;

albaT, Targmanis xarvezia, _ l.k.) rols ase

akonkretebs: "presisgan, romelsac elian, rom is meTvalyureobas

xelisuflebis

meoTxe

sayrdens

uwodeben,

gauwevs xelisuflebis sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebel da sasamarTlo Stoebs (Sesabamisad _ parlaments, mTavrobasa da sasamarTlos) da maT mier xelisuflebis arakeTilsindisierad gamoyenebis nebismier SemTxvevas

gamoamzeurebs." (62, 7-8) mediis frangi mkvlevari, klod-Jan bertrani masmediis eqvs funqcias gamoyofs: 1. meTvalyureoba (mediis funqciaa informaciis moZieba, gafiltvra,

gaanalizeba, interpretireba da Semdgom misi gavrceleba yvelasaTvis gasageb enaze. kerZod, mediam sami arCevnebs Soris drois intervalSi Stos Tvalyuri unda adevnos politikuri saxelisuflo

(aRmasrulebeli, sakanonmdeblo da sasamarTlo) saqmianobas); 2. sazogadoebrivi komunikaciis uzrunvelyofa (media warmoadgens sajaro forums debatebisTvis); 3. msoflios axali ambebiT uzrunvelyofa; 4. kulturis gavrceleba; 5. garToba; 6. gayidva (media reklamis gavrcelebis mTavari saSualebaa). (11, 23-25) amerikeli politologebi, wignis _ "amerikuli demokratiis" avtorebi (qeneT janda, jefri mTavari m. beri, jeri goldmeni) Tumca, ambebs, miiCneven, isini, ukeTeben rom aseve, maT "masobrivi asruleben komentars, saSualebebis politikur funqcia garTobaa. axal

funqciebs:

gadmoscemen

gavlenas axdenen moqalaqeTa Sexedulebebze, politikur dRis wesrigze da mosaxleobis politikur socializaciaze." (77, 151) mokled SevCerdebiT masmediis rolze samTavrobo komunikaciaSi. germanul

"aRmasrulebeli modelSi"

xelisuflebis qveTavi asea

sazogadoebasTan dasaTaurebuli

urTierTobis _ "marTva

erT-erTi

Tanamedrove

masmediis pirobebSi", rac TavisTavad mianiSnebs imaze, rom media ganixileba 11

ara

samTavrobo mediis

komunikaciis mier

konteqstSi, amitom

aramed

piriqiT

_

samTavrobo cdiloben

komunikacia ganixileba mediis konteqstSi: "msoflioSi mimdinare yvela sajaro movlena muSavdeba, politikis monawileni

politikuri sinamdvilis medialur konstruqciasa da misi TamaSis wesebs miesadagon." (3, 10) aqve gansazRvrulia mediis funqcia sajaro azris

CamoyalibebaSi: "... media politikuri monawileebisa da komunikaciis simbolur garemos qmnis: agebs politikur realobas, romelic Tanabrad TvalsaCinoa, rogorc kontaqts moqalaqeebis, amyarebs ise politikuri mediis monawileebisTvis da yoveldRiur interesTa adgens media politikasTan. politikosebi, saSualebiT biurokratebi, swavloben...

gamomxatvelebi,

erTmaneTs

standarts, romlis mixedviTac moqalaqeebi politikur monawileebs afaseben." (3, 11-12) saxelmZRvaneloSi _ "saparlamento kontroli usafrTxoebis seqtorze: principebi, meqanizmebi da praqtika" (parlamentTaSorisi kavSirisa (IPU) da SeiaraRebul Zalebze demokratiuli kontrolis Jenevis centris (DCAF) mier gamocemuli) mimarT gavlena da ganxilulia parlamentis mediis mier damokidebuleba faqtoris da usafrTxoebis gamoyenebis seqtoris

mediis

mniSvneloba;

aRniSnulia mediis wvlili xelisuflebis sami Stos gakontrolebaSi, misi sajaro debatebis Sinaarsisa sakiTxebis prioritetulobis

gansazRvraSi da a.S. movixmobT citatas, romelic gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa saqarTvelos realobisTvis: "im qveynebSi, sadac media damokidebulia

samTavrobo institutebze, igi gacilebiT ufro xSirad xdeba mmarTvelTa propagandistuli miznebis msxverpli. amgvar viTarebaSi media ar warmoadgens usafrTxoebis seqtorze demokratiuli kontrolis da gamWvirvalobis uzrunvelmyof erT-erT instruments." (63, 39) masmediis arsis zogadi mimoxilvis am mcdelobas davasrulebT misi zemoqmedebis "saganTa fenomenis axsnis kidev gamoica erTi 1968 rakursiT. wels), cnobili frangi masmediis moazrovne, "postmodernis gurud" wodebuli Jan bodriari, pirvelive wignSi sistema" (pirvelad mTlianad

zemoqmedebis "specifiur logikas" reklamis zemoqmedebis identurad miiCnevs da mas "Tovlis papis" logikas/fenomens Rirseba, aramed uwodebs: Cven gvwams ara Cvens ara

reklamirebuli darwmunebas

saqonlis

gvwams

reklama,

romelic axdens

cdilobs.

momxmarebelze

gadamwyvet

zemoqmedebas

reklamis ritorikuli an informaciuli diskursi saqonlis RirsebaTa Sesaxeb; individi mgrZnobiarea im naboZebi mzrunvelobisa da daculobis faruli motivebis mimarT, romelsac "sxvebi" iCenen misi darwmunebisa da 12

gadabirebisTvis. aqedan momdinareobs reklamis/masmediis savsebiT realuri qmediToba _ misi logika ara mxolod STagonebis da refleqsis logikaa, aramed aranakleb mkacri logika rwmenisa da regresiis. (9) Cveni azriT, "regresia" am konteqstSi moxmobilia ara "ukusvlis", aramed im mniSvnelobiT, romliTac igi stilistikaSi aRniSnavs sityvaTa ukuwyobas: anu, reklamirebul saqonels vyidulobT ara imitom, rom reklamam dagvarwmuna mis RirsebebSi, aramed, imitom rom "gvwams reklama, romelic Cvens darwmunebas cdilobs". igive exeba masmediis zemoqmedebasac; mis produqcias _ informacias, movixmarT da vendobiT ara imitom, rom eWvmiutanlad gvjera yvela

informaciis, aramed imitom, rom gvwams masmediis, "romelic Cvens darwmunebas cdilobs". TiTqos paradoqsia, rom im viTarebaSi, roca momxmarebels ar sjera reklamis, icis misi mzakvruli xasiaTi, is mainc yidulobs reklamirebul saqonels; ufro metic, reklama mas uCens moTxovnilebas (Sesabamisad,

moTxovnasac) iseT saqonelze, romelic xSirad arc saWiroa misTvis, arc aucilebeli da arc xelmisawvdomi. Tvisobrivi gansxvaveba marTlac ar aris masmediasTan mimarTebaSi _ mas akritikeben, ar endobian, ician, rom

umeteswilad misi informacia emyareba subieqtur intrepretaciebs da ara ambis/movlenis amsaxvel faqtebs, magram, miuxedavad amisa, araTu moixmaren masmediis produqts, aramed, cnobierad Tu qvecnobierad, emorCilebian kidec sainformacio inJineriiT modelirebul "realobas" da Tavadac aqtiurad monawileoben mis SeqmnaSi. erTi mxriv, usafrTxoebis, daculobis SegrZneba (9, 34), romelsac badebs informaciis floba da, meore mxriv, avtoritetuli azris gavlenis, sxvaTa azris damowmebis faqtori (73), saTanado vels qmnis individsa Tu masebSi masmediisadmi rwmenis ganwyobis Sesaqmnelad. e.w. avtoritetuli, gavleniani mediis cnebac amas adasturebs: adamianebs sWirdebaT avtoritetuli

dadastureba/uaryofa/koreqcia TavianTi azrebisa da Sexedulebebisa, an, sxvaTa azrisa da Sexedulebebis gaTvaliswineba. ·

axali aTaswleulis qarTuli mediis zogadi Strixebi

disertaciis am nawilSi SevecdebiT warmovaCinoT, ra roli ganesazRvra qarTul medias gardamaval periodSi, iyo rogor Seesabameboda damdegis is da misTvis "vardebis

dakisrebul

funqcias;

rogori

aTaswleulis

revoluciis" periodis media, ra kliSeebsa da stereotipebs qmnida am periodis 13

presa;

ra

parametrebiT raa

ganisazRvreba, saerTo da

saerTod,

mediis am

Tavisufleba

da

damoukidebloba,

ganmasxvavebeli

TvalsazrisiT

ganviTarebul demokratiebsa da qarTul sinamdviles Soris. masmediis Tavisuflebis xarisxi qveynis demokratiulobis barometrad iTvleba; amitom, ucxoeli damkvirveblebica da qarTveli eqspertebic

saqarTveloSi demokratiis ganviTarebis procesis erT-erT mTavar maCveneblad Tavisufali mediis arsebobas asaxelebdnen. oRondac, unda davakonkretoT, rom umTavresad cneba "Tavisufali media" gamoiyeneboda, da inerciiT dRemde ase grZeldeba, "sityvis Tavisuflebis" Tanabarzomier cnebad. propagandistuli wnexis, partiuli da saxelmwifo diqtatisa da

cenzurisagan sityvis gaTavisuflebis Tavdapirveli etapi, qarTulma mediam marTlac sakmaod warmatebulad ganvlo; magram am pirvel etaps unda mohyoloda mediis mier finansuri da saredaqcio damoukideblobis mopovebis, sityvis TavisuflebasTan pasuxismgeblobis Sexamebis, profesiuli

standartebis damkvidrebis da a.S. etapebi, romlis gareSec "Tavisufali media" mxolod formaluri cnebaa. saqarTveloSi amTaviTve qarTul vityviT, medias samoqalaqo rom Tavisi ar sazogadoebis WeSmariti miesadageba ganviTarebisadmi es miZRvnil

kvlevaSi politologi gia nodia iyenebs definicias "damoukidebeli media". mniSvnelobiT da es gansazRvreba Cans Tundac igi namdvilad naSromSi kargad

sadisertacio

warmodgenili

presis

analiziTac.

Tumca,

gamoxatavs gansxvavebas sabWoTa da postsabWoTa periodis deben masSi qarTveli Tu ucxoeli Semfaseblebi. gia nodia aRniSnavs, rom: "damoukidebeli saqarTveloSi

saqarTvelos (anu,

deklarirebulad damoukidebeli) medias Soris da, rogorc Cans, am Sinaarss

media,

iseve

rogorc da

arasamTavrobo

organizaciebi,

damoukideblobis

demokratiuli institutebis ganviTarebasTan erTad Seiqmna. rogorc erTis, ise meoris Casaxva paralelurad xdeboda 1980-iani mxriv wlebis ki, bolodan. maTi

warmateba saqarTveloSi, erTi mxriv, uSualod damokidebulia liberaluri institutebis ganviTarebis doneze; meore amgvari ganviTarebis

umTavresi indikatoria. rodesac bolo 10-15 wlis manZilze saqarTveloSi demokratiis ganviTarebis SedarebiT warmatebebze laparakobdnen, upirveles yovlisa, swored mediisa da mesame seqtoris ganviTareba mohyavdaT amis yvelaze TvalsaCino sabuTad. meore mxriv, rodesac "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg gaxSirda wuxilebi imis gamo, rom revoluciam demokratiis ganviTareba ki ara, misi garkveuli Sesusteba moitana, amis erT-erT ZiriTad 14

gamoxatulebas swored mediaSi pluralizmis Sesustebasa da mesame seqtoris aqtivobis da rolis daqveiTebaSi xedaven." (56, 48) "vardebis revoluciis" Semdgom periodSi, marTlac, erTgvarad

damuxruWda qarTuli masmediis ganviTareba. "vardebis revolucia", qveynis demokratiuli ganviTarebisa da dasavluri Rirebulebebis damkvidrebis ufro maRal fazaSi gadasvlis deklarirebiT, am procesisTvis stimulis mimcemi da xelisSemwyobi unda gamxdariyo. magram moxda piriqiT. Tumc, pluralizmis Sesusteba, razec gia nodia amaxvilebs yuradRebas, telemediis magaliTze ufro TvalSisacemia. presam (miuxedavad imisa, rom "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg, sxvadasxva mizeziT, drois garkveuli intervaliT, daixura iseTi

TvalsaCino gazeTebi, rogoric iyo "dilis gazeTi", "axali epoqa", "mTavari gazeTi", "xvalindeli dRe"), televiziasTan SedarebiT, mainc SeZlo garkveuli mravalferovnebisa da sakuTari poziciis SenarCuneba. amdenad, saanalizo periodis presa pirobiTad SeiZleba gavyoT "vardebis revoluciamde" da "vardebis revoluciis" Semdgom periodad. Tumc, es dayofa ar iqneba mxolod pirobiTi. Jurnalisti ia anTaZe (romlis analitikuri publikaciebi gamorCeulia qarTul mediaSi), ayalibebs arsebiT gansxvavebas, gamoxatuls xelisuflebis, mediasaSualebis mflobelisa da Jurnalistebis urTierTmimarTebis revoluciis Cafluli, SecvliT: "revoluciamde ramdenime wliT iyo adrec da dReebSic mediamflobeli dainteresebuli realuri da mxolod erTad, korufciaSi CvenebiT Sekrul da maSin gunds,

dauZlurebuli iTxovda TavianT

xelisuflebis simarTles

saxis

Jurnalistebisagan Jurnalistebi,

simarTles.

mediamflobelTan

qmnidnen

romelic Tavdauzogavad utevda xelisuflebas. Tu warmovidgenT samkuTxeds, wveriT zeviT, xelisufleba swored am wverze iyo ganTavsebuli,

mediamflobeli da Jurnalistebi ki qveda or kuTxeSi iyvnen "gamagrebulni" erTmaneTis garemocvas. revoluciis Semdeg samkuTxedi amoyiravda da daeSva wveriT qveviT. zeda or kuTxeSi erTmaneTis gverdiT moxvdnen xelisufleba da mediamflobeli, qveda wverSi ki aRmoCnda daucveli Jurnalisti, romelsac es ori didi Zala _ erT gundad gaerTianebuli xelisufleba da mediamflobeli _ gausaZlis tvirTad daawva mxrebze." (1, 15) gverdiT da erTiani ZaliT ebrZodnen SevardnaZes Tu mis

*

mocemuli periodis presis daxasiaTeba ar iqneba marTebuli misi winare periodisagan gancalkevebiT. "80-iani wlebis bolos da 90-iani wlebis 15

dasawyisis presaSi sityvis Tavisufleba ZiriTadad politikuri movlenebis kritikul gaSuqebaSi gamoixata da 1997-98 wlebamde aseTad darCa. Tumca, gaCnda yviTeli presac, magram politikuri da yviTeli presa erTmaneTSi ar areula", _ gigi TevzaZe am mosazrebis ganviTarebisas eyrdnoba giga bokerias, givi TargamaZisa da levan ramiSvilis naSroms _ "saqarTvelos presa 90-ian wlebSi. nabiji Tavisuflebisaken". (24, 21). gigi TevzaZe, rogorc samoqalaqo seqtoris erT-erTi aqtiuri warmomadgeneli da, am SemTxvevaSi, demokratiul inovaciaTa Semajamebeli centris statiis mier Catarebuli aanalizebs kvlevis (presaSi presis profesiuli etapebs _ standartebisa da eTikuri normebis dacvis ZiriTadi tendenciebi) monawile da avtori, postsabWoTa

samoqalaqo sazogadoebis garemodan sivrceSi. movixmobT vrcel citatas,

biznes garemoSi romelic kargad

saxelisuflo axasiaTebs 90-iani

wlebis miwurulisa da 2000-ianis damdegis qarTul presas. "paradoqsia, rom 1990-1998 wlebSi gazeTebis tiraJi Semcirda. Tuki 80-iani wlebis bolos yvelaze popularuli gazeTis "dronis" dRiuri tiraJi 30 aTass aWarbebda, 98 wlisaTvis saqarTveloSi gamomavali yvela gazeTis dRiuri

tiraJi erTad 20-25 aTass Zlivs Seadgenda. am paradoqsis axsna SesaZlebelia SemdegSi mdgomareobdes: presam daaRwia Tavi komunisturi xelisuflebis diqtats da socialuri niSa im dros Camoyalibebis procesSi myof samoqalaqo sazogadoebaSi ipova. es periodi (1990-1998) gamoirCeva demokratiuli presis ganviTarebis xelSemwyobi grantebiT, treiningebiT. rogorc saqarTvelos

samoqalaqo sazogadoebam, aseve demokratiuli qveynebis mTavrobebma yvelaferi gaakeTes imisaTvis, rom saqarTvelos beWdviTi media samoqalaqo sazogadoebis nawili gamxdariyo. (24, 21-22)... Sedegad, 97-98 wlebSi miviReT mciretiraJiani, magram demokratiuli politikuri presa, romelic erTmniSvnelovnad aRiarebda demokratiul Rirebulebebs da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganuyofeli nawili iyo... gamomdinare samoqalaqo sazogadoebis simciridan, SeuZlebelic iyo meti tiraJis molodini is gvqonoda. aris, rom da amitom, vera da aqtualurad ver iqca beWdviTi mediis

biznesad qcevis sakiTxi. demokratiis erT-erTi mTavari gamowveva dRevandel saqarTveloSi xelisuflebis politikuri sazogadoebis moxerxda biznesis gamoyvana qceva...

garemodan

samoqalaqo kapitalis

sazogadoebis

nawilad

beWdviTi mediis ganviTarebaSi es procesi sagranto dabandebis SemcirebiT da (politikosebis) garemodan gazrdiT gamoixata... samoqalaqo media biznes garemoSi moxvedrili beWdviTi

saxelisuflebo sivrceSi aRmoCnda." (24, 24)

16

swored presaSi

beWdviTi

mediis

biznesad gazeTebi,

qcevis rac

procesma

gaaCina ar

qarTul niSnavs

"mravalpolaruli"

sruliadac

pluralistur wonasworobas. rogorc g.TevzaZe wers, "es gamoixateboda ara imiT, rom erT gazeTSi urTierTsawinaaRmdego filosofiis mqone statiebi ibeWdeboda, aramed imiT, rom erTsa da imave gazeTSi sxvadasxva stilisa da paTosis statia erTmaneTis damTavrebuli sagazeTo gverdiT iyo moTavsebuli "yviTeli" gaxda _ dawyebuli stiliT... da

analitikuriT, gazeTis

sruliad statia

weris

gansxvavebuli stili ara erTi gazeTis, aramed erTi statiis farglebSi airia. magivrad, mravalpolaruli polidiskursuli." (24, 22-23) Sedegad, mkiTxvelze gazeTebis presa; mravalricxovnebis calkeuli (oRondac, gazeTi stiqiurad, miuxedavad, gaxda zogadad ver Camoyalibda yvela saxis da

mravalpolaruli

erTbaSad

gaTvlili

auditoriisa

mkiTxvelTa kategoriis moTxovnilebaTa Seswavlis gareSe). profesionalizmis deficitis pirobebSi, mkiTxvelTa yuradRebis e.w. mizidvas presa sensaciuri

Seferilobis cdilobda.

publikaciebiT, amasTan, erTi

skandalebiT, mxriv, presaSi

kuluaruli

informaciebiT (politikosebis)

politikuri

kapitalis dabandebam, meore mxriv, gazeTebis gayidvisa da tiraJis gazrdis aucileblobam, maqsimalurad gazarda presis politizebis xarisxi da igi arsebiTad xelisuflebisaTvis brZolis interess dauqvemdebara.

kulturologi lela iakobiSvili aRniSnavs, rom 2003 wlamde gacilebiT adre "qarTuli kulturis reJimi politikur bataliebze gadaerTo", xolo 2003-is noembris satelevizio sanaxaobebma "sainformacio uzrunvelyofis iseTi srulyofileba SemogvTavaza, Tavad informaciuli civilizaciis Semoqmedsac rom SeSurdeboda." (26, 33-39) es Sefaseba presasac kargad esadageba, im gansxvavebiT, rom mas,

televiziasTan SedarebiT, zemoqmedebis naklebi efeqti da areali aqvs; Tumc, saerTo jamSi, presam, televiziasTan unisonSi, Seamzada niadagi

postSevardnaZistul epoqaSi "xaverdovani" gadasvlisTvis; Semdgom ki tele da beWduri mediis gzebi erTmaneTs sagrZnobad dascilda. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg presaSi gaCnda terminebi "satelevizio mmarTveloba", "telexelisufleba", rac pirdapir mianiSnebs imaze, rom axali xelisufleba (pirvel rigSi _ prezidenti) warmatebiT iyenebs televiziis SesaZleblobebs piarisa da propagandisTvis; meore mxriv, presa permanentulad aprotestebs telemediis prioritetulobasa da beWduri mediis ignorirebas. "dilis gazeTis" mTavari redaqtori, manana kartozia, bolo nomris 17

saredaqcio

statiaSi,

"kiTxvisunariani

xelisuflebisa

da

yidvisunariani

mkiTxvelis" surviliTa da imediT daemSvidoba mkiTxvels. gazeT "alias", logos gverdiT, wamZRvarebuli aqvs prezident mixeil saakaSvilis sityvebi "pirdapir minda giTxraT gulwrfelad, rom me qarTul gazeTebs TiTqmis ar vkiTxulob... samwuxarod, maTi done, didi iSviaTi gamonaklisebis garda,

Zalian dabalia." (2005 wlis dekemberi) isic unda aRiniSnos, rom telemediisadmi misi xelisuflebis arealis uxdeba

"gansakuTrebuli Tavisufleba

damokidebuleba", magram,

ZiriTadad,

Tavisuflebis resursebiT

maqsimalur SezRudvasa da kontrolSi gamoixateba, presas am mxriv meti aqvs, mwiri materialuri

arsebobisaTvis brZola. "vardebis revoluciidan" sami Tvis Semdeg, presaSi gamoqveynda gazeTebis msoflio asociaciis mimarTva prezident saakaSvilisadmi; masSi yuradReba maxvildeba saqarTveloSi Jurnalistebze zewolisa da Tavdasxmis faqtebze, rac mediaSi aCens SiSis sindroms da, Sesabamisad, TviTcenzuras. asociacia delikaturad mianiSnebs saqarTvelos prezidents Jurnalistebis profesiuli saqmianobisTvis saTanado pirobebis Seqmnis aucileblobaze. ("jorjian Taimsi", "xvalindeli dRe",E26 Tebervali, 2004) amave periodSi "dilis gazeTi" aRniSnavda, rom "demokratiuli da Ria sazogadoebis lozungiT mosuli revoluciuri xelisufleba presisTvis TiTqmis yvela informacias blokavs." ("dilis gazeTi", 18.02.2004)

*

amgvarad, gamoikveTa konturebi, rogori iyo qarTuli mediis saxe aTaswleulebis mijnaze, romelic umniSvnelovanesi etapi iyo qveynisa da, Sesabamisad, mediis ganviTarebisTvis. zogadad am periodis qarTuli mediis da, konkretulad, presis, Sefaseba da, Semdgom, saanalizo periodSi (2000-2005 wlebi) mis ZiriTad sazogadoebriv-politikur aspeqtebze msjeloba, SeuZlebelia im parametrebis moSveliebis gareSe, romliTac, saerTod, mediis Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis xarisxi fasdeba. Tavisufleba ganmsazRvreli da damoukidebloba faqtori. Zalze zogadi vambobT cnebebia, imaze, magram, rom am arsebuli Tvalsazrisebis SejerebiT, swored esaa mediis demokratiulobis umTavresi aRarafers

faqtorebis arsebobas, pirvel rigSi, qveynis demokratiuli ganviTarebis done da mediis funqcionirebisTvis arsebuli garemo-pirobebi ganapirobebs. mediis upirvelesad, (saerTaSoriso Tavisuflebisa informaciuli SeTanxmebebi, da damoukideblobis parametrebze msjeloba, aqtebze qveynis 18

sferos

maregulirebel oqmebi,

normatiul konkretuli

konvenciebi,

kanonmdebloba...) dayrdnobiT viTardeba. informaciuli samarTali sferod iTvleba yvela demokratiul qveyanaSi; mediis

urTules da

mkvlevarebi

profesionali praqtikosebi, umeteswilad, miiCneven, rom normatiuli aqtebi gansazRvravs mediis Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis uflebas, magram

realobaSi, araTu konkretuli qveynis, aramed konkretuli mediasaSualebis SemTxvevaSic ki, uaRresad rTulia dadgena, ras gulisxmobs Tavisufleba da damoukidebloba da rogor SeiZleba misi miRweva. gazeTebis msoflio asociaciis kvlevisa da informaciis marTvis ganyofilebis direqtori tatiana repkova, romlis gamocdileba moicavs yofil socialistur evropaSi cxovrebasa da Jurnalistad/redaqtorad muSaobasac da Tanamedrove mediis Teoriisa da praqtikis codnasac, erTmaneTs uxamebs mediis Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobis romantikul/idealistur gansazRvrebebsa da pragmatul realobas. saqarTvelos mediasTan mimarTebaSi gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa gardamavali demokratiis viTareba: "ganviTarebad demokratiul qveynebSi damoukidebeli samTavrobo mediis Seqmnis pirveli etapi da aucileblad Carevisgan

gulisxmobs

sakuTrebisgan,

kontrolisa

gaTavisuflebas. sityva "damoukidebeli" ar gaxlavT absoluturad TviTkmari da am SemTxvevaSi arcTu zustad esadageba Tavis pirvelad semanistikur gansazRvrebas. ganviTarebad demokratiul qveynebSi presasTan mimarTebaSi es sityva, Cveulebriv, niSnavs samTavrobo kontrolisagan damoukidebels. magram es ganmarteba metismetad viwroa. imis maT gamo, rom ganviTarebad rom demokratiul qveynebSi Jurnalistebs Tavis daRweva, damoukideblobis sakmaod mwiri, an zogjer aranairi gamocdileba ar gaaCniaT, xSirad hgoniaT, xelisuflebis kontrolisgan

yvelanairi kontrolisgan Tavisuflebas niSnavs; rom maT aravin akontrolebs, maT Soris, arc gazeTis mmarTvelebi. samwuxarod, damoukideblobis maTeuli gansazRvreba ararealisturi kargi da gauazrebelia moaqvs. dRevandel da, rTul sabolood, samyaroSi

JurnalistebisTvisve

araferi

damoukidebloba sruli verafriT iqneba." (62, 9-10) mediis Tavisuflebis cneba saqarTveloSic sakmaod didxans iyo

asocirebuli "yvelafrisgan TavisuflebasTan". iqmneboda STabeWdileba, rom Jurnalistebs yvelanairi informaciis mopovebisa da gavrcelebis SeuzRudavi ufleba aqvT. mediasaSualebebis mflobelebi da Jurnalistebi mtkivneulad ganicdidnen normatiuli aqtebis miRebas, romlebic aregulirebs informaciis sajaroobas/saidumloobas, informaciasTan daSvebis sajaro uflebas informaciis da a.S. xelmisawvdomobas, zogadma 19

"saqarTvelos

administraciulma kodeqsma" (miRebulia 1999 wlis 25 ivniss) sakanonmdeblo doneze mniSvnelovnad moawesriga sajaro informaciasTan urTierToba, magram unda iTqvas, rom, meore mxriv, mediis warmomadgenlebi xSirad uCiodnen,

samarTlianad Tu usamarTlod, xelisSemSlel biurokratiul barierebs. cnobil inglisur arasamTavrobo organizaciaSi, "artikl 19"-Si

gaerTianebulma iuristebma Seqmnes da 1993 wels gamosces unikaluri naSromi, romelSic gadmocemuli da da gaanalizebulia sferoSi masmediis 11 samarTlebrivi qveynis

regulirebisa niderlandebi,

TviTregulirebis aSS,

demokratiuli naSromSi,

gamocdileba (avstria, avstralia, didi britaneTi, germania, espaneTi, kanada, norvegia, safrangeTi, Svecia); SedarebiTi

analizis meTodiT, gadmocemulia ara mxolod arsebuli normebi, aramed maTi gamoyenebis praqtika, problemebisa SeiZleba da winaaRmdegobebis rom CaTvliT. am da gamocdilebaze gansxvavebebis saerToa dayrdnobiT, miuxedavad, iTqvas, mravalgvarobisa piroba,

arsebobs

ramdenime

ZiriTadi

romelic da

demokratiuli

qveynebisTvis

presis

Tavisuflebisa liberaluri mTavrobis

damoukideblobis (gazeTis an

uzrunvelsayofad: daarsebisTvis

registraciis araa saWiro

pirobebi nebarTva),

Jurnalis

informaciis sajarooba da xelmisawvdomoba, wyaros konfidencialoba da a.S. yvelaze mTavari da CvenTvis sayuradRebo, rac am naSromSi ikveTebaa, isaa, rom presis pasuxismgeblobis ganviTarebis kvalobaze, presasTan dakavSirebuli konfliqtebi samarTlebrivi sferodan TviTregulirebis sferoSi inacvlebs, rac presis damoukideblobasTan erTad, misi avtoritetisa da prestiJis amaRlebasac uwyobs xels. (35) kanonmdeblobis doneze, rogorc specialistebi aRniSnaven, saqarTveloSi presis Tavisufleba da damoukidebloba sakmarisad uzrunvelyofilia (Tumc, telemediis SemTxvevaSi, xelisufleba axerxebs situaciis marTvas samauwyeblo licenziebiTa da sakontrolo paketebiT). 2004 wlis 24 ivniss, saqarTvelos parlamentis mier miRebulma kanonma "sityvisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb", istoriis kuTvnilebad aqcia "vardebis revolucamde" arsebuli sasamarTlo praqtika, rodesac mediasaSualebebs SefasebiTi msjelobisa da mamxilebeli faqtebis sajarod gacxadebisaTvis solidur jarimebs

akisrebdnen. saqarTvelos saxalxo damcvelis aparatis mTavari specialisti, giorgi gociriZe wers, rom "saqarTvelo SeuerTda im qveyanaTa ricxvs, sadac ciliswamebam dekriminalizacia ganicada, anu amgvari qmedebisTvis gauqmda sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba da igi mTlianad samoqalaqo

kanonmdeblobis regulirebis sferoSi moeqca." (14, 28) 20

ara mxolod saqarTvelos, aramed ganviTarebuli demokratiebis praqtika aCvenebs, rom liberaluri da kanonmdebloba sakmarisi ar aris presis rom Tavisuflebisa damoukideblobisaTvis. tatiana repkova aRniSnavs,

"Tavisufali da damoukidebeli masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis arseboba SesaZlebelia mxolod sxva demokratiuli tradiciebis arsebobasTan erTad." (62, 19) amasTan, igi miiCnevs, rom profesionalizmis dacva gacilebiT did Zalisxmevas moiTxovs, vidre damoukideblobisa: "msoflioSi miRebul mraval Jurnalisturi qcevis kodeqssa da sakuTar _ reportioris da redaqtoris _ gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT, xuTi sityviT SemiZlia ganvsazRvro, rogori unda iyos profesionali Jurnalistika: faqtobrivi, patiosani, miumxrobeli,

yovlismomcveli da Tanmimdevruli." (62, 26) Tavisufali da damoukidebeli mediis ganviTarebisTvis samarTlebriv garemoze aranaklebi mniSvneloba aqvs biznes-garemos; marTalia, media

specifiuri biznesia (ufro sworad, igi ar aris mxolod biznesi), magram mis funqcionirebas arsebiTad gansazRvravs sabazro kanonebi. "mTlianobaSi media SeiZleba ganvixiloT, rogorc warmoeba,

sazogadoebrivi samsaxuri da, agreTve, politikuri instituti... dRes medias arcerTi zemoxsenebuli maxasiaTeblis ignorireba ar SeuZlia. Sedegi aris fundamenturi konfliqti mewarmeobis Tavisuflebasa da sityvis Tavisuflebas Soris... am dilemis daZleva ioli ar aris... mediis mizani ver iqneba mxolod fulis keTeba, iseve rogorc mxolod Tavisufleba: Tavisufleba aucilebelia, magram ar aris sakmarisi. mediis amocanaa kargad emsaxuros yvela moqalaqes", (11, 9-10) _ frangi mkvlevaris klod-Jan bertranis mier Camoyalibebul am formulaSi, faqtobrivad, mocemulia "samsaxovani" mediis mTavari dilema _ misi sityvis Tavisuflebis "amplituda" biznesis Tavisuflebis

"amplitudiTac" isazRvreba da, orive erTad _ demokratiisa da sabazro ekonomikis ganviTarebis xarisxiT. demokratiul saxelmwifoSi, sadac

xelisufleba xalxis mier arCeuli da daqiravebuli msaxuria, bunebrivia, mediasac meti SesaZlebloba aqvs Tavisi mTavari amocanis _ moqalaqeebisa da sazogadoebis msaxurebis _ gansaxorcieleblad. saqarTveloSi, distancirebuli rTuldeba, eleqtronul rom rogorc zemoTac aRvniSneT, bazari wlisTvis biznesi TiTqmis ar aris imiTac bazari

xelisuflebisgan; isedac mwiri

presis biznesad sareklamo 2003

qcevis amocana sareklamo

mTlianad

mediazea

orientirebuli.

uzrunvelyofda mediis Semosavals weliwadSi daaxloebiT 5 mln aSS dolaris odenobiT, saidanac presis wili daaxloebiT 20% iyo. (52, 65) 21

rogorc ganviTarebis Crdilovani

marina seqtoris

musxeliSvili kvlevaSi, mediac wili;

aRniSnavs

saqarTveloSi

demokratiis didia seqtorSi

Semajamebel

saqarTvelos umeteswilad

ekonomikaSi Crdilovan

funqcionirebs; JurnalistTa xelfasebi metad dabalia, ris gamoc maRali kvalifikaciis kadrebi sxva sferoebSi inacvleben; amasTan, "iqmneba

mojadoebuli wre, rodesac sawyisi Tanxis ararseboba ar iZleva biznesis ganviTarebis SesaZleblobas, xolo sawyisi investiciis miReba ukavSirdeba garkveuli produqciis politikuri xarisxis valdebulebebis daqveiTebas iwvevs." aRebas, (52, rac, 65-66) saboloo SesaZloa, jamSi, swored

profesiuli presis ararsebobiT (da ara imdenad mosaxleobis ekonomikuri siduxWiriT) aixsnas presis dabali da tiraJebi, rasac sociologiuri presas

gamokvlevebic adasturebs. biznesgaremos xSirad aiZulebs mouwesrigebloba mimarTos e.w. materialuri reklamas, problemebi SekveTil

farul

statiebs;

mkiTxvelis yuradRebis misaqcevad informaciaSi faqtebze metad figurirebs "sensaciur-skandaluri" Seferilobis komentarebi; profesiuli da eTikuri standartebis umetesobisTvis. darRveva yovelive Cveulebrivi es saredaqcio movlenaa beWduri gamocemebis uaryofiTad

damoukideblobazec

aisaxeba da, rac mTavaria, am viTarebaSi presa araTu emsaxureba moqalaqes, aramed arRvevs misi, rogorc mediamomxmareblis uflebas _ miiRos sando da "ekologiurad usafrTxo" produqcia.

*

cnobili germaneli sociologi niklas lumani Tavis wignSi "masmediis realoba" aRniSnavs, rom masmedia "mosazrebebs movlenebze ganixilavs da aSuqebs, rogorc sakuTriv movlenas" (45, 167); dauzustebel, an mcdar faqtebs masmedia avrcelebs rogorc namdvil cnobebs, romlebic mudmivad unda ganaxldes, raTa siyalbe SeumCneveli darCes. axali ambebis saxiT gadmocemuli informacia ki eWvmiutanel WeSmaritebad iTvleba. lumani CamoTvlis

kriteriumebs, romelsac iyeneben informaciis axal ambad/niusad qcevisTvis: informacia axali unda iyos; upiratesoba eniWeba konfliqtebs; uaRresad mniSvnelovania normebis darRveva, romelic masmediis interperetaciiT xSirad skandalis saxes iRebs da a.S. qarTuli masmediis interpretaciul xasiaTze yuradRebas amaxvilebs

sociologi iago kaWkaWiSvili; igi ambobs, rom sainformacio gadacemebis erTmaneTTan Sedareba postmodernuli paradigmis legitimurobaSi arwmunebs _ "ar arsebobs realoba TavisTavad. igi iseTia, rogoradac misi interpretacia 22

xdeba. xolo ramdenadac interpretacia bevria, realobac sxvadasxvanairia... sinamdvile gawovilia interpretaciaSi." (31) magram raxan sociologia emyareba daSvebas rom obieqturi realoba (Tundac empiriuli, anu dro-sivrculi)

arsebobs, iago kaWkaWiSvili msjelobas ase aviTarebas: "e.i. SesaZlebelia visaubroT realobis adekvatur da araadekvatur interpretaciaze." Tundac, erTi mxriv, gazeT "saqarTvelos respublikisa" da, meore mxriv, danarCeni "jorjian gazeTebis Tamsi" ("alia", sxv.) "axali versia", "rezonansi", ki "axali Taoba", am

da

zedapiruli

Sedarebac

adasturebs

Tvalsazriss. 2000-2003 wlebSi "saqarTvelos respublikiT" Seqmnili suraTi ise diametralurad gansxvavdeba sxva gazeTebisagan, rom Znelia daijero rom es erTi da igive qveynis realobis asaxvaa. "saqarTvelos da respublikis" ganwyobas

mediasuraTi,

sabWouri

inerciiT,

stabilurobisa

uZraobis

gviqmnis, daaxloebiT aseTi sqemiT _ "yvelaferi rigzea!", mTavaria "bunti ar iyos"; danarCeni gazeTebis mediasuraTi, siWrelis miuxedavad, mudmivi

destabilizaciisa da nihilizmis ganwyobas amZafrebs. xolo imis dadgena, romeli mediasaSualebis interpretaciaa realobis adekvaturi, an

araadekvaturi, praqtikulad SeuZlebelia. aseTive mimarTeba iyo am periodSi telekompania "pirveli arxisa" da t/k "rusTavi 2"-is mier Seqmnil "interpretaciul realobebs" Soris. am ori mediasaSualebis Sedareba sxva ramiTacaa sagulisxmo. disertaciis I nawilSi movixmeT makluenis cnobili formula _ "mediumi aris mesiji". "rusTavi 2" _ anu mediumi/saSualeba, erTis mxriv, Tavisi komunikaciuri SesaZleblobebiT (vgulisxmobT sixSires, dafinansebas, materialur-teqnikur bazas, kadrebs...) ar aRemateboda "pirvel arxs" (mediums/saSualebas), magram "rusTavi 2", rogorc mediasaSualeba, TavisTavad iyo garkveuli mesiji, erTgvari kodi, romelic ara mxolod mimdinare procesebsa da sazogadoebis ganwyobaze axdenda

zegavlenas, aramed, sxva mediasaSualebebzec. aqve mokled amgvar SevexebiT sqemas: saerTod "rusTavi 2"-is gansakuTrebul da,

SeiZleba iTqvas, eqskluziur rols. jer kidev 2000 wels, mediis analizi warmoaCenda sazogadoebrivi azris aqcentirebis funqcias

asrulebda "rusTavi 2". sainformacio programis _ "kurieri 9 saaTze" anonsi, zedmiwevniT gaTvlili, politikurad da emociurad damuxtuli, tons aZlevda sainformacio amindis Semqmnel sxva mediasaSualebebs (pirvel rigSi, "rezonanssa" da "alias"); "Ramis kurieri" (11 saaTze), pluralizmis dacvis efeqtiT, ostaturad aviTarebda mTavar aqcentebs. saTanado ganwyobis

23

Sesaqmnel fons qmnida ara mxolod dRis sainformacio gamoSvebebi, aramed, sxva gadacemebic da arxis strategiuli dizainic. filosofosi zaza firaliSvili, romelic dawvrilebiT exeba mediis rols 2003 wlis movlenebSi, Rrmad aanalizebs qarTul politikur sivrceSi "axali politikuri aqtoris niSis" (romelic swored "rusTavi 2"-ma daikava) gaCenis winapirobebs: gardamavali xanis sazogadoebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia "swrafad cvalebadi situaciiTa da rTuli socialuri mdgomareobiT

gamowveuli informaciuli SimSilis gancda, rac rigiT adamians totalurad damokidebuls xdis eleqtronuli mediis funqcionirebaze... am dros Zlieria cduneba imisa, rom moxdes eleqtronuli mediis rolis hiperbolizeba,

rogorc sazogadoebriv ganwyobilebaTa marTvis instrumentisa... sazogadoeba mTlianad damokidebuli xdeba ara mxolod mediis mier miwodebul informaciaze, aramed, am informaciis interpretaciazec." (71, 172) zaza firaliSvili kargad xsnis, rogor iqca "rusTavi 2" ara mxolod umniSvnelovanes mediaaqtorad, aramed politikur aqtoradac: arxis mesveurebi flobdnen sainformacio omis strategiaTa codnas; "agresiuli toniT, niSanTa sistemis profesionaluri maT TandaTan gamoyenebiT, miaRwies JurnalistikisaTvis aucilebeli

avantiurizmiT aq, da

sazogadoebrivi

azris ukonkurento 2"-is figurireba

kreatorTa mdgomareobas." (71, 174-175) disertaciis sxva monakveTebSic,U"rusTavi

ganpirobebulia bolo wlebis qarTul mediasa da sazogadoebriv-politikur cxovrebaze misi udavod didi gavleniT. amasTan, qarTuli masmediis ganviTarebaze msjelobisas (gansakuTrebiT, "vardebis revoluciis" konteqstSi) ucxoeli Tu qarTveli eqspertebis aTvlis wertili televiziaa, ufro zustad, "rusTavi 2". garda amisa, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, qarTuli presis aqcentebi an pirdapir ukavSirdeboda, an didwilad iyo ganpirobebuli swored am

telearxis mesijebiT. zaza firaliSvili aRniSnavs, rom "rusTavi 2"-is mier SemuSavebuli gzavnilebi, romlebic sainformacio gamoSvebebis anonsebSi

xmiandeboda, meore dRes TiTqmis ucvleli saxiT gadadioda gazeTebSi. ufro metic, "rusTavi 2" qmnida movlenaTa im RirebulebiT ierarqiasac, romelsac Semdeg ara mxolod beWdviTi saSualebebi, aramed eleqtronuli mediis sxva aqtorebic imeorebdnen." (71, 174) 2003 wlis mediatendenciebis Tamar Semajamebel statiaSi, "rusTavi "Tavisuflebis 2"-is roli institutis" samoqalaqo warmomadgenels, Jurnalistikis kinwuraSvils ayavs: "is, rac

rangSi

dasavleTSi

ramdenime

weliwadia samoqalaqo Jurnalistikis saxeliT ikidebs fexs, saqarTveloSi 24

gasuli

wlis

Jurnalistur

novaciad

iqca...

Tu

amerikaSi

samoqalaqo 11

Jurnalistikis ganviTarebis

procesSi garkveuli

katalizatoris roli

seqtembris tragediamac Seasrula, saqarTveloSi analogiuri datvirTva 2003 wlis 2 noembris saparlamento arCevnebs hqonda", _ wers kinwuraSvili da, faqtobrivad, ayalibebs im kriteriums, romlis wyalobiTac "rusTavi 2"

"gamarjvebuli xalxis televiziad" iqca: "im viTarebaSi, roca poziciis arqona demokratiuli nawilma obieqturoba faseulobebis qarTul JurnalistikaSi Ralatis mediaSi tolfasi iyo, JurnalistTa stereotipi, risi erTma TiTqos

daarRvia

damkvidrebuli

imis sapirispiro mtkicebaa,

ganzraxvac

politikosebs amoZravebT"; Tumc, iqve dasZens, rom "postrevoluciur periodSi misi martooden "gamarjvebulTa" televiziad gadaqcevis saSiSroeba gaCnda." amasTan, Tamar kinwuraSvili aRniSnavs, rom "sxva revoluciuri Zvrebi" qarTul mediaSi ar SeiniSneba; presasTan mimarTebaSi ki Zunwi komentariT Semoifargleba imis Taobaze, rom zogierTi gamocema mkiTxvelze metad

politikosTa viwro jgufzea orientirebuli. (32, 138) aqedan gamomdinare, alogikurad aRar Cans erTi wlis Semdeg Jurnal "Tavisuflebis" Jurnalistikis publikaciaSi eqsperimenti. anu, saqarTvelos "samoqalaqo samoqalaqo Jurnalistikis seqtoris novaciam"

warmomadgenelTa mosazreba, rom saqarTveloSic unda daiwyos samoqalaqo ganviTareba veRar hpova araTu qarTul mediaSi, aramed Tavad "rusTavi 2"-is Semdgom praqtikaSi. publikaciis seqtoris avtori merab basilaia (romlebic aRniSnavs: basilaias

saqarTvelos

samoqalaqo

warmomadgenlebi

azriT, arcTu ise mravalricxovanni arian) iziareben dasavlel mkvlevarTa mosazrebas, rom samoqalaqo Jurnalistika xalxisa da mediis urTierTobis Tvisobrivad axali etapia da Tvlian, rom "saqarTveloSic unda daiwyos samoqalaqo Jurnalistikis eqsperimenti. am eqsperimentis arsi saTqmelad

martivia: Jurnalisti sazogadoebaze unda iyos orientirebuli. sazogadoeba gacilebiT mets unda niSnavdes, vidre sainformacio bazari. Jurnalistma moqalaqeSi unda dainaxos ara informaciis Jurnalisti sakuTari Semdeg, momxmarebeli, Tavad aramed, imave sazogadoebis wevri, romelsac da ekuTvnis. profesiul arcTu

miukerZoeblobas "vardebis organizaciaTa ganviTarebis

amofareba

poziciis

argamJRavneba,

iSviaTad Tavis motyueba da farisevlobaa." (6, .20) revoluciis" TvalsaCino saqarTvelos amerikis arasamTavrobo saerTaSoriso qarTuli warmomadgenloba,

saagentos (USAID) iniciativiT, bakurianSi

Seikriba

saxelmwifos, sazogadoebisa da mesame seqtoris mdgomareobasa da momavalze 25

samsjelod. maT mier qarTuli mediis SefasebebSi xsendeba "cenzura", "mediis SezRudva", "dasusteba" da a.S. "gamarjvebuli xalxis televiziaze" ki naTqvamia: "rusTavi 2" dums imitom, rom iq aris uamravi angarebiani garigeba." (50, 36) marTlac, axali xelisuflebis mimarT media uCveulod Semwynarebluri gaxda, magram es ZiriTadad mainc televizias exeba. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg, rogorc presam aRvniSneT, ki televiziisa da presis gzebi mimdinare sagrZnoblad movlenebis

daSoriSorda: televiziis sabrZolo paTosi dacxra da wina planze sanaxaobam gadmoiwia, Sefasebisa SeZlebisdagvarad SeinarCuna da analizis funqcia. saerTod ki, postrevoluciur periodSi

safuZvlianad Seerya safuZveli mediazeobas, anu mediis yovlisSemZleobis imijs. "vardebis revoluciidan" zustad rva Tvis Semdeg gazeT "rezonansSi" gamoqveynda publikacia saTaurSi saTauriT ukve "mediis reqviemi mTavari postrevoluciur romelsac

saqarTveloSi".

gacxadebulia

saTqmeli,

kulturologi lela iakobiSvili ase ayalibebs: "Cvens sainformacio sivrceSi sruli "gaeCina" dabneulobaa; TiTqosda cocxali media, romelmac (anu icoda, sakuTari rogor Tavis

sazogadoebriv

organizmSi

axali,

"sxva"

sxvagvari versia), dRes, vfiqrob, rom paralizebulia. sruli STabeWdileba iyo imisa, rom qarTul sazogadoebriv organizmSi ori sfero _ politika da Jurnalistika mainc inarCunebda cocxal muxts. xSirad infantilurad, ufro _ isteriulad, magram mainc inarCunebda. am or sferos erTmaneTis mimarT hqonda interesi da danarCeni aRaraferi ainteresebdaT _ sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis arc erTi sxva aspeqti. es iyo erTmaneTze orientirebuli Zalauflebis ori sivrce, romlebic erTmaneTs asazrdovebdnen... dRes media-sivrce gamoeTiSa sazogadoebriv organizms da politikis imedze datova qveyana, TiTon ki mis usicocxlo iaraRad iqca." (85) es, erTi SexedviT mkveTri Sefaseba, zedmiwevniT gamoxatavs qarTuli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisa da qarTuli mediis mTavar maxasiaTebels _ politikis primats; politizebis tendencia telemediisa da presis saerTo maxasiaTebelia, Tumc, presisagan gansxvavebiT, postrevoluciur periodSi am TvalsazrisiT televizia ufro inertuli gaxda. lela iakobiSvilis Sefasebac albaT, pirvel rigSi, swored telemedias exeba, magram verc presam SeinarCuna "revoluciamdeli" dinamizmi, simZafre da aqtualoba. am SefasebaSi kidev erTi arsebiTi tendenciaa Camoyalibebuli _

sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis danarCeni aspeqtebis ignorireba mediis mier, garda 26

politikuri

bataliebisa.

Tu

ufro

davazustebT,

es

gulisxmobs

ara

politikur debatebs, jansaRi politikuri konkurenciis, politikuri speqtris farTod warmoCenas, aramed, saxelisuflo brZolebis qcevas centralur

Temad, da ara mxolod arCevnebis winare da momdevno periodebSi, roca, es mimarTuleba mediaSi TavisTavad iwevs wina planze. "presa sazogadoebasa da xelisuflebas Soris arsebul gamyof xazs zemoT, xelisuflebis siaxloves imyofeba", _ acxadebda Jurnalisti ia anTaZe 2000 wels, "dilis gazeTTan" interviuSi (es gazeTi did yuradRebas uTmobda qarTuli mediis _ av-kargze "rodesac msjelobas xelisuflebis da demokratiuli Sto, gamocdilebis an jgufi gaziarebas), erTi nawili

dapirispirebulia meoresTan, is presis segmentidan sakuTar samegobro wres kargad iyenebs am jgufTan dasajaxeblad. Cveulebrivi pirvel gverds swored es iwvevs presis diskreditacias... samwuxarod, gazeTis adamianebi da Tu aravis Tqven ainteresebs. rigiTi

daxedeT nebismieri

ipoviT

adamianis suraTs, maSin ukan mimaqvs Cemi sityvebi." (113) saqarTveloSi demokratiis ganviTarebis Semajamebel saeqsperto

kvlevaSi, statia "masmediis" avtori marina musxeliSvili askvnis, rom presa, rogorc samomxmareblo produqti, "TiTqmis mTlianad politikazea mimarTuli da TiTqmis ar asaxavs mkiTxvelis problemebs... es midgoma, erTi mxriv, asaxavs arsebuli politikuri sivrcis mkveTrad elitistur xasiaTs, meore mxriv, kidev ufro amZafrebs mosaxleobisa da politikuri klasis gaucxoebas,

zRudavs sazogadoebis unars, gaiazros mis winaSe mdgari gamowvevebi." (52, 67) unda SevniSnoT, rom presis orientireba politikaze ar gulisxmobs imas, rom Tundac am sferos igi yovlismomcvelad da mravalmxrivad aSuqebs;

rogorc aRvniSneT, umeteswilad presa gamoxatavs ara Tundac xelisuflebis interess, aramed xelisuflebisaTvis brZolis interess. amaze mianiSnebs ia anTaZis aqcentic presis angaJirebulobaze. amasTan, es citata Seicavs igive diskurss, rogorsac lela iakobiSvilis interviu _ sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis arcerTi sxva aspeqti, saxelisuflo dapirispirebebis garda. sabednierod, es Sefaseba yvelaze naklebad ekuTvnis "dilis gazeTisnair" gamocemas, romlis yuradRebis arealSi sazogadoebis cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela aspeqti xvdeboda da arc mxolod politikosebi iyvnen misi "mTavari gmirebi". ZiriTadad ki, qarTuli interesis presa, sazogadoebrivi dgomis azris nacvlad, gamoxatvisa ufro da sazogadoebrivi manipulirebs sadarajoze warmatebiT

sazogadoebrivi sazogadoebrivi

azriT. es ki, ama Tu im formiT,

mainc axdens gavlenas formirebaze. "presis 27

azris, oRond _ deformirebulis _

saSualebiT bevri destruqciuli idea mkvidrdeba. am procesSi Jurnalistebi uSualod arian CarTulni. ver vityvi, rom gauTviTcnobiereblad", _ aRniSnavs Jurnalisti ia anTaZe zemoxsenebul interviuSi. (113) ra roli miuZRoda presas ara mxolod destruqciuli ideebis damkvidrebaSi, aramed, destabilizaciuri procesebis inicirebaSi, am Temas sagangebod SevexebiT disertaciis erT-erT momdevno nakveTSi. zemoT yuradReba gavamaxvileT presis politizebis tendenciaze, am

nakveTis dasawyisSi ki _ analitikuri da "yviTeli" stilis urTierTaRrevaze. politizebisken midrekileba e.w. bulvarul presaSic SeimCneva, iseve rogorc TvalSisacemia sazogadoebriv-politikur gamocemebad miCneuli Jurnal-

gazeTebis "siyviTle" _ iaffasiani "sensaciebiTa" da "skandaluri ambebiT" gataceba da, rac mTavaria, dawerili Tu "dauwereli" kanonebisa da sazogadoebrivi normebis ugulebelyofa, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT Jurnalisturi eTikis normebze. moviSveliebT mweral naira gelaSvilis Sefasebas: "... Tu dasavleTSi bulvarul presas sruliad garkveuli samyaros socialuri sruliad fena etaneba, kerZod: nawili

kulturul-inteleqtualur

mowyvetili

sazogadoebisa, CvenTan am mxriv araviTari "fenovaneba" ar SeiniSneba". Cveni sazogadoeba nakleb wunia da gulzizRiania, rogorc danagvianebuli ezoquCebis, ise danagvianebuli masmediis mimarT: mdare gazeTebs "inteligencia" iseve isrutavs, rogorc orklasdamTavrebuli an daumTavrebeli xalxi". (112) Jurnalisturi eTikis normebis dacva qarTul presaSi scildeba Cveni sakvlevi Temis farglebs, magram aq sailustraciod movixmobT erT publikacias, romelic ara mxolod eTikis saukeTeso nimuSia. miT ufro, gamocemebs wlis saTauriT 8 _ rom darRvevis, aramed "siyviTlis" gamoqveynebulia "pirvel violinod" meore Cemi maSindel miCneul gverdze, mucelia",

igi

sazogadoebriv-politikur gazeTSi. "rezonansis"

Soris

2000

ivlisis "Cemi

nomerSi, prezidenti

ganTavsebulia

publikacia

qvesaTauriT _ "SevardnaZes tualetSi qaRaldis magier 50-dolarianebi ukidia da kuWaSlilobis periodSi xmarobs". publikacias wamZRvarebuli aqvs Savi petitiT awyobili lidi: "Tbiliseli "imas, "gaiSnikebi" Cvens prezident SevardnaZis eduard

tualetSi dakidebul 50 dolarianebze ocneboben". Semdgom es "niusi" ufro saguldagulodaa SevardnaZes, ukidia da ra ganviTarebuli: uWirs, tualetSi damaqcevars, baton albaT qaRaldis xmarobs. magier 50-dolarianebi batono is

kuWaSlilobis

periodSi

gadmomigdos

28

gaimasqnebuli fuli da geficebiT, arc mZRols wavarTmev rames da arc quCaSi davxvdebi vinmes". (97) es nimuSi sagangebod movixmeT ara mxolod eTikis darRvevisa da

"siyviTlis" gamo. mTeli es publikacia, miuxedavad imisa, rom igi axali ambebisTvis gankuTvnil "teritoriazea" ganTavsebuli, ra Tqma unda, araviTar ambavs ar Seicavs, miT ufro _ faqts. da amgvari xasiaTis ara yovelTvis am zomamde wregadasuli) am iSviaTi masalebi (oRondac, ar iyo

gamonaklisi imitomac

imdroindeli

"rezonansisTvis".

garemoebaze

vamaxvilebT

yuradRebas, rom Semdeg qveTavebSi xSirad davimowmebT am reitingul gazeTs da vnaxavT, rogori transformacia ganicada man solidurobis mimarTulebiT.

29

Tavi II

saqarTvelos saxelmwifo presis prizmaSi

· saxelmwifos imiji

axali aTaswleulis damdegs qarTuli masmediis flagmanebSi saqarTvelo figurirebs, rogorc "arSemdgari qveyana", "saSiSi qveyana", "viTom qveyana", qveyana, romelic "gasulia momsaxureobis zonidan"; "saxelmwifo" ki "arSemdgaris" konteqstSic iSviaTad xsendeba. ver vityviT, rom amaSi brali masmediasa da Jurnalistebs miuZRvodaT. es iyo kanonzomieri Sedegi _ warmatebuli sainformacio omebis Sedegad daSlili ssrk-is Semadgenlobidan gamoTavisuflebuli postsabWoTaAqveyana da ideologiuri diqtatisa da cenzurisagan axalgamoxsnili masmedia mzad ar iyo Tanamedrove sainformacio sivrcis zemoqmedebaze adekvaturi

reagirebisaTvis. saqarTvelos mier damoukideblobis deklarireba, 90-iani wlebis presaSi, xSirad moixsenieboda, rogorc saxelmwifoebriobis xangrZlivi aRdgena. magram

istoriuli

saxelmwifoebriobisagan

droismieri

distancirebis

gamo es cneba realobas ar Seesabameboda. 1994 wels akaki baqraZe werda, rom qarTveli xalxi "sruliad moumzadebeli aRmoCnda damoukidebeli da

Tavisufali cxovrebisaTvis", radganac "Cven damoukidebloba ori saukunis winaT ki ar davkargeT..., aramed bevrad ufro adre... saqarTvelo koloniur mdgomareobaSi gvafrTxilebda, xangrZlivi sulier da sul rom cota 1555 wlidan da mainc imyofeba." akaki baqraZe aSenebas _ "eris

damoukidebeli momzadeba

Tavisufali

qveynis ki

sistematuri

sWirdeba,

upirvelesad aRzrda",

samyaroSi

sakuTari

Tavisadmi

rwmenis

"sakuTari

saxelmwifoebrivi energiis" rwmena. (7, 391) marTlac, saxelmwifoebrivi Camoyalibebis Tanmdevma kataklizmebma am procesisTvis moumzadebeli qveynis sazogadoeba sakuTar SesaZleblobebSi daaeWva, masmediis fsiqologiurma zemoqmedebam ki, Tavis mxriv, saamisod

saTanado foni Seqmna. Cveni azriT, bevr sxva faqtorTan erTad, es ganapiroba yvelaze arsebiTma "warsulis gadmonaSTmac" _ sabWoTa ideologiis inerciam _ rom yofiereba aris bazisi, cnobiereba SesaZloa ki _ zednaSeni; am logikiT,

saxelmwifo

cnobiereba

Camoyalibdes

saxelmwifos

institucionaluri, ekonomikuri da a.S. gaZlierebis kvalobaze. bunebrivia, rom saxelmwifos siZliere saxelmwifoebriv azrovnebasac myar safuZvels uqmnis; 30

magram,

meores

mxriv,

uimedobiT,

nihilizmiTa

da

arasrulfasovnebis

kompleqsiT Sepyrobili xalxi saxelmwifos ver Camoayalibebs. mediis rusi mkvlevari sergei korkonosenko wers, rom axali "mecnierebaTa mecnierebis" _ informaciologiis SemqmnelTa TvalsazrisiT, "ara imdenad yofa gansazRvravs cnobierebas, ramdenadac cnobiereba, informaciis formiT, gansazRvravs

samyaros." (33, 74) XX saukunis 80-90-iani wlebis qarTuli presis erT-erTi aqtualuri Tema _ diskusia erovnuli ideologiis Taobaze, axali aTaswleulis presaSic iCens Tavs, oRondac amjerad ukve marginalizebuli. anu, TandaTan cneba

"erovnulobam" presaSi devalvacia ganicada. "albaT istoriul ideaTa da istoriul strategiaTa uwyvetobaa is Zala, romelic ama Tu im sazogadoebas adgils... istoriis Tu subieqtad hkravs da Cveni funqcionaluradac miuCens Tvals gadavavlebT

sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis bolo oci wlis istorias, Zneli araa davrwmundeT, istoriul ideaTa rogori deficitis pirobebSi gviwevs arsebobac da qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis Senebac. es Zireuli momentidan 101-105) viRac sxvas iqmneba gadavabareT STabeWdileba, wlebis cnebebi _ da rom saqme TiTqos raRac istoriuli fundamentur qarTuli erTgvarad ideaTa mediis niadags mxolod

importirebasRa vjerdebiT," _ aRniSnavs filosofosi zaza firaliSvili. (71, marTlac, flagmanebi, amzadeben

gansakuTrebiT "alias"

2000-2001

periodSi,

"importirebul ideaTa" aRqmisTvis. magaliTad, gazeTebis "rezonansisa" da publikaciebSi "saxelmwifo", "erovnuli" Segnebuladaa ignorirebuli da Tu gamokrTeba aqa-iq, isic usaTuod uaryofiT konteqstSi. saqarTvelo ganixileba qveynad, romelsac, TiTqosda, xelsayreli

geopolitikuri mdebareobis garda, arc ukan _ warsulSi, arc win _ momavalSi da, miT ufro, awmyoSi, saimedo, xelCasaWidi da saxelmwifoebriobis

ganmsazRvreli sxva perspeqtiva ar hqondes. es tendencia yvelgan igrZnoba _ politikaze, religiaze, erovnul rekvizitebsa Tu kulturaze msjelobisas da aviTarebs arsebiT azrs _ rom erovnuloba CamorCenilobis, viwrokuTxurobis maCvenebelia roca cneba da xels uSlis demokratiis SeCveuli ganviTarebas. sityva xdeba saxelmwifosadmi mkiTxvelisa Tu

masmediis amgvar damokidebulebas ukve bunebrivad mivyavarT im kondiciamde, "arSemdgari qveyana" mayureblisTvis da, cnobierad Tu qvecnobierad, gansazRvravs mis adekvatur reaqcias. pirobiTad, am periodis presa sam nakadad SeiZleba davyoT:

31

erTi

mxriv,

"alia",

"rezonansi",

"axali

versia"

qmnian

kliSeebs

_

saqarTvelo _ arSemdgari qveyana, saSiSi qveyana, pankisi _ terorizmis bude, SevardnaZe ­ miloSeviCi, wiTeli prezidenti, SevardnaZistebi _ retrogradebi, Jvanias gundi _ reformatorebi; "asaval-dasavali", "dro", "meoTxe", "marTali gazeTi" _ reformatorebs dasavleTis emisrebad miiCneven, masonuri mmarTvelobis safrTxeze da JvaniasaakaSvilis warmomavlobaze msjeloben; "dilis gazeTi", saxelmwifo SenarCunebiT. miuxedavad ricxobrivi upiratesobisa, xsnebul gazeTebsa da plus kidev sxva gamocemebs ar SeuZliaT ramdenime gadafaron arsebiTi "aliasa" faqtoris da gamo: "rezonansis" gavrcelebis "kviris palitra", "axali Taoba", "meridiani"/"axali gaaqtiurebas _ tradiciuli Rirebulebebis meridiani", "droni", "ganaxlebuli iveria" cdiloben erovnuli cnobierebis, azrovnebis

sainformacio

zegavlena,

farTo geografiuli arealis, tiraJisa da reitingis garda, isini moqmedeben gansazRvruli sainformacio strategiiT, razec ukve vamaxvilebdiT

yuradRebas t/k "rusTavi 2"-is magaliTze. (2001 wels, kompania "nikkolo m"-is mier Catarebuli xolo saqarTvelos "aliasa" da mediabazris "rezonanss", kvlevis "kviris Sedegad, "alia", erTad, "rezonansi" da "axali versia" lideroben mkiTxvelTa ndobisa da kiTxvadobis reitingSi; palitrasTan"

gavrcelebis yvelaze farTo areali aqvT.)* erovnuli da saxelmwifo cnobierebis moSlis Sorsgamiznuli procesi uwinaresad axalgazrdobisken iyo mimarTuli. pirvel rigSi swored maTze iyo gaTvlili redaqtoris "dardubalas" seriali Canawerebi", "alias" (t/k "rusTavi 2"), "rezonansis" "morige erTdroulad

publikaciebi,

romlebic

aRvivebda religiur nihilizmsac da religiur eqstremizmsac; sainformacio amindis Semqmneli masmediis mTavari Temebi _ destabilizaciis permanentuli safrTxe, qveynis cxovrebis yvela sferoSi mxolod uaryofiTis Zieba, ufrosi da saSualo Taobis mudmivi dadanaSauleba komunistur droSi cxovrebisaTvis (im faqtoris ignorirebiT, rom maT droisa da qveynis arCeva ar SeeZloT), saxelmwifos diskreditaciisaken mimarTuli sainformacio kampania da a.S. Tu am TvalsazrisiT Tundac "rezonansis" "morige redaqtoris Canawerebs" ganvixilavT, davrwmundebiT rom gazeTis am miniaturul "savizito _________ * kvlevis Sedegis gamoyeneba SeTanxmebulia kompania "nikkolo m"-Tan.

32

baraTSi" akumulirebulia udidesi sabrZolo muxti da Seurigebloba sistemis, mmarTvelobis, tradiciebis, ufrosi Taobisadmi da a.S. amasTan, misi enobrivi qsovili _ Sav iumors Serwymuli slengi, "dardubalasac" exmaureba da kargad esadageba Tineijerul gemovnebasa da ganwyobasac. "Canawerebis" pozicia da

gamyarebulia · · · ·

anSlagebad

gaSlili

sapirvelgverdo

saTaurebiTa

karikaturebiT, romelTa mTavari "gmiria" prezidenti: "saqarTvelo sakoncentracio banakia". ("rezonansi", 26 Tebervali, 2001). "orosnebis qveyana" _ "rezonansi" yurs uwevs orosnebis meTaur wiTel prezidents. ("rezonansi" 6 aprili, 2001). "aq odesRac saqarTvelo iyo..."; fotomontaJi _ saqarTvelos rukaze ganfenili prezidentis fotoportreti. ("rezonansi", 18 aprili, 2001). "saqarTvelos xelisuflebaSi erTi homosapiensic ar urevia!"; karikatura _ centrSi did gamoxrul Zvalze Semdgari prezidenti _ pirvelyofili adamiani, CaquC-namgliani avgaroziT. ("rezonansi", 14 aprili, 2001)* da a.S. presis publikaciebis meore nakadi qveyanaSi arsebul mZime viTarebas xsnis "importirebuli ideebisa" da erovnuli nihilizmis momZlavrebiT da am process, pirdapir Tu iribad, akavSirebs "dasavluri yaidis" axalgazrda politikosebTan, anu e.w. reformatorebTan: · "samwuxaroa, rom is adamianebi, romlebic TiTqosda qmnian saqarTvelos xvalindel dRes, erovnul ideasTan damokidebulebaSi nihilistebi arian. es wminda wylis qarTuli paradoqsia, romlis msgavss, vTqvaT amerikeli, koSmarul marTalia, · sizmarSic ki ver naxavs. amaSi Cans Cveni gamoucdeloba _

gagvaCnia

saxelmwifoebriobis

aTaswlovani

tradicia,

magram istoriuli gamocdilebis deficits mainc ganvicdiT". (161) "Cveni qveynis ubedurebaSi ZiriTadi wvlilis Semtanni qarTvelebi arian. aqedan modis gancdac, rom qarTvelebi arafris Rirsni varT. es tyuilia, radgan maT metad erT seriozuli did SemkveTebi romelic hyavdaT. Seiqmna yovelive dasavleTSi, dakavSirebulia TeoriasTan,

Zalian saintereso institutebSi. es ______ *

disertaciis am monakveTSi gazeTebis/Jurnalebis da TariRebis aqve miTiTeba mniSvnelovania saerTo konteqstisTvis. amitom, aqac da Semdgomac, iZulebuli varT davarRvioT periodikis damowmebis standarti.

aris

msoflio

globalizaciis

Teoria,

romelsac

erTi

ki

ara,

SemkveTTa mTeli erToblioba hyavs, romelic warmarTavs danarCen

33

msoflios...

SiSveli

amerikanizmi

emsaxureba amas

qarTuli smk

erovnuli sagangebo

saxelmwifoebrivi

safuZvlebis

moSlas.

akeTeben

emisrebi, romelTac lideris statusi aqvT boZebuli". (130) presis publikaciebis mesame nakadi cdilobs saxelmwifo azrovnebis Camoyalibebis aucileblobisken miapyros sazogadoebis yuradReba. (am mxriv yvelaze meti TanmimdevrobiT gamoirCeva "ganaxlebuli iveria", romlis

publikaciebi mowmobs saqarTveloSi saxelmwifoebriobis Zlieri tradiciis arsebobas. Tumc, am gazeTis perioduloba da statiebis specifika masobriv mkiTxvelze zemoqmedebis saSualebas ar iZleoda). am tipis publikaciebSi, pirvel yovlisa, SeimCneva erovnuli nihilizmis, saxelmwifoebriobis eWvqveS dayenebis gamomwvevi mizezebis gaanalizeba da im sayrdenis Zieba, romelsac unda daefuZnos eris fsiqologiuri wonasworoba. erT-erT sagazeTo publikaciaSi politologi givi boloTaSvili

Tanmimdevrulad ayalibebs im faqtorebs, romelTa mixedviTac saqarTvelo arSemdgari saxelmwifoa: "saqarTvelo ver uzrunvelyofs sazogadoebis

integracias, socialuri erTianobis sakiTxebis gadaWras, kanonis uzenaesobas, moqalaqeTa ekonomikis Sedegad, interesebis saxelmwifo dacvas, gareSe Tavdasxmebisgan qveynis dacvas, funqciis donemdea

regulirebas, fena,

kulturul-aRmzrdelobiTi lumpenproletariatis

ganxorcielebas da a.S. rac mTavaria, saqarTveloSi ver Seiqmna saSualo fena. 5%-ia mdidarTa danarCeni

dayvanili." (91). igive problemebis saTaves mwerali erlom axvlediani gacilebiT Rrma fesvebSi eZiebs, asaxelebs TiTqmis yvela ZiriTad obieqtur mizez-Sedegs da, rac mTavaria, cdilobs maTi warmoSobac da mogvarebac daukavSiros ara mxolod gareSe faqtorebs (rogorc es am tipis publikaciaTa umetesobaSi gvxvdeba), aramed, dagvanaxos sakuTari braleulobac da sakuTari Zalebis amoqmedebis gardauvali aucileblobac: "qaosi, romelSic amJamad Cven

vimyofebiT, mxolod Cveni brali ar aris. Cven xalxs uamravi saxadi

erTbaSad

Seeyara, arada, maTgan TiToeuli SeiZleboda sabediswero gamxdariyo. Cveni brali aq is aris rom maT Cven ver vuvliT, rogorc saxads, batonebs, ver vuqmniT mSvid garemos, piriqiT, vaavebT Cveni dapirispirebiT, xmauriT. es saxadi uamravia: socialuri wyobis Secvla, mopovebuli damoukidebloba, Tavisufleba mravali mimarTulebiT, pluralizmi, kapitalis Tavdapirveli dagrovebis mwvave procesi, eTnikuri problemebis damoukideblad regulireba, Zveli da axali mentalitetis dajaxeba, usamarTlod warTmeuli teritoriebi, orientaciis mkveTri Secvla, mezobel saxelmwifoebTan urTierTobis 34

mogvareba, sarwmunoebrivi eqspansiebi, megobrebisa da mtrebis garCevis siZnele, geopolitikuri mdgomareobis sirTule da a.S. yovelive amas, am qaosur mdgomareobas, Znelia mouZebno saerTo maCvenebeli, erTiani sayrdeni, romelic Cven Cvensave TavSi unda vipovoT, radgan Cven Tu aseTi sayrdeni Sin ver vipoveT, maSin bunebrivia "megobari" qveynebis siZliereSi unda vipovoT axali "mfarveli", anda Zvels davubrundeT". (87) es vrceli citata movixmeT imis sailustraciodac, presis WeSmariti Tavisuflebis, damoukideblobisa da obieqturobis pirobebSi, ra ZiriTadi parametrebi unda qceuliyo mis prioritetad. saxelmwifo azrovnebis gaaqtiurebisken mimarTuli publikaciebis

nimuSad movixmobT kidev erT magaliTs _ sazRvris dacvis departamentis Tavmjdomaris, valeri CxeiZis intervius gazeT "kviris palitrasTan". "Cven unda gvqondes naTlad gamokveTili erovnuli modeli saxelmwifoebriobisa, dayrdnobili istoriul tradiciebsa da fsiqologiaze. saqarTvelom didi saxelmwifoebis politikur TamaSebSi gamsvleli an Sesawiri paikis roli ki ar unda iTamaSos, aramed Cvens qveyanas sakuTari myari da Zlieri adgili, Tavisi misia unda hqondes am urTules da Znel "saWadrako dafaze", _ acxadebs maRalCinosani saxelmwifo moxele da miiCnevs, rom saamisod saqarTvelos sWirdeba neitraliteti. (interviu valeri CxeiZesTan, "kviris palitra", 27 noemberi, 2000).F miuxedavad iTvleboda, imisa, rom am periodisTvis (2000-2001 wlebi) saqarTvelo axsnilia

dasavlur Rirebulebebsa da demokratiis mSeneblobaze orientirebul qveynad presaSi naklebad gvxvdeba publikaciebi, romlebSic demokratiuli ganviTarebis arsi, gardamavali demokratiis Tavisebureba da problemebi, saqarTvelos winaSe mdgomi konkretuli amocanebi da a.S.

demokratia umTavresad xsendeba zogad konteqstSi, an, sityvis Tavisuflebis, pirovnebis uflebis Selaxvis sababiT. ra Tqma unda, gvxvdeba gamonaklisebic. magaliTis saxiT moviSveliebT gazeT "axali Taobis" publikacias _ "rodis ganviTardeba saqarTveloSi demokratia?", romlis avtori, Jurnalisti lado mkervaliSvili profesiulad warmarTavs msjelobas da qarTuli presisTvis Cveuli subieqtur-emociuri damokidebulebis nacvlad, movlenebis pragmatul xedvas iCens: "saxelmwifos winaSe sul sxva amocanebi da miznebi dgas. maTi formulireba ki erTi sityviT SeiZleba _ gadarCena. roca es problemebi gadaiWreba, demokratiis damyarebisaTvis yvela barieri moixsneba. qarTveli eri Tavisi mentalitetiT Tu fsiqologiiT yovelTvis demokrati iyo da es misTvis axali xili ar aris... saqarTveloSi demokratia ganviTardeba mas 35

Semdeg, rac wamoiwevs ekonomika, gaerTiandeba sazogadoeba da amaRldeba erovnuli TviTSegneba. demokratia, rogorc wesi, siRatakeSi ar xarobs." (141) 2002 dawyebam wels saqarTveloSi ganwyoba aSS-is "wrTvnisa da aRWurvis" programis da,

masmediis

sagrZnobad

gadaxara

optimizmisaken

Sesabamisad, iklo agresiam, sainformacio aJiotaJebma, Serbilda saxelmwifosa da prezidentisaken mimarTuli uaryofiTi aqcentebi. am periodSi ukve

"rezonansis" pirvel gverdebze aRar Cndeba sarkastuli karikaturebi "mTavari gmiriT" _ "prezidentiT", Seicvala "morige redaqtoris Canawerebis" paTosic, saxelmwifosa da prezidentis Seuracxmyofeli. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am TvalsazrisiT "rezonansi" erTgvari indikatoria, romlis mixedviTac SeiZleba vimsjeloT "wrTvnisa "rezonansis" mkafiod mxolod saxelmwifos da aRWurvis wamyvani cxovrebaSi programa ar momxdar unda CafiZe pozicias Tvisobriv _ ase cvlilebaze. asaTaurebs romelSic ara

CaiSalos"

Jurnalisti Tavis

eliso

publikacias, da,

gamoxatavs

Jurnalistur kolegebsac

faqtobrivad,

mkiTxvels,

mouwodebs arsebuli

saxelmwifoebrivi situacia aravis, arc

erTsulovnebisken: "... dRes saqarTveloSi

jariskacs, arc ers da arc bers imis uflebas ar aZlevs spontanuri da emociuri gadawyvetilebebi miiRos. erTi didi mwerlis Tqmisa Cven ar iyos, samSoblo xaWapuri ar aris da yvelanairi unda giyvardes. unda giyvardes gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca is daZabunebulia da uWirs. ki xandaxan da

windauxedaobiTa Tu siCqariT, zogjer gauqrobda". (164)

mizanmimarTulad,

iseT frazas

braldebas visvriT, rac saqarTvelos daxmarebis survils nebismier qveyanas "rezonansisa" da zogierTi sxva gamocemis tonisa da aqcentis Secvla kidev erTma garemoebam ganapiroba _ 2001 wlis oqtomber-noembris movlenebis (romlis drosac zurab Jvania parlamentis Tavmjdomareobidan gadadga)

Semdgom periodSi sainformacio amindis Semqmneli masmediis "monopolizebis" faqtori prezident aSkarad Sesustda da, Sesabamisad, imijze ganelda saxelmwifosa da

SevardnaZis

uaryofiT

momuSave

sainformacio

muxti.

demokratiis, prodasavlurobis, korufciasTan brZolis Sirmis miRma aSkara saxelisuflebo JurnalistTa moviSveliebT brZolis garkveuli interesis nawilis seqtoris gamJRavnebamac am TvalsaCino Seitana koreqtivi gigi

xedvaSi.

daskvnis

gasamyareblad

arasamTavrobo

warmomadgenlis,

TevzaZis mosazrebas (wignidan "saqarTvelo: Zalauflebis dabruneba") imis Taobaze, rom "Jvaniasac sWirdeboda liberaluri demokratiis sayrdeni", anu arasamTavrobo seqtorisa da mediis "Ria mxardaWera" "Zalauflebis sakuTari 36

sqemis" Sesadgenad. (25, .20) zurab Jvanias gavlenas mediaze momdevno nakveTebSi SevexebiT, aq ki davZenT, rom es gavlena parlamentis Tavmjdomareobidan misi gadadgomiT erTbaSad ar gaqarwylebula, magram gacilebiT Sesustda. am qveTavis dasawyisSi, "arSemdgar saxelmwifosTan" mimarTebaSi,

Segnebulad ar SevexeT ruseTis faqtors, radgan es, obieqturi faqtoris garda, erTgvari kliSea, da romelsac lamis saanalizo periodis qarTuli saTaved presa saxavs.

mudmivad

iSveliebs

yovelgvari

ubedurebis

sagangebod gadmovanacvleT es Tema qveTavis am monakveTSi, sadac qarTul presaSi saxelmwifo interesis gamoxatvis simptomebis gaCenas SevexeT. presis versiebs saqarTveloSi ganviTarebul destabilizaciur situaciebTan ruseTis mimarTebis Taobaze erT-erT momdevno qveTavSi SvexebiT. aq ki movixmobT ara qarTuli an rusuli mediis interpretaciebs, aramed ruseTis "sagareo politikis nacionaluri laboratoriis"* internet-saitze 2002 wlis agvistoSi ganTavsebul analitikur masalas _ "politikuri situacia saqarTveloSi". mis erT-erT qveTavSi _ "saqarTvelos daxasiaTeba da ruseTis interesebi", saqarTvelo asea warmodgenili: "amerikul da rusul masmediaSi saqarTvelos axasiaTeben, rogorc "arSemdgar saxelmwifos". saqarTvelos saxelmwifos ar ZaluZs Tavad uzrunvelyos Tavisi mTlianoba da usafrTxoeba da mudmivad sWirdeba gareSe daxmareba... saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi sisustis Sedegad, ruseTisaTvis iseTi rutinuli procedurac ki, rogoricaa adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebi, saqarTveloSi iwvevs xelCarTul brZolas, quCis Setakebebs, srolebs da qveyanaSi situaciis destabilizaciis safrTxes qmnis". am qveTavSi ganmartebuli ar aris, raSi mdgomareobs "ruseTis interesi", magram, rogorc Cans, igulisxmeba, rom igi isedac gasagebia. (58) rusi eqspertebis poziciisgan diametralurad gansxvavebulia nato-Si aSS-is yofili elCis, robert hanteris mosazreba saqarTveloze. misi azriT,

"saqarTvelo araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar aris arSemdgari qveyana da arc iqceva aseTad". igi saqarTvelos, winsvlis mixedviT, postsabWoTa qveynebis sameulSi an oTxeulSi Tvlis, eduard SevardnaZes ki _ yvelaze demokratiulad danarCen postsabWour liderebs Soris. (118)

___________

* xsenebuli laboratoria 2002 welsaa dafuZnebuli; misi prezidentia cnobili politologi

da politteqnologi gleb pavlovski. rogorc Cans, laboratoriam erT-erT pirvel sagareopolitikur faqtorad saqarTvelos faqtori miiCnia da fundamenturad Seiswavla da gaaanaliza misi saSinao da sagareo politikis TiTqmis yvela arsebiTi problema.

