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axali qarTuli literaturis istoria

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ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

axali qarTuli literaturis istoria

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axali qarTuli literaturis istoriis kaTedris mier momzadebuli winamdebare wigni warmoaCens im wvlilsa da damsaxurebas, romelic XIX saukunis, kerZod misi meore naxevris, mwerlobas miuZRvis mravalsaukunovani qarTuli literaturis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. saxelmZRvanelo gankuTvnilia umaRlesi saswavleblebis humanitaruli fakultetebis studentebisa da farTo mkiTxveli sazogadoebisaTvis.

saredaqcio kolegia: iuza evgeniZe Tengiz kikaCeiSvili (redaqtori) lado minaSvili (redaqtori) salome yubaneiSvili jumber WumburiZe

recenzentebi: daviT wowkolauri ivane jagodniSvili

© Tbilisis universitetis gamomcemloba, 2010

ISBN 978-9941-13-166-0

saredaqcio kolegiisgan

ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis axali qarTuli literaturis istoriis kaTedram pirvelad 1956 wels, xelmeored ki 1972 wels gamosca `axali qarTuli literaturis istoriis~ saxelmZRvanelos I wigni. winamdebare naSromi warmoadgens `axali qarTuli literaturis istoriis~ saxelmZRvanelos meore nakveTs, romelic moicavs periods XIX saukunis 60-iani wlebidan saukunis dasasrulis CaTvliT. qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi miTiTebuli xana azrovnul-literaturuli mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva. bunebrivia, rom politikur, socialur Tu literaturul TvalsazrisTa naTesaobis gverdiT Sesabamis poziciaTa dapirispirebulobac arsebobs, magram azrTa am Widilis regulireba qarTuli sazogadoebriv-literaturuli azrovnebis udidesma figuram -- ilia WavWavaZem iTava da epoqis saukeTeso moRvaweebTan da did SemoqmedebTan erTad mxolod azrTa sxvadasxvaobis procesSi dabadebuli WeSmaritebis Rirebuleba gamokveTa. aseTi pozicia Rrmad ganWvretili da bunebrivic aRmoCnda, radgan, principulad, qarTvel mwerlebsa da moazrovneebs kvebavda da asazrdoebda, urTierTTan akavSirebda saqarTvelosa da qarTveli kacis erovnul-socialur, zneobriv, pirovnul Tavisuflebaze fiqri. amitomac gaxda am epoqis literatura saTanadod pasuxismgebeli eris maSindeli sulieri da fizikuri mdgomareobis warmoCenis didad mniSvnelovan saqmeSi, amasTan, is dResac qarTveli eris momavali Rirseuli arsebobis udidesi funqciis matarebeli fenomeni gaxlavT. winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo konkretulad aSuqebs XIX saukunis meore naxevris qarTuli literaturuli azrovnebis procesebs, avlens maT specifikas ganviTarebis sxvadasxva etapze, ikvlevs calkeul mweralTa cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis istorias, afasebs maTi publicistikisa da mxatvruli nawarmoebebis sazogadoebriv-politikur, filosofiur da eTikur mniSvnelobas, aanalizebs Txzuleba5

Ta enobriv-stilistikur da stilistur qsovils da yovelive amiT saTanadod amzeurebs eris epoqalur sulier kulturas, fsiqikur wyobas, ideologiuri moZraobis bunebas. saxelmZRvanelos meore nakveTis avtorebi arian: pr.kekeliZe (`akaki wereTeli~), a. Wilaia (`giorgi wereTeli~), gr. kiknaZe (`vaJa-fSavela~), ap. maxaraZe (`aleqsandre yazbegi~, `baCana~), s. xuciSvili (`anton furcelaZe~, `sofrom mgalobliSvili~, `ekaterine gabaSvili~), b. bardaveliZe (`daviT kldiaSvili~), j. WumburiZe (`XIX saukunis 60-70-iani wlebi~, `XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebi~), l. minaSvili (`ilia WavWavaZe~, `ioseb daviTaSvili~), i.evgeniZe (`niko lomouri~, `egnate ninoSvili~, `saukunis dasasruli~), T. kikaCeiSvili (`Tedo razikaSvili~).

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XIX saukunis 60-70-iani wlebi

60-iani wlebi gansakuTrebuli mniSvnelobis periodia ruseTisa da saqarTvelos azrovnebis istoriaSi. rogorc cnobilia, moicavs yirimis omis Semdegdroindel aTeul wels da xasiaTdeba didi socialuri erupciebiT. 60-iani wlebi garkveuli cnebaa da, maSasadame, Tavisi Sinaarsis matarebeli. 60-iani wlebis umniSvnelovanesi Sedegebia ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis mZlavri aRmavloba da batonymuri institutis mospoba. am ukanasknel movlenas axasiaTeben rogorc gadatrialebas, rasac Sedegad mohyva sazogadoebis erTi formis Secvla meoriT -- batonymobisa kapitalizmiT. Cven ar gamovudgebiT am periodis sazogadoebrivi procesebis ganmsazRvreli ekonomikuri faqtorebis daxasiaTebas. specialur literaturaSi es kargad aris cnobili. amJamad CvenTvis sainteresoa aRvniSnoT, rom saqarTvelo, romelic me-19 saukunis damdegidan Cabmuli iyo ruseTis imperiis saerTo ekonomikur cxovrebaSi, kvaldakval mihyveboda ruseTis ganviTarebas. marTalia, am mxriv is ramdenadme yovelTvis CamorCeboda imperiis centraluri guberniebis temps, magram ganviTarebis procesi analogiuri iyo. aseve literaturisa da xelovnebis sferoSic saqarTvelo, istoriuli aucileblobis Sedegad, ruseTis kulturis ganviTarebis gzas mihyveboda da yoveli didi istoriul-sazogadoebrivi moZraoba maleve poulobda aq gamoZaxils. ueWvelia, rom am mxrivac zogierTi mniSvnelovani literaturuli procesi ramdenime wlis mogvianebiT iCenda Tavs CvenSi, magram sxvaoba arcTu ise didi iyo. yovel SemTxvevaSi, revoluciur-demokratiuli ganwyobilebani, brZola batonymobis winaaRmdeg da ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis saerTo aRmavloba, d.WonqaZisa da, gansakuTrebiT, TergdaleulTa gamosvlis Semdeg, faqtia, mebrZoli, realisturi literaturisa da xelovnebis mniSvnelovani problemebi, romlebic 60-iani wlebis rusma moRvaweebma gaaSuqes, ZiriTadad, amave dros da amdagvaradve gadaWres qarTvelma samocianelebmac. am TvalsazrisiT 60-iani wlebi saqarTveloSi Sinaarsobrivad da qronologiurad met-naklebad emTxveva ruseTis 60-iani wlebis moZraobas. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom socialur protests, rac upiratesad batonymobis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli, saqarTveloSi daemTxva Zlieri erovnulganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba. Cveni qveynis politikuri mdgomareobis TvalsazrisiT es savsebiT kanonzomieri movlena iyo. momwifebuli sazogadoebrivi problemis Sedegad erovnuli grZnobisa da Segnebis axali safexuri gamovlinda da patriotulma tendenciam, romelic Cvens mwerlobas yovelTvis axasiaTebda, 60-iani wlebis literaturaSi axali ZaliT iCina Tavi. saqarTveloSi 60-iani wlebisaTvis niSandoblivi yvela es momenti Cinebulad daaxasiaTa i. WavWavaZem Tavis cnobil statiaSi `werilebi qarTul literaturaze~: `TvalnaTlad dasanaxia, rom samocian wlebSi axali xana dawyebul iqna... samocian wlebSi yvelaze uwinares gamobrwyinda daviwyebuli sityva `mamuli~ mTelis Tavis gulTmimzidvel da didebul mniSvnelobiTa ... aRdgenilma mamulma dahbada mamulis siyvaruli, mamulis-Sviloba da sakvirveli ar aris, rom misi warsuli, misi awmyo da mermisi kvlevisa da gamoZiebis sagnad Seiqmna. `vina varT da rani varT~ -- am zRvaebr farTo sakiTxs Semoejara gars Cveni mwerloba ...proziT Tu leqsiT, yvela hRaRadebda adamianobis darRveul uflebis saxeliTa da TviT mosaqme cxovrebis gankargebis wyurviliTa. am egreT-wodebul `realurma mimarTulebam~ Cvenis azrianobisam Cveni goneba daakvirva Cvens miwier av-kargi-

anobas da samocian wlebidan dRevandlamde, am ocdaaTi wlis manZilze, bevri sayuradRebo Rvawli dasdo, bevri nayofieri Tesli dahyara samermisod. ... samocian wlebamde -- al. WavWavaZedam dawyebuli -- Cveni poezia TiToorola magaliTebs garda, isic ormocdaaTian wlebis bolo xanebSi, dahfufunebda Cvenis didkacobis gulTa-Tqmas, TiTqos ukadrisobs amaT gare raime sagani upovos poezias. samocian wlebma am viwrod SemoRobils sarbiels Cveni poeziisas Tavisi talRa gahkres da Semoamtvries Robeebi. am xanaSi moRvaweebma miagnes rom mdabioTa cxovrebaSiac aris adamianuri gulTa-Tqma; rom am mdabioTa guli igive zRvaa, saca Tu ara meti, naklebi margalitebi ar aris glovisa da sixarulisa, Wirisa da lxinisa, Zulebisa da siyvarulisa; rom am mdabioTaca aqvT Tavisi idealebi, Tavisi sanatrelebi, oRond ki kacs madli hqondes amaebis danaxvisa, amaebis gamoxatvisa~.1 sadavo ar aris, rom is, rac samocian wlebSi Cvenma mwerlobam Seqmna, upirveles yovlisa, qarTuli sinamdvilis adgilobrivi sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis Sedegi iyo. savsebiT momwifda niadagi axali ideebis warmoSobisa da ganviTarebisaTvis. amave dros am axals organuli kavSiri ar gauwyvetia erovnuli warsulis did tradiciebTan, swored amitom, gasuli saukunis 60-iani wlebis memkvidreoba Cveni erovnuli kulturis sasicocxlo interesebs gamoxatavda. magram cxadia isic, rom axali tendenciebis intensiur ganviTarebas didad Seuwyo xeli rogorc evropis, aseve ruseTis progresulma azrovnebam. gansakuTrebiT mowinave rusulma kulturam `didi zemoqmedeba iqonia~ saqarTvelos inteleqtualuri cxovrebis winsvlaze, TviTon ilia aRniSnavda 1889 wels, gahyurebda ra ganvlil gzas: `Tqma ar unda, rom rusulma literaturam didi xelmZRvaneloba gagviwia warmatebis gzazed da didi zemoqmedeba iqonia yovels maszed, rac Cvens suliers ZalRones Seadgens da Cvens gonebas, Cvens azrs, rom grZnobasa da erTob Cvens mimarTulebas zed daaCnia man Tavisi avkargianoba. ar aris dRes CvenSi arc erTi moRvawe da moqmedi kaci mwerlobaSi, Tu sazogado saqme sarbielzed, rom Tavisufali iyos xsenebul literaturis zegavlenisagan. sakvirvelic ar aris: rusulma skolam -- mecnierebam gagviRo kari ganaTlebisa da rusulmave literaturam moawoda sazrdo Cvens gonebasa da gamohkveba Cveni azri moZraobis gzazed~.2 am mxriv qarTveli samocianelebis ideur-SemoqmedebiT evoluciaSi gansakuTrebuli roli Seasrules rusma revolucioner-demokratebma -- b.belinskim, n.CerniSevskim, n.dobrolubovma... Cveni moRvaweebi xSirad emyarebodnen maT avtoritets. cnobilia, rom polemika rusuli presis furclebze n. CerniSevskis samagistro Sromis garSemo (`xelovnebis esTetikuri damokidebuleba sinamdvilesTan~, 1855 w.) am wignis meore gamocemis Semdeg daiwyo; 1865 wlidan gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda interesi `esTetikuri damokidebulebisadmi~ da igi gacxovelebuli msjelobis sagnad iqca (daibeWda soloviovis statiebi JernalSi `oteCestvennie zapiski~, zaicevis recenzia `russkoe slovoSi~, antonoviCis statia -- `Tanamedrove esTetikuri Teoria~ -- `sovremennikSi~, pisarevis `esTetikis ganadgureba~ da sxv).3 sagulisxmoa, rom Cvens samocianelebs adreve, sanam es didi xmauri atydeboda presis furclebze CerniSevskis wignis garSemo, miuqceviaT yuradReba `saratoveli seminarielis~ SromisaTvis da, TergdaleulTa pirveli gamosvlebidanve, xelSesaxebi gaxda rusi moazrovnis gavlena mowinave qarTul inteligenciaze.

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i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, III, 1953, gv. 224-230. i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, VIII, 1957, gv. 332. 3 ix. n. C e r n i S e v s k i , rCeuli filosofiuri Txzulebani, saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademia, Tb., 1955, komentarebi, gv. 652-653.

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isic cnobilia, rom 1862 wlis ivlisidan Zneli da saxifaTo iyo CerniSevskis saxelis damowmeba oficialuri presis furclebze. TviT n. nikolaZe, romelic, saerTod, CerniSevskis gavlenas xazgasmiT aRniSnavs Tavis mogonebebsa da publicistur werilebSi, 70-iani wlebis dasasrulisTvisac ki iZulebulia presaSi SemovliT ilaparakos CerniSevskize.1 miuxedavad amisa, 60-ian wlebSi ramdenjerme gamoCnda CerniSevskis saxeli TviT Jurnal `ciskarSi~. pirvelad ant. furcelaZem axsena igi i. WavWavaZesTan polemikis dros: `ara, uf. WavWavaZe, Cvena da Tqven am SemTxvevaSi belinskoba da CerniSevskoba ar gamogvadgeba! jer koWic aris unda migvigvandes imaTa da mere mivbaZoT~.2 Semdeg uloRikom daasaxela CerniSevski, rodesac daviT yifians ekamaTeboda: `aq, me vici, uf. yifiani Tvalebs damibrialebs da SemomWyivlebs: maS, Sen avtoritetebi ginda, avtoritetebis pativiscema da ara gandevna!! maS, Sen `sovremenniki~ ar wagikiTxavs! maS, Sen CerniSevskisa ara wagikiTxavsra! maS Sen, dobrolubovis wignebSi ar Cagixednia!..3 rogorc vxedavT, n.CerniSevskis saxeli ara marto damowmebulia am avtorebis mier, aramed rusi moazrovnis mniSvnelobac aris aRiarebuli. yovelive es imaze miuTiTebs, rom rusi revolucioner-demokratebis ideebis gavlena qarTvel mowinave inteligenciaze cxovelmyofeli iyo da man, upirveles yovlisa, Tavi iCina saliteraturo kritikis sferoSi. cxadia, rodesac am ideur-literaturul urTierTobaze vlaparakobT, yovelTvis unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom rusuli progresuli kulturis gavlena qarTvel moRvaweebze brma xasiaTisa rodi iyo. Cveni samocianelebi Segnebulad iTvisebdnen axal literaturul principebs da yovelive amas qarTul sinamdviles ufardebdnen. uwinares yovlisa, erovnuli mwerlobis saWiroebani, Cveni sinamdvilis konkretuli moTxovnilebani gansazRvravda qarTveli samocianelebis ideur-esTetikur mrwamss. amitom, bunebrivia, rom maT ara marto kritikulad aiTvises axali principebi, rogorc amas araerTxel dabejiTebiT aRniSnavs i. WavWavaZe, aramed, erovnuli kulturis saWiroebaTa mixedviT, mravali Taviseburebac gamoamJRavnes. xSir SemTxvevaSi Cvens samocianelebs gansxvavebuli azri da gza hqondaT. magaliTad, i. WavWavaZe, romelic, saerTod, iyenebda belinskis statias `vai Wkuisagan~, rodi iziarebda am statiis erT-erT ZiriTad Tezas, rom `yovelive arsebuli gonivrulia~ (Teza, romelic Semdeg TviT belinskim uaryo, aRebuli iyo hegelis moZRvrebidan) iseve, rogorc igi ar iziarebda belinskis Sexedulebas satiraze. Tavisi moRvaweobis pirvel periodSi, emyareboda ra hegelis zemoaRniSnul debulebas, imave statiaSi belinski amtkicebda, rom `satira ar SeiZleba iyos mxatvruli nawarmoebi~, ilias ki g.erisTavis, rogorc mwerlis, erT-erT damsaxurebad miaCnda swored satiris Semotana Cvens literaturaSi.4 aseve unda aRiniSnos, rom, marTalia, ilia sargeblobs belinskis recenziiT i.kozlovis leqsTa krebulze, magram igi savsebiT rodi eTanxmeba kozlovis poeziis belinskiseul Sefasebas. rusi kritikosisagan gansxvavebiT, ilia kozlovis poetur memkvidreobas srulebiT umniSvnelod miiCnevs da sxv.

1 ix. magaliTad, krebuli 1873, 4. dawvr. ix. s. xundaZe, masalebi qarTuli literaturisa da sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis istoriisaTvis, Tb., 1949. 2 ciskari, 1863, #3, gv. 445. 3 ciskari, 1863, #9, gv. 117. 4 i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , werilebi qarTul literaturaze, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. III, 1953, gv. 222. aq isic ar unda daviviwyoT, rom ilia, ra Tqma unda, belinskis saerTo Sexedulebebidan amodioda, belinskis kritikuli memkvidreobis saerTo xasiaTs iTvaliswinebda, angariSs uwevda ra misi Semoqmedebis meore periods.

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saerTod ki Cveni samocianelebi rusi revolucioner-demokratebis mier wamoyenebul principebs imarjveben mSobliuri literaturis kvleva-Ziebisa da analizis dros da amkvidreben saqarTveloSi realistur saliteraturo kritikas. amitom iyo, rom qarTvelma samocianelebma, kerZod ki Tergdaleulebma, SeZles SeeqmnaT farTo TvalTaxedviT aRWurvili, moqalaqeobrivi paTosiT aRsavse, mebrZoli literatura da kritika, romlis devizi sazogadoebrivi interesebis samsaxuri iyo, rac 60-iani wlebis inteleqtualur cxovrebas saerTod axasiaTebda. es Segnebuli mizanswrafva ase gamoxata im drois erT-erTma mowinave kritikosma da publicistma k.lorTqifaniZem: `Tu Cveni sakuTari interesi ar daCumdeba sazogado interesis win, maSin Cvens gzasa da kvals veravin gaigebso~.1 amitom qarTvel samocianelebs ar SeeZloT gaeziarebinaT kritikis karamziniseuli daxasiaTebis erTi mniSvnelovani momenti, rasac zogierTi qarTveli literatori imeorebda: `upirvelesi wesi kritikisa aris, -- rogorc hswers karamzini, -- umetesad vaqoT Rirsi qebisa, viremc vaZagoT, romlisa Zageba SeiZleba~.2 Cvens samocianelebs, piriqiT, miaCndaT, rom kritikis erTi upirvelesi movaleobaa dadebiTis CvenebasTan erTad Seufaravad amxilos naklovanebani da amitom igi unda iyos aqtiuri, mebrZoli da ukompromiso. 60-ian wlebSi gansakuTrebiT Zlierdeba polemika qarTvel literatorTa Soris. es garemoeba savsebiT gasagebia, ramdenadac amas ganapirobebda saliteraturo kritikis momwifeba da presis ganviTareba maSindel rTul socialur viTarebaSi. polemika bunebrivad Tan axlavs kritikas da, rac ufro maRal safexurzea es ukanaskneli, miT ufro xSirad iCens Tavs igi kritikis istoriaSi. 50ian wlebSi dawyebuli polemika 60-ian wlebSi didad farTovdeba da axal Sinaarssa da mniSvnelobas iZens. winaaRmdegoba e.w. Zvelsa da axal Taobebs Soris, uwinares yovlisa, saliteraturo kritikis sferoSi gamomJRavnda. jer `ciskris~ furclebze gaiSala paeqroba, xolo Semdeg `ciskarsa~ da `saqarTvelos moambis~ TanamSromlebs Soris. am xanebSi polemika arc erTi da imave rwmenis adamianebs Soris iyo iSviaTi. yovelive amis wyalobiT 60-iani wlebis periodi Zalze mravalferovani da sainteresoa kritikuli azris mkvlevarTaTvis. amJamad, rodesac istoriuli TvalsazrisiT SevxedavT 60-iani wlebis polemikas, unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom literatorTa Zveli Taobis warmomadgenlebic Tavisi qveynis Svilebi iyvnen. Cveni mizani is ki ar aris, rom erTi davamciroT, raTa meoris mniSvneloba gamovaCinoT, saqme ise ki ar unda warmovidginoT, rom Zveli Taobis literatorebi uvicebi da Cveni kulturis moZuleni iyvnen. maTac hqondaT TavianTi principebi, usazRvrod uyvardaT erovnuli mwerloba da Tu dros CamorCnen, es istoriuli aucileblobiT iyo ganpirobebuli. polemika Zveli Taobis literatorebsa da axal Taobas Soris gardauvali aRmoCnda, radgan pirvelni, umetes SemTxvevaSi, verc amaRldnen epoqis moTxovnebis gagebamde, xSirad ar esmodaT wamoWrili sakiTxebis principuli mniSvneloba. Jurnali `ciskaric~, romelic maT mier iyo daarsebuli, TandaTan CamorCa dros, Tumca man dasaxuli amocana Seasrula da didad Seuwyo xeli erovnuli literaturis warmatebas. is progresul rols TamaSobda Tavisi arsebobis pirvel wlebSi, magram TergdaleulTa gamosvlis Semdeg, romlebmac axali ideebi da principebi Semoitanes, `ciskarma~ TandaTan dakarga mniSvneloba, radgan veRar SeZlo samociani wlebis diad moZraobas kvaldakval mihyoloda. aman ganapiroba axali Taobis mier sakuTari organos -- `saqarTvelos moambis~ daarseba 1863 wels. marTalia, Jurnalma mxolod erTi weli iarseba, magram misi roli da mniSvneloba scildeba 60-iani wlebis farglebs. momdevno xanebSi

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ciskari, 1862, #9, gv. 48. a. s a v a n e l i , mkiTxvelTadmi, ciskari, 1857, #4, gv. 28.