37

daaxloebiT aseTi sainformacio ganwyobiTaa warmodgenili saqarTvelos saxelmwifos zogadi saxe rogor presaSi figurirebs "vardebis am revoluciamde". saqarTvelo gia nodia SedarebisTvisEsainteresoa, periodis

saeqsperto SefasebebSi. 2003 wlis mdgomareobiT, politologi

(saeqsperto naSromSi _ "demokratiis Seqmnis ori mcdeloba saqarTveloSi: TxuTmetwliani gzis Sejameba") saqarTvelos miakuTvnebs qveynebs, romlebmac demokratiis mimarTulebiT ramdenime sawyisi nabiji gadadges da sadRac Sua gzaze, "nacrisfer zonaSi" gaCerdnen; misi momavlis perspeqtiva sam scenars Soris meryeobs: seriozuli winsvla kidev demokratiis didxans mimarTulebiT; arsebul avtoritaruli sistemisken dabruneba; darCena

gaurkvevlobaSi. (55, 38) 2005 wlis, anu postrevoluciuri saqarTvelo, "mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri institutis" gamocemaSi (koordinator-redaqtorebi gia nodia da alvaro pinto sqoltbaxi), asea Sefasebuli: "saqarTvelo

cnobilia, rogorc politikurad arastabiluri saxelmwifo, rac demokratiaze gadasvlis (tranziciis) mravaljerad mcdelobaSi gamoixata... (xazi avtoris, _

l.k.) 2003 wlis noembris vardebis revolucia saqarTveloSi demokratiuli

transformaciis kidev erTi mcdelobaa... mTavari gamowveva, rac saqarTvelos demokratiis winaSe dgas, isaa, rom 2003 wlis noemberi saqarTvelos istoriaSi Sevides rogorc "revolucia, romelmac yvela revolucia daasrula." (xazi

Cvenia, _ l.k.) es

gulisxmobs, rom unda moxdes demokratiuli institutebis

konsolidacia da Zalauflebis konstituciuri cvlac rutinul procedurad unda iqces." (64, 5-9) "vardebis revoluciam", rogorc disertaciis pirvel nakveTSi aRvniSneT, masmedias daukarga wamyvani pozicia, magram daexmara axali funqciis SeZenaSi _ mediis meSveobiT pirvel Camoyalibeba rigSi, daiwyo saqarTvelos axalma imijma. qveyana,

saqarTvelo, romelsac

asocirdeba uxdeboda

cnobad

saxelmwifosTan;

didi

Zalisxmeva

Tavisi

arsebobis

dasafiqsireblad,

saerTaSoriso yuradRebis obieqti gaxda. mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs ara mxolod xmauriani sainformacio sababebi (vardebis revoluciis rezonansi, aWaraSi ganviTarebuli movlenebi da a.S.), aramed saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis

saqmiani daintereseba. sanimuSod moviSveliebT Tundac sam sainformacio sababs: 2004 wlis ivnisSi, briuselSi, saerTaSoriso evrokavSiris konferenciis egidiT gamarTuli fonze,

saqarTvelos

donorTa

gaSuqebis

saqarTvelo presaSi figurirebs rogorc saxelmwifo, romelsac evropa ukve 38

aRiqvams ara mxolod geografiul, aramed msoflmxedvelobriv da kulturul mezoblad; rogorc qveyana, romlis mimarTac ucxoeli partniorebi, dainteresebasTan erTad, kompetenturobasa da informirebulobasac amJRavneben. msoflioSi Seqmnili viTareba unikaluri Sansia saqarTvelosTvis _ daaxloebiT aseTia presis saerTo aqcenti. 1 miliardi dolari _

donorebisagan; 400 milionamde (sami wlis ganmavlobaSi) _ "aTaswleulis gamowvevis azriT, korporaciisgan"; amgvari dadebiT 12 mln _ evrokavSirisgan; miuTiTebs. amave "mTavari dros, gazeTis" Tbiliss

donorebis

xelgaSliloba

dasavleTisagan

saqarTvelos

xelisuflebis

Sefasebaze

kategoriulad afrTxileben, rom miliarddolariani daxmareba ukanaskneli Sansia saqarTvelosTvis. miuxedavad imisa rom qarTvelebisagan bolo aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi briuselSi mainc msgavsi Sinaarsis irwmunes gancxadebebi premier araerTxel ministris mousmeniaT, optimisturi saqarTvelos

prognozi _ "sam weliwadSi

saqarTvelo Tavad daexmareba sxvebs." ("mTavari

gazeTi", 22 ivnisi, 2004) evropuli politikis centrSi gamosvlisas premierministrma zurab Jvaniam aRniSna, rom evropam aRiara saqarTvelos evropuli ambicia. presa yuradRebas amaxvilebs im faqtze, rom am centrSi Sexvedrisas TvalSisacemi iyo ucxoelTa kompetenturoba saqarTvelos sakiTxebSi. presis SefasebiT, saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriobam es milionobiT dolari qarTuli revoluciis Sedegis _ axali qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis ganviTarebaSi daabanda; Cveni qveynis damoukideblobis mTavari garanti

interesTa pragmatuli Tanxvedraa; raki investiciaTa raodenoba ukve aTniSna cifrebiT ganisazRvreba, dasavleTi saqarTvelos ase advilad ar daTmobs. luqsemburgSi, evrokavSiris sagareo saqmeTa ministrebis sabWos sxdomaze

miRebuli gadawyvetilebiT, saqarTvelo, azerbaijansa da somxeTTan erTad, oficialurad CaerTo "evropis samezoblo politikaSi". am gadawyvetilebiT evrokavSirma oficialurad daadastura, rom samxreT kavkasiaSi mimdinare

procesebSi ufro aqtiur monawileobas apirebs. 2004 wlis noember-dekemberSi, ukrainis "narinjisferi revoluciis" rezonansiT, ara mxolod "vardebis revoluciis" paraleli Cndeba _ presa argumentirebulad eqsporti", ra msjelobs, unda ras iqces gulisxmobda saqarTvelo mTeli _ "qarTuli jer kidev da revoluciis susti da

niSniT misabaZ

konfliqturi regionebis mqone saxelmwifo, demokratiuli ganviTarebisa da stabilurobis magaliTad regionisa postsabWoTa

sivrcisaTvis. Tanac, ukrainaSi saprezidento arCevnebis SedegebiT gamowveulma revoluciurma mRelvarebam, romelic eqspertTa SefasebiT, metismetad 39

gaWianurda, Teoriebs.

cxadyo,

rom

msgavsi

procesis

"iolad

mogvarebis"

qarTuli

modeli marTlac miesadageba dasavlel strategTa idealisturi politikis

2005 wlis maisSi, aSS-is prezidentis jorj buSis viziti TbilisSi, momgebiani sainformacio sababi iyo presaSi saqarTvelos imijis pozitiuri pozicionirebisTvis. demokratiebis" "mTavar gazeTTan" brius interviuSi, jeqsoni "gardamavali acxadebda, rom

proeqtis

xelmZRvaneli

"saqarTvelo namdvilad lideria kavkasiaSi, Savi zRvis regionis qveynebSi, evropis erT nawilSi da centralur aziaSic. ukraina Tanalideria." (120) jorj buSis vizitis rezonanss presaSi sagangebod SevexebiT disertaciis erT-erT momdevno nakveTSi; aq ki yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT kidev erT niuansze _ "vardebis revoluciam" ara mxolod saqarTvelos sagareo imijze moaxdina pozitiuri zegavlena, qveynis SigniTac arsebiTad Seicvala saxelmwifosadmi damokidebuleba _ nihilizmidan optimizmisaken. aRsaniSnavia, rom "gorbi" _ "gelap interneiSenalis" mier 2004 wlis miwuruls Catarebuli sociologiuri gamokiTxvis SedegiT, saqarTvelo, optimizmis mixedviT, msoflios 65 qveyanas Soris anu meore adgilze aRmoCnda. (msoflios momavlis 50-ze meti qveynis "gelapis"

institutebi, yoveli wlis bolos adgenen mosaxleobis optimizmis maCvenebels, sazogadoebis damokidebulebas mimarT. 2004 wlis optimist qveyanaTa aTeuli aseTia: tunisi, vietnami _ 72%, saqarTvelo _ 71%, CineTi, hong kongi, quveiTi _ 70%, kosovo _ 67%, panama _ 66%, aSS _ 65%, avstralia _ 61%.) (160) ·

dasavleTi Tu ruseTi?

(saxelmwifos orientaciis problemis aspeqtebi presaSi)

saqarTvelos wlebis damdegs, damoukideblobis qarTul presas, saTavesTan, gasuli saukunis 90-iani cxare

gazeT

"mamulis"

winamZRolobiT,

diskusia hqonda gamarTuli _ ra orientacia, saxelmwifo mowyobis ra modeli, ra ekonomikuri strategia unda aerCia saqarTvelos, rom igi WeSmaritad damoukidebel (de iure, de faqto) qveynad Camoyalibebuliyo. drom male gamoaCina, rom deklarirebuli damoukideblobisa da Tavisuflebis gadazrda realur damoukideblobaSi rTuli da winaaRmdegobrivi procesia. am Temis ganvrcoba Cveni Temisa da kompetenciis Temis farglebs scildeba; amdenad, saanalizo SevecdebiT mokled CamovayaliboT ganviTarebis dinamika

periodis qarTul presaSi. 40

damoukideblobis gamocxadebis pirvel wlebSi, azrTa sxvadasxvaobis miuxedavad, qarTuli presis meSveobiT gacxadebuli saerTo ideali (Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas), iyo saqarTvelos neitraliteti. miuxedavad imisa, rom mocemul drosa da sivrceSi es utopiuri idea iyo; miuxedavad imisa, rom mogvianebiT saqarTvelom oficialurad gaaJRera evroatlantikur sivrceSi integraciisken swrafva, neitralitetis Tema xangamoSvebiT isev iCenda Tavs presaSi, oRondac, ara Jurnalisturi an saredaqcio iniciativiT; ZiriTadad, es ukavSirdeboda saarCevno mier kampaniis periodebs, an, gamoiyeneboda nato-sTan saqarTvelos mimarTebis gaaqtiurebisas "Temis gadasafarad." saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso aRiarebis mopovebisTanave,

saxelmwifoebrivi TviTgamorkvevis procesSi, gaCnda dilema _ dasavleTi Tu ruseTi?! amTaviTve aRvniSnavT, rom wlebis manZilze, sagareo prioritetebze msjelobisa Tu nebismieri sxva sababiT am Temis warmoSobisas, presis

aqcentebi, upiratesad, swored am ori polusisken miemarTeba. kvlevaSi _ "saqarTvelo samxreT kavkasiis regionis konteqstSi", daviT darCiaSvili ase ayalibebs saqarTvelos politikuri arCevanis

winaaRmdegobriv xasiaTs: "saqarTvelos adgils samxreT kavkasiis regionuli politikis konteqstSi, upirveles yovlisa, misi sagareo politikuri arCevani gansazRvravs. am arCevanis ZiriTadi orientiria diqotomia _ dasavleTi-ruseTi: pirvelis xibli da meoris SiSi. saxelmwifo institutebis sisustis fonze qarTuli sagareo politika, arsebiTad, gadarCenisaTvis brZola, arsebobis garantiaTa Ziebaa. amasTan, zogjer Zneli gasarkvevia, saqme exeba qveynis Tu saxelisuflebo reJimis gadarCenas. Sedegad, politika ekleqturobis elfers iZens, Tumca mainc dominirebs dasavlur, evroatlantikur samyaroSi

integrirebis ocneba. saqarTvelos xelisuflebas aqvs met-naklebad stabiluri idea _ qveynisaTvis dasavleTsa da aRmosavleTs Soris satranzito koridoris funqciis SeZena." (17, 25) Cveni saanalizo periodis aTvlis wertilisTvis, anu 2000 wlisTvis, saqarTvelos sagareo prioriteti _ dasavluri veqtori ukve gamokveTili iyo, magram presaSi (iseve, rogorc qveynis sazogadoebriv-politikur cxovrebaSi) jer kidev Zlieria rusuli faqtoris gavlena, ruseTis primati maSinac ki igrZnoba, roca mis ignorirebas cdiloben; TvalsaCinod ikveTeba qarTuli presis ruseTTan mimarTebaSi yvelaze midrekileba kliSeebisa da

stereotipebisaken; erT-erTi mTavari kliSe _ "ori ruseTi", romelic wlebis manZilze figurirebda ruseTTan urTierTobis Temis ganviTarebisas, bolo periodis qarTul presaSi TiTqmis aRar gvxvdeba (igi Caanacvla daskvnam, rom 41

araviTari ori ruseTi ar arsebobs); samagierod, TiTqmis ucvleli darCa kliSe _ ruseTi "mtris xatis" rolSi. (TiTqos paradoqsia, magram didi ruseTic aseTive warmatebiT qmnis saqarTvelosgan "mtris xats"). unda aRiniSnos, rom presaSi ruseTisadmi negatiuri damokidebulebis gamoxatvas safuZvlad udevs ara rusofobia (iSviaTi gamonaklisebis garda), aramed, aqcenti mis imperiul arsze. amasTan, umeteswilad, saqarTvelos

masmediaSi antirusuli kampaniis gaZliereba gamoZaxilia rusuli masmediis antiqarTuli isteriisa. Tavis mxriv, qarTuli masmediis mier rusuli Temis uaryofiT konteqstSi aJitireba ruseTSi hpovebs gamoZaxils. oRondac, aSkaraa sainformacio omis uTanabroba. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso rezonansis gaZlierebam es uTanabroba garkveulwilad

gaaneitrala. Cveni azriT, mizanmimarTuli sainformacio strategiis wyalobiT, saqarTvelos xelisuflebam moaxerxa ruseTis statusis, rogorc saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebul konfliqtebSi "mesame mxaris", Secvla da Riad uwoda mas konfliqtebis monawile mxare, konfliqtebis gamCaRebeli da, ufro metic, aneqsori. miuxedavad amisa, 2005 wels miRebul ganxilulia saqarTvelos ara erovnuli mteri

usafrTxoebis

koncefciaSi,

ruseTi

rogorc

saxelmwifo, aramed rogorc partniori, azerbaijanTan da somxeTTan erTad (strategiul partniorebad saxeldeba aSS, ukraina da TurqeTi). (64, 45) SevecdebiT, mokled mimovixiloT presaSi sagareo prioritetebis asaxvis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi. mTavari tendencia am TemasTan mimarTebaSi isev da isev Temis politizeba, personificireba da pirovnul/klanuri dapirispirebebis WrilSi warmosaxvaa; am fonze ikargeba problemis arsi da wina planze iwevs konkretuli mizani (arc Tu iSviaTad _ umiznoba an problemis gauazrebloba), romelsac emsaxureba am Temis musireba Sesabamis konteqstSi. 2000-2001 wlebSi CrdiloeT-dasavleTis vnebaTaRelva presaSi ZiriTadad trialebs, erTis mxriv, eduard SevardnaZisa da, meores mxriv, e.w.

"reformatorebis" (anu, "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" axalgazrduli frTa, JvaniasaakaSvilis gundi) garSemo. sainformacio amindis ganmsazRvrel masmediaSi Seqmnili suraTiT, orientaciis misi mixedviT garemocva saqarTvelos (simbolurad politelita _ kancelaria) ase _

warmoCindeba: retrogradebi, poluss

prezidenti, anu

ruseTze

orientirebulni; e.w.

personalurad anu

prezidenti smk-s

eduard SevardnaZe _ xan erT, xan meore mxares gadaxrili, xanac _ am or Soris "moTamaSe"; "reformatorebi", ZiriTadad

axalgazrduli frTa _ "dasavlurebi", zurab Jvania _ prodasavluri lideri; aRiarebuli "ruseTumeebi" _ aslan abaSiZe (igulisxmeba partia "aRorZinebac"), 42

socialistebi, vaxtang rCeuliSvilis liderobiT, komunistebi, panteleimon giorgaZis meTaurobiT, parlamentis vice-spikeri vaxtang goguaZe... moviSveliebT or vrcel citatas, romlebSic, faqtobrivad, asaxulia im periodSi dasavlur-rusuli veqtorebisadmi damokidebulebis stereotipi: · "Jvania-saakaSvilis gundma yvelaferi gaakeTa dasavleTisadmi snoburi, ukiduresad provinciuli damokidebulebis reanimirebisTvis.

paralelurad, igive gundi yvelafers akeTebs ruseTTan urTierTobis rac SeiZleba metad dasaZabavad. maTi msjelobis logika amgvaria: Cven rac SeiZleba metad gavamwvavebT urTierTobas Crdiloel mezobelTan. Tu igi sapasuxod mimarTavs agresiul qmedebas, saqarTvelo, magram mova rasakvirvelia, · absoluturad verafers daupirispirebs,

civilizebuli dasavleTi da Wkuas aswavlis ruseTs." (140) "es publikacia (saubaria zemoT citirebul publikaciaze _ l.k.) agrZelebs im antidasavlur saqarTvelos propagandistul politikuri kursis kampanias, romelic miznad isaxavs fonis

sawinaaRmdego

ideologiuri

Seqmnas _ im azris damkvidrebas, rom dasavluri civilizacia ucxoa qarTvelebisaTvis genetikurad, kulturulad, eTnofsiqologiurad,

istoriulad, politikurad da seqsualuradac ki. samagierod, axloa ruseTi. saTave da mizezi am kampaniis aris ruseTis survili, SeinarCunos samxedro bazebi Riad da politikuri moqmedebs gavlena da saqarTveloSi, magram, jerjerobiT, ver kmayofildeba saqarTvelos

xelisuflebaSi da sazogadoebaSi arsebuli im Zalebis xelSewyobiT, romelTac uxilavi ZafebiT marTavs." (135) es ori diametralurad gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisi imiTacaa

sayuradRebo, rom erTis avtori saqarTvelos prezidentis mrCevelia, meorisa ki _ parlamentari (Jvanias gundis wevri). bunebrivia, rom kancelariis

moxeleebsa da parlamentarebs Tundac saxelmwifo politikis gamosaxatavad unificirebuli azrebi ver eqnebodaT (da arc unda hqonodaT), magram amgvari radikalizmi qveynis orientaciis didmniSvnelovan problemasTan mimarTebaSi, presis meSveobiT tons aZlevda sazogadoebis aseve radikalur damokidebulebas. amave periodSi (2000 wlis gazafxulze), presaSi ikveTeba tendencia, rom saqarTvelo xdeba regionSi gavlenisaTvis ruseT-aSS-is brZolis asparezi. sayuradReboa gazeT "dronis" saredaqcio statia ("saqarTvelos adgili da roli kavkasiaSi aSS-sa da natos strategiul mimarTulebebSi"), romelSic ganxilulia ruseTis dumis dsT-s saqmeTa komitetis analitikosebis mier 43

dumisTvis wardgenili moxseneba. moxsenebis avtorebi "SeSfoTebuli arian regionSi gamoTqvamen amerikuli ruseTis da dasavluri daswrebis mimarT, gamo" da guliswyromas saqarTveloSi mmarTveli elitis romelmac

rusofilia gaaCaRa. (101) gazeT "7 dRis" publikaciaSi viTardeba versia, rom postsabWour sivrceSi moskovisa da vaSingtonis konkurencia, SesaZloa,

"afxazeTisTvis iqces WeSmaritebis momentad"; vinaidan konfliqtis gadawyvetis TvalsazrisiT ruseTs afxazeTSi gacilebiT meti berketebi aqvs, vidre

yarabaRSi (raki iq misi "samSvidobo Zalebi" ar arian ganlagebuli), moskovi ueWvelad Seecdeba "daaswros" amerikas am regionSi mainc". (162) sagangebod publikacias, kvlevis aRvniSnavT exeba gazeT msoflio ian "rezonansSi" politikis bremeris gamoqveynebul erT

romelic

institutis "sakmaod

evroaziuli

programis

direqtoris,

arasaxarbielo

gancxadebas". movixmobT citatas: "bremeris sityvebiT, postsabWouri epoqis sawyis periodSi amerika cdilobda kavkasiaze ruseTis istoriuli gavlena Seemcirebina, regionis energoresursebze dabali fasebis gamo, Tumca,

"vaSingtonma maSin ver gansazRvra, rogori iqneboda misi axali, hegemonuri sagareo dRes politika"... zogierTi Zalas proeqti, kargavs... magaliTad, rac baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis saqarTvelosa da

milsadeni, swored ruseTis gavlenis dakninebisaken aris mimarTuli, magram msgavsi protesti Seexeba azerbaijanis nato-Si gawevrianebis perspeqtivas, profesor ian bremeris TqmiT, amis Soreuli SesaZleblobac ki ar arsebobs." ("rezonansi", 14 maisi, 2000). SesaZloa, bremeris mier ganviTarebuli Tvalsazrisi am etapze ufro aqtualuri iyos, radgan, nato-Si gawevrianeba da baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis milsadenis meSveobiT regionSi saqarTvelos geostrategiuli mniSvnelobis gamyareba, realobisgan ufro daSorebuli perspeqtiva aRmoCnda, vidre es im periodSi SeiZleboda gvevarauda (presaSi ganviTarebuli versiebis mixedviT, jer nato-Si da Semdgom evrokavSirSi saqarTvelos gaerTianeba 2008-10

wlebisTvis iyo prognozirebuli). regionSi gavlenisaTvis ruseT-aSS-is brZolis konteqstSi saintereso iqneba gavixsenoT cnobili amerikeli politologis, semuel hanTingTonis koncefcia mixedviTac ruseTsa orive da mxare dasavleTs unda Soris balansis gansazRvrisa, principuli romlis da

SeTanxmdes

Tanasworobisa

TiToeulis gavlenis sferoebis Sesaxeb: "praqtikulad es imas niSnavs, rom ruseTi daTanxmdeba evrokavSirisa da nato-s gafarToebas, maTSi centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis dasavlurqristianuli qveynebis CarTvas, dasavleTi ki valdebulebas aiRebs ar gaafarToos nato ufro aRmosavleTiT _ Tuki ukraina 44

ar

gaixliCeba

or

saxelmwifod."

hanTingTonis

xedviT,

dasavluri

civilizaciis Zalis SesanarCuneblad, aSS-sa da evropuli saxelmwifoebis interesSi unda iyos ruseTis aRiareba marTlmadidebluri samyaros birTv saxelmwifod, romelsac aqvs Tavisi samxreTi sazRvrebis usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebuli kanonieri interesebi. (78). rogorc er-erT momdevno nakveTSi ("buSis gavlenis ganapiroba vizitis rezonansi presaSi") vnaxavT, gascda am dasavleTis/aSS-is areals; aman, swrafva

sferoebis Cveni

gafarToebisken

arsebiTad, Tanmdevi

qveynis

deklarirebuli

dasavluri

orientaciis

kataklizmebi. 2001 wlis dekembridan zemoTCamoyalibebulma "sqemam" (politelitis sagareo orientaciis) presaSi, erTi SexedviT arc Tu ise mkveTri, magram, Cveni azriT, zurab arsebiTi Jvanias transformacia gadadgomis ganicada; parlamentis Tavmjdomareobidan sagareo Semdeg axalgazrda "reformatorTa"

orientacia ufro metad gaxda presis gansjis sagani; maTi "dasavluroba" isev figurirebs presis publikaciebSi, magram ufro intensiuri xdeba aqcenti maT "rusul kavSirebze". gazeTi "droni", magaliTad, mianiSnebs am cvlilebaze: "... amerikelebi axalgazrda ukve acxadeben, rom mxars uWeren reformebs gunds da ara misces

"reformatorebs". (170); gazeTi "axali meridiani" ki pirdapir brals debs reformatorebs: "Jvania-saakaSvili-merabiSvilis davaleba, rom rogorme saqarTveloSi gaRvivdes samoqalaqo dapirispireba. maTi es ganzraxva Tu ganxorcielda, saqarTvelos aucileblad daaCoqeben. 1991-1992 wlebSi rusebma erTxel ukve dagvaCoqes. Tu igive ganmeorda, amas veRar gadavurCebiT. es aris ruseTis gundi specsamsaxurebis es gegma, Canafiqri, ("axali romelsac Jvania-saakaSvilis asrulebs. aSkarad Cans".

meridiani", 14.12.2001). "dilis rakursiT gazeTis" analitikur "axalgazrda publikaciaSi, reformatorebs" romelic da maT pozitiuri dasavlur

warmoaCens

orientacias, amavdroulad, rusul kavSirebzec maxvildeba yuradReba: "isini mwyralad arc ruseTTan arian. amas mowmobs ara imdenad maTi saarCevno kampaniis rusuli finansebi, aramed irakli CubiniSvilis axlo kavSirebi

rusul politikur istebliSmentTan da Zmebi beJuaSvilebis aseve aranakleb intensiuri urTierTobebi rusul kapitalTan." (103) "reformatorTa" "ormag standartze" politologebic mianiSneben: "isini yovelTvis TamaSoben orive, anu, dasavleTisa da ruseTis mimarTulebiT", _ acxadebs ramaz sayvareliZe "kviris palitrasTan" interviuSi. (117). am tipis mosazrebebze dayrdnobiT, "kviris palitra" ayalibebs sagulisxmo formulas, 45

rom

saqarTveloSi

amerikuli mxolod

fuliT erovnul

rusuli

interesi mosul

finansdeba.

am

formulas exmianeba mweral elizbar javeliZis Tvalsazrisic: "ruseTica da dasavleTic SeuZlia mixvdnen, talRaze xelisuflebas

xalxis

gaerTianeba,

amitomac

"Semoagores"

cru-nacionaluri

moZraobis talRa, romelic garedan imarTeba." (116) orientaciis veqtoris qronologiur cvlilebas, Jurnalisti ia anTaZe ase warmoadgens: 1992-1995 wlebSi politikur procesebs mTlianad ruseTi marTavda; 1995 wlis teraqtis Semdeg prorusuli Zalebis Seviwroeba da dasavluri orientaciis Zalebis gaZliereba daiwyo. 1998 wlidan daiwyo medasavleTe Zalebis "gadasrola" parlamentidan mTavrobaSi; politikuri logikiT,

erTiani procesis meore etapi, anu dasavluri orientaciis Zalebis gaZliereba, unda dasrulebuliyo Tavad Jvanias gadasvliT aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaSi, kerZod, premier-ministris postze. meore etapi rodesac Jvania dasaxelda premierobis marTlac maSin dasrulda,

kandidatad,

magram

saxelisuflo

Zalebis erTiani winaaRmdegobis Sedegad, premieri ver gaxda; erTiani moqalaqeTa damarcxebaze. procesis kavSiris mesame etapi daiwyo postidan. miiCneoda prezidentis eduard gadadgomiT es

Tavmjdomaris yovelTvis

SevardnaZis

gadawyvetileba unda miviCnioT adekvatur reaqciad prodasavluri Zalebis prezidenti medasavleTe orientaciis

burjad. boloxans ganviTarebuli movlenebis fonze ki mas ori arCevaniRa darCa: an unda miatovos medasavleTeTa banaki da politikur metoqeebs Caudges saTaveSi, an unda darCes medasavleTeTa liderad, magram damarcxebuli gundi sxva, axali medasavleTeebiT Caanacvlos." (82) es analitikuri rogorc publikacia vxedavT, aq 2001 wlis noembris eduard movlenebamdea SevardnaZe da

gamoqveynebuli.

prezidenti

parlamentis Tavmjdomare zurab Jvania prodasavluri

Zalebis liderebad

arian warmodgenilebi; amave publikaciis logikiT, mocemuli periodisTvis orivem fiasko ganicada da prodasavluri Zalebic damarcxdnen. rac Seexeba SevardnaZis or SesaZlo arCevans: Tuki CavTvliT, rom 2002 wlisTvis

opoziciur partiebad Camoyalibebuli "gaerTianebuli demokratebi" (zurab Jvanias liderobiT) da "erTiani nacionaluri moZraoba" (mixeil saakaSvilis liderobiT) dasavlur relsebze moZraobdnen da, sabolood, "vardebis revoluciamde" miiyvanes qveyana, xolo 2003 wlisTvis eduard SevardnaZe iyo faqtobrivi lideri saarCevno blokisa "axali saqarTvelosaTvis" (romelic dasavluri orientaciiT namdvilad ar gamoirCeoda), maSin gamodis, rom 46

parlamentis "gaformda" prodasavluri

Tavmjdomareobidan eduard

zurab

Jvanias

gadadgomiT, (nebiTi

faqtobrivad, Tu uneblie) emyareba

SevardnaZis

distancireba

platformidan. es, erTi

SexedviT rTuli logika,

presis publikaciebis analizs, romlebsac momdevno etapebze araTu SeaqvT sicxade sakiTxSi _ sabolood mainc rogoria mmarTveli politikuri elitis dispozicia sagareo orientaciisa da prioritetebis mixedviT, aramed, suraTi ufro da ufro winaaRmdegobrivi xdeba; misi gaSifvra da wakiTxva ki elodeba Sesabamisi profilis profesionalebs, romlebsac, SesaZloa, mediaanalizic gamoadgeT saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis am umniSvnelovanesi da urTulesi monakveTis aRsawerad. ·

sagareo Temis ramdenime ZiriTadi aspeqti

euTo-s demokratiuli institutebisa da adamianis uflebebis ofisis mxardaWeriT Seqmnil kvlevaSi _ "saqarTvelos politikuri landSafti" (2005 wlis mdgomareobiT), postsabWoTa saqarTvelos sagareo politikis zogadi veqtorebi asea daxasiaTebuli: "damoukideblobis mopovebis Semdeg, Sida

politikuri

konfliqtebis

miuxedavad,

saqarTvelos

sagareo

politikis

zogadi mimarTulebebi ucvlelia. zviad gamsaxurdias, realurad, ar hqonia saerTaSoriso politikis gansazRvris da gatarebis dro... rac Seexeba eduard SevardnaZes warmoadgenda politikuri da mixeil saakaSvils, doneze orive maTganis umTavres Statebisa prioritets da evropis

saerTaSoriso da ekonomikuri

SeerTebuli da

mxardaWera

saerTaSoriso

institutebTan

mWidro TanamSromloba; mTavari amocana ki nato-sa da evrokavSiris wevrobis mopovebaa." (64, 40) dasavleTTan saqarTvelos integraciis Sansebis gazrdis

pirdapirproporciulad mZafrdeboda daZabuloba saqarTvelo-ruseTs Soris. evrostruqturebsa da nato-Si saqarTvelos gawevrianebis perspeqtivas, "wrTvnisa da aRWurvis programas", baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadens, Sahdenizis gazsadens, jer prezident SevardnaZisa da Semdgom viTarebaSi _ mixeil

saakaSvilis

dasavlur

aqcentebs "civi

omis" msgavs

gadayavda

ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierToba. pankisis xeoba da CeCeni "boevikebi" erT-erTi mTavari sababi iyo ruseTsaqarTvelos moumzada Soris urTierTobis CeCeni ukiduresad daZabvisTvis. sababiT 2001 Cveni wlis qveynis 47 damdegisTvis rusulma masmediam, romelmac safuZvliani ideologiuri niadagi pankisSi "boevikebis" likvidaciis

teritoriaze samxedro moqmedebis dawyebis albaTobas (risTvisac qarTuli masmediac moaqcia. sakmao rusul warmatebiT mediaSi, gamoiyena), saqarTvelo ki iseTi sainformacio alyaSi gansakuTrebiT gamocemebSi, rogoricaa

"trud" da "krasnaia zvezda", rusi generlebi, ruseTis dumis warmomadgenlebi, maRalCinosani saxelmwifo moxeleebi daufaravad saubroben ara mxolod

pankisis xeobaSi "teroristebis budis" ganadgurebis amocanaze, aramed, ufro Sorsmimaval mizanzec _ rom saqarTvelo SeiZleba gaxdes "meore CeCneTi". am viTarebas kargad asaxavs moskovSi publikacia gazeT _ "dronis" sakuTari korespondentis rusudan nikuraZis "ratom "gamoamwyvdia"

ruseTma teroristebi pankisis xeobaSi?" es masala imiTac aris sayuradRebo, rom misi avtori kargad informirebuli da saqmis kursSi myofi Jurnalistia, ruseTis saxelmwifo instanciebSi Sesabamisi akreditaciis mqone. "rusul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT, boevikebis ganadgureba putins 2001 wlis gazafxulze aqvs Cafiqrebuli da es operacia saqarTvelos teritoriaze Caivlis. ram SeiZleba ixsnas saqarTvelo gardauvali omisagan? ruseTis masobrivi

informaciis eleqtronul saSualebebs Tu davujerebT, "savizo reJims im dResve sakuTar kazancevi gaauqmeben, Tu ruseTs xels "dRes teroristebis ar samxreTis ganadgurebaSi ruseTis teritoriaze federalur saqarTvelo prezidentis viqtor CeCeni 3000

teritoriaze acxadebs, rom

SeuSlis"...

sruluflebiani

warmomadgeneli

olqSi

saqarTvelos

teroristi imyofeba da maT winaaRmdeg brZola zamTarSi dasruldeba", _ wers rusudan nikuraZe aRniSnul statiaSi. (144) bunebrivia, rom, Sesabamisad, daZabuloba, gangaSis ganwyoba da omis molodini igrZnoba qarTuli presis publikaciebSi da es is SemTxvevaa, roca ver vityviT, rom Jurnalistebi sagangebod amwvaveben situacias. qarTveli politologebi ar gamoricxaven ruseT-saqarTvelos Soris omis dawyebis

saSiSroebas. ramaz klimiaSvili, magaliTad, pankisSi natos jarebis CayenebaSi xedavs gamosavals; winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, misi azriT, "ruseTis

specsamsaxurebi yvelafers gaakeTeben, rom boevikebi mTlianad gadmorekon saqarTveloSi da Semdeg provokaciis mowyoba da konfliqtis gaCaReba mxolod "teqnikis" saqmeRa iqneba... amiT rusebi CeCneTis problemasac moiSoreben da saqarTvelos dausaxlebel teritoriaze teritoriaze." CeCneTis (115) iseTive avtonomiis gia Seqmnac ar aris rom gamoricxuli, rogoric samxreT oseTis saxiT Seiqmna, 100 wlis winaT osebiT politologi nodia Tvlis,

saqarTvelo, sisustis miuxedavad, araviTar kompromisze ar unda wavides da

48

meored ar dauSvas saqarTvelos teritoriaze kavkasiis xalxebis meomruli energiis gadmotana, iseve, rogorc afxazeTis SemTxvevaSi. (114) aRsaniSnavia, rom evropasa da msoflioSi erT-erTi avtoritetuli da gavleniani gazeTi "fainenSal Taimsi", romelic im periodSi aqtiurad

dainteresda saqarTvelosa da zogadad kavkasiaSi arsebuli geopolitikuri situaciiT, saqarTvelos urCevda evrokavSiris moxalise qveynebisagan swrafi reagirebis Zalebi sxva moeTxova saqmea, ruseTis mosalodnel agresiasTan da

gasamklaveblad.

realurad

ramdenad

ganxorcielebadi

mizanSewonili iyo da aris saqarTvelosTvis amgvari perspeqtiva, magram am gazeTis publikaciebi CvenTvis upirvelesad imiT aris sayuradRebo, rom igi, erTis mxriv, gulisxmobs saqarTvelos yofnas dasavleTis yuradRebis

arealSi, da meores mxriv, adasturebs, rom ruseTis agresiis safrTxe ar aris mxolod saqarTvelos masmediis mier aJitirebuli Tema. amave baqoSi periods emTxveva ruseTis prezidentis viziti azerbaijanSi. saSualebebi prezidentma azerbaijanis bolo xans

putinis

vizitis

gaSuqebisas im

ucxouri rom am

sainformacio vizitisTvis apirebs SearCia; uflebaTa

yuradRebas putinma,

amaxvilebdnen

faqtorze, da

romelic ruseTis

"maTraxiTa orbitaze,

TaflakveriT" momenti

dabrunebas azerbaijans

xelsayreli

dasavleTi ukmayofiloa azerbaijaniT: evropeli da amerikeli diplomatebi gamudmebiT adanaSaulebdnen adamianis darRvevaSi;

heidar alievis mier SvilisTvis Zalauflebis gadacemis ganzraxvac iwvevda dasavleTis ukmayofilebas; nato-sTan azerbaijanis daaxloebis mcdelobamac ver gamoiRo politikuri Sedegi; dasavleTi baqos yarabaxis sakiTxSi somxeTisadmi mxardaWeraSic adanaSaulebs. amasTan, baqoSi vizitiT putinma moaxdina demonstrireba imisa, rom kavkasia misTvis prioritetuli zonaa da am regionSi kremlis interesebis gasatareblad SesaZloa arCeul iqnes swored azerbaijani da ara saqarTvelo, romelTanac ukanasknel xans moskovma

urTierToba ver aawyo. rusul onlain-mediaSi baqoSi putinis vizits uwodeben Wkuasaswavls "amerikasTan demonstraciulad damegobrebuli SevardnaZis reJimisTvis"; ara mxolod Jurnalistebi fiqroben ase _ ruseTis dumis vicespikeri lukini am vizits "saqarTvelosadmi niSnismogebad" miiCnevs. saerTo STabeWdilebiT, fsiqologiuri kavkasiaSi gaTvlili. putins "kavkasiuri da demarSi" dasavleTSi gavlenis" umTavresad misi saqarTveloze hqonda zemoqmedebisa mxardamWerebisTvis

ruseTis

"Zveleburi

demonstrirebisTvis

49

sagulisxmoa is faqti, rom qarTulma presam amjerad ar aitaca ruseTis gamowveva da, Cveulebisamebr, myvirala sapirvelgverdo anSlagebad ar gardaqmna. yvelaze mkveTri saTauri, romelic am vizits exmaureboda, gazeT "dronis" pirvel gverdze iyo dabeWdili Cveulebrivi sasaTauro standartiT: "amierkavkasiis geopolitikuri centri _ azerbaijani"; qvesaTauri _

"saqarTvelo, rogorc Cans, samTa Soris mesame adgilze CamoqveiTda". ("droni", 13 ianvari, 2001) gazeT "rezonanss", magaliTad, am vizitis konteqstSi

saqarTvelo arc uxsenebia. mesame gverdze gamoqveynebul informaciaSi ("putini da alievi kaspiis zRvas iyofen", 10 ianvari, 2001) mTeli aqcenti kaspiis problemazea xmaurian gadatanili. qarTuli presis uferul ver gamoxmaurebas radganac Tu putinis rusuli

vizitze informaciis savse iyo

deficitiT amsaxveli

avxsniT,

onlain-media

vizitis

masalebiTa

provokaciuli

xasiaTis publikaciebiT. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom am vizitis fonze, presas sababi aRar hqonda saqarTvelosa da misi saqarTvelosTvis aRar dautova ruseTis prezidentis negatiuri imijiT prezidentis gverdis avlam da

warmodgenisaTvis. masmedias sababi

"CrdiloeTidan

amomavali

mzisa"

"ruseTisagan marTuli SevardnaZis" TemiT manipulirebisaTvis. SedarebisTvis gavixsenebT, rom eduard SevardnaZis moqnili sagareo politika ruseTTan mimarTebaSi (romelsac yvelaze radikaluri oponentebic ver uaryofdnen), politikuri safrTxesTan, manZilze amjerad da Jurnalisturi bomondisTvis damoukideblobis da am dakargvis wlebis Cans,

ruseTis

vasalobasTan imijze romlebsac

asocirdeboda xSirad uxdebaT

Temas

prezidentis Jurnalistebma,

zemoqmedebisTvis

iyenebdnen. "ormagi

rogorc

standartiT"

moqmedeba, keTilgonivrulad gverdis avla amjobines saqarTvelosTan putinis vizitis mimarTebisaTvis. paralelurad, imave dReebSi, presaSi figurirebs ucxour presaze

dayrdnobiT momzadebuli publikaciebi, romlebic gamoxatavs saqarTveloTi dasavleTis dainteresebas. "saqarTvelo am arastabilur regionSi SeerTebuli Statebisa da dasavleTis sakvanZo mokavSirea, _ werda gavleniani amerikuli gamocema "uol sTriT jornal", _ ruseTi mezobel suverenul saxelmwifoSi sakuTari Carevis sababs eZebs. aseT SemTxvevaSi ruseTs SeuZlia gamoacxados, rom sakuTar teritorias icavs saqarTvelos teritoriidan moqmedi CeCeni teroristebisagan. magram jerjerobiT saqarTvelo am ankess ar egeba... prezidentma SevardnaZem rus samxedroebs ar misca saqarTvelos teritoriaze operaciis Catarebis ufleba." (159)

50

"saqarTvelo

aris

sasinji

qva,

romelic

ruseT-amerikas

Soris

urTierTobas gaarkvevs", _ aRniSna saqarTvelos elCma aSS-Si Tedo jafariZem saqarTvelos parlamentis sagareo urTierTobaTa komitetSi Sexvedrisas. misi informaciiT, saqarTvelo TeTr saxlSi administraciis Secvlis areul

procesSic ar daviwyebiaT, magram elCma mianiSna, rom "Tu saqarTvelos unda ufro angariSgasawevi qveyana gaxdes, maSin Tavad unda gamoasworos Sida politika." (152) aqve aRvniSnavT, rom erTi wlis Semdgom, 2002 wels, nugzar sajaias tragikuli gardacvalebis Semdeg, uSiSroebis sabWos mdivnis Tanamdebobaze Tedo jafariZis kandidaturis dasaxeleba politikosTa, eqspertTa da

JurnalistTa didma nawilma prezident eduard SevardnaZis prodasavluri kursis afiSirebad miiCnia: · "jafariZis prodasavlur · kandidaturis politikur dasaxelebam parlamentarebi sabolood prezidentis daarwmuna".

orientaciaSi

("rezonansi", 07.03.2002). "es daniSvna saqarTvelos sagareo kursis da ZiriTadi orientiris

xazgasma iyo. anu, SevardnaZem sabolood aiRo dasavluri kursi". ("axali Taoba", 07.03.2002). · "mTavari fsoni aSS-Si elCze gakeTda da es ukve niSnavs imas, rom saqarTvelom gadawyvita · SevardnaZis kursSi mmarTvelobis periodSi ukve sabolood

sagareo

dasavleTisTvis

mieniWebina

upiratesoba."

("axali Taoba", 08.03.2002) "batoni Tedo jafariZis gamoCena qarTul politikaSi dasavluri xazis gagrZelebad SeiZleba miviCnioT." ("alia", 07.03.2002) SedarebisTvis _ 2000 wlis miwuruls, saqarTvelosTan aSS-is axali administraciis damokidebulebis rkvevis, savaluto fondis tranSis miRebaarmiRebis, ruseTTan ukiduresad gamwvavebuli urTierTobis fonze, masmedia dasavleTisagan sagareo saqarTvelos anu moqceva mitovebas, qveynisa erTaderTi da piradad prezidentis gabankrotebas Soris

politikis,

"SevardnaZis

koziris"

winaswarmetyvelebda. saqarTvelos presis intensiuri ruseT-amerikis sagani strategiul interesebs ganxilvis gaxda saqarTveloSi maRalCinosani

amerikeli da rusi samxedroebis erTdrouli vizitebis sainformacio sababiT. gazeTi "izvestia"-c ki werda, rom "ori qveynis samxedro delegaciebis viziti saqarTvelos prioritetebze metyvelebs". 51

TbilisSi ruseTisa da amerikis interesebis mkafio gadakveTam presa aiZula am Temis gaSuqebisas, myvirala saTaurebisa da gamomwvevi Sefasebebis nacvlad, met-naklebad zomieri toni aerCia. gazeTma "aliamac" ki amjobina Temaze _ "ruseTi Tu dasavleTi... iqneb neitraliteti?" _ sasaubrod

prezidentis mrCevel gela CarkvianisaTvis miemarTa da soliduri interviu gamoeqveynebina. saqarTvelos geopolitikuri daZabulobis yvelaze mkveTr iseve

momentebSi neitralitetis Tema TavisTavad Cndeba presaSi. amjerad, rogorc gela "aliam", sxva gazeTebmac rom sagareo "dRes saubari urTierTobebSi saqarTvelo SeiZleba respondentebs mimarTes am Temis gasaSuqeblad. Carkviani miiCnevs, ar

Caxedul

gamocxadebuli samxedro (167)

neitralitetisTvis

mzad

aris";

mxolod

neitralitetze, anu, saqarTvelo arc erT blokSi ar unda iyos CarTuli.

saparlamento fraqcia "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" Tavmjdomare revaz adamiac fiqrobs, romelSic rom saqarTvelosTvis vcxovrobT. neitraliteti igi momxrea, SeuZlebelia rom im pirobebSi, nato-Si

Cven

saqarTvelo

gawevrianebisaken miiswrafodes, vinaidan es marTlac realuri usafrTxoebiTi qolgaa saqarTvelosTvis". (123) gansxvavebuli pozicia aqvs parlamentis dsT-s qveynebTan urTierTobis qvekomitetis Tavmjdomares, irakli gogavas: "neitraliteti regionaluri usafrTxoebis arqiteqturis yvelaze kargi modelia. am SemTxvevaSi, samxreT kavkasia (122) saintereso mosazrebebs aviTarebs "dilis gazeTis" mimomxilveli vano gamgebeli. misi azriT, rus politolog-analitikosTa mtkicebas, TiTqosda saqarTvelos neitraliteti ver uzrunvelyofs ruseTis usafrTxoebas iqneba warmodgenili erTgvari mSvidobiani buferis saxiT or,

istoriulad dapirispirebul Zalas Soris, rogoricaa ruseTi da TurqeTi."

CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi, sinamdvileSi sul sxva mizezi aqvs _ moskovs acofebs is realoba, rom pirvelad 200 wlis planetis ganmavlobaSi masStabiT CeCnebma zurgs ukan aSS-is

"araruseTi"

igrZnes.

ruseTi

veRar

CaiTvleba

(dasavleTis) metoqed, magram postsabWoTa sivrceSi maT daaxloebiT Tanabari gavlena aqvT, ruseTi SeiZleba aWarbebdes kidec. "neitraliteti Zalian did Zalas gulisxmobs da moiTxovs. SesaZloa, saqarTvelosTvis amgvari statusi xelsayrelic iyos, magram Cvens regionSi "neitraluri saqarTvelo" aRiqmeba rogorc buferi or poluss Soris, amas ki arc erTi maTgani ar dauSvebs." (92) neitralitetze "meridianis" msjelobisas zviad analogiur arabuli: daskvnas akeTebs gazeT

mimomxilveli

"saqarTvelos

neitraliteti 52

mxolod im SemTxvevaSi iqneboda SesaZlebeli, Tu igi daefuZneboda erTgvar politikur SeTanxmebas, an "geopolitikur ZalTa balanss" _ regionSi moqmedi yvela didi saxelmwifos interesTa "paturi" Tanafardobis (saWadrako

terminiT) realobas. aseTi realoba ki ar arsebobs da albaT aRarc iarsebebs uaxloes istoriul perspeqtivaSi." (zviad arabuli, "neitraliteti Tu nato?", "meridiani", 14 Tebervali, 2001). neitralitetis Temas ase vrclad sagangebod SevexeT ramdenime mizezis gamo: jer erTi, ase kompaqturad, erTbaSad ramdenime gazeTSi am Temis gaSla saanalizo periodSi sxva dros ar gvxvdeba; meorec, aq moxmobili citatebidan da sxva publikaciebidanac, Cans, rom Temis warmoSobas raime konkretuli safuZveli ara aqvs; garda amisa, saqarTvelos neitraliteti amjerad ufro ararealistur perspeqtivad aris warmodgenili, vidre wina wlebSi am Temaze msjelobisas (gansakuTrebiT, gasuli saukunis 90-ian wlebSi); Tanac,

saqarTveloSi amerikeli da rusi samxedroebis erTdrouli vizitebi, romelTa sainformacio sababiTac moxda neitralitetis Temis inicireba presaSi,

faqtobrivad, mediisTvis daxuruli Tema iyo. yovelive es gvafiqrebinebs, rom aseT unisonSi neitralitetis Temis warmodgena presaSi garkveuli taqtika iyo, romlis _ ganxorcilebisas an presa, an SesaZloa, _ garkveul amocanasac (am asrulebda saxelmwifoebrivs, sruliad sawinaaRmdegos.

SemTxvevaSi varaudis ufro dakonkretebis safuZvels arc presa gvaZlevs, arc kompetencia da arc sadisertacio naSromis formati). ruseT-saqarTvelos romelic, Sefasebisas masmedia. gazeT "saqarTvelos respublikis" SefasebiT, "saqarTvelo-ruseTis rogorc iqna, ukiduresad Sedga 2001 daZabuli wlis iyo 30 e.w. urTierTobis noembers. oficiozi misi da pirobebSi Sedegebis danarCeni gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqonda am ori qveynis prezidentTa Sexvedras,

radikalurad

gansxvavebuli

"grili urTierToba" axal fazaSi, imedi viqonioT, daTbobis fazaSi Sevida... es aris Semobrunebis dasawyisi. es ar aris raRac axali etapi, magram rodesac saqarTvelo-ruseTis xelSekruleba momzaddeba da mas xels movawerT, maSin ki axali urTierTobis mSenebloba daiwyeba." (154) Tavad prezidentma eduard SevardnaZem, putinTan pirispir Sexvedras "ruseT-saqarTvelos diplomatiurad urTierTobebSi putinis Semobrunebis da dasawyisi" pasuxi uwoda, pankisis gaamarTla mkvaxe uceremonio

incidentis Taobaze da erTgvari kmayofilebac ki gamoTqva misdami ruseTis prezidentis piradi damokidebulebis gamo. vizitis Semdgom, saqarTvelos 53

prezidentis orSabaTis tradiciul radiointerviuSi, putinTan Sexvedras ukve "saqarTvelo-ruseTs Soris TanamSromlobis didi gardatexis etapis dasawyisis" Sefaseba mieca: am Sexvedris gamoZaxili iyo "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" yrilobaze prezidentis mier kategoriulad naTqvami: "mezobels veravin

Segvicvlis, ruseTTan unda vimezobloT!" saqarTvelos prezidentisa da oficiozis optimizmi ver gaiziares

damoukidebelma telearxebma da presam. "dilis gazeTma" eduard SevardnaZis pozicias "sasurvelis sinamdviled gasaReba" uwoda: "gaugebaria raSi dasWirda SevardnaZes moskovSi misi stumrobis mxolod erTi rakursiT warmodgena da mifuCeCeba imisa, ramac Cveni sazogadoeba dazafra da gaaogna, anu putiniseul braldebebze wayrueba... prezidenti xom, amasTan, saxelmwifos suverenitetis garantia! amitom, kidev erTxel gvinda gavimeoroT _ rodesac saxelmwifos Rirsebas laxaven,

pirvelma albaT swored misma prezidentma unda aimaRlos xma da datuqsuli bavSviviT TavCaRunuli ar unda ijdes." (86) gazeTebis: · "rezonansis", "axali versiisa" da "alias" SefasebiT,

moskovuri voiaJi saqarTvelosTvis warumatebeli iyo: "rusul-qarTul moskovma SevardnaZe, urTierTobebSi kidev tradiciuli dauqnia scenari TiTi. gaTamaSda _

Tbiliss

erTxel qveyana

moskovSi

Casuli swored

romelsac

rusulma

TviTmfrinavebma

saiubileo TariRis wina dRes daubombes, morCilad ismenda prezident putinis sabraldebo sityvas... sagulisxmoa, rom or qveyanas Soris

urTierTobis

gajansaRebas

mxolod

ramdenime

adamiani,

prezidenti

SevardnaZe, vaxtang rCeuliSvili, vladimer gudevi da kidev ramdenime qarTveli maRalCinosani amCnevs. politikosTa da eqspertTa umravlesoba ki miiCnevs, rom saqarTvelo saomar mdgomareobaSia da ruseTis agresia, SesaZloa, nebismier dros ganmeordes." (104) · "SevardnaZesa da putins Soris gamarTuli Sexvedra ruseTis axalgazrda prezidentis gamarjvebiT dasrulda. saqarTvelos prezidenti, romelic ruseTs rusuli TviTmfrinavebiT saqarTvelos dabombvis Semdeg estumra, teroristebisa da narkobaronebis mfarvelobaSi dadanaSaules." (109) · "tradiciul brifingze prezidenti uzomod karg xasiaTze iyo. Tumca, gaugebaria, warumatebeli moskovuri voiaJis Semdeg ra acinebda mas? kremlis axalma mepatronem qoSi ukuRma yara _ ra dabombva, ris

dabombvao. prezident SevardnaZes xmac ar amouRia. rusuli masmedia mas Semdeg saqarTvelos dascinis da amasxaravebs." (129) 54

amgvar

fonze

konstruqciuli

iyo

gazeT

"dronis"

moskoveli

korespondentis mier momzadebuli publikacia, romelic sagulisxmo daskvniT mTavrdeba: "putin-SevardnaZis sajaro, sityvieri paeqrobis miuxedavad, rusi damkvirveblebi aRniSnaven, rom "saqarTvelo gadaurCa ruseTTan realur

konfrontacias". ruseT-saqarTvelos Soris axali urTierTobebis Camoyalibeba SevardnaZis epoqis dasasruls daemTxveva." (145) am Sexvedram damatebiTi stimuli misca qarTuli politikuri speqtris Cveul debatebs dasavleT-CrdiloeTis Temaze. magaliTad, ruseTis faqtori, telekompania "pirveli arxis" pirdapir eTerSi, "ganxeTqilebis vaSlad" iqca parlamentarebis _ gia baramiZisa ("moqkavSiri") da jemal gogitiZisTvis

("aRorZineba"); jemal gogitiZem ruseTTan "aRorZinebis", aslan abaSiZisa da, saerTod, aWaris damokidebulebas, realisturi uwoda; am poziciis sapirispiro da kategoriuli iyo gia baramiZis Sefaseba _ ruseTze didi mteri saqarTvelos ar hyavs, Tqven ki mas dauweqiTo. qarTvelma socialistebma da maTma liderma vaxtang rCeuliSvilma

gaaaqtiures TavianTi rusuli orientaciis afiSireba. vaxtang rCeuliSvilis Tvalsazrisi aseTia: "Tu ruseTTan ar gamosworda urTierToba, TurqeTis guberniad gadaviqceviT. me arc TurqeTis gubernioba minda, arc ruseTis, minda saqarTvelo gaxdes evropis Rirseuli wevri da amaSi, rogorc TurqeTi, aseve ruseTic unda dagvexmaros. dRes, roca putini Semotrialda saqarTvelosaken, gaCnda winapiroba, rom aRvadginoT ruseTTan urTierToba, am dros xels gviSlian Cveni, qarTveli politikosebi, vinc gvRupavdnen da dResac ruseTTan civi omis politikas atareben". (146) SevardnaZe-putinis Sexvedris Sedegebs gulisxmobda, upirveles yovlisa, sagareo saqmeTa ministri irakli menaRariSvili, roca 2001 wlis Sefasebisas erT-erT mTavar Sedegad ruseTTan urTierTobis daregulireba, movlenebis negatiuri ganviTarebis SeCereba miiCnia. (t/k "I arxi", "me-9 arxi", 4-6 ianvris sainformacio programebi, 2002) 2001-dan 2002-isken gardamavali periodi gardamtexi etapi iyo CrdiloeTdasavleTs Soris lavirebis (met-naklebi warmatebiT) dasrulebisa da erTi konkretuli gazafxulze ZalebisaTvis veqtorisTvis prioritetis miniWebis SeerTebulma "wrTvnisa Statebma da daiwyo aRWurvis" procesisTvis. 2002 wlis SeiaraRebuli programis

saqarTvelos

mravalmilioniani

ganxorcieleba. 2002 wlis noemberSi, nato-s praRis samitze, saqarTvelom oficialurad saqarTveloSi ganacxada daiwyo Tavisi survili _ gamxdariyo varjiSebis nato-s Catareba wevri. nato-s 55

regularuli

samxedro

programis _ "partnioroba mSvidobisaTvis" farglebSi, aSS-sa da TurqeTis daxmareba samxedro teqnikiT, evrokavSiris mier ganxorcielebuli teqnikuri daxmarebis programebi da a.S. am procesebs win uZRoda 2001 wlis dekemberSi aSS-is Tavdacvis

ministris, ramsfeldis viziti saqarTveloSi. es faqti presisTvisac erTgvari signali gaxda imisaTvis, radikalur rom maqsimaluri TavSekaveba gamoeCinaT da

moridebodnen

Sefasebebs.

amjerad

Jurnalistebi

pozitiur

kontestSi aqceven prezidentis lavirebis politikas da Tavadac cdiloben mozomili komentarebiT Semoifarglon. "saqarTvelos xelisufleba ecdeba, moqmedebis iseTi taqtika airCios, rom arc mwvadi dawvas da arc Samfuri. savaraudod, qarTuli Tavdacvis ecdeba, ministrTan (ramsfeldTan _ l.k.) Sexvedris sistemidan dros aSS-is

mxare

raketsawinaaRmdego

Tavdacvis

gamosvlis Sefasebisas zomieri iyos da ruseTis gaRizianeba ar gamoiwvios... maRalCinosani amerikelis saqarTveloSi viziti, eqspertebis azriT, Seanelebs im agresias, rac, SesaZloa, ruseTma kavkasiis regionis mimarT gamoavlinos", _ werda gazeTi "rezonansi." (105) vizitis gaSuqebisas gazeTi "kviris palitra" yuradRebas amaxvilebs ara mxolod qarTuli, ar aramed amerikuli mxaris imisa, TavSekavebul rom poziciaze: sTxoves "SevardnaZem erTgvari reveransi mainc gaakeTa putinis misamarTiT (ramsfelds ruseTze krintic dauZravs, miuxedavad komentari

ruseTis aviaciis mier saqarTvelos teritoriis dabombvis Sesaxeb) da brZana: "miuxedavad imisa, rom putinma Secdoma uwoda vaSingtonis gadawyvetilebas raketsawinaaRmdego gamosvla xelSekrulebidan garantiebis gasvlasTan samarTlebrivi dakavSirebiT, bazis putinis iyo stabilurobis Seqmnaze

aqcentirebuli, rac xels Seuwyobs aSS-ruseTis TanamSromlobaso". (142) am peripetiebi periodidan qarTul moyolebuli masmediaSi saqarTvelo-ruseTis aRar ganixileba urTierTobis amerikasTan

TiTqmis

mimarTebis gareSe. Tu wina wlebSi politikosebis, saerTod, sazogadoebisa da, Sesabamisad, Jurnalistebis aqcenti ori ukiduresobiT xasiaTdeboda _ ruseTi an dasavleTi, es tendencia presaSi TandaTan Seicvala urTierTmimarTebiT _ saqarTvelo aSS-isa da ruseTis interesebs Soris. es zogadi tendencia, ra Tqma unda, ar gamoricxavs am tipis radikalur Sexedulebebs: erTis mxriv, rusuli safrTxis metismetad gazviadebas da ruseTis meores ufro da arealSi mxriv, ufro darCenis amerikuli mkveTrad warmodgenas gardauval aucileblobad; masmediaSi

yovlisSemZleobis warmoCindeba

gafetiSebas. rom

tendencia,

dasavleT-saqarTvelos

urTierTdaintereseba 56

kvlavindeburad Zabavs saqarTvelo-ruseTis urTierTobebs da es daZabuloba dasavleTTan saqarTvelos integraciis Sansebis gazrdis pirdapirproporciulad mZafrdeba. 2002 wlis ivlis-agvistoSi, ruseTis provokaciebisa da mosalodneli agresiis safrTxis gaSuqebisas, qarTul presaSi arsebiTi cvlilebebi gaCnda _ imata Jurnalisturma gansjam da analizma, movlenebs Soris urTierTkavSiris dadgenisa da poziciebis Sejerebis mcdelobam; SesamCnevad gamkveTrda aqcenti saxelmwifoebriv interesze. gazeTi mniSvnelovani roli am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa ukve aRvniSneT erT-erT da aRWurvis" qveTavSi, da "wrTvnisa programisa "rezonansi", romelmac, rogorc Seasrula

Crdiloatlantikuri

orientaciisaTvis

saTanado

sainformacio

fonis

Sesaqmnelad (igive SeiZleba iTqvas 2002 wlis maisSi daarsebul gazeT "24 saaTzec, romelic, saerTod, gamoirCeva dasavlur liberalur Rirebulebebze orientaciiT). "rezonansis" wamyvani svetSi" mkafiod gamoxatavs Jurnalisti Tavisi mimarT da eliso CafiZe "morige redaqciis pozicias redaqtoris putinis mier gamo:

saqarTvelos

xelisuflebis

gakeTebuli

mkacri

gancxadebis

"ruseTis prezidentis gancxadebaSi faruli muqara JRerda, man

qarTveli

xalxi da xelisufleba gamijna. keTili xalxi, boroti xelisufleba... am gancxadebidan saqarTveloSi saxelmwifo gadatrialebis organizebamde didi ruseTis lanZRva Cekistur organoebs erTi nabijiRa aSorebT... amxanag putinis

gasagonad unda iTqvas, rom ramdenadac cudi xelisufleba unda gvyavdes, misi saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis prerogativaa. saqarTvelos prezidenti ruseTis prezidentis gasalanZRi ar aris." (165) Jurnalisturi adekvaturia im aqcenti ruseTis prezidentis presaSi farul muqaraze omis

realuri

safrTxisa, rac

pirdapir

iwodeba

safrTxed. "saqarTvelo da ruseTi omis zRvarze" ("alia", 01.08.2002), "ruseTi saqarTveloSi oms iwyebs" ("qronika", 05.08.2002) _ publikaciaTa amgvari

saTaurebi, wina periodebisagan gansxvavebiT, amjerad ar aris

utrirebuli;

pankisis sababiT saqarTveloze ruseTis galaSqrebis ritorika gacilebiT ufro Zlieri iyo im periodis rusul sainformacio sivrceSi, vidre 2001 wlis damdegs. niSandoblivia, rom 2001 wels, saqarTveloSi mosalodneli rusuli agresiis Temaze msjelobisas, oficialuri moskovis pozicia Riad ar ki fiqsirdeboda, saqarTvelos teritoriis morigi dabombvis SemTxvevaSi

Cndeboda bundovani miniSneba rusi maRalCinosani samxedroebis TviTneburi moqmedebis Taobaze. amjerad qarTul masmedias aRar dasWirda "ori ruseTis" 57

Temaze msjeloba, radgan oficialuri ruseTis pozicia "Savi generlebis" TvalTaxedvas daemTxva: · "ruseTis Tavdacvis ministrma sergei ivanovma xmamaRla ganacxada, rom pankisis xeobis problema mxolod Zalismieri meTodebiT gadawydeba. "yelSi amomivida uazro molaparakebebi saqarTvelos xelisuflebasTan, _ ambobs iavanovi, _ pankisSi Cven uaxloes dReebSi "specnazs" SeviyvanT." ("xvalindeli dRe", 31.07.2002) · putinis mrCeveli sergei iastrJembski: "qarTvelebma pankisis xeoba

"praxadnoi dvorad" aqcies da, droa, amas erTxel da samudamod daesvas wertili." ("xvalindeli dRe", 31.07.2002) qarTuli presis publikaciebSi (romlebic, arsebiTad, emyareba rusuli mediis masalebs) koncentrirebulia pankisis problemasTan dakavSirebiT orive mxaris _ ruseTisa da saqarTvelos pozicia: oficialuri moskovi pankisSi operaciis Catarebas ki aRar iTxovs,

aramed moiTxovs; oficialuri ruseTi aSS-s sTxovs mxardaWeras saqarTveloSi antiteroristuli operaciis Casatareblad _ saqarTvelom xom, bolos da bolos, aRiara CeCeni boevikebis arseboba; ruseTis federaciis sabWo mzad aris Sesabamisi da maTi operaciisTvis nebis dasarTavad, xolo sahaero-sadesanto sardali mxolod brZanebas miiCnevs ruseTs elodebian boevikTa ukve specoperaciis mTavrobis saqarTvelos aqvs ruseTis pozicias eTanxmeba CeCneTis

jarebi

dasawyebad; Tavmjdomare, teritoriaze

oficialuri romelic

SesaZleblad rac mTavaria,

ganadgurebas; azri,

Semzadebuli rusul

sazogadoebrivi

romelic

formulasaviT

yalibdeba

mediaSi

gaCenil aseT mosazrebaSi: "amerikis gamocdileba gviCvenebs, rom terorizmTan brZolis dros erovnuli sazRvrebi suverenuli aRar aris." saqarTvelos xelisufleba jerjerobiT ruseTs uZaliandeba da pankisis xeobaSi samxedro operaciis Catarebis uflebas ar aZlevs da, Tavis mxriv, ruseTs adanaSaulebs CeCeni mebrZolebis iaraRiT momaragebaSi. arsebiTi gansxvaveba ruseTisa da saqarTvelos urTierTdadanaSaulebisas is aris, rom ruseTi Tavis pozicias faqtebiT

amyarebs, saqarTvelos mxare ki, rogorc presa wers, "faqtebs sapnis buStiviT uSvebs xelidan"; oficialuri Tbilisi xSirad urTierTgamomricxav Zalovani musirebda samxedro uwyebebis ruseTis Zalebis 58

informaciebs komentarebic.

avrcelebs,

erTmaneTs

ewinaaRmdegeba romelic rusuli

paralelurad, sainformacio

"qarTul

safrTxes", afxazeTSi

saSualebSi,

koncentrirebiTa da daqiravebul Crdilokavkasiel "moxaliseTa" gaaqtiurebiT upasuxes (iseve, rogorc 2001 wlis oqtomber-noemberSi da 2001 wlis aprilSi). qarTul mediaSi gaCnda informacia, rom, amjerad, "moxaliseTa" raodenoba orjer metia, vidre afxazeTis omis dros; amave dros, tyvarCelSi afxazurosuri erToblivi wrTvnebisTvisac emzadebian... anu, rogorc yovelTvis,

movlenebis ukidures gamwvavebas pankisis sababiT,

Tan daerTo afxazeTis

koziris amoqmedeba _ ori fronti erTdroulad, politikuri, ekonomikuri da socialuri faqtorebis maqsimaluri gamwvavebis TanxlebiT. am fonze qarTveli Jurnalistebi TavianT xelisuflebas ruseTisaTvis adekvaturi pasuxis gaucemlobaSi adanaSauleben, Tumc, ukve saqarTvelos

mxridanac iqmneba movlenebisaTvis saxelis darqmevis oficialuri precendenti. "ufrosi Zmis roli, romelsac SeuZlia umcross yovelTvis TavSi urtyas, miuRebelia. amas aravin aitans da arc Cven vapirebT," _ amgvarad gamoxata oficialuri pozicia, ruseTis samxedro TviTmfrinavebis mier pankisis xeobis teritoriis dabombvasTan da SemdgomSi ruseTis xelisuflebis reaqciasTan dakavSirebiT, specialurad saqarTvelos gamarTul prezidentis _ pres-mdivanma es kaxa imnaZem, samxedro

brifingze,

"rodesac

uzarmazari

manqana, romelic ruseTs aqvs, ver axerxebs wesrigis damyarebas sakuTar teritoriaze, maT isRa darCeniaT gantevebis vaci moZebnon, an Seqmnan mtris xati. yovel SemTxvevaSi aSkarad cdiloben, rom aseT mtris xatad warmoCindes saqarTvelo, rogorc mizezi ruseTis yvela ubedurebisa. magram es aris maTi WeSmariteba, romelsac kategoriulad ar eTanxmeba mTeli civilizebuli msoflio." (155) prezidentma, eduard SevardnaZem, tradiciul radiointerviuSi mkafiod gamoxata arCevani pankisis ar problemis da arsi: "is, rac xeobaSi ki ar xdeba, saqarTvelos CeCneTis

yofila aramed,

pankisis

problemam

ganapiroba viTarebam

movlenebi,

piriqiT,

CeCneTSi

arsebulma

ganapiroba

mdgomareobis garTuleba pankisSi"; xolo masmediisTvis gamarTul tradiciul brifingze _ saqarTvelos mtkice pozicia: "pankisis problema xelovnurad aris Seqmnili. Cven es problema Tavs mogvaxvies. axla saqarTvelos aqvs

SesaZlebloba rom pankisis problema damoukideblad gadawyvitos. gadavwyvetT kidec. migvaCnia, rom ucxoeTis saxelmwifoebis samxedro Careva dauSvebelia da arc davuSvebT."B(156) ruseTis saitze "sagareo politikis analitikur mimarTebaSi nacionaluri masalaSi laboratoriis" ("politikuri poziciis internetsituacia gamyareba 59

ganTavsebul

saqarTveloSi")

ruseTTan

saqarTvelos

amerikis ubiZga

mxardaWeris mas

faqtorTanaa

dakavSirebuli:

"aSS-sTan

samxedro

TanamSromlobis faqtma mkveTrad aamaRla qarTuli elitis TviTSefaseba da rusul-qarTuli ar iyo, rom urTierTobis pastuxovTan mkveTri Segnebuli gamwvavebisaken. prezidentma "Tqven ver

SemTxveviTi SevardnaZem

boris

Sexvedrisas

ruseTis warmomadgenels

SekiTxva dausva:

xvdebiT, vis winaaRmdeg waxvediT?" (58) gazeTma "rezonansma", saqarTvelos sagareo da saSinao problemebTan ruseT-aSS/dasavleTis interesebis mimarTeba mravalmxriv gaaanaliza ara mxolod agvistos, aramed mogvianebiT ganviTarebuli movlenebis konteqstSi. magaliTad, gadaketvasa ruseTis da mier saqarTvelosaTvis morig Tavisi sahaero sivrcis akavSirebs

Semotevebis

gaaqtiurebas

"rezonansi"

saqarTveloSi aSS-is kongresmenebis stumrobasTan (romelTa vizitis mizani saqarTvelosTvis aSS-is mTavrobis Tanadgomis oficialuri dadastureba iyo) da baqo-Tbilisi jeihanis milsadenis mSeneblobis dawyebis Taobaze saboloo gadawyvetilebis specsamsaxurebi miRebasTan: aqtiurad "arsebobs informacia qarTvel rom ruseTis muSaoben

"averbovkeben"

samxedroebs,

politikur partiebSi... maTive xelSewyobiT xdeba religiuri dapirispirebisa da egzaltirebuli politikuri gancxadebebis aJitireba. dRes saqarTvelom unda gadadgas Zalian frTxili da gonivruli nabijebi imisaTvis, rom am TamaSidan mogebuli gamovides." (169) gazeT "rezonansTan" interviuSi, saqarTvelos navTobis saerTaSoriso korporaciis prezidenti giorgi Wanturia varaudobs, rom navTobsadenis mSeneblobis dawyebis gamo "ruseTis mxridan saqarTveloze zewola kidev ufro gaizrdeba": "iciT, ratom bombavs ruseTi saqarTvelos? ruseTma Zalian kargad icis, rom saqarTvelo aris yvelaze centraluri da gadamwyveti

teritoria dRes geopolitikurad, socialurad, politikurad, strategiulad, razec gadis ara marto energoderefani, aramed gadis msoflio RerZi"; "Cven ruseTs veubnebiT, rom es ar aris marto aRmosavleT-dasavleTis derefani. es aris CrdiloeT-samxreTis derefanic." (119) rogorc aRvniSneT, 2002 wlis noemberSi, nato-s praRis samitze,

saqarTvelom oficialurad ganacxada Tavisi survili _ gamxdariyo nato-s wevri. 11 oqtombers, parlamentSi prezident eduard SevardnaZis moxsenebis msvlelobisas, darbazi erToblivad, protestulad datoves fraqciebma da politpersonebma, saxelwodebiT _ romlebic presam pirobiTad xuTi gaaerTiana saerTo

"demarSistebi".

saparlamento

fraqciisTvis

("gaerTianebuli demokratebi", "nacionaluri moZraoba", "axali memarjveneebi", 60

"tradicionalistebi" da "axali afxazeTi") miuRebeli aRmoCnda prezidentis saangariSo gamosvla, romelmac, opozicionerTa mtkicebiT, "qveynisaTvis arc erT saWirboroto kiTxvas ar gasca pasuxi." imave dRes oTxma opoziciurma fraqciam erToblivi preskonferencia gamarTa da sazogadoebas amcno, rom amieridan maTi mizani "saqarTveloSi dRes arsebul politikur

mmarTvelobasTan erToblivi brZola gaxdeba." presaSi meore dResve gaCnda mosazrebebi, fraqciaTa ("rezonansi", rom es aqcia spontanuri ar yofila; "rezonansi" werda: moxda." presa,

"nacionalebis" warmomadgeneli vano merabiSvili ar malavs, rom opoziciur gaerTianeba 19.10.2002) SevardnaZis politikosTa xelisuflebis erTi nawili damxobisaTvis da, Sesabamisad,

demarSs rusuli interesis gamoxatvad miiCnevs, mediaSi isev Cndeba terminebi: "mexuTe kolona", "saSemodgomo destabilizacia", "qaosi", "areuloba" da a.S. zogan miniSnebiTa da qveteqstebiT, zogan ki pirdapir, opoziciis qmedeba natosTan saqarTvelos mimarTebasa da saerTaSoriso energetikuli proeqtebis TemasTan dakavSirda: "noemberSi saqarTvelom nato-Si SesvlasTan

dakavSirebiT ganacxadi unda gaakeTos. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom opoziciis nabijma istoriuli gadawyvetilebis miRebas SeuSalos xeli"; "rac Seexeba nato-Si gawevrianebas, misdami xelis SeSlas adgili eqneba, magram ara imdenad, ramdenadac navTobsadenis sakiTxis gamo." ("rezonansi", 12 oqtomberi, 22 oqtomberi, 2002).

*

"vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg qarTul da ucxour mediaSi ganviTarebuli sagareo aqcentebi, saerTo jamSi, amgvar formulirebebamde daiyvaneba: saqarTvelos gamo aSS-sa da ruseTs Soris, SesaZloa, civi omi daiwyos; ruseTs gamo ar surs saqarTvelos urTierTobas gamo ar aSS-sTan daZabavs; Sejaxeba; aSS da

saqarTvelos

ruseTTan

vaSingtonica

moskovic dainteresebulebi arian, rom saqarTvelos aacilon qaosSi CaZirva da destabilizacia; saqarTveloSi aSS-is interesi _ demokratiaa, ruseTis _ arastabiluroba; aSS ruseTis Tanasworuflebiani mxars uWers burjanaZis Seqmnis Sesaxeb, iqnebian; ruseTi models _ saqarTvelo-aSSpartniorebi urTierTobaSi samkuTxedis romelSic

saqarTvelosTan

"samkuTxedebis" da Suamavlebis winaaRmdegia. mas Semdeg, rac prezident SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis dros saqarTvelo deklarirebulad adga dasavlur kurss, iRebda aSS-is samxedro Tu ekonomikur daxmarebasa da mxardaWeras; amasTan, iyo dsT-is wevri saxelmwifo da

arasodes uaryofda ruseTis faqtors, RerZi _ saqarTvelo-aSS-ruseTi (an _ 61

piriqiT) yovelTvis iyo realuri da aqtualuri. am viTarebas yvelaze kargad gamoxatavs londoneli analitikosis sityvebi: "qarTvelebi ukve didi xania mieCvivnen, rom maT ki amerikelebi erTsac anebivreben da da rusebi aSineben, maTi

xelmZRvaneloba 06.12.2003)

aqezebs

meoresac."

("svobodnaia

gruzia",

ruseTis interesma saqarTvelosTvis yvelaze kritikul momentSic ki iCina Tavi: "gamalebuli konsultaciebis dros, roca saqarTveloSi

xelisuflebis Secvlamde sul raRac ori saaTi rCeboda, ivanovma or qveyanas Soris CarCo-xelSekrulebis aucileblobaze gaamaxvila yuradReba", _ werda "mTavari gazeTi". ("mTavari gazeTi", 25.11.2003) gansxvavebiT aSS-is poziciisagan, ruseTis prezidentma SeSfoTeba gamoTqva imis gamo, rom saqarTveloSi

xelisuflebis Secvla eduard SevardnaZeze Zlieri zewolis Sedegad moxda da, amasTan, demonstratiulad ganacxada, rom SevardnaZe diqtatori arasodes yofila. rogorc Cans, am gancxadebis miRma ikiTxeba damokidebuleba im

procesebis mimarT, romelmac saqarTveloSi xelisuflebis Secvla moaxdina ruseTis primatis gareSe. sagareo saqmeTa ministris, igor ivanovis

warmogzavna saqarTveloSi upirvelesad amave konteqstSi jdeba _ ruseTma daafiqsira Tavisi mniSvneloba saqarTveloSi, anu is, rom mis gareSe am qveyanaSi araferi xdeba. es iyo Zalze mniSvnelovani mesiji, erTdroulad orientirebuli sakuTriv saqarTvelosa da dasavleTzec. ikveTeba, rom ruseTis faqtori momaval saprezidento presis analiziT da saparlamento

arCevnebze, dasavleTis

ZalisxmeviT, minimumamde unda Semcirebuliyo; rom

amisaTvis, evropuli ojaxi da aSS, arc finansebs daiSureben da arc sxva saxis daxmarebas. paralelurad, presaSi ikveTeba "rusuli faqtoris" sxvagvari gavlena _ tradiciulad, "dinamikuri pirdapir Tu iribad, "rusul romlis da, xelwerasTan" ganxorcieleba elementarulad,

kavSirdeba eWvqveS

qaosis" Seqmnis

mcdeloba,

daayenebs

"vardebis

revoluciis"

monapovars

CaSlis arCevnebs. rogorc "mTavari gazeTi" aRniSnavs, "rusul veb-gverdebze, jer kidev SevardnaZis gadadgomamde ganTavsebul statiebSi, saqarTveloSi arsebuli konfliqtis saakaSvili-burjanaZe-Jvanias sasargeblod gadawyveta ruseTisTvis yvelaze nakleb sasargeblo scenarad aris Sefasebuli." ("mTavari gazeTi", 25.11.2003) sagulisxmoa rusuli mediis aqcentebi saqarTvelos daSlis SesaZleblobis Taobaze: "radikali nacionalebisa" da maTi lideris, mixeil saakaSvilis xelisuflebaSi mosvlis SemTxvevaSi gardauvalia SeiaraRebuli konfliqti aWarasTan; TbilisSi xelisuflebis Secvlis SemTxvevaSi aWaris 62

sazRvrebis Caketvis muqara am regionis saqarTvelosagan gamoyofis pirveli simptomia; javaxeTSi dasaxlebul somxebTan SevardnaZeEaxerxebda saerTo enis gamonaxvas, qarTveli radikalebis nacionaluri gancxadebebi ki maT aSinebT. somxebTan SesaZlo Setakeba, samxedro bazebis faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT, konfliqtSi ruseTis CarTvis winapirobas Seqmnis; TbilisSi nacionaluri

opoziciis xelisuflebaSi mosvlis SemTxvevaSi, afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis konfliqtebis prezidentis mogvarebis rangSi SesaZlebloba kidev didi xniT gadaiwevs ukan.

saakaSvilis

gamoCena

"araRiarebuli

qveynebis"

xelmZRvanelobas aiZulebs kidev erTxel wamoayenon ruseTis SemadgenlobaSi maTi Seyvanis sakiTxi. saSiSi precendentis Seqmnis sababiT, ruseTi iZulebuli iqneba maT uariT upasuxos. kremlis mxridan sxvanair reaqcias im SemTxvevaSi unda velodoT, Tu Tbilisi aSkara antirusul kampanias wamoiwyebs. rusuli internet-gamocemebi xelisuflebaSi saakaSvilis mosvlas ukavSireben

urTierTobis mosalodnel gauaresebas mezobel qveynebTan _ azerbaijansa da somxeTTan. mkveTria ruseTis aqveynebs Zalian _ somxeTTan Tu dakavSirebiT rusuli mediis aqcenti kidev ufro

qarTveli qveyanas Jurnalis,

radikalebi ekonomikuri "itogi"-s winaSe _

somxeTs

blokadas elis. rom

gamoucxadeben, "dilis gazeTi" dgas

mokavSire rusuli seriozuli

kolafsi daiSalos

mosazrebas,

saqarTvelo

safrTxis

ramdenime

saxelmwifod.

("dilis gazeTi", 02.12.2003) mediaSi aqtualuria aqcenti, rom saqarTvelo kvlav rCeba ruseTisa da aSS-is interesTa Sejaxebis (zogjer _ urTierTdamTxvevis) asparezad. sayuradReboa, moskovSi nino burjanaZis (saqarTvelos prezidentis movaleobis Semsruleblis) vizitis win rusuli mediis mier Seqmnili foni: SesaZloa, saqarTvelosa da ruseTis urTierTobebi 2002 wlis 11 seqtembris scenariT ganviTardes; "maSin ruseTis xelisuflebam saqarTvelos, faqtobrivad, omi gamoucxada, Tumca, aSS-is mkacri poziciis gamo kremli iZulebuli gaxda muqara mxolod muqarad daetovebina. rogorc Cans, kremli da misi mesveuri saqarTvelos axali xelisuflebis mdgradobas amJamadac "kbils usinjavs" da cdilobs imis garkvevas, kvlav dauWers Tu ara ase aqtiurad mxars TeTri saxli oficialur Tbiliss." ("mTavari gazeTi", 19.12.2003) "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg saqarTvelos sagareo prioritetebSi Zlierdeba evropasTan dakavSirebuli aqcenti. "saqarTvelo arc prorusuli iqneba da arc proamerikuli, saqarTvelo iqneba proqarTuli da proevropuli", _ ganacxada strasburgSi Tavisi pirveli turnes farglebSi gamarTuli

Sexvedrebisas saqarTvelos prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma ("mTavari gazeTi", 63

29.01.2004); xolo evrokavSiris saparlamento asambleis zamTris sesiaze sityviT gamosvlisas ase Camoayaliba saqarTvelos axali xelisuflebis sagareo veqtori: "dRes Cveni erTaderTi ambiciaa gavxdeT evrokavSiris sruluflebiani wevri... saqarTvelos Zalian didixnis da kargi urTierTdamokidebuleba aqvs aSS-sTan. SeerTebulma Statebma Cven gacilebiT meti daxmareba gagviwia, vidre Cven velodebodiT... Cven, aseve, urTierTdamokidebuleba da partnioroba gvaqvs ruseTTan... me Tanaxma var gavaumjobeso ruseTTan urTierToba, vimegobro ruseTTan da megobrobis xeli gavuwodo prezident putins, roca mas vewvevi ruseTSi." ("24 saaTi", 29.01.2004) presam yuradReba miaqcia sagareo aqcentebis mkveTr cvlilebas da axali xelisuflebis romlis "proevropuloba" Crdiloel axsna erTgvari ar diplomatiuri gaaRizianebs TamaSiT,

meSveobiTac

mezobels

gamokveTili

amerikuli aqcentiT. ruseTTan mimarTebaSi prezident saakaSvilis sagangebo damokidebuleba marTlac igrZnoba presaSi: xazgasmiTaa aRniSnuli rom

saakaSvilma pirveli vizitis prioriteti ruseTs mianiWa da ara aSS-s; iseTi STabeWdilebac iqmneba, rom moskovSi saqarTvelos prezidentis vizitis

momgebiani sainformacio suraTi ar unda daCrdilos aSS-Si misma vizitma (SeerTebul StatebSi mixeil saakaSvilis vizitis amsaxvelma publikaciebma zogierT gazeTSi me-4, me-5 gverdebisken gadainacvla da, saerTo jamSi, ar miuRia iseTi farTo gamoxmaureba, rogorc ruseTSi vizits). ruseTisadmi sifrTxile igrZnoba saqarTvelosTvis Zalze mniSvnelovani nato-s stambulis samitis (2004 wlis ivnisi) gaSuqebisas; samitis amsaxvel masalebSi presa aRniSnavda, rom nato saqarTvelosTvis kvlav prioritetia, magram, ruseTis faqtoris gamo, "iCqare nelas" principi ufro misaRebia. rogorc amiT Cans, aris

"sainformacio ganpirobebuli.

TavSekavebac"

nato-s

Temis

afiSirebisgan

mixeil saakaSvilis mxolod warmatebuli,

viziti

ruseTSi, uwoda,

romelsac rusulma miznad isaxavda:

mediam ara

epoqaluric

urTierTobis

dawyebas "sufTa furclidan" ("putini da saakaSvili winamorbedebis qmedebebze pasuxs ar ageben"); dasavleTTan saqarTvelos urTierTobis gamo ruseTis gaRizianebis ganeitralebas (saakaSvili: "ruseTs saqarTvelosTan

urTierTobaSi vercerTi qveyana konkurencias ver gauwevs"; "saqarTvelo ar aris aSS-isa da ruseTis dapirispirebis adgili"); ekonomikuri urTierTobis mogvarebas (saakaSvili: "qarTuli brendebi rusul bazarze unda davabrunoT") zemoqmedebas ruseTis sazogadoebriv azrze (saakaSvili: saqarTvelos imiji ruseTSi ukiduresad Seryeulia da Cveni mTavari amocana sazogadoebrivi 64

azris

Secvlaa) erTad

da

a.S.

presam

sagangebod

aRniSna,

rom

saqarTvelos amasTan, presa

prezidentma evropuli orientacia am vizitis drosac wina planze wamoswia da ruseTTan evropaSi integraciis survili gaaJRera;

aRniSnavda, rom ruseTSi viziti im warmatebuli "piaris" nawilia, romliTac prezidenti axali xelisuflebis naklis dafarvas cdilobs; am etapze

saqarTvelos gacilebiT didi berketi aqvs vaSingtonis mxardaWeris saxiT, vidre putinTan damegobrebaa. ("dilis gazeTi", "rezonansi", "24 saaTi", "mTavari gazeTi", 11-13 Tebervali, 2004) aRsaniSnavia erTi garemoebac mxari _ parlamentis Tavmjdomarem, mier adre nino burjanaZem deputatebs sTxova savaWro organizaciaSi daeWiraTYparlamentis winaaRmdeg msoflio miRebuli

ruseTis

gawevrianebis

dadgenilebis SeCerebisTvis. am Txovnas opoziciis protesti mohyva da presaSi aqcenti _ proamerikeli politikosebis prorusulebad gardaqmnis gamo. ("24 saaTi", 17.02.2004) am fonze gazeTi "alia" wers, rom "saakaSvili ruseTisTvis veeberTela pozitiuri potencialis matarebelia" _ saqarTvelos magaliTi dsT-s qveynebs aSS-sgan ganizidavs; maT urCevniaT ruseTis umcrosi

partniorebi iyvnen, vidre saqarTvelosaviT aSS-is koloniebi. ("alia", 10.02.2004) saqarTvelos axali xelisuflebis axali sagareo politikuri kursis gamokveTisTvis mniSvnelovani iyo mixeil saakaSvilis viziti safrangeTSi da novacia _ saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministrad safrangeTis moqalaqis, salome zurabiSvilis daniSvna. _ "evropa mixeil Cveni momavalia, es amerika ki

TviTdamkvidrebaSi

gvexmareba",

saakaSvilis

pasuxi

frangi

Jurnalistebis kiTxvaze _ "evropa Tu amerika", rogorc Cans, ara mxolod diplomatiuri reveransia, aramed, erTgvari formulac saqarTvelos sagareo urTierTobebis perspeqtivis gansazRvrisTvis. 2004 wlis martis presaSi ganviTarebuli mosazrebebi adasturebs, rom am urTierTobebis amplituda damokidebulia ara mxolod amerika-evropaze, misi wonasworobis xidi ruseTTan wertils ruseTi gansazRvravs. ufro rac metic, safrangeTSi

saakaSvilis vizitic, upirveles yovlisa, am WrilSi ganixileba _ rogorc urTierTobis mogvarebisaTvis, araTu ewinaaRmdegeba,

aramed eTanxmeba kidec aSS-is interess. "qveynis sagareo kursis umTavresi mimarTuleba ki evrokavSirSi integrireba da ruseTTan urTierTobis mowesrigeba iqneba", _ aRniSnavda "mTavari gazeTi", _ "prezidenti ar malavs, rom mas ruseTTan urTierTobis daTboba eCqareba da am misias im qveynis diplomats andobs, romlis mTavrobasac oficialur moskovTan kargi

urTierToba aqvs. rogorc irkveva, Sirakisa da saakaSvilis pirispir saubrisas 65

ruseTTan urTierToba erT-erTi ZiriTadi sakiTxi yofila." ("mTavari gazeTi", 10.03.2004) "dilis gazeTi" werda: "mixeil saakaSvilis gancxadebiT, man Sirakisagan miiRo garantia, rom safrangeTi evropaSi integraciis procesSi dagvexmareba; gamocdili diplomatis, _ salome pirveli emigraciis TvalsaCino postze

warmomadgenlebis

STamomavlis

zurabiSvilis

ministris

daniSvna ki imeds aZlevs, rom saqarTvelos sagareo kursi warmatebuli iqneba. Tavad salome zurabiSvilis formulirebiT, "es aris safrangeTis saCuqari saqarTvelosTvis, safrangeTi mzadaa axali saqarTvelos mSeneblobaSi miiRos monawileoba." ("dilis gazeTi", 12.03.2004) martis presa sayuradReboa im TvalsazrisiTac, rom modurad qceuli cneba _ evroatlantikuri integracia konkretikas iZens, Cndeba axali niuansebi evrokavSirsa da nato-sTan saqarTvelos mimarTebaSi. evrokavSiri calke saqarTvelos misi wevrobis kandidatad ar ganixilavda; saqarTvelo, mTliani samxreTkavkasiis regionis farglebSi, saxarbielo viTarebaSi ar imyofeboda. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg konservatiuli evrokavSiri saqarTvelosadmi poziciebs icvlis da ar gamoricxavs mis CarTvas "farTo evropis"

iniciativaSi; Tumca, isic aRiniSneba, rom es Znelad misaRwevi da Soreuli amocanaa. eqspertebis varaudiT, SesaZloa, ufro realuri iyos saqarTvelos nato-Si gawevrianeba. "afxazeTis sanapiroebTan natos samxedro floti daiwyebs

patrulirebas" _ iuwyeboda 11 martis "rezonansi". amerikeli generlis jeims jonsis mixeil gancxadebiT, saakaSvilis sazRvao nato-s mizani _ eqstremistul rom wlis organizaciaTa da kriminalur dajgufebaTa moqmedebebis aRkveTaa. gazeTi am faqts akavSirebs gancxadebasTan akvatorias bolomde saqarTvelo qarTveli

afxazeTis

mTlianad

gaakontrolebs.

politologebis azriT, amiT nato-s surs Sav zRvaze Zalis demonstracia, fsiqologiuri zemoqmedebis moxdena, ruseTis gavlenisa da reaqciis mosinjva, mizani ki _ am gavlenis martis Semcirebis bolos, mcdelobaa. aRmosavleT ruseTis evropis reaqciis ramdenime

demonstrireba

moxda

postsocialisturi qveynisa (bulgareTi, rumineTi, slovenia, slovakeTi) da postsabWoTa baltiispireTis nato-Si gawevrianebis gamo. am qveynebis nato-Si Sesvlas Tavis droze Zalian ewinaaRmdegeboda ruseTi da misma samxedro da politikurma elitam mtkivneulad aRiqva es faqti. amerikuli gazeTis "deili niusis" mier gavrcelebuli informaciiT, rusi generlebi imuqrebian, rom dauyovnebliv Camoagdeben nato-s TviTmfrinavebs, Tu isini baltiispireTis qveynebis Tavze gamoCndebian; ukrainuli internet-saagentos informaciiT, 66

ruseTSi

gansakuTrebiT Temis

aRSfoTebT

is

faqti, 2004

rom wlis

nato maisis

latviaSi presa; es

radiolokaciuri dakvirvebis bazis aSenebas gegmavs. ("rezonansi", 30.03.2004) ruseTis primatiT gamoirCeva

erTdroulad ramdenime sainformacio sababma ganapiroba: saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministrisa da premier-ministris vizitebi ruseTSi; saqarTvelo-

ruseTis biznes-forumi; ruseTSi moRvawe oligarqis, kaxa benduqiZis daniSvna saqarTvelos sagareo pirvelad ekonomikis saqmeTa ministrad. amasTan, TurqeTSi prezident vizitisas _ mixeil moskovSi bazebi

saakaSvilis vizitic, garkveulwilad, presaSi ruseTis Temas ukavSirdeba. ministr salome zurabiSvilis pozicia gacxadda oficialuri Tbilisis ruseTis

saqarTvelodan aucileblad unda gavidnen samwlian vadaSi. amiT nawilobriv gaifanta eWvi, TiTqos ruseTis uSiSroebis sabWos mdivnis, igor ivanovis pozitiuri Careva baTumis krizisSi iq ganlagebuli rusuli bazebis datovebis sanacvlod moxda. rusul bazebs, gamocdilma qarTvelma diplomatma,

msoflioSi arsebuli teroristuli safrTxis fonze axali definicia mouZebna _ "terorizmis samizne". proeqtze bazebis punqti gaxda mTavari _ sakiTxi ruseTi CarCoiTxovda

xelSekrulebis

msjelobis

drosac

xelSekrulebaSi asaxuliyo valdebuleba, rom rusuli bazebis gayvanis Semdeg saqarTveloSi sxva qveynis bazebi ar ganTavsdeboda. salome zurabiSvilma ganacxada, rom saqarTvelo ar apirebs sakuTar teritoriaze arc erTi qveynis bazis ganlagebas, magram CarCo xelSekruleba ar aris is dokumenti, romelSic msgavsi tipis gancxadeba unda gakeTdes. ("mTavari gazeTi", "dilis gazeTi", 8 maisi, 2004) salome zurabiSvilis moskovuri vizitis gaSuqebisas presam yuradReba gaamaxvila erTi SexedviT meorexarisxovan, magram axali realobis gamomxatvel detalze _ qarTvelma diplomatma ara mxolod preskonferencia, aramed oficialuri molaparakebebic qarTul enaze gamarTa, rac imdenad

uCveulo aRmoCnda ruseTis sagareo uwyebisTvis, rom Tarjimnis miwveva postfaqtum dasWirdaT. saqarTvelos premier-ministris, zurab Jvanias moskovSi vizitis mizani, oficialuri versiiT, ruseT-saqarTvelos ekonomikuri forumis Tema iyo,

xolo araoficialuriT _ afxazeTi. presaSi viTardeboda varaudi, rom am vizitzea damokidebuli 26 maiss mixeil saakaSvilis gancxadeba afxazeTis Taobaze, ris Sesaxebac igi winaswar iuwyeboda. (rogorc Cans, aWaris problemis mogvarebis eiforiam separatistuli regionebis problemis gadaWris iluziac Seqmna, magram prezidentis mier 26 maiss warmoTqmul sityvaSi

konkretuli siaxle afxazeTis Taobaze ar gaJRerebula). saqarTvelos premier67

ministrTan Sexvedrisas ruseTis sagareo uwyeba kvlav miubrunda tradiciul Temas _ moTxovnas, rom saqarTvelom ormxrivi xelSekrulebiT daadasturos mesame qveynis samxedro Crdiloatlantikuri Zalebze uaris metismetad Tqmis sakiTxi. moskovs afrTxobs sakuTar sazRvrebTan.

aliansis

miaxloeba

rogorc presa aRniSnavs, Jvaniam mianiSna ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrs, rom esec SeiZleba ganxilvis sagani gaxdes, anu saqarTvelo am mxriv

kompromisze wava, Tu ruseTi Seicvlis politikas afxazeTTan dakavSirebiT. amave dros, zurab Jvaniam Seaxsena ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrs, sergei lavrovs, rom Tbilisi mzad aris, saqarTvelodan rusuli samxedro kontingentis gayvanis sanacvlod, gaiTvaliswinos terorizmis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad moskovis interesebi da erToblivi

TbilisSi

Seiqmnas

antiteroristuli centri, Sesabamisi Zalismieri struqturiT. ("dilis gazeTi", "24 saaTi", "alia", 25-27 maisi, 2004) mixeil saakaSvilis viziti TurqeTSi, aWaraSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis Semdeg, mniSvnelovani iyo erTdroulad ramdenime faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT: TurqeTi saqarTvelos damoukideblobis pirveli dReebidanve angariSgasawevi da saimedo partnioria; aslan abaSiZesa da centrs Soris urTierTobis

garTulebisas ki ankaris poziciam saqarTvelos xelisuflebas mniSvnelovani samsaxuri gauwia da abaSiZem, didi mcdelobis miuxedavad, ver SeZlo yarsis xelSekrulebaze provocireba. datvirTva apelirebiT saqarTvelosTvis xelisuflebis imedi saxifaTo movlenebis srulad

aWaraSi

centraluri

iurisdiqciis rom

aRdgenis Semdeg TurqeT-saqarTvelos ekonomikur urTierTobasac sul sxva mieca. mixeil saakaSvilma gamoTqva, saqarTveloSi, gansakuTrebiT ki aWaris regionSi, Turquli kapitali warmatebiT imuSavebs. TurqeTis prezident ahmed sezerTan Sexvedrisas mixeil saakaSvili axali iniciativiT gamovida. man SesaZleblad miiCnia saqarTvelo-TurqeTis

damakavSirebeli sarkinigzo magistralis amoqmedeba, romelmac saqarTvelo evropas, xolo TurqeTi centralur aziasa da ruseTTan unda daakavSiros. mogvianebiT presa aRniSnavda, rom TurqeT-saqarTvelos rkinigzis mSeneblobis perspeqtivam seriozulad SeaSfoTa somxeTisa da ruseTis xelisufleba,

romelTa interesebSi, pirvel rigSi, soxumi-Tbilisis sarkinigzo magistralis amoqmedeba Sedis. vizitisas gamoikveTa, aseve, ori qveynis damakavSirebeli didi avtobanis mSeneblobis, savizo reJimis gamartivebis perspeqtiva; es ki im pirobebSi, daaCqarebs roca ara TurqeTi mxolod SesaZloa, da saqarTvelo evrokavSirisken politikuri ara miiswrafvian, sistemebis mxolod 68

ekonomikuri, TurqeTi

aramed

integrirebasac.

gaxdes

evropasTan

saqarTvelos, aramed, zogadad kavkasiis damakavSirebeli xidi. mniSvnelovani iyo mixeil saakaSvilis Sexvedra TurqeTis moqalaqeebTan _ qarTuli warmomavlobis biznesmenebTan, romlebsac man ormagi moqalaqeobis miRebisa da saqarTveloSi maTi investiciebis dacvis garantia misca. (21 maisis presa) "milionerTa desanti saqarTveloSi", "rusuli eqspedicia Tu rusuli eqspansia", "ruseTis megobruli xeli Tu ekonomikuri eqspansia", "rusuli mowyaleba Tu imperiuli ganzraxva", "rogori rusi ufro saxifaToa _ fuliani Tu ufulo?", "rusuli biznesi rusul politikas xarks uxdis", "Ria TamaSi saqarTvelosa da ruseTs Soris" _ es saTaurebi kargad gamoxatavs presis saerTo damokidebulebas saqarTvelo-ruseTis biznes-forumisadmi. "am

TviTmfrinavTan erTad ramdenime miliardi dolaris investicia "Camofrinda." maTgan saqarTveloSi _ ramdeni ganxorcieldeba, CamosvlisTanave qarTul ganacxada mxarezea ruseTis damokidebuli", TviTmfrinavidan

ekonomikisa da ganviTarebis ministrma german grefma. ("24 saaTi", 28.05.2004) grefis Sesaxeb presa gvauwyebs, rom igi "kremlis ekonomikuri agresiis erTerTi arqiteqtoria". biznes-forumi da bolo dros gaaqtiurebuli rusuli faqtori presas aZlevs safuZvels "axal realobaze" msjelobisTvis: rogorc Cans, amerikas araferi aqvs sawinaaRmdego saqarTveloSi rusuli kapitalis Semosvlis, magram vaSingtoni mtkivneulad reagirebs yvela tendenciaze, rac, maTi azriT, xels SeuSlis saqarTvelos teritoriis gavliT navTobsadenisa da, gansakuTrebiT, gazsadenis, mSeneblobas. am konteqstSi ganixileba

prezident saakaSvilis gancxadebac, rom strategiuli gazsadenebi da portebi privatizebas ar eqvemdebareba. Tumc, mas ar gamouricxavs gazsadenis proeqtSi "gazpromis" monawileoba _ wilobrivi sawarmos SeqmniT, romelSic rusul kompanias sakontrolo paketi ar eqneba. (29-31 maisis presa, 2004) zemoaRniSnuli vizitebisa da, saerTod, qarTul politikaSi ruseTis rolis gaaqtiurebis fonze, presa intensiurad ganixilavs kavkasiaSi

geopolitikuri koniunqturis Secvlisa da saqarTvelos sasargeblod misi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas. presaSi ikveTeba rusi politologebis SeSfoTeba da qarTvelebis optimizmi, Tumc, maTi mosazrebebi erT wertilSi mainc

ikveTeba _ ruseTs am viTarebaSi ar gaaCnia gansazRvruli kavkasiuri politika, aseve, man ar icis, rogor aagos axali urTierToba saqarTvelosTan. meore mxriv, figurirebs mosazrebac, rom putini saqarTveloSi kapitals cvlis; aslan abaSiZesa da soxumis axlandel reJimsac elcinisdroindel figurebTan hqondaT urTierToba. am TvalsazrisiT moskovisa da Tbilisis erTmaneTs emTxveva _ putini cdilobs finansebi poziciebi da 69

daimorCilos

gaakontrolos, saakaSvili _ saqarTvelos iurisdiqcia aRadginos. amasTan, konfliqtebis mogvareba diplomatiuri TvalsazrisiTac momgebiania ruseTisTvis, igi, bolos da bolos, Seasrulebs samSvidobo misias da dsT-is sivrcesa da, kerZod, kavkasiaSi sakuTar funqciebs daafiqsirebs. garda amisa, presaSi gvxvdeba versiac, rom SesaZloa aWarasa da afxazeTSi, ruseTis

interesis

dasakmayofileblad,

saqarTvelos

xelisuflebam

Tavisufali

ekonomikuri zona SemoiRos; amasTan, cnos afxazeTSi rusuli biznesis mier Sesyiduli obieqtebis kanoniereba. SesaZloa, amgvari axsna nawilobriv pasuxobdes kiTxvebs, romelic aqtiurad musirebs 2004 wlis maisis presaSi _ ratom Seasrula ruseTma revoluciebad wodebul procesebSi pozitiuri roli; ra daTmo saqarTvelom sanacvlod? zemoqmedeba saqarTvelos ruseTze? xelisufleba presa, prorusulia aWaris Tu aSS-m moaxdina qarTuli movlenebTan dakavSirebiT

msoflios sainformacio saSualebebis gamoxmaurebaze dayrdnobiT, aRniSnavs, rom saqarTveloSi noembrisa da maisis revoluciebis mSvidobianad dasruleba ori giganti saxelmwifos _ aSS-isa da ruseTis garigebis Sedegia.

politologi ramaz sayvareliZe saqarTvelos loialobas ruseTis ekonomikuri politikisa da kapitalis mimarT aSS-is politikas ukavSirebs. misi azriT, aseTi moqmedebiT vaSingtons surs ruseT-saqarTvelos urTierTobis simZime ar daawves aSS-s, rogorc es eqsprezident SevardnaZis dros iyo da Tbilisma aiRos sakuTar Tavze vizitisas am problemis am kolin mogvareba, mosazrebas ekonomikuri amyarebs Semdgom meqanizmebis salome gakeTebuli

CarTviT.

("rezonansi",

29.05.2004)

aSS-Si

zurabiSvilis

pauelTan

Sexvedris

gancxadebebi imis Taobaze, rom amerika ar aris winaaRmdegi saqarTveloSi arsebuli konfliqtebi ruseTis daxmarebiT mogvardes. es gancxadeba miT ufro mniSvnelovania imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom am Sexvedris ZiriTadi Tema aWaris sakiTxi, cxinvalis regionisa da afxazeTis problemebi iyo. ("mTavari gazeTi", 02.06.2004) presis analizisas TvalSisacemia erTi garemoeba _ evroatlantikuri integraciis Tema, romelic wina periodSi figurirebda sagareo prioritetebis gansazRvrisas, erTgvarad CrdilSi moeqca. rogorc aRvniSneT, evropis Temis gaaqtiurebiT saqarTvelos xelisufleba cdilobda ruseTis Tavmoyvareoba nakleb Selaxuliyo _ dasavleTisken saqarTvelos swrafvis gamo. rogorc Cans, am TvalsazrisiT "evroatlantikurma mesijma" ukve Seasrula garkveuli sainformacio da diplomatiuri funqcia. amasTan, presaSi aqtiurdeba nato-s Tema, isev da isev ruseTis TemasTan mWidro kavSirSi. 70

sazogadoebrivi azrisa da marketinguli kvlevebis asociacia "gorbis" informaciiT, SedarebiT, 2004 wels warmoebuli kidev ufro kvlevis didi monacemebiT, nawili _ 76% wina wlebTan mxars gamokiTxulTa uWers

Crdilo-atlantikur

aliansSi

saqarTvelos

gawevrianebis

ideas

(kvlevaSi

monawileobda 2000 respondenti saqarTvelos masStabiT). politolog kaxa qenqaZes 3-4 weliwadSi nato-Si saqarTvelos Sesvla realurad esaxeba,

ramdenadac, saqarTvelo nato-s sami didi samomavlo iniciativis (programa _ partnioroba TanamSromlobis 23.06.2004) nato-s Temas presaSi laitmotivad gasdevs am sakiTxTan ruseTis mwvave damokidebulebis saqarTvelos aqcenti. miuxedavad miliardiani imisa, rom ivnisSi briuselidan dabrunda, delegacia daxmarebis perspeqtiviT mSvidobisaTvis, iniciativa) xmelTaSuazRvis gadakveTis wertilSi dialogi, eqceva. stambolis ("rezonansi",

rusuli mediis yuradRebis centrSi moeqca ara imdenad es faqti, aramed, saqarTvelos Tavdacvis ministris, giorgi baramiZis, gancxadeba donori

qveynebis winaSe _ rom saqarTvelo mzadaa natos jarebs Tavisi teritoria dauTmos. amgvari gancxadeba TavisTavadac alogikuri iyo, saqarTvelos

prezidentisa da sagareo saqmeTa ministris mier araerTgzis dafiqsirebuli, diametralurad gansxvavebuli poziciis fonze. Sesabamisad, mediasac gauWirda misi axsna. politolog paata zaqareiSvilis komentariT, ministris gancxadebas iseTi datvirTva ara aqvs, rogoric prezidentis gancxadebas; meorec _ aSS-s ruseTTan urTierTobis gafuWeba ar uRirs, miT ufro, rom strategiuli TvalsazrisiT saqarTveloSi bazebis ganlageba bevrs arafers moutans da TurqeTi absoluturad akmayofilebs. ("rezonansi", 19.06.2004) amave periodSi, xangrZlivi pauzis Semdeg, ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris ganaxlda konsultaciebi samxedro sakiTxebze. Tbilisma moskovs,

samxedro bazebis nacvlad, saqarTveloSi rusul-qarTuli antiteroristuli centris Seqmna SesTavaza. samxedro eqspertebis varaudiT, CeCnur-inguSuri movlenebi ruseTs qmediTi erToblivi antiteroristuli centris Seqmnisken ubiZgebs. ruseTis Tavdacvis ministri sergei ivanovi acxadebs, rom

antiteroristuli centris Seqmna bazebis likvidaciis procesTan ar aris dakavSirebuli (Tumc, Tavis droze amgvari centris Seqmnis idea ruseTis xelisuflebas ekuTvnoda). ruseTTan samxedro molaparakebaSi warmatebis misaRwevad saqarTvelos mTavroba mzadaa oficialuradac daadasturos, rom qveynis teritoriaze ucxo qveynis bazebis ganlagebas ar apirebs. rogorc aRvniSneT, moskovSi vizitisas, saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa ministrma salome 71

zurabiSvilma ganacxada, rom saqarTvelo ar apirebs sakuTar teritoriaze arc erTi qveynis bazis ganlagebas, magram CarCo-xelSekruleba ar aris is dokumenti, romelSic msgavsi tipis gancxadeba unda gakeTdes. amjerad igi mizanSewonilad miiCnevs es pozicia CarCo xelSekrulebaSi dafiqsirdes.

("saqarTvelos respublika", "mTavari gazeTi", 23.06.2004) amasTan, vidre ruseTis bazebis gayvanis sakiTxi ar gadawydeba, saqarTvelos Soris bazebiT xelisufleba

SeuZleblad gaformebas. nato-s

miiCnevs stambulis

ruseT-saqarTvelos samitis win ruseTi

CarCo-xelSekrulebis "vaWrobas" iwyebs;

Tavdacvis ministri asaxelebs bazebis gayvanis "SeRavaTian" Tanxas _ 300 mln dolars, 500-is nacvlad. gazeT "rezonansis" informaciiT, saqarTveloSi

darCenil or rusul bazaze _ axalqalaqsa da baTumSi dasaqmebuli rusi samxedroebisa da saqarTvelos moqalaqeebis saerTo raodenoba daaxloebiT 5000-ia. samxedro eqspert irakli aladaSvilis azriT, maTi gayvanisTvis 300 mln dolaris dasaxeleba didi nawili gadaWarbebulia; adgilobrivi miT ufro, rom samxedro ruseTis

mosamsaxureTa

mosaxlea,

romelTac

moqalaqeoba miiRes da, bazebis gayvanis SemTxvevaSi Tu saqarTveloSi darCenas gadawyveten, maTze saqarTvelos xelisufleba izrunebs. ("rezonansi", 23.06.2004) nato-s samitze specialuri komunike miiRes, romelSic aRniSnulia, rom saqarTvelodan da moldovadan ruseTis bazebis gayvana "evropaSi Cveulebrivi SeiaraRebis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis" ratificirebis pirobebs Seqmnis. ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministri sergei lavrovi cdilobda aliansis moTxovnebis ignorirebas; misi ganmartebiT, "xelSekrulebis ratifikacia iuridiulad ar ukavSirdeba bazebis gayvanis process. Tumca, rusi diplomati imasac aRniSnavs, rom, "keTili nebis gamovlenis SemTxvevaSi, sakiTxi SesaZloa operatiulad mogvardes." ruseTis saxelmwifo saTaTbiroSi ki acxadeben, rom keTili neba saqarTvelos mxridan nato-Si integrirebaze uaris Tqmaa." ("mTavari gazeTi," 29.06.2004) saqarTvelom ara Tu uari Tqva nato-sken swrafvaze, aramed samitze damtkicda aliansTan saqarTvelos individualuri partniorobis programis samxedro nawili da oficialurad gaxda cnobili, rom agvistoSi saqarTvelos oficialuri vizitiT ewvevoda nato-s generaluri mdivani hop sxeferi. nato-s stambulis samitze Sedga saqarTvelos prezidentis pirispir Sexvedra aSS-is prezidentTan, romelzec, presis versiiT, bazebis gayvanis sakiTxzec isaubres. jorj buSisa da mixeil saakaSvilis Sexvedris Semdeg JurnalistebisaTvis cnobili gaxda, rom nato-s wevri qveynebis erToblivi komunike mouwodebs ruseTs daaCqaros saqarTvelodan da moldovadan 72

samxedro bazebis zogadad kavkasia,

gayvanis procesi. garda amisa, komunikeSi saqarTvelo da moxseniebulia, rogorc nato-sTvis strategiulad

mniSvnelovani regioni. nato-s aseT damokidebulebas ruseTis sagareo uwyebis xelmZRvanelma arakoreqtuli uwoda da aliansi ruseTis mimarTulebiT

samxedro gaaqtiurebaSi daadanaSaula: "es organizacia axal saxelmwifoebs iTvisebs da sul ufro aZlierebs Tavis Zalebs ruseTis sazRvrebTan. nato angariSs ar uwevs ruseTis interesebs da calmxriv gadawyvetilebebs iRebs", _ ganacxada ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma da samiti protestis niSnad datova, ise rom xeli ar moawera dokuments evroatlantikuri partniorobis ganaxlebaze. lavrovis demarSis sapasuxod, saqarTvelos prezidentma

ganacxada, rom konfliqtebi kavkasiaSi swored ruseTis Seqmnilia da mas aqvs imedi, rom prezidenti putini am sakiTxebs realisturad miudgeba. ("xvalindeli dRe", "24 saaTi", 30 ivnisi, 2004) am konteqstSi naTlad gamoCnda is realuri mizezi, ris gamoc ruseTis prezidentma, mravalgzis mipatiJebis miuxedavad, Tavi aarida samitSi monawileobas. sainteresoa, rom rusuli sainformacio portali "regnum", publikaciaSi _ man "rusuli demarSi stambulSi", ganacxada, rom konfliqtebis aRniSna, aRniSnavs, rom saqarTvelos prezidentma warmoqmnas rom mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebda

moaxerxa lavrovis demarSis Semdeg daZabuli situaciis ganmuxtva. marTalia, ruseTi, magram isic "dReisaTvis ruseT-saqarTvelos

urTierTobebi TanamSromlobisa da keTilmezoblobis principebiT warimarTeba. "regnumis" informaciiT, amis Semdeg lavrovma ganacxada, rom darbazidan misi gasvla politikuri mosazrebiT ar iyo nakarnaxevi. (Regnum.ru.29.06.04) mixeil saakaSvili samitis oficialur gaxsnamdec acxadebda, rom

"bolos da bolos warsuls unda Cabardes is dro, roca konfliqtebze saubars yvela Tavs aridebda" da miznad isaxavda konfliqtebTan dakavSirebiT nato-s wevri qveynebis informirebas. samitis amsaxvel publikaciebSi vxvdebiT informacias, rom aSS cdilobs evropis rolis gaaqtiurebas kavkasiis konfliqtebis mogvarebis procesSi. analitikosebis azriT, arsebobs ori gza _ an kavkasia unda iqces dasavleTis da ruseTis TanamSromlobis placdarmad, an aSS-isa da ruseTis (ara mxolod!) interesTa dapirispirebis zonad. presaSi viTardeba mosazrebac, rom Zlieri da keTilganwyobili saqarTvelo ruseTs samxreTiT mTel rig problemebs avtomaturad mouxsnis; kremlSic Znelad, magram acnobiereben, rom moZlierebuli saqarTvelo sasargeblo iqneba Tavad ruseTisTvis. ("xvalindeli dRe", "mTavari gazeTi", 29.06.2004)

73

politologi

ramaz

sayvareliZe,

samitis

Sedegebis

komentirebisas,

SeSfoTebas gamoTqvams im konfliqturi ganlagebis gamo, romlis mixedviTac nato da saqarTvelo erTmaneTis mxares arian, xolo ruseTi _ calke. aman SeiZleba sirTuleebi warmoSvas, rogorc afxazeTis, ise oseTis mimarTulebiT. ("rezonansi", 30.06.2004) am mosazrebis ilustraciad gamodgeba rusuli mediis gamoxmaureba stambulis samitze _ gaRizianeba ara mxolod bazebis sakiTxiT, aramed buSisa da saakaSvilis pirispir saubriT da im faqtiTac, rom

protokoliT gaTvaliswinebuli fotos gadaRebisas buSi demonstratiulad daudga gverdiT qarTvel kolegas. stambulis samitis "damsaxurebaa" ruseTis federaciis uSiSroebis

sabWos mdivnis, igor ivanovis gancxadeba, rom "xelisuflebis Secvla jer saqarTveloSi da Semdeg aWaraSi, ar yofila arc vardebis da arc xaverdovani revolucia. es iyo xelisuflebis ZaliT Secvla da orive SemTxvevaSi

sisxlisRvris Tavidan acileba ruseTis damsaxurebaa." ("mTavari gazeTi", 01.07. 2004) nato-s warmatebad stambulis miiCnevs; samits qarTuli werda, presa rom qarTuli prezidentma diplomatiis saakaSvilma iwyeba "nato

"dilis

gazeTi"

TurqeTi media-teqnologiebiT daipyro, igi srulyofilad flobs axali epoqis teqnologiebs. sruliad prezident etapi. saakaSvilis dagvWirdeba SefasebiT, dro, "saqarTvelosTvis moTmineba"; axali dagvWirdeba

bileTia evrokavSirSi Sesasvlelad." ("dilis gazeTi", "24 saaTi", "mTavari gazeTi", 01.07.2004) aqve aRvniSnavT, rom nato-s samitze sapatio stumris statusiT miwveuli mixeil saakaSvilisTvis gaRrmavebis stambulSi yofna mniSvnelovani presis iyo TurqeTTan TurqeTis

urTierTobis xelisuflebam demonstrireba

TvalsazrisiTac.

SefasebiT,

saqarTvelosTan moaxdina; mixeil

gansakuTrebuli saakaSvils

damokidebulebis erT-erTma

stambulis

municipalitetma sazeimo Sexvedra mouwyo, vardebiTa da koncertiT. Tavis mxriv, saakaSvilma, frangul "le mond"-Tan interviuSi, ganacxada, rom evropam unda Seafasos TurqeTis Rirsebebi da am Sefasebaze religiurma sakiTxma gavlena ar unda moaxdinos. TurqeTis evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis SemTxvevaSi, saqarTvelo sezerTan. mas avtomaturad gadawyda mihyveba. stambulSi Turq myof saqarTvelos askaciani prezidents oficialuri Sexvedra hqonda TurqeTis prezident axmed nejef Sexvedraze da saqarTveloSi biznesmenTa da

delegaciisa

TurqeTis

premier-ministris

Camosvla

biznesforumis

gamarTva. ("saqarTvelos respublika", 29.06.2004) 74

nato-s samitis Temis gaanalizebisas gazeT "axal versiaSi" yuradReba miipyro aseTma mosazrebam: "ruseTze rom aRaraferi vTqvaT, amerika dasayrdens ara mxolod kavkasiaSi, aramed mTlianad axlo aRmosavleTSi eZebs. qarTvel eqspertTa erTi nawilis mtkicebiT, ukve SemuSavebulia dasavluri gegma am procesSi fereidneli qarTvelebis CarTvis TvalsazrisiT. amerikas surs

iranSi fexis sabrZolvelad saqarTvelos specialur

mosakideblad da musulmanuri fundamentalizmis Zlieri placdarmi ukve Seqmnas. misca daudasturebeli am

winaaRmdeg

informaciiT, fereidnel dasayrdenis

xelisuflebam

Tanxmoba aseve,

procesSi

qarTvelTa CarTvasTan dakavSirebiT. am mizniT, qarTuli mxare fereidanSi ideologiur muSaobas daiwyebs. amerikuli

kuTxiT ganixilebian TurqeTSi mcxovrebi lazebic." ("axali versia", 28.06.2004) amave gazeTSi, publikaciaSi, es prezident saakaSvilis ukve saTaursa iranuli da voiaJisadmi miZRvnil mosazreba qvesaTaurSi figurirebs:

"dasavluri interesebi fereidanSi", "amerika iranSi politikur dasayrdens eZebs". publikaciis lidSi ki vkiTxulobT: "saxelisuflo kuluarebSi"

saubari daiwyo imaze, rom saqarTvelo iranSi dasavlur interesebs lobirebs. laparakia fereidanSi erTgvari samxedro-politikuri placdarmis Seqmnaze, romelsac amerika islamisturi fundamentalizmis winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad gamoiyenebs. saqarTvelos am gegmaSi mTavari ideologis funqcia akisria." politologi ramaz sayvareliZe, am mosazrebis komentirebisas, ar gamoricxavs "fereidnuli kartis" gaTamaSebas, magram fiqrobs, rom buSis administracia am gegmidan maincadamainc did Sedegs ar unda elodes; fereidnuli diaspora iranSi ar warmoadgens iseT Zlier warmonaqmns, rom man seriozuli rolis Sesruleba SeZlos: "Tuki Tbilissa da moskovs Soris bolo periodSi damTbar urTierTobebs gaviTvaliswinebT, ar aris gamoricxuli, saqarTvelo iranSi ara mxolod amerikis, aramed ruseTis interesebis lobistadac mogvevlinos," _ aRniSnavs sayvareliZe. misive TqmiT, "kavkasiis regionSi Znelad moiZebneba qveyana, romelsac erTnairad miesvleba rogorc iranTan da TurqeTTan, ise amerikasTan da ruseTTan. swored am faqtorebis gaTvaliswinebiT, saqarTvelos Tavisuflad SeuZlia politikuri dambalanseblis funqciebi sakuTar Tavze aiRos." ("axali versia", 09.07.2004) es versia uniadago ar Cans imis gaTvaliswinebiTac, rom nato-s samitis wina periodSi saqarTvelos telearxebi ("mze", "imedi", "rusTavi-2") erTmaneTs aswrebdnen fereidnelebsa Tu lazebze gadaRebuli axali videofilmebis

Cvenebas. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom mixeil saakaSvilis stumrobam fereidanSi

75

Zlieri

emociuri foni Seqmna da es viziti ar gadaido agvistoSi cxinvalis da putinis araformaluri Sexvedra moskovSi, nato-s

regionSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis miuxedavadac. saakaSvilisa

samitis logikuri gagrZeleba iyo. Sexvedram, presis informaciiT, dagegmilze gacilebiT met xans gastana; saakaSvili cdilobda putinis darwmunebas, rom saqarTveloSi nato-s samxedro baza ar amoqmeddeba, ruseTis bazebs

"adamianuri pirobebis sruli dacviT gaacilebs" da rom ruseTs SeuZlia saqarTvelosTan erTobliv antiteroristul centrSi iTanamSromlos. rogorc Cans, putinis darwmuneba nawilobriv mainc moxerxda, radgan saakaSvilis gancxadebiT, kremli Tanaxmaa saqarTvelos moqalaqeebisTvis savizo reJimi gaamartivos. sakiTxTan uSiSroebis ruseTis prezidenti rom ki acxadebs, rom mzadaa da ganixilos saqarTvelos erToblivi

saqarTvelos konkretuli winadadebebi konfliqtis (cxinvalis) mowesrigebis dakavSirebiT; sabWo ruseTis uSiSroebis praqtikuli nabijebis sabWo

daiwyeben

gadadgmas

antiteroristuli centris Sesaqmnelad. presis publikaciebSi ar konkretdeba, SeTanxmdnen Tu ara prezidentebi cxinvalis konfliqtSi ruseTis srul Caurevlobaze, Tumc, mixeil saakaSvili acxadebs, rom "putini keTilganwyobilia da osebs ruseTis Carevis imedi aRar unda hqondeT". gazeT "izvestia"-sTvis micemul interviuSi igi ambobs, rom ori qveynis urTierTobaSi imaze mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi arsebobs, vidre "samxreT oseTia". amiT saakaSvili urTierTobis kokoiTis reJims mianiSnebs, rom moskovisTvis versiis"

cxinvalis regioni ar aris iseTi strategiuli mniSvnelobis, kremls rom dasavleTTan gafuWebad uRirdes.MgazeT "axali komentariT, "ruseTs nato-s kompleqsi aqvs gadasalaxi da, rogorc Cans, prezidenti umtkivneulod saakaSvili cdilobs putins es problema 05.07.2004)G maqsimalurad yuradRebas

moagvarebinos."

("axali

versia",

SevaCerebT erT niuanszec: erTaderTi dokumenti, romelTan dakavSirebiTac dsT-is moskovis araoficialuri samitis monawile prezidentebma oficialuri pozicia gamoxates, yazaxeTis iniciativa iyo _ euTo-s saqmianobis kritikulad Sefasebis moTxovna. es winadadeba ruseTmac moiwona. saqarTvelosa da

azerbaijanis prezidentebma ki euTo-s sawinaaRmdego gancxadebis miRebas mxari ar dauWires. K 2004 wlis oqtomberSi, saqarTvelos prezidenti mixeil saakaSvili, am wlis bolo sagareo vizitiT, ewvia baltiispireTis respublikebs _ estoneTs, latviasa da litvas. vizitebis amsaxvel publikaciebSi ikveTeba, rom baltiis qveynebTan mWidro TanamSromloba evrostruqturebSi saqarTvelos integraciis 76

erT-erTi realuri garantiaa. vizitebis Sedegebidan, rogorc Tavad prezidenti mixeil saakaSvili aRniSnavs, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania litvaSi xelmowerili deklaracia regionuli TanamSromlobisa da evropuli da evroatlantikuri integraciis sferoSi Tanadgomis Sesaxeb: "es imas niSnavs, rom nato-sa da evropis kavSirSi lobisti gagviCnda... Cven erToblivi iniciativiT gamovdivarT _ 3+3 formatiT Seiqmnas sami kavkasiuri da baltiispireTis sami saxelmwifos qveyana axali regionuli rom TanamSromlobis interesebi meqanizmi. evrokavSirSi es meqanizmi gaaJReros,

somxeTs, saqarTvelosa da azerbaijans yovelmxriv waadgeba. baltiis sami dagvexmareba, Cveni davuaxlovdeT evropas da yvela evropul organizaciaSi Cveni xma mudmivad ismodes." ("24 saaTi", 15-16,10.2004) politologi soso cincaZe yuradRebas

amaxvilebs im faqtorze, rom nato-s standartebTan miaxloebis TvalsazrisiT baltiis qveynebs didi gamocdileba aqvT. gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom ukrainaSi prorusuli Zalebis gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi Zalian

mniSvnelovnad Seicvleba am regionSi geostrategiuli paseansi. ("rezonansi", 13.10.2004) yovelive zemoTqmuli saSualebas gvaZlevs davaskvnaT: "vardebis revoluciis" Semdgom periodSi sainformacio velSi diskursi _ saqarTvelo-ruseTi-aSS TiTqos arsebiTad ar Secvlila, magram gansxvaveba mainc TvalSisacemia; tradiciuli "rusuli faqtori" isev ZalaSi rCeba, magram ruseTis yovlisSemZleobis fsiqologiur da sainformacio imijs TandaTan enacvleba axali rakursi _ saqarTvelos problemebis gasaRebi aRar Zevs mxolod ruseTSi; garda imisa, uwevs rom ara mxolod saqarTvelo, Tavis aramed mxriv, dasavleTic aucileblad angariSs ruseTis faqtors,

ruseTsac uxdeba saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi interesisa da, pirovnulad, mixeil saakaSvilis faqtoris gaTvaliswineba. saqarTvelos prezidenti, erTis mxriv, Tavs uflebas aZlevs "saxeli daarqvas" ruseTis damokidebulebas

saqarTvelos mimarT (magaliTad gamodgeba Tundac misi gancxadeba nato-s stambulis samitze), meore mxriv, paralelurad avrcelebs mesijs, rom mas yovelTvis aqvs prezident dialogisa da putinis pragmatuli politikis, imedi. masTan putini,

konstruqciuli

megobruli

urTierTobis

ZiriTadad, pozitiur konteqstSi figurirebs, realisti politikosis imijiT. rusuli mxaris "Zveli mentalobis" tipiur magaliTad ki, gamodgeba rusi parlamentaris mier qarTveli JurnalistebisTvis naTqvami fraza: "Cvenma vovam Tqvens buSs afxazeTi da samxreT oseTi Caabara." ("24 saaTi", 11.06.2004) es fraza movixmeT kidev erT tendenciaze misaniSnebladac _ presaSi (2004 wlis 77

agvistos movlenebamde) marTlac igrZnoba ruseTisa da aSS-is "garigebis" meSveobiT konfliqtebis mogvarebis imedi. saqarTvelo-ruseTis konfrontaciisa da saqarTvelo-aSS-is partniorobis dasabalanseblad wina planze iwevs ekonomikuri faqtori, rac, presaSi

Seqmnili suraTis mixedviT, momgebiania samive mxarisa da, plus, evropisTvis. saqarTvelos "proevropuli" aqcentis gaZliereba ara mxolod ruseTis gaRizianebis (umTavresad, nato-sken saqarTvelos miswrafebis gamo)

gamaneitralebeli mesijia, aramed igi, amasTan, gamoxatavs, saqarTvelos mimarT evropis interesis gaaqtiurebasac. disertaciis am nawilSi SevecadeT SeZlebisdagvarad farTod

warmogvedgina presis sagareo-politikuri aqcentebi, ramdenadac, saqarTvelo iyo da aris qveyana, romlis arsebobasa 2004 da ganviTarebas, pirvel arsebiTad, naxevarSi _ gansazRvravs aWaraSi, saerTaSoriso ki _ koniunqtura. cxinvalis wlis

agvistoSi

regionSi

ganviTarebul

movlenebTan

ruseTis, aSS-isa da evropis mimarTebas ganvixilavT Sesabamis qveTavebSi _ "aWaris movlenebi _ "vardebis revoluciis" _ logikuri gagrZeleba" jorj da

"konfliqturi regionebi"; xolo monakveTi vizitis rezonansi presaSi" asaxavs saqarTvelos CarTvis perspeqtivas. ·

"saqarTveloSi geopolitikur

buSis

axal

realobaSi

destabilizaciis "sainformacio uzrunvelyofa"

"Cemi kolegebis arcTu umniSvnelo nawili seqtember-oqtomberSi did sensaciebsa da cxel-cxel reportaJebs gegmavs... iwereba "serialebi" haerSi datrialebul denTis sunze, saeWvo SenaerTebze, xalxis azvirTebul talRebsa da areulobebze... Jurnalistebi mondomebiT cdiloben, rogorme daaCqaron sasurveli realobis dadgoma... bevri publikacia Tu satelevizio gadacema xalxis danamuseba da Segulianebaa _ amdens vlaparakobT, devebTan mebrZol gmirebad gsaxavT da, aba Tqven iciT, ar gamogvWraT yeli, saSemodgomod mosavlis aRebas ar gadahyveT da "destabilizaciis" gareSe ar dagvtovoTo...", _ werda 2000 wlis ivlisSi, gazeT "dros" saTauri mTavari _ redaqtori, marine

gigineiSvili,

publikaciaSi,

romlis

"kolegebo,

"nanatri"

destabilizacia igvianebs!" _ pirdapir SexebaSia Cveni sadisertacio naSromis am qveTavis dasaxelebasTan. (96) "JurnalistebSi", rogorc Cans, marine gigineiSvili Tavis kolegebs, gamomcemlebsa da gazeTebis xelmZRvanelebs

78

gulisxmobs, warmarTva.

romelTa

prioritetia

dagegmva

da

saredaqcio

politikis

qveTavis amgvari dasaTaureba CvenTvis TviTmizani ar yofila; arc Cven da arc moxmobili publikaciis avtori, ar vgulisxmobT, rom destabilizaciuri procesebi KJurnalistebis surviliTa da fantaziiT iyo inicirebuli; magram orive SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba, yovel konkretul etapze, detabilizaciisTvis sainformacio fonis Seqmnis tendencia. 2000-2002 wlebSi destabilizaciis dinamika aseT suraTs qmnida: o I wre _ 2000 weli _ prezident eduard SevardnaZis arCevisTanave dawyebuli, misi da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis anu, diskreditaciis noember-dekembris kampaniidan _

"Semodgomis buntamde";

destabilizaciamde",

"energetikul

o II wre _ 2001 weli _ wlis damdegs pankisSi ruseTis samxedro operaciis dawyebis safrTxidan kvlav "Semodgomis destabilizaciamde", anu e.w.

"noembris revoluciamde"; o III wre ­ 2002 weli _ pankisis permanentuli safrTxisa da ruseTis agresiis fonze _ kvlav sainformacio samzadisi "Semodgomis destabilizaciisaTvis". destabilizaciis scenarebi am wlebSi daaxloebiT erTnairi dramaturgiiT viTardeboda _ "moqmedi vulkani" _ pankisi, afxazeTi, kodori da ruseTis safrTxis mudmivi sainformacio aJiotaJi; "saTadarigo variantebi" _ samegrelo, samcxe-javaxeTi, socialuri ukmayofilebis gamoxatvisa da

demokratiis dacvis sababiT gamarTuli aqciebi, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis aqtiurobiTa da Sesabamisi sainformacio uzrunvelyofiT... 2000 wels _ aqciebi: rkinigzis gadaketva, feroSenadnobTa qarxnis

muSebis gaficva, "rusTavi 2"-is gadacema "60 wuTisa" da misi avtoris akaki gogiCaiSvilis Tavisuflebis "zviadistebis" dasacavad, moTxovniT; gaqceva sasamarTlo feTqebadi reformis samegrelo mxardasaWerad, ("qobalias presis

sindromi"); devnilebi,

cixis

respublikuri

saavadmyofodan;

mravalSvilianebi saxelmwifo kancelariis misadgomebTan; wlis miwuruls _ "energetikuli bunti" politikuri moTxovnebiT... 2001 wels _ sainformacio fonis momzadeba pankisSi ruseTis samxedro operaciis provocirebisTvis; muxrovanis amboxi; giorgi sanaias mkvlelobiT gamowveuli permanentuli aqciebi; devnilebis, erTi mravalSvilianebis, _ isev meanabreebisa 2"-isa da da a.S. aqciebi; mxriv "rusTavi presis

Tavisuflebis dacvis sababiT dawyebuli masobrivi mRelvareba (studentobis aqtiurobiT), gadazrdili "noembris revoluciaSi" _ mTavrobisa da 79

prezidentis

gadadgomis

moTxovniT

(rasac,

sabolood,

Sedegad

mohyva

parlamentis Tavmjdomaris, zurab Jvanias gadadgoma da Ss ministris, kaxa TargamaZis gadayeneba Tanamdebobidan); meore mxriv _ kodoris, pankisisa da afxazeTis safrTxis ukiduresi gawvaveba... 2002 weli _ pankisis garSemo situaciis kidev ufro daZabva "wrTvnisa da aRWurvis programis" pasuxad, rusebis desanti kodorSi; dapirispirebis piki "moqkavSirSi", Jvaniasa da misi gundis gadasvla opoziciaSi; adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis saomari saarCevno kampaniis gamoyeneba situaciis pankisis, dasaZabavad, kodorisa da bataliebi centralur saarCevno komisiasTan; bunti kojris batalionSi; kvlav moqmedebebis provocireba erTdroulad

afxazeTis mimarTulebiT... destabilizaciur procesebs saerTo fons uqmnida sainformacio amindis Semqmneli mediis meSveobiT Camoyalibebuli stereotipi _ rom saqarTvelo arSemdgari saxelmwifoa, rom saqarTvelo saSiSi qveyanaa. 2003 wels, "vardebis revoluciis" winaperiodSi, winaswar iqmneboda foni, rom saqarTveloSi aucileblad gayalbdeboda arCevnebi da xalxi quCaSi unda gamosuliyo; "xalxis quCaSi gamoyvana advilia, Seyvana ki _ Zneli... 1991 wels gamoyvanili mosaxleoba jerac gareT aris", _ ambobda yofili saxelmwifo ministri da qristianul-demokratiuli kavSiris lideri vaJa lorTqifaniZe, ("axali versia", 02.06.2003). ivlisSi, saqarTveloSi jeims beikeris vizitma, qarTul daxuruli politikur Sexvedris sinamdvileSi Semdeg cnobili mniSvnelovnad gaxda, rom Secvala beikerma movlenebis saqarTveloSi

ganviTareba. prezidentTan da opoziciuri partiebis liderebTan ramdenime saparlamento arCevnebis Catarebis amerikuli sqema Camoitana da am sqemis pirobebze mxareebis dayolieba moaxerxa. rogorc presa aRniSnavda, "beikeris Camosvlam opozicias destabilizaciis gegma CauSala" da misma vizitma kidev erTxel daamtkica, rom amerikis ZiriTadi mizani saqarTveloSi aris

stabiluri saxelmwifos Seqmna. * presaSi akumulirebuli mZafri emociuri muxti da erTgvari "sasignalo gasrolis" rols asrulebs. destabilizaciis destabilizaciis

molodini xSirad win uswrebs sazogadoebis adekvatur ganwyobas da TiTqos

dramaturgiis ganviTarebas, mis sainformacio uzrunvelyofasa da rezonanss, ganvixilavT 2000 wlis magaliTze, radgan ara mxolod am wels ganviTarebuli procesebi, aramed maTTan presis mimarTeba uaRresad saintereso da sagulisxmo suraTs qmnis. 80

"erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi socialur afeTqebas unda velodeT", _ erTi wliT adre akonkretebs "rezonansi" destabilizaciis TariRs da iqve, pirvel gverdze, anSlagirebuli saTaurebiT amyarebs am prognozs _ "haerSi denTis suni sul ufro da ufro mZafrdeba", "SevardnaZes socialuri afeTqebisken mivyavarT" ("rezonansi", 22.05.2000); "Semodgomaze "bunti" atydeba" ("axali

Taoba", 31.05.2000); "zedmiwevniT bevri aqcia moewyo gasul kviras. arc Tu usafuZvlod Cndeba eWvi, rom es viRacas awyobs" ("dro", 02.05.2000). sagazeTo statiebsa da "t/k "rusTavi 2"-is eTerSi musirebas iwyebs "impiCmentis" cneba. destabilizaciis wydeba, sayovelTao dramaturgiuli muxti xazis ar ganviTareba arc zafxulSi amitomac, daZabulobis unda ganeitraldes.

zafxulSi wina planze iwevs samegrelos faqtori. prezidentis rwmunebuli samegreloSi, bondo jiqia, regionSi situaciis daZabvas garkveul destabilizaciur Zalebs abralebs da mTavrobis sxdomaze gadadgomas iTxovs (jer kidev aprilSi gazeTi "alia" werda, rom xelisuflebis mTavari berketi jerjerobiT tyeSi gaxiznuli "TuTaSxiebia"). zafxulSi es berketi _ megreli abragebis faqtori _ eliavas mkvlelobis garSemo atexili sainformacio aJiotaJis fonze "amuSavda". "samegrelo ar wamoegeba am ankesze!" _ ganucxada Jurnalistebs saprotesto akaki eliavas da Zmam. zafxulSive kidev erTxel gaaqtiurda TiToeuls, aqciebisa gamosvlebis talRa, romelTagan

bunebrivia, Tavisi gamomwvevi obieqturi mizezebi hqonda, magram, SesaZloa, "saSemodgomo speqtaklis repeticiis" funqciac ekisreboda. miuxedavad imisa, rom "politikuri Semodgoma" SedarebiT mSvidobianad daiwyo, met-naklebad mSvidi gazeTis, "axali Taobis" mimomxilvelebic ki saSemodgomo destabilizacias gardauval movlenad miiCneven. es termini

magiuri paroliviTaa, romelic, Tundac minavluli, mudmivad unda arsebobdes, rom nebismier saWiro momentSi iyos SesaZlebeli misi gaaqtiureba, miT ufro, daTqmul dros. "jer simSvidea. saSemodgomo mRelvareba albaT gardauvalia, magram is saSiSi ar aris, Tu gansazRvrul normebSi Cajda. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aucilebelicaa, magram saSiSroebis gamoricxvis SesaZlebloba ar arsebobs _ areulobis Seqmnis foni arsebobs", _ erTgvari ironizebiT wers "axali Taobis" Jurnalisti ani mirotaZe. (137). saSemodgomo aCrdilTa" Tu destabilizaciis "marad preludiis roli isev "samegrelos respublikuri sindromma" Seasrula, romelsac maleve mohyva patimrebis gaqceva. "warsulis guSindelTa" gaqceva cixis

saavadmyofodan, SesaZloa, saqarTveloSi mniSvnelovan politikur procesTa katalizatorad iqces, _ werda "dilis gazeTi" saredaqcio statiaSi, _ 81

"qarTuli Sedegad

demokratiis" daingres, Tu

Senoba

SeiZleba

Zlieri

politikuri dasavleT an

miwisZvris

"qobalias

sindromi"

saqarTveloSi SeiaraRebul

(upirvelesad

samegreloSi)

traibalizmSi

gadaizrdeba

eqscesebSi gamovlindeba." ("dilis gazeTi", "qobalias sindromi", 3 oqtomberi, 2000). "dilis gazeTis" imave nomerSi (isev saredaqcio statiiT!) patimrebis gaqcevis Tema sxva rakursiTac Cndeba: "ar gamovricxav, rom es SemTxveva bevrad ufro seriozuli cixis gegmis nawili iyos", _ ganacxada parlamentis qveynis Tavmjdomarem saavadmyofodan patimrebis gaqcevis Taobaze.

umaRles sakanonmdeblo organoSi eWvi aravis epareba, rom kviris movlenebi qveyanaSi politikuri viTarebis ukiduresad daZabvaze aris gaTvlili. amas zurab Jvaniac adasturebs: "gaangariSeba destabilizaciaze iyo", _ acxadebs igi... rezo adamia ufro kategoriulia da fiqrobs, rom gaqcevis mizani

xelisuflebis damxoba da Semdgom ukve qveynis saTaveSi mosvla iyo, rac bunebrivia, gare Zalebis daxmarebis gareSe warmoudgenelia." (99). presis analitikur publikaciebze dayrdnobiT, oqtombris miwuruls

saqarTvelos politikur scenaze aseTi suraTi ixateboda: o 2000 wlis gazafxulze gamokveTili axalgazrda Tu es reformatorTa ufro Sors _ yovlisSemZleobis imiji da saprezidento xelisuflebis diskreditaciis safrTxe, wavalT, faqtobrivad, SeiZleba uvnebelyofilia. rom varaudebiT

warmovidginoT, eduard mier

"dramaturgiuli 80%-iani mis naadrevi daeWveba

xazi"

saprezidento arCevnebis axalgazrda

arCevnebSi

SevardnaZis "brWyalebis"

gamarjveba, realobaSi, gamoCena,

damTavrebisTanave reformatorTa

dasavleTis

aRmasrulebeli da sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis mkveTri dapirispireba (saxelmwifo ministris gadayenebis CaTvliT), saSemodgomo

destabilizaciis safrTxis aJitireba da Semdeg ganviTarebuli procesebi _ saparlamento umravlesobaSi bzaris gaCenidan moyolebuli misi

rRvevis CaTvliT _ iyo komponentebi erTi mTliani scenarisa (romelic daigegma an qveynisave SigniT, an, mis farglebs gareT). o bolo sadaveebs Jvaniac. o politikur asparezze gamoCenili "axali moZraoba" (daviT gamyreliZisa da levan gaCeCilaZis tandemiT) aRiqmeba rogorc SesakrebTa 82 xanebSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis floben mTavari prezidenti Sedegi da _

destabilizacia marTvadia! marTvadia umravlesobac da misi marTvis gardamavali upiratesobiT zurab

gadanacvleba, romlis mizani _ umravlesobis dabalanseba, nawilobriv miRweuladac SeiZleba CaiTvalos, Tumc realur politikur Zalad an arsebiT siaxled "axali moZraoba" jer ar aRiqmeba. o saerTo procesebis fonze vakis maJoritari iZens deputatis ZalTa arCevnebi

mniSvnelovan

politikur

datvirTvas

dabalansebis

TvalsazrisiT da am fonze, xmauriani gancxadebebiTa da "mxedrionis" xelaxali aRzevebis safrTxiT, politikur avanscenaze isev gamodis jaba ioseliani. o Zlierdeba foni saparlamento respublikis cnebis gaSinaurebisTvis. oRond wina periodisagan gansxvavebiT, roca es Tema zurab Jvaniasgan inicirebulad iTvleboda, figurirebs mosazrebac, rom, SesaZloa, Tavad prezidentsac awyobdes mis Semdeg mmarTvelobis es forma, raTa aicilos ufunqciod darCena, memkvidreze pasuxismgebloba da, sxva Tu araferi, istoriaSi darCes saqarTvelos bolo prezidentad. daaxloebiT aseTi suraTiT iwureboda destabilizaciisaTvis daTqmuli periodis _ Semodgomis ori Tve. Sina Tu gare stres-faqtorebis: patimrebis gaqcevis, "mxedrionis" gaaqtiurebis, CeCenTa mier sazRvris darRvevis, samxedro bazebisa da savizo reJimis problemebis gamwvavebis miuxedavad, gaCnda imedi, rom SeiZleba destabilizacia aRar Sedges. oqtombris miwuruls, TiTqos niSani misceso, viTareba mkveTrad Seicvala. gazeT "7 dReSi" gamoqveynebuli erTi statia, romelic TiTqos korufciis Temas exeba ("qarTul korufcias pinoCetiviT patiosani generlebi sWirdeba"), uneblied (ar gamovricxavT, rom sagangebodac) Sifravs im taqtikur xazss, romliTac unda ganviTardes movlenebi. movixmobT vrcel citatas: "korumpirebuli qarTuli saxelmwifos SemTxvevaSi es scenari ase gamoiyureba: ganviTardes procesebi logikuri gziT _ xazinis dacarieleba, saxelmwifo struqturebis kvdoma da dezintegracia, stagnacia aiZulebs ekonomikaSi gamovides da quCaSi biurokratiuli da Camoagdos wnexis gaZliereba msgavsi mosaxleobas ram moxda

mTavroba.

bulgareTSi, rumineTSi da sul axlaxan iugoslaviaSi. meore varianti _ korufciisagan iZulebiT gankurneba. swored iZulebiT da veranairad sxvanairad, milionian radgan is adamianebi, iSeneben da vinc korumpirebuli bankebSi

urTierTobebiT

sasaxleebs

Sveicariis

angariSebi aqvT gaxsnili, aseT urTierTobebs nebiT ar gawyveten. piriqiT, isini sakmao damcav meqanizmebs floben da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi aamoqmedeben kidec... cecxlsaSiS nazavs saxelad daerqmeva saqarTvelos gaTavisufleba proamerikuli marionetuli xelisuflebisagan, erovnuli xelisuflebis 83

mosvla klanebis

saTaveSi,

WeSmariti da

faseulobebisa xelSewyobiT

da

tradiciebis

aRdgena.

anu,

dafinansebiT

"gvaCuqeben"

nacionalisturi

ritorikiT aRWurvil mTavrobas, romlisac iqneba saxeli, saxravi ki visic iyo, imasve darCeba. aseT meqanizmebs floben korufciis kaTodebi da anodebi: Sss, prokuratura, uSiSroeba, kancelariis nawili. finansebs maTTan erTad flobs is, vinc am uwyebebis daxmarebiT Soulobs fuls... ramdenime axalgazrda progresulad ganwyobili parlamentari da

imdenive progresuli politikosi aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebaSi aminds ar qmnian. isini qarTul politikur ukuneTSi oblad mocimcime cicinaTelebiviT gamoiyurebian... ver iqna da ver gamoixata qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azri

masobriv demonstraciebSi da mitingebSi... ase, rom jer kidev gausvrel da gulgautexel politikosebs erTi gza rCebaT: datovon saparlamento da samTavrobo komfortuli savarZlebi da gavidnen xalxSi... daexmaron rigiT moqalaqeebs daZlion SiSis da gulgrilobis sindromi, daarwmunon sakuTar ZalebSi. aseT SemTxvevaSi miviRebT rumineTis da sxvaTa variants." (121). xelisuflebaze bolomde arc mowyobis axali "revoluciuri Temas Setevis" scenari Tumc, am rom Temis SeiniRbos da zemoT ukve naxsenebi ukve iugoslaviis,

"demokratiuli qveynis" imiji dairRves, parlamenti modelis aaqtiurebs.

qveynis

ganviTarebac

destabilizaciis wisqvilze asxams wyals, radgan saparlamento respublikis SemoRebis aucileblobas am ideis mxardamWerebi da masmedia xsnian

saprezidento mmarTvelobis krizisiT, ufro metic, diqtaturaSi gadazrdiT. noemberi ori faqtoris _ zamTrisa da energokrizisis dakavSirebam bunebrivad miiyvana saSemodgomo destabilizacia pikis wertilTan.

energoblokebis isteriuli CarTva-gamorTvisa da energokrizisis Cinovnikuri garCevebis masmediis procesze aRar SevCerdebiT, (gansakuTrebiT magram yuradRebas 2"-is, isev ipyrobs da

gulmodgineba

"rusTavi

"aliasa"

"rezonansis") krizisis dinamikis daZabvisTvis. TbilisSi, xazgasmiT · vakeSi dawyebuli rom am aqciis organizatorebi aramc da da monawileebi ara aqvs amtkicebdnen, gamosvlebs aramc

politikuri xasiaTi. presaSi ki aseTi suraTia: "alia", 13 noemberi, "xelisufleba socialur naRmzea": "dRes mosaxleoba eleqtroenergias Sansia saWiro imisa, iTxovs, xval da mazeg socialuri SemTxvevaSi mTavrobis gadadgomas parlamentis Secvlas. politikuri moiTxovs, mokled, zeg didi

parlamentis garekvas rom SeZaxilis

problemebiT gawamebulma protestic

mosaxleobam gamoxatos. 84

socialuri protestidan socialur buntamde nabiji faqtobrivad aRar darCa. socialuri bunti ki politikuri buntis pirdapirproporciulia." (127). · "rezonansi", 15 noemberi, "Cabnelebuli Tbilisi revoluciisTvis

emzadeba", "eduard damabnelebeli" uSuqobas Seewireba!" _ acxadebdnen mopiketeebi." pirvel gverdze morige redaqtoris (levan ramiSvilis) tradiciul

CanawerSi prezidentis saxe asea parodirebuli: "eduard damabnelebeli" _ ase monaTles guSin vakelebma Cveni didi mbrZanebeli da saWeTmpyrobeli. zogma gauzrdelma da xuliganma imis Tqmac ki gabeda, eg damabnelebeli ki ara, bneliao. viRacam miugo, ras atyda erTi ambob, bneli rogor iqneba, saferSlo aqvs sicili da xorxoci. prezidentis Rirsebis

damTavrebulio. ·

SelaxvasTan gvqonda saqme". (149) "rezonansi", 16 noemberi, "revolucia cota xniT gadaido", "Zalauflebis nawili momitingeTa da mopiketeTa sabWoebs gadaecaT". (uneblied Cndeba socialisturi · revoluciis asociacia, cnobili lozungiT _

"Zalaufleba sabWoebs!"). "rezonansi", 18 noemberi, "revoluciidan revoluciamde erTi nabijia". "revoluciebis" qvemoT ori fotoa ganTavsebuli: erTi saarqivo,

SavTeTri, 1991-92 wlebis Setakeba rusTavelze; meore _ axali, feradi, kadrSi _ aqcia, quCaSi danTebuli koconi da xergili. pirvel gverdzeve _ karikatura "mefe SiSvelia!!!" ­ "mefis", anu, prezidentis, anu, sabWoTa kavSiris gmiris varskvlaviani diqtatoris, ferxTiT dayrili usulo bavSvebi. iqvea morige redaqtoris, levan ramiSvilis Canaweri _ "guSin qveyanas bavSvebi marTavdnen": "...axla ukve cxovelebis jgro varT da ara eri, radgan amdeni borotebis mere mxolod udenobiT gavgiJdiT da gavcofdiT. arc erTi idea arafrad ar Rirs. miT ufro, arc erTi bavSvis sicocxled ar Rirs deni. magram xval rom karikaturaze gamosaxuli suraTi realoba gaxdes, Cven Cvens gayinul soroebSi SeviyuJebiT." (150) · "alia", 16 noemberi, "bunti morCa... geSinodeT!" pirvel gverdze

fotomontaJi _ marcxniv, zviad gamsaxurdia momitingeTa fonze; marjvniv _ eduard SevardnaZe aqciis fonze. "SevardnaZis xelisuflebas msgavsi krizisi (128). 85 arasodes hqonia. socialuri bunti faqtobrivad saxezea.

socialuri buntidan politikur daumorCileblobamde ki erTi nabijia".