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gamosuli perioduli gamocemebi (`droeba~ 1866 wlidan, `krebuli~ 1871 wlidan) didad arian davalebuli `saqarTvelos moambisagan~, agrZeleben mis tradiciebs da, `saqarTvelos moambis~ msgavsad, cdiloben axali ideebis Tanmimdevrulad gatarebas. ra principiT gamovida `saqarTvelos moambe~? movusminoT mis redaqtors -- i. WavWavaZes: `xelovnebasac imas movTxovT, rom sarkesaviT cxovreba gadmoices, raTa Cveni Tavi mis momxiblavis kalmiT cxovlad iyos warmomdgari Cven wina, raTa sicudec da sikeTec Cven davinaxoT... iq, cxovrebis ZirSi is ipovis bevr margalits da ufro bevr leqssa da lafsa; arc erTis gamoxatva ar unda aSinebdes xelovnebasa da arc meorisa, arc erTis gamoTqma da arc meorisa ar unda aSinebdes Jurnalsa~.1 `saqarTvelos moambe~ ZiriTadad sami sakiTxis gaSuqebas cdilobda: socialuri problema -- umTavresad batonymobis winaaRmdeg brZola, erovnul-ganmanTavisuflebeli moZraoba da realisturi xelovnebis danergva. am principebisaTvis Jurnals ar uRalatnia. am TvalsazrisiT unda SevafasoT `saqarTvelos moambis~ roli da mniSvneloba realisturi esTetikis da literaturis ganviTarebaSi. marTalia, 50-iani wlebis kritikam saerTod moumzada niadagi esTetikuri azris intensiur ganviTarebas 60-ian wlebSi, magram ar unda daviviwyoT, rom wina Taobis mweralTa Soris bevri dabejiTebiT icavda konservatorul da arqaul Sexedulebebs. literatorTa am jgufTan samocianelTa Sejaxeba aucilebeli iyo, ramac Cveni kulturis istoriaSi `ori Taobis brZolis~ saxelwodeba miiRo. magram samocianelTa mxareze iyo farTo ganaTleba, erudicia, istoriuli simarTle. Zalebi araTanabari aRmoCnda, da, bunebrivia, rom dawyebuli polemika literatorTa `Zvel~ da `axal~ Taobebs Soris ukanasknelis gamarjvebiT damTavrda. CvenTvis amJamad gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani ki is aris, rom am polemikam qarTvel mweralTa da kritikosTa mTeli Taoba gamoaCina. am Taobis upirvelesi warmomadgenlebi iyvnen: i. WavWavaZe da a. wereTeli. maT mxardamxar iRvwodnen: g. wereTeli, n. nikolaZe, k.lorTqifaniZe, a. furcelaZe da mravali sxva. maT yvelas erTi azri da miswrafeba aerTianebdaT. magram mainc gamorCeulia roli ilia WavWavaZisa, romelic 60-iani wlebis didi sazogadoebrivi da literaturuli moZraobis WeSmariti Tavkaci iyo da romelmac naxevari saukunis manZilze `kalTiT atara~ Cveni mwerlobis bedi da ubedoba. ukve misi pirveli literaturul-kritikuli statia -- `oriode sityva Tavad revaz Salvas Zis erisTavis kozlovis mier `SeSlili~-s Targmnazeda~, romelic 1861 wels gamoqveynda `ciskarSi~ (#4), axali Taobis literaturul manifestad iqca. aq Camoyalibebuli principebi daedo ZiriTadad safuZvlad axali Taobis Semdgom literaturul saqmianobas. mweralTa da kritikosTa am axalma Taobam erovnuli kulturis winaSe farTo problemebi dasaxa da qarTvel mkiTxvels didad gaufarTova TvalTaxedvis are. es axalgazrdebi sakmaod sworad arCevdnen Zveli da axali mwerlobis did warmomadgenlebs da, am mxriv, maT erTiani Tvalsazrisi hqondaT. es ki saSualebas aZlevda qarTvel samocianelebs ara marto axali saxelebi gaecnoT mkiTxvelisaTvis da am mxriv gaefarTovebinaT kritikuli msjelobis sfero, aramed kidec ganesazRvraT erovnuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis saWiro tendenciebi. yvela samocianeli mwerali da kritikosi samoRvaweo asparezze Camoyalibebuli SexedulebebiT, principebiT gamovida da amisda Sesabamisad daiwyo literaturuli saqmianoba. ra Tqma unda, es imas ki ar niSnavs, rom isini mwerlobas

1

i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , `saqarTvelos moambezed~, Txz. kr., t. III.

11

xelobad irCevdnen, raTa TavianTi azrebi eqadagnaT, am adamianebs hqondaT namdvili mowodeba Semoqmedisa da niWs is Rirsebac emateboda, rom maT icodnen, ra unda eTqvaT, esmodaT xelovnebis didi sazogadoebrivi daniSnuleba. swored samociani wlebis qarTulma kritikam sabolood gaucnobiera mkiTxvels xelovnebis buneba, funqcia da mizandasaxuloba. man ara marto daazusta da daasabuTa wina periodis kritikis mier wamoyenebuli debulebebi, aramed saerTod axali problemebi daayena; 60-iani wlebis literaturam daamkvidra CvenSi realisturi xelovnebis principebi da amitom dabejiTebiT SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom es iyo qarTuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis axali safexuri.

***

samocdaaTiani wlebi -- es aris batonymobis gadavardnis Semdegdroindeli periodi, romelic Tavisi politikuri da socialur-ekonomikuri tendenciebiT sakmaod gansxvavdeba 60-iani wlebisagan. saglexo reformam ver gaamarTla masze damyarebuli imedebi. amitom iyo, rom revoluciur-demokratiulad ganwyobili inteligencia Seufaravad akritikebda reformis Sedegebs, kerZod, Tavs esxmoda `droebiT valdebulTa instituts~. il. WavWavaZe aRniSnavda: `gamoicvleba 172 muxlis ZalaTa awindeli wilaRobili Rala da kuluxi Tu ara, mainc da mainc amas vityviT, rom es ar aris gvirgvini batonymobis saqmisa. eg Suagzaa ukeTesi maszed rac aris da uaresi maszed rac sanatrelia. magazed gaCereba yovlad SeuZlebelia. dRes Tu xval saWiroeba moiTxovs, rom glexi miwis patronad Seiqmnas... yvelaze umTavresi mizezi, romelic naymevsa da memamuleebis daxsnas xels uSlis da didad abrkolebs, is aris, rom naymevi mamuls ver iyidis, Tu mebatone amas ar moiwadinebs... batonymobaSi dabadebuls, batonymobaSi gamozrdils, rasakvirvelia, eZneleba, guli eTanaRreba, rom mis garSemo batonobas Zala aRara aqvs da fiqrobs raki wyals mivyevarT, xavss mainc moveWidoo. xavsad kidev mizeziani meoTxedoba gauxdia da amas magrad eWideba. rasakvirvelia, am gvaris mebatonisaTvis mamulis gayidva, romelic glexis srul ganTavisuflebas moaswavebs, sanatreli ar iqneba, radganac amiT moispoba is mizezi, ra mizeziTac dRes glexi Zalauneburad begaras uwevs~.1 amitom brZola batonymobis gadmonaSTebis winaaRmdeg erT-erTi upirvelesi amocana iyo qarTveli samocianelebisa, romelTa mxatvrul Semoqmedebasa da publicistikaSi sakmao sisruliT aisaxa 70-iani wlebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi. amitomaa, rom maT SemoqmedebaSi axali ZaliT iCens Tavs erovnul-ganmanTavisuflebeli moZraobis motivebic. araa SemTxveviTi, rom 70-iani wlebis damdegs aqveynebs ilia `glaxis naambobsac~ da `mgzavris werilebsac~. Cveni samocianelebi, kerZod ki Tergdaleulebi, kvlav am ori ZiriTadi Temis gaSuqebas eswrafvian, magram TandaTan aqcenti erovnul problemaze gadaaqvT, ramdenadac i. WavWavaZisa da mis TanamoazreTa SexedulebiT, batonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg upirvelesi sakiTxi `qarTlis bedis~ gadawyvetaa, aqeTken unda warimarTos mTeli erovnuli energia da mis gadaWras unda mohyves sxva problemebis mogvarebac. marTalia, 60-ian wlebSi arsebiTad damTavrda brZola `Zvelsa~ da `axal~ Taobebs Soris, samocianelebma faqtobrivad daamkvidres TavianTi socialurpolitikuri da esTetikuri Sexedulebebi, magram maSindel rTul sazogadoebriv pirobebSi winaaRmdegoba grZeldeboda da amitom moulodneli ar aris, rom 70-ian wlebSi igi kvlav gamomJRavnda mxatvrul literaturasa, publicistikasa da saliteraturo kritikaSi. brZolis ganaxleba gamoiwvia Semdegma faqtma: 1871

1

i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , `cxovreba da kanoni~. Txz. sr. krebuli, t. 6, 1956, gv. 25.

12

w. saqarTveloSi unda Camosuliyo imperatori aleqsandre II. Tavadaznauroba amzadebda imperatorisaTvis misarTmev adress. sagangebo yrilobam, TergdaleulTa gavleniT, daadgina moeTxova universitetis gaxsna TbilisSi, magram Tavadaznaurobis winamZRolma (marSalma) revaz andronikaSvilma mefis nacvlisa da kavkasiis saswavlo olqis mzrunvelis baron nikolais zegavleniT waradgina sxva mimarTva, romelSic, nacvlad universitetisa, moiTxovdnen kadetTa korpusis gaxsnas. igi Sedgenili iyo komisiis mier, romelSic Sediodnen g.muxran-batoni, d.jorjaZe, iase WavWavaZe, b.RoRoberiZe da m.TumaniSvili (am ukanasknelis zogi biografi saqmes cota sxvagvarad warmogvidgens da amtkicebs, rom m. TumaniSvili momxre iyo universitetis gaxsnisa). am `uqveSevrdomilesi~ grZnobis gamovlenam moTminebidan gamoiyvana i. WavWavaZe da amave wels dawera `gamocanebi~ da `kidev gamocanebi~. am pamfletebSi, romlebic imdroindeli gavleniani pirebis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli, iliam yvelas Rirseulad miuzRo. `gamocanebs~ gamoepasuxa grigol orbeliani da gaCaRda polemika. akakim es periodi daaxasiaTa, rogorc `ucenzuro mwerlobis~ gavrcelebis xana (ramdenadac es pamfletebi maSindel presaSi ki ar qveyndeboda, aramed xelnawerebis saxiT vrceldeboda). rogorc cnobilia, gr.orbeliani 60-ian wlebSi TaobaTa brZolaSi ar Careula. igi Wkviani da ukve cxovrebagamovlili kaci, grZnobda, rom simarTle axali Taobis mxareze iyo. magram axla, rodesac uSualod mis pirovnebasac Seexnen (Tumca iliam, sxvebTan SedarebiT, igi sakmaod rbilad gakenwla), gr. orbelianma wonasworoba dakarga da dawera Tavisi cnobili `pasuxi SvilTa~, romlis pirveli varianti (`gamocanebis pasuxis~ saTauriT) gacilebiT uxeSia, vidre mogviano, 1874 wlis redaqcia. gr. orbelianma am leqsSi sastikad gakicxa axali Taoba. mas umecreba, laCroba, gadagvareba dasdo bralad da amayad miuTiTa `mamaTa~ warsulze. `Svilebs~ enis waxdenac ki daayvedra:

`maT uswavlelTa, cru rusTavelTa sul wagvibilwes ena mdidari, ena maRali, mis Zali, madli uwyalod waxda uwmindurT xelSi!~

da didma poetma da aristokratma ase daitira saqarTvelo:

`he, sasurvelo gmirTa mamulo, nuTu Sen marTlad esred damcirdi, rom Sensa bedsa, Sensa imedsa daexelmwifnen cru poetebi? cru liberalni, patriotebi, mesxi, mevele, meliq-aRebi?!~

ilia WavWavaZes upasuxod ar dautovebia es pamfleti da leqsSi `pasuxis pasuxi~ (1872 w.) ukve aRar dazoga mxcovani poeti:

`...Cven vvleT ruseTi, magram arc erTi, xeloba Tqveni ar gviswavlia, Cveni qveyana, mkvdari Tqvengana, Tqvenebr Cinebzed ar gagvicvlia~.

iliam piriqiT dasdo bralad `mamebs~ `enis waxdena~:

`is ar xarT Tqvena, rom RviZli ena brZanebiT dasTmeT aRmosakveTad?! SiSiT -- arc karSi da aRarc saxlSi mas aRar xmarobT Tqvenda sarcxvenad~.

13

ilias mxedvelobaSi hqonda senator giorgi muxranskis wignaki ` ~ (1872 w.), sadac avtori patara erTa enis asimilaciis garduvalobas amtkicebda did erTa enasTan. ilia werda:

`pirvel Tqvenganma, ima bedSavma, mas mkvdris sudara gadaafara~.

amitom ilias ufleba hqonda ganecxadebia:

`Tqvengan gmobili, Tqvengan ltolvili ena Cvens qoxSi Cven SevifareT, kargad Tu avad Cven mas vinaxavT da mis sikvdiliT ar gagaxarebT~.

i. WavWavaZem 1872 wels moaxerxa `droebaSi~ (#35) gamoeqveynebina leqsi `rCeva~, romelic imave g. muxranskis winaaRmdeg iyo mimarTuli. 70-iani wlebis am polemikaSi Caebnen s. mesxi, n. nikolaZe, a. wereTeli da sxvebi. kerZod, akakim amave xanebSi dawera alegoriuli pamfleti `enebis gasamarTleba~, romelsac aseTi SeniSvna daurTo: `vuZRvni g. muxran-batons~ (leqsis dabeWdva akakim mxolod 1874 w. SeZlo `droebaSi~), xolo gr. orbelians 1872 w. gamoepasuxa leqsiT `xarabuza Renerals~, romelSic mowinaaRmdeges aseTi ganaCeni gamoutana:

`iaranal-xarabuza, sityviT sworo, saqmiT kuza, dagikargavs Seni muza! bzzu, bzzu, buza-buza~.

akakim gr. orbelianis warsuli `demokratobac~ gaixsena: `novRorodis liberaloo~ -- ase mimarTa. SeiZleba akaki aq gulisxmobs poetis dRiurebs `mgzavroba Cemi tfilisidam peterburRamdis~ (1831-32ww.), sadac `novgorodis respublikis~ apologiaa mocemuli. gamoricxulia, rom akaki gacnobili yofiliyo am nawarmoebs, ramdenadac `mgzavrobis~ erTaderTi cali 1832 w. SeTqmulebis saqmeebSi inaxeboda. aq ufro gr. orbelianis warsulis zepir gadmocemasTan unda gvqondes saqme. 1872 w. akakim `droebaSi~ dabeWda feletoni -- `axmed-faSa kaxaberi~, romelSic CarTulia adre dawerili leqsi `farSavangi~. feletonica da leqsic mimarTulia gr. orbelianisa da saerTod `mamebis~ winaaRmdeg. alegoria metad gamWvirvalea da mkiTxveli advilad xvdeba, Tu viszea laparaki. 1875 w. `droebaSive~ dabeWda akakim alegoriuli xasiaTis leqsi `Zveli da axali weli~, xolo amas mohyva cnobili `patriotis aRsareba~, romelSic CarTulia leqsebi: `bobolebis baiaTi~ da `koRo-buzebis pasuxi~. `Tqven sxva xarT da Cven sul sxva, ara gvaqvs-ra saerTo~ -- ganacxada akakim da amiT sabolood gaTiSa TaobaTa gzebi. gr.orbeliani axali Taobis am polemikur Txzulebebs oficialurad aRar gamoxmaurebia, magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom man pozicia Seicvala. 1876 w. mas dauweria satiruli xasiaTis leqsi -- `droebis~ aTi wlis iubile -- ferxuli da buqna~. im dros, rodesac qarTvelma sazogadoebam zeimiT aRniSna am progresuli gazeTis iubile, gr. orbelianma uaryofiTad Seafasa `droebisa~ da misi redaqtoris -- s. mesxis saqmianoba:

`fu am drosa uniWosa, ukacosa, rom `droeba~ win gviZRveba mesxiTa, Cveni enis, Cveni qveynis mfarvelad!!~

14

dasasrul, isic unda aRvniSnoT, rom 1874 w. gr. orbelianma `Zveli seminaristis~ fsevdonimiT `ciskarSi~ (9,10) dabeWda statia `mgzavroba svaneTisaken~. g. w. (ganxilva). igi mimarTulia giorgi wereTlis winaaRmdeg, kerZod, kritikuladaa ganxiluli `kikoliki, Cikoliki da kudabzika~ (g. wereTlis es nawarmoebi gamoqveynda `krebulsa~ da `droebaSi~ 1866-1873 wlebis manZilze). werili metad mniSvnelovania gr. orbelianis literaturul-enobrivi poziciis gasarkvevad. statiaSi Tavi iCina `mamaTa~ banakis moZvelebulma mrwamsma enis sakiTxSi, kerZod, es iTqmis leqsikisa da Zveli asoebis xmarebis Sesaxebac, rasac TavgamodebiT icavs gr. orbeliani. avtori arc imas malavs, rom igi p. ioselianis gramatikul Sexedulebebs emyareba. magram isic unda davsZinoT, rom, miuxedavad statiis zemoaRniSnuli tendenciisa, avtoris konkretuli enobrivi xasiaTis SeniSvnebi g. wereTlis misamarTiT, umetes SemTxvevaSi, marTebulia. gr. orbelianis brZola enis siwmindisaTvis am poziciidan udavod misaRebia. ar SeiZleba angariSi ar gaewios gr. orbelianis Semdeg gancxadebasac: `xSirad amboben awindeli mweralni: `xalxis enazed vhsweroTo~. maS, ra enaze unda dahsweron? magram es ki unda axsovdeT, rom xalxis ena aris mxolod masala SeumuSavebeli; vidre daxelovnebuli mwerali masalasa mas ar gadaarCevs, kargsa uvargisisagan ar gahswmends, ar gaamSvenierebs da didebulebiTa ar aRiyvans saliteraturos samflobeloSi; mere im galamazebulsa enasa gamSvenierebulis formiTa gadmohcems mosaxmareblad isev imasve xalxsa, romelic aris patroni enisa da romelica SeiTvisebs imas, viTarca sakuTrebasa; da am saxiT umetes da umetes Svenierdeba xalxis ena da miT umetes naTldebaca misi goneba!~ anda: `risgan moxda, rom `saqarTvelos istoria~ da `kacia, adamiani!?~ ramdenjerme wavikiTxe didis siamovnebiT da kikolikis mgzavroba meCvena esreT sazizRrad? maS, amaT Soris, marTlad, romeli aris qarTuli?~ gr. orbelianis es gancxadeba ara marto axali qarTuli realisturi mwerlobis aRiarebis faqts gamoxatavs poetis mxriv, aramed im tendenciebis gagebasa da met-naklebad gaziarebasac, romelTac Tavi iCines saliteraturo enis sferoSi realisturi mwerlobis damkvidrebasTan erTad. 70-ian wlebSi, Tu, erTi mxriv, grZeldeboda brZola Zvelsa da axal Taobebs Soris, meore mxriv, axali Taobis warmomadgenelTa Sorisac gamomJRavnda winaaRmdegoba. rasakvirvelia, es ar niSnavs imas, rom Seicvala maTi saerTo Tvalsazrisi batonymobis gadmonaSTebis winaaRmdeg brZolaze, erovnul-ganmanTavisuflebel moZraobaze, xelovnebis sazogadoebriv daniSnulebaze da a.S. magram iyo sakiTxebi, romelTa gagebaSi gamomJRavnda gansxvavebuli Tvalsazrisebi. es, uwinares yovlisa, e.w. `axali axalgazrdobis~ jgufis poziciasTanaa dakavSirebuli. niko nikolaZem gamoaqveyna statiebi: `Cveni axalgazrdoba~ (krebuli, 1872, #2) da `axali axalgazrdoba~ (krebuli, 1873, #1), romlebSic Taviseburad Seafasa qarTvel samocianelTa moRvaweoba da maT daupirispira `axali axalgazrdoba~. n. nikolaZis sityviT, Zvelma Taobam ukve didi xania dakarga Zala da gavlena, misi CamorCenili konservatiuli Sexedulebani istorias Cabarda, magram Zveli Taobis `Caqolvisa da damxobis mizezi ufro cxovrebisa da garemoebis Zala iyo, vinem axali Taobis moqmedeba da brZola~. axal Taobas bevri ram aklda imisaTvis, rom gardaeqmna cxovreba, aklda gamocdileba, praqtikuli codna, igi ufro Teoriulad iyo momzadebuli da konkretuli praqtikuli moqmedeba ar SeeZlo, -- `am Taobas, am axal razms Seadgenda TiTqmis marto erTi kaci -- ilia WavWavaZe, romelic winamZRolic iyo da razmic, an, ufro sworad rom vTqvaT, urazmo winamZRoli iyo am axali Taobisa, romelsac Cvens cxovrebaSi fexi unda Semoedga~. es Taoba `erideboda Zvel Taobas, an, marTali vTqvaT, eSinoda misi. marto erTi mxriT SeeZlo am Taobas Zvelis daCagvra da daTrgunva, im mxurvale siyvaruliT, romelic axalgazrda gulSi unda Rviodes sazogado bednierebis da saqmisadmi, am

15

grZnobam, am siyvarulma aamaRla es Taoba sazogadoebis TvalSi da Seavso misi naklulevaneba cxovrebis codnaSi~ . ase calmxrivad Seafasa 70-ian wlebSi n. nikolaZem im Taobis saqmianoba, romlis erT-erTi warmomadgeneli TviTonac iyo da sxvebTan erTad Seadgenda im `razms~, romelsac ilia WavWavaZe Tavkacobda. ase rom, ilia ar iyo `urazmo winamZRoli~, mas Tanamoazrenica da TanamebrZolnic hyavda. es Taoba arc Zvel Taobas `erideboda~ da praqtikuladac bevri ram gaakeTa. n. nikolaZem win wamoswia vaWroba-aRebmicemobis saqme, e.i., erovnuli burJuaziis ganviTarebis sakiTxi da miiCnia, rom am saqmes saTaveSi unda Caudges `axali axalgazrdoba~, romelic ufro momzadebuli gamovida 70-ian wlebSi. 60-iani wlebis yvelaze niWier da `saimedo~ warmomadgenlebs n. nikolaZe mouwodebs mxarSi amoudgnen `axal axalgazrdobas~, raTa am ukanasknelma SeZlos masze dakisrebuli misiis Sesruleba. n. nikolaZe aRniSnavs, rom Tavis werilebSi man gadmosca axalgazrdobis survilebi, miswrafebani da azrebi, yovelive is, rac maTganve gaugonia. igi darwmunebulia, rom ` ... Cveni axali axalgazrdoba bevri aRar Camogavs uwindel Taobas, bevri mxriT win wasula imaze da im suraTs damsgavsebia, im ideals daaxloebia, romelic Cven gvenatreboda~. n. nikolaZe ara ubralod TanaugrZnobs am `axal axalgazrdobas~, aramed, rogorc Cans, winamZRolobasac kisrulobs. TviTon 60-iani wlebis moRvawe (romelic, sxvaTa Soris, axlac da Semdegac yovelTvis didi pativiscemiT ixseniebs i. WavWavaZes) n. nikolaZe ukve gamoyofs TanamoazreTa erT jgufs (g. wereTeli, k.lorTqifaniZe, s. mesxi, a. wereTeli) da maTTan erTad fiqrobs mxarSi amoudges 70-iani wlebis axalgazrdobas. ase iCina Tavi ganxeTqilebam 60-ianelTa Soris, rac imiT damTavrda, rom i. WavWavaZe TandaTan Camoscilda n. nikolaZis jgufs da 1877 wlidan sakuTari organos --`iveriis~ gamocema daiwyo. 70-ian wlebSi iwyeba qarTuli presis aRmavloba: kvlav gamodis 1866 wels daarsebuli `droeba~, romelSic Cveni mowinave inteligencia TanamSromlobs; kvlav ganagrZobs arsebobas Jernali `ciskari~ (1875 wlamde), romelmac Tavisi mniSvneloba dakarga. magram, rac mTavaria, arsdeba ramdenime axali perioduli gamocema. marTalia, `droeba~ agrZelebs `saqarTvelos moambis~ gzas, magram gazeTs ar SeeZlo Jurnalis magivroba gaewia. amitom 70-ian wlebSi kvlav mwvaved dgas Jurnalis gamocemis sakiTxi, rac qarTuli Jurnalistikis istoriaSi udavod mniSvnelovani movlenaa. n. avaliSvilis redaqtorobiT Jurnal `mnaTobis~ daarseba (1869-1872 ww.). `mnaTobis~ mesveurebs Tavidanve Segnebuli hqondaT, Tu rogoria, saerTod, presisa da, kerZod, Jurnalis movaleoba da mizandasaxuloba. ukve pirvelsave statiebSi aRniSnulia perioduli gamocemis roli sazogadoebis inteleqtualuri da zneobrivi ganviTarebis saqmeSi. am mxriv Jurnali iziarebs im principul debulebebs, romlebic ase kategoriulad wamoayenes da vrclad daasabuTes i. WavWavaZem da misma Tanamoazreebma. saerTod, `mnaTobis~ redaqcia imTaviTve cxadyofs Tavis simpaTias `saqarTvelos moambisadmi~ da Seufaravad eubneba mkiTxvels, rom Tavs am Jurnalis tradiciebis gamgrZeleblad Tvlis. aseve agrZelebs `saqarTvelos moambis~ tradiciebs meore Jernali `krebuli~ (1871-1873 ww.). misi TanamSromlebi -- n. nikolaZe, g. wereTeli, p.umikaSvili, nik. yifiani da sxvebi saTaveSi Caudgnen am periodis saliteraturo kritikis ganviTarebas. uwinares yovlisa, swored es adamianebi cdilobdnen Tanmimdevrulad gaetarebinaT realisturi esTetikis principebi da daecvaT qarTuli realisturi kritikis aRmavali xazi. isini cdilobdnen gamoxmaurebodnen erovnuli mwerlobis yovel axal movlenas, raTa mSobliuri literaturis ganviTare16