·

"alia", 23 noemberi, pirvel gverdze, did Sav fonze (gverdis meoTxedze), uzarmazari SriftiT awyobilia kuTxeSi ori ki magiuri pawia sityva _ "saxelmwifo "deputatis

gadatrialeba?!",

marcxniv

minaweria

skandaluri gancxadeba"; saTauris Sesabamisi masala, saidanac vigebT, rom Turme am "zeskandaluri" gancxadebis avtori parlamentari jemal gamaxariaa, gazeTis me-3 gverdzea ganTavsebuli. "TargamaZe da Zalovani uwyebebi sagangebo mdgomareobis gamosacxadeblad ezadebodnen, magram radganac sagangebo da mdgomareobis Sesaxeb kanoni ar am ician, gziT gasul isini xuTSabaTsa faqtobrivad paraskevs bejiTad swavlobdnen.

xelSi

aiRebdnen

Zalauflebas...

isini,

sxvaTaSoris,

parlamentSi eZebdnen kanons sagangebo mdgomareobis Sesaxeb", _ acxadebs gamaxaria. destabilizaciis gamomwvev obieqtur da subieqtur mizezebze msjeloba Cveni disertaciis farglebs scildeba. aq mxolod davafiqsirebT im versiebs, romlebic masmediis meSveobiT warmoCinda. maTgan erT-erTi saxelmwifo

gadatrialebis zemoxsenebuli versiaa, romelic yvelaze mkveTrad "alias" publikaciaSi iyo gamoTqmuli, Tumc, sxva formiT am versias "dilis gazeTSic" vxvdebiT: "xelisufleba da saxelisuflo media sakuTar mosaxleobas xelisuflebaSi maTi mosvlis wlebis gaxsenebiT aSinebs... nacvlad imisa, rom qveyana qveyanas daamsgavsos, mtris xatebis "weriT" aris garTuli". (163). amave gazeTSi, politikosebis gamokiTxis am ("vis _ aZlevs xels

destabilizacia

saqarTveloSi?")

Sedegad,

versias

xelisuflebis

dadanaSaulebas _ mxars uWers parlamentari elene TevdoraZe; parlamentari giorgi TargamaZe xelisuflebis orive ganStoebas adanaSaulebs "marTul destabilizaciaSi"; irina sariSvili-Wanturia ki _ yvela im Zalas, upirveles yovlisa "moqalaqeTa kavSirs", romlebic "SevardnaZis politikidan wasvlis Semdeg arCevnebis gziT ver movlen xelisuflebis saTaveSi"; parlamentari mixeil naneiSvili aqcents ruseTze akeTebs: "ragind urTierTdapirispirebuli jgufebic unda iyvnen destabilizaciis msurvelni, maT zurgs ukan, aSkarad Tu farulad, dgas ruseTi... es varaudi ar aris. me, ubralod, vici, rom es asea"; "respublikelTa" lideri daviT berZeniSvili xelisuflebis damxobas

winaswarmetyvelebs: "karTageni unda daingres... moqalaqeTa kavSirSi ar aris Sida rezervebi, romlebic SevardnaZis reJims gaakeTilSobilebda". (100) Tu parlamentari jemal gamaxaria zurab Jvanias winaaRmdeg mowyobili saxelmwifo gadatrialebis varauds gamoTqvamda, parlamentari fiqria CixraZe piriqiT _ Tavad Jvanias miiCnevs destabilizaciisaTvis xelis Semwyobad: "...rac 86

Seexeba imas, rom Jvania mivida vakeSi gamarTuli aqciis monawileebTan, aman SeiZleba iTqvas, fsiqologiuri biZgi misca am sakiTxis kidev ufro metad gaaqtiurebas. yvelaze metad ganvlili erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi vin saubrobda Semodgomaze mosalodnel uSualod destabilizaciaze. parlamentis es iyvnen mmarTveli Tu isini Zalis amxela

warmomadgenlebi,

Tavmjdomare.

informacias flobdnen, rom maicdamainc energetikis Temaze moxdeboda es destabilizacia da mainc TiTi TiTze ar daakares, e.i. xeli Seuwyves am situaciis eskalacias." (138) zurab Jvanias mxridan aqciebis provocirebis Temas edp-s lideri, irina sariSvili-Wanturiac aviTarebs: "...Jvanias da "mxedrionis" mxridan aris es aqciebi provocirebuli... "moqkavSirisTvis" SevardnaZis vadaze adre wasvla prezidentobidan yvelaze realuri Sansia xelisuflebaSi dasarCenad... maSin saxelmwifos pirveli piri gaxdeba parlamentis Tavmjdomare, romelmac sami Tvis Semdeg unda daniSnos axali arCevnebi". ("axali Taoba", 1611.2000). "mxedrionTan" mimarTebaSi sayuradReboa "axal 7 dReSi" gamoqveynebuli vrceli interviu daviT berZeniSvilTan, romelic jaba ioselianTan

dakavSirebiT aseT azrs aviTarebs: "minda gamsaxurdiasa da SevardnaZisagan orgzis gamoyenebul jaba ioselians vurCio, ise nu daxurdavdeba, amjerad Jvanias gamoayenebinos Tavi... Tu "mxedrions" aqvs perspeqtiva, maSin es imas niSnavs, rom momavalSi saqarTvelo gadatrialebis arenad gadaiqceva". (90) movlenebis damoukideblobis procesebs logika aseTia: ganzogadebisas winaaRmdeg ruseTma jer Jurnalisti ganxorcielebul miiCnevs: CaiTria iolad Cveni ia da anTaZe saqarTvelos ganviTarebis moyvaruli

gansaxorcielebel

ruseTisagan

warmarTulad

"movlenebis

fufunebis Tavisi

xelisufleba

korufciis

WaobSi;

Semdeg

prezidents Zveli

saparlamento

umravlesobisTvis

"mklavebi

agrexina"

mTavrobis

dasamtkiceblad

(romelTanac ruseTs "sakuTari angariSebi" hqonda); bolos ki gamocxadda, rom mmarTveli dajgufeba politikuri arenidan xalxma unda gandevnos". (81). am publikaciis logikiT, ruseTis xeliT warmarTuli brZolis samizned zurab Jvaniac igulisxmeba. sagulisxmoa, miuxedavad, am rom azrTa aqvs siWrelisa erTi da urTierTgamomricxaobis _ politikosebica da

publikaciebs

saerTo

Jurnalistebic, aqciebis gamomwvev mizezebze metad, yuradRebas amaxvileben imaze, visi agorebulia destabilizaciis talRa. yvela gamoTqvams varauds, rom arsebuli obieqturi mizezebis miuxedavad, "uxilavi reJisoris"

warmmarTveli xeli igrZnoba am yvelafris ukan; xolo braldebebis veqtori, 87

ara mxolod pirovnuli poziciebis sxvadasxvaobis, aramed, imis mixedviTac icvlis mimarTulebas, Tu vis interesebs gamoxataven respondentebi, redaqciebi da Jurnalistebi.

*

presis rezonansi 2001 wlis Semodgomis movlenebze, romelsac Sedegad parlamentis Tavmjdomarisa da mTavrobis gadadgoma mohyva, mowmobs, rom ruseTi arc am SemTxvevaSi gamoiricxa "scenaris avtorobidan". miT ufro, rom droSi saeWvod daemTxva erTmaneTs terorizmSi saqarTvelos dadanaSauleba, kodorisa da pankisis dabombva, "rusTavi 2"-is incidenti, romelmac

Tavisufali mediis dacvis sababiT, mravalricxovani mitingebis talRa aagora da uceb gadaizarda politikur gamosvlebSi, xelisuflebisa da prezidentis CeCeni maTi boevikebi iq afxazeTSi isev saqarTvelodan rusebma moxvdnen, es imas

gadadgomis moTxovniT. "Tuki niSnavs, rom moxvedra uzrunvelyves saqarTvelos

xelisuflebasTan erTad. es e.w. operaciebi ki kidev erTxel adasturebs, rom isini ruseTis mowyobilia, romelic gudauTis bazis SenarCunebas isaxavs miznad", _ acxadebda parlamentari koba daviTaSvili gazeT "axal TaobasTan" interviuSi. ("axali Taoba", 10.10.2001). rusul onlain-mediaze dayrdnobiT, rusuli provokaciis versias

aviTarebda gazeTi "axali meridiani": "niSandoblivia, rom zogierT rusul internet-saitze informacia kodoris dabombvis Sesaxeb TviT sahaero dartymis ganxorcielebamde 1 saaTiT adre gaCnda. gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom "ru"-s internetportalebs mkacrad akontrolebs ruseTis mTavrobis Sesabamisi qvedanayofi da isini Zalian xSirad, uSualod specsamsaxurebidan sazrdooben. maSasadame, aamoqmeda saqme gvaqvs winaswar omis dagegmil provokaciasTan. (mamuka ruseTma ukve

sainformacio

Zveli

meTodebi."

xurciZe,

"ruseTis "axali

qarTvelofobiuri

demarSebi

yovelgvar

kompromiss

gamoricxavs",

meridiani", 12 oqtomberi, 2001);"...erTi-ori bombi "sruliad SemTxveviT" pankisis xeobaSic Camovardeba da meti ra unda destabilizacias saqarTveloSi, miT umetes zamTarSi _ uSuqobisa CeCneTis da sicivis periodSi. mimarTul araerTxel saqarTveloc agresiaSi aqvs da

Tavisdauneburad Semdgomad amisa

CaerTveba rac

winaaRmdeg xalxs

moxdeba......qarTvel

nagrZnobi "rusuli

rusuli Ceqmis simware." (166). saqarTvelos xelisuflebis Secvlis erT-erTi momdevno

scenaris" "fragmentebi" bevrgan gvxvdeba 2001 wlis noember-dekembris qarTul presaSi da igi erTgvar krebiT formas iRebs gazeT "axal versiaSi", romlis 88

publikaciis

saTauric

("vin

moqmedebda

ruseTis

scenariT

_

TargamaZeversiaze,

patarkaciSvili

Tu Jvania-saakaSvili?") mianiSnebs or savaraudo

mTavari mizani ki masalis lidSi figurirebs: "politologTa saerTo azriT

(publikacia eyrdnoba politologebis _ levan berZeniSvilis, givi boloTaSvilis, ramaz klimiaSvilis, gia nodias mosazrebebs, ­ l.k.),

ruseTi saqarTvelos mimarT Ria

agresiul politikas ukve Riad da Seufaravad awarmoebs. rusuli pilitikuri istebliSmentisaTvis SevardnaZeE dRiTidRe ufro miuRebeli xdeba da amitom rusul sainformacio saSualebebSic antiSevardnaZistuli isteria iwyeba. ar aris gamoricxuli, ruseTis maRal eSelonebSi saqarTvelos xelisuflebis Secvlis scenari iwerebodes." (134). xsenebuli publikaciis mixedviT pirveli versia aseTia: eqspertTa saerTo SefasebiT, seqtembris bolos afxazeTsa da kodorSi ganviTarebuli movlenebi mimarTuli iyo ara afxazeTis dasabruneblad, aramed, saqarTveloSi xelisuflebis Sesacvlelad, ruseTSi SemuSavebuli scenaris mixedviT: CeCeni teroristebis xeliT moxdeboda afxazeTis romelime regionis aReba da am gamarjvebis gmirad gamocxaddeboda maSindeli Ss ministri kaxa TargamaZe. qveynis mmarTveladac is mogvevlineboda. moeSorebina amasTan, ruseTi (romelic cdilobda axlosaa

"mourjulebeli"

CeCnebi

pankisisTvis

CeCneTTan), Caesaxlebina afxazeTSi da amiT "ori kurdReli erTad daeWira". meore igegmeboda. saakaSvilis versiis gundi Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi ukan, xaverdovani ruseTi revolucia JvaniagaiTamaSebda

studenturi idga.

gamosvlebis SevardnaZis

ruseTis

direqtiviT,

"gadasarCenad"

kuCmasa da alievis analogs (roca maT "keTili feriis" rolSi "Crdiloeli daTvi" moevlinaT) da, am samsaxuris sanacvlod, saqarTvelos rusul

orbitazeE moaqcevda. "axali mdgomareobis ruseTma kapitalis versiis" sxva publikaciis amerikaSi xazic" gziT mixedviT, momxdarma gaxsna. es saqarTvelo teraqtebma saqarTveloSi Secvlas afxazeTSi ixsna da garTulebisagan "meore da am

saqarTveloSi Semodinebas

rusuli

xelisuflebis

gulisxmobs."

("axali versia", 01.10. 2001). kidev erTxel moviSveliebT ruseTis "sagareo politikis nacionaluri laboratoriis" analitikur masalas _ "politikuri situacia saqarTveloSi", romelSic aRniSnulia: "2001 wlis movlenebma uCvenes, rom "axalgazrda reformatorebs" SeuZliaT TavianTi mxardaWerisTvis masebis mobilizeba da masStaburi krizisis provocireba, magram maT ar ZaluZT xelisuflebis xelSi aReba da situaciaze kontrolis SenarCuneba. 2001 wlis bolos swored 89

opozicias mouxda daTmoba." (58) maSin, roca qarTuli presa bWobda, visi mowyobili iyo 2001 wlis "noembris revoluciad" wodebuli krizisi, rusi analitikosebi am sakiTxs arc saTuod xdian da arc kiTxvis niSnis qveS ayeneben, isini konkretulad asaxeleben "adresats" _ "axalgazrda

reformatorebi". presis iZleva: analizi erTi SexedviT paradoqsuli daskvnis saSualebasac

ruseTisaken

mimarTuli gvaqvs

braldebebis qarTuli faqtebis ara

miuxedavad, gamocema damTxveva,

"feTqebadsaSiSi lamis aramed rusulis aqcenti,

movlenebis" identuria.

inicirebiT mxedvelobaSi

zogierTi

masalebis provokaciuli xasiaTi. magaliTad, gazeTi "axali versia" rusul medias bevrad aWarbebs rom es Tundac pankisis Temis aJitirebaSi. Seqmnili; iqmneba pirveli

STabeWdileba,

gazeTi

specialurad

amisTvisaa

nomridan moyolebuli, farTo anSlagebiT, gamomwvevi

saTaurebiT, gverdidan

gverdze gardamavali vrceli masalebiT, pankisis safrTxe isea warmoCenili, rom ruseTs isRa darCenia, dabombos xeoba (gazeTis pirvelive nomers, logos zemoT, lamis 100-punqtiani SriftiT awyobili "qistianoba" xsnida da es

saTauri Tu mesiji, gverdidan gverdze gadadioda. am nomerSi, da zogierT sxva nomerSic, mxolod am Temas erTdroulad ramdenime sagazeTo gverdi eTmoba). "axali versia" gamonaklisi rodia. magaliTd, telekompania "rusTavi 2", pankisSi erTi Tofis gavardnisTanave, ise warmarTavda xeobidan reportaJebs, rogorc frontis wina xazidan; verc ki moaswro ruseTma wesierad

saqarTvelos dadanaSauleba terorizmSi, rom gazeTma "rezonansma" gaSlil gverdebze gamoaqveyna publikacia "masobrivi terorizmis safrTxe kavkasiaSi" ("rezonansi", prognoziT 02.10.2001), mTavrdeba. romelic xsenebuli saqarTveloSi masala am safrTxis gaaqtiurebis

STambeWdavadaa

reklamirebuli

gazeTis pirvel gverdze. sadisertacio saqarTveloSi naSromSi ukve xsenebuli presis mosazreba, rom

amerikuli

fuliT

rusuli

interesi

finansdeba,

SesaZloa,

amgvar viTarebasac gulisxmobda, roca demokratiuli mediis ganviTarebisTvis gamoyofili dasavluri grantebiTa da sxva saxis daxmarebebiT moRonierebuli masmedia politikuri situaciebis gamwvavebisa da Sesabamisi manevrirebisaTvis gamoiyeneboda. Tumc, aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom es ar iyo mxolod "garedan marTuli" procesi; am manevrs saxelisuflo brZolaSi Sida politikuri Zalebic mimarTavdnen, rac, saboloo jamSi, mniSvnelovnad azianebda ruseTsaqarTvelos urTierTobasac da asustebda saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobas.

90

·

afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT oseTis problemis ramdenime aspeqti

paradoqsia, magram, saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis problema, afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT oseTis Tema, namdvilad ar yofila saanalizo periodis presis arc ZiriTadi da arc mTavari aspeqti; mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs ara presaSi am regionebis xsenebis sixSire, aramed, misi qceva Tundac iseT aqtualur da prioritetul aspeqtad, rogoradacaa, magaliTad, warmodgenili presaSi saxelisuflo brZolebi. ZiriTadad, am regionebTan dakavSirebuli presis aqcentebi viTardeba destabilizaciuri procesebis, saqarTvelosTan ruseTisa da dasavleTis mimarTebis konteqstSi da a.S. es viTareba, ra Tqma unda, ar aris ganpirobebuli presis daudevrobiTa da ugulisyurobiT.

miuxedavad imisa, rom TiTqosda teritoriuli problemis mogvareba umTavresi prioritetia, ar igrZnoba rom saxelmwifo Tavisi saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis arealSi aqcevdes am regionebs, iqauri mosaxleobis problemebs. maSin, roca, erTis mxriv, mwvaved vreagirebT maTTvis ruseTis moqalaqeobis miniWebaze, Cvenis mxriv, igive moqalaqeebi distancirebuli gvyavs saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sivrcidan, Sesabamisad, sainformacio arealidanac. afxazeTi politikuri (ufro kapitalis iSviaTad e.w. samxreT oseTi) presaSi moixsenieba aseve, dagrovebisTvis, rogorc xelisuflebis,

opoziciis, mxridan, emociuri gancxadebebis doneze, pragmatizmis gareSe, an _ samitingo-patriotuli paTosis gasaZliereblad. organizacia "Serigebis resursis" mxardaWeriT Seqmnil uaRresad

sayuradRebo naSromSi _ "afxazeTi qarTveli politikosebis winasaarCevno meniuSi" (naSromi eyrdnoba 2003-2004 wlebis presis publikaciebs), xazgasmiTaa aRniSnuli, rom "afxazeTi ar yofila winasaarCevno Tema, arc 2003 wlis saparlamento, arc 2004 wlis saprezidento, da arc 2004 wlis ganmeorebiTi saparlamento arCevnebis dros"; rom "afxazeTis Temam dakarga is simwvave da aqtualoba, rac mas ramdenime wlis winaT hqonda; rom "politikur partiebs dRemde ar warmoudgeniaT am problemasTan mimarTebaSi arc axali ideebi, arc axali konceptualuri damokidebuleba." (29, III) 90-ian da 2000-2002 wlebSic, afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT oseTis problema ZiriTadad isev eTnokonfliqtad iwodeba, iseve rogorc rusul mediaSi; da presaSi umTavresad gvxvdeba mosazreba, rom konfliqtebis gasaRebi ruseTSi Zevs. amave periodSi presaSi figurirebs termini "gayinuli konfliqtebi" da mosazreba, rom ruseTs awyobs konfliqtebis gayinva da arsebuli status qvos SenarCuneba, vidre Tundac maTi asocirebul wevrebad miReba, miT ufro _ 91

damoukideblobis

aRiareba

(magaliTad,

politologi

ramaz

sayvareliZe

miiCnevda, rom ruseTs ar awyobs am konfliqtebis bolomde mogvareba, raTa ar dakargos saqarTveloze zewolis SesaniSnavi berketebi); 2002 wlidan, Crdilo atlantikuri konfliqtebis integraciis mogvarebis veqtoris imedi ufro gamokveTasTan da ufro erTad, presaSi nato-Si

ukavSirdeba

saqarTvelos SesaZlo gawevrianebas; icvleba definiciac _ separatistuli regionebi, eTnokonfliqtebis nacvlad; 2003-2004 wlidan, nato-s Temis

gaaqtiurebasTan dakavSirebiT, presaSi Cndeba mosazrebebi, rom SesaZloa, natoSi migviRon mougvarebeli konfliqtebiT, an _ afxazeTisa da oseTis gareSe. arasamTavrobo organizaciaTa saangariSo masalebSi, konfliqtologTa da

politologTa leqsikaSi gamoiyeneba termini _ gandgomili regionebi, magram presaSi man fexi ver moikida. "gandgomili regioni", ZiriTadad, aWaris konteqstSi gvxvdeba. "vardebis aWaris revoluciis" dabrunebisTanave, Semdeg, presaSi saqarTvelos gaaqtiurda,

saxelmwifoebriv

sivrceSi

daaxloebiT iseTive scenariT, afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT oseTis SemoerTebis aqcenti da ruseTis ganxilva ara Suamavlad, aramed konfliqtis mxared. sadisertacio afxazeTsa da e.w. urTierTobaTa, naSromis samxreT Sesabamis oseTTan qveTavebSi da nawilobriv aspeqtebi amjerad, a.S.). asaxulia (sagareo mokled

dakavSirebuli

destabilizaciis

konteqstSi

SevCerdebiT 2004 wlis agvistos "cxinvalis konfliqtze". "Cven dagvayenes amgvari realobis winaSe _ saqarTveloSi sagangebo SeiZleba brifingze,

Zalian mniSvnelovani konfliqti daiwyos", _ ganacxada 19 agvistos, cxinvalSi ganviTarebul movlenebTan dakavSirebiT gamarTul saqarTvelos prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma, _ "Cven bolo dReebSi gviSendnen ramdenime simaRlidan, gviSenda e.w. mesame Zala, araviTari mesame Zala ar aris. dRes romelic, ra Tqma unda, irakli oqruaSvilis

diliT,

xelmZRvanelobiT, Cvenma nawilma am Zalis ganadgureba, mwyobridan mTlianad gamoyvana da am simaRleebis dakaveba moaxerxa. am simaRleebis dakaveba Cven saSualebas gvaZlevs konfliqtis zonaSi arsebuli Zalebis axali gadajgufeba movaxdinoT. Cven mzad varT, am simaRleebis kontroli sammxriv samSvidobo kontingents gadavceT, romelSic qarTvelebic Sedian......amis Semdgom

mowinaaRmdeges aRar eqneba sababic ki, raTa gaamarTlos situaciis Semdgomi eskalacia. magram yvelas axsovdes _ es mSvidobisaTvis bolo Sansia." ("24 saaTi", 20.08.2004) prezidenti amgvari gancxadebis Semdeg, cxinvalis regionidan qarTuli samxedroebis gamoyvanis gadawyvetilebam SeaSfoTa adgilobrivi qarTuli 92

mosaxleoba;

maT

gzac

ki

gadauRobes

samxedroebs.

"TuUosebi

erT

bombs

Camoagdeben, Cveni jari 15 wuTSi cxinvalSi iqneba", _ ganacxada Ss ministrma irakli oqruaSvilma. "24 saaTis" informaciiT, "19 agvistos, feriscvalebis dRes, saqarTvelo did sisxlisRvras gadaurCa. rodesac Sinagan saqmeTa ministrma, irakli

oqruaSvilma

qarTul-osuri

konfliqtis

zonaSi

arsebuli

ramdenime

strategiuli simaRle daikava, ruseTis armiis regularuli nawilebi, Turme, mzad iyvnen saqarTvelos 80-mde gvirabTan winaaRmdeg iyo saomari moqmedebebis saxmeleTo da dasawyebad. da 40 Sveulmfreni, desanti "beempe", aTeulobiT tanki, saaviacio gadasvlis

rokis

koncentrirebuli

Setevaze

brZanebas eloda. "Cven Zalian seriozuli safrTxe avicileT Tavidan", _ ganacxada saqarTvelos givi parlamentis Tavdacvisa romlis da uSiSroebis rusuli komitetis samxedro Tavmjdomarem, TargamaZem, TqmiTac, sami

SenaerTi rokis gvirabTan isev srul sabrZolo mzadyofnaSi imyofeba. givi TragamaZem masmedias warudgina videomasala, romelSic naCvenebia, Tu rogor emzadebian ruseTis sajariso SenaerTebi samxreT oseTis teritoriaze

SesaWrelad." ("24 saaTi", 25.08.2004) konfliqtolog romelic qarTuli paata zaqareiSvilis mier azriT, saakaSvilis strategiuli SeTavazeba, obieqtebis SenaerTebis aRebuli

samSvidoboebisTvis daTmobas Seexeboda, meore swori nabijia; pirveli swori nabiji ergneTis bazrobis daketva iyo; danarCeni yvela nabiji _ pirveli ledis regionSi Casvla, gorSi tankebis Seyvana, blokpostebis Seqmna _ es iyo Secdomebis rigi, romelmac seriozul krizisamde migviyvana. krizisidan gamosvlisaTvis yvelaze swori prezidentis gadawyvetileba iyo. ("rezonansi", 20.08.2004) eqspertebi movlenebis ganviTarebis ramdenime variants ganixilavdnen; aleqsandre rondelis azriT, ruseTs aqvs sami gza: SeierTos e.w. samxreT oseTi, SeinarCunos iq status qvo, an dauTmos saqarTvelos. pirveli _ ar SeuZlia, mesame _ ar unda, rCeba meore _ SeinarCunos status qvo, anu, gayinos konfliqti da amiT isargeblos _ mudmivad akontrolos situacia

saqarTveloSi. Tavdapirvelad qarTuli mxare konfliqtis zonidan zedmeti iaraRis gatanas moiTxovda, dRes ki yuradRebas saerTaSoriso kontrolis damyarebaze amaxvilebs. eqspertTa varaudiT, Tu srul demilitarizaciazea saubari, maSin qarTul mxares, iseve rogorc osur da rusul mxareebs,

konfliqtis zonaSi 500 kaciani samSvidobo misiis nawili rCeba, rac isev ruseTs uxsnis xel-fexs; arsebul viTarebaSi yvelaze sariskod qarTuli 93

soflebidan xalxis daclis procesi iTvleba. rusul-osuri strategiis kidev erTi Canafiqri qarTvelebsa da osebs Soris SedarebiT damTbari urTierTobis sabolood gafuWebaa, rasac nawilobriv ukve Seesxa xorci, roca konfliqtis zonaSi orive mxares pirveli msxverpli gaCnda. rac Seexeba msxverpls, presaSi ar gvxvdeba oficialuri cnobebi,

gazeTebi sxvadasxva cifrs asaxeleben (magaliTad, 19 agvistos "rezonansi" iuwyeba, cdilobs rom ar samaCabloSi gaaxmauros prezidenti srolebis dawyebidan 26 qarTveli da jariskacia faqtebi.

daRupuli); amasTan, aRniSnaven, rom orive mxare _ cxinvalic da Tbilisic, mebrZolTa saakaSvili daRupvisa da daWris paralelurad, xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi

xazgasmiT aRniSnaven samxedroebis profesionalizmsa da simamaces. cxinvalis regionSi Seqmnili viTarebis formulireba presaSi araerTgvaria; movlenebis gaSuqebisas "axali versia", "alia", "xvalindeli

dRe" xSirad iyeneben gansazRvrebas _ "omi", sxvebi am formulirebisagan Tavs ikaveben. "xelisufleba gziT ar aRiarebs, rom es omia da kvlav konfliqtis situacias gancxadebiT,

mSvbidobiani saparlamento

daregulirebaze mwvave

saubrobs.

aRniSnul maTi

opozicia

Sefasebas

aZlevs...

konfliqtis zonaSi realurad omi gvaqvs saxeze, romelsac aRiarebac ar sWirdeba." ("xvalindeli dRe", 20.08.2004) parlamentis moadgile Catarebuli SeiZleba wesrigs nika Tavdacvisa rurua: da Cveni da uSiSroebis omi omi, es ar komitetis aris. Tavmjdomaris esaa mSvidobis dasacavad ar

"araviTari sakuTari Sens

dasamyareblad omi

moqalaqeebis rogorc

sicocxlis cnobilia, Cven

specoperacia. saerTod, gamoucxado

cxaddeba.

sakuTar

teritorias! romelsac

konstituciur yvela

vamyarebT qveyana

sakuTar (amas,

teritoriaze, sxvaTa Soris,

aRiarebs

demokratiuli

cnobs iseTi

arademokratiuli

qveyanac, rogoric ruseTia)." ("axali Taoba", 20.08.2004)N cxinvalis regionSi Seqmnilma krizisulma viTarebam gaamwvava ruseTsaqarTvelos urTierToba da, rogorc presa aRniSnavs, igi ara mxolod daubrunda "civi omis" mdgomareobas, aramed Ria dapirispirebis saxe miiRo. qarTul mediaSi gaZlierda negatiuri muxti kremlis imperialisturi saakaSvili

politikisa da prezident putinis mimarT, Tumc, rusuli mediis gaagresiuleba saqarTvelos mimarT gacilebiT TvalSisacemia (prezidenti "izvestiam" hitlersac ki Seadara). "gorbis" direqtor merab faCulias komentariT, sainformacio omma

sagrZnoblad Secvala saSualo rusi moqalaqis damokidebuleba saqarTveloSi 94

mimdinare movlenebis mimarT. 12-17 ivliss ruseTis masStabiT Catarebulma sazogadoebrivi azris gamokiTxvam (1500 respondenti) aseTi Sedegi aCvena: prezident saakaSvilis mimarT ndoba, gasuli ori Tvis ganmavlobaSi, 27%-dan 11%-mde daeca; miuxedavad antiqarTuli kampaniisa, mxolod 3 punqtiT Semcirda saqarTvelos mimarT ruseTis mosaxleobis dadebiTi damokidebuleba _ dRes mosaxleobis 40% dadebiTadaa ganwyobili Cveni qveynis mimarT; gamokiTxulTa umravlesoba _ 53%, saqarTvelos mTavrobas akisrebs pasuxismgeblobas ruseTsaqarTvelos Soris urTierTobis gamwvavebisTvis; Semdegi _ SeerTebuli Statebia, SedarebiT mokrZalebuli maCvenebliT _ 15%; ruseTis mTavroba _ 8%; oseTis _ 5%. ("rezonansi", 20.08.2004) ruseTis "mesame Zalad" dasaxelebis Semdeg, saqarTvelos xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi saubrobdnen imaze, rom maT xelT arsebuli mtkicebulebebis gamomzeurebiT ruseTs oficialurad daedeboda brali separatistTa

daxmarebaSi. saqarTvelos parlamentis Tavdacvisa da uSiSroebis komiteti iSveliebda videokadrebs, romelzec asaxuli iyo rusuli desantisa da

ruseTis regularuli armiis nawilebis gadmosxma rokis gvirabs aqeT; ruseTis federaciis sagareo saqmeTa saministrom ki gaakeTa specialuri gancxadeba, rom saqarTvelom ver moaxerxa im mtkicebulebebis gamomzeureba, rac ruseTs pirdapir daadanaSaulebda cxinvalis regionSi konfliqtis provocirebaSi. cxinvalSi Seqmnili saomari mdgomareobis fonze oficialuri moskovis pozicia gaurkveveli iyo, prezidenti putini poziciis Riad gamovlenas ar Cqarobda. 18 agvistos, soWSi gamarTul preskonferenciaze, putinma uaryo "Tezisi" imis Sesaxeb, rom konfliqti ormxriv, qarTul-rusuli konfliqtis xasiaTs iZens da saqarTveloSi situaciis gamwvaveba 1990-iani wlebis

movlenebis recidivad gamoacxada. misi gancxadebiT, eTnokonfliqtebi daiwyo saqarTvelos mier damoukideblobis gamocxadebisa da afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis avtonomiebis gauqmebis Taobaze "suleluri gadawyvetilebiT". putinma ganacxada imis Taobazec, rom aRar apirebs Semodgomaze saqarTveloSi erT-erTi

Casvlas. (19 agvistos presa, 2004) qarTulma sainformacio saagento "inter-presma" "kremlis

yvelaze Tavxeduri politikuri demarSi" uwoda soWSi ruseTis prezidentis vladimer putinis Sexvedras afxazeTis TviTgamocxadebuli raul respublikis premier-ministrsa da prezidentobis kandidat xajinbasTan. "putinma

afxazeTis separatisti prezidenti ukve daniSna", _ wers gazeTi "rezonansi". ("rezonansi", 31.08.2004)

95

politolog ramaz sayvareliZis komentariT, ruseTs awyobs gamwvavebuli konfliqtebi. mas konfliqtis mospoba erT dReSi SeuZlia, magram surs meti daZabuloba am regionSi, raTa gavlenis SenarCuneba SeZlos. politologi eWvobs, rom ruseTs kavkasiuri marwuxi sWirdeba imisTvisac, rom amerikasTan ekonomikur sakiTxebze ivaWros kavkasiis sanacvlod. ("rezonansi", 20.08.2004) sabrZolo avtormac, moqmedebebis Sewyvetis Semdegac, "axali versia", romlis daxurul

gazeTis

gancxadebiT,

"yvela

JurnalistisTvis

gasaidumloebul zonaSi SeaRwia", aqveynebs specialur reportaJs _ "rusulosuri samxedro manqana sangrebs Txris da axali omisaTvis emzadeba". ("axali versia", 27.08.2004) cxinvali xelisuflebas isev _ de cdilobs faqto Tavisi pirobebi wauyenos saqarTvelos departamentis

xelisuflebis

informaciis

xelmZRvaneli irina gagloeva iwunebs euTo-s moqmedi Tavmjdomaris, soloman pasis mier Jvania-kokoiTis Sexvedris adgilad SeTavazebul qveyanas _

bulgareTs; gagloevas gancxadebiT, es qveyana saqarTvelos iaraRs awvdis da Sexvedris CatarebisTvis yvelaze Sesaferis neitralur teritoriad moskovs asaxelebs. ("axali Taoba", 31.08.2004) "alias" politikuri kremli, mimomxilvelis tradiciulad, informaciiT, moskovSi saqarTveloze figurebis zemoqmedebisTvis myofi

gaaqtiurebasac gegmavs. male moskovSi axali politikuri partia dafuZndeba, romelSic Tavs moiyris yvela ganawyenebuli Cinovniki. "imas, rac ver moaxerxa igor giorgaZem SevardnaZis winaaRmdeg, axla abaSiZe, kokoiTi da xajinba erTad ganaxorcieleben, oRond ukve saakaSvilis winaaRmdeg." ("alia", 31.08.2004) "alia", aseve, aqveynebs Tamaz intervius afxazeTis romlis da umaRlesi sabWos yofil mzaddeba

TavmjdomaresTan, dokumenti

nadareiSvilTan, afxazeTisa

informaciiTac

dsT-is sivrceSi

samxreT oseTis suverenitetis

aRiarebis sakiTxis ganxilvisTvis. ("alia", 31.08.2004) paralelurad, presa aRniSnavs, rom maSin, roca cxinvalis regionSi separatistebi parlamentis qarTul soflebs da bombavdnen, prezident uwyebis saakaSvilis, araerTgzis Tavmjdomarisa saqarTvelos sagareo

mimarTvis miuxedavad, saerTaSoriso organizaciebi, maT Soris evrokavSiri, evrosabWo da euTo, konkretuli poziciis dafiqsirebisagan Tavs ikavebdnen. (agvistos Sua ricxvebSi euTos samdivnos mier gamoqveynebul gancxadebaSi zogadad naTqvamia, rom qarTul-osuri konfliqtis zonaSi saomari

moqmedebebis eskalacia da adamianebis daRupva mkacrad unda daigmos). rusuli agresiisa da saerTaSoriso dumilis fonze presaSi ikveTeboda eWvi _ xom ar 96

darCeba saqarTvelo kvlav marto, ruseTis imperialisturi zraxvebis pirispir, rogorc es araerTxel momxdara. konfliqtis zonidan jaris gamoyvanis Taobaze saqarTvelos prezidentis gadawyvetilebis Semdeg TiTqmis yvela evropulma struqturam Tavisi pozicia ukve Riad daafiqsira. rom gansakuTrebiT saqarTvelos gaaqtiurda uflebas, myofi evrokavSiri, gaakontrolos rokis gvirabi". romelmac sakuTari ("axali

ganacxada, sazRvrebi,

"aRiarebs

maT Soris ruseTis

sazRvarze

versia", 23.08.2004) amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma mouwoda samxreT oseTis konfliqtis yvela mxares da euTo-s sxva partniorebs _ maqsimalurad gamoiyenon

saqarTvelos mier cxinvalidan jaris gamoyvaniT Seqmnili pozitiuri momenti da Seqmnan molaparakebebis efeqturi meqanizmi sakiTxis politikuri gadawyvetisaTvis, romlis farglebSic SenarCunebuli iqneba samxreT oseTis avtonomiuri seriozuli naTqvami 24.08.2004) cxinvalis mier ruseTis konfliqtis aRiareba gamwvavebas, sainformacio dainteresebul TvalsazrisiT, mxared, rasac saqarTvelosTvis erTi arsebiTi Sedegi mohyva: saqarTvelos xelisuflebis konfliqtSi iyo statusi reformebi, aSS-is saqarTveloSi. damokidebulia "saqarTvelos mSvidobasa unari, da ganaxorcielos _

stabilurobaze",

saxelmwifo

departamentis

gancxadebaSi.

("rezonansi",

rezonansulad mohyva ucxour mediaSi adekvaturi aqcentis gaCena. "mTavari gazeTis" formulirebiT, e.w. samxreT oseTSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma ruseT-saqarTvelos keTilmezobluri Tanacxovrebis "ganaxlebuli idea" sapnis buStiviT gaaqro. saqarTvelos parlamentma ruseTi msoflios winaSe qarTul-osur konfliqtSi monawile, dainteresebul mxared

oficialurad daasaxela da Sesabamisi gancxadebis safuZvelze saerTaSoriso organizaciebs cxinvalis regionSi ruseTis samSvidobo mandatis Sesawyvetad daxmareba sTxova. ("mTavari gazeTi", 14.08.2004)

97

Tavi III

saxelisuflo brZolebi _ presis ZiriTadi Tema

es monakveTi, SeiZleba iTqvas, winamdebare sadisertacio naSromis

centraluri nawilia, radgan, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, saanalizo monakveTSi presa rom ZiriTadad mxedvelobaSi saerToa asaxavda gvaqvs mTeli saxelisuflo mTavari bataliebs da da gamoxatavda Temebi, Stoc

xelisuflebisaTvis warmoebuli brZolis interess. kidev erTxel aRvniSnavT, presis am tendenciebi mTavari samive

romelic

periodisTvis.

xelisuflebis

(sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebeli da sasamarTlo), gansakuTrebiT _ parlamenti da mTavroba, presis yuradRebis sagani umTavresad am konteqstSi xdeba. saxelisuflo brZolis veqtorebi da etapebi, pirobiTad, ase ikveTeba: o parlamentisa da mTavrobis dapirispireba (2000-2001 wlebi) o dapirispireba mmarTveli partiis _ "moqkavSiris" wiaRSi (2000-2001) o dapirispireba politikur Zalebsa da interesebs Soris

("moqkavSiri­aRorZineba", o pirovnuli dapirispirebebi am dayofis pirobiToba dapirispirebisa

"gaerTianebuli

demokratebi"-

"nacionaluri moZraoba" _ "moqkavSiri" da a.S.) _ 2000-2003 wlebi

upirvelesad da, ufro

gulisxmobs metic, qveynis

imas,

rom

institucionaluri

orientaciaze

azrTa sxvadasxvaobis SemTxvevaSic, realurad, ikveTeba ara konceptualuri, aramed pirovnuli faqtori (magaliTad, parlamenti-kancelariis dapirispireba Jvania-SevardnaZis uSiSroebis dapirispirebaa; aSS-Si gardacvlili nugzar sajaias nacvlad, mdivnad saqarTvelos elCis, Tedo jafariZis daniSvna

ganixileba SevardnaZis prodasavlurobis niSnad da a.S.). "Zvelsa" da "axals", e.w. retrogradebsa da e.w. reformatorebs Soris dapirispirebac, saboloo jamSi, pirovnul dapirispirebamde dadis da aRmoCndeba, rom aqac wina planze xelisuflebisaTvis brZolis interesia da ara mxolod sabWouri

memkvidreobidan gaTavisuflebisa da qveynis demokratiuli gardaqmnis mizani. filosofosi ("Zalauflebis postsabWoTa "demokratiis "reliqturi gigi TevzaZe, da Tavis filosofiur-politikur Zalauflebis eseebSi

simulacia" saqarTveloSi da

"saqarTvelo:

dabruneba"), rogorc aqtiurad

mimdinare momavlis (romelic

procesebs simulacias". Tavdapirvelad

ganixilavs, eduard TviTonac

liberaluri

SevardnaZis

xelisufleba"

monawileobda "simulaciuri orbitebis" SeqmnaSi) "...ufrTxoda, erTi mxriv, 98

dasavleTs, garantis

romelsac roli romelic

warmoebul amave

simulaciaSi xolo

liberaluri meore mxriv,

demokratiis samoqalaqo ZiriTadi

hqonda

miniWebuli,

sazogadoebas,

simulaciis

scenarSi

demokratiis

damcvelis saxiT iyo warmodgenili." (xazi avtoris, _ l.k.) (25, 33-34) gigi TevzaZis eseisturma xedvam gansakuTrebiT miipyro Cveni yuradReba ori ZiriTadi mizeziT: erTi, rom igi ara mxolod filosofiis doqtoria, aramed, samoqalaqo seqtoris gavleniani aqtori meorec, da mcodne postsabWoTa eseebSi 10 wlis

saqarTveloSi ganviTarebuli

mimdinare

procesebisa;

zemoaRniSnul

Tvalsazrisebi "dokumenturad" dasturdeba bolo

ganmavlobaSi Cvens mier warmoebuli mediaanaliziTa da mediamonitoringiT. "simulirebuli demokratiis" Tema SemTxveviT ar SemovitaneT

disertaciis am nawilSi. erTi

SexedviT, is "saxelmwifos" nakveTs ufro

esadageboda, magram rogorc qvemoT vnaxavT, sabWoTa "fantomuri" realobidan (merab mamardaSvili) "simulirebul" realobaSi saqarTvelos gadanacvlebis gza swored saxelisuflo brZolebis wina xazze gadis. rogorc gigi TevzaZe wers, "simulaciis proeqti xels aZlevda yvelas _ maTac, visac ZalauflebaSi mosvla undoda, da maTac, visac ar undoda wasuliyo Zalauflebidan: anu, es awyobda rogorc im gunds, romelic Jvanias garSemo yalibdeboda, aseve im gundsac, romelic Tavs ikrebda SevardnaZis garSemo." (25, 36) ·

zurab Jvanias "politikuri goni" _ miTi Tu realoba

saxelisuflo SevexebiT

brZolebis im

ZiriTadi

peripetiebis personis da

ganxilvamde gundis

mokled

winapirobas

politikuri

formirebisa,

romelic, eduard SevardnaZesTan tandemsa Tu masTan konfrontaciaSi, 2000-2003 wlebSi arsebiTad gansazRvravda politikuri speqtris konfiguraciasac da saxelmwifos saSinao Tu sagareo politikis veqtorebis mimarTulebas; xolo "vardebis revoluciis" Semdgom periodSi, zurab Jvanias gardacvalebamde (2003-is noembridan 2005-is Tebervlamde) _ mixeil saakaSvilTan tandemSi (da Ria Tu faruli konkurenciis pirobebSi), marTavda postSevardnaZistul

saqarTvelos. sagangebod unda SevCerdeT 2000 wels "dilis gazeTis" sam nomerSi saerTo saTauriT ("qarTuli politikuri goni _ miTi Tu realoba", avtori _ irakli liTaniSvili) gamoqveynebul sam publikaciaze: "Jvanias hqonda politikosisaTvis aucilebeli ramdenime Tviseba" (25 maisi), "yvelaze Zlieri da perspeqtiuli figura... SevardnaZis Semdeg" (26 maisi), "vin gadasZalavs _ 99

Jvania

Tu

SevardnaZe"

(30

maisi).

unda

aRiniSnos,

rom

es

aris

kargad

gaazrebuli analitikuri statiebi, romelTa avtori gonivrulad aanalizebs da sagangebo pativs miagebs saqarTveloSi dabrunebuli eduard SevardnaZis sakadro politikas, SeiaraRebuli "saZmoebis" TareSis periodidan am fonze

moyolebuli

"moqalaqeTa kavSiris" saarCevno gamarjvebamde, da

damajereblad warmoaCens zurab Jvanias politikuri zrdis etapebs: I periodi _ Jvaniam erovnuli moZraobis qaosiT mocul periodSi Seqmna partia, romelic Tavisi miznebiT izidavda xalxis interessac, dasavleTis mxardaWerasac... saxelmwifo sabWoSi man zustad airCia orientirebi da iswavla aqcentebis dasma iq, sadac saWiro iyo da rogorc saWiro iyo... paralelurad, man Seqmna patara, magram erTguli da mobiluri gundi. II periodi (1995 wlis Semdeg) _ man unaklod aiTvisa kuluaruli

intrigebis, svlebis teqnologia, "dayavi da ibatones" principi: daxliCa edp, riTac didwilad gaaneitrala "moqkavSiris" ZiriTadi konkurenti... zurab

Jvaniam SesaniSnavad SeigrZno gundurobis principis momgebianoba da aqcenti gadaitana ara mxolod sakuTari personis reklamirebaze (rogorc amas irina sariSvili akeTebda), aramed asparezze gamoiyvana da SesaniSnavi imiji Seuqmna Tavis gunds araerTi axali saxeliT _ mixeil saakaSvili, mixeil maWavariani, nino CxobaZe, revaz adamia, nino burjanaZe, elene TevdoraZe da sxv. amasTan, TiToeuls gamorCeuli funqcia daakisra, riTac mosaxleobis faqtobrivad yvela fenaze imuSava... Jvaniam SesaniSnavad aawyo urTierTobebi dasavleTTan. igi demokratisa da reformatoris imijiT sargeblobs, aqvs gavleniani kontaqtebi dasavleTis politikur da ekonomikur wreebTan dasavleTi postSevardnaZistuli da erT-erTi upirvelesTagania, visac liderad aRiqvams... amasTan,

saqarTvelos

Jvaniam kidev erTxel gonivrulad gaTvala da poziciebi gaimyara regionSi saqarTvelos umTavres partniorTan _ azerbaijanTan, sadac mas araCveulebrivi finansuri da politikuri kavSirebi aqvs... erT-erT praqtikul da momgebian nabijad Jvanias unda CaeTvalos presasTan da arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan zedmiwevniT daxvewili urTierTobebis awyoba... am periodSi igi Camoyalibda udavod seriozul, angariSgasawev, gamWriax, gonier da Zlier politikosad. III periodi _ zurab Jvanias morigi, mesame "xuTwleuli" _ Jvanias Stabi maqsimalurad cdilobda prezidentis winasaarCevno kampaniisaTvis

(2000 wlis

saprezidento arCevnebi _ l.k.) ar gaekarebina saxelmwifo kancelariis Sesabamisi

struqturebi. rogorc Cans, Jvanias surda saarCevno kampaniis mTeli simZime maqsimalurad aeRo TavisTavze, raTa arCevnebSi sasurveli Sedegis miRwevis 100

SemTxvevaSi, madlobis niSnad prezidentisagan aseve maqsimumi gamoeTxova... Jvania iTxovda mTavrobis, faqtobrivad, srulad dakompleqtebas; anu, rac SeiZleba meti saxelisuflebo berketis xelSi aRebas postSevardnaZistul epoqaSi lideris poziciis SesanarCuneblad... Jvanias win udevs, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" daxvewagadaxalisebis, an, ukidures SemTxvevaSi, Tavisi birTvis safuZvelze axali konglomeratis (amjerad myari) Seqmnis procesi. (131; 132; 133) ganxiluli publikaciebi ar aidealebs zurab Jvanias yvela Tvisebas da politikur daSvebul saTanadod nabijs, arsebiT yuradRebas Secdomebze da misi amaxvilebs (eduard mis mier Tundac im periodSi SesaZleblobebis adre SezRudvis SevardnaZis droze

Seufasebloba

Zalauflebis

mcdeloba, sulswrafoba, Sesaferi droisa da momentis verSerCeva...), riTac ufro met damajereblobas iZens. davubrundeT axsnili, rogor gigi TevzaZis Jvanias zemoxsenebul faqtori eses, romelSic kargadaa

Cajda

SevardnaZis vinc

saxelisuflo

teqnologiaSi:

SevardnaZes

"sWirdeboda

adamiani,

pasuxismgeblobas

aiRebda mis gadawyvetilebebze. aseTi kaci ki, arsebul kandidaturebs Soris, mxolod aspeqtSi, nawilic Jvania magram misi iyo. ase iqca imaze Jvania aTkaciani rom wels fraqciis male lideridan Zalauflebis moziared _ marTalia, jerjerobiT mxolod pasuxismgeblobis yvelaferi sakuTreba miuTiTebda, 1995 gadawyvetilebis parlamentis

gaxdeboda."

Jvania

Tavmjdomared airCies da man "Zalauflebis sakuTari wilic miiRo"; "... es iyo pirveli SemTxveva, rodesac SevardnaZem aSkarad gayo Zalaufleba: parlamenti Jvanias Caabara demokratiisa da Zalauflebis simulirebisaTvis, xolo

aRmasrulebeli xelisufleba _ lekiSvils, Zveli xelisuflebis subieqtebis gamocdili meTodebiT sakontrolod." (25, 19-20) am masalebis Sejereba warmodgenas iZleva ara mxolod Jvanias

Zalauflebis anatomiaze, aramed kargad Sifravs sadisertacio naSromis am nawilSi aRwerili saxelisuflo brZolebis ganviTarebis kanonzomierebas da, amasTan, saSualebas gvaZlevs am sqemas SevudaroT Sesabamisi procesebis

proeqcia presaSi.

101

·

parlamentisa da mTavrobis dapirispireba

2000 "aliam",

wlis "dilis

april-maisSi, gazeTma",

telekompania

"rusTavi

2"-ma,

"rezonansma", da

gaamZafres

xelisuflebis

sakanonmdeblo

aRmasrulebel Stoebs Soris warmoSobili daZabuloba; rogorc "alia" werda, "SevardnaZe am ori saxelisuflo Stos uTanxmoebis epicentrSi moeqca.

orTabrZola TiTqos daSantaJebis formasac ki iZens. SantaJis obieqtad isev SevardnaZes iyeneben." ("alia", 30.04.2000) sagazeTo statiebsa da satelevizio eTerSi musirebda amgvari

formulirebebi: "impiCmentis mcdeloba", "prezidentis uflebebis seriozuli sekvestri", "prezidentma konstitucia daarRvia", "sakanonmdeblo sabotaJi", "sabotaJis momwyobi ministrebi", Tanxmad "samTavrobo portfelebis uzurpaciis isedac

mcdeloba momavalSi saprezidento taxtis dasapyrobad" da a.S. konstituciis prezidentis inauguraciis Semdeg uflebamosilebamoxsnili saxelmwifo ministrisa da mTavrobis gadadgomis moTxovnas parlamentis mxridan, aqtiuri Jurnalisturi mxardaWera mohyva, xolo parlamentis iniciativa komisiis mTavrobis Seqmnis pasuxismgeblobis xmauriani Semswavleli Jurnalisturi

droebiTi

sagamoZiebo

Sesaxeb,

aJiotaJis sababad iqca. Jurnalisturi tendencia, tradiciulad, saTaurebSive gamJRavnda: "me var qurdi, ese igi me var xelisuflebaSi" (igulisxmeba mTavroba, _

l.k.)

("rezonansi", 24.04.2000); "kancelariaSi saWiros verafers gagagebineben"; arakompetenturobisa da danaSaulebrivi qmedebis Sedegad

"xelisufalTa

saxelmwifo biujetidan milionebi gadis" ("dilis gazeTi", 12,13.04. 2000); "hyavs Tu ara saqarTvelos mTavroba?"; "parlamenti mkvdris dasaflavebaze uars acxadebs" ("dilis gazeTi", 28.04.2000). parlamenti-kancelariis dapirispireba rom isev da isev personaluri saxelisuflo anSlagSi _ brZolaa, kargad ikiTxeba "rezonansis" pirveli gverdis

"pasuxismgebeli

pirvel rigSi

SevardnaZea", da

karikaturaSi,

romelzec gamosaxulni arian ringze dacemuli lorTqifaniZe, gamarjvebuli, muStSemarTuli mokrive Jvanias Zlevamosili figura da mis iRliaSi SeyuJuli daCiavebuli prezidenti. ("rezonansi", 06.05.2000) zurab Jvanias realuri konkurentis, Tanamdebobidan da "alias" saxelmwifo CaiTvala TiTqmis daJinebiT ministr ara yovel akeTeben vaJa

lorTqifaniZis maisis TveSi,

gadadgoma "rezonansisa" interviuebSi,

mxolod nomerSi, aqcents 102

lorTqifaniZis damarcxebad, aramed prezident SevardnaZis wagebul raundad. politikosebTan Jurnalistebi

"prezidentis xelmowerebis moTxovniT. "mmarTvel muStad

impiCmentis Segrovebas

mcdelobaze"; parlamentSi _

sainformacio mTavrobis

sababad

iyeneben Seswavlis

saqmianobis

partiaSi

didi

aurzauria. erTmaneTs

prezidentis

siyvaruliT

erT

Sekruli

"moqalaqeebi"

daupirispirdnen...

rodesac

xelmowerebma 120-s gadaaWarba, saqmem saxumaro elferi dakarga. rogorc Cans, aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebisaTvis damiznebuli es iniciativa prezidentma uSualod mis winaaRmdeg wamowyebul aqciad aRiqva. saqme xom mis mier daniSnuli mTavrobis codvaTa gamoaSkaravebas exeba", _ werda "rezonansi". ("rezonansi", 14.05.2000) am fonze muSavdeba mTavari azris Tema _ postSevardnaZistuli da niadagis momavali, mosinjva

romelic erTdroulad ramdenime mimarTulebiT aqcentirdeba: o sazogadoebrivi Semzadeba

xelisuflebis saTaveSi "axalgazrda reformatorTa" mosvlisaTvis; o sazogadoebrivi azris gaaqtiureba prezidentis winaaRmdeg; o fsiqologiuri zemoqmedeba prezidentsa da mis garemocvaze. "alias" pirvel gverdze Cndeba anSlagi _ "paatas prezidentobisTvis amzadeben?", Sesabamisi masala ki Sida gverdebSia gadasrolili da gvauwyebs, rom "raionebSi gavrcelebuli moaruli xmebiT, paata SevardnaZes safuZvels umzadeben did politikaSi mosvlisaTvis." ("alia", 13.04.2000) aseve anSlagiT amjerad "rezonansi" iuwyeba, rom "paata SevardnaZe

politikaSi mosasvlelad emzadeba", aqvea mTel gverdze ganfenili saTauri _ "ratom midis Tanamdebobidan eduard SevardnaZe?" efeqturad mowodebuli es saTaurebi masalis waukiTxavadac qmnis STabeWdilebas, rom prezidenti midis da rogorc "mefe", memkvidred Tavis vaJs tovebs. gazeTis meore gverdze ganTavsebul publikaciaSi saubaria saqarTvelos mdgradi ganviTarebis

saagentos Camoyalibebis Taobaze, romlis prezidenti paata SevardnaZe iqneba da am statuss "rezonansis" _ eqspertebi "rogorc ganixilaven, Cans, rogorc winapirobas aqtiur

politikaSi

mosasvlelad

SevardnaZe

umcrosma

politikaSi mosavlenad momgebiani pozicia SearCia." rac Seexeba prezidentis wasvlas Tanamdebobidan, gazeTis mesame gverdze irkveva, rom "SevardnaZes amjerad nomrebSi ar ufiqria prezidentobis isev agrZelebs mitoveba. Temas _ is, ubralod, "moqalaqeTa mier kavSiris" Tavmjdomareobaze ambobda uars." ("rezonansi", 09.05.2000) momdevno "rezonansi" eduard SevardnaZis

"placdarmis momzadeba" SvilisaTvis "taxtis gadasacemad"; "alia" ki, "moarul

103

xmebze"

dayrdnobiT, da

jer

avrcelebs, mier

Semdeg

ki

uaryofs Temis _

"SevardnaZis prezidentis

avadmyofobis ambavs." "aliasa" "rezonansis" inicirebuli

Semcvlelis "Jurnalisturi Ziebis" areali TandaTan farTovdeba da presaSi ganixileba xelisuflebis saTaveSi axali Zalis mosvlis ramdenime varianti: o SevardnaZes aranairi ara Zala aqvs; da survili saukeTeso wamowyebul ufro meti radikaluri SemTxvevaSi, reformebs funqciis is da

cvlilebebisaTvis mxars dauWers politikur

yvelaze mier

axalgazrdebis

cxovrebaSi

parlaments

aReba

mouwevs; (125) Jvanias gunds saparlamento mmarTveloba urCevnia, radgan Jvanias ar gaaCnia saprezidento qarizma; (110) o ministrTa kabinetis SemoRebiT, premier-ministris rangSi, Jvania meore kaci gaxdeba pirveli kacis funqciiT; (111) o SevardnaZe gaimeorebs elcinis nabijs; misi memkvidre iqneba is, vinc putiniviT SeinarCunebs arsebul reJims da xels ar axlebs mis garemocvas. SesaZloa es iyos "samarTaldamcavebis bosi" kaxa

TargamaZe. (158) sagangebo sakonstitucio yuradRebas cvlilebebis mivaqcevT Taobaze. "tradicionalistTa" citatas gazeT lideris, "alias" parlamentar akaki asaTianis iniciativas _ ministrTa kabinetis SemoRebisaTvis movixmobT

publikaciidan, romelic imiTac aris saintereso, rom afiqsirebs prezidentis orbitidan axali Taobis biznesmenebis, parlamentarebis _ levan gaCeCilaZisa da daviT gamyreliZis, distancirebas: "gaCeCilaZe-gamyreliZis dueti imasac amtkicebs, rom saxelmwifo ministrad zurab Jvanias wasvlis SemTxvevaSi, is yvela sakiTxze pasuxismgeblobas aiRebda da Sedegic ukeTesi iqneboda.

kuluaruli

informaciiT,

axlandeli

saxelmwifo

ministri,

arseniSvili,

Tanamdebobas ha da ha, erT welSi gamoemSvidobeba da Jvaniac aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis olimpze arCevnebamde cota xniT adre gadainacvlebs. Tumca... ministrTa kabinetis ideam cota xniT kulisebs miRma gadainacvla. amdenad, SesaZloa, "tradicionalistebis" Tavgamodebam da xelmowerebis Segrovebam fuWad Caiaros. asaTians Tu mis damkveTs am etapze imedebma ar gaumarTla, radgan "mas" (igulisxmeba eduard SevardnaZe _ l.k.) ase surs." (148) ministrTa kabinetis Temam erTgvarad fataluri roli Seasrula zurab Jvanias pirovnul da politikur biografiaSi. 2001 wlis gazafxulze isev sakonstitucio cvlilebebis inicireba, oRondac amjerad prezidentis mxridan, da, mis mierve, ministrTa kabinetis SesaZlo xelmZRvanelad zurab Jvanias 104

kandidaturis dasaxeleba is strategiuli svla aRmoCnda, romelmac Jvanias mier mogebuli seriozuli raundebis Semdeg (jer niko lekiSvilis, Semdeg vaJa lorTqifaniZis gadadgoma saxelmwifo ministrobidan), ZalTa balansi mis sawinaaRmdegod Secvala. "Zalian ucnaurad moxda Tavis droze, rodesac ministrTa kabinetis koncefcia Semovida prezidentis mxridan... maSin CemTvis ucnauri iyo, rom ratomRac dasaxelda Cemi saxeli da gvari, maSin rodesac struqtura saerTod ar iyo miRebuli. exla daaxloebiT igive xdeba, oRond sruliad sapirispiro mimarTulebiT. isev daisva prezidentis mxridan, rom aucilebelia kabineti SemoviRoT saswrafod, magram, amave dros, saswrafod moxda aslan abaSiZis gvaris dasaxeleba", _ es gancxadeba telekompania "pirveli arxis" eTeriT gaakeTa 2001 wlis 16 noembers, "noembris revoluciad" wodebuli movlenebis Semdeg parlamentis Tavmjdomareobidan gadamdgarma zurab Jvaniam. (143) amjerad zurab Jvaniam axsna orive SemTxvevaSi am iniciativis miRma nagulisxmevi saxelisuflo brZolis teqnologia ("bunebrivia, rom Tu amjerad kabineti daukavSirdeba aWaris kidev romeliRaca abaSiZes, konkretul masac politikoss, Zalian am

SemTxvevaSi

liders

aslan

hyavs

bevri

mowinaaRmdege da vfiqrob ara naklebi, vidre zurab Jvanias da isev moxdeba am struqturis Cagdeba"), magram gacilebiT adre axsna presam (jer kidev maSin, roca Jvaniam, prezidentis winadadebaze daTanxmeba Tavisi politikuri

pasuxismgeblobisa da Tavganwirvis sademonstraciod gamoiyena). periodi _ 2000 wlis noember-dekembris "energetikuli buntidan" 2001 wlis "noembris revoluciamde" ("noembris revoluciad" wodebuli movlenebi ganxilulia disertaciis IIOTavis qveTavSi _ "destabilizaciis sainformacio uzrunvelyofa"), gamoirCeoda saxelisuflo dapirispirebebis gansakuTrebuli simZafriTa da presaSi maTi asaxvis gansakuTrebuli mravalferovnebiT. amave periodSi, sainformacio amindis Semqmnel mediaSi irRveva zurab Jvanias

mediazeobis, misi gundis erTianobis, "moqkavSiris" siZlieris da a.S. miTebi; Jvanias mixeil gundidan distancirebas da paradoqsia, reitingul Skalaze aRmasvlas mediis Setevis fonze, iwyebs presaSi saakaSvili, magram

momgebianad pozicionirebs eduardDSevardnaZis persona. ·

dapirispireba mmarTveli partiis _ "moqkavSiris" wiaRSi sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebel Stoebs Soris

xelisuflebis

urTierTobis daZabvis Semdgom sainformacio kampaniis yuradRebis centrSi 105

qveynis mmarTveli partia, mis SigniT urTierTdapirispirebis, ZalTa axali gadanawilebis problemebi eqceva. masmedia odnav anelebs, magram mainc ganagrZobs prezidentisa da misi Zalauflebis diskreditacias _ Jvaniasa da misi gundis imijis ganmtkicebis xarjze. sagulisxmoa, rom mTeli am procesebis periodSi prezidenti eduard SevardnaZe mkveTr reaqcias axdens mxolod mTavrobis winaaRmdeg 120

parlamentaris xelmoweris kampaniaze, romelsac t/k "rusTavi 2"-is, gazeTebis _ "rezonansisa" masmediis da "alias" Jurnalistebi mier "prezidentis impiCmentis mcdelobaze" aqcentirebisTvis iyeneben. flagmanebis axalgazrda reformatorTa

demokratiulobisa da yovlisSemZleobis imijis Seqmnis miuxedavad, 2000 wlis zafxulidan masmediaSi aqa-iq Cndeba miniSnebebi da mosazrebebi Jvanias gundis "klanur asakobriv diqtaturaze", krizisze", "inkubatoruli meTodiT SerCeuli axalgazrdebis da _

axalgazrda da a.S. da

reformatorebis magram ZiriTadi

fsevdoevropeizmisa foni rCeba igive

kosmopolitizmis "postepoqisTvis"

kritika mzadeba

prezidentis

memkvidreze

marCieloba,

"moqkavSirSi" ganxeTqilebis, prezident-Jvanias dapirispirebis, prezidentisagan partiis mosalodneli datovebis da a.S. Temebis aJitireba. 2001 magram wlis damdegidan xelisuflebis damxobis suliskveTeba neldeba, masmedia amjerad sababiT xaverdovani saqarTvelos revoluciis teritoriaze versiebs ruseTis amuSavebs; samxedro

Zlierdeba

pankisis

konfliqtis gaCaRebis safrTxe; parlamentis sagazafxulo sesiaze prezidentis gamousvleloba amZafrebs mis winaaRmdeg mimarTul sainformacio kampanias da masmedia kvlav amuSavebs "elcinis variantisa" da qveynis pirveli piris rangSi parlamentis Tavmjdomaris movlinebis versiebs. Tumc, paralelurad, Cndeba versia, rom politikur Seewireba. kriziss "rusTavi ara 2", prezidenti, "alia" da aramed parlamentis aqamde

Tavmjdomare

"rezonansi"

tabudadebul zurab Jvanias personas kantikuntad ukve uaryofiT konteqstSi ixsenieben da aaqtiureben mixeil saakaSvilis personisadmi interess. am fonze "rezonansis" "mTavari snaiperis" _ morige redaqtoris

"gasrola", romelic, im periodSi, mowmendil caze mexis gavardnas hgavda, aRarc ise SemTxveviTi mediisa mogveCveneba. da man zurab Jvanias personisadmi udavod e.w. damoukidebeli sazogadoebis mimarTebaSi, Seasrula

"sasignalo gasrolis" roli: "Cvens politikur speqtrSi aris kidev erTi "geniosi", romelic aqamde sufTa gamodioda yvela WuWyidan da raxan azri ara aqvs arc iumors, arc analizs, radgan sxva gza ar aris, swored mas unda 106

SevZaxo: "ei, Sen Savt...a maimuno, vis qonebas aniaveb, Se marTla pederasto!" ("rezonansi", 18.02.2002). es citata mravalmxriv sagulisxmoa; jer erTi, "rezonansi", romelic civ niavs ar uSvebda zurab Jvaniasken, am "emociuri SeZaxiliTa" da

bilwsityvaobiT amJRavnebs, rom arc aqamde miaCnda es

persona umwikvlo

arsebad; meorec _ "rezonansi" Riad imeorebs igive "braldebas", romelsac moskovSi mcxovrebi politologis, vaxtang Wkuaselis mier ufro "civilurad" da zogadad naTqvams (da "rezonansisagan" cecxlze navTdasxmuls), didi skandaliD da sagangebo saparlamento ganxilva mohyva (2000 wlis noemberSi). "rezonansis" Semdeg nomerSi Jvaniasa da mis Tanagundel reformatorebs ukve erTdroulad Seuties morige redaqtorma da gigi mesvetem: · "aRvniSnavdi, rom male "Jvanias gundi" marto erT kacs _ koba

daviTaSvils daerqmeoda. saqme is aris, rom saakaSvilis gaministrebis Semdeg revoluciuri gardaqmnebis droSa parlamentSi am axalgazrda kacma aitaca da Jvanias gundis garegnul saxedac iqca. Tumca, rogorc Cans, Tavad Jvanias am dros sulac ar erevolucieba da Sesabamisad, mis gundSi revolucionerebisTvis adgili ar aris." (aleko cqitiSvili, "morige redaqtoris Canawerebi", "rezonansi", 19 Tebervali, 2001). · "sazizRar situaciaSi varT: gvegona, erTi Taoba midioda da modioda meore, romelic qveyanas Tavis adgils daumkvidrebda lokalurad iq, sadac aris da globalurad iq, sadac misi adgilia _ evropaSi. SevcdiT. bolo aTwleulis axalma saxeebma ieri icvales. Tqves, rom varT

"qarTvelebi, e.i. evropelebi", magram aRmoCnda, rom arc evropelebi arian da miT umetes, arc _ qarTvelebi. es adamianebi gvian daibadnen, adre rom dabadebuliyvnen, klasikuri komkavSiruli liderebi iqnebodnen." (gigi mesvete, "koreqtuli sveti", "rezonansi", 19 Tebervali, 2001). sagangebod mivapyrobT yuradRebas mesijs "revoluciuri", romelic, Cveni azriT, saqarTvelos politikur cxovrebaSi (Sesabamisad, politikur spetrSi) Tvisobrivi procesebis cvlilebebisa mauwyebeli da "xaverdovani iyos. es ar revoluciis" aris teqnologiuri xsenebiT unda "revoluciis"

gamowveuli asociaciuri paraleli. es cneba qarTul presaSi isedac xSirad figurirebda, oRondac, rogorc vnaxeT, destabilizaciuri procesebis

konteqstSi. aq ki xazgasmulia "revoluciuri gardaqmnebi", romlis droSa parlamentSi axalgazrda mixeil saakaSvilma aitaca; Jvanias ki, Turme, "sulac ar erevolucieba", ufro metic, aRmoCnda, rom igi "arc evropelia" da "miT

107

umetes,

arc

_

qarTveli";

Sesabamisad,

mis

gundSi

revolucionerebisTvis

adgili ar aris." Tu ufro Sors wavalT, Tamamad SeiZleba Tqma, rom presis Tvisobrivi analiziT SesaZlo iyo prognozireba imisa, rom 2001 wlis "noembris

revolucias" parlamentis Tavmjdomare, zurab Jvania Seewireboda (amaze presa pirdapir mianiSnebda kidec); rom gardauvali iyo radikaluri opoziciis saxiT mixeil saakaSvilis mxardamWerTa Camoyalibeba, Jvania-saakaSvilis politikuri gzebis daSoriSoreba... sxvaTa Soris, presis "saavtoro frazaa" "politikuri daswrobana", romliTac aRiniSneboda xelisuflebidan opoziciaSi gadasuli Jvaniasa da saakaSvilis faruli Tu aSkara qiSpi; Tumc, presa imasac xazgasmiT aRniSnavda, rom isini ganwirulni arian erTianobisTvis, rom maT erTmaneTi sWirdebaT. am Tvalsazrisis gansamtkiceblad gamodgeba "merabiSvilis incidentTan" ("merabiSvilgeitis") dakavSirebuli sainformacio aurzauri, romelic presis publikaciaTa erT nawilSi araorazrovnad daukavSira mixeil saakaSvils: · "kidev erTi tendencia, romelic merabiSvilis Temis aJitirebiT

masmediaSi gamoikveTa, aseTia: reformatorebad wodebul gunds bolo dReebSi Zalian xSirad saakaSvilis gundad moixseniebdnen. jer kidev wina parlamentSi dasaxelebul gunds mxolod Jvanias saxelTan

aigivebdnen; am parlamentis moRvaweobis bolo periodSi gunds JvaniasaakaSvilis saxeli ewoda. dRes gundis liderad mxolod saakaSvilis dasaxeleba (misi gaaqtiurebis fonze) aSkarad migvaniSnebs imaze, rom saqarTveloSi prezidentobis ambicia kidev erT kacs gauCnda". (147). · "saakaSvilma Tavisi saarCevno kampania Zalian adre daiwyo. TiToeuli misi · moqmedeba, manerebi imaze metyvelebs, rom mas Tavisi Tavi

prezidentobis realur kandidatad warmoudgenia." (89). "...merabiSvili "moqalaqeebis" siaSi saakaSvilis rekomendaciiT moxvda da 'igi bolo ar unda dRemde saakaSvilis sityva arsebuli "ratomRac" Tu ararsebuli ar gundis aris wevrad Casmuli iTvleba. magram "ratomRac" saakaSvilma merabiSvili ar daicva." (79). citataSi iyos SemTxveviT

brWyalebSi. amiT redaqcia Tavis pozicias, damokidebulebas gamoxatavs da igi Znelad asaxsneli. prezidentobis misi mosurne axalgazrda da gunduri

politikoss,

mixeil

saakaSvils,

eqscentriulobisa

principebis erTgulebis miuxedavad, am etapze aRar awyobs radikalis imiji. igi ukve premier-ministrobis realur kandidatadac saxeldeba (gazeTi "axali Taoba", magaliTad, am Temaze pirveli gverdis anSlags misi gvariT iwyebs _ 108

"saakaSvili, Jvania Tu lekiSvili?"). am viTarebaSi misTvis prezidentis gulis mogeba gacilebiT mniSvnelovania, vidre megobris sarisko gamoqomageba. am mosazrebas "dilis gazeTis" publikaciac adasturebs: "...partiis

("moqalaqeTa kavSiris", _ l.k.) radikaluri frTis iseTi warmomadgeneli, rogoric

mixeil

saakaSvilia,

prezidents

iqiT

umtkicebda

imas,

Tu

rogori

warmatebulia saqarTvelos mier ganvlili gza sxva danarCen postsabWoTa saxelmwifoebs Soris. "mas ver vakadreb, rom megobari davuZaxo (saakaSvili am

sityvebSi SevardnaZes gulisxmobs, _ l.k.),

magram

Cveni

urTierTobebi

mainc

gansakuTrebulad mimaCnia..." (107). "merabiSvilgeitad" wodebul, saxelisuflo brZolis umniSvnelovanes raunds, qvemoT ganvixilavT; aq ki davubrundeT isev Tebervlis "rezonanss". zemoTganxilul publikaciebs gazeTis momdevno nomerSive mohyva interviu "rezonansis" gamomcemelsa da mTavar redaqtor malxaz ramiSvilTan;

gamovyofT sam sagulisxmo moments am mravalmxriv sayuradRebo publikaciidan: upirvelesad ubodiSebs unda aRvniSnoT, "visac rom ramiSvili amgvari mxolod im mkiTxvels

msubuqad,

examuSa

gamoTqmebiT

daxunZluli

"rezonansis" wakiTxva"; meore _ publikaciis qvesaTaurad gamotanilia fraza, romelic korespondent-respondentis SekiTxva-pasuxSi arsad figurirebs: "rezonansi" iseve ar aris "moqalaqeebis" (igulisxmeba "moqalaqeTa kavSiri", _ l.k.), rogorc CineTis imperatoris". am kategoriuli frazis adresatad SesaZlo oponentebi ar unda igulisxmebodnen. es ufro imis gacxadebaa, rom amieridan "rezonansi" akontrolebs dabevebuli." Tavs movaled aRar Tvlis gundruki ukmios parlamentis veravin aravis aqvs Tavmjdomares. amas intervius bolo pasuxic adasturebs: "rezonanss" da, amitom, CvenTan "msubuq reJimSi" moxsenieba

DDDDGGG

da bolos _ publikaciis saTaurad gamotanili fraza, rom "gazeTSi didi emociuroba revolucias iwvevs. rakiRa redaqtor-gamomcemels savsebiT gaazrebuli aqvs sazogadoebriv azrze zogadad gazeTisa da, konkretulad, "rezonansis" zegavlenis faqtori, cxadia, gazeTis sxva publikaciebis, Tundac, Cvens mier am naSromSi ganxiluli (magaliTad, qveTavSi _ "saxelmwifos imiji" da sxv.) "morige redaqtoris Canawerebis" sabrZolo muxtzec eqneboda

warmodgena. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom publikaciaTa sxva adresatebis, gnebavT igive prezidentis (romelsac ara metaforebiT, aramed gvar-saxeliT lanZRavda im wlebSi, lamis yovel nomerSi) SeuracxyofiT daxunZlul "rezonanss"

aranairi formiT bodiSi ar mouxdia mkiTxvelisTvis.

109

erTi Tvis Semdeg "rezonansi" aqveynebs intervius fraqciis" "rezonansis" dasawyisSi TavmjdomaresTan, gamoZieba Sss-is daviT gamyreliZesTan. saqmianobasTan

parlamentis "axali intervius Temaa publikaciis "es pirveli

dakavSirebiT. sityvebi:

Savi

SriftiT

xazgasmulia

gamyreliZis

SemTxveva araa, rodesac "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" erTi gundi, konkretulad ki, Jvanias gundi, sagazeTo publikaciebs aqtiurad iyenebs Tavisi miznisaTvis... samwuxaro isaa, rom mmarTveli partia da Jvanias gundi mxolod calkeul publikaciebze, mxolod im statiebze reagirebs, romelic maT awyobT Tavisi konkretuli mowinaaRmdegis dasamarcxeblad." (124). "rezonanss", rogorc "Tavisufal da obieqtur gazeTs" (Tavisive

redaqtor-gamomcemlis SefasebiT) albaT ar SeeZlo Seemoklebina, an Seecvala respondentis mosazrebebi. Tumc, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, visgan ra pozicia iyo mosalodneli, zurab Jvanias oponentebi, rogorc wesi, "rezonansis"

furclebze TiTqmis ar xvdebodnen; da Tu gamonaklisi mainc moxdeboda, masalis mowodebis forma ar iqneboda amgvari. SemTxveviTi arc "monarqist" Temur JorJolianTan interviuSi

gamoTqmuli mosazrebis gamoqveyneba unda iyos: "zviadistebi... Jvanias mier daCmorebuli yvelafers xalxia... eseni

(saqarTvelos xelisuflebas gulisxmobs, _ l.k.)

akeTeben

imisaTvis,

raTa

saqarTvelos

xelisuflebaSi

somexi

moiyvanon, Tanac iseTi somexi, romelic Tavis somxobasac uaryofs." (giorgi kalandaZe, "SevardnaZe qurdi, damnaSave da teroristia", "rezonansi", 19 marti, 2001). "vaSington postSi" gamoqveynebul statias, romelSic parlamentar vano merabiSvilis meSveobiT gacxadda, rom SevardnaZes amJamad sityva "reformis" gagonebac ar surs, igi daRlilia da ar gaaCnia politikuri neba raimes Sesacvlelad, qarTul masmediaSi didi aJiotaJi mohyva. presis SefasebiT, es publikacia iyo axalgazrda reformatorebis mier prezidentis gamowveva

sajaro duelSi. Jurnalistebisa da politikosebisgan gamoTvlili nebismieri SesaZlo variantis (reformatori ministrebis, an piriqiT _ korufciaSi eWvmitanili ministrebis daTxovna; "moqalaqeebis" dasja _ "moqkavSiridan" prezidentis gasvliT; yvelafris ucvlelad datoveba da a.S.) ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi prezidenti wamgebian mdgomareobaSi unda aRmoCeniliyo; man ki miiRo iseTi gadawyvetileba, romelsac analitikosebi, yvela SesaZlo variantis gamoTvlis Semdeg, araprognozirebads, anu eduard SevardnaZis, rogorc "politikuri didostatis", gamoucnob svlas uwodebdnen; sakonstitucio cvlilebebis 110

iniciativa ministrTa kabinetis SemoRebisTvis, ris gamoc 2000 wlis maisSi akaki asaTiani parlamentSi xelmowerebs agrovebda, amJamad Tavad prezidentma wamoayena; Tanac, winaswar gaaxmaura premier-ministris SesaZlo kandidatura _ zurab Jvania. presam am nabijs "Sokis faqtori" uwoda, romelmac "partiis Sida saxelisuflo interesTa konfliqtebi, praqtikulad, stop-kadrSi gayina". (106) prezidentis iniciativam kargi sakbilo gauCina masmedias politikuri intrigebisa gamoricxavs, Jurnalistebis

"dilis gazeTis",

da

personaliebis

Temaze

mravalferovani

mosazrebebis da Tavad

ganviTarebisTvis. miuxedavad imisa, rom isini xSir SemTxvevaSi erTmaneTs politikosebis, msjelobaSi

"axali

politologebis, ikveTeba saerTo

analitikosebisa tendendiebic,

"dronis",

romlebic

"saqarTvelos

pirobiTad ase SeiZleba davajgufoT (gazeTebis: "alias", "rezonansis", "axali Taobis",

epoqis", "meridianis", "axali 7 dRis", respublikis" publikaciebisa da televiziis sainformacio programebis mixedviT):

o eduard SevardnaZem "udaod Zlieri svla" gaakeTa, romelmac "uaRresad daZabuli politikuri atmosfero myisierad ganmuxta"; prezidentisadmi lamis Riad dapirispirebuli misive partiis axalgazrda liderebi umal molbnen; Jvanias SevardnaZis diskreditaciis gegma CaeSala;

Tanamdebobebisa da ZalTa xelaxali gadanawilebis SesaZlo perspeqtivam umal CaaxSo axalgazrdebis agresia da qveyanas kidev erTxel daanaxa, rom mTeli e.w. reformatoruli gancdebi sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara maT mier mTeli saxelisuflebo sivrcis sruli gakontrolebisken swrafva; o prezidentma zustad gaTvala dro da kvlav gamoamJRavna qarTuli

politikuri speqtris Rrma codna; am nabijiT SevardnaZem kidev erTxel moaxdina strategia, Tavisi SesaZleblobebis flobs demonstrireba. marTvis igi aRiarebuli politikur "srulyofilad teqnologias,

manevrebSi warmoudgenlad Zlieria" da politikur brZolaSi mas badali ara hyavs. o Zlieri formaa. aramed saprezidento rac Seexeba qmnis xelisufleba warmodgenili safuZvels mniSvnelobis ara Cveni qveynis mentalitetis axal

Sesabamisia da arsebul viTarebaSi igi mmarTvelobis yvelaze momgebiani variantiT gazrdisaTvis mosalodnel da

ganlagebas,

igi

prezidentis

uflebamosilebis, mniSvnelovani

prezidentis

momentia saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi dafuZnebis procesSi. o politikosTa da JurnalistTa sakmaod didma nawilma mosalodneli

cvlilebebisadmi skeptikuri damokidebuleba gamoxata, CaTvala es nabiji satyuarad, "SevardnaZis axal fandad", opoziciisTvis "saxravi Zvalis" 111

gadagdebad; sazogadoebis intrigebisa

drois da

gayvanis

taqtikad, mowyvetis

qveynis mcdelobad, da

problemebisagan "moqkavSiris" saxelmwifo ara

yuradRebis ambiciebis

dasakmayofilebel

interesis gamomxatvel nabijad; demokratiuli procesebidan ukan daxevis simptomad; yvelaze radikaluri Sefaseba daaxloebiT ase formulirdeba: SevardnaZe "xelisuflebis narkomania" da amiT xelisuflebaSi yofnas ixangrZlivebs; "am nabijiT man damarcxeba aRiara". o sakonstitucio cvlilebebze msjelobisas gaCnda versiac, rom, SesaZloa, arc Tavad ideis avtors _ prezidents surdes sakuTari ideis ganxorcieleba. sinamdvileSi SeiZleba yvelaferi es mxolod da mxolod saxelmwifo ministrisTvis uflebamosilebis gazrdiT da saxelmwifo ministrad zurab Jvanias daniSvniT dasruldes, rac maincadamainc saxarbielo perspeqtiva ar aris JvaniasTvis (SevadaroT _ Svidi Tvis Semdeg parlamentis Tavmjdomareobidan gadamdgari Jvanias

zemoTmoxmobili gancxadeba). dabolos, yvelaze sayuradRebo versia, romelmac presaSi iCina Tavi, ufro siRrmiseuli iyo, ar iyo gaTvlili "masobrivi auditoriisTvis" da, amdenad, sainformacio aJiotaJs ar daeqvemdebara. am versiiT, prezidentma daaCqara Jvanias gundisTvis xelisuflebis "xaverdovani gadacemis" procesi. "guSindeli da dRevandeli viTareba ise gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan, rogorc ca da dedamiwa", _ mravalmniSvnelovnad ganucxada Jurnalistebs "moqkavSiris" marTlac, erT-erTma reformatorma liderma mixeil maWavarianma. (102) presaSi "merabiSvilgeitad" monaTluli "vaSington postis"

gaxmaurebuli publikacia da misi media- da politikuri rezonansi, gardamtexi etapi aRmoCnda saqarTvelos politikur istebliSmentSi ZalTa axali

gadanawilebisTvis. amasTan, Cveni azriT, es is momentia, roca presam Tavisi SesaZleblobebi maqsimalurad gamoiyena movlenaTa ganviTarebis

pluralistur-analitikuri suraTis warmosaCenad.

112

Tavi IV

arCevnebi da politikuri speqtri

amerikeli politologebi, wignis "amerikuli demokratiis" avtorebi

(qeneT janda, jefri m. beri, jeri goldmeni), miiCneven rom demokratiuli arCevnebis viTarebaSi "masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis mTavari funqciaa xeli Seuwyos xalxisgan xelisuflebisaTvis informaciis gadacemas, upirveles yovlisa, sazogadoebrivi azris Seswavlis safuZvelze." (77, 151) SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom qarTuli presa "xalxisgan informaciis gadacemis" (oRondac, ara sazogadoebrivi azris Seswavlis safuZvelze) amocanas ufro adekvaturad pasuxobda deklarirebuli damoukideblobis pirvel wlebSi

(gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebis Suaxanebamde), roca perioduli gamocemebi stiqiurad, poziciebsa magram Tu maqsimaluri sazogadoebis mravalferovnebiT warmomadgenelTa warmoaCendnen Tvalsazrisebs, partiul xSirad,

kategoriulad urTierTgamomricxavsac. Cveni azriT, im etapze, cenzurisa da erTpolarulobisagan umniSvnelo sakiTxebi daxsnilma erTnairi beWdurma sityvam erTgvari da "TviTnabadi emociurobiT

pluralizmis" atmosfero Seqmna, roca qveynisTvis arsebiTi problemebi Tu polemikuri JiniTa

ganixileboda. rac Seexeba iseT publikaciebs, rogoric iyo, magaliTad, akaki baqraZis publicisturi aq ukve werilebi Rrmad da gazeT "mamulSi" da sxva periodul yovel

gamocemebSi,

Tanmimdevrulad

analizdeboda

konkretul etapze arsebuli viTareba, wanamZRvrebi, mocemuli iyo Seqmnili situaciis gadalaxvis avtoriseuli xedva, movlenebis ganviTarebis prognozi da a.S. 90-iani wlebis meore naxevridan da, gansakuTrebiT, 2000 wlidan, presa ufro metad iqca xelisuflebisaTvis brZolis iaraRad. am TvalsazrisiT igi, sazogadoebisTvis inicirebis Sesabamisi mesijebis ufro gadacemis, Sesabamisi procesebis vidre instrumentis rols warmatebiT asrulebs,

sazogadoebasa da xelisuflebas Soris mediatoris komunikaciur funqcias. Jurnalisti maia toraZe, romelmac Tavisi sadisertacio naSromisTvis _ "Tanamedrove presa da arCevnebis problema (Jurnalisturi aspeqtebi)"

mimoixila da gaaanaliza 1990-2004 wlebis qarTuli beWdviTi gamocemebi, wers, rom "winasaarCevno periodSi masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi mowodebulni arian orgvari TanamSromlobisaTvis: a). mas "iyeneben" saarCevno kampaniaSi "moqmedi subieqtebi" informaciis gadasacemad; b). isini TviTon moipoveben da 113

gadascemen realur

informacias

masobriv

auditorias.

informirebis

orive

forma

emsaxureba saboloo mizans _ amomrCevelTa srul gamorkvevas, arCevnebSi maT monawileobas da Tavisufali arCevanis gamoxatvas." (69, 7)

raxan konkretulad arCevnebis Tema presaSi Cveni kvlevis sagani ar iyo, kategoriulad ver SevewinaaRmdegebiT maia toraZes, magram 2000-2008 wlebSi qarTuli presis permanentul monitoringsa da analizze muSaobis gamocdileba gvaZlevs uflebas vTqvaT, rom saarCevno kampaniebis periodSi masobrivi

auditoriis informirebis amocana, maTi sruli gamorkvevis mizniT, albaT arc dausaxavs miznad qarTul medias. is, ra Tqma unda, raRac doziT, nebiT Tu uneblied, asrulebda am funqcias, magram arc arCevnebis "moqmed subieqtebs" hqondaT ufleba mediis da meSveobiT da informaciis verc media gadacemis iyo Semwe met-naklebad amomrCevelTa Tanabari "sruli

saSualeba

gamorkvevisa" da maTi "Tavisufali arCevanis gamoxatvisaTvis". amisTvis, mas arc biznes-damoukidebloba uwyobda xels da arc _ saredaqcio. amasTan, maia toraZe aRniSnavs, rom mis mier Seswavlil masalaTa

nawilSi "aSkarad SeimCneva dakveTis, politikuri SantaJisa da gamiznuli provokaciis mowyobis mcdelobis kvalic

(xazi Cvenia _ l.k.)",

magram

amis

mtkicebulebani ar gaaCnia, ramdenadac "sainformacio saSualebebi amas sakmao profesionalizmiTa da kanonebis saTanado muxlebis momarjvebiT axerxeben." (69, 24) savsebiT veTanxmebiT kolegas, miT ufro rom amgvari tendencia ara mxolod saarCevno kampaniis periodSi iCens Tavs qarTul presaSi. e.w. faruli reklama da dakveTili ar muSaobis publikaciebi aris ucxo, rom amaSi erTi SexedviT soliduri gamocemebisTvisac ramdenimewliani Tundac (presis fiarkompaniebSi analizze rom

gamocdileba

marwmunebs

aRaraferi vTqvaT). meores mxriv, qarTuli presa arc mdidari gamomcemlebiT aris

ganebivrebuli, arc saxelmwifo subsidirebiT (iribiT TuU pirdapiriT, rasac sxvadasxva formiT axorcieleben, magaliTad, norvegia, safrangeTi da evropis sxva qveynebi presis dasacavad monopolizebis safrTxisagan da pluralizmis SesanarCuneblad), arc maRali tiraJi uzrunvelyofs maT arsebobas (ramdenime iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda). Sesabamisad, bazris ulmobeli kanoni aiZulebs sainformacio saSualebebs Semosavlis amgvar wyaros mimarTon. saarCevno kampania ki amisaTvis yvelaze xelsayreli periodia. saanalizo saparlameto da periodSi 1 _ saqarTveloSi Catarda 2 _ saprezidento, 2 _

TviTmmarTvelobis

arCevnebi.

amasTan,

sayuradReboa 114

"postaslanuri" aWaris umaRlesi sabWos arCevnebi, romelic pirvelad Catarda aWaris mmarTveli partiis, da "aRorZinebis" hegemoniisa da, ufro metic, monawileobis gareSe, met-naklebad realuri konkurenciis pirobebSi;

amdenad, mizanSewonilad miviCnieT, mokled am arCevnebzec gagvemaxvilebina yuradReba. ·

2000 wlis saprezidento arCevnebi kavSirma" STambeWdavi (26%-iT) "ZiriTadi

1999 wlis saparlamento arCevnebi "moqalaqeTa upiratesobiT mougo (41,7%) "aRorZinebas",

romelic

opozicia" gaxda; saarCevno barieri gadalaxa blokma "mrewveloba gadaarCens saqarTvelos". presa aqtiurad iyo CarTuli rogorc maia toraZe aRniSnavs winasaarCevno bataliebSi da, sadisertacio naSromSi,

zemoxsenebul

"Tavisuflebis maRali xarisxiT", politikuri subieqtebis strategiisa da saarCevno taqtikis codniT aSuqebda saarCevno process. (69) 2000 wlis saprezidento arCevnebisadmi interesi ki presaSi ganelda; igrZnoba, rom prezidentobis ori woniani kandidatis _ aslan abaSiZisa da jumber patiaSvilis fonzec, eduard SevardnaZe mainc ualternativo kandidatad ganixileba. sainteresoa, rom gansxvavebiT 1999 wlis saparlamento arCevnebisagan, roca "aRorZinebisagan" "mtris xati" iqmneboda, amjerad presis publikaciebi umTavresad jumber patiaSvilzea aqcentirebuli da misi persona skandalur konteqstSic xSirad figurirebs. jer kidev 1995 wlis arCevnebSi patiaSvilis saxeli aqtiurad ukavSirdeboda 9 aprilis tragedias, mis

mimarTebas am periodis movlenebTan; 2000 wels, amasTan erTad, presaSi axali kompromatebic gaCnda _ patiaSvilisa da xabeiSvilis (kompartiis yofili maRalCinosani, iseve, rogorc jumber patiaSvili) dapirispirebis detalebi, patiaSvilis TiTqos sakuTari SesaZlo braleuloba magram da partiis aslan quTaisis qalaqkomis momentSi mxari, kidev pirveli moxsna Tavisi erTxel

mdivnis, mamuka aslanikaSvilis TviTmkvlelobaSi da a.S. paradoqsia, abaSiZem bolo

kandidatura

eduard

SevardnaZes es

dauWira faqti

Tanablokelis,

patiaSvilis

sawinaaRmdegod.

adasturebs presis "moarul Tvalsazriss" imis Taobaze, rom SevardnaZe da abaSiZe faqtors warmatebiT momgebiani iyenebdnen pirovnuli Tu partiuli dapirispirebis xelisuflebis

garigebebisTvis;

gansakuTrebiT,

SenarCunebisaTvis brZolis yvelaze arsebiT momentebSi.

115

naSromSi _ "saarCevno procesebi saqarTveloSi", daviT usufaSvili da gia nodia aRniSnaven, rom "2000 wlis saprezidento arCevnebi, SesaZloa, yvelaze uaresi iyo saqarTvelos saarCevno istoriaSi: rogorc saSinao, ise saerTaSoriso damkvirveblebma aRniSnes, rom amomrCevelTa aqtiurobis done TvalsaCinod dabali iyo, biuletenebis ukanono Cayram ki masobrivi xasiaTi miiRo." (70, 26) 2000 wlis saprezidento arCevnebis gaSuqebaze metad sayuradReboa is garemoeba, rom saarCevno kampaniis damTavrebisTanave presam da telekompania "rusTavi 2"-ma aqtiurad daiwyes saubari ara mxolod arCevnebis Sedegebis gayalbebaze, aramed, Seteva prezidentze (ZiriTadad, "aliam" da "rezonansma") da fonis Seqmna misi diskreditaciisaTvis. "SevardnaZis gamyalbeblebi ori centridan imarTebodnen", "prezidentma aSS-is saxelmwifo departamentis silac iwvnia"; "arCevnebze yuTSi 5000

biuleteni Cavyare", "studenti gogona mTeli Tve beWeds urtyamda da mTeli dRe arCevnebs ayalbebda" _ sapirvelgverdo anSlagebiT iuwyeboda "rezonansi". ("rezonansi", 14,15.04.2000); telekompania "rusTavi 2"-is formulirebiT, es iyo "cariel saarCevno yuTebSi dagrovili 80%". (t/k "rusTavi 2", programa "post skriptumi", 06.05.2000) rogorc resursis Cans, amomrCevelTa gamoyenebis inertulobisa miRebuli da e.w. administraciuli Sedegi (eduard aqtiuri fonze maRali

SevardnaZem es arCevnebi 79,3%-iT moigo, misma ZiriTadma konkurentma, jumber patiaSvilma ki xmebis rom 16,7% miiRo) gaxda reJims sababi zemoxsenebuli da mediasaSualebebisaTvis prezident SevardnaZeze aqtiuri SetevisTvis. "alia" winaswarmetyvelebda, "SevardnaZis avtoritaruli

totalitaruli daerqmeva, sadac politikosebs sdevnian... istoria ityvis, rom SevardnaZis epoqaSi politikuri terori mZvinvarebda." ("alia", 11-12.04.2000) (publikaciaSi sisxlis amis magaliTad saqmis naxsenebia dedaqalaqis prokuraturis mier

samarTlis

aRZvra,

arCevnebis "politikuri

boikotisaken teroris

momwodebeli mZvinvarebis"

proklamaciebis

gamo,

magram

damadasturebel sxva faqts igi ar Seicavs). "SevardnaZe gaSlili TanxlebiT. _ diadi kombinatorobidan gverdebze, _ diad eqsperimentatorobamde", karikaturebis pirveli Ramis

"SevardnaZe avtoritarizmis fskerze eSveba" _ amgvari saTaurebi anSlagebadaa "rezonansis" magaliTad, pirvel saTauriT umeteswilad, male "prezidenti

uflebasac moiTxovs" _ karikaturaze gamosaxulia moxuci mefis gverdiT Camwkrivebuli sapatarZloebi ("rezonansi", 26, 28.04.2000) da a.S. 116

yuradRebas SevaCerebT erT garemoebazec _ ara am konkretul etapze, aramed Semdgom periodSi, saxelisuflo brZolebis amsaxvel publikaciebSi, gvxvdeba mosazreba, rom zurab Jvanias gundma TavisTavze aiRo winasaarCevno kampaniis warmarTva, saarCevno Stabis faqtobrivi monopolizebiT; es maT

saSualebas aZlevda saprezidento arCevnebis warmatebiT dasrulebis Semdeg, ufro meti saxelisuflo berketi moeTxovaT. · P "politikuri miwisZvra" _Aase ewoda presaSi arCevnebis wina periodSi ganviTarebul politikur movlenebs. winasaarCevno daZabulobam gaarRvia

2002 wlis adgilobrivi arCevnebi

susti adgilebi (iseve, rogorc miwisZvram) da logikur dasasrulamde miiyvana "moqkavSirSi" uwodebdnen procesi. "saarCevno SefasebebiT bunkeri", "sacvlebis presaSi gamofena parlamentSi", parlamentis imiTacaa "politikuri 8 maisis _ jer faruli dinebiT mimdinare e.w. da bolos zedapirze gamoyofis amofrqveuli mZafri dapirispirebisa da mmarTveli partiidan (anu, rogorc mas "saprezidento partiidan") reformatorebis

antisanitaria", "politikuri korufcia", "politikuri balagani" _ amgvari dafiqsirda am saqarTvelos presaSi

skandaluri sxdoma, romelic saarCevno vnebaTaRelvis erTgvar "generalur repeticiad" iqca. sxdomis gaSuqeba saintereso, rom

aqedanve ikveTeba da TandaTan mZafrdeba presaSi arCevnebis gayalbebis Tema. am motivs aviTareben Tavad arCevnebSi monawile partiebi, ori ZiriTadi

mimarTulebiT _ erTis mxriv, gayalbebebSi urTierTbraldebebiT da, meores mxriv _ prezidentisa da xelisuflebis dadanaSaulebiT. yvelaze saintereso isaa, rom arCevnebis Semdeg gayalbebaze msjeloba ara mxolod damarcxebuli, aramed gamarjvebuli Zalis prioritetadac rCeba. gazeT mianiSnebs "qronikis" arCevnebis publikaciis gayalbebis anonsi pirvel gverdze konkretulad meTodebze: "beWdisdamrtymelebi,

buterbrodebis mimtanebi, SuqisCamqrobebi, viTom fexmZime qalebi da "bozebis mobiluri jgufebi". masalaSi ganviTarebulia varaudi, rom "arCevnebi

aprobirebuli meTodebiT gayalbdeba", Tumca, "SaqriT arCevnebis mogeba ukve istoriis kuTvnilebaa." gazeTis amave nomerSi, "Jurnalisturi gamoZiebis" rubrikiT, dawvrilebiTaa ganxiluli centraluri saarCevno komisiis "wvlili" arCevnebis totalur gayalbebaSi da misi meTodebi. (153)

117

gazeTi "axali versia" pirvel gverdze aqveynebs fotokolaJs "gayalbebis diriJori". udiriJorebs diriJoris arCevnebis rolSi prezidentia, da xolo publikaciebSi politikuri _ "vin gayalbebas?" "saarCevno bazari

kolmeurneobis bazars hgavs" _ "arCevnebis gayalbebis unikalur meTodebze" da "gayalbebis wyaroebzea" saubari. saarCevno eqsperti nugzar ivaniZe miiCnevs, rom "arCevnebze kontrolis mTeli Zalaufleba ramaz jerjerobiT ki prezident rom

SevardnaZis iqneba." (95)

xelSia";

politologi

klimiaSvili

Tvlis,

"bolomde obieqturi arCevnebi ar Catardeba, magram arc totaluri gayalbeba arCevnebis gayalbebis aJiotaJis, partiebis urTierTqiSpis fonze

saarCevno kampaniis mimdinareobisas, da, Sesabamisad, presaSi, ukana planze iwevs mTavari _ eleqtoratis interesi, partiebis saarCevno programebi, romelTa mixedviTac unda gansazRvros amomrCevelma maTi SesaZleblobebi. presis publikaciebis SejerebiT ikveTeba mosazreba, rom es programebi

dapirebebs ufro hgavs, araa gaTvlili realur perspeqtivaze, moklebulia konkretul dasabuTebas, ra meqanizmebiT unda moxdes maTi ganxorcieleba. yuradRebas magram iqcevs "axali nu versiis" publikacia daxarbdebiT". _ "gabruvdiT, rusiko daboldiT, gigaSvili

foCian

kanfets

Jurnalisti

(romelic, amasTanave, saarCevno Temaze gamoqveynebuli bevri sxva masalis avtoricaa), kompaqturad ganixilavs arCevnebSi monawile ZiriTadi politikuri subieqtebis: "nacionaluri moZraobis", "leiboristebis, "axali memarjveneebis", "aRorZinebisa" da "mrewvelebis" programebs. (94) wina arCevnebisagan ganxilva gansxvavebiT, roca partiebis primatis fonze Temad "sastarto xdeboda, swored mdgomareobis" amjerad "moqalaqeTa arCevnebis kavSiris" yvelaze

adgilobrivi

skandalur

"moqkavSiri" iqca: misi dayofa "mamalaZistebad" da "zuristebad", maT Soris xelCarTuli brZola centraluri saarCevno komisiis misadgomebTan,

sasamarTlo procesebi da a.S. am procesis amsaxvel publikaciebSi yvelaze xSirad csk (centraluri saarCevno komisia) figurirebs: "ceskom moqalaqeTa kavSirs arCevnebisaken gza gadauketa" ("rezonansi", 14.05.2002), "lominaZem

moqkavSiri gaauqma", ("axali Taoba", 14.05.2002), "csk-m moqalaqeTa kavSirs orive frTa mostexa" ("alia", 14.05.2002), "moqkavSirebi csk-dan garicxes" ("dilis gazeTi", 14.05.2002) da a.S. saarCevno kampaniis periodSi erTi SexedviT yvelaze "araordinaluri" iyo "axali memarjveneebis" gadawyvetileba _ saarCevno kampaniaze uaris Tqmis Taobaze. magram maT amis kompensacia swored masmediis meSveobiT moaxdines. 118

arCevnebis "pikur periodSi" TiTqmis yvela yoveldRiur Tu yovelkvireul gazeTSi gvxvdeba "axlebis" Tema, sxvadasxva rakursiT. amasTan, bevrgan sareklamo wesiT daibeWda publikaciebi "axali memarjveneebis" iniciativiT Seqmnili daxmarebis fondis, miwisZvrisagan dazarebulTaTvis binebis SeZenis Sesaxeb da a.S. saarCevno kampaniis periodSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba iseTi sainformacio sababis Seqmnas, romlis meSveobiTac politikuri partiebi da personebi baRaTurias Zaldautaneblad, iniciativiT SekveTili warmarTuli statiebis kampania gareSec xdebian presis mier yuradRebis obieqtebi. "aRorZinebisTvis", magaliTad, aseTi sababi iyo jondi "eleqtrokavSiris"

gaTiSuli oci aTasi abonentis dasacavad. rogorc saarCevno paTosi moiTxovs, jondi baRaTuria am movlenebs qveynis pirvel pirs ukavSirebs, xolo "20 aTasi abonentis SesaZlo gamorTvaze srul pasuxismgeblobas qalaqis mers da

finansTa saministros akisrebs." (80). yuradRebas naklebad exeba SevaCerebT arCevnebSi presaSi monawile gamokveTil yvela tendenciaze, rac metgvaqvs

mxares.

mxedvelobaSi

prezidentsa da, zogadad, xelisuflebasTan, politikur ZalTa umetesobis negatiuri mimarTeba, rogorc erTgvari saarCevno kapitali. politologi gia nodia, Jurnal "imijSi" gamoqveynebul arCevnebs interviuSi, aRniSnavs, rom "...sxva qveynebSic adgilobriv mosaxleoba iyenebs xelisuflebisadmi

saprotesto ganwyobis gamosaxatavad da aqac igive moxda. xolo saparlamento da saprezidento presis arCevnebs sazogadoeba 2 Tvisobrivad arCevnebi sxva kriteriumebiT afasebs." (108) zogadi SefasebiT, ivnisis postSevardnaZistuli

periodisaTvis politikuri speqtris mzaobis dasadgeni erTgvari testic iyo. wina arCevnebisagan gansxvavebiT, amjerad presam, saarCevno bataliebis

paralelurad, eleqtoratsac miapyro "dilis gazeTis" misamarTiT, axla

yuradReba.

es gansakuTrebiT iTqmis faqtors citatas: partiam, araerTi "partiebis romelsac

romelmac

amomrCevlis erT arada

sayuradRebo umetesobas

publikacia mxolod

uZRvna.

moviSveliebT xalxi.

gaaxsenda

gamarjveba unda, saWiroa dasabuTebulad ganmartos, rom xelisuflebisaTvis brZolaSi xalxi unda iyos mizani da ara saSualeba!" (93) arCevnebSi, moZraobam" da Tbilisis masStabiT, gamarjveba moipoves "nacionalurma "xelisuflebis "leiboristulma partiam", romlebic

gansakuTrebiT mwvave kritikaSi ejibrebodnen erTmaneTs, xolo regionebis umravlesobaSi ukeTesi SedegiT gamoirCeodnen "axali memarjveneebi", 119

romlebic "nacionaluri moZraobis" da Jvanias jgufis ZiriTadi oponentebi iyvnen da, Sesabamisad, prezidentis farul sayrdenad iTvlebodnen." (55, 50) "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" (romelsac arCevnebamde cota xniT adre Jvanias gundi gamoeyo) dabali Sedegi mosalodneli iyo, magram TbilisSi aRebuli xmebis mxolod 2% (qveynis masStabiT ki 2%-ze naklebi), yvelaze pesimisturi

prognozis fonzec Sokismomgvreli aRmoCnda. rogorc politologi gia nodia aRniSnavs, es arCevnebi "ZalTa axali ganlagebis pirvel gamocdad iqca", xolo arCevnebis Semdeg "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" Tavmjdomared saxelmwifo ministris, avTandil jorbenaZis arCeva moaswavebda am partiis, rogorc "xelisuflebis garSemo konsolidirebuli "nomenklaturuli" gaerTianebis rekonstruqciis mcdelobas." (55, 50-51) Cveni azriT, masmediisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Tvisobrivad axal etapze gadasvlas unda moaswavebdes arCevnebis Catarebis Semdeg saarCevno kampaniis, arCevnebis uaxloesi da samomavlo Sedegebis, misi politikuri,

sociologiuri, fsiqologiuri da sxva aspeqtebis gaanalizeba presaSi. gazeTma "xvalindelma wamoswia, dRem" arCevnebis _ "axali Semdeg epoqa" "eleqtoratis da "dro" privatizebis" Tema

gazeTebi

regionebSi amjeradac

arCevnebis

mimdinareobiT Semoifargla).

dainteresdnen

(rogorc yovelTvis,

adgilobrivi

arCevnebis gaSuqebisas presa ZiriTadad dedaqalaqSi mimdinare procesebiT

sagangebod

unda

SevCerdeT

presaSi

gamoqveynebuli

sociologiuri

kvlevebis Sedegebze. maisSi gamoqveynebuli monacemebis Sedarebisas Tundac mimdinare wlis Tebervlis monacemebTan, yvelaze TvalSisacemia sam TveSi "nacionaluri moZraobis" reitingis zrda _ 2,3%-dan 10,3%-mde. "nea intermedias" iZleoda mier maisis TveSi gamoqveynebuli "gorbisa" da reitingebi xolo

partiebis

maSinve

sayuradRebo

varaudebis

ganviTarebis

saSualebas,

arCevnebis Sedegebi ZiriTadad daemTxva maTi winaswari kvlevebis Sedegebs. arCevnebma daadastura "gorbis" mier saqarTvelos regionebSi Catarebuli

gamokiTxvebis mTavari Sedegic _ saqarTvelos regionebsa da dedaqalaqSi memarcxene Zalebis eleqtorati sWarbobs! aseve, gamarTlda sociologiur gamokvlevebze dayrdnobili identuria eleqtoratis varaudi dedaqalaqis sakrebulos koaliciuri azris

mmarTvelobis Taobaze, winaswari monacemebiTa da realuri SedegebiT TiTqmis inertulobis maCvenebelic. sazogadoebrivi kvlevisa da marketingis asociacia "gorbis" xelmZRvanelis, merab faCulias SefasebiT, "piar-kampaniebis teqnologia sakmaod daixvewa da nel-nela

mivdivarT im situaciamde, rac 20 wlis win hqondaT dasavleTis qveynebs." (126) 120

2002 presaSi

wlis

adgilobrivi

arCevnebi

manamde

Catarebuli kvlevebisa

yvela da

sxva

arCevnebisagan gamoirCeoda imiT, rom saarCevno kampania da misi gaSuqeba mimdinareobda intensiuri sociologiuri Tundac

elementaruli saarCevno teqnologiebis moSveliebiT. Sesabamisad, Tu aqamde qarTul presaSi "piaris" Temas erTgvarad amorfuli saxe hqonda, amjerad gacilebiT adekvatur konteqstSi da ufro xSirad xsendeba (presaSi,

umTavresad, "fiaris" (PR) nacvlad ixmareba rusulidan kalkirebuli "piari", _ l.k.). aqve SevniSnavT, rom politikosebisa Tu Jurnalistebis ZiriTad samizned iqca PR kompania "nikkolo m"-i. erTni mas kancelariis (igive SevardnaZis) marTulad 05.04.2002), "nikkolo miiCneven, meoreni saakaSvilisa rom da misi sxvaTa _ winaaRmdeg rom ("axali Taoba",

sapirispiros

amtkiceben

saakaSvilis

warmateba

m"-is damsaxurebaa,

scenariT ganviTarda adgilobrivi

arCevnebis bataliebi". ("axali Taoba", 06.06.2002) Tavad "nikkolo m"-is qarTuli warmomadgenlobis politikuri xelmZRvaneli umTavresi giorgi RambaSiZe ki Tvlis, rom "yvela partiis sazrunavi arCevnebisTvis sazogadoebis

momzadeba unda iyos". ("saqarTvelos respublika", 30.05.2002). siaxlea isic, rom arCevnebis Sedegebze msjelobisas presam yuradReba miaqcia politikuri reklamis formasa da Sinaarss, mis Seusabamobas CvenSi ukve arsebuli reklamis kanonis moTxovnebTan (Jurnali "imiji", #4, 2002); ufro metic, presis calkeul publikaciebSi gamoikveTa politikuri reklamis Taobaze saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobaSi arsebuli xarvezis problemac. dasasrul, TvalSisacemia kidev erTi niuansi _ arCevnebis dros presaSi gacilebiT xSirad irRveva Jurnalisturi eTikisa da, saerTod, adamianuri urTierTobebis dawerili Tu dauwereli kanonebi. es gansakuTrebiT igrZnoba e.w. SekveTil masalebSi (farul reklamaSi), ramdenadac SemkveTis, anu, erTi romelime mxaris interesis gamoxatva uciloblad iwvevs ara mxolod

sapirispiro mxaris interesis Selaxvas (xSir SemTxvevaSi, Seuracxyofasac), aramed, mkiTxvelis SecdomaSi Seyvanasac; ramdenadac, faruli reklamis

pirobebSi mkiTxveli mocemul masalas aRiqvams ara rogorc kerZo interesis gamomxatvels, aramed, rogorc presis pozicias.

·

2003 weli _ permanentuli saarCevno reJimi

am qveTavSi ganxiluli periodi da procesebi erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesia sadisertacio naSromis saanalizo monakveTisTvis; "vardebis revoluciiT" 121

dagvirgvinebulma am periodma da masTan dakavSirebulma mediaaqtivobam farTo gamoxmaureba hpova Semdgomi periodis publikaciebSi (saqarTvelosa Tu mis farglebs gareT) da araerTgzis moeqca sajaro ganxilvebisa Tu debatebis arealSi (Tsu Jurnalistikis mimarTulebisa Tu sxva umaRlesi saswavleblebis studentTa samecniero da sakvalifikacio naSromTa Temebadac iqca). amdenad, SevecdebiT, am qveTavSi ufro metad zogadi suraTi warmovadginoT. disertaciis wina nawilebsa da qveTavebSi warmodgenili mediaproeqcia da, saerTod, Sesabamisi periodis da mediis analizi, saSualebas gvaZlevs maRali erTgvari reziumes saxiT CamovayaliboT imdroindeli viTarebis konturebi: sazogadoebis xarisxi, da politizebis da politikis personificirebis

sakanonmdeblo

aRmasrulebel

xelisuflebaSi da

momZlavrebuli tendencia, ekonomikis,

TviTlobirebis (sakuTari biznesisa Tu kontrabandis xelSemwyobi kanonebisa samTavrobo gadawyvetilebebis done, qveynis mobilizeba) cxovrebis lobirebis sferos _

korufciis

maRali

yvela

biznesis (Soubiznesis CaTvliT), socialuri sferos, ganaTlebis, kulturis da a.S. ganuyreli kavSiriDpolitikasTan. politikuri speqtris e.w. opoziciuri nawili, met-naklebi aqtiurobiTa da warmatebiT, marTalia, akritikebda prezidentisa da mTavrobis politikas, magram wamyvan politikur partiebsa da personebs Tavadac ar hqondaT gamokveTili qveynis saxelmwifoebrivi mowyobisa Tu ekonomikis ganviTarebis konceptualuri uzrunvelmyofi iyos ekonomikis programa, sabazro ekonomikis normaluri ganviTarebis Tumc,

prioritetebi, politikisagan SemoRebiT

socialuri

dacvis

programebi...

opozicioneri politikuri liderebi acxadebdnen, rom momavali etapi unda gaTavisuflebis, saxelisuflo korufciis balansis aRmofxvris,

ministrTa

kabinetis

uzrunvelyofis

periodi da a.S. politikuri da biznesinteresebis dapirispirebisa Tu Tanxvedris

faqtorebi ZiriTadad fokusirdeboda postSevardnaZistul periodze _ momaval sakanonmdeblo samomavlo xelisuflebaSi Seqmnis, poziciebis gavlenis gamagrebisa sferoebis kursis, da garkveuli da da garantiebis SenarCunebisa orientaciisa

gadanawilebis

mimarTulebiT

(qveynis

sagareo

politikuri orientirebis gaTvaliswinebiT). 2003 wlis saarCevno periodi mkveTrad gansxvavdeboda wina parlamentis arCevnebisagan, upirvelesad imiT, rom, faqtobrivad, es iyo erTgvari

generaluri repeticia 2005 wlis saprezidento arCevnebisa; anu "uSevardnaZeo saqarTvelosTvis" placdarmis mosamzadebeli procesi. am faqtoris 122

gaTvaliswinebiT, viTardeboda:

eqspertTa

prognozebi

ori

sapirispiro

mimarTulebiT

erTni Tvlidnen, rom eduard SevardnaZe Seecdeboda qveynis ganviTarebis momavali modelis TavisTavze morgebas da qveynis marTvis sadaveebis

SenarCunebas sxvagvar konstituciur rangSi, an _ xelisuflebis sadaveebis gadacemas, "rusuli modeliT" Tu sxva formiT, im pirovnebisa Tu politikuri ZalisaTvis, romelic misi reputaciisa da ojaxis xelSeuxeblobis garanti iqneboda; meore mimarTuleba aviTarebda Tvalsazriss, rom eduard SevardnaZem politikur speqtrs Tavisufali ganviTarebis saSualeba misca da met-naklebad bunebrivi wels da Tavisufali gadadga konkurenciis qveynis pirobebSi moamzada _ igi qveynis

marTvisTvis. am Tvalsazriss safuZvels umagrebda is garemoebac, rom 2001 prezidenti mmarTveli partiis saqarTvelos

moqalaqeTa organoSi araerTgzis

kavSiris Tavmjdomareobidan; ar SeuSala xeli sakanonmdeblo misi dasayrdeni rom saparlamento ar apirebs umravlesobis momaval daSlis process; arCevnebSi

ganacxada,

saparlamento

"moqalaqeTa kavSirisTvis" "qulebis dagrovebaSi" xelSewyobas da a.S. realurad arCevnebis wina periodSi Seqmnili viTareba, Cveni azriT, zemoTCamoyalibebuli orive Tvalsazrisis erTgvari nazavi iyo. arCevnebTan da postSevardnaZistul periodTan dakavSirebiT prezident eduard SevardnaZis erT-erTi bolodroindeli pozicia ase formulirdeboda: "saerTaSoriso

organizaciebi gvexmarebodnen imitom, rom Cveni saxelmwifo kursis sjeraT. saqarTvelos mier aRebuli kursi ar unda Seicvalos. amis didi imedi aqvs Cvens megobrebs. es rwmena ar unda Seilaxos. dRes mniSvneloba ara aqvs, momavali prezidenti vin iqneba. mTavaria, rom axali parlamenti prezidentis saxelmwifo kursis mxardamWerTa mier dakompleqtdes. Cven ganwyobili varT sabrZolvelad da dawyebul saqmes bolomde miviyvanT." ("rezonansi", 24.09.2003) aRsaniSnavia, SevardnaZem 2003 rom wlis amgvari aprilis poziciiTve damdegs axsna Tu gaamarTla procesSi eduard myofi

Camoyalibebis

saxelisuflebo blokisadmi Tavisi mxardaWera: "Cven unda gavxdeT nato-s, evrokavSiris wevri da a.S. am kursis eWvqveS dayenebis mcdeloba aris. arian aSkara mowinaaRmdegeebi da SeniRbulebi. is safrTxe, rac TvalnaTliv ar Cans, magram SeiZleba daemuqros qveyanas, me maiZulebs CaverTo am procesSi. am etapze ar vapirebdi, magram gaaqtiureba aucilebelia... Tu kursi ar Seicvala, me bevri saqme aRar damrCeba. raRac garkveuli dro _ 6 Tve, erTi weli, iqneb

123

saWiro 08.04.2003)

iyos

gamocdilebis

gaziarebisTvis."

("saqarTvelos

respublika",

drois am gadasaxedidan SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom am frazebs miRma ikiTxeba mzaoba (SesaZloa, Semdgomi perspeqtivis codnac) xelisuflebis

xaverdovani gadabarebisaTvis da, nawilobriv, axsna "xelisuflebis narkoman" (rogorc mas uwodebdnen) eduard SevardnaZis mSvidobiani "Sin wasvlisa", noemberSi ganviTarebuli da 23 noembers bolo kondiciamde misuli procesis Sedegad. am reJimi"; qveTavisTvis faqtobrivad, SemTxveviT wlis ar gviwodebia daiwyo "permanentuli politikuri saarCevno subieqtebis damdegidanve

saarCevno samzadisi da saarCevno dispoziciis konturebis gamokveTa; xolo qveynis cxovreba mTeli weli warimarTa, rogorc erTiani saarCevno kampania; Sesabamisad, amgvar reJimze gadaerTo masmediac. saqarTvelos parlamentSi gamarjvebisaTvis 14 partia da 7 saarCevno bloki ibrZoda, Tumc, gamarjvebis realur pretendentad miiCneoda 7-8

subieqti. politikuri kampaniis periodSi speqtris ufro dayofa poziciad iyo, da opoziciad wina am saarCevno dros.

paradoqsuli

vidre

arCevnebis

sakmarisi iqneba Tu vityviT, rom gaerTianebuli opoziciis SesaZlo liderad presaSi figurirebda parlamentis Tavmjdomaris, nino burjanaZis kandidatura, romelic realurad gaxda konkretuli opoziciuri blokis (raxan opozicia ver gaerTianda), bolomde "burjanaZe-demokratebis" lideri; parlamentis Tavmjdomaris igi saarCevno da, kampanias zogadad warmarTavda rangSi

xelisuflebis mwvave kritikisas, iviwyebda im faqts, rom Tavad iyo qveynis meore piri. saxelisuflebo blokis (romlis wamyvani Zala iyo yofili

mmarTveli partia _ "moqalaqeTa kavSiri") aseve maRali postidan, warmarTavda misi

saarCevno kampanias, faqtobrivad, lideri, saxelmwifo ministri

avTandil jorbenaZe (arCevnebamde ori TviT adre blokis oficialuri lideri gaxda eqs saxelmwifo ministri vaJa lorTqifaniZe). sami opoziciuri partia, romlebic mmarTveli _ wina winasaarCevno partiis _ reitingebSi "moqalaqeTa "moqalaqeTa

liderobdnen,

faqtobrivad,

yofili

kavSiris" wiaRidan iyo aRmocenebuli: "saakaSvili-nacionaluri moZraoba" parlamentSi kavSiris" siiT gasuli, eqs iusticiis ministrisa da dedaqalaqis sakrebulos imJamindeli Tavmjdomaris, mixeil saakaSvilis liderobiT;

124

bloki

"burjanaZe-demokratebi"

_

parlamentis

Tavmjdomaris

nino

burjanaZisa da parlamentis eqs Tavmjdomaris, yofili mmarTveli partiis erT-erTi lideris, zurab Jvanias xelmZRvanelobiT; "axali memarjveneebi" _ wina mowvevis parlamentSi aseve "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" siiT gasuli biznesmenebis, daviT gamyreliZisa da levan gaCeCilaZis liderobiT. gacilebiT Zveli, "leiboristuli partia" (ucvleli lideris, Salva naTelaSvilis xelmZRvanelobiT), romelic aseve liderobda saarCevno reitingebSi, zemoxsenebul politikur Zalebs opoziciad ar miiCnevda da maT mudmivad adanaSaulebda xelisuflebasTan aliansSi. "aRorZinebas" arCevnebSi opoziciuri avtonomiuri Zalebi ("demokratiuli kavSiris" saxelisuflebo mmarTvel aRorZinebis ZiriTadi partiad partias, kavSirs") Tvlidnen, Tavad (romelic iyo) rogorc ki wina aWaris Tavs

"moqalaqeTa

konkurenti

danarCeni

respublikis

"aRorZineba"

WeSmarit opoziciad miiCnevda. e.w. saxelisuflebo Sedgeboda, bloki romelTa _ "axali saqarTvelosaTvis", ramdenime pirvel

subieqtisagan

Soris iyvnen

damoukideblobis

wlebSi Seqmnili, warsulSi saTanado avtoritetis mqone partiebi: erovnuldemokratiuli partia (edp), qristian-demokratiuli kavSiri, "mwvaneTa partia"; amasTan, yofili mmarTveli partia _ "moqalaqeTa kavSiri", socialisturi partia da sxva subieqtebi. didi opoziciuri gaerTianebis Seqmna, romlis molodini Zalian mZlavri iyo sazogadoebaSi, yvelaze metad pirovnulma ambiciebma Seaferxa _ yvela zemoxsenebul liders (levan gaCeCilaZis ambicia garda), afiSirebulad rom Tu

araafiSirebulad,

prezidentobis

hqonda

(aRmoCnda,

wlebis

Semdgom es ambicia gaCeCilaZesac gauCnda). TiTqmis yvela politikuri partia identificirdeboda liderTan da ara Tavis samoqmedo kredosTan pirovnuli faqtori amjeradac ganmsazRvreli iyo eleqtoraluri arCevanisTvis. "lokomotivis" saparlamento Semsruleblis fenomeni winac. Tavis dominantur ramdenime faqtorad saarCevno ki rCeboda subieqtma Seitana: 2003 am wlis rolis

arCevnebis saxeli

saxelwodebaSic

"burjanaZe-

demokratebi", "saakaSvili-nacionaluri moZraoba", "patiaSvili-erToba", rac imaze mianiSnebs, rom im droisTvis lideris fenomens jer kidev eniWeboda upiratesoba partiul Tu blokis programasTan da ideologiasTan SedarebiT", _ aRniSnavs givi kapanaZe Tavis naSromSi "qarTuli media da demokratizaciis 125

procesi saqarTveloSi". kapanaZe marTebulad SeniSnavs, rom "yvelaze Zlier "lokomotivad" CvenSi qarizmatuli lideri yalibdeba." (30, 176-177) davZenT, rom ara mxolod CvenSi, azriT, qarizmatuli damaxasiaTebelia lideris prioritetuloba, postsabWoTa

politteqnologTa sivrcisTvis. raxan TvalsazrisiT

saerTod

politteqnologiebi 2003 wlis arCevnebi

vaxseneT, aSkarad

unda

aRiniSnos, 2001-2002

rom

am

gamoirCeoda.

wlebis

presaSi "aqsionenkos milioniT" dafinansebuli "imijmeikerebi", "imij-kontaqti" da "sitnikovis receptebi" skandalur konteqstSi figurirebda zurab Jvaniasa da reformatorebTan mimarTebaSi (1999 wlis saparlamento arCevnebTan

dakavSirebiT) da saarCevno procesebTan "piaris" mimarTeba mxolod negatiur faqtorad aRiqmeboda. ver vityviT, rom qarTuli media, eleqtorati da arCevnebSi monawile subieqtebi erTbaSad Tanamedrove yaidaze gadaewyvnen da saTanadod Sesabamisoba gaacnobieres Cvens saarCevno teqnologiebis magram media mniSvneloba xSirad da misi

realobasTan;

ufro

mimarTavs

komentarebisTvis

Sesabamisi

sferos

specialistebs;

marTalia,

politikuri

lideri jerjerobiT ar ganixileba, rogorc marketinguli produqti, magram presaSi am Cndeba mxriv cneba yvelaze "politikuri TvalsaCinoa (saarCevno) produqti" SedarebiT imijis _ cnobad xanmokle da reitingul nino presa politikosebTan mimarTebaSi. periodSi razec

burjanaZis

strategiuli

Camoyalibeba,

gansakuTrebiT amaxvilebda yuradRebas. "nino burjanaZis sensaciuri reitingi" _ farTo anSlagiT iuwyeboda "alia", "ai-pi-em-is" monacemebiT politikosTa reitingSi nino burjanaZis "erTmniSvnelovani" liderobis faqts. (168) "burjanaZe, rogorc politikuri produqti, Jvaniasa da SevardnaZis

mieraa Seqmnili, _ werda Jurnali "sarke", _ "SevardnaZe Tavisi gancxadebebiT da kuluaruli politikiT yvelafers akeTebda saamisod. man ar dauSva

opoziciis gaerTianeba burjanaZis irgvliv. mogvianebiT gaakeTa gancxadeba, rom burjanaZe kargi Tavmjdomarea, amis Semdeg mkacr kritikaze gadavida. es TavisTavad batonma Sansi parlamentis Tavmjdomaris reitingze da dadebiTad gasaocari aisaxeboda. moxda _

zurabma amiT hqonda,

ostaturad

isargebla Serwymis

ram

politikuri organizacia, romelsac 7%-iani barieris gadalaxvis aranairi ar burjanaZesTan Semdeg winasaarCevno maraTonis favoriti gaxda." (136) avanscenaze nino burjanaZis gamoyvana da zurab Jvanias CrdilSi yofna presaSi upiratesad axsnilia imiT, rom Jvanias ara aqvs qarizma, igi am 126

TvalsazrisiTac ver Seedreba maRali reitingis mqone mixeil saakaSvils. aqve aRvniSnavT, politikuri gmirTan, rom qarizmatulobasTan asocirdeba, erTad, mixeil saakaSvili, rogorc mebrZol lideri, pirvel rigSi, korufciasTan

reformebTan (gansakuTrebiT sasamarTlo reformasTan), radikalur

cvlilebebTan da a.S. kidev erTxel davimowmebT gigi TevzaZis filosofiurpolitikur eses ("saqarTvelo: Zalauflebis dabruneba"), romelSic igi zurab Jvaniasa da mis partias ganixilavs "simulirebuli demokratiis" konteqstSi, "nacionalur moZraobasTan" dakavSirebiT ki aRniSnavs, rom is "sakuTar momavals liberalur-demokratiul gardaqmnebs ukavSirebs. misi wevrebisaTvis cxadia, rom isini verasodes daupirispireben maT winaaRmdeg arsebul fuls ufro met fuls. xolo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu daupirispires, maTi unikaloba, anu maqsimaluri demokratizaciis da liberalizmis talRaze xelisuflebaSi mosvlisaken mimarTuleba, gaqreba: did fuls didi kompromisebi mosdevs." (25, 29) amasTan, presaSi figurirebs mosazrebebi, rom saarCevno teqnologiebi gamoiyeneba ara mxolod procesebis gamoxatavs saarCevno warmatebis Tundac, ganwyobas _ misaRwevad, aramed,

sazogadoebrivi qvesaTauri momTabare

marTvisTvisac, winasaarCevno

destabilizaciuri "sareitingo omi manipulaciiT

situaciebis provocirebisTvis. "xvalindeli dRis" publikaciis saTauri da kargad eleqtoratisTvis", "sazogadoebrivi azris

destabilizacia mzaddeba"; publikaciaSi ki vkiTxulobT: "kvleviTi centris "analitikosis" xelmZRvaneli, giorgi okribelaSvili darwmunebulia, rom reitingebis omi SeiZleba mZime SedegebiT dasruldes. amas SeiZleba mohyves destabilizacia, an uares SemTxvevaSi, baqos movlenebi ganviTardes; "rodesac reitingebis mixedviT partias 20% aqvs da is arCevnebSi 7%-ian bariers ver gadalaxavs, ra Tqma unda, es destabilizaciisTvis motivacia iqneba".

("xvalindeli dRe", 24.10.2004) "sociologiuri omi", "reitingebis keTeba", "reitingebiT manipulireba" _ mediis leqsikonSi gaCenili amgvari cnebebi imaze mianiSnebs, rom am arCevnebSi sociologiuri gamokiTxvebi erTgvarad manipulirebis saSualebad iqca. presa werda imis Taobaze, rom winasaarCevnod Catarebuli sociologiuri kvlevebiT Seqmnili mizezi; suraTisa rom da arCevnebze realurad miRebuli Sedegebis didi gansxvavebuloba gaxdeba destabilizaciuri situaciis gamomwvevi ZiriTadi saqarTveloSi gamogonil gamokiTxvebze ufro

moTxovnilebaa, anu konkretuli partia sociologiur samsaxurs ukveTavs ara gamokiTxvas, aramed pirdapir Sedegs. ra Tqma unda, sociologiuri samsaxurebi 127

amas arian

kategoriulad mowinave

uaryofen,

samagierod,

partiebi,

romlebic

mediis

saSualebiT gavrcelebuli sociologiuri gamokiTxvebis SedegebSi xSirad poziciebze, erTmaneTs gamokiTxvis Sedegebis gayalbebaSi

adanaSauleben: "me am reitingebis gadmocemuli _ ganacxada amjerad oms undoblobas vucxadeb, radganac masmediis mier rom ar aris Salva epareba:

saSualebiT dakveTili", naTelaSvils

prognozebi mixeil

konkretuli

partiebis

saakaSvilma";

"aRsaniSnavia, eWvi

saakaSvilis

gulwrfelobaSi

"saakaSvils es teqnologiebi ar eswavleba. is bantiani biWi rom hyavT (goCa cqitiSvili _ "rezonansi"), imis daxmarebiT ayalbebdnen da rac undodaT, imas swerdnen. axla es biWi Jvanias bankSi gadabargda da miSas aRar swyalobs. amitomac aris gabrazebuli. visac reitingi ara aqvs, gayalbeba imas sWirdeba. "gelapma" Caatara gamokvlevebi da am kvlevebiT pirvel adgilze Cven varT... reitingi aqvs mxolod leiboristul partias." ("rezonansi", 19.09.2003) arCevnebamde ramdenime dRiT adre mediaSi gansakuTrebiT gaaqtiurda sazogadoebrivi azriT manipulirebis Tema. zogierTi eqsperti azerbaijanSi arCevnebis Semdeg momxdar sisxlian dapirispirebas dRes gamoqveynebuli arapirdapir erT-erTi

egzitpolebsac

ukavSirebs

(arCevnebis

egzitpolis mixedviT opoziciuri partiis kandidati liderobda); marTalia, dapirispirebis provocirebaSi sociologiuri jgufi arafer SuaSia, magram am monacemebs SeeZlo gaemZafrebina arCevnebis Sedegebisadmi undobloba. mediaSi eleqtoraluri amomrCevlis ikveTeba sivrcis mzaoba Tvalsazrisic, rom teqnologiebis iqonia centris gaaqtiurebam gazarda mier Camoyalibebazec kvleviTi zegavlena,

arCevanisTvis.

"analitikosis"

Catarebuli gamokiTxvis SedegebiT, prognozirebuli iyo, rom saqarTvelos masStabiT arCevnebSi monawileobas miiRebda mosaxleobis 78,7%. ("xvalindeli dRe", 24.10.2003) sagulisxmoa PR kompania "nikkolo m"-is xelmZRvanelis, giorgi RambaSiZis mosazreba, romelic miiCnevda, rom "dRes aris Camoyalibebuli eleqtorati da "karuselebis" dro saqarTveloSi wavida". misi azriT, wina arCevnebisagan mxardaWera gansxvavebiT, ar igrZnoba prezidentis gansakuTrebuli mTavars _

saxelisuflebo

blokisadmi.

prezidentma

miaRwia

gazrdilia arCevnebSi monawileobis eleqtoraluri moTxovna. amasTan, giorgi RambaSiZe Tvlida, rom saubari xelisuflebisagan marTul destabilizaciasa da arCevnebis CaSlaze isev da isev cnobili teqnologiebis Sedegia. (t/k "imedi", programa "arCevani", 03.10. 2003)

128

sainformacio teqnologiebis mkvlevari goCa CogovaZe aRniSnavda, rom "politikuri partiebi sul da ufro blokebi farTod TviTreklamisa iyeneben da sakuTari ideebis sailustraciod Tanamedrove sainformacio

teqnologiebs... rac Seexeba imas, ramdenad cvlian es teqnologiebi qarTul politikur speqtrs; Tu SevadarebT dasavleTis winasaarCevno bataliebs

saqarTveloSi mimdinare procesebs, me vityodi, rom CvenTan ZiriTadi aqcenti keTdeba pirovnebebze, maT Tvisebebze, warmoSobasa da SesaZleblobebze, roca dasavleTSi debartebi imarTeba ufro partiebisa da blokebis programebis Sesaxeb." (Jurnali "Tbiliselebi", 20.10.2003) disertaciis pirvel nawilSi yuradRebas vamaxvilebdiT mediis faqtorze, romelmac Seamzada niadagi postSevardnaZistul epoqaSi "xaverdovani"

gadasvlisTvis, SemdgomSi "gamarjvebul televiziad" wodebuli "t/k "rusTavi 2"-is gansakuTrebul wvlilze "vardebis revoluciaSi" da a.S. eleqtoralur arCevanze mediis zemoqmedebis sailustraciod moviSveliebT Tanamedrove

amerikis erT-erTi gavleniani da warmatebuli politikuri konsultantis, dik morisis (albaT sakmarisi iqneba Tu vityviT, rom igi xelmZRvanelobda 1996 wels prezident bil klintonis meore vadiT arCevis kampanias) mosazrebas. is aRniSnavs, rom "amerikelebi dRes warmoadgenen sainformacio narkomanebisagan Semdgar eleqtorats", romelsac informirebulobis maRali done sakuTar politikur pozicias uyalibebs. Sesabamisad, amerikelebi politikurad ufro da ufro damoukideblebi xdebian da eleqtoratis didi wili _ 40 procenti, es is adamianebi arian, romlebic ar arian arcerTis mxardamWerebi _ ori ZiriTadi politikuri partiidan (respublikelebi da demokratebi, _ l.k.), da xmas ar aZleven maT programebs. (51, 11-14) eleqtoratis damoukideblobis faqtors dik morisi amerikis saxelmwifos demokratiulobis maCveneblad miiCnevs. "demokratia _ es aris arCevnebi, xolo arCevnebiT Cven imis dadgenas vcdilobT, Tu saiT unda wavides qveynis ganviTareba", _ aRniSnavs leSek balceroviCi Tavis wignSi _ "saxelmwifo gardamaval periodSi". (5, 12) rogorc vxedavT, arCevnebi da amomrCevlis damoukideblobis faqtori qveynis demokratiulobis ganmsazRvreli erT-erTi mTavari kriteriumia. am fonze pasuxismgebloba da roli mediisa, romelic zegavlenas axdens ar eleqtoralur arCevanze, uaRresad mniSvnelovania. es Tema SemTxveviT

wamogviwevia wina planze; "vardebis revolucia", romliTac dasrulda 2003 wlis permanentuli saarCevno reJimi, Cveni azriT, TavisTavad iyo

"politteqnologiuri produqti". amdenad, varCieT am mimarTulebiT presis naklebad Seswavlil aqcentebze ufro metad gagvemaxvilebina yuradReba, vidre 129

saarCevno

bataliebze,

"kmaras"

aqciebze,

"amerikul

saarCevno

receptze"

(presis formulireba), romelic saqarTveloSi jeims beikerma Camoitana (7-9 ivlisis presa, 2004) da a.S. rac Seexeba mediis wvlils "vardebis revoluciis" momzadebasa da

ganxorcielebaSi, miuxedavad imisa, rom am Temaze TiTqos bevri iTqva da daiwera, migvaCnia, rom es Tema sagangebo kvlevebs imsaxurebs. Aam Temas

mokled Cvenc SevexeT disertaciis sxva TavebSi, aq ki moviSveliebT maia toraZis mosazrebas zemoxsenebuli sadisertacio naSromidan ("Tanamedrove presa da arCevnebis problema"): "2003 wlis 2 noembris arCevnebze xmebis gayalbebis winaaRmdeg amomrCevlis gaaqtiureba masobrivi informaciis

saSualebaTa damsaxurebaa." (69, 17)

* arCevnebi saqarTvelos gamocdaa demokratiaSi _ es damokidebuleba

saparlamento arCevnebisadmi yvelaze mkafiod ikveTeba presaSi. eqspertebis (maT Soris _ dasavleli eqspertebis) SefasebiT, postsabWoTa sivrceSi

Catarebul arcerT arCevnebs aseTi interesi ar gamouwvevia. amaze metyvelebda ucxoel damkvirvebelTa sarekordo maCvenebelic _ 2000-ze meti. oqtomberSi ganacxada, saqarTveloSi vizitad myofma senatorma jon da makkeinma

rom aSS-is

mizania saqarTveloSi

samarTliani

gamWvirvale

arCevnebi Catardes: "saqarTvelo amerikelebisaTvis Tavisuflebis simboloa da kargi iqneba, Tu is arCevnebis Semdegac aseTad darCeba." man aRniSna, rom "amerikas am arCevnebSi ar hyavs sakuTari kandidatura". sagulisxmo iyo makkeinis fraza: "Tu qveyana sxvas sTxovs sakuTari Tavisuflebis dacvas, kargavs Tavisuflebas." ("mTavari gazeTi", 06.10.2004) "erovnul-demokratiuli institutis" direqtori mark maleni miiCnevda, rom "arCevnebis bedi mxolod saqarTvelos moqalaqeTa xelSia"; rom

"arCevnebis samarTlianobis gansazRvra imis mixedviT, Tu ra procenti miiRo erTma partiam da ra _ meorem, ar SeiZleba. rogorme yvela partia erTnairi pasuxismgeblobiT uzrunvelyofaSi." saqarTvelosadmi urTierTmimarTebam Semdeg. saqarTvelos dasavleTis mediaSi gaCnda damokidebulebisa mniSvneloba SeiZina mosazrebebi, rom da baqos arCevnebis movlenebis gansakuTrebuli unda CaerTos arCevnebis samarTlianad Catarebis

saerTaSoriso

Tanamegobroba saqarTvelos SemTxvevaSi ise loialuri ar iqneba, rogorc 130

azerbaijanTan mimarTebaSi. es varaudi daadastura 21 oqtombers TbilisSi vizitad myofi euTo-s moqmedi Tavmjdomaris iap de hoop sxeferis gancxadebam, rom evropa saqarTveloSi saparlamento arCevnebis Catarebis process

gansakuTrebiT gaakontrolebs; rom am dRes gamoCndeba, ramdenad myari da safuZvliania saqarTvelos ambiciebi _ evroatlantikur sivrceSi qveynis

sruli integraciisa. ("mTavari gazeTi", 22.10.2003) paralelurad, (konteqstiT gaamwvavos _ prognozirebdnen, analitikosebi "saqarTvelo rom _ arCevnebTan ar iviwyebdnen ruseTis ruseTi faqtorsac da ufro

ruseT-amerikis dakavSirebiT, da

gzajvaredini") ecdeba

procesebi

saqarTveloSi

destabilizaciis

saSiSroeba

albaTobidan realobad aqcios. arCevnebis wina dReebSi opoziciis mxridan gaZlierda aqcenti, rom arCevnebis gayalbeba lamis gardauvalia da, Sesabamisad, aseve gardauvalia masobrivi gamosvlebi, romelic, SesaZloa, destabilizaciaSi gadaizardos. azerbaijanSi saprezidento arCevnebis Semdgom ganviTarebulma movlenebma,

SeiZleba iTqvas, saqarTveloSi winaswar moaxdina saparlamento arCevnebTan dakavSirebuli "destabilizaciuri molodinis" provocireba. arCevnebis moaxloebasTan erTad presaSi ufro xSirad Cndeba sagangaSo ganwyobis Soris Semqmneli saTaurebi: igegmeba?"; "zugdidSi "vanSi devnilebsa da adgilobrivebs CaiSalos"

sisxlisRvra

arCevnebi,

SesaZloa,

("rezonansi", 23.10.2004), "arCevnebis gayalbebiT ukmayofiloebs SevardnaZe baqos scenars umzadebs"; "arCevnebis dRes deni ar iqneba" ("xvalindeli dRe",

23.10.2004), "opozicia mosaxleobas fsiqologiurad amzadebs arCevnebis Semdeg quCaSi gamosayvanad"; "winasaarCevno kampania danaSaulebriv xasiaTs Rebulobs" ("axali Taoba", 24.10.2004), "lagodexSi winasaarCevno dapirispireba mwvavdeba" ("24 saaTi" 24.10.2004) da a.S. situaciis daZabvis sababad iqca saarCevno siebi, romlis gayalbebaSi, jer kidev arCevnebamde, erTmaneTs adanaSaulebdnen xelisufleba, opozicia, centraluri saarCevno komisia da arasamTavrobo organizaciebi. garda amisa, Seqmnili situaciis axsnisTvis gasaTvaliswinebelia kidev erTi faqtori _ opoziciuri partiebi erT sivrceSi "TamaSobdnen", seriozuli politikuri Zalis ganacxadi "saarCevno wili" minimum 7 politikur daaxloebiT 70-75%-s Zalas mainc hqonda (maTi saerTo

Seadgenda).