bisaTvis swori gezi miecaT. isic sayuradReboa aRiniSnos, rom Cveni moRvaweebi cdilobdnen erovnuli mwerlobis tendenciebi ukve 60-ian wlebSive ganexilaT sxva xalxTa literaturis analogiur movlenebTan kavSirSi da eCvenebinaT, rom yoveli erovnuli mwerloba saerTo literaturuli procesis ganuyofeli nawilia, rac 70-iani wlebis kritikosebma kidev ufro gaaRrmaves. qarTuli kritikis zrdasa da interesebis sferos gafarToebas mowmobs is faqti, rom swored am periodSi TandaTan ufro xSirad gvxvdeba rusul-evropuli mwerlobis calkeul warmomadgenelTa specialuri Sefaseba-daxasiaTebac. Jurnal `krebulis~ TanamSromelTa Soris am TvalsazrisiT, uwinares yovlisa, yuradRebas iqcevs n. nikolaZe -- Zalze nayofieri kritikosi, romelmac arsebiTad gansazRvra am organos literaturuli mimarTuleba da saqmianoba (JurnalSi igi statiebs aqveynebs umTavresad `skandelis~ fsevdonimiT). 70-ian wlebSi n. nikolaZe, rogorc kritikosi, daaxloebiT iseTsave rols TamaSobs, rogorsac i. WavWavaZe 60-ian wlebSi. n. nikolaZis literaturul-kritikulma werilebma didad Seuwyves xeli qarTul sinamdvileSi realisturi esTetikis principebis sabolood ganmtkicebas, kritikis amocanebis gafarToebas da, saerTod ki, Cveni mwerlobis ganviTarebis swori gziT warmarTvas. bunebrivia, n. nikolaZis winaSe imTaviTve daisva sakiTxi, Tu ra amocanebs isaxavs saliteraturo kritika da rogoria misi daniSnuleba. unda iTqvas, rom specialuri werili kritikis bunebasa da mniSvnelobaze XIX s. 70-ian wlebamde ar gvqonia. ama Tu im sakiTxis garkvevasTan erTad wamoiWreboda saWiroebac kritikis cnebis ganmartebisa. n. nikolaZe pirveli iyo, romelmac Jurnal `krebulSi~ 1871 wels gamoaqveyna specialuri statia -- `kritika da misi mniSvneloba literaturaSi~. `krebulSi~ gamoqveynebul n. nikolaZis sxva werilTagan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania i. WavWavaZis `glaxis naambobis~ ganxilva. unda iTqvas, rom es erT-erTi saukeTeso werilia XIX saukuneSi i. WavWavaZis Semoqmedebaze. mtkice, Camoyalibebuli Tvalsazrisi, msjelobis siRrme da piruTvneli damokidebuleba ganxilvis obieqtisadmi, statiis maRalkvalificirebul avtors warmogvidgens. n. nikolaZe Tavidanve Seecada ganesazRvra `glaxis naambobis~ adgili ilias SemoqmedebaSi. am mxriv man es moTxroba mwerlis `pirveli periodis~ Semoqmedebas miakuTvna da igi ganasxvava `kacia adamianisa~ da momdevno xanis sxva TxzulebaTagan, romlebSic kritikosi i. WavWavaZis `davaJkacebul gonebasa da niWs~ xedavs. CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa, rom am werilSi n. nikolaZem pirvelad wamoayena literaturaSi e.w. `Seuferavad~ asaxvis cneba. kritikosi axasiaTebda ra `glaxis naambobs~, miiCnevda rom masSi Cans `ucxoeTis mwerlobis gavlena~, rom avtors `mibaZva Tavidam ver aucilebia~ da a.S. am sxvaTa mwerlobis `mibaZvaSi~ n. nikolaZe gulisxmobs rusuli literaturis gavlenas axalgazrda iliaze, kerZod ki, im faqtze miuTiTebs, rom `glaxis naambobSi~ gamoxatuleba pova tendenciam, romelic am ociode wlis winaT damaxasiaTebeli iyo rusuli mwerlobisaTvis. kerZod beletristika, sacenzuro pirobebiT SezRuduli, cdilobda Sefarulad aReZra siZulvili batonymobisadmi, amas ki yvelaze ukeT imiT axerxebda, rom xatavda glexis uuflebo mdgomareobas, gviCvenebda, rom glexebic adamianebi arian, ician siyvaruli da a.S. erTi sityviT, cdilobda aReZra TanagrZnoba rusi glexisadmi. amitom am glexs mwerloba ramdenadme Selamazebulad, gaidealebulad warmogvidgenda: `am mwerlebis (grigoroviCis, potexinis, pisemskis, turgenevis, marko-vovCokisa da sxv.) naklovaneba imaSi mdgomareobda, rom isini glex-kacobas xatavdnen ise, TiTqo win namdvili glexi ki ara, maTi sakuTari Tavi yolodeT, glex-kacur farajaSi Cacmuli~. es mwerlebi tendenciurad xatavdnen yma-glexs, alamazebdnen mis sulier samyaros da, maSasadame, `Seufaravad~ ar asaxavdnen sinamdviles. n. nikolaZis azriT, istoriu17

li TvalsazrisiT, aseTi tendenciuroba gamarTlebuli iyo, magram igi mudmivad ver gagrZeldeboda. rac dro gadioda, rusuli literatura TandaTan unda ganTavisuflebuliyo zemoaRniSnuli naklisagan, kerZod, batonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg ukve aRar iyo saWiro rusi glexi kacis xasiaTis Selamazeba. am mxriv pirveli sityva `sovremennikma~ Tqva `Tavisi ufrosi TanamSromlis~ statiiT. xom ar aris es dasawyisi cvlilebisa? (n. nikolaZe gulisxmobs Tavisi maswavleblis -- n. CerniSevskis werils). marTlac, n. CerniSevskim am statiaSi aRniSna, rom reformamdelma rusulma literaturam Sealamaza rusi glexis xasiaTi, zne-Cveulebani da rom `Zlier idealizacias~ Tavisi safuZveli hqonda. magram mweral n.uspenskis magaliTze n. CerniSevski askvnis, rom daiwyo Semobruneba, uspenskis Rirseba swored isaa, rom igi `wers yovelgvari Seferadebis gareSe~. n. nikolaZe n. CerniSevskis swored zemoaRniSnul statias emyareba, rodesac `glaxis naambobsa~ da mis personaJebs axasiaTebs. mas miaCnia, rom gabrielis saxe rusuli literaturis zemodasaxelebuli tendenciis gavlenis Sedegia. sinamdvilis `Seuferavad~, Seulamazeblad aRwera miaCnia kritikas xelovnebis upirveles movaleobad. es `Seuferavi~ asaxva, ra Tqma unda, sinamdvilis ubralo aslgadaRebas, fotografiul Cvenebas ar gulisxmobda. n. nikolaZes kargad esmoda, rom xelovneba, kerZod, literatura sinamdvilis axali warmosaxvaa, axali mxatvruli sinamdvilea. n. nikolaZis moTxovna `Seufaravad~ asaxvisa cxovrebis marTlad, obieqturad asaxvas gulisxmobda da realizmis umTavres princips emyareboda. ase rom, n. nikolaZe agrZelebda samocianelTa mier ukve damkvidrebul Tvalsazriss da mas erovnuli literaturis konkretuli nimuSebis analizis dros iyenebda. n. nikolaZis es msjeloba Taviseburad gamoiyena 90-ian wlebSi g. wereTelma, romelmac daamkvidra `Seuferavi realizmis~ cneba. sinamdvilis `Seferilad~, `Selamazebulad~ asaxva man gamoacxada i. WavWavaZis da e.w. `pirveli dasis~ mxatvruli meTodis Tvisebad. aseve mniSvnelovania n. nikolaZis werili -- `gr. orbeliani~, romelic imave `krebulSi~ daibeWda. sayuradReboa iTqvas, rom XIX saukunis 70-ian wlebamde Cven ar gvxvdeba qarTveli mwerlebis mTliani Semoqmedebis analizi. 60-ian wlebSic ki Cven gvaqvs mxolod ama Tu im mwerlis calkeuli nawarmoebis ganxilva. n. nikolaZe am mxriv pirvelia, romelic gvaZlevs qarTveli mwerlis mTliani Semoqmedebis analizs da, unda iTqvas, rom gr. orbelianis poeziis amaze vrcelsa da srul ganxilvas qarTuli kritika ar icnobs XIX saukuneSi. 70-ian wlebSive iwyeba CvenSi xalxosnuri moZraoba, romelic Tavis met-naklebad srul gamoxatulebas 80-iani wlebis damdegis literaturaSi poulobs. 70-iani wlebis dasasruls iwyeba qarTuli mudmivi Teatris aRorZinebac. swored 1879 wels yalibdeba qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoeba, ramac biZgi misca 80-iani wlebis erovnuli dramaturgiis ganviTarebas.

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ilia WavWavaZe (1837--1907)

saqarTvelos istorias bevri didi mamuliSvilis saxeli amSvenebs. qarTveli xalxi amayobs Tavisi saxelovani gmirebiT, mwerlebiT, swavlulebiT. magram am sasaxelo mamuliSvilTa Soris gamoiyofian kidev rCeulni, romelnic amasTanave TavianTi qveynis moZRvarT-moZRvarnic arian. maT Soris, pirvel yovlisa, moCans monumenturi figura ilia WavWavaZisa, saqarTvelos sulieri da praqtikul-sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis warmmarTvelisa XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi. ilia WavWavaZe im dros moevlina saqarTvelos, rodesac Cvens qveyanas uaRresad sWirdeboda Tavganwiruli winamZRoli. ilia WavWavaZe eris beladis niSanTvisebebiT aRWurvili pirovneba iyo. man naxevari saukunis manZilze zida eris Tavkacis tvirTi; zida, vidre ar daeca qveynis sakurTxevelze, vidre msxverplad ar Seewira im ideas, romelsac Segnebulad Sealia Tavisi sicocxle. ilia WavWavaZe uaRresad mravalmxrivi moRvawe iyo, SemousazRvreli da TvalSeudgami. ilias mZlavri pirovneba moicavs moRvaweobis sruliad sxvadasxva sferos -- literaturas da xelovnebas, Jurnalistikas, istorias, iurisprudencias, filosofias, ekonomikas, soflis meurneobas... bunebrivia, amgvari viTareba arTulebs mis samyaroSi Sesvlas... magram amasTan ilia iyo monoliTuri pirovneba, mTliani da myari. misi mZlavri, Rrma da rTuli fizikuri da sulieri Zalebi erTiani iyo. misi didi neba da inteleqti axerxebda mTeli misi bunebis mravalmxrioba, SemoqmedebiTi da praqtikuli energia erTi miznisaken waremarTa, erTi, misTvis saarsebo, sasicocxlo moTxovnisaTvis daeqvemdebarebina. misi arsebobis erTaderTi forma iyo azriani cxovrebiT cxovreba. ilia WavWavaZis TiToeuli nabiji pirovnuli, sazogadoebrivi Tu literaturuli cxovrebis gzaze sinaTliTaa savse, mizanswrafulia. amgvari viTareba ki gansazRvravs misi Semoqmedebis samyaroSi Sesvlis xasiaTs. mTavaria moiZebnos is dedaZarRvi, rac mwerlis cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis Sinaarsad, misi arsebobis paTosad qceula da kvalSi Caudge, mihyve, igi Tavad gatarebs.

biografia

ilia WavWavaZe daibada 1837 wels `kaxeTis Tvalad~ wodebul sofel yvarelSi. es sofeli garemosilia ilias mier poeziaSi ukvdavyofili yvarlis mTebiT da alaznis momxibvlel vels gadahyurebs. daRestnis gzaze mdebare sasazRvro soflis cixis aReba faqtobrivad kaxeTis WiSkris Semoxsnas niSnavda. `saqarTvelos sazRvrebs am sadarajoze monapireobam gamoumuSava am mxaris mkvidrT Seudrekeli, rainduli suli~.1 mteri bevrjer cdila yvarlis aRebas. amgvar faqtebs XIX saukuneSiac hqonia adgili. TviT ilias mamas ramdenime gzis uwinamZRvria yvarlelebisaTvis da mteri vaJkacurad ukuuqceviaT. swored lekebTan Setakebis dros daiRupa ilias Zma konstantine. bunebrivia, es Setakebebic da maTSi iliasaTvis uZvirfasesi adamianebis monawileoba yrmis gulsac aT1 p . i n g o r o y v a , ilia WavWavaZe (biografiuli narkvevi), wignSi -- ilia WavWavaZe, Txzulebani aT tomad, t. I, 1951, gv. X.

19

rTolebda da garkveulad mis sulier formirebasac gansazRvravda, awrTobda. `kidev ufro Zalumad moqmedebda iliaze saucxoo buneba, romelic gars ertya yvarels. CrdiloeTiT burjis ukan aRmarTulia xSiri tyiT Semosili maRali mTebi. xeobaSi viwro biliki Cans, romelsac mgzavri ucxo mxareSi, daRestanSi mihyavs. am tyeSi raRac saidumloeba mefobs. are-mare Rrma siCumiT aris moculi. samxreTiT yvarlis vrcel zvrebs iqiT aTasfrad aWrelebuli mziani mxare iSleba. es aris saucxoo alaznis veli, romelic ilias Zlier uyvarda~.1 mainc yvarlis mTebma erTob aatokes momavali poetis guli. ramdenjer unatria mTrTolvare yrmas zviadi mTebis `amay Tavs~ Sexeboda; natrobda, rom `subuq qars~ moxveoda, raTa `Tavisufali arwivis Zlieri frTebiT~ laJvardi cis siRrmeSi aWriliyo. ilias mama, grigol WavWavaZe adre oficrad iyo namsaxuri. man sanaqebo mamobrivi mzrunveloba gamoiCina dediT daoblebuli Svilebis mimarT. grigoli mowinave Sexedulebebis kaci iyo, xelmokleobis miuxedavad Svilebis swavla-aRzrdaze izruna, Tanac TavadiSvilTa umravlesobis darad igi ar gahyva inercias -- Svilebi samxedro karierisTvis ki ar gaamzada, aramed samoqalaqo saswavlebelSi miabara. ara marto vaJebi, aramed ufrosi qali ninoc TbilisSi Camoiyvana swavlis misaRebad. grigoli Svilebis sulier Camoyalibebaze STambeWdavi monaTxrobiT da piradi magaliTiTac axdenda saTanado zemoqmedebas. `yvelas uyvars, Svilebo, Tavisi qveyana da roca uWirs, Znelia kacma umtyunos da Tavi ar gamoimetos~ -- ase sadad, Sinagani darwmunebulobiT, warsulis gmirebis savaJkaco saqmeebis moTxrobiT aRvivebda mama ilias sulSi mamulis winaSe keTilSobiluri valis grZnobas. darbaiseli, amasTanave erTob gonebamaxvili da sityvamoswrebuli grigoli gulCaTxrobilic yofila, gansakuTrebiT meuRlis gardacvalebis Semdeg. ilias erTi biografis sityvebiT, `es orive Tviseba -- niWi oxunjobisa da sastiki dumili, didxans yofna xmaamouRebliv, gamohyva mis SesaniSnav Svilsac~ (gr. yifSiZe). grigol WavWavaZe 1852 wels gardaicvala, ormocdaerTi wlisa, maSin ilia 15 wlisa iyo. ilias deda mariam beburiSvili Tbiliseli qali iyo, meuRlisa da ojaxis didi erTguli, didad gonieri, Tavisi drois kvalobaze nakiTxi, kargi mcodne qarTuli literaturisa. mariami gonivrulad zrdida Svilebs. igi sul mTlad axalgazrda gardaicvala 1848 wels, roca ilia mxolod aTi wlisa Sesrulda. mSobelTa saxeebi, maTi xsovna Rrmad CaebeWda gulSi ymawvils da mTeli cxovreba faqizad atara. mogvianebiT warsulis naRvelnarevi sitkboTi savse mogonebani bavSvobaze, mSoblebze man faqizad aRadgina saaxalwlo moTxrobaSi `nikoloz gostaSabiSvili~. daoblebuli bavSvebis movla-patronoba, rogorc xSirad momxdara, aqac mamidam, daqvrivebulma makrinem iTava. igi `burjad Seudga Zmis ojaxs~2 da arc mouklia mzrunveloba da siyvaruli ZmiSvilebisaTvis. yrmobaSive Tavsdatexilma ubedurebebma, mware tkivilebma mgrZnobiare da fiqriani bavSvi kidev ufro gulCaTxrobili gaxada. ilia Rrmad ganicdida martoobas da amasTanave uTqmelad iTmenda yovelives. es moTmena, gulSi uxmod Cakvla dardisa, mwuxarebisa, garegnuli SeumCnevloba `didis Sinaganis cecxlisa~ ilias bunebad eqca. mas, vinc ilias axlos ar icnobda, STabeWdileba rCeboda, rom ilia gulqva iyo, pirquSi. sinamdvileSi am garegnuli simkacris, zogjer

1 2

a r t u r l a i s t i , saqarTvelos guli, 1963, gv. 34. i . b e r o S v i l i , ilia da yvareli, 1977, gv. 11.

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ulmobelobis, iqiT Sinagani silbo, sinaze da didi siyvaruli ifareboda. ilias urTierToba axloblebTan, misi Semoqmedeba amas TvalsaCinod mowmobs. ilias swavla-aRzrdas Tavdapirvelad deda xelmZRvanelobda. ojaxSi, yrmobis wlebSi unda ziareboda igi qarTuli literaturis nimuSebs da maT Soris, pirvel yovlisa, qarTvelTa `xelixelsagogmanebel~ `vefxistyaosans~. rva wlis ilia WavWavaZe saswavleblad miabares soflis mTavar diakvans. aq, soflis skolaSi, iliasTan erTad ramdenime glexis biWic dadioda. mwerali Tavis avtobiografiaSi didi siTboTi igonebs soflis skolaSi gatarebul dros. mTavarTan siaruls didi zemoqmedeba mouxdenia yrmis sulze. maswavlebeli maincdamainc ar qancavda bavSvebis mexsierebas. drois ZiriTadi nawili TamaSSi gadioda. TamaSobdnen bavSvebi maswavleblis meTvalyureobiT. weras da kiTxvas sul erT saaTs andomebdnen. umTavresi Rirseba mTavrisa `is iyo, rom momxibvleli Tqma icoda ambebisa. gviambobda mdabiurad da bavSvisaTvis advilad gasagebis eniT ufro saRmrTo da samSoblo qveynis istoriis ambebsa, vis ra gmiroba moemoqmedna, vis ra falavnoba gaewia, vis ra Rvawli da sikeTe daeTesa samSoblos da sarwmunoebis sasargeblod da dasacvelad~. yrmis suli SeuZravs gmir winaparTa Tavdadebis ambebs. imdenad Rrma yofila mTavris monayolis zemoqmedeba, rom zogi ram ilias Semdgom gamouyenebia Tavis SemoqmedebaSi. TerTmeti wlisa ilia mamam TbilisSi Camoiyvana da jer erT-erT saukeTeso kerZo saswavlebelSi, raevski-hakes pansionSi, Seiyvana, xolo aqedan iliam swavla gaagrZela Tbilisis gimnaziaSi. ilias yuradRebas pansionsa da gimnaziaSi swavlisas maswavlebelTagan mainc hake iqcevs, ufro sworad, mexsierebam yvelaze Zalumad hakes saxe Semoinaxa: `hake germaneli iyo, yovelmxriv ganaTlebuli kaci... hake sastiki kaci iyo, magram Tan imodenad mamobrivs mzrunvelobas iCenda Tavis Segirdebis mimarT, imodenas cdilobda da yurs ugdebda maTs zneobrivsa da gonebrivs ganviTarebas, rom TiTqmis mTel Tavisufal dros klasSi mecadineobis Semdeg, imaT andomebda. xan emusaifeboda, xan arTobda musikiT da marTavda xeldaxel koncerts roialzed, romlis dakvrac saucxovod icoda~. es aris da es, rac Cven ilias pansionisa Tu gimnaziis drois maswavleblebze viciT. unda vifiqroT, rom ilia TviTonve hqmnis Tavis pirovnebas da Tavisi saqcielis, moqmedebis axsnas gare pirobebis, maswavleblebis ragvarobiT ar cdilobs. igi arc aqebs da arc aZagebs swavlis sistemas da maswavleblebs. ilias ojaxi erTob xelmokled cxovrobda. magram mamidam yovelnairad Seuwyo xeli da daamTavra Tu ara gimnazia, maSinve, 1857 wels ilia WavWavaZe gaemgzavra peterburgs swavlis gasagrZeleblad. aq igi Cairicxa universitetSi iuridiul fakultetze. ilia WavWavaZisa da misi Taobis axalgazrdebis peterburgSi Casvla daemTxva ruseTis sinamdvilisaTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovan, erTob mRelvare xanas. es iyo samociani wlebi, dro `sinaTlis sxivis bneleTis samefoSi~ SeWrisa (dobroliubovi). am droisaTvis rus samocianelebs saSualeba miecaT azris SedarebiT Tavisufali gamoxatvisa. ruseTSi mimavali ilias miswrafebebi da idealebi ukve gamokveTili iyo. peterburgSi wasuli ilia Tavisi qveynis `momavlis bedze~ zrunvis grZnobiT iyo Sepyrobili. am poziciidan afasebda ilia yovelives. peterburgSi myof qarTvel studentTa mowinave nawilisaTvis ilia iqca Zalad, avtoritetad da mis garSemo Semoikribnen kidec. ilias pirovnuli simyare, sidinje, didi erudireba iqca imis pirobad, rom igi axalgazrdebis jgufSi moTaved eRiarebinaT. ilia WavWavaZe da misi megobrebi interesiT adevnebdnen Tvals ruseTisa da dasavleT evropis sazogadoebrivi azris ganviTarebas da moazrovnis poziciidan afasebdnen yovelives. erTi sityviT, isini ara marto codnis dauflebas eltvod21

nen, aramed rusul sinamdvileSi TavianTi erovnuli poziciis Sesabamisad iseT azrebs irCevdnen, romelTa transformacia SesaZlebeli aRmoCndeboda qarTuli sinamdvilisaTvis. maSasadame, rusuli moZraobis, mowinave evropuli da rusuli azris ganxilva xdeboda qarTuli sazogadoebrivi interesebis aspeqtSi. peterburgis universitetSi ilia TviTganviTarebas eZleva. igi bevrs muSaobs; kiTxulobs bevrs, gansakuTrebiT politikuri da ekonomikuri sagnebiT interesdeba, safuZvlianad swavlobs evropul da rusul literaturas. peterburgSi myofi ilia qarTul niadags wamiT ar mowyvetia. swored aq, peterburgSi, gaicno man safuZvlianad Zveli qarTuli mwerloba. saqme is iyo, rom am dros prof. d.CubinaSvilma qarTvel studentebs gadasca salome batoniSviliseuli mdidari biblioTeka. swored am droisaTvis peterburgSi gansakuTrebuli ZaliT gaiSala ilias SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba. igi wers leqsebs: `xma samaridam~, `guTnis deda~, `qarTvlis dedas~, `gavswordeT bedo~, `muSa~, `aleqsandre WavWavaZe~, `nikoloz baraTaSvilzed~, `risTvis miyvarxar~, `gaxsovs turfav~ da kidev bevr sxvas. aqve iwereba poema `aCrdilis~ pirveli varianti. peterburgSi iwyebs ilia moTxrobis weras, romelic Tavdapirvelad ori nawarmoebis, moTxrobebis -- `kacia-adamianis~?! da `glaxis naambobis~ siuJets aerTianebda. amave dros iwyebs ilia mTargmnelobiT saqmianobasac. Targmnis goeTesa da Sileris, baironisa da haines, rukertisa da Senies, puSkinisa da lermontovis nawarmoebebs. rogorc vxedavT, peterburgSi yofnis dros ilia gansakuTrebuli SemoqmedebiTi produqtiulobiTac gamoirCeva da es imitomac, rom aq, ucxoeTSi, gacilebiT ufro didia dro fiqrisa, CaRrmavebisa, sakuTar gancdebze dakvirvebisa da gamoxatvisaTvisac. ilia WavWavaZis yvela biografi peterburgSi misi yofnis droidan gansakuTrebiT erT faqtze amaxvilebs yuradRebas. erT zafxuls ilia swvevia Tavis saxelovan naTesavs -- ekaterine WavWavaZe-dadianisas. aq misTvis uCvenebiaT n. baraTaSvilis xelnaweri krebuli, romelsac igi guldasmiT gascnobia. am xelnawers, Tumca igi adrec icnobda am poetis `ciskarSi~ gamoqveynebul zogierT leqss, gansacvifrebeli zemoqmedeba mouxdenia iliaze. `sami dRe gaognebuli dadiodao~- igonebs k. afxazi. im droidan mokidebuli ilia mTeli Tavisi cxovrebis manZilze genialuri qarTveli poetis popularizacias eweoda. misi uSualo damsaxurebaa n. baraTaSvilis saxelis gansakuTrebuli amobrwyineba CvenSi. peterburgis universitetis studentTa areulobasTan dakavSirebiT ilias universiteti ar daumTavrebia. 1861 wels igi saqarTveloSi dabrunda, sadac mas eloda `zeca sul sxvafrad damSvenebuli da sul sxva rigad damSvidebuli~... manamde ki, ramdenime TviT adre, iliam Jurnal `ciskarSi~ dasastambad gamogzavna Tavisi pirveli kritikuli statia `oriode sityva Tavad revaz Salvas Zis erisTavis mier kazlovidgan `SeSlilis Targmanzeda~, romelic Jurnalis aprilis nomerSi daibeWda kidec da didi polemikuri vnebaTa Relvac gamoiwvia. swored es werili gaxda 60-iani wlebis qarTul literaturul sinamdvileSi im kamaTis mizezi, romelic `TaobaTa brZolis~ saxelwodebiT aris cnobili. ilias am dros qarTuli literaturuli sinamdvilisaTvis sruliad uCveulo, mZafri satiruli toniT daweril werils maSinve gamoexmaurnen `ciskris~ avtorebi: barbare jorjaZe, giorgi baraTaSvili, TviTon `SeSlilis~ mTargmneli revaz erisTavi, xolo mogvianebiT sardion aleqsi-mesxiSvili. iliac TiTqos swored amas ucdida da TiTqos sababs eZebda, dauyovnebliv aqveynebs `ciskarSi~ `pasuxs~, sadac, garda imisa, rom oponentebs mkacrad akritikebs, pirvelad qarTul sinamdvileSi realisturi xelovnebis Teoriis mTel rig moTxovnebs wamoayenebs. male ilia WavWavaZem Jurnali `ciskari~ Seufereblad miiCnia Tavisi interesebis gamosaxatavad da Seudga zrunvas sakuTari Jurnalis daarsebisaTvis. cxadia, ax22

algazrda ilias, romelsac am droisaTvis arc literaturuli avtoriteti hqonda mopovebuli, arc diplomi gaaCnda da arc materialuri dasayrdeni, maincdamainc xelisuflebisaTvis arc politikurad Cans sando, advilad ar miscemdnen Jurnalis daarsebis uflebas. erTi iyo survili, magram meore iyo ndoba. da ai, axalgazrda poets Jurnalis daarsebis saqmeSi mxari dauWira da daxmareba aRmouCina gr. orbelianma. man `iSuamdgomla saTanado umaRlesi instanciis winaSe da amiT erTgvari pasuxismgeblobac itvirTa~ (i. evgeniZe). iliam miiRo Tanxmoba da 1863 wels gamovida i. WavWavaZis Jurnali `saqarTvelos moambe~. Jurnalma, marTalia, erTi weli iarseba (gamovida misi Tormeti nomeri), magram Znelia gadaWarbebiT Sefasdes misi roli qarTuli kulturisa da sazogadoebrivi azris ganviTarebis saqmeSi. 1863 weli kidev erTi mniSvnelovani faqtiT aRiniSna ilias cxovrebaSi. am wels ilia daqorwinda Tadeoz guramiSvilis asulze, olRaze, vinc mTeli sicocxlis manZilze ilias ganuyrel megobrad iqca da Rirseuli meuRleoba gauwia mas. `saqarTvelos moambis~ gamosvlidan erTi wlis Tavze iliam uari ganacxada Jurnalis gamocemaze, radgan is farTo da gabedulze gabeduli programa eris satkivaris, momavlis safiqralis gamoxatvisa, rasac ilia Tavis Jurnals usaxavda, sinamdvileSi, garkveuli mizezebis gamo, ganuxorcielebeli rCeboda. 1864 wlidan ilia iZulebuli iyo samsaxuri daewyo. Tavdapirvelad ilia quTaisis guberniaSi dainiSna general-gubernatoris calke mindobilobaTa moxeled, xolo male, batonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg, igi gadmovida duSeTis mazraSi jer momrigebel Suamavlad, xolo 1868 wlidan -- momrigebel mosamarTled. ilia WavWavaZem duSeTSi karga xani dayo. igi aq, periferiaSi muSaobis drosac, mouclelobis miuxedavad gafacicebiT adevnebda Tvals qveynis literaturul da kulturul majiscemas. am droisaTvis daasrula iliam `glaxis naambobi~, aqve gaukeTa saboloo redaqcia `mgzavris werilebs~, dawera `glexTa ganTavisuflebis pirveli droebis scenebi~, sabolood daamuSava poema `qarTvlis deda~, aqve Seiqmna `1871 weli, 23 maisi, parizis komunis dacemis dRe~, SesaniSnavi `Cemo kargo qveyanav~, didi pirovnuli ZaliT aRbeWdili satiruli leqsebi `ra vakeTeT, ras vSvrebodiT anu saqarTvelos istoria mecxramete saukunisa~, `bednieri eri...~ swored aqedan daesxa igi Tavs Tavisi `gamocanebiT~ da `kidev gamocanebiT~ did saxelmwifo moxeleebs da im qarTvel moRvaweebs, romelTac, misi azriT, bralad edebodaT im adresis Sinaarsis Secvla, saqarTveloSi Camosul aleqsandre meores rom miarTves 1871 wels. mowinave qarTveli inteligencia, ilias megobrebi kargad grZnobdnen, rom maT sWirdebodaT iliasTan uSualo kavSiri, misi uSualo xelmZRvaneloba. qarTveli inteligenciis warmomadgenlebi, rogorc n. nikolaZe gadmogvcems, ramdenime gzis asulan duSeTSi da iliasaTvis uTxovniaT, rom TbilisSi dabrunebuliyo. bunebrivia, rom iliasac guli Tbilisisaken mouwevda, isic frTaSekvecilad grZnobda aq, duSeTSi, Tavs. isic Sesaferis dros da viTarebas eloda da male es droc dadga. 70-ian wlebSi gadawyda saTavadaznauro bankis daarseba. idea am bankis daarsebisa ekuTvnoda didebul qarTvel moRvawe dimitri yifians, suli da guli ki am saqmis erovnuli SinaarsiT gamizvnisa da sabolood dagvirgvinebisa ilia WavWavaZe gaxda. iliam Zalian didi dro da energia Sealia jer bankis daarsebis, xolo Semdeg misi xelmZRvanelobis saqmes. erTi SexedviT es Tvgamodeba didi mwerlisa literaturul saqmianobasTan sruliad SeuTavsebel sferoSi bevrs gaugebradac ki moeCvena; mogvianebiT gaazrianda, rom ilia banks uyurebda ara rogorc wminda safinanso, aramed rogorc erovnul dawesebulebas. ilias mixedviT, jer erTi, banks qarTuli adgil-mamulebi ucxo Tesl-tomis warmomadgenelTa xelSi

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Cavardnisagan unda exsna, xeli Seewyo im qarTvel memamuleebisaTvis, romelnic qveynis sasikeTod Tavis miwas mouvlidnen da dovlaTs Seqmnidnen, meore mxriv, bankis mogebis didi nawili unda moxmareboda erovnul wamowyebebs. marTlac Semdgom gazeTi `iveria~, qarTuli Teatri, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba da sxva erovnuli dawesebulebebi swored bankis SemweobiTac suldgmulobdnen. ase rom, ilia WavWavaZisa da sxva qarTvel moRvaweTa bevri naocnebari ocnebadve darCeboda, Tu mamuliSvilur survilebsa da ocnebebs saTanado nivTieri SesaZleblobebic ar Seumagrebda safuZvels. faqtia, rom ilias mware gamocdileba hqonda -- `saqarTvelos moambis~ daxurvis erTi mizezi axalgazrda redaqtoris usaxsrobac iyo, da ai, didi xnis nafiqrs Sesaferisi Jamic daudga... 1877 wlisaTvis ekonomiurad momagrebulma iliam erovnul safiqralze saerTo gansjis mizniT daaarsa gazeTi `iveria~, romelic 1879 wlidan Jurnalad, xolo 1886 wlidan yoveldRiur gazeTad gadakeTda. didi xniT 80-90-ian wlebSi `iveria~ erTaderT organosac ki warmoadgenda Cvens qveyanaSi. misi mniSvneloba ganuzomelia qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azrisa da kulturis istoriaSi. swored aq, `iveriaSi~ gaSala didma iliam erovnul-gamaTavisuflebeli brZola. misi meTaurobiT gazeTma udidesi roli Seasrula qarTveli xalxis erovnuli Rirsebisa da TavisTavadobis dacvis saqmeSi. `iveriis~ garSemo ilia WavWavaZem Semoikriba Cveni mwerlobis saukeTeso Zalebi, xolo TviT redaqcia qarTvel mweralTa da JurnalistTa aRzrdis kerad aqcia. didi sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba gaSala iliam 80-90-ian wlebSi. am droisaTvis igi akaki wereTelTan erTad gaxda mudmivi qarTuli Teatris aRdgenis iniciatori, iniciatori qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoebis daarsebisa, romlis gamgeobis Tavmjdomare erTxans TviTon iyo. ilia WavWavaZis aqtiuri monawileobiT Camoyalibda `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba~, romelmac udidesi roli Seasrula ara marto qarTveli axalgazrdobis mSobliur enaze gasanaTleblad, aramed saerTod qarTuli kulturisa da mecnierebis aRorZinebisaTvis. ilia WavWavaZis meTaurobiT es sazogadoeba iqca `qarTveli xalxis erovnul TavSesafarad~. ilias isedac didi saxelis mniSvneloba, kidev ufro gaizarda am droisaTvis. igi Cveni eris azrisa da fiqris gamomxatveli Seiqna. gasagebia, rom es faqti ar moswondaT Cveni qveynis mtrebs... Tanac adgilobriv, TviT Cvens qveyanaSi, mravldebodnen dapirispirebuli Zalebi. mometebulad es iyo socialur moZraobas, politikas mitmasnili xalxi, visac aRizianebda, mosvenebas ukargavda misi didi avtoriteti, misi azrTampyrobeloba. isini cdilobdnen ilias didi saxelis gabiabruebas, lafSi amosvras. azris enaze maTTvis sruliad miuRweveli iyo ilias maRal gonebasTan, rkinis logikasTan dapirispireba, amitom upatiosno gzebiT cdilobdnen mas gasworebodnen. ilia ukompromiso, ulmobeli iyo aseTebis mimarT. 900-ian wlebSiac bevri daumsaxurebeli da uzneo dapirispirebisagan, usamarTlo brZolisagan jangatexili ilia mainc ar cxreboda da fxizlad adevnebda Tvalyurs qveyanaSi mimdinare movlenebs. 1905 wlisaTvis xalxis gamosvlebTan dakavSirebiT mefis mTavrobam jari Seusia soflebs Relvis dasacxrobad. ilia WavWavaZe didad zrunavda glexobaze, cdilobda, rom aecdina igi saSineli rbevisagan da amisaTvis arafers erideboda. 1906 wels ilia WavWavaZe arCeul iqna saxelmwifo sabWos wevrad, rogorc saqarTvelos Tavadaznaurobis warmomadgeneli. iliam arCevisTanave ganacxada, rom igi sabWoSi gamovidoda ara TavadaznaurTa saxeliT, aramed qarTveli eris saxeliT, iqneboda eris interesebis gamomxatveli da damcveli. aq, saxelmwifo sabWoSi, ilia mcirericxovan memarcxeneTa Soris, progresulad moazrovne inteligenciis warmomadgenelTa Soris aRmoCnda. ilias farTo gegmebi hqonda, igi moiTxovda saqarTve24

los avtonomias, qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalias. isic sayovelTaodaa cnobili, rom ilia ilaSqrebda sikvdiliT dasjis winaaRmdeg da am mxriv sityvasac ki amzadebda sabWoSi gamosasvlelad. am dros ki Cveni qveynis sulieri moZRvris garSemo Savbneli Zalebi iyrida Tavs, xolo 1907 wlis zafxulis miwuruls ilia WavWavaZes sicocxle mouswrafes imaT, vinc `saqarTvelosac mohklavdnen, rom SesZlebodaT~ (vaJa). Tavzardamcem dReebSi gazeTi `isari~ erTgvarad saerTo azrs gamoxatavda, roca werda, rom ilias mkvleloba `naZiralebis, teroristebis moqmedebaa... savalalo da saSineli is aris, rom Cvenma cxovrebam Seqmna is atmosfero, sadac aseT borotebas adgili aqvs da marjve niadagi momzadebuli~. qarTvelma erma udidesi gulistkiviliT daitira didi ilia da Tavis gulSi dagubebuli naRveli akakis, vaJas, iakob gogebaSvilis da sxva qarTvel mamuliSvilTa piriT gamoxata. akaki ilias cxedris win ambobda: `rogorc sicocxle, ise sikvdili Seni gaxda mizezi xalxis amoZravebisa... da vin icis, egeb sikvdiliT mainc ganamtkico is, rasac Seni sicocxle Seswire~. vaJa-fSavela glovis dReebSi ase afasebda ilias Rvawls: `mTeli 50 weli... saqarTvelos bedi kalTiT atara, iyo misi daraji, rogorc deda erTaderT Cvils Svilsa, ise dasZrwoda da dahkankalebda, an ar Semicivdes, an ar momiSivdeso. moseuls mters, vinc saqarTvelos isrebs esroda, igi pirveli agebebda Tavis mkerds, Semoqneuls xmals pirveli ufarebda farsa~... `nuTu visme fanatikosebs hgoniaT, rom iliebis xocviT mohkvlen TviT ideas, romelic ukvdavia da romelsac mxolod iliasTana adamianebs SeuZlianT emsaxuron~. ilias glovis dReebSi, roca mTeli qarTveli xalxi SeZrwunebuli da Tavzardacemuli iyo, gamoCndnen iseTebic, vinc Cveni qveynisaTvis am mZime Jams geslianad asisinda da erTgvari kmayofilebac ver dafara. ZiriTadad eseni social-demokratiuli partiis mesveurni iyvnen. cnobili qarTveli poeti irodion evdoSvili swored maTi misamarTiT aRSfoTebiT ambobda: `Tqven, romelnic ar malavT Tqven Rimilsa da sixaruls avazakebis mier gangmiruli didi mgosnis gvamTan, Tqven, romelnic nasiamovnebi darCiT misis sikvdiliT, SeekiTxeT Tqvens sindiss, ra daaSava iliam iseTi, rom is sikvdilis Rirsi yofiliyos. aSkarad da xmamaRla gamoaqveyneT es da ara quCis kuTxeebSi furCuliT. nuTu ar gesmiT, rom Tqveni Rimili vaSaa avazakebisadmi, rom igi TanagrZnobaa mwerlis jalaTebisadmi~.1 ilia WavWavaZis mkvlelobaSi eris WeSmarit mesveurTa, WeSmarit winamZRolTa xvedric iqna danaxuli. `gamoCenili, qveynis keTilmoRvawe, adamianebi sazogadod yvela devnili da wamebulni yofilan da arian dResac Savi Zalebisagan, romelTa ricxvi bevrad sWarbobs sindisierTa ricxvs~,2 -- werda cnobili qarTveli moRvawe konstantine gvaramaZe. ilias mkvlelobis dReebSi cxadad gamoikveTa erTi azric -- mowinave qarTvelma sazogadoebriobam ilias mkvlelobaSi Cveni erTgvari daudevrobac dainaxa, udardeloba... kerZod iTqva, rom maSin, roca ilias garSemo gaismoda Seuracxmyofeli ciliswameba, wamaqezebeli kiJina, ar gamoCnda arc romelime jgufi, arc romelime partia, Tu calke piri, romlebic xmas aimaRlebdnen, mkacrad dagmobdnen am ciliswamebas, ilias wmidaTawmida saxelsa da Rirsebas daicavdnen. erTi oratori ilias cxedarTan ambobda: `Cven rom ilia Tavis droze gagvecno, rom ilias namcnebi moZRvreba urTierTis sibralul-siyvarulisa, samSoblosTvis Tavdadebisa da qarTveli eris ganviTarebisa mSobel dedis rZesTan erTad gveqcia Cveni arsebobis sisxlad da xorcad, maSin arc dRevandeli marcxi ar Segvemilia WavWavaZis sikvdili da dasaflaveba, 1907, gv. 39. sarke ilia WavWavaZis cxovrebisa anu daxasiaTeba mokleT da martivad Sedgenili mesxi konstantine gvaramaZis mier, 1907, gv. 8.

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Txveoda, magram damnaSaveni varT yvelani dididan-pataramde Sens winaSe, sulo maRalo, arc kaci da arc qali, arc swavluli da arc umecari, arc didi da arc patara ar gafasebdiT Rirseulad, arc gesarClebodiT Tavdadebulad da swored aman gaxada SesaZlo Seni Zvirfasi sicocxlis mospoba veragi sulisagan~.1 kita abaSiZe ufro mkveTrad werda: `Cven migvaCnia am borotebis monawiled ilias Tayvanismcemeli jgufebi da partiebi. maT am saSineli moqmedebis dros pilates roli aRasrules... rom romelime moqmed jgufs ultimatumi wamoeyenebina, rom ilias xelis Sexeba aravis epatiebao, Cven gadavirecxdiT samaradiso, saSviliSvilo sircxvils~.2 qarTvelma erma kargad gaacnobiera axla, am mZime viTarebis Jams, rac moxda da arnaxuli zemoqmedebiTi Zala mianiWa am erTob mZime faqts Cveni xalxis cxovrebaSi. didebulad werda am dReebSi iakob gogebaSvili: `Seudarebeli, uebro SurisZieba icis istoriam, saukeTeso istorikosebi im azrze dganan, rom qristianoba patara adgilobriv sarwmunoebad darCeboda, Tu rom ieso naZirala ebraelebs jvars ar ecvaT. am ubedurebs egonaT, raki iesos sazarel sikvdils mivcemT, masac saSinlad davamarcxebT da mis swavlasac amovfxvriT da gavaqrobTo. namdvilad ki am sazarelma sikvdilma, am jvarcmam gaaRmerTa ieso, gaxada igi sagnad usazRvro Tayvaniscemisa, umxurvalesi siyvarulisa, mianiWa imis swavlas uZleveli Zala, mohfina igi kidiT kide da qristianoba gadaiqca msoflio sarwmunoebad da jvarcmulis jalaTni ki gaakra kacobriobis TvalSi samarcxvino boZze ukuniTi ukunisamde~. aseve fiqrobdnen ilias mkvlelebi, `bneleTis nabiWvrebi, magram Tavisave ugunuris da wyeulis TvalebiT ixilaven sruliad winaaRmdegs nayofs TavianT sazizRar mkvlelobisas. am veragulis mokvlis Semdeg ilias saxeli moicvis didebuli mowamis SaravandediT, erTi asad imatebs is Rrma pativiscema, is Tayvaneba, romliTac yoveli WkuaTmyofeli qarTveli ganmsWvaluli iyo misadmi. erTi asad gaizrdeba is didi mniSvneloba, romelic imis qmnilebebs hqonda da qarTveloba am qmnilebebs daewafeba sruliad gaumaZRrobiT~.3 ilias sikvdilma TiTqos marTlac erTbaSad gamoafxizla Cveni qveyana, erTi safiqraliT, erTi mizniT ganmsWvala yvela. TiTqos axla, glovis dReebSi yvelam igrZno umTavresi. mere da mere kidev da kidev meti sxivmosileba SeiZina ilias saxelma, vera Zalam veRar Seakava misi aRmasvla... ase gauwia Tavisi mowamebrivi sikvdiliTac didma iliam ers udidesi samsaxuri; ase daidga Tavs `did wamebis man gvirgvini mSvenieri~... mis sikvdilSiac iyo didi azri da saidumlo, rac, ra Tqma unda, ilias mkvlelebs ar SeiZleboda scodnodaT.

ilia WavWavaZis mwerluri da moqalaqeobrivi mrwamsi

didi xelovanis memkvidreobis gasaazreblad gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba misi mwerluri da moqalaqeobrivi mrwamsis gaTvaliswinebas, romelsac efuZneba mwerlis mTeli Semoqmedeba, ukeT, Semoqmedeba mrwamsis uSualo mxatvrul gansaxierebas warmoadgens. ilia WavWavaZis mrwamsi adre Camoyalibda. sazogadoebas igi warudga rogorc didad erudirebuli literatori, romelic idga mowinave evropuli da rusuli azrovnebis simaRleze da Tvals usworebda mas.

ilia WavWavaZis sikvdili da dasaflaveba, gv. 120. k. a b a S i Z e , `jvars acv, jvars acv ege~, g. abaSiZis redaqciiT, winaTqmiT, komentarebiT da SeniSvnebiT, 1991, gv. 33. 3 ilia WavWavaZis sikvdili da dasaflaveba, gv. 133-134.