"SedegebiT

ukmayofilo

organizaciebi aucileblad gaakeTeben mkveTr gancxadebebs. opozicia aris cxra, saxelisuflebo bloki _ erTi. erTma rom gaimarjvos, rva ukmayofilo iqneba, an SeiZleba cxrave iqnes ukmayofilo", _ aseT komentars akeTebda 131

saxelisuflebo lideri), irina

blokis

spikeri

(warsulSi

erovnuli

moZraobis

erT-erTi adre.

sariSvili-Wanturia,

arCevnebamde

ramdenime

kviriT

("xvalindeli dRe", 24.10.2003) 2 noembers, saparlamento arCevnebTan erTad, saqarTveloSi, faqtobrivad, referendumic tardeboda _ amomrCevels unda epasuxa kiTxvaze: "mxars uWerT TuU ara parlamentarTa raodenobis 150-mde Semcirebas?" arCevnebamde JurnalistTa gamokveTili sazogadoebrivi emTxveoda azri, im eqspertTa da rom

mosazrebebi

erTmaneTs

TvalsazrisiT,

parlamentis raodenobrivi Semcireba aucilebelia; magram azrTa sxvadasxvaoba iyo referendumis arCevnebTan erTad Catarebis mizanSewonilobis gamo. iurist daviT usufaSvilis mosazrebiT, es referendumi plebiscitis misi funqcias Sedegis

Seasrulebda,

radgan

referendumisagan

gansxvavebiT,

dauyovnebliv Sesruleba ar moxdeboda, parlamentarTa raodenobis Semcireba axali mowvevis parlaments ar exeboda; parlamenti gaiTvaliswinebda e.w.

referendumis Sedegebs da miiRebda Sesabamis gadawyvetilebas. saqarTvelos prezidenti parlamentis igulisxmeboda erTsulovani referendumis eduard SevardnaZe referendums aramed, SemoReba, opoziciac. akisrebda qveyanaSi romlis (aqve ara mxolod

raodenobrivi ministrTa iyo

Semcirebis, kabinetis da

sakonstitucio aucileblobaSi aRvniSnavT, rom misca

reformebis ganxorcielebisaTvis niadagis momzadebis funqcias. pirvel rigSi, xelisuflebac

SedegebiT,

saqarTvelos

amomrCevelTa

99%-ma

xma

parlamentarTa ricxvis Semcirebas). 2 noembris arCevnebma, romelsac baqos movlenebis msgavs ganviTarebas uwinaswarmetyvelebdnen, eleqtoratis mosalodnelze meti aqtiurobiT Caiara da miuxedavad arCevnebis momdevno dRis simSvidisa, 4 noembris saRamos,

destabilizaciuri situaciis zRvarTan mivida. blok "burjanaZe-demokratebis" mowodebas _ "davicvaT demokratiuli opoziciis xmebi", pirveli SeuerTda bloki "saakaSvili-nacionalebi". liderebis meTaurobiT, aseulobiT

mxardamWerTan erTad, isini quCaSi gamovidnen da mitingi gamarTes. centraluri saarCevno komisiis winaswari monacemebiT miRebuli Sedegi (romelic saerTo uaxlovdeboda blokisTvis savaraudo erT-erTi _ 24%, (70%-mde), saarCevno rogorc met-naklebi egzitpolis opoziciuri realobiT Sedegs) partiebis asaxavda

saxelisuflebo

iseve,

procenti

politologebis mier winaswar prognozirebul Sedegebs. winaswari monacemebiT, bloks _ "saakaSvili-nacionalebi", romelic parlamentSi umravlesobiT

mosvlas gegmavda (iseve, rogorc "leiboristebi" da "burjanaZe-demokratebi"), 132

saxelisuflebo blokis Tanabari procenti hqonda. arCevnebis wina periodSi reitingebis pirvel-meore nomrad myofi "burjanaZe-demokratebis" wili, 8%--is farglebSi meryeobda, rac maT winasaarCevno ambiciebs namdvilad ar

Seesabameboda; Tumc, bevri eqsperti miiCnevda _ rom ara personalurad nino burjanaZis mkveTrad mzardi reitingi, am blokis mTavari subieqti _

"demokratebi", 7%-iani barieris vergadalaxvis sfrTxis winaSe idga. yvela SedegiT, saxis ori, winaswari monacemebiT (cesko-s winaswari monacemebi, SedegebiT),

arasamTavrobo organizacia "samarTliani arCevnebis" paraleluri daTvlis erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli egzitpolis parlamentSi moxvedra TiTqmis garantirebuli hqondaT: saxelisuflebo bloks "axali saqarTvelosaTvis", blok "saakaSvili-nacionalebs", "demokratiuli

aRorZinebis kavSirs" ("aRorZinebas") da "leiboristul (Sromis) partias". 7%iani barieris gadalaxvis Sansi hqondaT blok "burjanaZe-demokratebsa" da "axal memarjveneebs", maTze naklebi, magram Teoriuli Sansi _ bloks

"mrewveloba gadaarCens saqarTvelos". rogorc mosalodneli iyo, saerTaSoriso damkvirveblebma saqarTveloSi Catarebuli arCevnebi (azerbaijanuli arCevnebisagan gansxvavebiT) uSeRavaTod, saerTaSoriso standartebis moTxovnebiT Seafases da aRniSnes, rom igi ar Seesabameboda am standartebs. "migvaCnia, rom qveynis mosaxleoba ufro karg saarCeveno samwuxarod, brifingze filsoni sistemas guSin euTo-s da ar uflebebis ganxorcielda", Tavmjdomaris Sesabamis _ dacvas 3 imsaxurebs, rac

aRniSna sagangebo

noembers

gamarTul brius

moqmedi

koordinatorma

jorjma. aSS-is saerTaSoriso respublikuri institutis prezidenti jorj yuradRebas siebi, amaxvilebda saarCevno arCevnebisas gamovlenil problemebze:

amomrCevelTa

administraciebis

arakompetenturoba,

administraciuli resursebis gamoyeneba, politikuri partiebis ideologiis ararseboba. (t/k "rusTavi 2", 03.11.2004) daZabulobis eskalacia gamoiwvia cesko-Si aWaris avtonomiuri

respublikis monacemebis Sesvlam, romlis mixedviTac arCevnebis winaswari Sedegi Tavdayira dadga _ "aRorZinebam" gauswro saxelisuflebo bloksa da "nacionalur moZraobas" da pirvel adgilze gadainacvla. SesaZloa, es iyo "babuebis" (SevardnaZe-abaSiZis) kidev erTi garigebis Sedegi _ morigi manevri xelisuflebis SenarCunebisaTvis. viTareba regionebSic. ukiduresad TbilisSi, daiZaba ara win mxolod dedaqalaqSi, momitingeTa aramed, rigebi

parlamentis

dabanakebul

geometriuli progresiiT izrdeboda. momitingeTa skandireba _ "miSa!", "miSa!" _ 133

"nacionalebis" momxreTa primatze mianiSnebda, xolo eduard SevardnaZisadmi mimarTuli "gadadeqi!" imis niSani da iyo, rom yovelgvari ukmayofileba _ politikuric, socialurica pirovnulic, prezidentis gadadgomis

moTxovnaSi akumulirda. 14 noembers movlenebis ganviTarebam Seikriba, farTo masStabi _ miiRo _

dedaqalaqSi moZraobisa"

aTiaTasobiT da

adamiani

ZiriTadad

"nacionaluri maT

"burjanaZe-demokratebis"

mxardamWerebi;

mogvianebiT

"zviadistebis" erTi frTa SeuerTda. aqciebis mimdinareobis mTel periodSi gansakuTrebuli aqtiurobiTa da radikalizmiT gamoirCeoda axalgazrduli moZraoba miuxedavad "kmara" imave (romlis dRes dafinansebasac eduard presa soross mier ukavSirebda)... gakeTebuli

prezident

SevardnaZis

sagangebo gancxadebisa, rom igi ar dauSvebs samoqalaqo oms, miuxedavad opoziciis liderebis mudmivi mowodebisa, rom aqcias mSvidobiani xasiaTi hqonoda, Zalian mcire iyo imis albaToba, rom arCevnebis Semdgomi aTdRiani daZabuli viTareba da ukompromiso ar iqceoda. saprotesto ganwyoba mitingi, seriozuli romelsac

destabilizaciis

wyarod

mravalaTasiani

"saqarTvelos bedis gadawyvetis" misia ekisreboda, "si-en-en"-is, "bi-bi-si"-s, "evronius"-isa da sxva sainformacio saSualebebis meSveobiT, msoflio sazogadoebriobis interesis sagani gaxda. mitingma, faqtobrivad, "vardebis revoluciis" generaluri repeticiis roli Seasrula _ Tavisi masStaburobiT, organizebulobiT, mSvidobiani xasiaTiT, mSvidad daSliT. presaSi es movlena Sefasda imis mauwyeblad, rom saqarTvelos samoqalaqo sazogadoebam am etapze "gamocda Caabara". (15 noembris presa). rac Seexeba "vardebis revoluciis" Sefasebasa da mniSvnelobas, es Tema ganviTarebulia disertaciis Semdgom nawilSi _ "vardebis revolucia" da postrevoluciuri periodi".

·

2004 wlis saprezidento da xelaxali saparlamento arCevnebi

"Segnebulad ar vamaxvilebT yuradRebas 2004 wlis saprezidento da saparlamento arCevnebze. es iyo postrevoluciuri periodi, roca moqalaqeTa politikuri arCevani "vardebis revoluciis" dReebSi gamJRavnda. arCevnebi saerTaSoriso organizaciaTa didma nawilma samagaliTod aRiara, Tumca,

codva gamxelili sjobs _ am dReebSi asarCevi arc araferi iyo, radgan revoluciis eiforiis periodSi opoziciuri azri qreba" (xazi Cvenia ­ l.k.), _ aRniSnavs maia toraZe zemoxsenebul sadisertacio naSromSi. (69, 46) 134

Cvenc viziarebT am mosazrebas, magram mainc SevaCerebT yuradRebas 2004 wlis arCevnebis gaSuqebaze, radgan am TemasTan dakavSirebuli publikaciebi, aqcentebi da niuansebi avsebs presaSi postrevoluciuri viTarebis asaxvis saerTo suraTs da aCvenebs, rom "vardebis revolucias" arsebiTad ar

Seucvlia saqarTvelos politikuri cxovrebisa da presis mTavari orientiri _ saxelisuflo brZolebis primati, pirovnuli faqtoris dominirebiT. miuxedavad gansakuTrebiT, imisa, bolo rom dReebSi, "vardebis gamoikveTa revoluciis" mixeil procesSi da,

saakaSvilis,

rogorc

revoluciis lideris, saxe, funqcia da mniSvneloba, revoluciis meore dResve daiwyo presaSi versiebis ganviTareba saprezidento kandidaturis Taobaze; ra Tqma unda, figurirebs mixeil saakaSvili, magram xsendeba nino burjanaZec. gazeTi "xvalindeli dRe", magaliTad, werda, rom "savaraudod, met-naklebad qveyanaSi misaRebi arsebuli politikuri Zalebis umetesobisTvis

saprezidento kandidatura nino burjanaZeEiqneba. mas upiratesobas mianiWeben, rogorc saakaSvilze gacilebiT naklebradikalur figuras." ("xvalindeli

dRe", 26.11.2003) mixeil emociurobaze "qarTvelebi saakaSvilis (gavixsenoT emociuri saprezidento vaxuSti varT Rirsebebis ganxilvisas cnobili prezidents ZiriTadad naTqvami _

yuradReba maxvildeba mis qarizmatulobaze, ualternativobaze, gambedaobaze, kotetiSvilis da emociur xalxi virCevT"),

infantilurobaze, "amerikis mier Seqmnil imijze"... gvxvdeba ramdenime mkveTrad gansxvavebuli Sefasebac; magaliTad, politolog soso cincaZes saakaSvili britanel premiers, dizraels agonebs, romelsac "axalgazrdobaSi bevri SokirebaSi mohyavda Tavisi eqstravaganturi radikalizmiT, xolo istoriaSi Sevida erT-erT brwyinvale premierad, romlis drosac britaneTma suecis arxi Caigdo xelSi." ("rezonansi", 06.12.2004) revoluciis momdevno dReebSi presaSi aSkarad TvalSisacemia mixeil saakaSvilis radikalizmisa da agresiulobis xarisxisa da ambiciurobis

Sesusteba. am TvalsazrisiT yvelaze momgebianad igi gazeT "24 saaTis" 24-25 noembris nomrebSia warmodgenili (yuradRebas ipyrobs misi efeqturi fotoc, gawonasworebul da mSvid pozaSi); aRsaniSnavia, rom erT-erT publikaciaSi saakaSvili maRal Sefasebas aZlevs rom eqsprezidents: SemdgomSi, "SevardnaZe didi Tu pirovnebaa"; "prezidenti ukiduresad Rirseulad iqceoda". ("24 saaTi", 24.12.2004) (gadauWarbeblad prezidentobisas, SeiZleba mixeil iTqvas, gaprezidentebamde uaryofda

saakaSvili

kategoriulad

eduard

SevardnaZis personas, moixseniebda mxolod mkveTrad uaryofiT konteqstSi da 135

yoveli axali saqmis wamowyebisas mis leqsikaSi xazgasmiT figurirebda _ "pirvelad saqarTveloSi"...) revoluciis Semdgom dReebSi mediis yvela saSualeba exeba mixeil

saakaSvilis SesaZlo likvidaciis Temas ama Tu im konteqstSi. "jorjian Taimsis" publikaciis ("arCevnebamde saakaSvils moklaven?") provokaciul

aqcentebSi zurab Jvania xsendeba, rogorc SesaZlo "damkveTi": "mkvlelobis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi winaswar icodeT, rom Jvania damkveTad giorgaZes daasaxelebs, Tundac im SemTxvevaSi, rom am mkvlelobis ukan Tavad idges." ("jorjian Taimsi", 04.12.2004) mixeil saakaSvilze SesaZlo Tavdasxmis versiebs amZafrebs faqtic. amasTan, dakavSireba giorgaZe presaSi gvxvdeba miniSnebebi CaSlis "marTvad qaosze" da misi igor saprezidento ra Tqma arCevnebis unda, safrTxesTan, paata xsendeba usafrTxoebis motiviT krwanisis rezidenciaSi misi gadayvanis

da,

ruseTi.

politolog da

zaqareiSvilis mixedviT

mosazrebiT,

"...momxdari

afeTqebebic,

gasrolebic

raionebis

ganxorcielebuli satelefono teroric, profesionalebis mier zedmiwevniT kargad dagegmil da ganxorcielebul sadazvervo-sadiversio operacias ufro hgavs, vidre "revanSs". rom movlenaTa ucxo ganviTarebis qveynis, jaWvi kerZod swored ki, imis mimaniSnebelia, procesi ruseTis

specsamsaxurebidan imarTeba." ("kviris palitra", 15.12.2003) saprezidento arCevnebTan dakavSirebiT presa aviTarebs mosazrebebs, rom lamis anegdoturi kandidaturebis arseboba saakaSvils karg fons ar uqmnis. erTaderTi kandidatura, romelic ase Tu ise angariSgasawev konkurentad ganixileba, Temur SaSiaSvilia. saarCevno kampaniis dasawyisSi, satelevizio gamosvlebsa aRniSnavda, Tu rom sagazeTo qveyanaSi interviuebSi, unda Temur SaSiaSvili xazgasmiT

damTavrdes

yovelgvari

dapirispireba,

agresiuli toniT saubari; ar unda gabatondes xunveibinuri stili, qveyanas akademiuri toni da simSvide sWirdeba. igi acxadebs, rom is ar aris amxela Zalauflebis mqone prezidentis institutis momxre; am Zalauflebas ver gauZlo gamsaxurdiam, verc msoflio mniSvnelobis politikosad cnobilma SevardnaZem gauZlo. gaprezidentebis Temur SemTxvevaSi igi miznad isaxavs ramdenime

zecentralizebuli sistemis dangrevas. (t/k "rusTavi-2", t/k "iberia", 15.12.2003) yuradRebas SevaCerebT SaSiaSvilTan dakavSirebul aqcentze: presaSi gaJRerda versia rom, SesaZloa, misi saarCevno kampania boris berezovskim daafinansos da amasve ukavSirdebodes rusi oligarqis bolo skandaluri viziti TbilisSi. ("axali epoqa", 05.12.2003); Temur SaSiaSvilTan 136

kompromisi da saerTo enis gamonaxva aslan abaSiZes dasWirda imitom, rom SaSiaSvilis meSveobiT daamarcxos aWaraSi mixeil saakaSvili; an kidev, SaSiaSvilis meSveobiT mdgomareobidan gamovides da aWaraSi saarCevno ubnebis gaxsnas mizezi mouZebnos; rom nino burjanaZis mamas SaSiaSvilTan

satelefono saubari hqonda da mas axlad Camosayalibebel mTavrobaSi sakmaod maRali posti SesTavazes. ("axali versia", 24.11.2003) saprezidento prezidentobis arCevnebis paTosma _ "yvelani arCevnebze!" presas da

kandidatis

faqtiurma

ualternativobam,

sabWoTa

periodis arCevnebi gaaxsena, xolo ukve arCevnebis winaswarma Sedegma (da _ saboloomac) gaaCina paraleli aseve "absoluturi maCvenebliT" arCeul zviad gamsaxurdiasa da eduard SevardnaZesTan. meore mxriv, presaSi ikveTeba amgvari motivacia _ am maCvenebliT xalxis imedi, cvlilebis survili ganisazRvra; amasTan, 96%-iani gamarjveba eleqtoratis ukanaskneli imedis gamoxatulebaa. ras elodeba sazogadoeba prezidentisagan? am kiTxvaze yvelaze

kompaqtur pasuxs ayalibebs Jurnalisti da mediis eqsperti ia anTaZe. igi ganixilavs sam fenas, romelic sxvadasxva Sedegs elis: pirveli (SesaZloa, yvelaze is mravalricxovani) gundur _ 4 ianvris arCevnebisagan da Tavisi ojaxis

keTildReobas elodeba; xelisuflebis

meore _ arCevnebs pirad keTildReobas ar ukavSirebs; pasuxismgeblobas qarTuli saxelmwifos

Tanmimdevrul nabijebs moelis; mesame _ eWviT ekideba xelisuflebas da miaCnia, rom arCevnebis mimarT molodini aRemateba dRevandeli liderebis SesaZleblobebs. gundis swor anu, es imas niSnavs, rom _ sazogadoebis samoqalaqo erTi nawili arCevnebisagan elodeba prezidentis gmirobas, meore nawili _ samTavrobo nabijebs, mesame nawili monawileobiT

xelisuflebis legitimacias. ia anTaZe yuradRebas amaxvilebs im garemoebaze, rom 4 ianvris arCevnebSi yvelaze cotaa im moqalaqeebis raodenoba, romelic arCevnebisagan arafers elodeba da swored es aris axali xelisuflebis axali pasuxismgebloba Tavisi qveynisa da xalxis winaSe. (84)

*

saprezidento da saparlamento arCevnebis mimarT partiuli speqtris damokidebulebam daqsasuloba, gamokveTa da misi revoluciisSemdgomi mdgomareoba _

dabneuloba

mkveTri

poziciis arqona! cneba

"opozicia",

romelic revoluciamdel periodSic pirobiTi iyo, kidev ufro bundovani gaxda. revoluciamdeli periodis opoziciis nominantebi _ "nacionalebi" da "burjanaZe-demokratebi" saxelisuflebo partiad transformirdnen. 137

Sesabamisad,

daiwyo

gamoTavisuflebuli

opoziciuri

"niSis"

aTvisebis

procesi. mokled ganvixilavT, presaSi asaxuli suraTis mixedviT, rogoria politikuri speqtris axali konfiguracia. revoluciis pirvel dReebSi presa yuradRebas amaxvilebda avanscenis miRma darCenili politikuri Zalebis mxridan revanSisa da

"kontrrevoluciis" safrTxeze. am TvalsazrisiT mosalodneli iyo yofili saxelisuflo "aRorZinebis", blokis "axali ("axali saqarTvelosaTvis"), "leiboristebis", _

memarjveneebis" saprotesto

ganwyobis gaZliereba

Tundac, erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad, an saerToOZalisxmeviT. magram, presa ufro politikuri Zalebis amorfulobasa da gaurkvevlobas gamokveTs, vidre politikur procesebSi maTi logikuri monawileobis, an, minimum, sakuTari funqciis gamarTlebisaTvis mzadyofnas. yofil pozicia ar saxelisuflo daufiqsirebia; liderma da bloks revoluciasTan blokis ministrma dakavSirebiT mTavari avTandil erTiani _

saxelisuflo eqssaxelmwifo

subieqtis

"moqkavSiris"

jorbenaZem,

Tanamdebobidan gadadgomisas gakeTebul gancxadebaSi, moxerxebulad auara gverdi partiul pasuxismgeblobas; mxolod is aRniSna, rom politikidan

wasvlas ar apirebs da mzad aris iTanamSromlos "yvela sufTa politikur ZalasTan". xolo ra bedi eweoda 1995 da 1999 wlis mowvevis parlamentebSi hegemoniis scenaze, mqone amis partias, darCeboda presaSi ar Tu ara, da ra formiT, politikur da arc Caeba

Taobaze yvela

gvxvdeba

arc

jorbenaZisa erTsulovnad

"moqkavSiris" romelime aqtiuri wevris gamokveTili pozicia. Tumc, Zveli parlamentis "moqkavSireli" deputati uflebamosileba gagrZelebuli parlamentis muSaobaSi da uproblemod misca xma dRis wesrigSi dayenebul yvela sakiTxs. axali aliansis Seqmnis Taobaze ganacxadi gaakeTes axalgazrda Taobis warmomadgenelma "moqkavSirelebma" _ irakli gogavam da zviad mukbanianma, magram ZiriTadad amiT Semoifargla maTi aqtiuroba politikur da sainformacio sivrceSi. blokis erT-erTi aqtiuri subieqtis _ socialisturi partiisa da misi lideris partiis seqtorSi vaxtang rCeuliSvilis transformacia amgvaria _ rCeuliSvilma _ partiac vice-

saxeliT gancxadebebis gakeTebis "gadabargeba" gadawyvita

ufleba,

Semdgom ki

irakli mindels gadaabara; Tavad ki politikidan wasvla da arasamTavrobo (arCevnebamde darCaAparlamentis spikerad). "aliasTan" interviuSi igi acxadebs, rom situaciisgan garidebas amjobinebs; baqo-jeihanisadmi miZRvnili monografiis daweras fiqrobs;

saprezidento arCevnebis boikots ar gegmavs da arc aravis mouwodebs amisken. 138

("alia",

13.12.2003)

socialisturi acxadebs, ganacxadebs,

partiis rom Tu

pozicias aWaris

ki

irakli

mindeli arCevnebSi gaakeTeben CaiSalos.

gamoxatavs,

romelic uars 4

regioni yvelafers arCevnebi

monawileobaze imisTvis, rom

"socialistebi" saprezidento

ianvris

vadamdeli

("rezonansi", 05.12.2003) saxelisuflo blokis spikeris, irina sariSvili-Wanturias CamoSoreba edp-s liderobidan presaSi ZiriTadad Sefasebulia, rogorc iZulebiTi nabiji; igi partiis mTavarma komitetma edp-s Tavmjdomaris movaleobidan gadaayena, Tumc, darCa partiisa da komitetis wevrad. "Ramis mzeris" pirdapir eTerSi sariSvilma aRniSna, rom zurab Jvania didi xania ibrZvis edp-s

dasakuTrebisTvis. (t\k "mze", "Ramis mzera", 16.12.2003) mediaSi gvxvdeba irina sariSvilis gancxadeba mis mier "mesame Zalis" Camoyalibebis Taobaze, magram, presis varaudiT, rogorc Cans, man veravin daiTanxma, verc baTumisagan miiRo daxmareba da "mariotSi" gamarTul preskonferenciazec marto darCa. "aRorZineba", romelic 1999 wlis mowvevis parlamentSi "moqkavSiris"

Semdeg yvelaze met mandats flobda da Tavs WeSmarit opoziciad miiCnevda (centrisa da regionis dapirispirebis fonze), ostaturad gadavida axali xelisuflebis relsebze _ saarCevno ubnebis daxurvamde ori saaTiT adre uari Tqva saprezidento arCevnebis boikotze da arc momavali saparlamento arCevnebis vada da Catarebis pirobebi opoziciis gauprotestebia; statusiT amdenad, presis

publikaciebSi

"aRorZineba"

aRar

ganixileba.

(saparlamento arCevnebSi gamanadgurebeli damarcxebis Semdeg ki "aRorZineba" saerTod gaqra saqarTvelos politikuri scenidan). presaSi gaCnda varaudi, rom momavali saparlamento arCevnebisaTvis

"axali memarjveneebi" da "mrewvelebi" (romlebic 2 noembris arCevnebisaTvis gaerTianebaze ver SeTanxmdnen) erTobliv koalicias Seqmnian. "mrewvelebi" vardebis revoluciis dros ar gamoCenilan, samagierod, parlamentis pirvelive sxdomaze gamocxaddnen; memarjveneebmac". erTaderTi mkveTri pozicia leiboristebma gamoxates, maT boikoti mogvianebiT demarSis politika Secvales "axalma

gamoucxades 1999 wlis mowvevis parlamentis Sekrebas da momaval arCevnebs; Seqmnili noembers viTarebidan arCeuli gamosavlis parlamentis mosaZebnad ki aucileblad Sekreba, miiCnies: "2 dauyovnebliv Tavmjdomared

arapolitikuri ambiciebis mqone pirovnebis arCeva, konstituciuri kongresis Seqmna zviad gamsaxurdias uzenaes sabWosTan erTad, axali konstituciisa da saarCevno kodeqsis miReba da axali saparlamento da saprezidento arCevnebis 139

daniSvna."

("xvalindeli

dRe",

26.11.2003) iqneba.

leiboristebis figurirebs

liderma,

Salva rom

naTelaSvilma ganacxada, rom arCevnebis bedi ukve gadawyvetilia da mudam Jvania-saakaSvilis winaaRmdegi presaSi mosazreba,

revoluciam leiboristebi Zalian daazarala. 2 noembris arCevnebis Semdeg naTelaSvilis mier dakavebulma poziciam leiboristebs eleqtorati aSkarad daakargvina. ase rom, revoluciis momdevno dReebSi presaSi gaJRerebuli

"revanSistuli safrTxe", isev presaSi asaxul suraTze dayrdnobiT, momdevno dReebSi aRar figurirebs. gazeT "alias" daskvniT, "realurad revanSistebi sakmaod sustebi da daqsaqsulebi arian". ("alia", 11.12.2003) rac Seexeba gamarjvebuli opoziciis wiaRSi momxdar cvlilebebs, ar gamarTlda ZiriTadi subieqtebis ("nacionaluri moZraoba", "burjanaZedemokratebi") gaTiSvis prognozi, magram 17-18 dekembris mediaSi oficialurad gacxadda "tradicionalistebisa" da edp-s mier axali politikuri koaliciis Camoyalibeba. mixeil saakaSvilis saprezidento kandidatad wamoyenebis

faqtisadmi "tradicionalistTa" lideris, akaki asaTianis mkveTrad uaryofiTi damokidebulebis afiSireba Tavdapirvelad mediaSi gaJRerda, rogorc blok "burjanaZe-demokratebis" rigebSi erTgvari ganxeTqilebis mauwyebeli; magram maleve dafiqsirda is garemoebac, rom asaTianma es gadawyvetileba zurab JvaniasTan SeTanxmebiT miiRo. am faqts "mTavari gazeTi" axali xelisuflebis mier "opoziciis Ziebis" konteqstSi ganixilavs: "akaki asaTiani, SesaZloa, memarjvene wreebSi Zalebis gaerTianebas rom Caudges saTaveSi da axli koaliciis CamoyalibebiT axal xelisuflebas seriozuli opozicia Seuqmnas. politikur imasac amboben, asaTianis opozicioneroba revolucioneri

liderebis mier Sedgenili programis nawilia da ara tradicionalistTa TviTSemoqmedeba. am versiis mimdevarTa azriT, xelisuflebas, romelic jer kidev ar aris legitimuri, bunebrivad gaZlierebuli opoziciis eSinia da upiratesobas mis mier Seqmnils aniWebs." ("mTavari gazeTi", 03.12.2003) saxelmwifo ministri zurab Jvania miesalma koaliciis Seqmnas. misi SefasebiT, bolo dros saqarTveloSi is ganviTarebuli romlebic movlenebis saqarTvelos Semdeg axal

mniSvnelovania urCevnia

gamoikveTos

Zalebi,

xelisuflebas seriozul oponirebas gauwevs: "saqarTvelos xelisuflebas oponentebad iseTi adamianebi hyavdes, romlebTanac SesaZlebeli iqneba kamaTic da davac, oRond _ Zlier qarTul saxelmwifoze orientirebul principebze." ("rezonansi", 18.12.2004)

140

xom

ar

aris

es

zurab

Jvanias

mxardamWeri

gaerTianeba

mixeil

saakaSvilis winaaRmdeg? _ Jurnalist inga grigolias am SekiTxvas akaki asaTianma ase upasuxa: Cven varT ukve axali xelisuflebis opozicia, me mimaCnia, rom oponireba saWiroa. Cven faqtiurad iq gaimarjves: vxedavT, ra Sedegi miiRo ruseTma, e.w.

komunistebma,

mofaSisto

elementebma,

centristebma (romelic, sinamdvileSi, saxelisuflo partiaa). me vTvli, rom CvenTan meti mzaobaa evropuli tipis politikuri urTierTobebis speqtris

CamoyalibebisaTvis;

memarjveneoba

saWiroa

memarcxene

gawonasworebisaTvis. Cvens sazogadoebaSi aris moTxovna erTiani platformis, erTiani xedvis centristuli Zalis Camoyalibebaze. (t/k "mze", "Ramis mzera", 15.12.2003) axalSeqmnili koalicia memarjvene politikuri organizaciis statusiT warsdga oficialur prezentaciaze da mTavar amocanad "qveyanaSi gamefebuli socialisturi ideebis" winaaRmdeg brZola gamoacxada. akaki asaTiani amaSi gulisxmobda dapirebebs momdevno mixeil saakaSvilis "nacionaluri da moZraobis" winasaarCevno Sesaxeb.

gadasaxadebis dReebSi maT

gauqmebisa "opoziciuri

xelfasebis

gaormagebis

statusi"

saprezidento

arCevnebis

boikotiT gaimyares; akaki asaTianma saakaSvilis prezidentad arCevas "tomis beladis arCeva" uwoda. gazeTi "24 saaTi" erTgvari ironizebiT exmaureba koaliciis Seqmnis faqts, mas "xelmocaruli politikosebis alianss" uwodebs, xolo akaki

asaTians _ "politikur don Juans". ("24 saaTi", 17.12.2003) qarTul politikur speqtrSi siaxle iyo "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg Camoyalibebuli partia "Tavisufleba", romelmac partiis lideris,

konstantine (koko) gamsaxurdias personiT miipyro yuradReba. presa aRniSnavda, rom partiis wevrTa gvar-saxelebi cnobadobis TvalsazrisiT arafrismTqmelia, samagierod, amomrCevlebSi zviad gamsaxurdias vaJis gamoCena da politikur asparezze

Tavisebur

sentimentalizms

"zviadisturi"

eleqtoratis

xmebis mokrebas gamoiwvevs. presaSi gvxvdeba koko gamsaxurdias aRqma, rogorc saqarTvelos "sulieri prezidentis", rogorc "simbolos" da ara rogorc "politikuri lideris"; rogorc momdevno saprezidento arCevnebis erT-erTi "mTavari moqmedi gmiris", romelic, SesaZloa, "soroselebis seriozul konkurentad" Camoyalibdes da a.S. politologebis SefasebiT ki, man Camosvla daagviana; igi saerTod ar monawileobda araferSi, emigraciidanac SeiZleboda raRacis gamoxatva; mas ara aqvs raime mkafio mesiji; "24 saaTis"

141

presombudsmeni, nodar ladaria sarkastulad SeniSnavda, rom gamsaxurdias arc saxeli aqvs sakuTari, arc gvari da arc garegnobao. Tavad opoziciis gamsaxurdia rolis amocanad isaxavda partiis dakanonebas, xelisuflebis prioritetad saarCevno konstruqciuli ki Tvlida _

Sesrulebas, sarwmunoebis

marTlmadidebluri

platformad

sakanonmdeblo vakuumis amovsebas, centrsa da regions Soris kompetenciebis gamijvnas. niSandoblivia, koko gamsaxurdias da es rom arCevnebis wina dRiT prezident saakaSvilis gauwia ar "eqstremaluri Casvla samegrelos regionSi" presaSi dakavSirebulia swored faqtorTan, ar romelmac "seriozuli konkurencia

mmarTvelebs

SeiZleboda

kancelariis

yuradRebis

centrSi

aRmoCeniliyo." ("alia", 30.03.2004) arCevnebSi "Tavisuflebis" mier miRweuli Sedegi presaSi erTdroulad fasdeba, rogorc warmatebuli axalSeqmnili partiisaTvis da rogorc warumatebeli. presisTvis micemul interviuebSi koko gamsaxurdia xazgasmiT aRniSnavda, rom misi partia ar Camoyalibebula mxolod saparlamento arCevnebSi monawileobisTvis; magram faqtia, rom man maSinve, rogorc ki winaswari SedegebiT saTuo gaxda "Tavisuflebis" mier saarCevno barieris winadRiT. faqtobrivad ualternativo saprezidento arCevnebis Semdgom, presaSi gaCnda radio aqcenti momavali parlamentis erTpartiulobis revoluciis saSiSroebaze. Sedegad rom am faqtorze ucxoeli eqspertebi da ucxouri mediac amaxvilebdnen yuradRebas. "bi-bi-si"-s komentariT, arsebobs "noembris opozicia momavali gadalaxva, TiTqmis mamis ukomentarod _ zviad datova saqarTvelo saiubileo da isev SveicariaSi gaemgzavra, gamsaxurdias saRamos

praqtikulad

gaqra...

seriozuli

saSiSroeba,

parlamenti erTpartiuli iqneba... movlenebis amgvari ganviTareba seriozul saSiSroebas qmnis. 85%-iT arCeuli prezidenti arc ise sasiamovnoa, magram mainc mosaTmenia. ai, parlamenti, romelSic yvelafers erTi Zala wyvets _ es ubralod Zalze saSiSia!" (radio "bi-bi-si", "xvalindeli dRe", 09.01.2004) evrosabWos monitoringis jgufis xelmZRvaneli maTias iorSi acxadebs, rom "Zlier xelisuflebas opoziciac Zlieri unda hyavdes." ("dilis gazeTi",

07.01.2004) presaSi, gvxvdeba informacia, rom aSS dainteresebulia saqarTveloSi opoziciis arsebobiT da amisaTvis or milionamde Tanxas gamoyofs. saparlamento ikveTeba arCevnebamde erTi TviT adre presis publikaciebSi Jurnalisturi

"revoluciuri

sameulis"

interesTa

dapirispireba;

msjeloba imis Taobaze, rom _ "nino burjanaZes agdeben", rom Jvaniasa da 142

saakaSvils parlamentis provokaciul

ar

surT

burjanaZis aRar migveCnia,

gaZliereba airCion _ ara

da,

mosalodnelia, gazviadebad burjanaZis

igi da mier

Tavmjdomaredac aqcentad

SesaZloa, nino

rom

Tavad

Catarebuli preskonferenciis amsaxveli publikaciebi. presis komentarebiT, burjanaZe pirvelia, vinc "liderTa Soris dadebuli SeTanxmebis darRvevisa" da "kuluaruli SantaJis" aqvs Taobaze winaSe, alaparakda: ar unda igi qveynis acxadebs, interesi rom didi

pasuxismgebloba

xalxis

pirovnul

interesebs gadaayolos da amis gamo bevrjer wavida daTmobebze _ daTmo sakonstitucio cvlilebebis dros, daTmo siebis dros; magram, misi moTmineba aavso im faqtma, rom "burjanaZe-demokratebisTvis" gankuTvnili 40%-i ise

dakompleqtda, rom masSi aRmoCnda Jvanias 26 kandidati, burjanaZem ki 14 adamianis "gayvana" Zlivs SeZlo. saerTodac, burjanaZis TqmiT, SeTanxmebisamebr, parlamentSi misi azri unda yofiliyo dominanturi, zurab Jvanias aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaze unda gaekeTebina ufro meti fokusireba, man xom, faqtobrivad marTlac daakompleqta miuxedavad, burjanaZeExelaxla mTavrobis ZiriTadi nawili. gaopozicionerobaze ar

ganawyenebis

laparakobs, samagierod, am Temas aqtiurad aviTareben Jurnalistebi. siebis sababiT mkveTrad dapirispirebul Jvania-berZeniSvils kompromisze wasvla mouxdaT. rogorc presa aRniSnavs, maTi ganxeTqilebis mizezi aWaraze gadamwyveti zegavlenis mopoveba da am regionSi xelisuflebis sadaveebis xelSi Cagdebaa. daviT berZeniSvils, SesaZloa, arc moexada bodiSi zurab JvaniasTvis, magram sxvanairad mas SeeZlo koba daviTaSvilis bedi gaeziarebina. axla politikaSi axali wesrigi myardeba _ an miiReb am wesebs, an bankroti xdebi. jerjerobiT, saakaSvilsa da Jvanias erTmaneTi Zalian

sWirdebaT, amitomac am did politikur interess nebismieri SeiZleba Seewiros, _ ase lagdeba, saboloo jamSi, presis aqcentebi. martSi, rogorc presa aRniSnavs, dasrulda nebayoflobiTi samTviani moratoriumi axali xelisuflebis kritikaze (romelic televiziaSi ufro sagrZnobi iyo, vidre gazeTebSi); presaSi fiqsirdeba sakmaod mwvave mosazrebebi, imis Taobaze, rom, faqtobrivad, partia da beladi erTi da igivea, winasaarCevnod darigebul gazeTsac ki "saakaSvili" hqvia. ("alia", 23.03.2004); saakaSvilis ("axali politikis naklad rom miiCneva, rom noembris arCevnebisagan xelisuflebaSi gansxvavebiT, martSi mTeli saarCevno kampania mxolod mis garSemo datrialda. versia", 29.03.2004); "nacionaluri moZraobis"

mosasvlelad naxevari saqarTvelo ibrZoda... da dRes am principiT moqmedeben _ arcerTi aranacionali Cvens gverdiT!" ("rezonansi", 22.03.2004) da a.S. 143

rac Seexeba saparlamento arCevnebis Sefasebas presaSi, moviSveliebT erTgvar mini-daijests: · evropelma damkvireblebma Seafases; arCevnebi evrosabWos evropul standartebTan asambleis paradoqsi Sedegi gazeTi",

miaxloebulad

saparlamento mas qarTuli

delegaciis xelmZRvanelma maTias iorSma uwoda, radgan arCevnebi, parlamenti) erTis ki _ mxriv,

imedismomcemia, ("dilis

(erTpartiuli 30.03.2004) · "didi wmenda

damafiqrebeli.

qarTul

politikur

landSaftze

_

misi

saboloo

gaTavisufleba warsulis aCrdilebisa da narCenebisagan". ("24 saaTi", 29.03.2004) · "opozicia mosaxleobis vendetas Seewira"; 28 marti _ axali aTvlis wertili · qarTul politikaSi, modis axali politikuri speqtri.

("mTavari gazeTi", 30.03.2004) opozicia wagebulia imiT, rom liders ver irCevs; sanam lideri ar eyoleba, igi ver gaxdeba xelisuflebis Tavis tkivili; sadac saakaSvili-Jvanias gundia _ opoziciaSi Tu xelisuflebaSi, is mxarea Zlieri. ("alia", 30.03.2004) · koba daviTaSvili, parlamentari: demokratiulma revoluciam moitana es · antidemokratiuli situacia da Cven miviReT raRac saSualo

ruseTsa da TurqmeneTs Soris. ("rezonansi", 30.03.2004) lela iakobiSvili, kulturologi: CemTvis katastrofaa, roca 95

procenti mosaxleobisa erTnairad fiqrobs... eiforiam, rom maRali procentebiT aris arCeuli, daRupa "moqalaqeTa kavSiric" da

zviadistebic. ("dilis gazeTi", 29.03.2004) arsebuli prognozebis sapirispirod, saxelisuflebo sameulma SesZlo Tanxmobis SenarCuneba. Tumc, presaSi vxvdebiT mosazrebebs, rom iseve rogorc saparlamento siebis SemTxvevaSi, amjerad, SesaZloa, maT Soris uTanxmoebis

sababad iqces saparlamento komitetebis gadanawilebis sakiTxi; miT ufro, rom arsebobs e.w. prestiJuli da araprestiJuli komitetebi. bolo wlebSi prestiJuli komitetebis umravlesobas Jvanias gundi akontrolebda.

144

·

arCevnebi postrevoluciur aWaraSi

"vardebis viTardeboda "ganxeTqilebis "respublikelebs" umravlesobis monawile kampaniasac

revoluciis" rom vaSlad" Soris

Semdgomi aWaraSi iqceoda

periodis "nacionalur

presaSi

intensiurad konkurencia da

mosazreba,

gavlenis

mopovebisTvis

moZraobasa"

da,

Sesabamisad, sababi.

gaxdeboda imisa,

saxelisuflebo rom da arCevnebSi saarCevno daviT

rRvevis ar

dawyebis

miuxedavad iyvnen

partiebi

TiTqmis

Seguebulni

damarcxebas partiis"

awarmoebdnen,

"respublikuri

lideri

berZeniSvili amtkicebda, rom Rirseul konkurencias gauwevda "nacionalebs". winasaarCevno periodSi "respublikelebi" aqtiurad cdilobdnen xazgasmas, rom isini warmoadgenen ebrZoda erTaderT aWaraSi partias, romelic da wlebis manZilze "maT

Tanmimdevrulad

"aRorZinebasa"

aslan

abaSiZes.

Rirseulad atares reJimisagan Tavisufali aWaris idea", _ werda gazeTi "axali 7 dRe". ("axali 7 dRe", 18.06.2004) presaSi figurirebs mosazreba, rom aWaris amomrCevelma ar icis ras irCevs, radgan saqarTvelos parlamentma arCevnebamde ver moaswro aWaris statusTan dakavSirebuli sakonstitucio cvlilebis proeqtis miReba. yvelaze radikaluri SefasebiT, arCevnebi ukanonoa, radgan irCeven organos, romlis uflebamosileba jer dadgenili ar aris. paralelurad, vxvdebiT amgvar mosazrebasac _ mTavaria, rom aWaraSi sakanonmdeblo organos irCeven da ar niSnaven. parlamentSi aWaris statusisa da arCevnebis Taobaze seriozul

ukmayofilebas ZiriTadad fraqcia "memarjvene opozicia" afiqsirebda (Tu ar CavTvliT personalurad koba daviTaSvilisa da zviad ZiZiguris opoziciur aqtiurobas). praqtikulad saxelmwifo daviT gamyreliZe acxadebda, rom da 20 ivnisis arCevnebiT

gaformda xelisuflebis survili sabWos (levan varSalomiZis

legitimuroba gadaeca romelic

xelmZRvanelobiT),

arCevnebamde regionSi droebiT funqcias asrulebda. parlamentis Tavmjdomare nino burjanaZe politikur Secdomas uwodebs aWaris umaRlesi sabWos arCevnebSi "respublikelebis" damoukideblad

monawileobas, radgan aWaraSi demokratiis dasamyareblad "nacionalebi" da "respublikelebi" erTad ibrZodnen da es erToba unda SenarCunebuliyo.

saparlamento umravlesobidan "respublikelebis" winaaRmdeg yvelaze mkveTrad nodar grigalaSvilma gailaSqra: "politikuri ambiciebis gamo berZeniSvilma da misma Tanamoazreebma aWaraSi meore politikuri centris Seqmna scades... 145

saxelmwifoSi ramdenime centris Seqmna aris boroteba, cudad Semoubrundeba." ("mTavari gazeTi", 22.06.2004 )

romelic qveyanas

aWaris arCevnebis Sedegi gaxda mizezi imisa, rom "respublikelTa" 6kaciani Semadgenlobidan oTxma datova saparlamento umravlesobis rigebi (levan berZeniSvilma _ komitetis Tavmjdomaris postic). "respublikelebs" Tavis Wkuaze veravin gvatarebs, demokratiuli sivrcis SezRudvas yovelTvis SevewinaaRmdegebiT; minda viqonio imedi, rom rac aWaraSi moxda mxolod da mxolod dabali rangis axali nomenklaturis iniciativa iyo, _ aRniSnavda arCevnebis Sedegis komentirebisas "respublikeli" ivliane xaindrava. ("kviris palitra", 28.06.2004) arCevnebis Sedegebis Sefasebisas presaSi vxvdebiT mosazrebas, rom es iyo pirveli demokratiuli arCevnebi aWaraSi ("mTavar gazeTs" es Sefaseba sapirvelgverdo anSlagSi aqvs mocemuli: "pirveli demokratiuli arCevnebi abaSiZis Semdeg"); amasTan, publikaciebis saTaurebSive ikveTeba kritikuli paTosi: "aWaruli arCevnebi cema-tyepisa da nacionalebisa da respublikelebis dapirispirebis fonze", "riT hgavs nacionaluri moZraoba moqalaqeTa kavSirs?" ("rezonansi", 21.06.2004); "aWara: arCevnebi cema-tyepis TanxlebiT" ("axali Taoba", 21.06.2004); gazeTi", "arCevnebis 21.06.2004); Sedegebi politikur maRla daZabulobas miSa!" ("axali gazrdis" versia", ("dilis 21.06.2004); "Zirs aslani,

"nacionalebma gadaamlaSes" ("xvalindeli dRe", 22.06.2004). presaSi figurirebs piradad mixeil saakaSvilis faqtori arCevnebSi

"nacionaluri moZraobis" TiTqmis erTpirovnul gamarjvebaSi (Tu ar CavTvliT "respublikelebis" mier mopovebul or adgils); erTis mxriv, mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs am tipis Sefasebebi: "aWaris mosaxleobis mTavari orientiri, partiul siaSi Seyvanil Tu maJoritar kandidatebze metad, saqarTvelos prezidenti iyo, romlis mimarT siyvaruli aWaraSi gansakuTrebiT igrZnoba." ("24 saaTi", 21.06.2004); "aWaram prezidentis xaTriT misca xma" ("mTavari gazeTi", 01.07.2004) politologi soso cincaZe: "dRes mixeil saakaSvili imdenad popularulia, rom mis winaaRmdeg wasvla xarakirs niSnavs. visac ar unda gaemarjva, saakaSvilis kursis

gamtarebeli iqneboda, radgan mosaxleoba dRes sasikeTod mxolod am gzas miiCnevs." ("saqarTvelos respublika", 23.06.2004) meore prezidentis mxriv, pirad presaSi yuradReba maxvildeba im winasaarCevno rom kampaniaSi aqtiurobaze, zogadad faqtze, xelisuflebis "rezonansis"

maRalCinosnebi

arCevnebSi

monawileobdnen

rogorc

mxareebi.

politikuri mimomxilveli mianiSnebs safrTxeze, rom "nacionaluri moZraoba", 146

SesaZloa, male "moqalaqeTa kavSirs" daemsgavsos; rom zviad gamsaxurdia Tavis droze iseTive medroveebma daRupes, rogorebic amJamadac mravlad arian mmarTvel partiaSi. ("rezonansi", 21.06.2004) "abaSiZis diqtaturis gadmonaSTebTan brZolaSi aWaris axalma

xelisuflebam uneblied Tavad SeiZina axali koleqtiuri diqtatoris saxe. aWaris mosaxleoba ra SiSiTa da mowiwebiTac saubrobda abaSiZis

xelisuflebaze, imave mowiwebiT da moridebiT saubrobs axal xelisuflebaze. rogorc ver bedavdnen gaeprotestebinaT Zveli xelisuflebis ukanonobebi, aseve, Tvals xuWaven axal ukanonobebze, ris gamoc, SesakrebTa gadanacvlebiT jami ar Secvlila." (axali Taoba, 21.06.2004) "erTaderTi adamiani, romelic aWaruli mmarTvelebidan sazogadoebaSi simpatiebs iwvevs, levan varSalomiZea _ naklebi saubriTa da meti saqmis keTebiT gamorCeuli adamiani." ("rezonansi", 21.06.2004) parlamentar koba daviTaSvils, romelic winasaarCevno periodSi

xelmowerebs agrovebda aWaris avtonomiis gauqmebis

Taobaze plebiscitis

CatarebisTvis, aWaris TviTmmarTvelobam problemebi Seuqmna. parlamentis mier miRebul sakonstitucio "iuridiuli cvlilebas kretinizmi" aWaris uwoda statusTan da ganacxada, dakavSirebiT, rom kvlav

daviTaSvilma

gaagrZelebs xelmowerebis Segrovebas aWaris avtonomiis gauqmebis Tobaze. ("axali Taoba", 30.06.2004) aWaruli arCevnebis erTgvari reziume SeiZleba isev presis SefasebiT CamovayaliboT: aWaraSi mosaxleobam prezidents dauWira mxari da sanacvlod xelisuflebisagan mxolod imas iTxovs, rom axali aslan abaSiZe da "aRorZineba" ar miiRos. ("mTavari gazeTi", 01.07.2004)

147

Tavi V

"vardebis revolucia" da postrevoluciuri periodi

am Tavis saxelwodeba erTgvarad pirobiTia, ramdenadac cneba "vardebis revolucia" ar gamoxatavs mxolod 2003 wlis 23 noembers momxdar movlenas. mas SleifiviT mosdevs Semdgomi procesebi, romelTa aTvlis wertilad

swored "vardebis revolucia" iTvleba da romlebic, pirdapir Tu iribad, am cnebaSi erTiandeba. "2003 wlis noemberSi saqarTvelos xelisufleba Seicvala mSvidobiani, magram arakonstituciuri gziT... xelisuflebis Secvlis es epizodi "vardebis revoluciis" saerTaSoriso CaTvala saxeliT Sevida istoriaSi, udidesma saqarTvelos nawilma _ mosaxleobisa da

Tanamegobrobis Sebrunebas

"vardebis ase Seafasa

revolucia" demokratiuli "vardebis

mniSvnelovan

niSansvetad,

romelic

saqarTvelos

Rirebulebebisaken

moaswavebda",

revolucia" mesame seqtoris cnobilma warmomadgenelma, politologma gia nodiam saangariSo naSromSi "samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTareba

saqarTveloSi: miRwevebi da gamowvevebi". (56, 17) "vardebis revolucia", rogorc mis Semdgom ganvlilma periodma aCvena, maSindeli Tu Semdgomi Sefasebebis urTierTgamomricxaobis miuxedavad, iyo kargad damuSavebuli teqnologiuri sqemis mixedviT ganviTarebuli procesi, romelSic moxda erTdroulad ramdenime arsebiTi faqtoris fokusireba _ postsabWoTa mmarTvelobis Secvla, personalurad SevardnaZis mimarT

dagrovili negatiuri energiis ganmuxtva, dasavlur interesze orientirebuli ara mxolod xelisuflebis, aramed sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis mcdeloba da, rac mTavaria, postsabWoTa sivrceSi, demokratiuli ganviTarebis kalapotSi qveynis da sazogadoebis mSvidobiani gadasvlis modelis realobad qceva; regionSi saqarTvelos saxiT dasavluri forpostis dafuZneba. marTalia, "vardebis revolucia" qarTveli xalxis arnaxuli

mobilizebiT, SevardnaZis xelisuflebis Secvlis gardauvali surviliTa da korufciis aRmofxvris amaRlebuli suliskveTebiT warimarTa; magram

TandaTan, igive presis meSveobiT, mkafiod gamoikveTa suraTi, rom es iyo Tanamedrove Sesabamisad msoflios dasaxuli globaluri modeli, procesebis kanonzomieri ganviTarebis saqarTvelos

romlis

gansaxorcieleblad

SerCeva SemTxveviTi ar yofila.

148

"21-e saukunes Tavisi moTxovnebi aqvs da Tavisi tempi. masdemokratiis procesma _ demokratiis masobrivi variantis eqsportis da misi globaluri damkvidrebis procesma _ mTeli planeta unda moiaros, raTa harmonizdes Tavisufali da araTavisufali wers samyaro da sayovelTao usafrTxoeba

dasadgurdes", _ publikaciaSi,

apolon silagaZe gazeT "24 saaTSi" gamoqveynebul uaRresad sainteresod da kompaqturadaa

romelSic

Camoyalibebuli ara mxolod am procesisa da "samodelo qveynad" saqarTvelos arCevis kanonzomiereba, aramed is kriteriumebi, riTac "sastarto qveyana" ganisazRvra; Semdgom gaanalizebulia warmoqmnili globalur da mogebisa da wagebis qveynis amocanebs balansi, sagareo Soris; revoluciis da saSinao etapze winaaRmdegoba lokalur

prioritetebs,

revoluciis

gadarCenis, revoluciis warmatebisa da misi Semdgomi periodis aRmSeneblobis (da ara ngrevis) unisonSi mosvlis aucilebloba: "Cven aRmovCndiT procesebis avangardSi... revolucia rom ar yofiliyo, Cven ara ubralod pasiuri, aramed urolo monawile viqnebodiT ganviTarebis globaluri procesebisa... Cven ar gveqneboda is saerTaSoriso avtoriteti, romelic bevrad aRemateba im SesaZleblobebs, Cven ar rasac Cveni farTobi da

mosaxleobis

raodenoba

gansazRvravs.

gveqneboda

saerTaSoriso

funqcia, romlis qonis Sansi mcire erebs advilad ar eZlevaT." (65) swored am rolma ganapiroba "arSemdgaridan" "sanimuSomde" saqarTvelos saxelmwifos (upirvelesad warmatebiT). "vardebis revoluciasTan" mimarTebaSi, ara mxolod imdroindel mediaSi, aramed, mogvianebiT gamoqveynebul publikaciebsa Tu naSromebSi, ikveTeba imijis da transformireba da da pozicionireba qveynis gareT (naklebi

warmatebulad)

sakuTriv

saqarTveloSi

saerTo Tvalsazrisi, rom yvela SesaZlo mizez-Sedegis miuxedavad, mTavari faqtori iyo cvlilebebis rwmena da molodini. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa filosofos zaza firaliSvilis mier 2003 wlis Semodgomaze ganviTarebuli procesebis gaazreba "qarTuli politikis Teatralur dialeqtikaSi": "wminda kulturologiuri azriT mniSvneloba ara aqvs, Tu vin da ra mizniT dadga maradi ganaxlebis politikuri speqtakli, an, saerTod, dadga Tu ara. zustad aseve, mniSvneloba ara aqvs, am revoluciur karnavals raime realuri Sedegi mohyva Tu ara. mTavari is aris, rom Cvens adamianebSi, miuxedavad ganvlili aTwleulebis teritoriebis ganmavlobaSi dakargvisa, gadatanili miuxedavad tragediebisa, imedgacruebebisa, sruliad ukeTuri

politikosebis

mcdelobebisa, Tavisi miznebisaTvis gamoeyenebinaT maTi gulubryvilo da miT 149

ufro Zlieri rwmena, rom amqveynad raime mainc SeiZleba saikeTod Seicvalos, adamianebs ar daukargavT is infantiluri idealizmi, romlis gareSec SeuZlebelia amqveynad arseboba." (71, 186-187) zaza firaliSvilis azriT, "ganaxlebis am faruli molodinis

simbolizeba" ikisra "mesame politikurma istebliSmentma", ubralo adamianebma ki mas iseve gamoucxades ndoba, rogorc Tavis droze wina ors _ zviad gamsaxurdiasa da eduard wina SevardnaZis mocemuli politikur 2000-2003 istebliSmentebs wlebis periodis

ucxadebdnen. (71, 186-187) disertaciis TavebSi mediasuraTi gviCvenebs, rogor emzadeboda postSevardnaZistuli periodisTvis axali politikuri mediam; zemoT Taoba, rogor moamzades niadagi SevardnaZis epoqidan SevaCereT imazec, ra faqtorebma ganapiroba

postepoqaSi "xaverdovani" gadasvlisTvis arasamTavrobo organizaciebma da yuradReba

saqarTvelos adekvaturoba axali msoflio wesrigis dramaturgiaSi Tundac erTi mokrZalebuli rolis Sesasruleblad. amasTan, Tu postsabWoTa periodidan (gansakuTrebiT ki 90-iani wlebis Suaxanebidan) dRemde saqarTvelos vTqvaT, rom "vardebis mier rTuli kataklizmebiT gamovlil gzas mosamzadebeli samuSao Cveni qveynis

da mediaSi mis asaxvas gonebis TvaliT erT fokusSi movaqcevT, SegviZlia revoluciis" yofierebisa da cnobierebis TiTqmis yvela ganStoebas moicavda. (SesaZloa, erT-erTi ucxouri organizaciis mier grantis gamoyofa "xmiT natirlebis" Sesaswavlad, pirdapir Tu iribad amave mizans _ Cveni eTnofsiqikis niuansebSi wvdomasac emsaxureboda). Tu ufro Sors wavalT, aRmoCndeba, rom Tundac sainformacio omi (da ara mxolod!), romelsac rusuli media axorcielebda (rezonansulad _

qarTulic!) saqarTvelos,

saqarTveloSi rogorc saboloo erT-erTi

destabilizaciuri "arSemdgari jamSi,

procesebis imijis uqmnida

inicirebisTvis, Seqmnisa da

qveynis" fons iyo

damkvidrebisTvis, faqtori rom

saTanado

sazogadoebis revoluciis"

ganwyobis mimarTvas radikaluri cvlilebisTvis motivaciis Sesaqmnelad. es ganmsazRvreli "vardebis

ganxorcielebisTvis, amis faqtobrivi masala, SeZlebisdagvarad, winamdebare sadisertacio naSromSic aris mocemuli. "vardebis revolucia" rom strategiuli teqnologiebis Tanamedrove standartebiT ganxorcielebuli procesi iyo, es, ra Tqma unda, Cveni saavtoro mosazreba ar aris. miuxedavad imisa, rom am Temaze Tundac presaSi araerTi publikacia gamoqveynda da araerTi naSromis yuradRebis centrSi moeqca, 150

vfiqrobT,

am

procesis

Seswavla

da

gaanalizeba

Sesabamisi

dargebis

specialistTa fundamentur kvlevas imsaxurebs. telemediisa da, saerTod, masobrivi komunikaciis mkvlevari eldar iberi, naSromSi "televizia da xelisufleba ("vardebis revoluciis" gakveTilebi)", "vardebis revoluciis" "mediareJisuris" am Teoriuli aspeqtebis fonze,

restrospeqtiulad

aRadgens

procesis

ganviTarebas

"virtualur

realobaSi". Sesabamisad, misi daskvnebi sayuradReboa ara mxolod televiziis rolis kvlevis TvalsazrisiT. e.iberis SefasebiT, "Tavisi geopolitikuri mdgomareobis gamo qveyana msoflios zesaxelmwifoebis faruli dapiripirebis (Tu morigebis) obieqtad iqca, rac udides gavlenas axdens aq mimdinare yvela socialur-politikur ZiriTadad finansdeba Tu da ekonomikur imarTeba movlenaze. garedan. politikuri Semodis procesebi masobrivi

garedan

cnobierebiT manipulirebis uaxlesi politikuri teqnologiebi da warmatebiT xorcieldeba qarTul realobaSi." (28, 38) zemoTmoxmobil a.silagaZis statiaSi "vardebis revolucia" ganxilulia, rogorc saukeTeso "ganviTarebis saSualeba; globaluri e.iberi procesebSi" saqarTvelos "garedan CarTvis marTvaze"

politikuri

procesebis

akeTebs aqcents. am TvalsazrisiT sayuradReboa jaba devdarianis narkvevi "saerTaSoriso daxmarebis gavlena saqarTveloze" (romelic Sesrulebulia saqarTveloSi demokratiuli mSeneblobis ZiriTadi tendenciebis Semajamebeli saeqsperto proeqtis farglebSi da asaxavs ara mxolod avtoris, aramed, eqspertebisa da praqtikosebis Sejerebul Tvalsazriss). "ganviTarebisa da demokratiis daxmarebis Tanamedrove kritika or ZiriTad arguments eyrdnoba. pirvelis mixedviT, ganviTarebis daxmareba koloniuri azrovnebis gagrZelebaa; misi mizani _ "dasavluri demokratiis" magaliTis "ganuviTarebel" samyaroSi gadatana, rac kaTolikur-protestantuli Rirebulebebisa da procesebis brmad gadmoRebas emyareba. zogierTi mkvlevaris azriT, radgan ganviTarebisa (da demokratiis) daxmareba kolonialuri azrovnebis gadmonaSTia, is emsaxureba nacionaluri elitis daTrgunvas dasavluri dominionebis mier. es argumenti, romelic Zalian waagavs logikis Sesaxeb damokidebulebis mniSvnelovani saqarTvelos Teorias, dReisaTvis zedmeti da

antiglobalisturi "prodasavlurobis"

nawilia.

daxmarebis

radikalur

politikur

sazogadoebriv wreebSic xSirad saubroben." (18, 31-32) daxmarebis kritikis meore forma, _ aRniSnavs j.devdariani, _ swored daxmarebis programebis ganxorcielebis gamocdilebis mqone

profesionalebisagan modis. maTi azriT, "donorebs uyvarT ama Tu im qveyanaSi 151

arsebuli realobis xelovnurad moqceva maTTvis misaReb CarCoebSi da ar ZaluZT an ar surT qveynis Sida politikaze TavianTi programebis gavlenis kritikuli Sefaseba." (18, 32) marTalia, proeqti "demokratiis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi" moicavs 2003 wlamde periods, magram, rogorc aRvniSneT, "vardebis revolucia" ar yofila spontanuri aqti da ganviTarebisa da demokratiis daxmarebis xarisxma

saqarTveloSi arsebiTad gansazRvra misi Sedegebi. amasTan, jaba devdarianis narkvevSi mocemuli Sefasebebi da daskvnebi erTgvari gasaRebia im urTierTgamomricxavi Tvalsazrisebisa (da realuri Sedegebisac), romlebic "vardebis revoluciis" garSemo viTardeboda da dRemde viTardeba. dasavluri "kolonialuri yuradRebas, dominionebis azrovnebis mier nacionaluri razec cnobili elitis amerikeli daTrgunva, anu

gadmonaSTi",

j.devdariani

amaxvilebs

SesaZloa,

iyos gamoZaxili

politologis

semuel hanTingTonis TvalTaxedvisa (misi 1996 wels gamoqveynebuli naSromi "civilizaciaTa Sejaxeba" gansakuTrebiT aqtualuri gaxda 11 seqtembris

teraqtis Semdeg). hanTingToni miiCnevs, rom:L dasavleTi unikaluria da ara universaluri; universalizmis logikuri Sedegia imperializmi; dadga dro, dasavleTi gaTavisufldes universalizmis arc iluziisagan; rwmena dasavluri unikalurobis Sesaxeb ara mxolod mcdari da amoraluria, aramed saSiSic; modernizacia da ganviTareba vesternizacias aRorZinebas); civilizaciaTa (piriqiT, dasavluri igi moiTxovs da arc iwvevdes umTavresi aramed unda ganapirobebdes kulturaTa ara sxva civilizaciis

unda

adgilobriv dasavluri

dasavleTis

liderebis

pasuxismgebloba

gardaqmna,

unikaluri niSnebis dacva da ganaxlebaa. es pasuxismgebloba, pirvel rigSi, ekisreba yvelaze Zlier dasavlur qveyanas _ aSS-s; saxelmwifo moRvaweebs mxolod maSin SeuZliaT nayofierad Secvalon realoba, roca aRiareben mas da kargad esmiT igi; amerikuli elita uaRresad nela aRiqvams Seqmnil

realobebs; buSisa (buSi ufrosis, ­ l.k.) da klintonis administraciebi mxars uWerdnen multicivilizaciuri integraciis gegmebs, romlebic an ugunuri iyo, an iwvevda gauTvaliswinebel ekonomikur da politikur Sedegebs... (78) milton fridmani (romlis wigni _ "kapitalizmi da Tavisufleba", XX saukunis klasikur 50-ian wlebSi Seqmnili, dRemde liberaluri msoflmxedvelobis monopoliebis naSromad iTvleba) saerTaSoriso zeerovnuli

diqtaturas iseTive safrTxed Tvlis TavisuflebisTvis, rogorc saxelmwifo diqtaturas. liberalizmi ebrZvis Tavisuflebis Tu yovelgvar SezRudvas _

saxelmwifoebrivs,

korporaciulsa

zeerovnuls.

zeerovnuli

diqtatis 152

pirobebSi, marTalia, sityvis, sindisisa da saqmianobis pirobiTi Tavisufleba daculia, magram mxolod garkveul farglebSi, garkveul zRvramde, romlis gadalaxvis kapitalis mcdeloba centrebSi _ maT adamianebisTvis did riskTan aris dakavSirebuli. Zalauflebaa sazogadoebis

saerTaSoriso korporaciebSi mier yvela saSualeba

uzomo

koncentrirebuli.

gamoiyeneba

manipulirebisTvis. isini floben masobriv sainformacio saSualebebs, maT gavlena aqvT sasamarTloebsa da saxelmwifo dawesebulebebze, bazrebze ki maT gareSe araferi xdeba... (72) winamdebare sadisertacio naSromis bolo qveTavSi ("saqarTveloSi jorj buSis vizitis rezonansi presaSi") vnaxavT, rom TbilisSi vizitisas aSS-is prezidentis, jorj buSis mier warmoTqmuli sityvebis mTavari sakvanZo sityva "Tavisuflebaa". zemoTganxiluli Tvalsazrisebi SemTxveviT ar dagvikavSirebia "vardebis revoluciasTan". demokratiis, warmatebuli misi winare da da Semdgomi movlenebi cxadyofs, rom

liberalizmisa iyos im

Tavisuflebis Tu

"eqsporti" da

SesaZloa

SemTxvevaSi,

saxelmwifosa

sazogadoebas

gacnobierebuli aqvs ara mxolod misi SesaZlo Sedegebi (pozitiurica da negatiuric), aramed am procesebis kanonzomiereba da Sesabamisi moqmedebis amplituda _ moqceuli maT gardauvalobasa da Cvens SesaZleblobas Soris. Tundac amgvari presis aRqma magaliTi gvxvdeba, cxadyofs, magram rom gamonaklisis maTi saxiT procesebis problemebi

umeteswilad

Tanmdevi

aRiwereba zereled da martivad _ "globalizaciis", "masonebis", "sorosis", "Savi piaris" da a.S. xsenebiT, an "mtris xatis" SeqmniT.

*

23 noembers "vardebis revoluciiT" dasrulebuli procesis gaanalizeba presaSi mravalmxrivi mocemuli; yovlisa, da, xSir SemTxvevaSi, urTierTgamomricxavi garkveuli logikiT

SefasebebiTaa pirvel

vecdebiT, unda

SeZlebisdagvarad, gamovkveToT is

davalagoT ZiriTadi aqcentebi. albaT obieqtur-subieqturi mizezebi, romlebic safuZvlad daedo revolucias. rac Seexeba sababs, is jer kidev arCevnebamde karga xniT adre iyo gansazRvruli _ arCevnebis gayalbeba xelisuflebis mier, amomrCevlis samoqalaqo uflebebis Selaxva. mediaSi Seqmnili suraTiT ikveTeba mTavari mizezi, romelic revoluciis qvakuTxedi siZulvili, gaxda rwmena _ da eduard imedi, SevardnaZis rom Tundac mimarT lamis paTologiuri sivrcidan misi 153

saxelisuflo

moSorebis faqti ukve sasikeTo movlena iqneboda qveynisTvis. am mizezma erT fokusSi mouyara Tavi yvela faqtors _ socialurs, politikursa Tu pirovnuls. revoluciis meore dResve presaSi, erTis mxriv, gamoikveTa suliskveTeba, rom gamarjvebulebs ar asamarTleben; meores mxriv, im dResve daiwyo

msjeloba xelisuflebis Secvlis procesis samarTlebriv aspeqtebze. mainc ra SeiZleba ewodos 23 noembris movlenebs? deklarirebulad, es iyo xaverdovani, usisxlo revolucia: "vardebis revolucia" ("24 saaTi", 24.11.2003); "vardebiani, usisxlo da ueklo revolucia", "xaverdovani revolucia", "mSvidobiani revolucia" ("rezonansi", 24.11.2003); "revolucia usisxlod" ("axali versia", 24.11.2003); "vardebis

revolucia" ueklod" ("kviris palitra", 24.11.2003); "kulturuli revolucia" ("mTavari gazeTi", 24.11.2003) sayuradReboa axalgazrda iuristTa asociaciis prezidentis Tina

xidaSelis formulireba: "imas, rac dRes moxda, iuridiul da yvela enaze hqvia usisxlo revolucia." ("rezonansi", 24.11.2003) presaSi aranaklebi intensiobiT figurirebs aqcenti, rom am procesebs "xaverdovnebis" xelisuflebis gansazRvreba ZaliT Secvla ar miesadageba; gazeTi es ufro gadatrialeba, Taimsi" am anu iyo: "jorjian process

saxelmwifo gadatrialebas uwodebs da aqcents akeTebs aSS-is saxelmwifo departamentis somxuri lobis dafinansebaze, romlis mizania kavkasiaSi

somxeTis qceva mesamexarisxovani saxelmwifodan pirvelxarisxovnad. (27.11.2003). momdevno dReebSi amave gazeTSi Cndeba formulireba _ samxedro gadatrialeba, romelSic aqtiurad monawileobda uSiSroebis iatakqveSa razmi. ("jorjian Taimsi", 04.12.2003). gazeTis amave nomerSi piarteqnologi dimitri moniava

acxadebs, rom axali xelisufleba, jerjerobiT, ufro virtualuria, vidre "realuri", an "faqtobrivi". romelsac ("jorjian Taimsi", 04.12.2003) saxelmwifo

gadatrialeba, Taoba", 06.12.2003)

uamravi

iuridiuli

darRvevis

gasamarTleblad

"revolucia" ewoda, _ aseT mosazrebas vxvdebiT gazeT "axal TaobaSi". ("axali

politikosTa Sefasebebidan yvelaze radikaluria Salva naTelaSvili; "leiboristebis" lideri "vardebis revolucias" xelisuflebis uzurpaciad aRiqvams da aqcents akeTebs sorosis rolze, globalistur Zalebze, ruseTis teritoriul interesze, baqo-jeihanis navTobsadenze... ("dilis gazeTi",

26.11.2003); aseve mkveTria "aRorZinebis" warmomadgenelTa Sefaseba; magaliTad, cotne bakurias azriT, es iyo kancelariaSi dagegmili "revolucia", Zveli 154

SevardnaZis Secvla "axalgazrda SevardnaZiT". ("jorjian Taimsi", 04.12.2003); qristianul-demokratiuli kavSiris lideri vaJa lorTqifaniZe mianiSnebs qveyanaSi diqtaturis damyarebis safrTxeze. ("axali Taoba", 26.11.2003) aqve aRvniSnavT, rom aqcentebi "vardebis revoluciasTan" sorosisa da "globalisturi Zalebis" mimarTebaze kidev didxans viTardeboda presaSi. sanimuSod movixmobT citatas yvelaze radikaluri mosazrebiT: "msoflio

politikis istoriaSi pirvelad moxda, rom saxelmwifo iqca ara romelime Zlieri qveynis, aramed kerZo piris sakuTrebad; sorosis mizania ara mxolod "axali evropis" aramed gegmis ganxorcieleba, _ anu aSS-is gavlenis gaZliereba evraziaze, merkantiluric saqarTvelos, rogorc satransporto

derefnis yidva." ("axali Taoba", 31.03.2004) sakonstitucio sasamarTlos yofili Tavmjdomaris, iusticiis sabWos wevris, avTandil demetraSvilis saidanac Tavi gansazRvrebiT, gamosavali da Tavi "qveyana samarTlebriv Tumca, ramdenad

labirinTSi SesaZlebeli.

imyofeba, am

Znelad imis

mosaZebnia,

problemis

gansazRvraa,

legitimuria dRevandeli xelisufleba... nino burjanaZis mier saqarTvelos prezidentis vTqvaT movaleobis rom Semsruleblad Tavisi Tavis gamocxadeba, rom araferi

imaze,

prezidents

gadadgomis

Sesaxeb

gancxadeba

gakeTebuli ar hqonda, aralegitimuri iyo." (Jurnali "sarke", 03.12.2003) "amjerad kidev arsebobs SesaZlebloba qveyana daubrundes konstituciur sivrces", _ wers "dilis gazeTi" ("dilis gazeTi", 08.12.2003) da es mosazreba mediaSi gamonaklisi ar aris. es TavisTavad gulisxmobs, rom media erTgvarad aRiarebs arsebuli situaciis arakonstituciurobas, magram pirobiTad iRebs mas, rogorc postSevardnaZistuli periodis "aTvlis wertils". paralelurad, presaSi dominirebs azri, rom revoluciis mTavari gmiri xalxi iyo, rom mTavari Sedegi iyo sazogadoebis gaerTianeba, misi gaxleCis safrTxis Tavidan acileba. pirvel rigSi, am faqtors xazgasmiT aRniSnavs Tavad "mTavari revolucioneri" istoria." ("24 mixeil saakaSvili: "...mTavari kaxa gmiri arc

saakaSvilia, arc SevardnaZe. mTavari gmiri xalxia, romelmac guSin sakuTari xeliT Seqmna SefasebiT, saaTi", Sedga... 24.11.2003) procesebis politolog mTavari kacitaZis Tavad

"qarTveli

eri

Semoqmedi

qarTveli eri iyo." ("mTavari gazeTi", 24.11.2003) istorikosebis SefasebiT (profesorebi: merab vaCnaZeEda vaxtang guruli), xalxi gaaerTiana ara romelime politikuri figuris siyvarulma, aramed

ukiduresma gaWirvebam. es iyo SevardnaZis kraxi da ara is, rom yvela erTad saakaSvils, Jvanias an burjanaZes gahyva. mniSvnelovania, rom yvelaferi 155

usisxlod damTavrda. erTi adamianis sisxlic rom daRvriliyo, amas jaWvuri reaqcia mohyveboda da samoqalaqo omSi gadaviCexebodiT; mniSvnelovania, rom sazogadoeba erTiani darCa, radgan faqtobrivad dapirispireba iyo ara

sazogadoebaSi, aramed xalxsa da xelisuflebas Soris. ("mTavari gazeTi", 25.11.2003) igive xalxis faqtoris amaxvilebs ver moaxerxa gaTvaliswinebiT, totaluri axal micemuli politologi ndobis soso

cincaZeEyuradRebas safrTxeze, uaxloes xanebSi

xalxis maTTvis

transformaciis Tu man Sesruleba.

romelic,

SesaZloa,

daemuqros

xelisuflebas, dapirebebis

("rezonansi", 06.12.2003) sagulisxmoa, rom gavlenian ucxour mediaSi ganviTarebul mosazrebaTa mravalferovnebis miuxedavad (romelsac, aseve, gvacnobs qarTuli presa), saboloo jamSi, saqarTveloSi momxdari procesebi dadebiTad Seafases da axal xelisuflebas mxardaWera gamoucxades evrokavSirma da evroparlamentma, aSS-is saxelmwifo departamentma. kvlav Tumc, diplomatiur aqcenti _ komentarebsa rom da

TavSekavebul

SefasebebSi

dominirebs

saqarTvelos,

momavali arCevnebis samarTlianad CatarebiT, isev (ukve meored) eZleva Sansi demokratiul qveynad CamoyalibebisaTvis; samomavlod Sepirebuli ucxouri daxmarebebic am faqtorze iqneba damokidebuli. iseve rogorc qarTuli media, ucxouric maRal Sefasebas aZlevs revoluciuri procesebis dros

sazogadoebis aqtiurobisa da erTsulovnebis faqtors. 2 noembris arCevnebamde saqarTveloSi Camosuli maTias iorSi acxadebda, rom TuUsaqarTvelo ar Caatarebs samarTlian da demokratiul arCevnebs, SesaZloa, saqarTvelo evrosabWodan garicxon Seusrulebeli valdebulebebis gamo. 18 dekembers, saqarTveloSi evrosabWos saparlamento delegaciis

xelmZRvanelis rangSi myofma iorSma preskonferenciaze ganacxada, rom axali xelisuflebisaTvis evrosabWos winaSe aRebuli valdebulebebis Sesrulebis moTxovna 2004 wlis TebervalSi (am dros iwureboda valdebulebebis

Sesrulebis vada _ l.k.) usamarTloba iqneba da axal xelisuflebas evrosabWo nakisri valdebulebebis Sesrulebas axal vadebSi mosTxovs. amasTan, sayuradReboa maTias iorSis gancxadeba momavali saprezidento arCevnebis Taobaze, romelic, rogorc Cans, evrosabWos poziciasac gamoxatavs: "saqarTveloSi dagegmili arCevnebi ar iqneba srulyofili. iqneba bevri Secdoma da xarvezi, magram erTmaneTisagan unda ganvasxvavoT xarvezi da gayalbeba. mTavaria, rom saqarTvelos xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebis

ganzraxva aris mtkice _ Catardes samarTliani arCevnebi da yvela damrRvevi 156

da gamyalbebeli gamovlindes da daisajos." ("mTavari gazeTi", 19.12.2003) anu, evrosabWom, mosul faqtobrivad, da mxari dauWira "vardebis misca revoluciis" Sansi da Sedegad erTgvari xelisuflebas TiTqmis upirobod

SeRavaTic revoluciuri procesis legitimaciisa.