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ilia WavWavaZe Tavidanve erTgulia gulwrfeli, marTali grZnobebis asaxvisa; rac poets Sinaganad ar ugrZvnia, rac mTeli sisruliT ar gauTvaliswinebia, rasac misi suli ar SeuZravs, asaxvis sagnadac ar uqcevia. ilias yuradRebas is iqcevs, rac bunebrivia, bunebrioba aris piroba uSualobisa, uSualoba ki wyaro WeSmariti xelovnebisa. ilia WavWavaZis mrwamsiT literaturaSi Sinaarss gadamwyveti mniSvneloba eniWeba. xelovnebis nawarmoebi garkveul sinamdviles unda asaxavdes. mis Sinaarss azri unda warmarTavdes, TavisTavad sityva arafers ar aRniSnavs; `sadac azri ar aris, iq ena rac ar unda kargi iyos, sul uqmia... azri da mxolod erTi azri aZlevs enas enis mniSvnelobas~.1 sazogadoebrivi da erovnuli satkivaris gareSe ar arsebobs WeSmariti poezia. eris satkivaris, misi gulisTqmis gamoxatva SeuZlebeli iqneba, Tu xelovanma cxovrebas ar miugdo yuri. rac SeiZleba cxovrebasTan axlos, rac SeiZleba miaxloveba eris satkivarTan, aseTia mwerlis moTxovna da am moTxovnis erTguli rCeba igi bolomde. `zogierTma unayofo poetma xelovnebis saxeliT ukuaridos piri Tavisi xalxis cxovrebas. meSvide cas SeaCeros gabecebuli Tvalebi... Cven imaTTan saerTo gza ara gvaqvs... xelovnebasac imas movsTxovT, rom sarkesaviT cxovreba gardmoices, raTa Cveni Tavi mis momxiblavis kalmiT cxovlad iyos warmomdgari Cven wina, raTa sicudec da sikeTec Cveni davinaxoT~ (V,131). xelovneba sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis samsaxurSi unda idges, xelovani aqtiurad unda monawileobdes sazogadoebriv winsvlaSi. xelovnebis umTavresi amocanaa ara Tvalis arideba sazogadoebriv naklze, aramed swored erovnuli, sazogadoebrivi naklovanebebis daufaravi mxileba, gamoaSkaraveba, ramdenadac eris winsvlis pirobaa codna naklisa da simrudisa, rom moiZebnos wamali mis gasasworeblad. `maS rogor unda gavswordeT, Tu Cveni simrude ar gvecodineba. netavi oriode kaci iyos saqarTveloSi, rom Cveni boroteba erTianad asweros da dagvanaxos. aba is iqneba namdvili da saqebari mamulismoyvare da ara is, vinc metis-metad damJavebuli siyvarulis gamo angeloziviT asaxelebs saqarTvelos. borotebis Rviareba naxevari gasworebaa~ (V, 30). poeturi saqmianoba ara marto bednierebaa, aramed didad sapasuxismgeblo tvirTi, radgan mwerlisagan eriskacobas moiTxovs. sinamdvileSi mwerloba Tavgadadebas niSnavs da visac es ar ZaluZs, igi amaod daiCemebs mwerlis saxels. literaturuli saqmianoba qveynis samsaxurs niSnavs, xolo `qveynis samsaxuri yvelgan msxverplia da ara seiri~.2 iliasaTvis ucxoa tanjulis poza; igi Tavis Tavs ar amadlis vinmes. man es gza Segnebulad airCia da Segnebuladve, amayad xvdeba gansacdels. iliaseburi energiiTa da SeupovrobiT iSviaTad Tu vinmes gamouxatavs Cvens mwerlobaSi zrunva qarTuli saliteraturo enis gamSvenierebisa da amaRlebisaTvis, ramdenadac, misi sityvebiT, `eris vinaobis pirveli niSani enaa~. mwerlis nayofieri Semoqmedebis aucilebel pirobad ilia WavWavaZes miznis sicxade da momavlis Sinagani rwmena miaCnda. ilia WavWavaZis didi Sinagani damarwmuneblobiT ganmsWvalul sityvebs `Tu kacma ver cno Cveni guli, xom icis RmerTma, rom wminda aris ganzraxva da survili Cveni~ Tavisi sayrdeni napovni aqvs poetis pirovnul Zalasa da gamZleobaSi. ilia WavWavaZis mwerluri mrwamsi Rrma moqalaqeobriv Segnebas efuZneboda, ramdenadac igi Tavisi drois udidesi moqalaqe iyo. ilia WavWavaZis saxiT

1 i l i a W a v W a v a Z e, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli oc tomad, t. V, gv. 42. ilia WavWavaZis literaturul-kritikuli werilebidan masalis moxmobisas mivmarTavT aRniSnul gamocemas. amdenad, narkvevis sqolioebiT gadatvirTvis asacileblad uSualod teqstSi mivuTiTebT toms da gverds. 2 i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. III. gv. 291.

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ukompromiso xasiaTis Seuvali moqalaqeobrivi principebis Tavkaci hyavda Cvens qveyanas. ilia WavWavaZe Sinagani aqtivobiT savse is moRvawe iyo, romelsac imTaviTve devizad gaexada `moZraoba da mxolod moZraoba~. Zneli da erTob gabeduli erovnuli amocanebis gadaWris dros igi ara mxolod Tavisi pirovnebiT warmoadgenda moqalaqeobrivi da SemoqmedebiTi gmirobis nimuSs, aramed dReniadag qadagebda Tavis mxatvrul peblicistur memkvidreobaSi aqtiurobas. moqalaqeobrivi simamacis asparezad ilia WavWavaZes inteligenciis moazre cxovreba miaCnda. inteligencias Tvlida igi eris winamZRolad. misi fiqriT, qveynis cxovrebas win unda gauZRven `WeSmaritad ganaTlebuli da mcodne kacebi, imisTanebi, romelTac mecnierebaSi saxeli moupovebiaT~ da `visac zneobrivi da gonebrivi Zal-Rone aqvs win gauZRves Tavisi sakuTari qveynis cxovrebas.~ namdvili moqalaqeobrivi moRvaweobis asparezi ilias samsxverplo asparezad miaCnda. namdvili inteligenciisagan ilia gmirobasa da simamaces iTxovda. ilia Tvlida, rom saqveyno saqmisaTvis, samsxverplo saqmisaTvis Tavdadeba did pirovnebebs SeeZloT. mxolod maT namdvil, WeSmarit pirovnebebs SeeZloT eris momavlis gamoWedva. am TvaliT zomavda ilia sazogado asparezze gamosul yvela moRvawes. ilia werda: `arian bevrni didxarisxovannica, mecniernica, moRvawenica da ar arian mxolod xasiaTis kacni, kacni guliTa srulni. mZled moburTalni qveynierebis moedanzed marto didi xasiaTis kacni arian, qveynis RerZs marto is atrialebs, visac mihmadlebia guliT sruloba, didxasiaToba imisdamiuxedavad -- triali emarjvaT Tu emarcxaT... yoveli didebuli saqme, riTac ki kacobrioba hqadulobs da Tavs iwonebs, qmnilia xasiaTian kacTa mier da ara visme sxvisagan. amitomac xasiaTiani kacis winaSe yvela uneblied Tavs ixris mowiwebiTa da sasoebiTa~.1 qveynis simdidred ilia WavWavaZe materialur da qonebriv dovlaTs ki ar Tvlida, pirvel yovlisa, aramed sulier cxovrebas. igi sulieri potencialis mixedviT zomavda eris sicocxlisunarianobas, Tavisuflebis mopovebis SesaZleblobebs. ilia WavWavaZis literaturuli da sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba im rwmenas efuZneboda, rom yvelaferi eris interesebs unda dauqvemdebardes. ilia WavWavaZisaTvis miuRebeli iyo yovelgvari moZRvreba, romelic patriotizmis sawinaaRmdegod iyo mimarTuli. ilias Rrmad swamda, rom swored patriotizmia sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis, winsvlis, progresis WeSmariti piroba. ilias miaCnda, rom adamiani Tavis ers unda emsaxuros keTilgonivrulad da Tavisi samSoblo aamaRlos sulierad da materialurad. mxolod amiT Seuwyobs igi xels saerTo sakacobrio winsvlas. amitomac yoveli moRvawe Tavisi samSoblos keTildReobaze unda fiqrobdes. cdilobdes, rom misma erma mometebuli Zala, energia, sicocxlisunarianoba gamoamJRavnos da kacobriobis did salaroSi sakuTari kapitali Seitanos. ase unda iyos es yvela SemTxvevaSi da aTasjer metad ase unda iyos iseTi patara qveynis SemTxvevaSi, rogoric saqarTveloa. `Cveni mSobeli qveyana yvela sxva qveyanaze CvenTvis ufro safiqrali da sazrunvelia. aq aravis Zraxvas da sayvedurebs ar veridebi. Cemi mrwamsi es aris. adamiani asea gaCenili, Tavisas ufro hrCeobs, vidre sxvas~2, -- ase swerda ilia im qarTvel axalgazrdebs, vinc rCeva hkiTxa, gamoxmaurebodnen Tu ara berZenTa brZolas. ra Tqma unda, aRniSnuli ar niSnavs imas, rom ilia ar cnobs, ar aRiarebs, pativs ar miagebs sxva xalxebis kulturas. ilia WavWavaZem yvelaze ukeT icoda fasi da Zala rusuli mwerlobisa da kulturisa saerTod. amas igi saTanadod gamo1

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i l i a W a v W a v a Z e, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. IV. gv. 223. i l i a W a v W a v a Z e, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. X. gv. 142.

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xatavda kidec, magram Tavi da Tavi isaa, literaturuli saqmianobis drosac ilia im moqalaqeobrivi principiT xelmZRvanelobda, rom `Cvenc, rasakvirvelia, zedmiwevniT unda gavicnoT rusuli mwerloba da agreTve unda vscdilobdeT, sxva ucxo mwerlobac SeviswavloT... mxolod im pirobiT, rom rac SeiZleba meti Zal-Rone movaxmaroT Cvens mwerlobas da sakuTaris viTarebis Seswavla gavixadoT qvakuTxedad yovelisave codnisa~ (V,426), mxolod erovnul niadagze amozrdilia, ilias azriT, safuZvliani da gamZlec: `is mwerloba uqmia da mkvdrad Sobili, romelsac saZirkvlad sakuTari viTarebis Seswavla ar daudvia~ (V,23). ilia, Tanasworobis ideis Tavgamodebuli mqadagebeli, sxva erTa Rirsebis pativismcemeli, Tavisi eris interesebis mouRleli guSagi iyo. ilia WavWavaZes miaCnda, rom saqarTvelo ruseTis gverdiT unda idges, rogorc TavisTavadi, SeuzRudveli, Tanasworuflebiani -- `didi muxis gverdiT rom patara iac yvaodes, aravis arafers dauSavebs~ -- aseTi iyo ilias politikuri Tvalsazrisi. samSoblo qveynis Zliereba unda gamoeWeda qveynis yvela wodebis mowinave warmomadgenelTa erTobas, erTiani saqveyno interesebiT SekavSirebas, SeerTebul Sromas da Rvawls. saerTo ideebiT gamsWvalva, sazogadoebis yvela fenis mowinave, jansaRi nawilis gaerTianeba erTi miznisaTvis -- esaa ilia WavWavaZis moqalaqeobrivi ideali. `gankerZoeba... wodebaTa gancalkeveba erTi qveynis SvilTa, romelTac cxovreba, interesebi, grZnoba, azri da miswrafeba uricxvis simiT aris gadabmuli da gadaxlarTuli danaSTenTan, Secdomaa. es Secdoma dahgmo Zvel erTa istoriam da daamtkica, rom mxolod yvela wodebis kavSiri gauZlebs ganaTlebis da xalxis dawinaurebis damabrkolebel mizezebs. umTavresi da iqneba erTaderTi garemoeba, romlis wyalobiTac daiRupnen da aRigavnen dedamiwis zurgidan mravalni Zlierni da saxelovanni erni, iyo uTanxmoeba da gansxvaveba wodebaTa Soris~.1 ilia WavWavaZe mTeli Tavisi Segnebuli cxovrebis manZilze axorcielebda Tavis moqalaqeobriv mrwamss da sxvaTaganac moiTxovda eris Rirsebis dacvas, misi TavisTavadobis sadarajoze dgomas. ilia Tavisi mZlavri niWis naRvawiT da sazogadoebrivi saqmianobiT darCa, rogorc zneobrivi magaliTi momavali TaobebisaTvis gulsrulobisa da gonebis sinaTlisa, adamianis saqveyno saqmiT cadamaRlebisa.

ilia WavWavaZis literaturul-esTetikuri Sexedulebebi

ilia WavWavaZe mwerali ara marto mxatvruli gansaxierebiT kmayofildeboda, aramed literaturis, xelovnebis Sesaxeb Tavisi mosazrebebis gadmoSlac Seadgenda mis Sinagan moTxovnilebas. ilia WavWavaZis literaturuli da moqalaqeobrivi mrwamsi 60-ian wlebSi Camoyalibda. amas TvalsaCinod mowmobs ilias mxatvruli da literaturulkritikuli werilebi, romlebic am wlebSi Seiqmna. ilia WavWavaZem qarTul sinamdvileSi iseT simaRleze aiyvana literaturul-esTetikuri movlenebis analizi, rom Semdeg igi faqtobrivad gadaulaxavi darCa. mainc ra sakiTxebi aqcia iliam Tavisi dakvirvebisa da gansjis obieqtad, ra literaturul movlenebsa da faqtebze gaamaxvila yuradReba, raSi mdgomareobs misi, rogorc moazrovnis, damsaxureba? ilia WavWavaZem Cvens sinamdvileSi pirvelma sistemaSi moiyvana da qarTvel sazogadoebas miawoda Camoyalibebuli, Tavidan bolomde garkveul amocanasTan Sefardebuli literaturul-esTetikuri Sexedulebebi. iliam mTeli sisruliT

1

i l i a W a v W a v a Z e, TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. IV. gv. 376.

29

dasva sakiTxebi xelovnebis raobis, misi funqciis, misiis, xelovnebisa da yofis urTierTdamokidebulebis, SemoqmedebiTi procesebis da, sazogadod, mxatvruli azrovnebis specifikis, Targmanis Sesaxeb. ilia WavWavaZe Seexo kritikis raobis sakiTxsac da qarTul sinamdvileSi misi amocanebi gansazRvra. iliam pirvelma gaiTvaliswina qarTuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis da, kerZod, XIX saukunis qarTuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi. man qarTuli mwerlobis umTavresi warmomadgenlebic daaxasiaTa da am mxrivac qarTuli literaturis istorikosTaTvis saxelmZRvanelo mosazrebebi gamoTqva. ilia WavWavaZis literaturul-esTetikur naazrevSi sagangebo adgili uWiravs Teatrisa da dramaturgiis sakiTxebs. mudmivi qarTuli Teatris ganaxlebis Jams iliam Teatris recenzentobac iTava da aqac fasdaudebeli samsaxuri gauwia profesiuli qarTuli Teatris Camoyalibebis, qarTvel msaxiobTa Taobis aRzrdis, Teatris repertuaris SerCevis saqmes. ilia musikis da, kerZod, qarTuli xalxuri musikis problemebiTac dainteresda da am sferoSi jer kidev Cven mier saTanadod Seufasebeli mosazrebebi gamoTqva. mxolod ocdasami wlisa iyo ilia WavWavaZe, roca Tavisi pirveli gaxmaurebuli kritikuli statia `oriode sityva Tavad revaz Salvas Zis erisTavis mier kazlovidgan `SeSlilis~ Targmanzeda~ dabeWda. aqac da Semdegac oponentebisaTvis gacemul `pasuxSi,~ Tu saprogramo xasiaTis werilSi `saqarTvelos moambeze~ ilia WavWavaZem principulad wamoayena realisturi literaturis saWiroebis sakiTxi. iliam dagmo Cvens sinamdvileSi sentimentaluri xasiaTis nawarmoebebis gadmoTargmnis faqti. sentimentaluri literatura, ilias azriT, im qveynebSic, sadac igi arsebobda, ar iyo raime mniSvnelovani faseulobis Semqmneli, miT umetes, ar iyo igi saWiro iseTi mcirericxovani erisaTvis, rogoric Cven viyaviT, ramdenadac es literatura ar iyo datvirTuli socialuri problematikiT, xolo amgvari problematikiT literaturis gamsWvalvas ilia sasicocxlo mniSvnelobas aniWebda. ilia WavWavaZe Tavisi literaturul-esteTikuri Sexedulebebis Camoyalibebisas, iseve rogorc yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi, xelmZRvanelobda erovnuli TvalsazrisiT. xelovneba cxovrebis saWiroebisagan warmoiqmneba da cxovrebiTvea gansazRvruli, magram Zalze xSirad Cven saqme gvaqvs adamianuri an cxovrebis moTxovnilebis yalb gagebasTan. marTalia, adamianis yoveli naRvawi da maT Soris xelovnebis nawarmoebi, adamianis moTxovnis pasuxia, magram ar aris pasuxi sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis moTxovnisa. xelovneba mxolod maSin aris Rirsi gansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi yuradRebisa, rodesac igi gansakuTrebul sazogadoebriv moTxovnilebas akmayofilebs; roca igi am sazogadoebis sasicocxlo amocanebs exeba da momavlis gansazRvrisakenaa mimarTuli. amdenad, ilias azriT, xelovneba, literatura mxolod maSin iqneba mowinave, roca igi saerTo sazogadoebriv satkivars, erovnul satkivars cxadad gvagrZnobinebs, roca Tavis masalas cxovrebis sinamdvilidan aiRebs da sazogadoebrivi yofiT ganisazRvreba. xelovneba, literatura sazogadoebrivi gardaqmnis zemoqmedebiTi ZaliT unda iyos aRbeWdili. ilia WavWavaZe Tavis pirvelsave werilSi Seexo mxatvruli nawarmoebis erovnulobis sakiTxs. misi azriT, mwerali unda Tavisi eris Taviseburebebs Cawvdes da mis mier gansaxierebuli personaJebic Tavisi eris warmomadgenlebi unda iyvnen. erovnulobis sakiTxs ilia kidev ufro mwvaved ganixilavs moqalaqeobrivi paTosiT savse statiaSi `zogierTi ram~. ilia WavWavaZem miiCnia, rom mwerloba eris sulieri miswrafebebis, misi saerTo erovnuli niSnebis saerTo erovnul

30

enaze gamoxatvas unda cdilobdes da amas miT ufro arsebiTi mniSvneloba aqvs iseTi qveynisaTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa, romlis calkeul kuTxeTa warmomadgenlebs qveynis `politikuri bedis trialis~ gamo saerTo saqveyno satkivarze safiqreli daSretiaT, ganTviToebulan da erTmaneTisaTvis zurgi ubrunebiaT. saerTo erovnulis Zieba, im `saerTo niSnis~ danaxva da asaxva, saiTkenac `TviToeuli CvenTaganis Wkva, goneba, fiqri, grZnoba, survili erTad, xalisianad da Seupovrad~ unda miiwevdes, aqcia ilia WavWavaZem qarTuli mwerlobis gadaudebel amocanad, urTules, magram mainc usaTuod gansaxorcielebel amocanad. konkretuli mxatvruli masalis analizisas da Sefasebisas ilia swored am TvalsazrisiT xelmZRvanelobda. XIX saukunis qarTveli mwerlebis daxasiaTebisas iliasaTvis mTavaria, Tu rogor iCens maT SemoqmedebaSi Tavs erovnuli, Tu ramdenad warmoadgens esa Tu is mwerali erovnulis gamovlenas. ilia WavWavaZem Tavis werilebSi literaturis daniSnulebis sakiTxze msjelobisas mtkiced dagmo `metismetad damJavebuli siyvarulis gamo~ qeba da dideba da yuris datkboba, literaturisagan man moiTxova daundoblad gamofena `cxovrebis WuWyisa~. mcdaria azri, romlis Tanaxmad naklis dafarvaa patriotoba: `rac ufro mkafiod da daundoblad aris gamoTqmuli boroteba da naklulovneba cxovrebisa, zogjer miT ufro sCans gamomTqmelis gulis simxurvale, mouTmeneli, cxari wadili gasworebisa.~ ilia WavWavaZe Tavis literaturul-kritikul werilebSi araerTgzis exeba mxatvruli simarTlis asaxvis sakiTxs. misi azriT, mwerali ki ar unda gvacnobdes Tavisi personaJis xasiaTs sityvierad, miTiTebebiT, aramed es personaJi TviTon unda vlindebodes qcevebsa da moqmedebebSi. erTob mniSvnelovani mosazrebebi gamoTqva iliam mTargmnelobiTi saqmianobis da, kerZod ki, masalis SerCevis Sesaxeb. man sruliad garkveviT ganacxada, rom saTargmni masalis SerCeva ar unda moxdes piradi mowonebis mixedviT, aramed erovnuli poziciidan, is mwerali unda SeirCes, romlis gacnoba saWiroa Cveni erisaTvis. aris Tu ara gamarTlebuli kozlovis Targmna im dros, roca araa Targmnili puSkinis, gogolis, lermontovis Txzulebebi. ilia WavWavaZem Tavis literaturul-kritikul werilebSi da Semdegac dabejiTebiT moiTxova literaturidan gaZeveba yvela `uniWo mbRajvnlisa~. mwerlis upirveles movaleobad man enis codna miiCnia da am mxriv mudmivi zrunva. ilia WavWavaZe, bunebrivia, gulisxmobs ara ubralod codnas enisas, aramed enis grZnobas, mis aqtiur flobas, im unars, romlis SemTxvevaSi ara marto xerxdeba kargisa da sustis garCeva (garkveulad esec didi Rirsebaa), aramed kargis Seqmna. statiaSi `zogierTi ram~ ilia sulisSemZvrelad kiTxulobda: `sadRa aris exla qarTuli ena, an gvindaRa qarTuli, roca Cven TviTon Cvenda dasaRupavad qarTvelobaze xeli aviReT? gonebiT rom aRar vscxovrobT, qarTuls enas azrs rogorRa gamovaTqmevinebT?~. ilia WavWavaZem am statiaSi Cveni literaturisaTvis aqamde uCveulo simZafriT wamoayena erTiani saliteraturo enis aucileblobis moTxovna, xolo axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis fuZemdeblad ilia imis gamo iqca, rom Zala Seswevda Tavis mier wamoyenebuli moTxovnebi praqtikulad ganexorcielebina. rogorc aRniSnaven, ilia WavWavaZis `saqmianoba `saliteraturo kritikis sferosac gadawvda da iqac waruSleli kvali datova~.1 uaRresad didia ilia WavWavaZis damsaxureba qarTuli kritikis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. kritikis, rogorc `cnebis ganmarteba, misi mecnieruli daxasiaTeba pirvelad ilia WavWavaZem mogvawoda~.2 ilia Tvlis, rom kritikis done sazogadoebis azrovnebiTi simwifis gamo1 2

j . W u m b u r i Z e , qarTuli kritikis istoria, 1, 1974, gv. 156. iqve.

31

xatulebaa. kritika, ilias azriT, unda iyos mebrZoli da mwerlobis mxardamxar xels unda uwyobdes sazogadoebis gardaqmnas, gemovnebis ganviTarebas. ilia WavWavaZem Tavis statiaSi `ra mizezia rom kritika ara gvaqvs~ Tavisi droisaTvisac da SemdgomisTvisac uaRresad mtkivneuli sakiTxi dasva. da ai, sayuradReboa, ras fiqrobs mainc ilia am mtkivneul problemasTan dakavSirebiT. zogierTi CvenSi kritikis uqonlobas xsnis literaturis arqoniT. ilia WavWavaZis azriT Tavis marTlebis es forma `pariJis yavaxanis sibrZniTaa~ nakvebi da mas simarTlesTan saerTo araferi aqvs. igi an ucodinarobiT, an Tvalis Zalad dabrmavebiTaa gamowveuli. sazogadod ki TviT literaturis uqonlobac ver xsnis da ver gaamarTlebs kritikis uqonlobas. aseT SemTxvevaSi kritikam unda axsnas, Tu ratom ar gvaqvs literatura. Torem Tavi rom davaneboT Zvel literaturas, romelsac `aseTis siuxviT asxivosnebs `vefxistyaosani~, amSvenebs daviT guramiSvili `romlis didaqtikuri poezia pirs ar Seircxvens Tund lukrecis, virgilis da horacios didaqtikur poezias dauyeneT pirispir da romlis sarwmunoebrivi RaRadeba daviT winaswarmetyvelis fsalmunebis simaRlemdea asuli~; Tavi rom davaneboT Teimuraz I, arCilis, vaxtang VI, sakmarisia mecxramete saukunis poeziis gaxsenebac, misi `warCinebuli warmomadgenlebis~ saxelebi, rom sruliad usafuZvlod CaiTvalis mosazreba Cveni literaturis siRaribis Sesaxeb. jer erTi, rogorc vaxtang kotetiSvili SeniSnavs, `Cveni erovnuli kritika, miuxedavad garegnuli zviadobisa, Sinaganad mainc darcxvenilia da sakacobrio masStabiT romelime qarTveli moRvawis gazomva gveCoTireba. ilia WavWavaZe am mxrivac qarTveli adamianis axali tipia, romelmac gadalaxa azrovnebis simxdale da qarTvel ers Rrmad mofiqrebuli da Tamami sityva gaagona.1 daviT guramiSvilis poeziis fsalmunTa simaRleze azidva, qarTveli poetis lukreciusis, virgiliusis da horaciusis gverdiT dayeneba swored didi Sinagani Zalis qarTveli moazrovnis gabeduli azria, romelic saTanado gaSinaarsebas jer kidev moelis. rac Seexeba uSualod didi ilias mier dasmul problemas, maS, ra mizezia, rom kritika ara gvaqvs? rogorc Cans, amis mizezis axsna TviT qarTuli literaturis siRaribeze gadabralebiT aramc da aramc ar SeiZleba. aq ilia erT metad sayuradRebo faqtze amaxvilebs yuradRebas. Cveni kritikosi dawers wigns romelime did evropel mweralze, mag. homerosze, Seqspirze, goeTeze an baironze, romelnic CvenSi aTasSi erTs Tu waukiTxavs; SesaZloa iseTi saswaulic moxdes, rom qarTveli kritikosis wigni wasakiTxadac ki gamodges, magram igive kritikosi qarTveli poetis erT pawia leqssac ki ver gauZRves. es ki Turme imitom xdeba, rom gamoCenil ucxoel avtorze bevri ram aris Tqmuli gamoCenili ucxoeli kritikosebis mier da maTze azris Sedgena erTob advili saqmea. am SemTxvevaSi sakmarisia `imodena Rone iqonioT~, rom azrebi `mohkriboT~, erTmaneTs SeufardoT, SeuwonoT da yovelive Sekrebili, Sefardebuli da Sewonili erTs Znad SehkraT da ise miarTvaT mkiTxvelsa. ra Tqma unda, rom amasac Wkua, codna unda da mcireodeni xelovnebac, magram aq TviTmoqmedeba ufro xelisaa, Tu ese iTqmis, vidre im sulieris Zal-Ronisa, romelic TviTon hqmnis, TviTon sjis, TviTon swlavs, TviTon sWris da TviTon keravs. aq yvelaferi ujra-ujrad awyvia evropis literaturis salaroSi mzamzareulad, oRond im salaroSi Sesvlis Rone moipoveT da, raki es geqnebaT, xelis gawvdenis meti ara aris ra saWiro, rom ujra gamoswioT da rac gsurT is gamoiRoT~ (V,344-345). rac Seexeba qarTul mwerlobas, qarTvel mwerals, misi Sefasebisas kritikosi sakuTar Tavs unda daeyrdnos, ramdenadac Cveni literatura jer kidev xeluxlebeli ganZia, masze did evropel moazrovneebs araferi uTqvamT; maSasadame aq Cveni kritikosi saku1

v . k o t e t i S v i l i, rCeuli nawerebi, 1, 1965, gv. 279.

32

Tar `sulier Zal-Rones~ unda daeyrdnos, sakuTari azri Seadginos, TviTgansjas daeyrdnos, xolo es unari mas samwuxarod ar gaaCnia. erTi sityviT, ilia WavWavaZem mourideblad miuTiTa, rom nasufraliT ikvebeba qarTuli kritika, mometebulad parazitul saqmianobas eweva da amis mizezi Cveni uRonoba da uZlurebaa. iliam am brwyinvale statiaSi isic gaxaza, rom kritikosoba Znelze Zneli saqmea da igi moiTxovs mravali unaris erTobas. amasTan man `qarTveli kritikosis mniSvneloba metad maRla aswia da didi siZnele daanaxa qarTuli mwerlobis momaval mkvlevars. esec mniSvnelovani momentia. literaturuli meSaoba saqarTvelos masStabiT aramc Tu ufro advilia, aramed Seudareblad ufro Zneli yifila, vidre evropel mweralTa Sesaxeb wera da, maSasadame mxolod didi pasuxismgeblobiT SeiZleboda am saqmis xelis mokideba~.1 TviTon ilia WavWavaZe iyo Cvens sinamdvileSi nimuSi sakuTar sulier Zalebze dayrdnobili kritikosisa, `romelic TviTon hqmnis, TiTon sjis, TiTon swlavs~ da qarTuli literaturis auwyvel simdidres frTxilad aanalizebs, qarTvel mwerlebs TavTavianT adgils miuCens Cveni mwerlobis istoriaSi. Tu, erTi mxriv, ilias naazrevi yuradRebas iqcevs zogadliteraturuli da esTetikuri TvalsazrisiT, meore mxriv, man iTava qarTuli literaturis istorikosoba da kritikosoba. fasdaudebelia is Rvawli, rac i. WavWavaZem Zveli qarTuli literaturis Seswavlis saqmes dasdo. i. WavWavaZe kargad icnobda Zvel qarTul xelnawerebs, zrunavda ara mxolod maT Sekrebaze, aramed saqveynod maT gamomzeureba-publikaciaze. mas, marTalia, specialuri naSromi ar miuZRvnia Zveli qarTuli mwerlobisaTvis, magram mis literaturul-kritikul naazrevSi gvxvdeba saintereso dakvirvebebi, mosazrebebi, sagulisxmo SeniSvnebi Zveli mwerlobis Sesaxeb. savsebiT bunebrivia, rom i. WavWavaZis gansakuTrebuli siyvarulis sagani iyo, misi yuradRebis centrSi yovelTvis idga qarTuli epikuri poeziis gvirgvini, Cveni `Tavmosawonebeli~, `sasiqadulo~ poema `vefxistyaosani~. rusTvelis genia gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas iliasaTvis im mxriv iZenda, rom misma poemam sakacobrio Sinaarsis saTqmeli daitia, qarTvelTa warmomCeni iyo msoflio asparezze. i. WavWavaZe sxvadasxva werilSi sagangebod exeba poemis istoriulliteraturul sakiTxebs, sadReisodac sanimuSod unda CaiTvalos ilias mier nestanisa da tarielis pirveli Seyris epizodis ganxilva. ilias es epizodi `genialuri kalmis mosmad~ miaCnda, homerosis poemis erTi brwyinvale adgilis tolfasad. ilias bevrjer daucavs qarTvelTa `xelixelsagogmanebi~ wigni damkninebelTa da ganmaqiqebelTagan. ilia WavWavaZe Rrmad icnobda aRorZinebis xanis qarTul mwerlobas, mis did warmomadgenlebs, eweoda maTi naazrevis popularizacias. fasdaudebelia ilias wvlili maTi Semoqmedebis gaazrebis saqmeSi. da mainc unda iTqvas, rom ilia WavWavaZem, pirvel yovlisa, iTava XIX s. kritikosoba da istorikosoba. am mxriv sayuradReboa ilias bevri Txzuleba da maT Soris gansakuTrebiT iqcevs yuradRebas `werilebi qarTul literaturaze~, romelic 90-ian wlebSi Seiqmna. `werilebSi~ miTiTebulia axali qarTuli mwerlobis ganviTarebis ZiriTadi etapebi 60-iani wlebis CaTvliT; gansazRvrulia XIXs. qarTuli mwerlobis `warCinebul warmomadgenelTa~ ZiriTadi damsaxureba da adgili Cveni mwerlobis istoriaSi. `werilebi~ 60-iani wlebis daxasiaTebaze wydeba. ase rom, igi dasrulebuli ar Cans. magram is umTavresi mizani, rac iliam misi Seqmnisas daisaxa, savsebiT TvalsaCinodaa ganxorcielebuli im nawilSic, romelic CvenTvisaa cnobili.

1

v . k o t e t i S v i l i , rCeuli nawerebi, 1, 1965, gv. 300-301.

33

ilias mizani ki iyo, eCvenebina, rom XIXs. qarTuli mwerloba misi ganviTarebis romelsame monakveTSi CixSi ar Sesula da, rom igi uwyvet jaWvs gvidgens, rom yoveli momdevno monakveTi garkveulad aris Semzadebuli wina monakveTiT, mas eyrdnoba, misi memkvidrea. am ganviTarebis gzis Cvenebis aucilebloba ki ilias winaSe im mizezebma ganapiroba, rom jer kidev gasul saukuneSi gavrcelda azri, romelic mecxramete saukunis qarTvel mwerlebs e.w. `Zvel~ da `axal~ Taobebad ajgufebda da maT Soris araTu SeuTanxmeblobas, aramed ukompromiso brZolas aRiarebda (ara marto literaturul sakiTxebze) da erTmaneTisagan TiSavda 60-ianelTa da adreul mweralTa literaturul memkvidreobas. aRniSnul azrs TaobaTa brZolis Sesaxeb amJamadac mkvlevarTa didi nawili icavs, da ai, didi ilia, romelic am Sexedulebis mixedviT axali Taobis meTauradaa aRiarebuli, sazogadod, gaumarTleblad miiCnevs `Zvel~ da `axal~ Taobebze saubars. ilias azriT, mweralTa da moRvaweTa Zvel da axal Taobebad dayofis safuZveli, maT Soris azrebis, ideebis dapirispirebasa da gansxvavebulobaSi unda veZeboT, xolo aseTi dapirispireba XIXs. literaturaSi, Tu ho-araobis Cxirkedelaobas mxedvelobaSi ar miviRebT, arsad ar SeiniSneba. ilia `werilebSic~ da sxvaganac brwyinvaled cxadyofs imas, rom qarTveli samocianelebi memkvidreni da gamgrZelebelni arian a. WavWavaZis, n. baraTaSvilis, v.orbelianis, g.erisTavis, r.erisTavis da sxvaTa saxelebTan dakavSirebuli literaturisa, xolo, rac Seexeba Zveli Taobis beladad miCneul gr.orbelians, igi is moRvawe da mweralia, romelic daucxromeli enTuziazmiT amoudga gverdSi axalgazrdebs da maTTan erTad iRvawa saerTo erovnuli saqmisaTvis Tavisi didebuli poeziiT Tu praqtikuli saqmianobiT.1 unda sagangebod aRiniSnos, rom qarTvel mweralTa im Sefasebas, romelsac ilia WavWavaZe am statiebis seriaSi (`werilebi~) Tu sxva werilebsa da sityvebSi iZleva, arc sadReisod daukargavs saxelmZRvanelo mniSvneloba. ilia WavWavaZe Tavis kritikul-esTetikur naazrevSi did adgils uTmobs Teatrisa da, kerZod, qarTuli Teatris problemebs. Teatrs ilia WavWavaZe udides mniSvnelobas aniWebda eris sulier cxovrebaSi, erovnuli Segnebis momwifebis, qarTuli enis Rirsebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT. `didi ram aris scena sazogadod da nametnavad CvenTvis... Zlivs erTi sajaro adgili mainc gveqneba, saca Cvenis eniT vilxenT, Cvenis eniT vinaRvlebT, Cvenis enis mowyalebiT Tvalwin gavitarebT Cvens cxovrebasa mTelis misis WkuiT da gulis monagriTa. amas garda scena igive Skolaa, romelic cxovelis suraTebiT elaparakeba kacis gulsa da Wkuasa. igi am Tavis TvisebiT kacis gunebazed ufro medgrad moqmedebs, vidre sxva rame. am mxriv aris igi sanatreli, am mxriv aris igi kacis grZnobisa da Wkuis gamafaqizebeli, gamwmendeli. scena xalxis mwvrTneli, xalxis gamzrdeli unda iyos da amasTanac imisTana Semaqcevari aris, rom ukeTes mxares adamianisas fexs aadgmevinebs, frTas aSlevinebs. ukeTesi Sesaqcevari, ukeTesi drois gasarTobi, sulisa da gulis amamaRlebeli, sxva iseTi ara viciT ra, scenis meti~ (V,40). ilia WavWavaZem ara marto qarTuli Teatris ganaxlebis saqmeSi Seasrula erTi Tavkacis roli, ara marto am mxriv aRmoCnda igi suli da guli qarTuli Teatrisa, aramed man am Teatris recenzentis mZime tvirTic zida karga xans da am mxrivac waruSleli kvali gaavlo qarTuli Teatraluri kritikis saqmeSi. Tavis kritikul naazrevSi iliam didi adgili dauTmo repertuaris saqmes. man Tavis droze miuTiTa erovnuli dramaturgiis siRaribeze da qarTul dramaturgias ganviTarebis gzebic dausaxa. ilia WavWavaZem sagangebod aRniSna gansakuTrebuli sirTule am Janris nawarmoebis Seqmnisa, gansakuTrebuli niWisa da saTanado momzadebis aucilebloba amisTvis. erTi sityviT, ilia WavWavaZem gza gadauRoba qarTul dramaturgiaSi advilad werasa da gadmokeTebas, am mxriv erTgvar upasuxismgeblobas da uniWobas. ilia WavWavaZem yuradReba miaqcia scenaze saeWvo mxatvruli Rire1 ilia WavWavaZis Sexedulebaze dayrdnobiT, tradiciulisagan gansxavebuli Tvalsazrisia `TaobaTa brZolaze~ ganviTarebuli gr. kiknaZis wignSi `metyvelebis stilis sakiTxebi~, 1957, gv. 148-184.

34

bulebis komediebis momravlebas. sadReisodac araferi mohklebia ilias azrs im moaruli Sexedulebis umarTebulobis Sesaxeb (da es azri amJamadac cocxalia), rom TiTqos sasacilo Txzulebebi ufro izidavs xalxs, vidre seriozuli. ilias fiqriT, ama Tu im xalxis damaxasiaTebel niSnad sicilis an tirilis upiratesobis aRiareba ki ar gamodis, aramed saubari yvelgan esTetikurs unda exebodes. esTetikuri grZnobis arsebobis SemTxvevaSi faseulia rogorc sasacilo, aseve seriozulic da satiralic, radgan esTetikur grZnobas erTi TvaliT gaRviZeba ar SeuZlian ise, rom meorec ar mRviZareobdes (V, 313). mTavaria, rom WeSmariti xelovnebis sagani iyos sasaciloc da satiralic da mas mayurebeli erTgvari ZaliT miiRebs da aRiqvams. `uazro, umizezo sicili lazRandarobaa... dauJiniaT sasaciloao!.. bevri ram aris qveynad sasacilo, magram esTetikuri grZnoba yvela sicils ver Seiwynarebs, Tavis Svilad ver gaixdis. sicili Tavis dReSi ar unda gardaiqmnas lazRandarobad da tirili kidev ugemur knavilad. es xSirad aviwydebaT Cvens sakuTar avtorebsac, mTargmnelebsac da zog-zog niWier artistebsac. saca WeSmarit sicils, an WeSmarit cremls ver aWrevineben, iq sicili lazRandarobazed gadaaqvT da cremli umarilo knavilzed~ (V, 314-315). rogorc vxedavT, ilias azriT, sazogadoebrivi gemovnebis aRzrda aris erTi umTavresi funqcia Teatrisa da man es funqcia arasodes unda daiviwyos. swored am da amgvari msjelobis SemTxvevaSi vxedavT Cven, Tu rogor didebulad amowmebs kidec, axleburad iazrebs da aviTarebs zogadesTetikur debulebebs ilia WavWavaZe. ilia WavWavaZiseuli analizi konkretuli dramatuli Txzulebebisa, romlebic qarTul scenaze daidga, kerZod, avqs. cagarlis `qarTvlis dedisa,~ `xanumasi,~ i.lazaraSvilis `mtarvalisa,~ sardus `gaviyarneTis,~ v.abaSiZiseuli gadmokeTebiT dResac sanimuSod unda CaiTvalos. ilia WavWavaZe Tavis recenziebSi ara marto TviT dramatuli Txzulebebis avkargze SeCerda, aramed msaxiobebis TamaSze, zomierebis grZnobis mniSvnelobaze TeatrSi, aqtioruli ostatobis srulyofaze da, erTi sityviT, TiTqos iseT wvrilmanzec, rogoricaa rolis codna. ilia WavWavaZe darCa nimuSad mkacri da obieqturi, magram amasTanave faqizi Teatraluri recenzentisa, romelmac Zalian kargad icis, Tu rogori saTuTi gulis patronia msaxiobi, romelsac sWirdeba ara marto SeniSvna, aramed mowoneba da waxalisebac, radgan igi pirdapir gulis ficarze iwers wyenasac da sixarulsac. ilia WavWavaZis yuradReba wvdeboda yovelive erovnuls. ilia dafiqrda musikis da, kerZod, qarTuli xalxuri musikis sakiTxebzec da am mxriv Tavisi naazrevi gamoxata erTob mniSvnelovan werilSi `qarTuli xalxuri musika~. ilia am werilSi aviTarebs azrs qarTuli xalxuri musikis unikalurobis Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSi igi patriotuli TavmowonebiT ki ar xelmZRvanelobs, aramed wminda mecnieruli gansjiT im daskvnamde midis, rom qarTuli polifoniuri musika arc erTi xalxis musikas ar edareba arc evropulisas da, miT umetes, arc aziurisas, kerZod sparsulisas, im xalxis musikisas, romlis gavleniTac bevr marTal da ufro met aramarTal niSnebs mogvaweren. Tu musika xalxis `sulis moZraobisa da gulis ZarRviscemis~ gamomxatvelia, TavisTavad es unikaluroba qarTuli musikisa bevri ramis mTqmelia. ilia WavWavaZe qarTuli musikis erTob seriozuli kvlevis saWiroebas moiTxovs. miuxedavad imisa, rom ilia WavWavaZis mere bevri ram gakeTda qarTuli musikis Seswavlis TvalsazrisiT, misi es moTxovna sadReisodac friad aqtualur moTxovnad rCeba. ilia WavWavaZe Tavis literaturul-esTetikur Sexedulebebs sazogadoebriv yofasTan, tradiciul gemovnebasTan, moSvebulobasTan da indiferentiz35

mTan WidilSi afuZnebda. amitom polemikuri xasiaTisaa misi werilebi. ilia WavWavaZe nimuSi iyo mebrZoli kritikosisa da publicistisa. ilia WavWavaZis literaturul-kritikuli naazrevi sakuTar nagrZnobsa da gancdils efuZneba, amdenad aris igi uaRresad originaluri. araferi ar gauxdia mwerals iseTi gansjis sagnad, rac uSualod qarTuli viTarebiT ar iqneboda nakarnaxevi. marTalia, ilia icnobs da xSir SemTxvevaSi mihyveba kidec, magram ara monurad mowinave evropel da rus avtorebs, magram, rogorc amboben, igi yovelTvis rCeba damoukidebel `qarTvel moazrovned~.1 ilia arasdros Tavs ar iwonebs mravali avtoris citirebiT. citirebas igi mxolod aucilebel SemTxvevaSi mimarTavs. ucxo da brWyviala terminTa momarjvebiT, saeWvo modurobiT igi Tavs ar irTobs. mwerals TviTon aqvs didi saTqmeli da yvelafers, wakiTxuls da gagonils, Tavis saazrovno masalad aqcevs. ilia WavWavaZem kritikosma da moazrovnem axali gzebi dausaxa qarTul literaturul azrovnebas da kritikas. igi amJamadac gvaswavlis, gvmoZRvravs, amJamadac gvirCevs, rom ar avyveT cdunebas, brmad ar vendoT azrebs, rac ar unda did avtoritetebs ekuTvnodeT isini. ilia ganmsjeli kritikis, dafiqrebuli, sabuTebis enaze mosaubre, konkretuli masalis Rrma gaazrebaze dafuZnebuli kritikis momxrea da TviTonve iZleva nimuSebs aseTi kvlevisas. amitomac aqvs mis naazrevs didi, damarwmunebeli Zala.

ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli Semoqmedeba

ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli Semoqmedeba mxolod erTi nawilia misi didi sulieri memkvidreobisa. raodenobrivad araa igi didi, magram uaRresad Rrmaa da gamZle. ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli Semoqmedebis raodenobrivi SekumSuloba imiTac unda aixsnas, rom mwerali SemoqmedebiTi muSaobis dros gonebis mkacri kontroliT xelmZRvanelobs. yvelaferi, rac misi xelidan gamosula, avtoris uSeRavaTo Semowmebis sagani gamxdara. ilia WavWavaZe arafers iseTs ar miscems arsebobis uflebas, rac wamieria da mxolod pirovnuli; rac mis Tvalsazriss ar Seesabameba; romelic erTiania da ucvleli mTeli misi moRvaweobis manZilze. ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebis Tematika myaria; mwerals aqvs Tavisi garkveuli sakiTxebi, romlebsac ki ar cvlis, aramed literaturuli moRvaweobis mTel manZilze afarToebs da aRrmavebs, akvirdeba da aanalizebs sxvadasxva aspeqtiT, gamovlenis sxvadasxva formaSi. ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebas Tu Tematikis TvalsazrisiT davakvirdebiT, davinaxavT, rom mas ZiriTadad erTi sakiTxi msWvalavs -- erovnuli sakiTxi. es sakiTxi dgas mweralTan awmyos TvalsazrisiT -- ras warmovadgenT, rani varT, raSia Cveni sasicocxlo Zalebi. amis garkvevas mwerali warsulis gaTvaliswinebis niadagze axdens -- rani viyaviT, rogor gamoviareT saukuneebi, rom ar gadavegeT da gavZeliT, raSi mdgomareobs Cveni xalxis ukvdavebis saidumlo, yvelaferi ki mimarTulia momavlis gansaWvretad -- ra mogvelis? TavisTavad es uzogadesi sakiTxi moicavs sakiTxTa did wyebas, romelTac arsebiTi mniSvneloba eniWebaT ara marto qarTuli sinamdvilis TvalsazrisiT; kerZod esenia: sakiTxi adamianis arsebobis azris, misi daniSnulebis, cxovrebaSi misi adgilis Sesaxeb, xelovanis funqciisa da xelovanis misiisa da misi movaleobis, sazogadoebaSi misi adgilis Sesaxeb, Tavisuflebis sakiTxi, socialur wodebaTa urTierTobis, maTi Tanasworuflebianobisa da TanabarRirebulebis sakiTxi. Tanasworuflebianobis

1

g r. k i k n a Z e, literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, 1979, gv. 230.