·

postrevoluciuri/postSevardnaZistuli xelisuflebis Sefaseba (presis aqcentebi)

miuxedavad imisa, rom "vardebis revoluciis" Sedegad xelisuflebaSi mosul "triumvirats" (mixeil saakaSvili, zurab Jvania, nino burjanaZe) isev saxelisuflo avanscenaze partiis karga _ xnis "moqalaqeTa kavSiris" wiaRidan politikur

damkvidrebuli

personebi

warmoadgendnen,

revoluciurma eiforiam maT sxva Zala da Saravandi SesZina, Tvisobrivad gansxvavebuli, vidre xelisuflebaSi Cveulebrivi "saarCevno rotaciis" gziT mosvlisas eqnebodaT. axali xelisuflebis mimarT presa Semwynarebluri gaxda. SesaZloa

imitom, rom am periodisTvis man amowura "negatiuri resursi", romelic Zveli xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli da warmatebiT Seasrula Tavisi misia revoluciuri imitomac, imsaxurebda Camoyalibeba movida. unda iTqvas, rom presa, ar politikuri aRmoCenila speqtrisagan da droulad gansxvavebiT, auRo alRo rom procesebisaTvis formirebis da xelsayreli procesSi albaT fonis Sesaqmnelad; SesaZloa TavisTavad sivrcis im axali xelisufleba rom

taim-auts; da

imitomac,

sainformacio

marTva

saqarTveloSi

didwiladaa

dakavSirebuli

politikur ZalasTan, romelic "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg xelisuflebaSi

postrevoluciur

eiforiaSi

politikur koniunqturas. revoluciis Semdgom TiTqmis ar Secvlila qarTuli realobisa da, Sesabamisad, mediisTvis damaxasiaTebeli politizebisa da personificirebis tendencia; gansxvavebaa isaa, rom presis mTavari Tema _ xelisuflebidan

SevardnaZis wasvla, Secvala xelisuflebaSi saakaSvilis mosvlis Temam. faqtobrivad, 2003 wlis dekembersa da 2004 wlis ianvarSi iSviaTia gazeTi personalurad mixeil saakaSvilisa da, saerTod, axali xelisuflebis Taobaze mosazrebebis gareSe. ZiriTadad presaSi dominirebs axal xelisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli cvlilebebis molodini. erTgvari Sejerebuli daijesti naTel 157

warmodgenas qmnis postrevoluciuri xelisuflebis garSemo presaSi Seqmnil sainformacio fonze: · "reformatorebi, rogorebic arian mixeil saakaSvili, nino burjanaZeEda zurab Jvania, momavali saqarTvelos imedi da amerikis SeerTebuli StatebisTvis kargi siaxlea... dRes reformistulad ganwyobil liderebs aqvT · Sansi, rom dasavleTis daxmareba gacilebiT ufro efeqturad

gamoiyenon." (erik mileri, analitikosi, aSS; "24 saaTi", 03.01.2004) "Cveni optimizmis safuZvelia sami faqtoris erTianoba, romelsac CvenSi dRemde ar hqonia adgili. pirvelia _ xelisufleba, romelic saqarTvelos mosaxleobis, qarTveli erisa da qveynis interesebs daicavs, misi damoukideblobis, ganviTarebisa da ganmtkicebisaTvis ibrZolebs; meore _ qarTveli xalxis neba _ mxari dauWiros xelisuflebas... mesame _ saerTaSoriso xelisuflebisa davijeroT, · rom Tanamegobroba da energiulad gamoxatavs da axlandeli unda iqneba saqarTvelos 2004 weli _ mxardaWeras. axali amitomac dasawyisi

epoqis

saqarTveloSi." (dimitri SveliZe, istorikosi, "mTavari gazeTi", 05.01.2004) "saqarTveloSi erTpartiuli demokratia damkvidrda. xelisuflebis

yvela Stos akontrolebs erTi xelisufleba da, rac samwuxaroa, arc apirebs am situaciis Secvlas, piriqiT, "revoluciuri xelisufleba" cdilobs maqsimalurad mokle vadebSi daniSnos axali saparlamento arCevnebi, · raTa... erTklanuri sakanonmdeblo xelisufleba miiRos." ("axali Taoba", 08.01.2004) "mosaxleobis 96%-is mier arCeul miSas SeuZlia Tu unda

koncentraciuli banakebi gaxsnas, mainc taSs daukraven, magram ramdenad demokratiuli da normaluria daSineba, terori da mokvliT damuqreba ori dRis win arCeuli axalgazrda da "demokrati" prezidentisagan, Zneli saTqmelia... guSin kanoniT jer argaprezidentebuli saakaSvili yovelgvari moridebis gareSeEdireqtivas aZlevda iusticiis ministrs, rom cixeSi SesaZlo destabilizaciisas gamoeyenebina iaraRi da moekla patimrebi." ("axali Taoba", 13.01.2004) · "axalma xelisuflebam icis, rac unda gaakeTos da konkretuli

programac gaaCnia... mixeil saakaSvils ukve didi xania vicnob. is aSkarad Zalian Wkviani, Semoqmedi adamiania... noembris Semdeg man yvelaze Zalian didi STabeWdileba moaxdina. mas kargad Camoyalibebuli ideebi da xedva aqvs da kargad icis, ra unda. mas Zalian kargi monacemebi aqvs da vusurveb warmatebebs, radgan misi warmatebebi pirdapir aris 158

dakavSirebuli ·

qarTveli

xalxis

warmatebasTan."

(lin

pasko,

aSS-is

saxelmwifo mdivnis moadgile, "24 saaTi", 15.01.2004) "ar vfiqrob, rom mixeil saakaSvili evropuli donis politikosia. ori Tvis ganmavlobaSi Seviswavle yvela is interviu, romelic man misca dasavlur, rusul Tu qarTul medias. jerjerobiT misTvis

gauwonasworebloba saukeTeso daxasiaTebaa. meqmneba warmodgena, rom es is pirovnebaa, romelic gancxadebebs sakuTari ganwyobilebebidan

gamomdinare akeTebs... is, rom man moaxerxa aseTi saxis revoluciis moxdena, metyvelebs, rom udaod niWieri pirovnebaa Zalze specifiur sferoSi." (andrei babicki, rusi Jurnalisti, "mTavari gazeTi", 15.01.2004) · "saakaSvili gamoyenebiTi xasiaTis politikosia... saakaSvilSi marTlac aris bevri ram amerikuli tipis politikosisa _ maT Soris populizmis seriozuli dozac. politikur organizaciasTanac araklasikuri midgoma aqvs _ misi organizacia saarCevnod aqtiurobs da arasaarCevno periodSi minavlebulia. arCevnebis dros amotivtivebuli aqtivi saxelisuflo

struqturebSi midis, mere icxrileba _ vinc ar moswons, daundoblad iSorebs da Semdegi arCevnebisaTvis axali aqtivi Cndeba _ es amerikuli midgomaa." (ivliane xaindrava, politologi, "24 saaTi", 16.01.2004) · "saakaSvilma Camoyalibeba, SevardnaZis · jer kidev inauguraciamde ufro daiwyo sakuTari da ufro klanis vrceli.

klanis, klani

romelic

Sekrulia adamians

sul

samiode

aTeul

Tu

aerTianebda...

saqarTvelom marTlac imperatori airCia." ("axali Taoba", 19.01.2004) "jer ukurTxebeli prezidentis pirveli nabijebi sazogadoebaSi badebs eWvs da arcTu ise sasiamovno asociaciebs warsulTan... saakaSvili sagareo frontze TiTqmis iseTive gancxadebebs akeTebs, rogorc misi winamorbedi". ("axali versia", 19.01.2004) · "dasavleTi saqarTvelos ndobas ucxadebs... saqarTvelos xelisuflebis axali Taoba dasavleTis produqtia ganaTlebis, msoflmxedvelobisa da mentalitetis mxriv." ("rezonansi", 20.01.2004) · "davosSi, sabolood, mxolod saakaSvili Cavida, romlis mizani erTia _ msoflio sazogadoebaze axali efeqtis moxdena da axali ekonomikuri daxmarebebisa da investiciebis mozidva... Tu saakaSvili Sveicariidan inauguraciisaTvis xeldamSvenebuli axali Camova, proeqtebiTa es warmateba da SesaZlo mis investiciebiT damsaxurebad

mxolod

CaiTvleba da, Sesabamisad, misi reitingic erTi-orad gaizrdeba. es ki, 159

mixeil saakaSvilis "piarSCikebis" azriT, mis mesianur warmomavlobas kidev erTxel gausvams xazs." ("dilis gazeTi", 21.01.2004) · "jerjerobiT, Cven ar gadavsulvarT postrevoluciur fazaSi, rodesac unda Sewydes Zalis demonstrireba Seudges. da xelisufleba pirvel kanonier da samarTlebriv saqmianobas amisaTvis rigSi saWiroa,

mixeil saakaSvilma Tavi igrZnos ara gamarjvebuli xalxis liderad, aramed saqarTvelos prezidentad. man unda maT gaacnobieros, Soris aslan rom igi

sruliad ·

saqarTvelos

prezidentia.

abaSiZis

prezidentic aris da eduard SevardnaZisac." ("xvalindeli dRe", 21.01.2004) "jorj sorosi mzad aris, qarTvel Cinovnikebs xelfasebi gadauxados.

rogorc axali xelisufleba ambobs, es kargia da waadgeba saqarTvelos korufciis aRmofxvraSi... ratom ar surs axal xelisuflebas aRiaros, rom sorosis fulis gareSe isini ver aamuSavebdnen marTvad arasamTavrobo organizaciebs _ "Tavisuflebis instituts", "axalgazrda iuristTa asociacias" da "kmaras"; rom sorosis gareSeE ver moipovebdnen seriozul gavlenas sainformacio saSualebebze da verc revolucias moawyobdnen. ar jobia saqarTvelom axlave icodes, riTi unda

gadauxados soross "sikeTisaTvis"?" ("axali Taoba", 23.01.204) rogorc revoluciuri vxedavT, eiforiis yuradRebis centrSi mixeil saakaSvilia da, miuxedavad, presaSi sakmaod kritikuli

damokidebulebac igrZnoba mis mimarT. paralelebi Zvel xelisuflebasTan da aqcenti mixeil saakaSvilis erTpirovnuli mmarTvelobis safrTxeze, gazeT "alias" publikaciaSi ("eduardis nakvalevze") ufro Sors midis da aq ukve "diqtatura" da "faSizmic" xsendeba: "guSin telekompania "imedis" eTeriT saakaSvilma pirvelad aRiara, rom is aravisTan ar apirebs uflebebis gayofas: "aranairi uflebebis gayofa ar iqneba. ubralod, moxdeba raRac funqciebis delegireba. prezidentma xalxma unda me amirCia da man yvela Tavad umTavresi unda sakiTxi qveyanaSi ra aris iq

gadawyvitos.

gadawyvitos, ram ar

mniSvnelovani."

demokratiis

saxelmZRvaneloSi

aseTi

weria.

yvelaferi kanonis enaze xdeba. rogorc Cans Cveni axali prezidentic ar apirebs demokratiulad cxovrebas. aseTi fraza Tavis droze gamsaxurdiamac Tqva, misi reJimi "provinciul faSizmad" monaTles; SevardnaZes sityvebiT araferi uTqvams, sul xalxis saxeliT laparakobda, magram samagierod misi marTvis stili moinaTla diqtaturad da Camoagdes." ("alia", 10.01.2004) mixeil saakaSvilis saprezidento uflebamosilebis Taobaze msjelobisas politologi soso cincaZec iSveliebs paralelebs, oRondac gansxvavebul 160

konteqstSi:

"5

ianvridan,

faqtiurad,

saqarTveloSi

ZalaSi

Sedis

Zveli

amerikuli sakonstitucio principi _ xelisuflebis yovel gadawyvetilebaze erTpirovnulad pasuxs agebs prezidenti. am fuZemdeblur principze, rogorc Cans, sxva azri gaaCnda rogorc pirvel, aseve meore prezidents. gamsaxurdia acxadebda, rom is pasuxs ar agebda "axalgazrda energetikosTa kavSiris" qmedebaze da "karvis qalebze". avtomatur reJimSi ibanda xels SevardnaZe, rogorc ki Jurnalistebi mis uaxloes garemocvaze Camougdebdnen sityvas." ("rezonansi", 09.01.2004) Zveli romis, aSS-is, britaneTis istoriuli analogebis moSveliebiT, soso cincaZe anviTarebs mosazrebas, rom "mixeil saakaSvili rigiT arCevnebSi gamarjvebuli prezidenti ar aris, is triumfatoria am terminis sruli mniSvnelobiT." triumfatorebs ki Zalze mZime jvris zidva uxdebodaT da arcTu iSviaTad, sul martos. analitikos ia anTaZis mesijebi, rogorc wesi, mediaSi SemTxveviT ar Cndeba. amjerad "axal versiaSi" gamoqveynebuli (da radio "Tavisuflebis" eTeriT tradicia aqcentebze: o oTx dekembers ar mixeil aris saakaSvilma saprezidento saarCevno kampania Tavis iracionaluri aqcentebiT daiwyo; o saakaSvili pirveli qarTveli politikosi, romelic gadacemuli) qarTul publikaciis saTauri _ "iracionaluri migvaniSnebs aqcentebis mis mTavar

politikaSi"

ukve

TavisTavad

optimizms religiuri TariRebisa da politikuri movlenebis damTxvevas ukavSirebs. o maSin eduard SevardnaZis wnexi meore saprezidento gamoyenebuli vadac swored iracionaluri aqcentebiT da masTan dakavSirebuli imedebiT daiwyo; iracionaluri aSkarad iqna politikur

iaraRad, raTa ubralo adamians protestis gareSe, marTlac gardauval bediswerad mieRo qveyanaSi gamefebuli usamarTloba da ganukiTxaoba; Cven vnaxeT, riTi dasrulda xelisuflebisa da xalxis interesTa

realuri konfliqti; o logikuria, rom nebismieri xelisufali, romelic racionalur politikas iracionaluri aqcentebiT Caanacvlebs, damarcxdeba. o es gafrTxileba amjerad ekuTvnis mixeil saakaSvils, romlis momaval prezidentobasac saqarTvelos mosaxleoba cvlilebebis molodiniT da imediT xvdeba. (83) axal xelisuflebaze ufro konkretuli da sagnobrivi msjelobis (da kritikulisac!) sainformacio sababi presisaTvis gaxda sakadro politika. sakadro clilebebTan dakavSirebiT presaSi Cndeba bolSevizmis asociaciebi, 161

paralelebi xelisufleba

SevardnaZis am

sakadro

politikasTan, Zveli

Tvalsazrisi, memkvidrea.

rom

axali

mimarTulebiT

politikis

kadrebze

msjelobisas, bevrgan figurirebs Tvalsazrisi, rom es sakiTxi "nacionalebisa" da "demokratebis" dapirispirebis sababia; gvxvdeba mosazrebebic, rom kadrebis daniSvna naCqarevad xdeba, ar iyo aucilebeli mniSvnelovani sakadro iqmneba

cvlilebebis

ganxorcieleba

prezidentis

inauguraciamde;

STabeWdileba, rom gamarjvebuli Zalebi erTmaneTis daswrebas da sakuTari poziciebis gamyarebas da cdiloben; gamocdilebis, kadrebis aramed, SerCeva xdeba ara profesionalizmisa mixedviT da a.S. "mTavari rogorc gazeTi" wers, aseve rom "zurab Jvaniam da aqvT mixeil saakaSvilma... saSualeba." revoluciuri damsaxurebis

saxelmwifo Tanamdebobebi 50-50-ze gadainawiles. gadanawileba moxda ise, rom Jvanias, saakaSvils, urTierTkontrolis

("mTavari gazeTi", 16.01.2004) aqve vkiTxulobT _ "es periodi Zalze gvagonebs bolSevizmis pirvel etaps, roca yvelgan Tavisianebi gaamweses." "axali Taoba" iuwyeba, rom "nacionalebisa" da "demokratebis"

dapirispireba sakadro politikis garSemo SeiZleba kidev gamwvavdes. droebiTi mTavrobis mier warmoebuli sakadro politikiT ukmayofilo nacionalebma mixeil saakaSvils ultimatumic ki wauyenes. amjerad isini finansTa ministris zurab noRaidelis winaaRmdeg ilaSqreben... am dReebSi noRaidelTan

seriozuli uTanxmoeba mouvida Tavdacvis saministros erT-erT maRalCinosans... rogorc amboben, im maRalCinosans noRaidelisaTvis aseTi ram uTqvams: "Sen Jvanias davalebas asruleb da xelfasebs specialurad ar arigeb. da gindaT, rom xalxi saakaSvilis winaaRmdeg ganawyoTo." ("axali Taoba", 03.01.2004) "dilis gazeTi" mkveTrad akritikebs "nacionalebis" kadrebs, romlebic SemdgomSi xelisuflebis "Zalovan" sayrdenad iqcnen: "...prokuraturas

nacionalebSi yvelaze "uSiSari" irakli oqruaSvili daepatroneba. marTalia, moralze laparaki axla moduri ar aris, magram sakiTxavia, ramdenad aqvs mas generaluri prokuroris postis dakavebis ufleba maSin, roca mis mimarT orjer iyo saqme aRZruli: erTi _ ramdenime wlis winaT, roca is advokati iyo da meore _ axlaxan: winasaarCevno periodSi gorSi momxdari incidentis dros mas da erT nacionals yaCaRobaSi edebodaT brali... rac Seexeba meore ufro "saSiS kadrs" _ vano merabiSvils, jer erTi, igi iuristi ar aris, meorec, mas ara aqvs Sesabamisi gamocdileba... Cndeba kiTxva _ ris mixedviT arCevs axali xelisufleba kadrebs? ra Tqma unda, revoluciis organizebaSi Setanili

wvlilis mixedviT. vano merabiSvilis dawinaureba am CarCoebSic ar Tavsdeba, 162

radgan revoluciis dReebSi igi tribunaze arc gamoCenila. ase rom, sakadro qaosi grZeldeba." ("dilis gazeTi", 13.01.2004) vano merabiSvilis SesaZlo maRalCinosnoba "axali Taobis" gakvirvebasac iwvevs: "... erTma gadawyvetilebam politikuri speqtri, da ara marto is, srul SokSi Caagdo. axal mTavrobasTan daaxloebulma wyarom gaavrcela informacia, rom deputati vano merabiSvili axlo momavalSi uSiSroebis sabWos mdivani gaxdeba." ("axali Taoba", 14.01.2004) irakli oqruaSvilis mosalodnel zeobaze "mTavari gazeTic" amaxvilebs yuradRebas: "oqruaSvili prokuraturaSi saakaSviliseul reformebs ganaxorcielebs, romlis mixedviTac prokuraturas funqciebi gaezrdeba da is yvela Zalovanze "zeorganos" funqcias Seasrulebs"; "sazogadoebaSi miTqmamoTqmaa, "oqruaSvili Tu nebaze miuSves, naxevari saqarTvelo cixeSi aRmoCndebao." ("mTavari gazeTi", 16.01.2004; 17.01.2004) "axali Toba" aqcents akeTebs kadrebis gamoucdelobasa da umwifrobaze: "ekonomikis ministrma ekonomika ar icis"... 28 wlis irakli rexviaSvils,

romelsac 14 welia saqarTveloSi ar ucxovria, imis gamo, rom sorosTan muSaobda, gadasces"; SeiZleba Tbilisis "iusticiis aRmoCndes aeroportSi saministro CamosvlisTanave saukeTeso sabavSvo ministris erT-erT portfeli rogori sakvanZo

magaliTia imisa, Tu gundi.

araprofesionalTa

Tanamdebobaze iusticiis ministrma zurab adeiSvilma 21 wlis biWi daniSna. es biWi, aseve, nacionaluri moZraobis aqtivistia... mesame prezidentma kidev ufro dawia asakobrivi cenzi da lamis ufrosklaselebs Caabaros xelisufleba." ("axali Taoba", 18.01.2004; 19.01.2004) "saqarTveloSi axali daniSvnebis mTavari tendencia isaa, rom parlamenti ministrobis kandidatebisagan ar iTxovs programebs, sadac mkafiod iqneba Camoyalibebuli, rogor unda gardaiqmnas esa Tu is uwyeba... rCeba

STabeWdileba, rom axali xelisufleba sakuTari TavisaTvis maRali xarisxis garantiebs iTxovs, xalxisTvis ki dabali xarisxis garantiebsac sjerdeba. "vardebis revolucias" aseTi gagrZeleba namdvilad ar ekadreba", _ askvnis gazeTi "axali versia" sakadro politikaze msjelobisas. ("axali · versia",

26.01.2004) "triumvirati"

"triumvirati", "troika", "trio" _ ase moixsenieba mediaSi revoluciis gamarjvebuli sameuli. 23 noembris Semdgom dReebSi presa did yuradRebas uTmobs nino burjanaZis, zurab Jvaniasa da mixeil saakaSvilis 163

urTierTmimarTebis, maT Soris ZalTa Tanafardobis, politikur ZalTa axal da momaval ganlagebaSi TiToeuli maTganis funqciisa da potenciis Taobaze mosazrebebisa da versiebis ganviTarebas. mixeil saakaSvili _ prezidenti, zurab Jvania _ premier-ministri, nino burjanaZe _ parlamentis Tavmjdomare. funqciebis amgvar ganawilebas presa revoluciamde gacilebiT adre varaudobda; am sqemis ganxorcielebis realuri perspeqtivis gaCenis Semdgom ki ZiriTadi aqcenti gadadis maTi

SesaZleblobebis

Sefasebaze.

gamovyofT

ramdenime

tipiur

Sefasebas,

erTmaneTisagan diametralurad gansxvavebul mosazrebas da im Tvalsazrisebs, romelic, Cveni azriT, sayuradRebo mesijebs Seicavs. fsiqologi, akademikosi SoTa nadiraSvili ase afasebs zogadad lideris faqtors da, konkretulad, samive politikur personas: "sazogadoebrivi azri zogjer aracnobierad yalibdeba da saWiroa, rom politikurma liderebma zogjer Tavad Seqmnan da gamoxaton is azri, rac sazogadoebas gaaCnia... Tu vinmem amis gakeTeba SeZlo, xalxi mas liderad da gmirad Tvlis. nebisyofis TvalsazrisiT, saakaSvili saocrad Zlieri pirovnebaa da aRmoCnda, rom inteleqtualuric aris... saakaSvils gverds umSvenebs Jvania, romelic Zalian gamocdili politikosia. Tu man kargi mizani daisaxa, bevri kargis gakeTeba SeuZlia. qalis gamoCena ki saswauli iyo. nino burjanaZeETavisi kacuri

inteleqtiTa da nebisyofiT simpaTiebs imsaxurebs da rogorc qali _ gavlenas axdens. mere gaCnda asociaciebi Tamar mefesTan, tetCerTan _ es yvelaferi xels uwyobda mis portrets. oponentebma masTan sabrZolvelad araswori meTodebi airCies _ rom is sxva wridan aris da a.S. susti argumentebi ki mowinaaRmdeges aZlierebs... swored qalma gaanela yovelTvis Jvaniasa Canda, amas da rom saakaSvilis burjanaZeE faruli saakaSvils es mtroba rols

prezidentobisTvis. dauTmobda, radgan

saakaSvili

imsaxurebda.

erTmaneTisadmi

pativiscemas niSnavs." ("24 saaTi", 28.11.2003) fsiqolog nodar sarjvelaZis mosazrebiT, "samive udavod saintereso figuraa... maT didi pasuxismgebloba aqvT da didi istoriuli roli SeuZliaT Seasrulon. samive SevardnaZis mowafea? arian da arc arian. saakaSvilma, Tundac SevardnaZis Cais daleviT, kargad gaSifra, misi adgilis dakaveba rom surda. bunebrivia, am TvalsazrisiT is SevardnaZis mowafea, Tumca, ufro TviTmyofadi. 164

Jvania

aSkarad

yvelaze

niWieri

moswavlea.

is

kargad

gamoiwvrTna,

yvelaze ukeT SeiTvisa SevardnaZis nabijebi. Jvania namdvili politikosia, SevardnaZis msgavsad, politikuri intrigebis specialisti. SemTxveviTi ar aris, parlamentSi saakaSvili rom Sevida da ara Jvania. rac Seexeba burjanaZes, man seriozuli principuloba gamoiCina bolo dros. unda vaRiaro, rom es sameuli dRevandel politikur speqtrSi yvelas sjobs." ("mTavari gazeTi", 05.12.2003) "jorjian Taimsi" saakaSvils, Jvaniasa da burjanaZes "xelisuflebaSi ZaliT, agresiiTa da amerikul-rusul-somxuri politikuri kapitaliT mosul politikur tyupebsa" da "ocdameerTe saukunis orjonikiZeebs" uwodebs da maT mniSvnelobas saTaveSi aseTi dgas, TanmimdevrobiT Semdeg modis alagebs: "politikuri bolos, cxvris faris Jvania burjanaZe da, xelisuflebis

Zaladobrivi damxobis realuri avtori mixeil saakaSvili." ("jorjian Taimsi", 27.11.2003) presis publikaciebSi, pirdapir Tu miniSnebiT, figurirebs Tvalsazrisi, rom liderebis pirovnuli brZola, ambicia muxtis SesaZloa, (aq, umTavresad, iqces Jvania-saakaSvils da Zalauflebis Zalis

gulisxmoben)

feTqebadsaSiSi

matarebelia

gadanawilebisaTvis

gamarjvebuli

ganxeTqilebis faqtorad. amasTan, presaSi yuradReba maxvildeba liderebis pasuxismgeblobisa da politikuri Segnebis faqtorze, romelmac unda

gaaneitralos es safrTxe: "bevri eloda, rom revoluciis mogebis Semdeg opoziciis erTianobas safrTxe daemuqreboda, liderebs pirovnul ambiciebze maRla dgoma

gauWirdebodaT. magram, rogorc aRmoCnda, opoziciam am meore gamocdasac gauZlo da funqciebis ganawileba umtkivneulod moxerexda _ yovel

SemTxvevaSi, garegnulad mainc. is, rom opoziciam am SemTxvevaSic SeinarCuna erTianoba, miuTiTebs ufro imaze, gaizardnen rom da, liderebi, jerjerobiT politikuri mainc, simwifis im

TvalsazrisiT,

acnobiereben

pasuxismgeblobas, romelic xalxis winaSe aiRes." ("24 saaTi", 27.11.2003) saprezidento arCevnebis Semdeg nino burjanaZeEerTgvarad mediis

CrdilSi moeqca, miuxedavad imisa, rom inauguraciamde igi kvlav asrulebda prezidentis movaleobas. pirveli "ceremoniuli triumfis" Semdeg, marTalia igi kvlav xvdeba Zalian bevr maRali rangis ucxoel stumars da es Sexvedrebi aisaxeba presaSi (gansakuTrebiT, "saqarTvelos respublikaSi"), magram misi

personis mimarT interesi aSkarad Senelda. sociologiuri samsaxuris "ai-fi165

emis" xelmZRvaneli goCa cqitiSvili aRniSnavs, rom arCevnebis wina periodTan SedarebiT, burjanaZis reitingma daiwia. ("alia", 20.01.2004). yuradRebas iqcevs isic, rom mixeil saakaSvili nino burjanaZes xazgasmuli familiarobiTa da TiTqos agdebiTac moixseniebs _ "nino moplakunebda!" ("vardebis revoluciis" dRes), "nino kargi gogoa" da a.S.) nino burjanaZis personaze kvlav amaxvilebs yuradRebas ucxouri media (gansakuTrebiT, rusuli) da, Sesabamisad, es momenti qarTul presaSic aisaxeba. ruseTis televiziam ( daasaxela; ) nino burjanaZe 2003 wlis mTavar adamianTa Soris mas "rkinis ninos" uwodebeno _ aRniSna

saqarTveloSi

sainformacio programis wamyvanma (Tumc, es termini 23 noembris Semdgom qarTul presaSi swored rusuli mediis masalebiT momzadebul publikaciebSi figurirebs, _ l.k.) da paraleli Tamar mefesTan gaavlo. ("kviris palitra", 05.01.2004) "mTavari gazeTisaTvis" micemul interviuSi, cnobili rusi

Jurnalisti andrei babicki, nino burjanaZes revolucionerTa Soris yvelaze gawonasworebul politikoss uwodebs da aRniSnavs, rom es evropuli donis politikosis Tvisebaa. ("mTavari gazeTi", 15.01.2004) 72 dRiani cotaxniT isev saprezidento aRmoCnda misiis dasrulebis yuradRebis sababiT nino centrSi. burjanaZe

mediis

gansakuTrebul

yuradRebas misi personisadmi amjeradac (da saerTodac!) "mTavari gazeTi" iCens; magaliTad, gazeTis 17 ianvris nomris mTavari Tema nino burjanaZis

personaa. misdami miZRvnil ramdenime publikaciaSi aseTi aqcentebi ikveTeba: nino burjanaZe erTaderTi qalia, romelmac mtkiced daimkvidra adgili qarTul gulRiad politikaSi; iRebdnen. da sazRvargareT, pirovnul simpaTiuri maT Soris mis imijic ruseTSic, mimarT mas yovelTvis faqtors, burjanaZes

Rirsebebs, qalis

ndobis

ganaTlebuli

emateboda;

xelisuflebaSi SevardnaZis memkvidredac ganixilavdnen; burjanaZis imijma mosaxleobaSi warmateba moutana zurab Jvanias gunds; vardebis revoluciis dros, sakuTari kavSirebiT statusiT, ucxoeTsa burjanaZe Tu qveynis SigniT, parlamentis exmareboda Tavmjdomaris mniSvnelovnad

revolucionerebs; 23 noembers burjanaZes qveynisa da procesebis marTvaze pasuxismgeblobis SeiZleba iTqvas, aReba mouwia; legitimaciis ukmarisobis viTarebaSi man, TanamoazreebTan erTad, Tavi gaarTva problemebis met-naklebad mogvarebas da, gamocda misi Caabara; erT-erTi politikosTa realuri prognoziT, Semcvleli prezident saakaSvilis

SevardnaZis

epoqaSi

mmarTvelobis drosac darCeba prezidentobis potenciur kandidatad. ("mTavari gazeTi", 17.01.2004) 166

"saqarTvelom da

msofliomac,

qalbatoni

nino,

rogorc

prezidenti,

miiRo da moiwona kidec. sazRvargareT mas "qarTveli rkinis ledic" uwodes", _ aRniSnavs "dilis gazeTi". amave publikaciaSi gvxvdeba "sarwmuno wyaros" informacia, rom nino burjanaZeEseriozulad emzadeba (dRes Tu ara, xval mainc) Tavisi gundis Sesaqmnelad. ("dilis gazeTi", 20.01.2004) "politikur samaias" Soris arsebuli daZabulobisa da momavali

dapirispirebis Tema presaSi, ZiriTadad, saakaSvili-Jvanias urTierTmimarTebis fonze viTardeba, magram aqa-iq personalurad burjanaZec xsendeba; "jorjian Taimsi" wers, rom saakaSvilis samomavlo mizani iqneba Tavidan moicilos "intrigebSi gawrTvnili Jvania da burjanaZe." ("jorjian Taimsi", 08.01.2004) saxelisuflo liderTa revoluciuri sameulis mesame wevris _ zurab Jvanias persona postrevoluciuri periodis presaSi uSualod aris dakavSirebuli sakadro politikis, mosalodneli sakonstitucio cvlilebebis, anu, premier-ministris postis SemoRebis, aseve, politikur sameuls Soris mosalodneli uTanxmoebisa da Zalauflebis ganawilebis TemebTan. aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom "vardebis revoluciis" momdevno TveebSi, iseve rogorc nino burjanaZis, zurab Jvanias personis mimarTac interesi presaSi sagrZnoblad Senelda (Tu ar CavTvliT gazeT "jorjian Taimss", romelic farTod anSlagirebul skandalur publikaciebs uZRvnis Jvanias personas). zurab Jvanias popularobis klebas politologi ivliane xaindrava ase xsnis: Jvaniasadmi ndobis xarisxi politikur da arasamTavrobo wreebSi daeca da isini amaSi damnaSave ar arian _ iyo dro, roca am wreebSi Jvanias didi mxardaWera hqonda, magram man, garkveulwilad, ver gaamarTla; 1995 wlis meore naxevari da momdevno ori weli pozitiuri dinamikis lideri wlebi Jvania iyo; iyo, maSin misi

axalgazrda

reformatorad

wodebuli

jgufis

xelmZRvanelobiT parlamenti nayofierad muSaobda; aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebisaTvis gadamwyveti

magram man ver SeZlo gamarTva _ Tu

brZolis

moigebdnen, xom kargi, Tu arada, wagebis SemTxvevaSi maTi saxiT progresuli Zalebis konsolidaciis centri Seiqmneboda; Jvaniam SevardnaZis orbitaze moZraoba arCia; man, arsebiTad, im periodSi daiwyo moednis mosufTaveba

imisaTvis, rom 2005 wels prezidentobis ualternativo kandidati yofiliyo; es misi strategiuli mniSvnelovan ganTavsebaze Jvanias ufro Secdoma iyo; man dakarga ndobac da politikuri kadrebis rom tipis 167 mokavSireebic. ("24 saaTi", 16.01.2004) saxelisuflo presaSi, postebze erTis Jvania-saakaSvilis gvxvdeba mxriv,

msjelobisas didi

mxriv,

mosazreba, aris am

sakadro

resursi

aqvs;

meores

Tvalsazrisic _ revoluciis mTeli simZime "nacionalebma" aiRes Tavis Tavze, dabali reitingis Jvania ki qveynis meore piri xdeba da Tavisi kadrebiT akompleqtebs xelisuflebas. rogorc aRvniSneT, zurab Jvania "jorjian Taimsis" sagangebo yuradRebis obieqtia, oRondac, skandalur konteqstSi; Jvania figurirebs, rogorc "zviad gamsaxurdias xelisuflebis damxobis aqtiuri monawile, romlis mier umZimesi danaSaulis Cadenis faqts mowmeebi adastureben"; rogorc baqo-jeihanis

proeqtis faruli da aqtiuri mowinaaRmdege, mezobeli qveynis interesebis sasargeblod. ("jorjian Taimsi", 08,15,22.2004) saxalxo frontis Tavmjdomare nodar naTaZeEzurab Jvanias korufciuli qmedebebis Tanamonawiled da Tanaorganizatorad miiCnevs da darwmunebulia, rom amis gamo daixureba korufciasTan dakavSirebuli yvela realuri saqme, romelic prokuraturaSi Seva. ("axali Taoba", 20.01.2004) ·

aWaris movlenebi _ "vardebis revoluciis" logikuri gagrZeleba

"vardebis revoluciis" Sedegebis Sefasebisas, revoluciis wlisTavze da Semdgomac, axali xelisuflebis mTavar warmatebad miiCneva aWaris faqtobrivi dabruneba saqarTvelos konstituciur sivrceSi. Cveni azriT, amas gacilebiT ufro mniSvnelovani Sedegi mohyva _ aWaris dabruneba ara mxolod konstituciur, aramed erTiani saxelmwifo cnobierebis velSi. axla, roca 2008 wlis agvistos movlenebis Semdeg afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT daSorda oseTis dabruneba vidre saqarTvelos es Tundac saxelmwifoebriv "vardebis sivrceSi ufro

realobas,

revoluciis"

Semdgomi

perspeqtiviT isaxeboda, aWaraSi ganviTarebuli procesebis mediaretrospeqtiva da analizi ufro sayuradRebo xdeba. miT ufro, rom am Temis asaxva presaSi, jerjerobiT, araa Seswavlili da gaanalizebuli. Tanac, droismieri

distancirebis Semdeg ise moCans, TiTqos yvelaferi erTi xelis dakvriT mogvarda. presaSi asaxuli viTareba ki gviCvenebs, rom es procesi rTuli saSinao da sagareo peripetiebis TanxlebiT mimdinareobda. amdenad, saWirod CavTvaleT ufro vrclad warmogvedgina aWaraSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis mediasuraTi. "vardebis revoluciis" dReebSive da revoluciis Semdgom, aWaris Tema isev gaxda is "mTavari tradiciiT, safrTxobela", xelisufleba da movlenaTa romelsac simZimis qarTul centridan politikaSi rTul yuradRebis 168 damkvidrebuli situaciebSi momgebianad iyenebda

manipulirebisa

"sxvagan" gadatanisaTvis. centrsa da regions Soris bunebrivad arsebuli problemebis gamwvaveba orive mxarisTvis xelsayrel situacias qmnida saTanado sazogadoebrivi azris Sesaqmnelad. "aWaris avtonomias xandaxan da ki centralur metad mwvave xelisuflebas urTierToba Soris qarTuli

winaaRmdegobrivi,

saxelmwifoebriobisa da demokratiis erT-erTi mwvave problemaa, _ wers daviT darCiaSvili

saeqsperto

narkvevSi

"saqarTvelos

_ l.k.),

dedaqalaqi _ es

da

regionebi"

(naSromi

Sesrulebulia saqarTveloSi demokratiuli mSeneblobis ZiriTadi tendenciebis Semajamebeli proeqtis farglebSi,

winaaRmdegobebi

separatizmis

kvalifikacias namdvilad ar imsaxurebs. saamisod mas mTavari komponenti _ nacionalizmi aklia. dapirispireba mmarTveli elitebis donezea, mas ar axlavs sazogadoebis mobilizacia eTnikuri an konfesiuri ideebis doneze. magram isic aSkaraa, rom aWara ar erideba saqarTvelos konstituciasTan

winaaRmdegobaSi Sesvlas." (16, 18) miuxedavad imisa, rom aWarasTan mimarTebaSi presaSi gvxvdeboda termini _ "separatistuli regioni" an _ "aWaruli separatizmi", bunebrivia, igi ar iyo afxazuri da osuri separatizmis tolfasi viTarebis gamomxatveli. Tumc, samive am regionis xelisuflebas aerTianebda ruseTTan mimarTebis faqtori. rogorc daviT darCiaSvilic aRniSnavs zemoT damowmebul naSromSi, "aWaris avtonomiis lideri xazgasmiT ruseTis erTgulia, riTac aSkarad

upirispirdeba Tbilisis prodasavlur kurss." (16, 81) aWaris Temis dominireba presaSi ar Semoifargleba mxolod operatiuli sainformacio sababebiTa da arsebuli viTarebis analiziT; publikaciebSi

ikveTeba bolo wlebSi centrsa da regions Soris urTierTobis Camoyalibebis procesi da Sedegad miRebuli modeli, zviad romelic fons qmnis da mis aWaraSi mierve

ganviTarebuli movlenebis logikuri axsnisTvis: pirveli konfliqti prezident gamsaxurdiasa

daniSnul aslan abaSiZes Soris 1991 wlisTvis warmoiqmna. maSin xelisufleba Tbilissa da baTumSi erTnairad myife iyo da rom ara 1991-1992 wlebis

cnobili movlenebi, SesaZloa, abaSiZis mmarTvelobas seriozuli problemebi Seqmnoda; 1992-1995 wlebSi afxazeTSi damarcxebul da dasavleT saqarTveloSi gamsaxurdias momxreebTan mebrZol xelisuflebas abaSiZisTvis aRar ecala da swored am periodSi moipova man absoluturi Zalaufleba aWaraSi; saqarTvelos Zveli xelisufleba, iseve rogorc axlandeli,

dainteresebuli iyo gaekontrolebina baTumis porti da sarfis sabaJo, anu 169

abaSiZis zewolis

xelisuflebisa formebs

da

siZlieris

mTavari

sayrdeni.

amisTvis miniWeba

iribi foTis

mimarTes

(magaliTad,

prioritetis

portisTvis), magram amgvar formebs aWaris xelisufleba maincadamainc ar dauzaralebia; amitomac, Tbilissa da baTums Soris urTierTobam politikuri TamaSis saxe miiRo; prezidenti SevardnaZe jer abaSiZis xelisuflebas da "aRorZinebas" abalansebda "moqkavSireli" reformatorebiT, Semdgom ukve

"aRorZinebiT" abalansebda opoziciaSi gadasul Tanagundelebs; "vardebis revoluciisas" abaSiZis "desantma" ver gadaarCina centraluri xelisufleba, samagierod, amgvarma aqtiurobam da aWaraSi arsebuli viTarebis SenarCunebis amocanam gaaRrmava konfliqti centrsa da regions Soris; ufro metic, faqtobrivad, man miiRo saxelmwifos ganviTarebis or SesaZlo

mimarTulebas Soris msoflmxedvelobrivi konfliqtis xasiaTi. "Coloqis incidentma saxeli daarqva wlebis manZilze Camoyalibebul problemas da naTelyo, rom "SeuZlebelia adamianebi cxovrobdnen erT

saxelmwifoSi da erTdroulad ori sxvadasxva sistemis pirobebSi". ("24 saaTi", 19.03.2004) aWara erTgvari testi gaxda, romelmac gamoamJRvna: saqarTvelos axali xelisuflebis sazogadoebis Zlieri da susti da mxareebi, rogorc sagareo, ise saSinao faqtori. frontze; faruli da afiSirebuli Sida brZolebi Tu sagareo konfrontacia; erTsulovnebisa saerTaSoriso mxardaWeris

SevecdebiT Tanmimdevrulad ganvixiloT aWarasTan dakavSirebuli da aWaraSi ganviTarebuli procesebi. pirvel rigSi, SevexebiT orive mxaris _ centrisa da regionis, ufro konkretulad, mixeil saakaSvilisa da aslan abaSiZis pozicias, motivacias, urTierTmimarTebas. aslan abaSiZis damokidebuleba "vardebis revoluciis", eduard

SevardnaZisa da axali xelisuflebis mimarT presis publikaciebSi zogadad ase yalibdeba: aSS-m eduard SevardnaZeEaiZula moiyvana; gadamdgariyo saqarTveloSi da saqarTvelos aSS-is

xelisuflebaSi

"demokratebi"

ruseTisa da

interesebi erTmaneTs Seejaxa; amaSi SevardnaZea damnaSave, radgan mas rom erTi politikuri xazi gaetarebina, Tavis adgilze darCeboda; saqarTvelos yofili prezidentis aTwlianma TamaSma qveyana savalalo Sedegebamde miiyvana; saqarTvelos mosaxleoba male gamofxizldeba; es axali reJimi ufro swrafad da uaresad dasruldeba, vidre wina.

170

amasTan, presaSi Cndeba "mesiji aWaridan" _ rom aslan abaSiZisaTvis axali xelisuflebidan yvelaze kompromisuli varianti zurab JvaniasTan molaparakebaa, mixeil saakaSvilis "politikuri ena" ki "aRorZinebas" ar esmis. jer kidev saprezidento arCevnebis wina dReebSi mixeil saakaSvilma mkafiod gamoxata Tavisi pozicia aWaris mimarT: me ar davuSveb, rom

saqarTveloSi iyos ori mTavarsardali; me mzad var wavide daTmobaze, magram daTmoba ar moxdeba saxelmwifoebriobis xarjze. ("axali Taoba", 03.01.2004); xolo safrangeTSi vizitad myofi mixeil saakaSvilis gancxadeba (qarTul diasporiasTan Sexvedrisas) imis Taobaze, rom igi ver moiTmens "feodalebis ukmayofilo burtyuns" da aWaraSi sruli kontrolis damyarebas apirebs

(xvalindeli dRe, 10.03.2004), mkafio "mesiji" iyo ara mxolod aslan abaSiZisa da aWarisaTvis, aramed, afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT oseTis separatistuli xelisuflebisTvisac. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdgom aslan abaSiZis dauyovnebliv vizits ruseTSi da mis gasaidumloebul Sexvedrebs afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT oseTis separatistul xelmZRvanelobasTan, mediaSi ZiriTadad orgvari tipis

gamoxmaureba mohyva: erTi _ rom es aris ruseTis Sorsgamiznuli scenaris nawili _ saqarTvelodan aWaris CamoSorebis mcdeloba da, saboloo jamSi, saqarTvelos danawevreba; meore _ ruseTis faqtors aslan abaSiZe iyenebsE"savaWro Temad", rom da centrisa da avtonomiis SigniTac Seqmnas Sesabamisi ganwyoba mosaxleobis winaSec moaxdinos Tavisi

saqarTvelos

SesaZleblobebis demonstrireba. am vizits maSinve mohyva pirveli Sedegi _ 2004 wlis 9 dekembers, ruseTis federaciam aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis mcxovrebTaTvis calmxrivi gadawyvetilebiT aamoqmeda savizo mimosvlis

gamartivebuli reJimi. "vardebis revoluciis" Semdeg, pirvel rigSi, gamoikveTa konkretuli problema _ momaval saprezidento da saparlamento arCevnebTan aWaris

mimarTeba. presaSi ikveTeba mosazreba, rom Tu arCevnebSi aWara monawileobas ar miiRebs, maSin arCevnebi kanongareSea. aslan abaSiZem scada arCevnebis Tema maqsimalurad gamoeyenebina manipulirebisa da manevrirebisTvis. erTis mxriv, igi acxadebda, rom axal xelisuflebas legitimurad ar Tvlis da maT ar eqvemdebareba; meores mxriv, presis versiiT, abaSiZe satelefono saubarSi Jvanias gaurigda, im rom aWaris mosaxleoba miiRebs, Tu saprezidento saparlamento arCevnebSi arCevnebi monawileobas SemTxvevaSi

gazafxulisTvis gadaideba. mogvianebiT, heidar alievis dakrZalvaze baqoSi myofma aslan abaSiZem ganacxada, rom boikots ucxadebs arCevnebs. ukanasknel 171

wuTebSi igi erTgvar demonstraciul kompromisze wavida, roca saprezidento arCevnebis boikotireba gadaifiqra da saarCevno ubanze gamocxadda. ramdenime dRis Semdeg moskovSi aslan abaSiZis morigi viziti presaSi Sefasda, rogorc sakuTari xelisuflebis gadarCenis mcdeloba. ruseTis

dedaqalaqidan gacxadebuli abaSiZis pozicia ufro mkveTri da Tamami iyo: misi gancxadebiT, saqarTvelos axali xelisufleba cdilobs socialur-

ekonomikuri problemebidan xalxis yuradRebis gadatanas aWaris regionze. aslan abaSiZe Seqmnil situacias 1992 wlis identurs uwodebs. sagulisxmoa misi miniSneba yarsis xelSekrulebaze, "romlis Tanaxmadac, saqarTvelosa da aWaras Soris arsebuli yvela winaaRmdegoba aWaris parlamentis

gadawyvetilebis Tanaxmad unda mogvardes." ("mTavari gazeTi", 16.01.2004) amasTan, presis varaudiT, aslan abaSiZe angariSs uwevs im faqtors, rom misi yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi, saqarTvelos xelisuflebis garda, moskovsa da vaSingtons Soris konsultaciebzecaa damokidebuli; amitom igi ukan dasaxev gzasac itovebs da acxadebs, rom aWara aucileblad miiRebs monawileobas 28 martis arCevnebSi, vinaidan aWara saqarTvelos ganuyofeli nawilia. presaSi, aseve, vxvdebiT mosazrebas, rom aslan abaSiZem alRo auRo jer SevardnaZis, Semdeg saakaSvilis mmarTvelobas; igi aravis gulisTvis ar apirebs centrTan urTierTobis gafuWebas _ akaki CxaiZesac Tmobs da levan mamalaZesac. ("alia", 17.01.2004) paralelurad, presis publikaciebSi (saTaurebSic!) Cndeba miniSneba

aWaraSi revoluciuri suliskveTebis gaCenisa da "revoluciaSi gadazrdis" safrTxeze: "aWaraSi minirevolucia mwifdeba", "aWaraSi erTi wiTeli vardi ukve Segdebulia", "vardebis revoluciis eqsporti baTumSi", "baTumis

universitetis kedlebze warwera _ "kmara" gaCnda" da a.S.

presaSi gaCnda

publikaciebi, romlebSic aWaris warmomadgenlebi (ZiriTadad, erTi da igive pirovnebebi) gmoben aslan abaSiZis qmedebebs. amgvar ganwyobas inteligenciis saxeliT axmovaneben aWaris universitetis profesorebi mixeil maxaraZe da nugzar mgelaZe. mixeil maxaraZe: "aWaris mosaxleoba Zalian saRad azrovnebs, isini ar CaerTvnen ZmaTamkvlel azris omSi, romliskenac abaSiZe ubiZgebda, maT eSiniaT

Tavisufali

gamoxatvis...

abaSiZeExelisuflebis

SesanarCuneblad

sisxlisRvrasac ar moerideba." ("axali Taoba", 13.12.2003) nugzar mgelaZe: "...misi es nabijebi Cveni kuTxis gankerZoebisaken mimavali gegmis nawilia... marTalia, xalxi aq xmas ar iRebs, magram vici, rom

sazogadoebis didi nawili am politikur svlebs, romelsac "aRorZineba" 172

axorcielebs, mxars ar uWers... im gzas, romelzedac abaSiZe axla saubrobs, SeuZlebelia qarTuli cnobierebis adamianma mxari dauWiros." ("axali versia", 15.12.2003) 2004 wlis saprezidento arCevnebis Semdeg aWaraSi ufro mosalodneli gaZlierda:

revoluciuri

cvlilebebis

aqcenti

presaSi

kidev

"saqarTvelos axali xelisuflebis mTavari politikuri "Setyobineba" ukve ase JRers _ "kmara aslan abaSiZis parpaSi!" ("mTavari gazeTi", 08.01.2004); "aWaris soflebSi xelisuflebaze SetevisTvis emzadebian" ("dilis gazeTi", 13.01.204); "abaSiZe da misi reJimi atavizmia" ("24 saaTi", 16.01.2004); "yinuli daiZra" da aWaraSi opoziciuri sociumi amoZravda" ("dilis gazeTi", 16.01.204); "revolucia dinjad, magram saocrad droulad miiwevs aWarisaken." ("xvalindeli dRe", 22.01.2004) aWaris Taobaze politologebis, politikosebis, fsiqologebis da a.S mosazrebebSi gvxvdeba am Temisadmi frTxili damokidebuleba: rom, SesaZloa, aWaraSi "kmaras" gaaqtiureba naadrevi iyos, iq jer amisaTvis niadagi ar aris Semzadebuli; rom "vardebis revolucia", Tbilisisagan gansxvavebiT, aWaraSi ufro dramatulad ganviTardeba; rom axal xelisuflebas aWariT ar unda daewyo, radgan amas gamoZaxili mohyveba soxumSi; aWaris problema afxazeTis problemis Semdeg unda mogvardes. saprezidento arCevnebis Semdeg presam ukve aslan abaSiZis SesaZlo Semcvlelze daiwyo msjeloba. presaSi gaCnda mesijebi: "aWarulma sakiTxma" "nacionalebsa" da "demokratebs" Soris arsebuli bzari gamoaCina"; "Jvaniasa da saakaSvilis gundebs Soris, aWaris lideris savarZlis sababiT, skandali mwifdeba"; "Jvania surmaniZes abaSiZis adgilisTvis amzadebs" da a.S. "aWaraSi sazogadoeba ukve samad aris gaxleCili _ aslan abaSiZis, daviT

berZeniSvilisa da edvard surmaniZis mxardamWerebi", _ wers "xvalindeli dRe" ("xvalindeli dRe", 27.01.2004) ufro zusti iqneba Tu vityviT, rom _ oTxad, vinaidan edvard surmaniZis xelmZRvanelobiT mier Camoyalibebuli "nacionalebis" axali

organizacia "demokratiuli aWara" (zurab Jvanias TanadgomiT), faqtobrivad, daupirispirda revoluciuri xelisuflebis rezerviT

Seqmnil moZraobas _ "Cveni aWara", romelic mxars uWerda aWaris SesaZlo lideris kidev erT kandidats, foTis portis xelmZRvanels, jemal inaSvils. gacilebiT ufro faruli da saxifaTo dapirispireba gamoamJRavna e.w. "Coloqis incidentma"; rogorc "alia" aRniSnavda, "Coloqi simbolurad

amerika-ruseTis samxedro dapirispirebis poligoni" gaxda. ("alia", 18.03.2004). presis publikaciebis mixedviT, es fraza ar aris mxolod Jurnalisturi 173

ganwyoba da arc aWara iyo mxolod simboluri poligoni. ColoqTan Seqmnili eqstremaluri situacia (specrazmTan erTad aWarisken mimaval saqarTvelos prezidents aWaris sazRvarTan, ColoqTan, Caxergili gza da abaSiZis

SeiaraRebuli momxreebi gadaeRobnen), erTis mxriv, mosalodnelic iyo, magram, meore mxriv, erTgvarad daCqarebuli, fataluri Sedegis didi albaTobiT. presaSi bunebrivad gaCnda kiTxvebi: xom ar iyo es seriozuli

SeTqmuleba mixeil saakaSvilis winaaRmdeg; prezidentis CixSi Seyvanis, qveynis SigniT Tu gareT misi diskreditaciis mcdeloba; vin urCia prezidents aWaraze forsirebuli Seteva; aWaris ekonomikuri blokada (anu TviTblokada) xom ar iyo provocirebuli trasekas proeqtisa da saqarTvelos politikuri

imijisTvis safrTxis Sesaqmnelad. am kiTxvebze pasuxebis gacemas isev presa cdilobs. ikveTeba ramdenime mosazreba: prezidenti SecdomaSi Seiyvanes araswori informaciebiT; bokeria da berZeniSvilebi saakaSvils aWaraze Setevas urCevdnen; prezidentis aCqareba, SesaZloa, koba xabazsac emyarebodes, romelic msubuqad warmoudgenda mas baTumSi arsebul viTarebas" (dilis gazeTi, 16,17.03.2004; axali Taoba, 18.03.2004); "vin daexmara prezidents Tavi gaeSarJebina msoflio sazogadoebriobis

TvalSi _ sakuTari qmedebebi Tu premier-ministri, romelic iSviaTad Tua saakaSvilis politikis bolomde gamtarebeli." ("jorjian Taimsi", 18.03.2004); "erT-erTi versiiT, saakaSvilis politikuri gabiTurebis gegma unda

SeemuSavebina misive TanamebrZol zurab Jvanias, romelic abaSiZesTan ufro axloa, vidre saakaSvili." ("axali Taoba", 18.03.2004) "jorjian Taimsi" yuradRebas amaxvilebs saakaSvilis frazaze _ "gadawyvetileba gvian Rame miviRe"; aviTarebs versias, rom, SesaZloa, baTumis da saakaSvilis moqmedeba erTidaigive pirvelwyarodan iyo inicirebuli da askvnis, rom "msgavsi sainformacio operaciis Catareba da kvalis dafarva SesaZlebelia mxolod saxelmwifo struqturebSi seriozuli poziciebis

flobis SemTxvevaSi." ("jorjian Taimsi", 25.03.2004) im seriozul safrTxeze, rac SeiZleba ColoqTan warmoSobil situacias mohyoloda, msjelobda ara mxolod qarTuli, aramed ucxouri presac. gaCnda paralelebi afxazeTTan, miniSneba "samoqalaqo omis" SesaZleblobaze (rusul mediaSi), rusuli Carevis safrTxeze, amerikis SeSfoTebaze... "prezidentma saakaSvilma Tanamdebobaze mosvlidan ori Tvis Semdeg inicireba gaukeTa Tavis pirvel kriziss", _ aRniSnavda "niu-iork Taimsi". ("rezonansi", 19.03.2004) am fonze miT ufro mniSvnelovania is gamoxmaureba, romelic krizisis daZlevas mohyva: "mixeil saakaSvilis triumfaluri svla Coloqidan 174

baTumamde"; "saakaSvilma "aWaruli gamocda" xuTze Caabara"; "telekompania "evroniusma" saakaSvilis guSindel molaparakebebs pirveli seriozuli gamarjveba uwoda prezidentad arCevis Semdeg." ("dilis gazeTi", 19.03.2004); "prezidentma mSvidobianad saxelmwifoebrivi moagvara"; "Coloqi gadawyvetileba _ xelovnuri miiRo rubikoni da konfliqti

gadalaxulia"

("mTavari gazeTi", 19.03.2004); "vardebis revoluciaze aranakleb mniSvnelovani gamarjveba" ("24 saaTi", 19.03.2004); "es iyo saakaSvilis gamarjveba angariSiT 2:1"; "saqarTvelom bewvis xidze gaiara" ("kviris palitra", 22.03.204); "Zalian mokle droSi saqarTvelom orjer gaiara bewvis xidze da Tavidan aicila ZmaTa sisxlisRvra" prezidents ("rezonansi", saxelmwifo 22.03.2004); da "foTi-qobuleTis wiTeli gzaze xalxi

droSebiTa

vardebiT

egebeboda."

("komersant.ru", "kviris palitra", 22.03.2004) aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom rusma Jurnalistebmac ver auares gverdi aWaraSi saqarTvelos prezidentTan mosaxleobis gulTbili Sexvedris faqts da isic ki aRniSnes, rom "Coloqi Cabarda". ("ntv", "gazeta.ru") rusulma onlain-gazeTma sagangebod aRniSna Coloqis "sasazRvro punqtis" gadaketvis miuxedavad, aWaraSi manqaniT Sesvlis faqti, rogorc saakaSvilis

principulobis niSani. daxurul kars miRma mixeil saakaSvilisa da aslan abaSiZis oTxsaaTiani dialogis Sedegad miRweul SeTanxmebas, krizisis mSvidobian daZlevasTan erTad, kidev erTi mniSvnelovani Sedegi mohyva _ aWaris mosaxleobaSi SiSis sindromis gadalaxva. am fsiqologiurma faqtorma, rogorc Cans, arsebiTi mniSvneloba iqonia saparlamento arCevnebis Sedegebze. aWarisaTvis ukavSirdeba. presaSi vxvdebiT aqcents, rom aWaris Temis gaaqtiureba "saarCevno brZolis meore etapi swored saparlamento arCevnebs

piaria". "saakaSvilsa da abaSiZes Soris daZabulobas revoluciis CrdilSi moxvedrili partiebi saarCevno triukad naTlaven. es xmauri grigaliviT aris _ midis da Tan eleqtoratis qeTi xmebs agrovebs", _ "alias" analitikuri sakuTari publikaciis avtori, xatiaSvili, partiebis mosazrebas

argumentebiTac aZlierebs _ saakaSvils uyvars xmauri da mZvinvareba; es misi stiqiaa; 2 noembris saarCevno ekonomikuri ori wliT, dapirebebi: mcire da biznesis pensiebis gadasaxadebisagan gaTavisufleba xelfasebisa

gaormageba _ axla politikurma frazam Secvala _ yvelaferi saqarTvelos gaerTianebisTvis; aWaris lomTan dapirispirebis fonze politika ufro

aqtualuri xdeba." ("alia", 23.03.2004) 175

presaSi musirebda saparlamento arCevnebis dRisTvis aWaraSi situaciis ukiduresad daZabvis prognozi. amdenad, mTeli mediaSi aWaris Temis primatiT mimdinareobda. saarCevno procesis asaxva 28 marts, arCevnebis mTeli dRe,

telekompaniebi

avrcelebdnen

informacias

aWaraSi

totaluri

gayalbebis Taobaze; saubari iyo imazec, rom TiTqos baTumis quCebSi tankebi dadioda; amgvari gancxadeba centraluri saarCevno komisiis Tavmjdomaremac gaavrcela. am fonze, aWaraSi sagangebo vizitiT myofma premier-ministrma zurab Jvaniam, saRamos, aslan abaSiZesTan TaTbiris Semdeg, "saxeldaxelo komentari" gaakeTa. aRniSna mizania, Jvaniam." "mxolod sabolood man aWaraSi Seqmnil viTarebas normaluri uwoda ("axali tyuil Taoba", 29.03.2004); _ da wvrilmani davusvaT darRvevebi" wertili "Cveni aRniSna mier Jvaniam SeiZleba

miTqma-moTqmas", aslan rom

("rezonansi",

29.03.2004)

JvaniasTan

erTad

abaSiZis zurab "ar

gakeTebul prezidents

gancxadebaSi daureka

figurirebda

informacia, Sewyvetis

dezinformaciis

TxovniT.

dezinformaciebze aigos gancxadebebi. arian Zalebi, romelTac simSvide xels ar aZlevT. yvelaze Zalian aWaris xelisuflebas unda, rom aq, aWaraSi

arCevnebi maRal doneze Catardes", _ ganacxada aslan abaSiZem. ("axali Taoba", "rezonansi", 29.03.2004) presas SeumCneveli ar darCenia Seusabamoba aWaraSi mosalodnel viTarebas, arCevnebis dRes gavrcelebul sagangaSo informaciebsa da zurab Jvanias mier baTumidan gakeTebul gancxadebas Soris. wlebis manZilze saxelisuflebo partiis mTavar konkurentad da bevri sxva partiis "politikur lokomotivad" miCneuli "aRorZinebis" darCenas parlaments miRma, da am faqtis "uxmaurod" datovebas, presaSi daaxloebiT aseTi rezonansi mohyva: arCevnebis CaSla arc aslan abaSiZes awyobda; igi flobda amitomac, informacias winaswar mosalodneli gamanadgurebeli da arCevnebs damarcxebis Sesaxeb,

iWerda Tadarigs arCia daeTmo

TavisTvis

umniSvnelos

uwodebda; abaSiZem sanacvlod.

"aRorZineba" xelisuflebis SenarCunebis

saparlamento arCevnebis Sedegad "aRorZinebis" gasvlas saxelisuflebo avanscenidan ucxouri mediac gamoexmaura. britanuli "gardiani" am faqts saqarTvelos axalgazrda prezidentis gamarjvebad miiCnevs: "rodesac cnobili gaxda, rom meamboxe aWaraSi problemurma arCevnebma mSvidobianad Caiara da avtonomiis lideri maTi Sedegebis kanonierebaze daTanxmda, cxadi gaxda, rom saqarTvelos axalma prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma karieris pirveli

msxvili politikuri krizisis gadalaxva SeZlo." ("gardiani", 29.03.2004) rusuli "izvestia", piriqiT, arCevnebis Sedegs aslan abaSiZisTvis xelsayrelad 176

warmoaCens: misca,

"parlamentis araTu

mandatebis xelisufleba

SewirviT

da

imis aramed

moxerxebiT, viTareba

rom Tavis

saqarTvelos xelisuflebas aWaraSi viTarebis provocirebis saSualeba ar abaSiZem SeinarCuna,

sasargeblodac Semoabruna." ("izvestia", 30.03.2004) diametralurad gansxvavebul Sefasebebs qarTul presaSic vxvdebiT: "28 marts... logikur dasasrulamde mivida noembris liberaluri

revolucia"; "Zalian didi roli Seasrula aWaris movlenebma... saqarTvelos politikur scenaze abaSiZisa da misi "aRorZinebis" faqtori aRar arsebobs." ("24 saaTi", 29.03.2004) "aslan abaSiZes SeeZlo arCevnebis gayalbeba (uares SemTxvevaSi, CaSla). amisTvis mas seriozuli berketebi hqonda, magram... man seriozuli politikuri nabiji gadadga da dainteresebul sazogadoebas daanaxa, rom is aris regionis lideri." ("dilis gazeTi", 30.03.204) presis SefasebebSi yuradReba maxvildeba aWaraSi arCevnebis procesisa da Sedegis politikur faqtorze; publikaciaTa umetesobaSi mTavari kriteriumi da meore planzea aWaraSi arCevnebis swored esaa samarTlianad

Catareba-arCatarebis momenti. sainteresoa, rom saerTaSoriso damkvirvebelTa Sefasebebi ufro delikaturia, vidre adgilobrivebis. euTo-s damkvirvebelTa misiebis xelmZRvanelebma aRniSnes, rom aWaris xelisuflebas ar ucdia demokratiuli arCevnebisTvis aucilebeli pirobebis Seqmna. arasamTavrobo organizacia "arCevnebisa da mmarTvelobis institutis" direqtorma nugzar ivaniZem "xvalindel dResTan" interviuSi ganacxada, rom gaurkvevelia, is Sedegebi, romelic aWaridan Camova, "es iqneba aWarlebis neba, Tu centrsa da regionis meTaurs Soris Semdgari molaparakebis produqti." ("xvalindeli dRe", 31.03.2004) aWaraSi arCevnebis Sedegi, molodinis

sawinaaRmdegod, ar gauprotestebiaT aslan abaSiZesa da "aRorZinebas"; Tumc, rusul sainformacio sivrceSi gaiJRera aqcentma, rom aslan abaSiZem

saqarTvelos prezidenti arCevnebis falsifikaciis mcdelobaSi erTgvari kompromisis fonze, aWaris Temis intensioba

daadanaSaula. presaSi unda

saparlamento arCevnebSi "aRorZinebis" damarcxebisa da aslan abaSiZis

Semcirebuliyo, magram ase ar momxdara; piriqiT, presis aqcentebis mixedviT, aWara axali xelisuflebis sagareo aqtivobis arealSic xvdeba. 2004 wlis aprilSi, prezident mixeil saakaSvilisa da premierministr zurab Jvanias vizitebi ukrainasa da aSS-Si, iqca im faqtorebad, romelmac gamokveTa ara mxolod sagareo, aramed saSinao politikis ganmsazRvreli orientirebi. pirvel rigSi, vgulisxmobT aWaris problemas. saerTaSoriso 177

damokidebulebis faqtori, rogorc Cans, arsebiTad gansazRvravda rogorc centraluri, aseve regionis xelisuflebis nabijebs Semdgomi urTierTobisken. aWaris liderTan uTanxmoebis warmoqmnisTanave saqarTvelos axalgazrda xelisuflebas yvelaze aqtiurad evrosabWosa da euTo-s eqspertebi uwevdnen konsultaciebs, kontinentis" moutana. Tumc, rogorc "mTavari gazeTi" Tbiliss daaxloebiT aRniSnavs, misaRebi "beberi ver

tradiciulma evropisa

liberalizmma da amerikis

Sedegi

ruseTis,

erTnairma

poziciam,

romelic dialogis gziT dapirispirebis mogvarebas aniWebda upiratesobas, xelisuflebas alternatiuli meTodebis mosinjva STaagona." ("mTavari gazeTi", 28.04.2004) aSS-Si swored zurab Jvanias vizitis warmatebasa Tu abaSiZesTan dakavSirebiT amerikis warumateblobas presa poziciis Camoyalibebas

aslan

ukavSirebs. "aSS-Si vizitad myofi premieri Jvania ZiriTad yuradRebas swored aWaris avtonomiasa da mis liderze amaxvilebs da cdilobs vaSingtoni

daarwmunos, rom aslan abaSiZe, "SevardnaZis xelisuflebis gadmonaSTi" da "narko-trefikingis xelisuflebas oficialuri amerika, mamamTavari", "korufciis uqmnis winaaRmdeg da, rogorc mebrZol" Cans, axal

seriozul wreebisagan sakiTxis

problemebs

amerikis iRebs." ar

specoperaciis mSvidobiani

Catarebis

"nebarTvas" mowodebis

("xvalindeli dRe", 29.04.2004) presaSi sxvaganac gvxvdeba aseTi varaudi _ aWaris mogvarebisken garda,

gamoricxavs maT mier gawvrTnili batalionebis gamoyenebas saWiroebisamebr, qveynis SigniT arsebuli viTarebis mosagvareblad. presis prognoziT, amgvari, Tundac Teoriuli Sansi, saerTaSoriso mxardaWeris deficiti, mis winaaRmdeg arsebuli wamgebiani sainformacio foni, aslan abaSiZisTvis marTlac SeiZleba iqces Semdgomi kompromisis sababad. Tavis mxriv, aslan abaSiZe aqtiurad iyenebs "yarsis kozirs" da ara mxolod ruseTs, valdebulebebs. TurqeTsac rusulma axsenebs am xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebul saagento "interfaqsma" gaavrcela

sainformacio

interviu aslan abaSiZesTan. aWaris lideri Riad mouwodebs ruseTs, rom aseT viTarebaSi man ubralod ki ar unda daicvas aWara, aramed valdebulia es gaakeTos. abaSiZis TqmiT, "arsebobs yarsis SeTanxmeba, romelic Turqul

mxares avaldebulebs aWara daicvas. yarsamde iyo moskovis xelSekruleba, romelic ruseTs imaves akisrebda." ("dilis gazeTi", 13.03.2004) bunebrivia, am fonze presaSi gaaqtiurda yarsis xelSekrulebis Tema, romlis komentirebisTvis Jurnalistebma iuristebs, istorikosebsa da

politologebs mimarTes. maTi mosazrebebi ase jgufdeba: erTni Tvlian, rom 178

xelSekruleba ukve Zaladakargulia, meoreni _ rom mainc angariSgasawevia, oRondac im SemTxvevaSi, Tu aWaris avtonomiis gauqmebis sakiTxi dadgeba. saerTaSoriso ruseTi yarsis samarTlis profesoris, monawile levan matariZis ar komentariT, aris, igi

xelSekrulebis

saxelmwifo

molaparakebis monawilea; ruseTs, yarsis xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad, aranairi valdebuleba da movaleoba ar miuRia da wesiT, mas aWarasTan aranairi valdebuleba-movaleobani ar akavSirebs; aWaris avtonomiis statusi, yarsis xelSekrulebis mixedviT, bevrad ufro sxvanairad gamoiyureba, vidre sinamdvileSia _ igi gulisxmobs ara erovnul-teritoriul avtonomias, aramed administraciul, anu kulturul da religiur avtonomias; TurqeTis mxares SeuZlia moiTxovos aWaris avtonomiis dacva, Tu masze uars vityviT, oRondac xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli avtonomiis farglebSi; xelSekruleba ki ar iTvaliswinebda parlaments, umaRles sabWos, prezidents... yarsis

xelSekruleba uvadoa da saqarTvelosa da TurqeTs aqvT misi denonsaciis ufleba, magram sakiTxavia, aWaris am SemTxvevaSi es daTanxmdeba saxifaTo Tu ara TurqeTi ("dilis

saqarTvelosTvis gazeTi", 26.03.2004)

dabrunebas;

perspeqtivaa.

yarsis Temas ruseTic aaqtiurebs. "1921 wlis ruseT-TurqeTis moskovis xelSekrulebis mixedviT, ruseTs SeuZlia aWaras saerTaSoriso subieqtis statusi mianiWos", _ acxadebs dsT-is qveynebis institutis xelmZRvaneli

mixail aleqsandrovi. ("jorjian Taimsi", 18.03.2004) amasTan, presa, "baTumur wyaroebze" dayrdnobiT, avrcelebs informaciebs, rom qobuleTis sanapiroze rusi samxedroebi gamoCndnen; rom baTumis aeroportidan carieli sabrZolo TviTmfrinavi afrinda da naSuaRamevs SeiaraRebuli samxedroebiT datvirTuli ukan dabrunda; rom "baTumis rusul samxedro bazaze samxedro wrTvnebi daiwyo"; rom baTumis portSi Sevida da gadmoitvirTa rusuli gemi, romelic sabrZolo teqnikiTa da cecxlsasroli iaraRiT iyo savse". (xvalindeli dRe", 12.03.2004; "rezonansi", 17.03.2004) Coloqis incidentamde aWaraSi saqarTvelos vizis gareSeECamovida moskovis meri iuri luJkovi; mkveTrad antiqarTuli ganwyobis rusi deputatebi _ andrei savelievi da viktor alqsnisi ColoqTan SeiaraRebul mosaxleobas Sexvdnen da isini "gmirebad" gamoacxades. meore mxriv, presa ganixilavs amerikasTan dakavSirebul aspeqtebs. "mTavari gazeTi" aviTarebs versias, rom "prorusuli aWaruli anklavis moSla okeanis miRma daigegma... saWiro iyo iseTi fonis Seqmna, romelic abaSiZis xelisuflebis politikuri ruseTTan arenidan absolutur prorusuli damokidebulebas struqturis gaaSiSvlebda da

etapobrivi

CamoSoreba 179

daiwyeboda... aSS-is saxelmwifo departamentis gancxadebis "mesijebi": mowodeba mSvidobisaken _ aslan abaSiZis sayuradRebod, miniSneba amerikelebis mier gawvrTnil "komandosebsa" da pankisis warmatebul operaciaze _ ruseTisTvis; "Sida frontze" Tbiliss baTumTan "omi" faqtobrivad mogebuli aqvs,

amerikelebma ician, rom axla "sagareo frontis" gaxsnis droa." ("mTavari gazeTi", 19.03.2004) amave gazeTis mixedviT, arsebobs sapirispiro versiac _ romlis mixedviTac amerikelebi aWaris movlenebis gamo faqtis winaSe dadgnen da sajarod pozicia imitom daafiqsires, rom saqarTvelos sagareo imiji SeenarCunebinaT. magram es versia eWvs iwvevs Tundac imis gamo, rom daujerebelia qveyanaSi, sadac situacias kargad akontrolebdnen, amerikul diplomatias faqtis winaSe daeyenebina Tavi. "Coloqis krizisze" TurqeTis "meoradi" gamoxmaurebac aSS-sTan kavSirdeba. situaciis gamwvavebisas aslan abaSiZe da misi mxardamWerebi kidev erTxel Seecadnen Tbilisze "Turquli TemiT" moexdinaT zewola. sapasuxod, TurqeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma gaakeTa oficialuri gancxadeba, rom ankara mxars uWers saqarTvelos centraluri xelisuflebis kurss da yvelam pativi moaxdina saWiroebis teritoriaze. miiCnies unda sces saqarTvelos TurqeTis TurqeTi vxvdebiT teritoriul elCis mTlianobas. imis Cveulebrivi Taobaze, rom

diplomatiuri formatis mqone am gancxadebis fonze Sokismagvari efeqti azerbaijanSi SemTxvevaSi presaSi gancxadebam samxedro kontigents rom rusebma Seiyvans es aWaris

informacias, da

gancxadeba

amerikelebTan

SeTanxmebulad

saqarTvelos

xelisuflebis

samxedro mxardaWeris tolfasad. rac Seexeba ruseT-saqarTvelos oficialur urTierTmimarTebas: ruseTis prezidentma mniSvnelovani megobruli vladimir yuradReba iyo. putinma dauTmo 27 marts, soWSi misi gamarTul brifingze, aSkarad araviTar

saqarTvelos. prezidenti

gancxadebebi rom

xasiaTis

ruseTis

amtkicebda,

SemTxvevaSi ar Caereva saqarTvelos saSinao saqmeebSi da, aseve, gamoricxavda aWaris problemis mogvarebaSi moiSvelia ruseTis Carevas. ybadaRebuli poziciebis yarsis xelSekruleba _ prezidentma putinmac gansamtkiceblad

aRniSna, rom ruseTi am xelSekrulebis Sesrulebis erT-erTi garanticaa. putinis am gancxadebebs win uZRoda prezident mixeil saakaSvilis mier madlierebis gamoxatva moskovisa da piradad prezident putinisadmi _ aWaris movlenebis gamo saqarTvelos mimarT dakavebuli poziciisTvis. iurist daviT usufaSvilis komentariT, "amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi

SevardnaZesac imave pirobas uyenebda. ruseTTan urTierTobis gamwvaveba maT 180

dResac

iseve

ar

aZlevT

xels,

rogorc

adre.

amerikasTan

megobruli

urTierToba swored ruseTTan urTierTobis mSvidobiani mogvarebis gzaze gadis." ("kviris palitra", 22.03.2004) rogorc vxedavT, aWaris sakiTxad; problema presaSi ar ganixileba mxolod da

Sidasaxelmwifoebriv

saqarTvelos

sagareo

veqtorebisa

prioritetebis gansazRvrisas aRar dgas alternativa _ aSS Tu ruseTi? axali xelisuflebis politikis mTavari amocanaa erTmaneTs _ warmatebiT Seuxamos sagareo ruseTTan

sami

ZiriTadi

veqtori

evropaSi

integracia,

keTilmezobloba da amerikasTan sanimuSo partnioroba.

*

saqarTvelos parlamentis arCevis Semdeg saqarTvelos axali xelisufleba dadga arCevanis winaSeE_ an unda daabrunos aWara saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sivrceSi (rac abaSiZis Zalauflebis dasasruls niSnavs), an SenarCundes wlebis ganmavlobaSi arsebuli orxelisuflebianoba, anu ormagi sakonstitucio sivrce (rac miuRebelia mixeil saakaSvilisTvis). aprilSi, sainformacio veli sakmaod gajerda agresiuli, Zalismieri qmedebis momaswavebeli sagazeTo saTaurebiTa da mesijebiT: "aWaraSi

specoperacia dagegmilia" ("xvalindeli dRe"); "omi?! sabrZolo operaciis ra sqemas gverdze xazaven samxedroebi aWaris Sturmis SemTxvevaSi" ("alia" pirvel aqveynebs "sabrZolo rukas"); "cxaddeba sagangebo mdgomareoba",

"aWaraSi specoperaciebis Catareba igegmeba" ("jorjian Taimsi") da a.S. amasTan, presaSi erTmaneTis paralelurad viTardeba provokaciuli

aqcentebi da konstruqciuli dialogisken mimarTuli gancxadebebi da orive mxare arc Tu iSviaTad imowmebs mediis mier gavrcelebul informacias. aWarasTan dakavSirebul mravalricxovan publikaciebSi, ikveTeba ori mTavari gamwvaveba aspeqti; erTi, rom centrsa da regions Soris dapirispirebis permanentuli aZlierebs umarTavi procesebis ganviTarebis,

dapirispirebis, procesebSi ruseTis arapirdapiri CarTvis da a.S safrTxes; meores mxriv, ikveTeba xelisuflebis, piradad prezidentis pozicia, rom es aris ara centrsa da regions Soris Seqmnili problema, aramed, dapirispireba aWaris mmarTvel klanTan; mixeil saakaSvilis gancxadebiT, Tu aslan abaSiZe ganiaraRdeba, aWaraSi demokratiuli procesebi daiwyeba. ("kviris palitra", 12.04.2004) igrZnoba, rom xelisuflebis strategiaa problemis

gadatana pirovnul aspeqtSi. am fonze, gazeT "24 saaTSi" qveyndeba saqarTvelos prezidentis

komentari, romelSic igi ar gamoricxavs Zalismier moqmedebas: "provokaciebs 181

ar

wamovegebiT.