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sakiTxi dgas ara marto socialur sibrtyeze, aramed erovnul sibrtyeze -- erovnebaTa Tanasworuflebebisa da TanabarRirebulebis TvalsazrisiT, sazogadoebisa da misi calkeuli wevris urTierTobis, maTi ufleba-movaleobis, danaSaulisa da sasjelis, Sromis arsisa da misi mniSvnelobis sakiTxebi da a.S. sxvadasxva literaturul JanrSi am sakiTxTa ganxilva-gamoxatva kidev ufro migvaaxlovebs im uaRresad mdidar grZnobaTa da ideaTa samyaros, romelsac ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli memkvidreoba gvidgens.

ilia WavWavaZis lirika. ilia WavWavaZis SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweoba lirikiT daiwyo, xolo Semdeg sakuTari grZnobebis gadmocemas TandaTan Seenacvla im viTarebis, motivTa farTo ganxilva-daxasiaTeba, rac misi grZnobebis, fiqrebisa da gansjis ganmsazRvrelad gamodioda. aman ki epikuri Janrebi moiTxova. mainc ra daxvda ilia WavWavaZes, poets qarTul poeziaSi, riT suldgmulobda qarTuli leqsi, roca ilia gamovida samwerlo asparezze. sinamdvilisadmi ra axali midgoma gamoamJRavna man, gamosaxvis ra saSualebebs mimarTa. rogorc cnobilia, ilia WavWavaZis mosvlamde qarTuli poezia romantikuli xasiaTisa iyo. ilias winamorbedTagan saxelmoxveWilni iyvnen aleqsandre WavWavaZe, grigol orbeliani da nikoloz baraTaSvili. mainc ra gansazRvravda qarTvel romantikosTa lirikis Taviseburebebs, ra gamoarCevs ilias leqsebs romantikosTa lirikisagan, anu ra qmnis mis ZiriTad Taviseburebebs. qarTvel romantikosTa memkvidreoba didi sazogadoebrivi Rirebulebis Semcvelia, ramdenadac maTi tkivilebi da miswrafebebi emTxveva qarTvelTa saerTo sulier tkivilebsa da miswrafebebs. magram Cveni romantikosebi, pirvel yovlisa, swored imitom iyvnen romantikosebi, rom maTi lirika ufro pirovnul-individualuri xasiaTisa aRmoCnda. ra Tqma unda, aRniSnuli imas ar niSnavs, rom maT poezias an socialuri safuZveli aklda, anda aseTi mizanswrafva ar gaaCnda. TqmuliT mxolod is aRiniSneba, rom maT poeziaSi garkveul niadagze warmoSobili gancdebia gadmoSlili am niadagis sagangebo Cvenebis gareSe. es gansazRvravs, erTi mxriv, maTi poeziis romantikul xasiaTs. amdenad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom romantikosebi ufro pirovnul gancdebs gvixasiaTeben da maT poeziaSi wina planze ufro Rrmad intimuri grZnobebi warmosdgebian. ilias samwerlo asparezze gamosvlamde qarTul poeziaSi moqalaqeobrivi motivebi nakleb iCendnen Tavs da Tan zogjer sakmaod faruli tendenciis saxiT. am tendenciis migneba iyo saWiro, imdenad faruladaa igi, magaliTad, warmodgenili al.WavWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi. marTalia gr. orbeliani am mxriv ufro Sors wavida, magram masTan patriotuli grZnoba mainc ufro warsulis grZnobaa. n. baraTaSvili iyo is didi poeti, romelmac gansakuTrebiT Tavisi Semoqmedebis mogviano xanaSi farTo moqalaqeobrivi interesebi gamoamJRavna, magram poetis sevda-mwuxarebis ganmapirobebeli konkretul faqtebze uSualod da pirdapir TiTqmis araferia miTiTebuli. sakiTxi masTan ufro zogad filosofiur aspeqtSia gancdili da ganxiluli. erTi sityviT, Cveni romantikosebis lirika sulieri cxovrebis konkretuli niadagis Cvenebas ar isaxavs miznad. es garemoeba sruliadac ar vnebs istorikosis TvalSi romantikosTa lirikis sazogadoebriv Rirebulebas, magram mis Taviseburebas ki asaxavs da mowmobs. romantikosi poetebis Semoqmedebas udidesi sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba aqvs da swored am mniSvnelobas gausves xazi sagangebod qarTvelma realistebma, magram faqti isaa, rom romantikosTa interesi ufro TviTCaRrmavebisaken, SigniT, pirovnulisaken, sakuTar sulier mdgomareobaze dakvirvebisa da misi gadmoSlisaken aris mimarTuli, vidre gare viTare37

baze pirdapir da uSualod miTiTebasa da mis amgvarsave daxasiaTebisaken da es apirobebs ZiriTadad maTi asaxvis romantikul iersa da xasiaTs. ra Taviseburi midgomiT gamoirCa am mxriv ilia WavWavaZe lirikosi? ilia WavWavaZem lirikaSi interesebi Signidan, Rrmad pirovnulis daxasiaTebidan, intimuridan gareT, sazogadoebrivisaken Semoabruna, man sazogadoebrivi aqcia lirikis ZiriTad sagnad. lirikaSi poeti Tavisi pirovnuli sulieri mdgomareobis, grZnobaTa uSualo daxasiaTebis gzas ki ar gahyva, aramed masTan asaxva pova uSualod, daufaravad da SeuniRbavad im sazogadoebriv-politikurma sakiTxebma, im yofiTma garemom, rac misi sulieri mdgomareobis ganmsazRvrelad gamodioda. iliam bejiTad iwyo socialuri problemebis ganxilva, yofiTi garemos farTo asaxva da am mxriv gamoavlina mouRleli energia. ilias, bunebrivia, arc sakuTari grZnobebis, uSualod sakuTari sulieri moZraobis gamoxatvaze uTqvams uari, magram maTi gadmoSlisasac ki, TiTqos erTgvarad ganze gadga, manZiliT daSorda Tavis gancdebs da isini sazogadoebrivi interesebidan gaanalizebis saxiT mogvawoda. is, rac adre moqalaqeobrivi motivebis TvalsazrisiT ufro faruli tendenciis saxiT iCenda Tavs, ilias lirikis ganmsazRvreli gaxda da mis TvalsaCino Sinaarsad iqca. amitomacaa ilias lirika moqalaqeobrivi lirikis nimuSi. aq sruliad Segnebulad pirovnulma, kerZo interesebma ukana planze gadainacvles da gabatonebuli adgili sazogadoebriv, saerTo interesebs dauTmes. ilia WavWavaZem poetis amocanad swored sazogadoebrivi tkivilebis gamosaxva miiCnia da poeziis gamarTlebac moqalaqeobrivi interesebis asaxvaSi dainaxa. iliam pirovnuli grZnoba mTlianad dauqvemdebara sazogadoebrivs. intimur grZnobebs mis lirikaSi mxolod sazogadoebrivi interesebiT gamsWvalvis Semdeg mieca arsebobis ufleba da maTi Rirebulebac swored am TvalsazrisiT Semowmda. Cveni romantikosebi mometebulad `maRal materiebze~ laparakobdnen, maRalze im azriT, rom iq, maT poeziaSi dasmul sakiTxebs yvelasaTvis ar hqonda sadReiso-yofiTi mniSvneloba. al. WavWavaZesTan da gr. orbelianTan saubari iyo `udabnod qmnul savaneze~, `foTolT uxSir Wirze~ da `borot suliskveTebaTagan gansvenebaze~. al. WavWavaZe da gr. orbeliani mometebulad TavianT wminda intimur lirikas qmnidnen. maTi lirikis sagani iyo `trfobis isarT kona~ da `melnis tbaTa gars mcvelad mdgari Savi hindni~, `aSiyT mowame mTvare~ da `RawvTa zeda gadakruli nuSis yvavili~. n. baraTaSvili faqizad metyvelebda mTawmindasa da iq `SemoRamebaze~, `obol sulsa~ da `meranze~, `Sav yoransa~ da `bedis samzRvarze~, `bundovan kldesa~ da `locviT miqancebul sulze~. ase laparakobda poeti da erTgvari idumalebiTac aRbeWdavda Tavis mRelvare naambobs. erTi sityviT, Cveni romantikosebis poeziaSi cxovrebaze erTgvarad amaRlebuli movlenebi gveZleodnen. am TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom maTi poezia sagangebod gafaqizebuli gancdebis poeziaa. ilia WavWavaZem Tavisi lirikis sagnad airCia is, rac Cveulebrivi, yoveldRiuri da aqtualuri iyo. ilias poeziaSi Zalumad igrZnoba miZinebuli mamulis gamoRviZebis survili, warmoCenilia qarTveli dedis saxe, saqarTvelos warsuli da momavali. `tvirTmZimeT da maSvralT~ bedi da `Sromis axsna~ -- ai, ilias lirikis obieqtebi. romantikosebTan idumalis Sinaarsis Semcveli `bedic~ ki iliasTan naTeli, realisturi SinaarsiT aivso da momavlis mniSvneloba SeiZina. ilia WavWavaZem Tavis poeziaSi mkiTxvels Tvalwin dauyena adamianuruflebaayrili guTnis deda da `usamarTlod dasjili~ muSa, `xalxis sisxlisTvis agrgvinebuli cari~ da gaiZvera diambegi. ilias lirikiT cxadi gaxda, rom Cveulebrivi da yoveldRiuric SeiZleba iqces poeziis sagnad, roca mas didi da fxizeli xelovanis xeli Seexeba.

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yvelaferi zemoaRniSnuli uflebas gvaZlevs, ganvacxadoT, rom ilias lirika axal safexurs qmnis qarTuli lirikis istoriaSi. tradiciulad momdinareobs azri, rom lirika aris poetis sulieri samyaros daxasiaTeba, misi grZnobebis gadmoSla, movlenebisa da sagnebisadmi misi mimarTebis warmodgena. magram lirikis amgvari gaazreba mTlad amomwuravi ar unda iyos, radgan faqtobrivad amave amocanas upasuxebs arsebiTad sxva Janrebic. epikur nawarmoebSiac aisaxeba mwerlis sulieri viTareba, misi mimarTeba, grZnobebi. lirikis SemTxvevaSi arsebiTi isaa, rom aq uSualod TviTon poetis sulieri mdgomareoba, misi grZnobebia CaTvlili sazogadoebrivi yuradRebis Rirsad. poetis `mes~ gancdas eniWeba lirikul nawarmoebSi uSualod fasi. amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, lirika Cveulebriv pretenziuli Janria im azriT, rom, rasac poeti grZnobs, mas mniSvnelovnad miiCnevs. TavisTavad cxadia, nakleb pretenziulia sxvaTa piriT laparaki, sxvaTa azrebisa da moqmedebebis daxasiaTeba, maT saxeebs amofareba, maTSi gauCinareba. erTi sityviT, lirika avtorTan axlos misuli formaa gamoxatvisa da, amdenad, metad sapasuxismgeblo formac. yovelive amis aRniSvnas axla is mniSvnelobac aqvs, rom ilia WavWavaZis saxiT saqme gvaqvs iseT poetTan, romelsac mZlavrad aqvs gacnobierebuli es viTareba. masTan yvelgan igrZnoba es didi pasuxismgebloba. ilia WavWavaZis lirikuli poezia araa vrceli. mas sul 72 leqsi aqvs dawerili. nawili leqsebisa poets an ar daumTavrebia, an sazogadod uari aqvs maTze naTqvami. Tematikuri TvalsazrisiT dajgufebisas SeiZleba pirobiTad Semdegi jgufebi gamovyoT mis poeziaSi: erT Tematikur jgufs Seadgenen wminda socialuri xasiaTis leqsebi, iseTebi, rogoricaa: `guTnis deda,~ `muSa,~ `mesmis, mesmis~..., `gazafxuli,~ `1871 weli, 23 maisi~ da a.S. meore jgufSi SeiZleba gavaerTianoT leqsebi, romlebic aSkarad patriotuli mizandasaxulebisani arian, Torem ise faqtobrivad ilias yvela leqsi patriotul mizandasaxulebasaa sabolood daqvemdebarebuli. aseTi leqsebia: `yvarlis mTebs,~ `qarTvlis dedas,~ `elegia,~ (`mas aqeT...~), `ra vakeTeT, ras vSvrebodiT anu saqarTvelos istoria mecxramete saukunisa,~ `bednieri eri,~ (`Cemo kargo qveyanav...~), `bazaleTis tba~ da a.S. Semdegi jgufia iseTi leqsebi, romlebic exebian poeziis daniSnulebas da poetis misias. aseTebia: `poeti,~ (`Cemo kalamo~...) da a.S. ilias aqvs satrfialo Sinaarsis leqsebic. aq Sedis: `mec Sav Tvalebs,~ (`vixile satrfo~), (`erTxel jda CemTan...~), (`risTvis miyvarxar~), (`gaxsovs turfav...~) da a.S. Semdegi jgufia iseTi leqsebi, romlebic Cven SeiZleba romelime aRniSnul jgufs mivakuTvnoT, magram isini mainc gamoirCevian, ramdenadac maTSi poetis TviTdaxasiaTebaa, misi pirovnuli Zalebis Sefasebaa warmodgenili. aseTebia: `dae Tund movkvde...~, `gavswordeT bedo~ da a.S. calkea gamosayofi iseTi leqsebi, romlebsac polemikuri ieri aqvT. esenia `gamocanebi,~ `kidev gamocanebi,~ `pasuxis pasuxi.~ ra SeiZleba iTqvas sakuTriv socialuri Sinaarsis leqsebis daxasiaTebis TvalsazrisiT. `guTnis deda~ erT-erTi adreuli brwyinvale leqsia. poeti mkiTxvels uqmnis imis mxatvrul iluzias, rom qarTveli glexkaci gviSinaarsebs Tavis safiqrals da satkivars. am iluzias aRrmavebs adgilobrivi koloritis Rrma codna da saTanado gamoxatva, sada, dauZabavi metyveleba, aforizmuli, qaragmebiT uxvi, rac ase maxlobelia xalxuri poeziisaTvisac. leqsSi igrZnoba didi TanagrZnoba da siyvaruli poetisa mSromeli kacisadmi... sagangebo aRniSvnis Rirsia is, rom am leqsis Sinaarsi sruliadac araa mijaWvuli gamosaxatav obieqtTan -- guTnis dedasTan, aramed masze maRldeba da sayovelTaod Rirebuli azris saxes iZens, romelic erTob mniSvnelovania guTnis dedis gareSec. am leqss mTlianad gasdevs azri adamianis RirsebaTa aRiarebisa da maTi dacvisa. aq didi mxatvruli ZaliT aris wamoyenebuli moTxovna adamianis Sinagani Tavisuflebisa. adamianis Rirseba unda iqnes daculi -- es azria

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wamyvani am leqsSi. SeiZleba aRar iarsebos ilias leqsis asaxvis uSualo obieqtma, guTnis dedam, magram leqsSi gamoxatuli gamZle azris gamo es leqsi sul icocxlebs. rogor aris am leqsSi poetis mier es mxatvruli amocana ganxorcielebuli. am amocanis ganxorcieleba xerxdeba ilias poeziisaTvis niSandoblivi mWevrmetyvelebiTi gziT. mWevrmetyveluroba am leqsisa, pirvel yovlisa, obieqtis amaRlebaSi vlindeba. Cveulebrivi gza obieqtis daxasiaTebisa iyo da amJamadac aris am obieqtis doneze dasvla, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli metyvelebis formis SerCeva da, saerTod, iseTi mxatvruli saSualebebis SerCeva, rac am obieqts Seesabameba. `guTnis dedaSi~ ilia WavWavaZe am tradiciul gzas ar mihyveba. ilia guTnis dedis doneze ki ar dadis, aramed TviTon igi -- guTnis deda ahyavs Tavis simaRleze... guTnis deda, romelic arc maincdamainc enamWevrad warmogvedgina, ilias leqsSi ase STambeWdavad ametyvelda. swored gansasaxierebuli obieqtis amaRleba, rac ase niSandoblivia ara marto ilias lirikisaTvis, aramed sazogadod misi SemoqmedebisaTvis (gavixsenoT lelT Runia, mwyemsi qali) aris erTi niSani am leqsis mWevrmetyvelurobisa. am leqsis mWevrmetyvelurobas gaucveTeli, siaxlis niSniT warmodgenili leqsikac da sazogadod metyvelebac apirobebs. marTalia, `guTnis dedaSi~ leqsika ZiriTadad yofiTia, magram frazis konstruqcia aqvs poets uCveulo. erTi sityviT, poeti yofiT metyvelebas ki ar eqvemdebareba, aramed masze maRldeba, rac misi pirovnuli siZlieris maCvenebelic aris. rac iTqva konkretulad am leqsis Sesaxeb, igive unda gavavrceloT ilias TiTqmis yvela leqsze, oRondac ramdenime sityva unda iTqvas leqsze `muSa~. pirvelad aseTi saTauriT am Temaze leqss ilia WavWavaZis poeziaSi vxvdebiT da Semdeg es Tema sazogadod mkvidrdeba qarTul poeziaSi (gr. orbeliani, ir. evdoSvili, g. quCiSvili da a.S.). Zala garkveuli Temisa da misi gansaxierebisa Cans pirvelobaSi, Torem Semdeg SesaZloa ukeTesi Txzulebac daiweros amave Temaze. es iTqmis Tundac gr. orbelianis didebuli leqsis `muSa boqulaZis~ mimarT. ilia WavWavaZis SesaniSnavi leqsi `mesmis, mesmis...~ 1860 wels Seiqmna, magram misi gamoqveyneba mxolod TerTmeti wlis Semdeg moxerxda Jurnal `krebulSi~ n. nikolaZis aseTi SeniSvniT: `es leqsi glexebis ganTavisuflebis dros ekuTvnis~. cxadia, es SeniSvna fandi iyo cenzuris Tvalis asaxvevad. leqsis Seqmnis namdvili safuZveli da mizanswrafva iseTi iyo, rasac cenzura ver Seiwynarebda. es leqsi peterburgSi Seiqmna, sadac studenti ilia didi interesiT, RelviT adevnebda Tvalyurs msoflioSi mimdinare socialur-politikur procesebs, didi TanagrZnobiT imsWvaleboda TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli damonebuli xalxebis mimarT. rogorc Tanamedroveni gadmogvcemen, ilia auRelvebia italiis erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel brZolas; am brZolebis legendaruli gmiris -- juzepe garibaldis gamarjvebebs. ilias garibaldisTan wasvla da mis razmSi Cawerac seriozulad hqonia gadawyvetili. swored aman gansazRvra am leqsis Seqmna. leqsSi gamoxatulia didi TanagrZnoba da siyvaruli TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli xalxis, `simarTlis xmis qveynad quxilis~ mimarT, rac aris safuZveli monobis borkilebis sabolood darRvevis imedisa. poeti natrobs, rom es xma mis mamulSiac gaismas. ilias lirikis daxasiaTebisas erTxmad miuTiTeben, rom patriotizmia misi ZiriTadi Sinaarsi. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom swored es grZnobaa amosavali mis nawarmoebebSi gamoxatuli sxva grZnobebisa. am grZnobis niadagzea aRmocenebuli, gaSlili da ganviTarebuli patriotuli ideali, romelic gansazRvravs yvela mis sxva ideals. `yvarlis mTebs~ aris faqtobrivad ilias pirveli maRalmxatvruli leqsi. is cxrameti wlis Wabukma SeTxza peterburgSi gamgzavrebis win. es leqsi mravalmxriv aris sayuradRebo. is warmogvidgens im mwuxare ganwyobilebas, romelic

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Sors, ruseTSi mimaval axalgazrdas daeufla samSoblo qveyanasTan ganSorebis Jams. leqsSi gamoxatuli sevda ar aris gauvali da yvelafris damTrgunavi, radgan ganSorebis tkivils Tan axlavs gacnobierebuli Segneba imisa, rom Tavis samSoblosTan mas aSorebs saqveyno vali. `momavlis bedi~ iTxovs msxverplad gayras, rom mSobliuri mTebi mudam masTan iqnebian xsovniT, ucxoeTidan kvlav moawvdens gulsa da Tvalsa. am leqsSi patriotuli grZnoba mSobliur adgilTan, konkretul adgilTan siaxlovis saxiT mJRavndeba -- kerZod mSobliuri yvarlis mTebTan siaxloviT... gansaxierebis aseT gzas Semdeg faqtobrivad poeti aRar imeorebs. konkretuli adgilis, teritoriis siyvaruls Seenacvleba samSoblos, rogorc aseTis, siyvaruli, samSoblos ideis siyvaruli. leqsi `yvarlis mTebs~ yuradRebas iqcevs bunebis grZnobis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiTac. igi cxadad warmogvidgens poetis mimarTebas bunebasTan. bunebas aq, ise rogorc sxva leqsebSi, patriotuli grZnobis gamowvevis mniSvneloba eniWeba. sagangebod miuTiTeben leqsis Sinagan kompoziciur gamokveTilobaze da mkacr organizebulobaze. `qarTvlis dedas~ ilias saprogramo xasiaTis leqsebis wyebaSi Sedis, ramdenadac aq gamokveTili ideali mTeli misi Semoqmedebis manZilze ar icvleba da Tematikurad meordeba, iSleba da konkretdeba mxatvrul saxeebSi misi poeturi moRvaweobis mTel manZilze. es leqsic, erTi mxriv, pasuxi iyo im amocanis gadawyvetis gzaze, Tu ra unda moemoqmedna qarTvel xalxs, rom ar gaTqvefiliyo uzarmazari imperiis masaSi, Tavisi TavisTavadoba, erovnuli iersaxe SeenarCunebina; dros dalodeboda da xelsayrel SemTxvevaSi ebrZola damoukideblobisa da TavisuflebisaTvis. Tavdapirvelad poeti `qarTvlis dedaSi~ im azrs aviTarebs, rom Tavisufal saqarTveloSi Zvelad deda Svils mamuls uzrdida. dedis nana mtrebTan mebrZol qveyanas momaval gmirs umzadebda. is dro gaqra. tyvedpyrobilma, kirTebis qveS daCagrulma bedma dedis sicocxlis Zala Cakla da misi Svilic Crdils daamsgavsa. aRaraa mamapapuri mxneoba, saxelisaTvis amayi TrTola, gmiruli suli. TiTqos unda movelodeT, rom leqsSi romantikuli sevda SemoiWreba warsulze misi idealizebis mizniT, magram molodinis sapirispirod es leqsi swored imiTaa saetapo, rom ilia aq radikalurad emijneba amgvar damokidebulebas warsulTan. sicocxlisunarian ers ar SeSvenis warsulze godeba. warsulze cremls sicocxle rodi mohyolia:

`moviklaT warsul droebzed dardi... Cven unda vsdioT axla sxva varskvlavs, Cven unda Cveni vSvaT myoobadi, Cven unda mivsceT momavali xalxs~.

leqsis meore nawili mTlianad itvirTeba momwodebluri intonaciiT. esaa leqsi-mowodeba. dedam Svili unda aRzardos qristes mcnebiT, mamulis siyvaruliT. poets Rrmad swams, rom dedis nanasTan Sezrdili saRvTo da saqveyno idealebi sasurvel zemoqmedebas moaxdenen da keTil nayofs moitanen:

`mende, miiRebs nergs Sengan darguls da mogvcems nayofs viT kaci kacurs~.

ase amaRlebulad warmogvidgina poetma dedis misia. Rirseuli Svilis aRzrda dedis saqveyno valad dasaxa. elegiuri xasiaTis ganwyobilebebi ilias zogierTi leqsisaTvis saerTod ar aris ucxo. erT leqss ki ilia pirdapir ase asaTaurebs -- `elegia~. es leqsi dawerilia 1859 wels. am leqsisaTvis, iseve rogorc ilias bevri sxva leqsisaTvis, niSandoblivia erTgvari kontrastuloba leqsSi gamoxatul Sinaarssa da

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formas Soris. rogorc cnobilia, elegiuri xasiaTis leqsebi ufro pirovnul samyaros exebian, intimurobiT xasiaTdebian. SemTxveviTi araa, rom lirikul JanrTagan elegia Zveli droidanve popularuli iyo... gansakuTrebiT gabatonda igi romantikosTa poeziaSi. maT sulier ganwyobilebebs elegia Zalzed miesadageboda formis TavisuflebiTac da ganwyobilebiTac. ilia WavWavaZe elegiuri Janris leqsis Sinaarsad Rrmad socialur, sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis grZnobas aqcevs, riTac leqsis patriotul gamiznulobas mkveTrad gaxazavs. `elegiaSi~ poeti Tavdapirvelad xatavs bunebis mkafiod suraTovan ferwerul lirikul peizaJs. igrZnoba erTgvari idumali kavSiri bunebasa da adamianis suls Soris. amgvari kavSiri sazogadod iyo damaxasiaTebeli romantikuli poeziisaTvis. magram romantikosTagan sruliad gansxvavebiT bunebis suraTi `elegiaSi~ poetis sawuxaris, misi saocnebos konkretul fonad warmodgeba. poeti Sewuxebulia qveynis umoqmedobiT. bunebis simSvenierec ki ufro mkveTrad gaxazavs miZinebuli mamulis mdumarebas. leqsi `mas aqeT raki~ 1861 wels Seiqmna. esaa leqsi -- aRsareba, romelSiac saubaria imaze, Tu rogor daeufla poets mamulis siyvarulis grZnoba. leqsSi gamoxatulia moqalaqeobrivi Segnebis umaRlesi safexuri. poets udides siamovnebas aniWebs imis Segneba, rom misi sicocxle samSobloze fiqrsa da zrunvaSi Sreba. siamovnebis gancdas Tan axlavs im simwaris realobac, rom namdvili mamuliSvili Tavs martod grZnobs Tavis fiqrebsa da satkivarTan. saqveyno satkivarsa da sazrunavSi martoobis gancda uCveulo araa gamorCeul pirovnebaTaTvis; iliasac Tan axlda igi da mis saerTo sulier mdgomareobas erTgvarad gansazRvravda. ilia WavWavaZis patriotuli xasiaTis leqsTagan uaRresad mniSvnelovania leqsebi, romlebSiac mamuliSviluri grZnoba TviTgakicxvis, eris naklovanebaTa daufaravi mxilebis gziT vlindeba. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa leqsebi `bednieri eri~, `ra vakeTeT, ras vSvrebodiT anu saqarTvelos istoria mecxramete saukunisa~. pirvel maTganSi poeti satirul formaSi eris im naklovanebebs amxels, rac grZel gzaze qarTveli xalxis istoriis avbediT mosaxvevebSi mankierebebad Camouyalibda. es leqsi yovelTvis gvaxsenebs imasac, rac xSirad sabediswerod ubrundeba Cvens qveyanas. xolo meore leqsSi, romelsac piesis saxe aqvs da papasa da SviliSvils Soris gasaubrebis formiTaa warmodgenili, gaTvaliswinebulia Cveni istoria mecxramete saukunisa satirul formaSi. am leqsis mixedviT irkveva, rom am saukunis manZilze erTmaneTs vwewdiT da viwewebodiT, erTmaneTs vabezRebdiT, ruseTisaken saxvewnelad gavrbodiT da gamovrbodiT, vyvlefdiT ymebs, Cin-medlebze zrunvas gadavyeviT. erTi sityviT, Cveni istoria sul iqiTken aris mimarTuli, rom kiTxva dagviyenos, rogor gadavrCiT. ilia aseT leqsebSi aris Seupovari da mrisxane, mouridebeli. ilias, rogorc yvelaze did gulSematkivars Tavisi xalxisa, eris winamZRols hqonda ufleba amgvari gakicxvisa. miuxedavad imisa, rom ilia mkacria da daundobeli naklovanebaTa mxilebisas, igi gauval sevdas arasdros ar eZleva. imedze xels ar iRebs, piriqiT, swored imis gamo, rom Zalian mkacria, imave dros aris dajerebuli Tavisi qveynis momavalSi. swored am TvalsazrisiTac aris saintereso didi sinaziTa da siTboTi savse leqsi `Cemo kargo qveyanav...~. didi uSualobiT mimarTavs poeti Tavis qveyanas: marTalia, awmyo ar gwyalobs, Cemo qveyanav, da es aris Seni mowyenis mizezi, magram samomavlo daRonebis safuZveli ara gaqvs, `momavali Senia~. gasagebia, rom iseTi xelovanis SemTxvevaSi, rogorc ilia WavWavaZea, momavlis imeds, cxadia, aqvs Tavisi konkretuli safuZveli. bunebrivia, gvainteresebs ras emyareba ilias rwmena; gasagebia, rom lirikul leqsSi ar SeiZleba am mxriv velodeT vrcel mxatvrul dasabuTebas. faqtia, rom erT garkveul da konkretul safuZvelze aq sruliad naTladaa miTiTebuli da, rogorc Cans, am leqsis Seqmnis Zi42

riTadi motivic am safuZvlis cxadi gancdaa. leqsis mixedviT momavlis rwmenas amagrebs is, rom