Cven

rodis

ra

nabijebs

gadavdgamT,

es

aravisTan

SesaTanxmebeli ar aris da xelisufleba Tavad miiRebs gadawyvetilebas", _ acxadebs saakaSvili da ganmartavs, rom Zalis gamoyenebaze xelisufleba fiqrobs, Tumca, mxolod ukidures SemTxvevaSi. ("24 saaTi", 17.04.2004) unda aRiniSnos, rom, faqtobrivad, es iyo pasuxi aWaris avtonomiis meTauris

qmedebaze, romelmac konfrontaciis gza arCia da uari ganacxada ukanono SeiaraRebuli formirebebis ganiaraRebaze (aslan abaSiZe: "saxalxo razmelebs iaraRi manam eqnebaT, sanam saqarTveloSi demokratia ar damyardeba"). "centralur xelisuflebas aqvs yvela saTanado resursi regionSi wesrigis dasamyareblad", _ acxadebdnen aslan abaSiZesTan Sexvedris Semdeg premier-ministri zurab Jvania da uSiSroebis sabWos mdivani vano merabiSvili. warumatebeli warmomadgenlis aRmoCnda saqarTveloSi mcdelobac, evrosabWos romelic specialuri Tvis plamen nikolovis ramdenime

ganmavlobaSi cdilobda mediatoris rolis Sesrulebas. aWarisaTvis brZolis mesame etapze xelisufleba isev erTdroulad

aaqtiurebs saSinao da sagareo meqanizmebs. "24 saaTi" iuwyeba: "Cveni aWaris" liderebma aRniSnes, rom prezidentTan saubris Semdeg opozicia kidev ufro erTiani da koordinirebuli gaxda da mzadaa aWaraSi masobrivi saprotesto aqciebis dasawyebad. koba xabazis gancxadebiT, prezidenti abaSiZis winaaRmdeg politikur brZolas gaagrZelebs, opozicia ki abaSiZes masobrivi saprotesto aqciebiT Seawuxebs." (24 saaTi, 16.04.2004) rogorc qveynis SigniT, ise saerTaSoriso arenaze aqtiurdeba aWaris Tema narkotikebis konteqstSi: · "narkomaniisa da narkotikebiT ukanono vaWrobis sawinaaRmdegod

strasburgSi gamarTul Sexvedraze eqspertebma problemuri regionebis CamonaTvalSi saqarTveloc daasaxeles. narkotranzitis erT-erT cxel wertilad ki aWara saxeldeba. Tuki dadasturda aWaraSi narkotrafikis arseboba, maSin gamoricxuli ar aris, am regionSi didZali iaraRis warmomavlobac swored narkovaWrobas ukavSirdebodes. es Tema ramdenime dRis win sagareo saqmeTa ministrma salome zurabiSvilmac wamoswia. Sesabamisad, · Zneli warmosadgeni ar aris, ra pozicias daikavebs

dasavleTi aWaris mimarT." "saqarTvelos xelisufleba prokuraturaSi Zalovani

("axali versia", 19.04.2004) ministrebis gancxadebiT, cotac da aWaris

kolumbiis acxadeben,

narkokartels rom

daemsgavseba.

generalur aWaris 182

narkobiznesis

TvalsazrisiT,

avtonomiuri rogorc

respublika

erT-erTi gadazidva,

soliduri ise

regionia,

sadac

xdeba

narkotikebis

narkotikebis

warmoeba."

("rezonansi", 21.04.2004) aslan uSiSroebis abaSiZem, saministro am kampaniis gaauqma da sapasuxod, ganacxada, centrs rom daaswro, aWaris bazaze

saministros

antiteroristuli da antinarkotikuli centrebis Seqmnas apirebs. saqarTvelos parlamentma, aWaraSi Seqmnili mZime kritikuli viTarebis gamo, specialuri dadgenileba miiRo. "172 deputatis da mxardaWerili unda dadgenilebis mixedviT, saqarTvelos prezidentma mTavrobam

uzrunvelyon qveynis erTiani konstituciuri sivrcis xelSeuxebloba, aWaris avtonomiuri respublikis teritoriaze saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organoebis mier konstituciur uflebamosilebaTa normaluri ganxorcielebis SesaZlebloba da adamianis uflebaTa darRvevis aRkveTa"; aslan abaSiZem ki ganacxada, rom "centraluri xelisufleba misi fizikuri ganadgurebis

operacias gegmavs da amgvari safrTxis Tavidan asacileblad ruseTisa da aSSis prezidentebs, ruseTis saTaTbirosa da aSS-is kongress mimarTavs da

centrsa da regions Soris konfliqtis mowesrigebis procesSiECarTvisaken mouwodebs." ("xvalindeli dRe", "mTavari gazeTi", 24.04.2004) saqarTvelos xelisuflebis pirvelma pirebma baTumis 25-e brigadis meTauri, generali dumbaZe qveynis mtrad da moRalated gamoacxades; misi suraTebi prezidentis brZanebiT e.w. samarcxvino boZze gaakres. generlis dapatimrebis brZaneba saqarTvelos uzenaesma sasamarTlom gasca da ganaCenis gamotanidan erT saaTSi es gadawyvetileba mTel rig qveynebs ecnobaT. "oficialuri Tbilisis aRSfoTeba gamoiwvia general dumbaZis gancxadebam specialur brifingze, rom is aslan abaSiZes aRiarebs mTavarsardlad da mas emorCileba. 25-e brigadis TiTqmis mTeli Semadgenloba TbilisSi Camovida da centralur xelisuflebas daeqvemdebara." ("axali Taoba", 25.04.2004) am faqtma centri-regionis konfrontaciaSi detonatoris roli

Seasrula. avtonomiuri respublikis senatma gadawyvetileba miiRo aWaraSi komendantis saaTis amoqmedebis Taobaze. 25 aprils cnobili gaxda, rom aWaris xelisuflebam Coloqis administraciul sazRvarze damatebiTi samxedro

Zalis mobilizeba daiwyo." ("kviris palitra", 26.04.2004) sagento "inter-presi" avrcelebs cnobas baTumSi ramdenime aTeuli rusi formianis Camosvlis Taobaze. "es xdeba im dros, roca oficialuri moskovi irwmuneba, aWaris konfliqtSi ruseTi ar Caerevao. Tumca, rusi generaliteti, maT Soris, cnobili Sovinisti generali alqsnisi putinis sawinaaRmdego 183

pozicias

aviTarebs

da

ambobs,

rom

Tuki

aWaraSi

dislocirebul

rus

samSvidoboebs nebismieri saxiT problemebi SeeqmnebaT, maT cecxlis gaxsnis ufleba aqvT. alqsnisis am gamosvlas abaSiZisTvis sakeTildReo gagrZeleba mohyva dumaSic", _ werda "axali versia". ("axali versia", 26.04.2004) · "Coloqis administraciul sazRvarze daakaves da avtonomiis

teritoriaze ar SeuSves Tbilisidan gagzavnili 60 tona sasuqi. soflis meurneobis tvirTs, ministri daviT ServaSiZe, romelic aWaris piradad miyveboda sabWos

amaod

eTaTbira

ColoqTan

misul

ministrTa

Tavmjdomares rostom jafariZes. abaSiZis xelisuflebam sasuqze uari Tqva. sasuqis gareSe darCenili maRalmTiani raionebis _ qedis, xulosa da Suaxevis mosaxleoba ki aprotestebs aWaris xelisuflebis

gadawyvetilebas da avtomagistralebze moZraobis paralizebiT imuqreba. "Sewydes Coloqizacia" _ am lozungiT saprotesto aqcia moZraoba "Cveni aWaris" ofisis win gaimarTa. aqciis organizatori opoziciuri moZraobis mxardamWeri 50-mde qalbatoni iyo. saprotesto aqcia abaSiZis

rezidenciis winac gamarTa stiqiisagan dazaralebulma mravalSvilianma ojaxma." ("rezonansi", 28.04.2004) · "aWaris meTaurs samxedroebis Semdeg politikuri gundis wevrebic

toveben. baTumis yofili meri aslan smirba abaSiZes ganudga da misi gancxadebis mixedviT, aWaraSi daumorCileblobis erT-erT liderad unda mogvevlinos." ("mTavari gazeTi", 28.04.2004) · "abaSiZis reJimi nel-nela sustdeba da, Sesabamisad, axlovdeba dro, rodesac aqvs: isedac _ gaWianurebuli mSvidobiani "aWaruli krizisi" unda gadawydes. Sedegadac,

savaraudod, centralur xelisuflebas abaSiZis winaaRmdeg ori scenari pirveli mini-revolucia, romlis xelSeuxeblobis garantiis safasurad, abaSiZem politika da saqarTvelo nebiT · unda datovos; meore scenariT, savaraudoa specoperaciis

Catareba." ("mTavari gazeTi", 28.04.2004) "parlamentis Tavdacvisa da uSiSroebis komitetis Tavmjdomarem givi TargamaZem faqtSi preskonferenciaze monawileobda ganacxada, aWaris Ss maia rom aWaraSi kvlav daiwyo fizikuri angariSsworeba da parlamentar Tamaz diasamiZis dakavebis piradad ministri nadiraZe jemal gogitiZe. rom

saparlamento 29.04.2004)

umravlesobis

lideri

mianiSnebs,

abaSiZis mmarTveloba droebiTia da saaTebs iTvlis." ("axali Taoba",

184

·

"did sirTules ar warmoadgens aWaris pirveli piris likvidacia, magram Cven yvelafers vakeTebT, rom viTareba sisxlisRvris gareSe

gamoswordes. xolo, Tu iZulebulebi gavxdiT Zala gamoviyenoT, maSin msxverpli minimaluri iqneba", _ saqarTvelos Zalovani saministroebis TanamSromlebi ukve Riad saubroben samxedro operaciis Catarebis

Sesaxeb." ("jorjian Taimsi", 29.04.2004) presaSi "imedis" asaxuli amgvari viTarebis fonze, aslan 29 aprils, telekompania moulodneli

sainformacio

gamoSvebaSi,

abaSiZem

simSvidiTEganacxada, rom mxareebi dialogis formas unda daubrundnen _ eqspertebisa da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis warmomadgenelTa monawileobiT, Caisa da yavis TanxlebiT. (t/k "imedi", sainformacio programa "qronika", 29.04.2004) 30 aprils ki, baTumSi, uzenaesi sasamarTlos win gamarTuli mitingi erToblivi ZalisxmeviT daarbies specdaniSnulebis razmma, aWaris Sinagani jaris nawilebma, policiam da samTavrobo dacvam. sasamarTlosTan Sekrebili momitingeebi ukanonod dakavebuli "Cveni aWaras" liderebis da kidev ramdenime piris gaTavisuflebas iTxovdnen. ("24 saaTi", "xvalindeli dRe", 01.05.2004) politolog soso cincaZis komentariT, aslan abaSiZeEyvelafers akeTebs, rom saakaSvili rogorme wyobidan gamoiyvanos da Secdoma daaSvebinos. miiRebs Tu ara centraluri xelisufleba konfliqtis iaraRis ZaliT mogvarebis gadawyvetilebas, ColoqTan saswrafod gaCndeba ruseTis jari, Tumca, ruseTis droSis nacvlad, "aRorZinebis" droSas gadmokideben. cincaZis azriT, ar aris saWiro saqarTvelos prezidentis garemocvis aCqareba. kursi, romelic

xelisuflebam aWaris lideris winaaRmdeg aiRo, gamarTlebulia; male abaSiZe srul izolaciaSi aRmoCndeba; 20-30 dRis win alternativa ar Canda, axla ki, Tu xelisufleba Tavis kurss Tanmimdevrulad ganaxorcielebs, Zalis

gamoyenebis aucilebloba Semcirdeba. ("xvalindeli dRe", 01.05.2004) warmodgenili suraTis fonze ukve moulodnelobad aRar aRiqmeba 2 maiss Coloqisa da aWaris sazRvarTan mdebare ori xidis afeTqeba; rogorc qarTuli telekompaniebi iuwyebodnen, abaSiZis samsaxurSi myofi gadamdgari generlis _ netkaCovis xelmZRvanelobiT da, savaraudod, aslan abaSiZis gankargulebiT. sagangebod Sekrebil uSiSroebis sabWosTan moTaTbirebis Semdeg,

saqarTvelos prezidenti mixeil saakaSvili aslan abaSiZes 10 dRis vadas aZlevs sakonstitucio sivrceSi dabrunebisa da ganiaraRebis dawyebisTvis. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi itovebs uflebas gamoiyenos Tavisi saprezidento uflebamosileba axali arCevnebis daniSvnis Taobaze da xalxs misces aWaris 185

xelisuflebis 3 maiss

arCevis

saSualeba;

saqarTvelos aslan

prezidenti abaSiZe kvlav

xazgasmiT saubrobs

aRniSnavs rom laparakic ar aris avtonomiis statusis Secvlaze. gavrcelebuli da informaciiT, acxadebs rom,

TbilisTan

dialogze

xidebis

afeTqeba

prevenciuli

RonisZieba iyo Tbilisidan samxedro muqaris sapasuxod. "xidebi afeTqebulia, ukandasaxevi gza moWrilia", "abaSiZemEaWaris

mosaxleoba mZevlad aiyvana", "feodali alyaSi", "abaSiZe sakuTar teritoriaze prezident saakaSvilis mZevalia" _ amgvari paTosiT aSuqebda gazeTi "axali versia" 2 maiss, aWaris xelisufalTa brZanebiT, avtonomiis administraciul sazRvarze xidebis afeTqebis faqts. ("axali versia", 03.05.2004) afeTqebas win uZRoda Coloqis administraciuli sazRvrisa da sarfis sabaJos Caketva da aWaris xelisuflebis mier informaciis gavrceleba, rom foTis samxedro wvrTnebis Semdeg centri Savi zRviT CaqvSi desantis gadasxmas apirebs. aWaraSi daZabulobis eskalaciam piks miaRwia; baTumSi Sekrebili

mravalaTasiani mitingis monawileTa da aslan abaSiZis "specnazis" Sejaxebis safrTxe, SesaZloa, realobad qceuliyo. magram, 2003 wlis noembris "vardebis revoluciis" msgavsad, movlenebi mSvidobiani gziT ganviTarda _ aslan

abaSiZem xelisufleba da baTumi ukomentarod datova da "xelSeuxeblobis garant" igor ivanovTan erTad moskovSi gafrinda, vaJiSvilsa da uaxloes garemocvasTan erTad. presis SefasebiT, igor ivanovma meored Seasrula

saqarTveloSi saSuamavlo misia da amiT ruseTs regionSi Tavisi mniSvnelobis dafiqsirebis saSualeba mieca. presa maxvilgonivrulad SeniSnavs, rom "babuebis" (SevardnaZisa da abaSiZis) qarizma Seiwira mSvidobianma revoluciebma da orive SemTxvevaSi es giorgoba dRes moxda. saqarTvelos prezidenti mixeil saakaSvili ki, eqvs TveSi ori usisxlo revoluciis liderobis wyalobiT, SesaZloa istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebSic Sevides _ profesionali revolucioneris saxeliT.

xolo revoluciis mTavar mamoZravebel Zalad, noembris msgavsad, kvlav xalxi dasaxelda. ara mxolod am qveTavSi moSveliebuli sailustraciio masala, aramed, saerTod am periodis presis analizi mowmobs, rom movlenebis ase ganviTareba prognozirebadi iyo da garkveul kanonzomierebas emorCileboda. Cven yuradRebas vamaxvilebdiT eqspertebis mosazrebaze, rom problema ara mxolod aslan abaSiZeSia, arsebiTi problemaa mentaluri SeuTavsebloba, mdgomareoba, roca erTi saxelmwifo erTdroulad Tvisobrivad sxvadasxva droSi da sxva

186

wyobis pirobebSi cxovrobs. am faqtors TavisTavad unda gamoewvia "Signidan afeTqeba", revoluciuri situaciis bunebrivi gagrZeleba aWaraSi. daskvnis saxiT aRvniSnavT, rom "vardebis revoluciidan" moyolebuli, vidre "aWaris revoluciamde" (presis termini) aWaris sakiTxi qarTuli presis centraluri Tema iyo. ver vityviT, rom amjerad presa xels uwyobda centrsa da regions Soris konfrontaciis gamwvavebas da daZabulobis eskalacias. es is SemTxvevaa, roca TiTqmis yvela yoveldRiuri da yovelkvireuli gazeTi informirebis poziciebisa aucileblad aSkarad amocanasac da unda warmatebiT rom arTmevda Tavs da aWaris Temas presas aqcentebis aRvniSnoT, maqsimaluri aWaris mravalferovnebiT movlenebis amaRleba, aSuqebda.

gaSuqebisas

etyoba

pasuxismgeblobis

grZnobis

saxelmwifoebrivi

ganwyoba, erTgvari sifrTxile faqtebis interpretaciisas da informaciiT manipulirebis SeZlebisdagvarad minimalizeba. ra Tqma unda, aWaris Temam male dakarga aqtualoba, magram cotaxans kidev SemorCa presis furclebs, amjerad, aWaris avtonomiis momavlisa da aslan abaSiZisagan gamoTavisuflebul saxelisuflo sivrceSi politikuri konkurenciis sainformacio sababebiT. ·

saqarTveloSi jorj buSis vizitis rezonansi presaSi prezidentis, vizitis jorj buSis saqarTveloSi ZiriTadi vizitis mizani da, unda

aSS-is Sesabamisad, ganvixiloT:

mniSvneloba,

ramdenime

mimarTulebiT

o uSualod saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi o regionTan mimarTebaSi o axali geopolitikuri realobis konteqstSi am SemTxvevaSi CvenTvis aTvlis wertili saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaa, magram mTlianobaSi aSS-is prezidentis viziti aRmosavleT evropaSi mediaSi ganixileba regionis transformaciis, axali axlo aRmosavleTis formirebis, dasavleTis politikuri Rirebulebebisa da institutebis aRmosavleTisken gadatanisa da sxva Sorsmimavali strategiuli miznebis erTobliobaSi. axal geopolitikur realobaSi politikuri eqspertebi gulisxmobdnen dasavleTis mier mZlavri "geopolitikuri kedlis" (romelic unda gaxdes nato-ruseTis sazRvari) aRmarTvas _ baltiidan kavkasiamde da kavkasiidan centraluri aziisaken; geopolitikuri RerZis qvakuTxedi qveynis roli saqarTvelos akisria; rogorc eqspertebi aRniSnavdnen, SemTxveviTi ar iyo, 187

rom

Tavisi

turne

prezidentma

buSma

swored

am

geopolitikuri

RerZis

qveynebze aago, amasTan, turnes marSrutiT moaxdina imis demonstrireba, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania dRes misTvis saqarTvelo. am bolo mosazrebas adasturebs "vaSington Taimsis" publikacia,

romelsac gazeTi "rezonansi" imowmebs aSS-is prezidentis vizitis Sefasebisas: "kavkasiis respublikaSi buSis viziti imaze mianiSnebs, rom mas axsovs

saqarTvelo. es interesi ganpirobebulia strategiuli logikiT: saqarTvelo esazRvreba CeCneTs da masze gadis milsadeni, romelic kaspiis sanavTobo sabadoebs mdebareoba msoflio am patara bazrebTan qveyanas akavSirebs. aSS-is saqarTvelos strategiuli politikis energetikuli sagareo

komponentad aqcevs." ("rezonansi", 12.05.2005) vizitis mizanze msjelobisas, qarTul presaSi globaluri politikis aspeqtebze metad, konkretuli aqcentebi ikveTeba, umTavresad _ regionSi

ruseTis Seviwroebisa da iranis winaaRmdeg placdarmad saqarTvelos SesaZlo gamoyenebis amocana. qarTveli samxedro eqspertebi aRniSnaven, rom iran-

amerikis urTierTobaSi saqarTvelos wvlili mizeruli namdvilad ar aris, magram bevrad am rolis gazviadebac ar Rirs. sayuradReboa, rom politikuri presis

gaTvlebisTvis gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT, vaSingtonisTvis albaT saqarTvelo ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre samxedro TvalsazrisiT. formulirebiT, amerikas saqarTvelo "iranTan mSvidobianad dasamegobreblad" sWirdeba (am Temas SevexeT qveTavSic _ "sagareo Temis ZiriTadi aspeqtebi"). buSis vizitis wina periodSi, aprilSi, saqarTveloSi iranis vice premierisa da biznesmenTa delegaciis stumroba presam alogikurad miiCnia ("megobroba Tu Ralati, xelisuflebis ucnauri TamaSebi: win dasavleTisaken... iranTan erTan"); buSis vizitidan mokle xanSi ki TbilisSi, amerikuli

dafinansebiT, qarTul sacavebSi daculi iranuli kulturis iSviaTi nimuSebi _ Y"yajarTa portretebi" gamoifina _ iraneli stumrebisa da yajaruli

xelovnebis eqspertis, cnobili amerikeli profesoris (iranuli warmoSobis) monawileobiT. ekonomikur Tu gaviTvaliswinebT iranTan saqarTvelos warmatebul da iranSi urTierTobebs, keTilmezoblur damokidebulebas

mcxovrebi fereidneli qarTvelebis faqtors (romlis SesaZlo gamoyenebaze aSS-is xelisuflebis mier, presa jer kidev da 2004 wels mianiSnebda), sainformacio _ emociuri zemoxsenebuli versia arc Tu ise usafuZvlod JRers. aSS-is prezidentis vizitis winaperiodi saerTo Semdgomi,

gamoxmaurebis

TvalsazrisiT,

erTi

maxasiaTebliT

damokidebulebis primatiT gamoirCeva; Tumc, winaperiodi ufro maJorulia 188

(ragind paradoqsuladac unda JRerdes es mosazreba), vidre vizitis Semdgomi. SesaZloa, esec igive emociuri faqtoriT avxsnaT _ qarTuli sazogadoeba, rogorc sainformacio suraTi cxadyofs, umTavresi problemebis gadawyvetis imeds buSis vizitze amyarebda da, Tanac, dauyovnebliv. arsebuli molodinis mTavari ganmsazRvreli, rogorc Cans, mainc is iyo, rom buSi SeaSinebda ruseTs, Sesabamisad _ afxaz da os separatist liderebs, da misi viziti safuZvlad daedeboda ruseTis samxedro bazebis gayvanisa da saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis problemis uswrafes mogvarebas. vizitis Semdgomi rezonansi saqarTvelos sainformacio sivrceSi mosalodnelze xanmokle da zedapiruli iyo (vidre, vTqvaT, konkretuli,

personaluri saxelisuflebo dapirispirebis rezonansia xolme) da, ZiriTadad, buSis verbaluri da araverbaluri komunikaciis ganxilvas eZRvneboda, ori ZiriTadi mimarTulebiT _ qarTvelebma "kulturul SokSi" CavagdeT buSi, gadavrieT xinkliT da, saerTod, stumarTmoyvruli da uCveulod

keTilganwyobili daxvedriT; buSi aseTi aravis unaxavs! meore mxriv, erTgvari angarebiTi molodini _ aba vnaxoT, ras gagvikeTebs sanacvlod. sxvaTaSoris, amerikis prezidentis mimarT qarTvelebis gansakuTrebuli damokidebuleba ucxouri mediasaSualebebis yuradRebis centrSic moeqca, oRondac, ara mxolod qarTuli sufrisa da kulturis Sefasebis konteqstSi: "buSi enTuziazmiT iyo aRsavse, radgan Tbilisuri daxvedra bevrad gansxvavdeboda im saprotesto aqciebisagan, romlebiTac mas sxvadasxva

qveynebSi miegebnen", _ werda gazeTi "gardiani", saagento "asoSieited presze" dayrdnobiT. ("alia", 10.05.2005) "TiTqmis yvelgan var namyofi, sadac buSi prezidentis rangSi yofila, magram aqaurma daxvedram yovelgvar molodins gadaaWarba. es iyo yvelaze uTbilesi daxvedra, rac mas odesme hqonia", _ komentars akeTebs si-en-en-is korespondenti maikl benigani. ("24 saaTi", 11.05.2005) "moskovski Zlevamosilma komsomolecma" buSma publikacia kargad ase daasaTaura buSi _ ise "jorj SeZra

saqarTveloSi

moilxina":

aborigenebis cekvebma, rom iq daaxloebiT erTi saaTi darCa. sul male man musikis hangebze taSis kvra da Tavis qnevac daiwyo, bolos ki yvelasaTvis moulodnelad restoranSi erTi cekvis 30-40 dros wuTis scenaze nacvlad, avida da mocekvaveebs darCnen. xeli buSis CamoarTva. protokoli SemdegSic araerTxel dairRva: buSi da saakaSvili dagegmili saaTnaxevari

Tavgadasavlebi saqarTveloSi meore dRes gagrZelda da masobrivi uwesrigoba gamoiwvia." ("axali versia", 13.05.2005) 189

gazeTma "24 saaTma", publikaciaSi _ "jorj buSis viziti dasavluri mediis TvaliT", Tavi mouyara ucxouri mediis Sefasebebs: "saqarTvelo _ Tavisuflebis Suqura"; "buSi saqarTveloSi ruseTis gasaRizianeblad"; "buSi xotbas asxams qarTul ivlis" demokratias"; _ aseTi "aSS saqarTvelosTan iuwyebodnen erTad"

Tavisuflebis sainformacio Sesaxeb... momenti

gziT

saTaurebiT prezidentis

dasavluri vizitis amerikis

saSualebebi

amerikis

saqarTveloSi

sainformacio "vardebis buSis uwoda.

saagento TqmiT, am

"bi-bi-si": usisxlo

"preskonferenciaze istoriis revoluciam mTel

prezidentma

revolucias"

Tanamedrove

mniSvnelovani msoflioSi

aRafrTovana xalxi". TbilisSi myofi "bi-bi-si"-s korespondentis TqmiT ki, saqarTvelo TvalsaCino magaliTs warmoadgens amerikis sagareo politikis ZiriTadi mimarTulebis _ demokratiis mTels msoflioSi gavrcelebis TvalsazrisiT... msoflios yvela met-naklebad cnobili mediasaSualeba aSS-is lideris saqarTveloSi vizitis emociuri datvirTviT iwyebs movlenis

gaSuqebas. aSkaraa dasavluri presis gakvirveba _ amerikel liders xom arcTu didi pativiT xvdebian evropelebi. guSindeli dRis erTi TvalSisacemi momenti is iyo, rom TiTqmis yvela seriozuli gamocema nakleb adgils uTmobs

movlenis politikur analizs da mxolod vizitis aRweriT Semoifargleba. albaT, es gasagebicaa _ jorj buSis saqarTveloSi Camosvla mniSvnelovani gzavnili iyo, romelic garkveul analizs saWiroebs." ("24 saaTi", 11.05.2005) am umniSvnelovanesi vizitis anturaJis dawvrilebiT ganxilva qarTuli Tu ucxouri mediis mier, erTis mxriv, bunebrivicaa; rac Seexeba analizs, es qarTuli presis "aqilevsis quslia"; magram saerTo fonze gamoirCeva gazeTi "24 saaTi" (SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom "rezonansic"), romelmac amjeradac moaxerxa vizitis Sedegebis gaanalizeba, am procesSi qarTveli da ucxoeli eqspertebis maqsimaluri CarTviT. pirvel yovlisa, aRsaniSnavia zbignev bJezinskis eqskluziuri interviu gazeT "24 saaTisTvis". buSis misi mosazrebebi da mis ara mier mxolod naTels hfens

saqarTveloSi

vizitisa

warmoTqmuli

sityvebis

mniSvnelobas, aramed, erTgvarad avsebs kidec da, Cveni azriT, aranaklebad mniSvnelovan mesijebsac Seicavs: "yvelaze mniSvnelovani cvlileba, romelic moxda, xelisuflebaSi axali Taobis sabWoTa mosvlaa. axali periodis politikuri liderebi vidre maTi gacilebiT naklebad arian winamorbedebi. magram es produqtebi,

weliwadnaxevris win moxda. axla ki saWiroa gamarTuli sistemis SeqmniTa da praqtikuli politikis gziT imis demonstrireba, rom saqarTveloSi 190

demokratia

moqmedi

realobaa.

saqarTvelos

axalma

demokratiam

unda

daarwmunos saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba, rom mas Seswevs unari, moagvaros is problemebi, romelic sabWoTa kavSirma dautova. warsulis narCenebi, maT Soris separatizmi, ar unda ganixilebodes, rogorc normaluri movlena. am konteqstSi, saqarTvelom aseve unda daarwmunos saerTaSoriso Tanamegobroba, rom misi demokratia mtkicea, rom is emyareba ara emociebs, aramed

konstituciiT gamyarebul kanonmorCil sistemas. saqarTvelos xelisuflebam unda aCvenos, rom rogorc sagareo, ise saSinao savse, politikaSi kargad misi gadawyvetilebebi momwifebul, pasuxismgeblobiT gaazrebul

politikas eyrdnoba da ara emociur, mkveTr da radikalur Jestebs." (24 saaTi", 17.05.2005) aseve sayuradReboa kolumbiis universitetis profesorisa da sagareo urTierTobaTa sabWos ufrosi eqspertis, stiven sestanoviCis Sefaseba: "me vfiqrob, rom saqarTvelom aCvena erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani politikuri, socialuri da inteleqtualuri dinamizmi, romelsac adgili aqvs yofil sabWoTa respublikebSi." amasTan, sestanoviCi yuradRebas amaxvilebs im

problemebze, romlebic, SesaZloa, saqarTveloSi demokratiis ganviTarebas Seeqmnas: "Cven viciT, arsebobs pretenziebi, rom parlamenti ar aris pluralisturi, problemebia mediaSi, iseve rogorc samoqalaqo sazogadoebaSi. axla Cven vcdilobT, SevafasoT, aris es Cveulebrivi pretenziebi, romelic yvela demokratias axasiaTebs, Tu saxezea marTlac Zalauflebis zedmeti konsolidacia, rac demokratiisTvis safrTxis Semcveli SeiZleba iyos. da Tu Zalauflebis es konsolidacia ar Seicavs safrTxes, romelic momavalSi problemebs Seuqmnis demokratias, maSin amerikaSi aRelvebis safuZvelic ar iqneba. patara qveynisTvis Zalian Znelia, amerikis SeerTebuli StatebisTvis geopolitikuri mniSvneloba SeinarCunos, Tu mas demokratiuli faseulobebi ar gaaCnia. saqarTvelosTan Cvenma urTierTobam aCvena, rom maSinac ki, rodesac patara saxelmwifo xar, Tu Sen atareb igive Rirebulebebs da gaqvs igive xedva, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis Tanasworuflebiani partniori xar." ("24 saaTi", 24.05.2005) yuradReba mivaqcioT bJezinskisa da sestanoviCis saerToOTvalsazriss _ saqarTvelom, praqtikuli politikis gziT, unda moaxdinos imis demonstrireba, rom saqarTveloSi demokratia ar moqmedi realobaa; safrTxe unda ecados, rom unda Zalauflebis koncentraciiT Seuqmnas demokratias;

daarwmunos saerTaSoriso Tanamegobroba, rom misi demokratia mtkicea; rom mas Seswevs unari, moagvaros sabWoTa kavSiris mier datovebuli problemebi 191

(maT

Soris,

separatizmis

problema).

sxvanairad,

aseT

patara

qveyanas

gauWirdeba amerikis SeerTebuli StatebisTvis geopolitikuri mniSvneloba SeinarCunos. gavixsenoT, rom "vardebis revoluciamdec", 2003 wlis saparlamento

arCevnebis wina periodSi, presaSi aqtiurad musirebda qarTveli da ucxoeli politikosebisa da eqspertebis saerTo Tvalsazrisi, rom saqarTvelos

kapitali demokratiaa, rom mas, azerbaijanisagan gansxvavebiT, aravin apatiebs demokratiuli faseulobebis Selaxvas. albaT zedmeti ar iqneba imis gaxsenebac, dafaze", CineTi rom bJezinskis mier modelirebul evraziis figurebis (safrangeTi, "did saWadrako mTavari geostrategiuli da indoeTi) saxeldeba gverdiT, ukraina,

germania,

ruseTi,

"principulad

mniSvnelovan

geopolitikur

centrebad"

azerbaijani, samxreT korea, TurqeTi da irani (am kvalifikaciaSi, rogorc Tavad bJezinski aRniSnavs, ar xvdeba iseTi didmniSvnelovani qveynebi,

rogoricaa didi britaneTi, iaponia da indonezia). (12, 56) Tu erTmaneTTan davakavSirebT, erTis mxriv: regionis transformaciis, axali axlo aRmosavleTis formirebis,

dasavleTis politikuri Rirebulebebisa da institutebis aRmosavleTisken gadatanisa da sxva Sorsmimavali strategiuli miznebis erTobliobas; amocanas _ dasavleTis mier mZlavri "geopolitikuri kedlis" (romelic unda gaxdes nato-ruseTis sazRvari) aRmarTvisa _ baltiidan centraluri aziisaken; meores mxriv, TbilisSi prezident buSis mier warmoTqmuli sityvebis mesijebs: "imedismomcemi cvlilebebi _ baRdadidan beiruTamde da beiruTidan biSkekamde... Tavisufleba Savi zRvidan kaspiis zRvisken, sparseTis yureSi da ufro Sorsac miiwevs; es TqveniT aris gamowveuli da Tqveni warmatebis magaliTze maTac didi imedi eZlevaT... qarTul miwaze danTebuli cecxli mTel msoflioSi Rvivdeba." da amas davumatebTYstiven sestanoviCis "formulas", rom "patara kavkasiamde da kavkasiidan

qveynisTvis Zalian Znelia, amerikis SeerTebuli StatebisTvis geopolitikuri mniSvneloba SeinarCunos, Tu mas demokratiuli faseulobebi ar gaaCnia", erTad moiyris Tavs ara mxolod buSis evropuli turnesa da saqarTveloSi vizitis mizani da mniSvneloba, aramed is roli da funqciac, rac "vardebis revoluciam" ganusazRvra saqarTvelos. oRondac, xazgasmiT aRvniSnavT, rom esaa ara "saWadrako dafiT" miniWebuli, aramed "demokratiis sanimuSo qveynis" roliT SeZenili funqcia. sxvaTa Soris, erTaderTi postulati, rac 192

ucvlelad figurirebs sainformacio amindis Semqmnel qarTul mediaSi bolo wlebis manZilze, swored isaa, rom saqarTvelos kapitali demokratiaa. (amgvari Tvalsazrisis ganviTarebis uflebas isev presa gvaZlevs,

romlis calkeul masalebSi zogjer SeuZlebelia logikis moxelTeba, magram erTobliobaSi, analitikuri ganxilvisas, bevri sayuradRebo ram ikveTeba). vizitis mniSvnelobaze msjelobisas presaSi figurirebs Tvalsazrisi, rom TavisTavad vizitis faqti mTavari mesijia sxva qveynebisTvis, upirvelesad _ ruseTisTvis, rom amieridan saqarTvelosTan urTierTobisas dabalansebuli politika unda awarmoon; rom viziti safuZvlad daedeba regionSi saqarTvelos rolis gamokveTas. aSS-is saxelmwifo mdivnis, kondoliza raisis SefasebiT, saqarTveloSi aSS-is prezidentis jorj buSis vizitis mTavari mizani aSS-is mxridan saqarTvelos damoukideblobis, teritoriuli mTlianobis da misi axalgazrda demokratiisaTvis mxardaWeris demonstrireba iyo. gazeT "24 saaTTan" interviuSi zbignev bJezinski ambobs, rom "prezident

buSis viziti rigasa da TbilisSi did strategiul mesijs atarebda. es mesiji ki aseTia ­ ruseTma da pativi unda sces Tavisi mezoblebis es aris politikur

damoukideblobasa

teritoriul

mTlianobas.

fundamenturad

mniSvnelovani mesiji. ("24 saaTi", 17.05.2005) rusi politologi sergei markovi ki acxadebs, rom: "buSis vizitis dakavSireba Tbilisis poziciis erTmniSvnelovan mxardaWerasTan politikuri Secdoma iqneboda": "vfiqrob, am vizits ramdenime Sedegi aqvs. upirvelesad, buSma srulad dauWira mxari saqarTvelos moqmed nato-sa dauWira xelisuflebas da mxari mis swrafvaSi maqsimaluri evroatlantikuri integraciisken, man, aseve, evrokavSirTan saqarTvelos

TanamSromlobisaken.

xelisuflebis im ideologiur Tezisebs, romlebic am swrafvas ukavSirdeba, kerZod ­ qveyanaSi Tavisuflebisa da demokratiis ganviTarebis aucileblobas. garda amisa, aSS-is prezidentma mTlianobaSi mxari dauWira saqarTvelos

pozicias rig gadamwyvet sakiTxebSi, rogoric aris afxazeTTan da samxreT oseTTan urTierTobebi da saqarTveloSi ruseTis samxedro bazebis problema. imavdroulad, jorj buSma gadaxeda Tavis pozicias da ruseTis interesebis lobistis rolSi mogvevlina, miuTiTa ra saqarTvelos xelisuflebas, rom es problemebi (rusuli bazebi da avtonomiebTan urTierTobebi) mxolod mSvidobiani molaparakebebis gziT unda mogvardes. amiT man garkveulwilad, arapirdapir gaakritika saqarTvelos xelmZRvaneloba... ar aris aucilebeli, yvelgan, sadac igeben amerikelebi, waagon rusebma. vgulisxmob saqarTvelos 193

samxedro

moqmedebebs

afxazeTsa

da

samxreT

oseTSi,

romelTac

me

kolonialur avantiurebs vuwodeb. miviCnev, rom afxazeTi arasodes yofila saqarTvelos nawili. is yovelTvis iyo saqarTvelos nawili didi ruseTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi. es istoriuli faqtia." ("xvalindeli dRe", 12.05.2005) gazeTi "xvalindeli dRe" wers, rom "separatistebi amerikis prezidentis vizitiT gamowveuli SeSfoTebis dafarvas cdiloben". amerika saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobas aRiarebs da sxva saxelmwifoebsac mouwodebs, pativi scen saqarTvelos suverenitets ­ aseTi Sinaarsisa iyo buSis mimarTvis erTerTi nawili. rogorc irkveva, afxazuri da osuri mxare am gancxadebam seriozulad Seafiqriana da originaluri gamosavalic apovnina: soxumsa da cxinvalSi fiqroben, rom buSma diplomatiurad da SefarviT, magram mainc gamoxata, rom "pativs scems osi da afxazi xalxis swrafvas demokratiisa da Tavisuflebisaken". ("xvalindeli dRe", 12.05.205) amasTan, aSS-is prezidentis viziti, qarTuli da ucxouri presis

SefasebiT, kargi fiari iyo ara mxolod saqarTvelos saxelmwifosa da misi xelisuflebisTvis, aramed, Tavad jorj buSisTvisac. am TvalsazrisiT sagulisxmoa "niu iork Taimsis" saredaqcio statia, saTauriT _ "ra SemTxvevaSi miaCniaT amerikaSi prezidentis viziti warmatebulad": "sasiamovno sanaxavi iyo, rogor Tbilad xvdebodnen prezident buSs latviis dedaqalaq rigaSi, ra zRva xalxi miizida man saqarTvelos dedaqalaq TbilisSi. Tumca, yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebSi Tavisi turnes Sedegad roca man zedmiwevniT miaRwia mizans mxolod im sferoSi, umTavresi sagangaSo rac exeba ­ urTierTobebs sazogadoebriobasTan, magram ver miaRwia arsebiT sakiTxSi. ruseTze vsaubrobT, amerikisTvis sakiTxi

birTvuli usafrTxoebaa da am frontze, rogorc Cans, vizitisas araviTari warmatebisTvis ar migviRwevia." ("xvalindeli dRe", 12.05.2005) gazeT "24 saaTSi" gamoqveynebul statiaSi _ "buSi STabeWdilebebs

kongress uziarebs", moxmobilia aSS-is prezidentis sityvebi _ "fantastikuri SegrZnebaa, idge 150 aTasi, Tavisuflebis moyvaruli adamianis winaSe", Tumca, aRniSnulia rom buSma gacilebiT meti dro dauTmo moskovSi saxelmwifo saqarTveloSi saxelmwifo razec miRebuli mdivnis vizitis mdivans qalbatoni

STabeWdilebebis teleintervius STabeWdilebebis "xelyumbaris

gaziarebas. gacilebiT moyolas

samagierod, "emociuri" mieZRvna. lari

"aSS-is nawili kingma

istoriazec"

sTxova

komentaris

gakeTeba,

raisis pasuxi sakmaod mSvidi iyo _ "amis Sesaxeb mogvianebiT SevityveT. cxadia, gamoZieba mimdinareobs. vfiqrob, saqarTvelos uSiSroebis samsaxuri 194

Cvens uwyebasTan erTad imuSavebs imis gasagebad, Tu ra moxda. magram es SemTxveva veranairad Secvlis imas, rac iq xdeboda; da minda giTxraT, rom Zalian amaRelvebeli iyo moedanze yofna". ("24 saaTi", 13.05.2005) rac Seexeba xelyumbaras, gazeTi "xvalindeli dRe" moswrebulad wers, rom "aufeTqebeli rom xelyumbara 10 maiss, msoflio prezident presis buSis furclebze Tbilisuri afeTqda": vizitisas,

"informacia,

Tavisuflebis moedanze misi sityviT gamosvlamde arcTu didi xniT adre, tribunidan rom 30 metris daSorebiT viRacam xelyumbara Tavisuflebis dros aRmoaCines, isrola, pirvelad aSS-is rusulma saagentoebma gaavrceles. guSin gancxadeba gaavrcela TeTrma saxlma, xelyumbara, jorj romelic buSis mivaqcevT TbilisSi, gamosvlis erT moedanze

prezidentis

prezidentisTvis "yviTeli

safrTxes ar warmoadgenda." ("xvalindeli dRe", 12.05.2005) yuradRebas informacias, romelic

Seferilobisaa", magram saWirod CavTvaleT misi moSvelieba saerTo mozaikis Sesaqmnelad. saidumlo "buSis vizitis dReebSi _ muzeumidan firosmanis Sedevrebi "buSi

viTarebaSi

gaitanes",

gavamcnobs

"jorjian

Taimsi".

saqarTveloSi Camovida: qarTul ritms sxeuli moxdenilad aayola, 19-naoWiani xinkali "repeteTi" miirTva da "gamZRari" gafrinda! sxvaTa Soris, amerikis prezidenti politikuri mxolod saCuqari, qarTuli Zveli kerZebiT ar danayrebula, da Tan uamravi qarTuli wignebi ferweruli Sedevrebic

gaiyola." ("jorjian Taimsi", 12.05.205) niSandoblivia, rom vizitis gaSuqebisas amjerad qarTul presaSi yuradReba ar maxvildeba mosalodnel materialur daxmarebasa Tu yofis gaumjobesebis pragmatul interesze. presaSi figurirebs Tvalsazrisi, rom saqarTvelo moeqceva Zalian didi yuradRebis qveS mTeli msoflios mxridan, Sesabamisad, es amcirebs im saSiSroebas, rom xelisuflebam arademokratiuli gziT gaagrZelos moqmedeba. amasTan, viziti Sefasebulia, rogorc Zalian kargi reklama zogadad qveynis, qarTuli biznesisa da qarTuli produqciisaTvis; rogorc winapiroba qveynis arasandoobis koeficientis kidev ufro Semcirebisa da ucxouri investiciebis raodenobis mniSvnelovani zrdisaTvis da a.S. presis analitikur publikaciebSi, erTi mxriv, ikveTeba Tvalsazrisi, rom Cveni qveynis mosaxleobas am vizitTan dakavSirebiT gadametebuli molodini hqonda; buSis viziti saqarTvelosTvis mxolod avansad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. mkafioa amerikis prezidentis poziciac _ is megobari qveynisTvis daTvuri samsaxuris gawevas ar apirebs, amitom Cveni gasakeTebeli Tavadve unda 195

gavakeToT. amerikis daxmarebis formati ara ruseTTan dapirispirebis, aramed TanamSromlobis pirobebSi unda warimarTos ­ is, risi miRwevac SeiZleba mSvidobiani gziT, konfrontaciis mizezi ar unda gaxdes. meore mxriv, qarTvel eqspertTa SefasebiT, buSis viziti

damagvirgvinebeli gamijvnisTvis

etapia im samuSaosi, rac saqarTvelo-ruseTis saboloo anu moskovi nel-nela Seagues azrs, rom

mimdinareobda,

saqarTvelos daTmoba mouwevda. jorj buSis viziti niSnavs, rom amerika Tavis geopolitikur interesebze uaris Tqmas ar apirebs. amerikas kavkasiaSi Zlieri partniori mTlianobac sWirdeba. amitom mis interesebSi imis saqarTvelos teritoriuli dakarguli Sedis. amdenad, SeiZleba prognozireba, rom

teritoriebi uaxloes oTx-xuT weliwadSi davibrunoT. Tumc, es imazec iqneba damokidebuli, ramdenad sworad Seasrulebs qarTuli mxare ucxoel eqspertTa rekomendaciebs, regionebis rogor saxelmwifo politikas warmarTavs da separatistuli iqneba

mosaxleobasTan, brZola,

ramdenad ra

principuli

Sedegiani

kontrabandasTan

strategias

daupirispirebs da

saqarTvelos a.S. nebismieri

xelisufleba CrdiloeTidan

mosalodnel

provokaciebs

uxeSi Secdoma, romelsac am procesSi xelisufleba dauSvebs, momentalurad iqneba gamoyenebuli ruseTis mier da xels SeuSlis Cvens dasavlel partniorebs. am zogadi suraTis fonze, Cveni azriT, uaRresad mniSvnelovania presis Sefasebebis Sejereba TbilisSi prezident buSis mier warmoTqmuli sityvebis

(parlamentSi

gamarTul

brifingsa

da

Tavisuflebis

moedanze)

ZiriTad

mesijebsa da sakvanZo sityvebTan. ZiriTadi mesijebi: · · · · · · · · ·

Tqven liderebi xarT! saqarTvelo _ sanimuSo magaliTia regionSi "vardebis revolucia" Zlieri momenti iyo Tanamedrove istoriaSi saqarTvelo Tavisufali da damoukidebeli qveyanaa Tqveni yvelaze mniSvnelovani wvlili Tqvenive magaliTia Tqveni qveyana aSS-is erT-erTi seriozuli mokavSirea Tqven demokratiul sazogadoebas aSenebT amMaxal saqarTveloSi kanonis uzenaesoba gaimarjvebs da Tavisufleba TiToeuli moqalaqis ufleba iqneba Tqven irCevT Tavisufal momavals da igive miznis ganxorcielebaSi sxva qveynebsac exmarebiT

196

· · · ·

Tavisufali sazogadoebis Seneba Taobebis samsaxuria 15 weli dasWirda brZolas, _ sanam am qveyanaSi beiruTamde Tavisufleba da da samarTlianoba moikidebda fexs imedismomcemi biSkekamde Tavisufleba Savi zRvidan kaspiis zRvisken, sparseTis yureSi da ufro Sorsac miiwevs; es TqveniT aris gamowveuli da Tqveni warmatebis magaliTze maTac didi imedi eZlevaT cvlilebebi baRdadidan beiruTidan

· · · · · · · · · ·

qarTul miwaze danTebuli cecxli mTel msoflioSi Rvivdeba Tavisufali sazogadoebebi xom mSvidobian sazogadoebebs warmoadgenen rogorc Tavisufal qveynebs, amerikasa da saqarTvelos didi pasuxismgebloba akisriaT Cveni movaleobebic TavisuflebisaTvis globalur brZolaSi iwyeba udidesi qarTveli patrioti zurab Jvania _ globaluri demokratiuli revoluciis didi lideri gaxda saqarTvelos liderebma ician, rom konfliqtebis mSvidobiani mogvareba aucilebelia transatlantikur aliansSi integraciisaTvis saqarTvelos damoukideblobasa da teritoriul mTlianobas yvela qveyana unda scemdes pativs Cven gvyavs transatlantikuri megobrebi saqarTveloSi da yovelTvis dagexmarebiT Tqveni miznebis misaRwevad Tqven gyavT megobrebi amerikaSi Tavisufali da demokratiuli qveynis Senebisas amerikeli xalxi Tqvens gverdiTaa! (jorj buSis sityva, warmoTqmuli TbilisSi, Tavisuflebis moedanze, gamoqveynebulia gazeT "24 saaTSi", 11.05.2005; brifingze warmoTqmuli sityva _ gazeT "saqarTvelos respublikaSi", 11.05.2005)

sakvanZo sityvebi buSi Tavisufleba, Tavisufali ­ 30 saqarTvelo, qarTveli _ 28 amerika, amerikelebi _ 9 demokratia _ 8 saakaSvili Tavisufleba, Tavisufali _ 20 saqarTvelo, qarTveli _ 43 amerika, amerikelebi _ 18 demokratia _ 11 197

mSvidoba, mSvidobiani _ 8 revolucia, revoluciuri _ 5 damoukidebloba _ 4 nato _ 4 pasuxismgebloba _ 3 istoria, istoriuli _ 3 megobroba, megobari _ 3 "vardebis revolucia" _ 2 afxazeTi, samxreTYoseTi _ 1 teritoriuli mTlianoba _ 1 konfliqtebis mogvareba _ 1 momavali _ 2

mSvidoba, mSvidobiani _ 3 revolucia, revoluciuri _ 1 damoukidebloba _ 1 nato _ 3 pasuxismgebloba _ 3 istoria, istoriuli _ 8 megobroba, megobari _ 4 "vardebis revolucia" _ 2 afxazeTi, samxreTYoseTi _ 3 teritoriuli mTlianoba _ 2 konfliqtebis mogvareba _ 1 momavali _ 4

jorj analizi

buSisa

da

mixeil

saakaSvilis

mier

warmoTqmuli

sityvebis amdenad,

Cveni

kompetenciisa da am statiis farglebs scildeba,

yuradRebas SevaCerebT mxolod ramdenime niuansze. rogorc vxedavT, orive prezidentis gamosvlebSi didi upiratesobiT figurirebs cneba "Tavisufleba", masTan SedarebiT "demokratia" gacilebiT iSviaTad xsendeba; amasTan, "Tavisufleba", gansakuTrebiT aSS-is prezidentis sityvaSi,

"mSvidobasTan"

asocirdeba

("Tavisufali

sazogadoebebi

xom

mSvidobian sazogadoebebs warmoadgenen"); "Tavisuflebas" (da ara demokratias)

prezidenti buSi xatovnad Tavisi qveynis savizito baraTs uwodebs.

"pasuxismgeblobas"

uaRresad mniSvnelovan

orive

prezidenti

sul

3-jer

axsenebs,

magram

konteqstSi; aSS-is

prezidenti,

"TavisuflebisaTvis

globalur brZolaSi", pasuxismgeblobis TvalsazrisiT, saqarTvelos amerikis

gverdiT ayenebs, lamis Tanabari statusiT:

"rogorc Tavisufal qveynebs, akisriaT

xSirad

amerikasa

da

saqarTvelos

rom

didi

pasuxismgebloba

da

Cvens

movaleobebs erTad SevasrulebT."

sagulisxmoa, aSS-is prezidenti gacilebiT axsenebs

"saqarTvelos" da "qarTvels" (28-jer), vidre Tundac saqarTvelos prezidenti

(anu, maspinZeli, sxva faqtorebze rom araferi vTqvaT) _ "amerikas" (18-jer). "rezonansis" mTavari redaqtori laSa tuRuSi, buSis vizitis Sedegebisadmi miZRvnil saredaqcio statiaSi, pirvel rigSi, swored aSS-is 198

prezidentis mier warmoTqmuli siyvebis mesijebs euyrdoba: "pasuxismgeblobaa is umniSvnelovanesi sityva, romelic yvelaze aqtualuria qarTuli saxelmwifosTvis. Zalian sapasuxismgebloa is roli, romelic saqarTvelos "vardebis kerZod, revoluciis" didi Semdeg ganusazRvra amerikis prezidentma buSma,

regionis

transformaciis

xelSewyobis:

"saqarTveloSi

ganxorcielebuli demokratiuli procesebi centraluri aziis transformacias Seuwyobs xels". saqarTvelos saxelmwifos, aseve, gaaCnia pasuxismgebloba im moqalaqeebis 11.05.2005) am publikaciaSi laSa tuRuSi konfliqtebis mogvarebasTan dakavSirebul (da ara mxolod!) sayuradRebo informacias gvTavazobs (sagulisxmoa, rom Semdgom wlebSi ganviTarebulma movlenebma daadastura misi marTebuloba): "Cvenma wyarom, romelic uSualod eswreboda saakaSvilis buSTan Sexvedras, gviTxra, rom daxurul Sexvedraze buSma pirdapir ganacxada, rom gvirCevs, rogorc mxolod megobari, mSvidobiani Tanac gziT winaswar, teritoriuli da rom is mTlianobis ver problema saomar mimarTac, romlebic saqarTveloSi cxovroben." ("rezonansi",

movagvaroT

dauWers

moqmedebebs mxars. Tanac, amas ambobs dRes imisaTvis, rom xval rame ar iyos gaugebari. Tumca, iqve iTqva, rom isini aucileblad dagvexmarebian konfliqtis mowesrigebisas. es iqneba Zalian realuri daxmareba, oRond mSvidobiani formebiT. cota xnis win, natos generalurma mdivanma sxeferma ganacxada, rom saqarTvelos nato-Si gawevrianebis perspeqtivebi realuria, miuxedavad mis teritoriaze konfliqtebTan zogierTma politikosma dakavSirebuli viTarebisa. es mokled, gaigo ise, man Tqva, Zalian mkafiod, Tanac pirvelad, rom nato-s kari Riaa saqarTvelosTvis. saqarTveloSi ratomRac TiTqos

saqarTvelos iReben nato-Si afxazeTisa da cxinvalis regionis gareSe. saqme is aris, rom nato-s arc erT oficialur dokumentSi ar weria, rom konfliqti, anu, saqarTvelos msgavsi situacia, aris qveynis am organizaciaSi gaerTianebis Semaferxebeli Seuqcevadi aRniSna), faqtori. problema rogorc ara samarTlebrivi, aramed politikuri (rac buSmac

xasiaTisaa. amdenad, mniSvnelovania dasavleTSi dainaxon, rom saqarTveloSi procesebia, aseve, saxelmwifos Rrmad buSis mSeneblobis (Seuqcevlad) vizitTan

samSvidobo dasawyisSive

procesis aRvniSneT,

ganviTarebis." dakavSirebul

("rezonansi", 11.05.2005) rogorc gamoxmaurebebSi emocia sWarbobs da amgvari publikaciebi gamonaklisis saxiT gvxvdeba. Sesabamisad, sainformacio sivrceSi igrZnoba erTgvari ukmarobis

199

ganwyoba _ rom saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobasTan dakavSirebiT aSS-is prezidentma mkveTrad ar gamoxata Tavisi pozicia. Tu · · · · · erTad davajgufebT jorj buSis gamosvlebSi am problemasTan

dakavSirebul mesijebs, aseT suraTs miviRebT: saqarTvelos liderebma ician, rom konfliqtebis mSvidobiani mogvareba aucilebelia transatlantikur aliansSi integraciisaTvis; saqarTvelos damoukideblobasa da teritoriul mTlianobas yvela

qveyana unda scemdes pativs; Cven gvyavs transatlantikuri megobrebi saqarTveloSi da yovelTvis dagexmarebiT Tqveni miznebis misaRwevad; ...visaubreT regionuli sakiTxebis mSvidobian mogvarebaze, romelic

Tqvens qveyanas awuxebs; moxaruli var, rom meqneba saSualeba vimuSao baton prezidentTan, Tu igi · · mommarTavs aseTi TxovniT, mxari davuWiro iseTi problemebis

gadaWraSi, rogoricaa afxazeTi da samxreT oseTi; imeds gamovTqvam, rom TanamSromlobis safuZvelze SegviZlia es

problemebi mSvidobianad movagvaroT; darwmunebuli var, rom saqarTvelos Cveni daxmarebiT SeuZlia seriozul progress miaRwios maTi mogvarebis sakiTxebSi. uaRresad sayuradRebod gveCveneba afxazeTsa da e.w. samxreT oseTTan mimarTebaSi ara mxolod prezident buSis, aramed saqarTvelos prezidentis, mixeil saakaSvilis mesiji: "miuxedavad vardebis revoluciis warmatebisa, Cvens qveyanaSi aris mxareebi, sadac qarTvelebs warTmeuli aqvT Tavisufleba. afxazeTsa da cxinvalis regionebSi Cveni moqalaqeebis izolaciaSi yofnas wertili unda davusvaT, maT unda mivceT Tanabari SesaZleblobebi, raTa demokratiisa da Tavisuflebis pirobebSi ganviTardnen." rogorc vxedavT, saqarTvelos prezidentis motivacia Tavisuflebaa da ara vTqvaT, istoriuli samarTlianobis aRdgena (sxvaTaSoris, istorias man didi roli daakisra Tavis gamosvlaSi, magram ara dakarguli teritoriebis konteqstSi). "Tavisufleba" ki, prezident buSis sityvaSi aseTi "sqemiTaa" ganfenili: 1989 wels wamowyebuli brZola TavisuflebisaTvis qarTvelebma 2003 wels Rirseulad daasrules; Sedegad _ Tavisufali da damoukidebeli qveyana _ saqarTvelo regionSi sanimuSo magaliTs warmoadgens;

Tavisufali

da 200

demokratiuli qveynis Senebisas amerikeli xalxi qarTvelebis gverdiTaa da saqarTvelos ar mouwevs am gzis marto gavla!

Tavisufali

mSvidobian

sazogadoebebi

xom,

aSS-is da,

prezidentis rogorc

formulirebiT, aRvniSneT,

sazogadoebebs

warmoadgenen

zemoT

TavisuflebisaTvis globalur brZolaSi prezidenti buSi saqarTvelos Tavis

mokavSired miiCnevs. logikurad, buSisa da saakaSvilis mesijebis saerTo reziume aseTia: Tu "WeSmariti Tavisuflebis Senebisas" "qarTul miwaze danTebuli cecxli mTel msoflioSi Rvivdeba!", "RmerTis mier miniWebuli uflebiT" sargeblobis saSualeba "TavisuflebawarTmeul qarTvelebsac" unda mieceT. gazeT "mravali "24 saaTis" presombudsmeni, Sromis nayofs", nodar ladaria, sainteresod da

aanalizebs aSS-is prezidentis sajaro gamosvlas, misi sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, profesionalis "mSvenieri kompoziciisa

damafiqrebeli Sinaarsis", uaRresad adamianuri da Sinauruli dasawyisis mqone sityvas, mis Setyobinebebsa da niuansebs. paralelurad, ladaria

"saxeldaxelod SeTxzul sityvas" uwodebs Tvisuflebis moedanze prezident saakaSvilis gamosvlas, romelic, Cveni azriT, Tundac afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT oseTis problemis amgvari rakursiT warmodgenis gamo, namdvilad ar tovebs "saxeldaxelos" STabeWdilebas. unda aRvniSnoT, rom sagangebo mzadebam aSS-is prezidentis Sesaxvedrad, sabWoTa kavSiris kompartiis genmdivnis, breJnevis vizitebis (saqarTveloSi) asociaciac gaaCina presaSi. sayuradReboa, rom molodinis sawinaaRmdegod, prezident saakaSvilis gamosvlebi _ parlamentSi gamarTul brifingze Tu Tavisuflebis moedanze, arRvevs "qveSevrdomuli" da "vasaluri" mimarTvebis stereotips da piriqiT _ erTgvari zomieri ambiciurobiTac aris gajerebuli. samagierod, mimarT daculia qarTuli eTnosisTvis da damaxasiaTebeli erTgvarad _ istoriis

amaRlebuli,

romantikuli

miTologizebuli

damokidebulebis stereotipi. 2005 wlis 30 maiss, moskovSi, miRweul iqna SeTanxmeba saqarTvelodan ruseTis samxedro bazebis gayvanis Taobaze. sakvirvelia, magram presas es umniSvnelovanesi faqti ar daukavSirebia buSis vizitis SedegTan. samagierod, presas yuradRebidan ar gamohparvia saqarTvelos prezidentis mier tonis mkveTri Serbileba ruseTis mimarT. "saqarTvelos urTierToba", gamarTul _ unda ruseTTan mixeil bazebis mWidro, megobruli, keTilmezobluri kancelariaSi SeTanxmebas 201

ganacxada da

saakaSvilma gayvanis

saxelmwifo miRweul

brifingze

Taobaze

istoriuli gambedaoba,

movlena aCvena

uwoda: mSvenieri

"mimaCnia,

rom

prezidentma alRo,

putinma

gamoiCina azris

politikuri

moaxdina

saRi

demonstrireba da gadadga Tamami politikuri nabiji da me ar SemiZlia, es ar davinaxo. saqarTvelo mzad aris yvela sakiTxi _ usafrTxoebis, terorizmTan brZolis, ruseTis geopolitikuri interesebis iseTi gaTvaliswinebis sakiTxi, sadac isini mTlianad emTxveva saqarTvelos interesebs (da aseTi gadakveTis Zalian bevri veqtori arsebobs), sruli masStabiT gaiTvaliswinos da

yovelgvari daZabuloba Cvens urTierTobaSi warsuls Cabardes." ("saqarTvelos respublika", 31.05.2005) saqarTveloSi aSS-is prezidentis vizitis faqtorma garkveuli periodiT (april-maisi) muxti da gaaneitrala Seuwyo presaSi mis xelisuflebisken met-naklebad mimarTuli pozitiuri negatiuri ganwyobis

xeli

garSemo

koncentracias; ivnisis TveSi ki suraTi mkveTrad Seicvala da xelisuflebis mimarT konfrontaciuli damokidebuleba sakmaod gamZafrda. TiTqmis

weliwadnaxevris manZilze ufunqciod darCenili politikuri Zalebi (ra Tqma unda, ar vgulisxmobT mmarTvel partias _ "nacionalebs") da samoqalaqo seqtori gamococxldnen da TandaTan xelisuflebasTan oponirebis reJimSi gadaerTvnen. ara mxolod am niSniT, aramed, saerTodac, "vardebis revoluciis" Semdgomi periodis presisTvis jorj (iseve rogorc qveynis, xelisuflebisa iyo, da sazogadoebisTvis) buSis viziti erTgvari mijna romelmac

amaRlebul notaze daasrula revoluciuri eiforiis periodi.

202

daskvna

Cveni Seswavlisa da kvlevis sagani iyo drois informaciuli analogis _ presis mier gamokveTili ZiriTadi sazogadoebriv-politikuri aspeqtebi da aqcentebi. ramdenad Seesabameba es analogi saqarTvelos maSindel sazogadoebriv-politikur viTarebas? Tu am naSromSi araerTxel damowmebul gigi TevzaZis wigns ("saqarTvelo: Zalauflebis dabruneba") moviSveliebT da gavixsenebT, rom eduard SevardnaZis periodis saqarTvelos demokratia iyo "simulirebuli", xolo "Tavisufali masmedia", arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan erTad, iyo simulaciis realobis damadasturebeli agenti (25, 40), maSin unda vTqvaT, rom media sakmao warmatebiT asrulebda demokratiis "Sirmis" rols. meore mxriv, Cveni kvlevis Sedegi gvaZlevs saSualebas davaskvnaT, rom mocemul realobaSi, arsebuli SesaZleblobebiT, qarTulma presam mainc

moaxerxa Seeqmna met-naklebad adekvaturi mediasuraTi saanalizo periodSi (2000-2005 wlebi) ganviTarebuli sazogadoebriv-politikuri procesebisa. da am suraTis Seqmnis meTodebi, xerxebi, formebi, profesiuli done da a.S. imdenad Seesabameba "gardamavali moTxovnebs. maCvenebladac Tanamedrove mediis standartebs, ramdenadac saqarTveloSi

demokratiis" xarisxi Seesabameba ganviTarebuli demokratiis ufro metic, presa saqarTvelos demokratiuli toraZis ganviTarebis zemoxsenebul iTvleboda. davimowmebT maia

sadisertacio naSroms: "saerTaSoriso organizaciebisa da eqspertebis mier presa bolo aTwleulSi sazogadoebis yvelaze demokratiul segmentad

miiCneoda." (69, 2) ZiriTadi sazogadoebriv-politikuri aspeqtebi, romelic prioritetuli iyo saanalizo periodis presisTvis, sadisertacio naSromis sarCevSivea

mocemuli da aRar gavimeorebT; amasTan, Cven SevecadeT disertaciis TiToeul monakveTSive gadmogveca Sesabamisi daskvnebi; ramdenime zogadi daskvna ki, 2000-2005 wlebis qarTuli presis Taobaze, ase SeiZleba CamovayaliboT: · raodenobrivi simravlis miuxedavad, saanalizo periodis presa ar qmnida qveynis sazogadoebriv-politikuri gamocemebidan cxovrebis pluralistur azris suraTs;

mravalricxovani

"sazogadoebrivi

generatoris"

funqcias, umeteswilad, 3-5 gamocema asrulebda (gansakuTrebiT, 2000-2003 wlebSi); · sityvis gaTavisuflebis pirveli etapis gadasvla TavisuflebasTan

pasuxismgeblobis Sexamebis momdevno stadiaze, saxelmwifo interesis gamoxatvis simptomebi, qarTul presaSi SeiniSneba 2002 wlidan, roca 203

saqarTvelo

akeTebs aSS-is

ganacxads

nato-Si iwyeba

Sesvlis

survilze, da

roca

saqarTveloSi, programa" da a.S. ·

daxmarebiT,

"wrTvnisa

aRWurvis

saanalizo periodis presa gamoirCeva politizebis maRali xarisxiTa da personificirebis "siyviTlisaken" tendenciiT; (Sesabamisad, gamocemebis da umetesoba midrekilia amis

skandalebisa

"sensaciebisaken");

gamo umTavresad presis yuradRebis arealSi eqceva ara sazogadoebrivad aqtualuri, aramed "kuluarul informaciebsa" da "sarwmuno wyaroebze" agebuli Temebi; wina planze wamoweulia presis interpretaciebi da ara verificirebuli faqtebi; · TiTqmis yvela umniSvnelovanesi ganixileba aspeqti qveynis sazogadoebrivbrZolebisa da

politikuri imas, rom

cxovrebisa presis

saxelisuflo

pirovnuli dapirispirebis WrilSi; personebze orientireba ar niSnavs yuradRebis eqcevian; arealSi sazogadoebriobis iqcevs farTo mxolod isev

warmomadgenlebi saxelisuflo ·

presis garkveuli

yuradRebas kategoria,

personebis

politikosebi,

presis meSveobiT generirebuli e.w. cnobadi saxeebi. ara mxolod informaciis, xSirad komentaris pirvelwyaros dadgenac SeuZlebelia, radganac presa iSveliebs "eqspertTa azrs", romlis miRmac zogjer, SesaZloa, rac isev Jurnalistis, eqspertebs, an aqac gamocemis ori pozicia

igulisxmebodes.

Seexeba

ukiduresoba

SeiniSneba _ an wlebis manZilze mudmivad erTi da igive eqspertebs mimarTaven (magaliTad, zaqareiSvili, Cveulebrivi TiTqmis ramaz ramaz yvela Temisa gia da da sakiTxis soso an, ama komentirebisTvis cincaZe, Tu im rangSi; paata dargis raxan

sayvareliZe, klimiaSvili

nodia, a.S.);

specialisti

warmodgenilia aspeqtebi

eqspertis

sazogadoebriv-politikuri presaSi eqspertebi

prioritetulia, yoveldRe,

Sesabamisad, ara mxolod

figurireben

TiTqmis

mimdinare procesebis, aramed, nebismieri politikuri Tu skandaluri frazis komentirebis sababiT. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom "vardebis revoluciis" wina periodSi (2002-2003 wlebi), presam, saerTo jamSi, sakmaod kargad gaarTva Tavi sazogadoebis samoqalaqo aqtivobis gazrdis funqcias, dasavluri orientaciisaken swrafvas; SesaZloa, zedmeti iluziac Seuqmna TavisTavsa da sazogadoebasac, rom isini, qveynis politikuri cxovrebis "saqmis kursSi" arian (detalebisa da 204 kuluaruli Worebis CaTvliT), maSin, roca es "aisbergis wveri" iyo da Cveni

qveynis sazogadoebriv-politikuri cxovrebis ganmsazRvreli procesebi, arc Tu iSviaTad, wyalqveSa mdinarebiT miedineboda. presam, movlenebisTvis win gaswrebac aiZula sazogadoebas (ar daaloda saarCevno rotacias) da didi wvlili Seitana "vardebis revoluciaSi". amasTan, rogorc sadisertacio naSromis pirvel TavSi aRvniSneT,

"vardebis revoluciis" Semdgom periodSi erTgvarad damuxruWda qarTuli mediis donis ganviTarebis daweva; es, procesi; cenzurisa da TviTcenzuris kadrebis sxva garda (rac

telemediasTan mimarTebaSi ufro aSkaraa), mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs profesiuli JurnalistTa profesiuli sferoebSi gadanacvlebis garda, Cveni azriT, imanac ganapiroba, rom am etapze media (gansakuTrebiT, presa) aRar ganixileba iseT mniSvnelovan aqtorad,

rogoradac "vardebis revoluciis" wina periodSi. jerjerobiT CvenSi samoqalaqo sazogadoeba ar misula im kondiciamde, rom masmedias sazogadoebis interesis biznes-garemo gamoxatva "aiZulos". amasTan,

mediisTvis

araxelsayreli

ganapirobebs

sazogadoebriv-

politikuri presisa da e.w. bulvarulis daaxloebas, an sulac erTmaneTSi aRrevas; amdenad, usamarTloba politizebis iqneba rom medias davakisroT mTeli

pasuxismgebloba

maRali

xarisxis,

sazogadoebis

"fxizeli

guSagis" funqciis verSesrulebis, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis aspeqtebisaTvis gverdis avlis gamo. ar unda vecadoT iluziis Seqmnas, TiTqos Jurnalists SeeZlos Tavisi damkveTis/damqiraveblis, xolo redaqcias _

gamomcemlis/mepatronis interesis ignorireba. "problema is ki ar aris, rom masobriv sainformacio saSualebebs ar SeuZliaT axali ambebis xarisxiani gaSuqeba, aramed is, rom sazogadoeba amas arc iTxovs", _ amboben "amerikuli demokratiis" avtorebi _ qeneT janda, jefri m. beri da jeri goldmeni. (77, 151) "moqalaqeebi Tanabari cinizmiT gaimsWvalnen mediisa da politikis mimarT, radgan es ukanasknelni mxolod erTmaneTTan awarmoeben dialogs da maT am urTierTobaSi aranairad arc monawileobs xalxi", _ esec amerikeli mkvlevarebis _ luis a. fridlendis, jei rozenis da liza ostinis Tvalsazrisia. (6, 13-14) ara mxolod es citatebi, aramed bil kovaCisa da tom rozenstilis cnobil wignSi ("Jurnalistikis elementebi") asaxuli, aTaswleulebis mijnaze amerikuli mediasivrcis viTarebis Seswavlis Sedegad miRebuli suraTi da daskvnebi ("farTo sazogadoebrivi interesis dakmayofilebis nacvlad, Cveni profesia zians ayenebs sazogadoebaso") (34, 10-11), bevri ramiT gvagonebs

qarTuli mediis winaSe mdgom problemebs. paradoqsia, magram faqtia, rom 205

demokratiulobis etalonad miCneul amerikul mediasa da "gardatexis asakSi" myof qarTul medias saerTo konceptualuri problema aqvT; rom sazogadoebis interesebidan gadaxveva mxolod qarTuli mediis dilema ar aris. oRondac, gansxvaveba isaa, rom Cvenma mediam "mokleze moWra" da gamotova ganviTarebis is etapi, romelmac dasavluri media sazogadoebis "fxizel guSagad"

Camoayaliba. demokratia, upirvelesad, arCevanis Tavisuflebis uzrunvelyofaa.

qarTuli presac, Cveni azriT, maSin gadava ganviTarebis ufro maRal etapze, roca Seiqmneba jansaRi konkurenciisa da pluralizmis garemo da farTo arCevanis saSualeba miecema ara mxolod mediamomxmarebels, aramed, Tavad mediasaSualebebsa da Jurnalistebs.

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152. "rezonansi", "saqarTvelo aris sasinji qva, romelic ruseT-amerikas Soris urTierTobas gaarkvevs, "rezonansi", 10 ianvari, 2001 153. rusitaSvili, Tea, "didi politikuri SeTqmuleba csk-Si da revanSi 2,5 milionad", "qronika", 20 maisi, 2002 154. sanebliZe, armaz, "saqarTvelo-ruseTis urTierToba axal fazaSi

Sedis", "saqarTvelos respublika", 2 dekemberi, 2001 155. saqarTvelos prezidentis pres-samsaxuris gancxadeba, "saqarTvelos

respublika", 2 agvisto, 2002 156. saqarTvelos prezidentis radiointerviu, "saqarTvelos respublika", 6 agvisto, 2002 157. telekompaniebi: programebi, 2002 158. tuRuSi, laSa, saredaqcio statia, "rezonansi", 22 maisi, 2000 159. "uol sTriT jornal", "moskovis uzarmazari zewola saqarTveloze", "droni", 13 ianvari, 2001 160. faCulia, merab, "saqarTvelo optimizmis mixedviT msoflioSi meorea", "rezonansi", 17 ianvari, 2005 161. firaliSvili, zaza, "gaWianurebuli revolucia", "marTali gazeTi", #^3,4, ivlisi, 2000 162. RoRoberiZe, zurab, "Sexvedra moskovSi _ saqarTvelosTvis brZola gadamwyvet fazaSi Sedis", "7 dRe", 24 maisi, 2000 163. SatakiSvili, rezo, "ratom gvaSineben katastrofis molodiniT, anu ra gansxvavebaa Suqsa da zviads Soris", "dilis gazeTi", 20 noemberi, 2000 164. CafiZe, eliso, "wrTvnisa da aRWurvis programa ar unda CaiSalos", "rezonansi", 20 ivlisi, 2002 165. CafiZe, eliso, "morige redaqtoris sveti", "rezonansi", 1 agvisto, 2002 166. WabaSvili, kaxa, "saqarTvelo mesame msoflio omis wina xazze", "axali meridiani", 24 seqtemberi, 2001 167. xatiaSvili, qeTi, "ruseTi Tu DdasavleTi... iqneb neitraliteti?", "alia", 13 Tebervali, 2001 168. xatiaSvili, qeTi, "nino burjanaZis sensaciuri reitingi", "alia", 2 seqtemberi, 2003 169. xatiaSvili, luka, "dRes SevardnaZes buSis saidumlo werils gadascemen", "rezonansi", 3 agvisto, 2002 170. xorbalaZe, Tamar, "didi" klounada" saqarTveloSi", "droni", 8 "I arxi", "me-9 arxi", 4-6 ianvris sainformacio

dekemberi, 2001 216

171. xurciZe,

mamuka,

"ruseTis

qarTvelofobiuri

demarSebi

yovelgvar

kompromiss gamoricxavs", "axali meridiani", 12 oqtomberi, 2001

217

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Microsoft Word - DISERTACIA - sruli

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