`wvrilSvilni wamogeswrnen nazardni, gulmtkicebi; maTi zrunvis sagani Sen xar da Sen iqnebi, ar gimtyuneben Sena, Tuki maT miendebi. maTis RvawliT Segeqnes saxe bediT mTenia Cemo kargo qveyanav, razed mogiwyenia! maTi guli Senisa trfobis farTo budea, maTi gulTa ficari Seni mtkice zRudea... ver wabilwavs maTs grZnobas simuxTle, simrudea!..~

erTob mniSvnelovania, rom poeti, romelic aTiod wlis win veravis xedavda, visac `fiqrs andobda, grZnobas gauziarebda~, ndobas ucxadebs axalgazrdobas, romelic asparezze gamodis da... sazogadod momaval Taobebs. `bazaleTis tba~ daiwera 1883 wels. patriotuli grZnobis gaRvivebis mizniT poeti am leqsSi legendur masalas imarjvebs. patriotuli ocneba da ideali aq warsulSi, SoreulSia gadatanili. leqsis legendaruli Sinaarsi, saocnebo ideals amaRlebuls, erTob poeturs xdis. Soreulis, legenduris gancdas aq upiratesad gzas uxsnis sxvaTa Tqmebze, gadmocemebze miTiTebuli leqsika, maTze dayrdnoba. leqsi gamoirCeva ilias mZlavri warmosaxviT Seqmnili xilvebiT. `bazaleTis tbas~ safuZvlad daedo xalxuri legenda, ramac ganapiroba poeturi saTqmeli xalxis ocnebis formiT gamoxatuliyo. aman igi farTo saxalxo leqsad aqcia. xalxis wiaRSi warmoSobilad gvesaxeba is gulgautexeloba, ocneba, optimizmi, didi molodinis grZnoba, riTac es brwyinvale leqsi xasiaTdeba. rogorc iTqva, ilia WavWavaZis leqsebis erTi nawili poetis mrwamsis, misi daniSnulebisa da misiis sakiTxs exeba. ocdaori wlis ilia WavWavaZes ekuTvnis es udidesi pirovnuli ZaliT aRbeWdili sityvebi:

`RmerTTan misTvis vlaparakob, rom warvuZRve wina ersa~ (`poeti~)

ilia WavWavaZemdec da ilias Semdegac bevri moazrovne da xelovani ara marto aTavisuflebs poets sazogadoebrivi sazrunavisagan, aramed fiqrobs, rom mxatvrul sityvas arc SeiZleba daekisros aseTi movaleoba, radgan, igi, mxatvruli sityva ar warmoadgens iseTi zemoqmedebis saSualebas, rom sazogadoeba darazmos an gardaqmnas. sabuTi adrec hqondaT da axlac meti energiulobiT varaudoben, rom literaturaSi, miT ufro lirikul poeziaSi, calkeuli adamianis sulieri gancdebia mowodebuli, is, rac individualuria, xolo individualuri ar SeiZleba iyos socialuri Tavisi gavrcelebis masStabiT. Tu gavrcelda, maSin dakargavs Tavis individualobas, e.i. misi mxatvruli Rirebuleba iqneba dabali... da ai, ilia WavWavaZe principulad upirispirdeba am Tvalsazriss da poets igi eris winamZRolobas akisrebs. esaa yvelaze mTavari da mniSvnelovani, rac am didebul leqsSi gamoxata iliam. rogorc miuTiTeben, leqsis striqonebSi

`misTvis ar vmRer, rom vimRero, viT frinvelma gareganma, ara marto tkbil xmaTaTvis gamomgzavna qveynad cama~,

SesamCnevia parafrazi goeTes sityvebisa: `Ich singe, wie der Vogel singt~ (`vmReri ise, viT frinveli~), anda puSkinis strofisa:

" , , ,

43

."

isic cnobilia, rom arc goeTe, arc puSkini `wminda xelovnebis~ ideas ki ar gamoxatavdnen, aramed Semoqmedebis Tavisuflebaze laparakobdnen.1 am ori didi Semoqmedis TavisTavad erTob faseul da momxibvlel azrSi ilia WavWavaZes mniSvnelovani koreqtivi Seaqvs. ilias mixedviT, poeti sulac araa frinveliviT Tavisufali erovnuli, sazogadoebrivi interesebidan, ufro metic, igi eris rCeuli Svilia, misi winamZRoli da rogorc xelovani eris interesebis gamomxatvelia, masTanaa tanjvaSiac da sixarulSic da Tavisufali simReriTac mxolod maSin imRerebs, roca ers tanjvis cremls moswmends. didi ilias azriT, marTalia, `poezia cis niWia, madlia da poetic am zegardmo madliT cxebuli~, ciT daniSnuli, magram misi funqcia amqveyniuria, igi eris aRzrdilia da misi interesebis gamomxatveli. ase gamoirCa qarTveli xelovani sxvaTagan. ilia WavWavaZis leqsma `poeti~ mTeli epoqa Seqmna qarTul sinamdvileSi poeziis mizandasaxulebis gansazRvris TvalsazrisiT; i. WavWavaZem a. wereTelTan erTad gansakuTrebuli ZaliT azida poetis maRali misia. raki eris winamZRoli unda iyo, Tvisebebic unda gqondes Zlieri pirovnebisa. poetic iseTi pirovnuli niSnebiT warmogvidgina iliam, romelic eris meTaurobas SeZlebda. pirovnebis siZliere mxolod dabrkolebaTa arsebobis SemTxvevaSi irkveva... da ai, yvelaze upirvelesi dabrkoleba, romelic xelovans, viTarca pirovnebas, win uxvdeba, sakuTari Rirsebis Segnebaa. sxvas ki ar ahyve, imis mixedviT ki ar imoqmedo, sxva ras gikarnaxebs, aramed Sen TviTon gqondes sakuTari Zala, sxvis mier Seqmnili Zala ki ar iyo, aramed TviTon warmoadgende Zalas. aseT adamians ar sWirdeba sxvaTa waqezeba, taSi, mas sakuTari gza aqvs. esaa pirvel yovlisa, gamoxatuli leqsSi `Cemo kalamo~. ilia WavWavaZis pirovnuli siZlieris damadasturebelia misi siWabukisdroindeli `dae Tund movkvde...~, aseTive xasiaTisaa misi leqsi `gavswordeT bedo~. esaa xmalSi gamowveva bedisa, SeWideba masTan da damkvidreba pirovnuli siZlieris rwmenisa. ase ukavSirdebian bunebrivad erTimeores ilia WavWavaZis warmodgena xelovnebis rolis, misi daniSnulebis, misi misiisa da sakuTari pirovnuli Zalebis TviTrwmenisa. ilia WavWavaZes Seqmnili aqvs ramdenime satrfialo xasiaTis leqsi, romlebic Wabukobis xanaSia dawerili. maTgan gansakuTrebiT gamoyofen or leqss: `risTvis miyvarxar~ da `gaxsovs turfav...~, romlebSic imden sifaqizes xedavdnen da imdenad popularulni iyvnen, rom simRerebad iqcnen da drosac gauZles. pirveli maTgani im mxriv aris sagulisxmo, rom aq xazgasmulia siyvarulis grZnobis mtanjveli xasiaTi da amave dros adamianis miswrafeba, rom am tanjvis areSi moeqces; xolo meore leqsSi am grZnobis cvalebad xasiaTze da mis warmavlobazea laparaki. lirikuli leqsi bevri ara, magram darCa ilia WavWavaZis werilebi Tavisi satrfosa da SemdegSi meuRlis -- olRa guramiSvilisadmi miwerili. es werilebi sruliad cxads xdian da TvalsaCinod warmogvidgenen ilias araCveulebrivi gatacebis adamianad. rogorc Cans, ilias sazogadoebriv samsjavroze ar gamohqonda iseTi grZnobebi, romelTac misi azriT sazogadoebrivi Rirebuleba naklebi hqondaT. ilia WavWavaZis leqsebis erTi jgufi yuradRebas iqcevs sinamdvilisadmi midgomis TvalsazrisiT. es aris polemikuri xasiaTis satirul-iumoristuli leqsebi. ilia WavWavaZe am leqsebis mixedviT uZlieres polemistad gvevlineba. aq Cven mxedvelobaSi gvaqvs ilias leqsebi: `gamocanebi~ da `kidev gamocanebi~,

1

j . W u m b u r i Z e , qarTuli kritikis istoria, I, 1974, gv. 206-207.

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`pasuxis pasuxi~ da a.S. i. WavWavaZis, rogorc polemikosis, dasaxasiaTeblad, pirvel yovlisa, is unda iTqvas, rom mas SeeZlo mowinaaRmdegis gamowveva. es mniSvnelovani mxarea polemistis bunebisa. erTia, roca TavdasxmiT gaiZuleben xma aimaRlo Tavdasacavad. aseT SemTxvevaSi motivi kamaTisa mometebulad TviT mokamaTis gareT Zevs. sul sxvaa, roca Zala Segwevs mowinaaRmdege gamoiwvio, xeli Seuwyo sawinaaRmdego azris gadmoSlas, Tuki arsebobs igi. ra Taviseburebebs gviCvenebs ilias polemikuri leqsebi sinamdvilisadmi midgomis TvalsazrisiT? xSirad kamaTis dros gakicxva mowinaaRmdegisa emyareba emociur safuZvels, e.i. imgvar gakicxvasTana gvaqvs saqme, romlis drosac gakicxvis safuZvlianoba naCvenebi araa. aRniSnaven, rom akakis zogierTi polemikuri leqsi, maT Soris iseTi, rogoricaa `xarabuza Renerals~, swored emociuri xasiaTisaa. am leqsSi warmodgenilia Zalian mkacri, daundobeli gakicxva, magram ZiriTadad dausabuTebeli gakicxva. gakicxvis sakmaris safuZvlad CaTvlilia TviT akakis mimarTeba gr. orbelianisadmi (gr.kiknaZe). sxvagvaria ilia WavWavaZis midgoma. iliasaTvis, pirvel yovlisa, sabuTianobaa damaxasiaTebeli. ilia gakicxvisas iseT sabuTebs adgens, romlebic TavisTavad gvixasiaTeben obieqtis raobas. aravisTvis saeWvo ar aris ilias leqsis `pasuxis pasuxis~ siZliere, misi didi zemoqmedebiTi Zala. xolo es STabeWdileba dapirobebulia, pirvel yovlisa, misi argumentirebuli xasiaTiT. ilia maSinac, roca safuZveli aqvs Zlier Relavdes, wonasworoba dakargos, sidinjes inarCunebs, TavSekavebulia. igi ar mihyveba emociebs. poeti leqsSi, pirvel yovlisa, uCvenebs TvalnaTliv adgens `mamebisa~ da `Svilebis~ Rirsebebs cal-calke da erTmaneTs upirispirebs maT. `pasuxis pasuxamde~, rogorc aRiniSna, iliam `gamocanebi~ da `kidev gamocanebi~ dawera. am satiruli xasiaTis leqsebSi bevri imdroindeli Zalian cnobili piri iyo gakicxuli. pirovnuli dacinvis magaliTebi polemikur planSi ilia WavWavaZemdec arsebobda. am mxriv sakmarisia gavixsenoT besikisa da Wabua orbelianis am xasiaTis leqsebi. besikisa da Wabuas leqsebi pirovnuli, sruliad mouridebeli ganqiqebis mkafio magaliTebia, oRondac pirovnulis sazRvrebSive darCenili. ilia WavWavaZis leqsebi ki, pirvel yovlisa, swored imiTaa sayuradRebo, rom man pirovnul gakicxvas sazogadoebrivi fasi da mniSvneloba mianiWa. TiToeuli gamocanis obieqtis sazogadoebrivi fasi aqvs naCvenebi poets da es Zalzed mkafiod aris miniSnebuli TiToeuli gamocanis bolos refrenad darTul sakmaod magar gamoTqmaSi:

`qveyana da qveynis saqme imas fexebze hkidia~.

aRniSnuli ki ilias mrwamsidan gamomdinareobs -- igi yvelas da yvelafers sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis TvalsazrisiT afasebs. sxvagvari Sefasebis kriteriumi misTvis ar arsebobs. ilia WavWavaZe Tavis gancdebs mxolod sazogadoebrivi Rirebulebis TvalsazrisiT Semowmebis Semdeg miiCnevs gamoxatvisaTvis Sesaferisad. Semowmeba TiTqmis yovelTvis gulisxmobs manZils gancdasa da mis gamoxatvas Soris -- ilias leqsebSi yovelTvis igrZnoba es manZili. igi Tavis leqsebSi yovelgvar gancdebs ki ar gamoxatavs, aramed im gancdebs ixdis asaxvis sagnad, romlebic uSualod pasuxoben, Seesabamebian poetis Tvalsazriss. ra Tqma unda, poets aqvs Tavisi uaRresad intimuri samyaro, magram mas Tavisi TavisaTvis neba ar miucia saaSkaraoze gamoetana, poeturi gamoxatvis sagnad eqcia yovelgvari gancda. ilias ar miuCnevia poezia Tavisi aforiaqebuli sulis navsayudlad, radgan es, misi azriT, daukargavda mas sazogadoebriv mniSvnelobas. ilias lirikaSi is grZnobebi iCenen Tavs, romlebic mis mZlavr inteleqts eyrdnobian da garkveulobiT xasiaTdebian. am azriTac ilia WavWavaZis lirikaSi

45

iseTi Relvaa gamoxatuli, romelic TavSekavebulia. poets Seswevs Zala, moerios, daeuflos Tavis grZnobebs. misTvis Sinagani mRelvarebaa damaxasiaTebeli. literaturis istoriam icis bevri magaliTi imisa, roca poeti cdilobs Tavi moaCvenos mkiTxvels, rom Zalian Relavs, roca igi Sinaganad araviTar Relvas ar ganicdis. esaa yalbi Relvis nimuSi. ilias leqsebi ki gancdilis siRrmiT gamoirCevian. uaRresad gancdilia, magram amasTanave uaRresad TavSekavebuli mis TxzulebebSi gamoxatuli grZnoba. TviTdakvirvebasac emyareba ilias Semdegi fraza: `WeSmariti marTali grZnoba ybedi rodia. piriqiT, imdenad TavdaWerilia, imdenad sityvaZviria, ramodenadac ufro Zlieria da, Tu gnebavT, am sityvaZvirobaSia imisi mimzidveli Rirsebaca, imisi gulsawvdeni zemoqmedebac~ (V, 500). roca ilias, rogorc poetis, mxatvrul SesaZleblobaTa daxasiaTeba poetikuri analizis saxiT warmoebs, am dros Cveulebrivia daskvna, rom ilias axali formebiT ar gaumdidrebia qarTuli leqsi, rom am mxriv misi Txzulebebi siaxles ar gvidgenen. iliam gaimeora is formebi, romlebic qarTul poeziaSi manamde arsebobda. mag., erTi avtoris TqmiT, `ilias lirika formis mxriT nabijis win gadadgmas ar warmoadgens aleqsandre WavWavaZis, grigol orbelianis da nikoloz baraTaSvilis lirikasTan SedarebiT~.1 gasarkvevia am rigis msjelobis azri. formis mxriT nabijis wingadaudgmeloba niSnavs Tu ara imas, rom axal Sinaarss ver moeZebna Sesabamisi forma. Tu amas niSnavs, maSin aucilebelia garkveuli daskvnis gakeTeba ilias lirikis mxatvrul RirsebaTa Sesaxeb. Tu nabiji ar aris gadadgmuli axali formebis mosapoveblad imitom, rom es arc iyo saWiro, ar arsebobs amis Sinagani moTxovna, maSin ra azri da daniSnuleba aqvs am msjelobas saerTod nabijis win gadadgmis Taobaze? garegnulad ilias TiTqmis arc gamouxatavs gansaxierebis im saSualebaTa ukmarisoba, romlebic qarTul leqswyobas gaaCnda. mas ar uCvenebia Tavis axal ideebTan ukve cnobili leqswyobis formaTa Seusabamoba. asea es, roca Cven ilias lirikas formalur siaxleTa TvalsazrisiT vixilavT da es marto ilias lirikas rodi exeba. TiTqmis igive iTqmis akaki wereTlis Sesaxebac. ilia da akaki umeteswilad adreul formebs mimarTavdnen. metic, isini sagangebod gaxazavdnen adre damkvidrebul popularul formaTa gamoyenebis faqts. magram es araTu ar uSlida xels axali Sinaarsis mowodebas, aramed amkvidrebda am Sinaarsis siaxles. ilias leqsebSi xSiria iseTi sityvebis dajgufeba, romlebic erTmaneTTan mezoblobaSi myof bevr Tanxmovans Seicaven. rCeba STabeWdileba, rom igi qmnis sityvaTaTvis arcTu Cveulebriv frazeologiur konstruqciebs. ilias frazis amgvari uCveulobiT miRebuli STabeWdilebac iyo imis erTi mizezi, rom zogierTi kritikosi mis leqsebs mZimed da gaumarTavad miiCnevda da daeWvebas gamoTqvamda ilias poetur SesaZleblobebSi. namdvilad ki es garemoeba misi poeziis Taviseburebad da mis mxatvrul Rirsebad unda miviCnioT. ilia leqsebis Txzvisas Tavisi bunebis Sesabamisad irCevs `mZime~ gamoTqmebs da qarTuli enisaTvis erTgvarad uCveulo formebs. amiT poeti TiToeul sityvas simyares aniWebs im gagebiT, rom TiTqos nela da dakvirvebiT gaatarebs maT mkiTxvelis cnobierebaSi maTi mniSvnelobis xelSesaxebad gagebis mizniT, sazogadod leqsis Sinaarsobliv mxareze, azrze yuradRebis gadatanis mizniT... Semdegi poeturi striqonebi: `da damiwyebsca siyvaruliT feTqvasa guli~, `Cven unda Cveni vSvaT myoobadi~, `rasc maSin grZnobdi, yoveli sTqva mwuxarma Tvalma~, `ramdenadc ufro mSvenieri xar, imdenad ufro mikvdeba guli~ da sxva `magari~ gamoTqmebia, magram swored amgvari gamoTqmebiT aris xazgasmuli ilias leqsis Zalac. amgvari gamoTqmebi cocxlad warmoadgenen azrs. amdenad, SeiZleba vilaparakoT

1

g . q i q o Z e , qarTuli literaturis istoria, XIX s. 1947, gv. 139.

46

sityvis energiulobaze ilias poeziaSi. ilias leqsis Zala mis energiulobaSi Zevs. amitomac unda iTqvas, rom iliasTan gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs miniWebuli calkeul sityvebs. simZimis centri mis leqsebSi frazis gamomsaxvelobazea gadatanili. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom ilias leqsebSi dadasturebuli xSiri ritmuli cvalebadoba swored am mizans, mkiTxvelis yuradRebis saTqmel Sinaarsze gadatanas emsaxureba. poeti leqsis azrobriv mxareze yuradRebis gamaxvilebas moiTxovs da ara melodiurobaze. amdenad, zogierTi kritikosis mier ilias poeziis naklovanebad miCneuli `simZime~ namdvilad mis energiulobaze metyvelebs da misi Taviseburebaa. ilia irCevs `mZime~ gamoTqmebs da amiT Tavisi saTqmelis sidarbaisleze da gancdilis siRrmeze migvaniSnebs, mkiTxvelis yuradRebas aqeTken mimarTavs da saTanado emocias aRZravs masSi. yvelaferi aRniSnuli Tumca srulebiT ver amowuravs saTqmelis Sinaarss, magram imaze ki miuTiTebs, rom ilia WavWavaZis grZnobebs mis poeziaSi napovni aqvs Tavisi Sesabamisi forma -- didaqtikuri, mqadagebluri, mebrZoli, dinji, TviTdarwmunebuli da, amasTanave, amaRlebuli forma. es ki niSnavs, rom ilia WavWavaZis mizanswrafvas Tavisi Sesaferisi esTetikuri samosi aqvs da amitomac uweria mas ukvdaveba qarTveli xalxis cnobierebaSi.

ilia WavWavaZis poemebi. epikuri poezia erTi metad mniSvnelovani ubania ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli memkvidreobisa. interesi am Janrisadmi imTaviTve arsebobs. lirikuli Txzulebebis gverdiT, maTTan erTad iqmneba ilias pirveli epikuri Txzulebebic. saerTod ki ilia WavWavaZe avtoria xuTi poemisa. `aCrdili~. `aCrdili~ ilia WavWavaZis pirveli vrceli epikuri qmnilebaa. iliam poema uZRvna Tavis megobrebs -- ivane poltorackis da ilia winamZRvriSvils, Semdgom cnobil moRvaweebs. `aCrdili~ Tavisi SemadgenlobiTa da Janrobrivi xasiaTiT scildeba poemis tradiciul gagebas da Tanamedrove usiuJeto poemebs uaxlovdeba. ilia WavWavaZem `aCrdili~, kerZod misi pirveli varianti 1859 wlis dasawyisisaTvis daamTavra, rodesac igi mxolod ocdaerTi wlisa iyo. daaxloebiT amave droidan ilia Seecada poemis gamoqveynebas, magram moxerxda erTi nawyvetis dastambva (V Tavi -- `Cemo aragvo...~) Jurnal `ciskarSi~. ilia sakuTari Tavisadmi Cveuli momTxovnelobiT agrZelebda muSaobas poemis srulqmnisaTvis. poemis saboloo varianti sruli saxiT 1881 wels gamoqveynda, roca ilia ukve ormocdaoTxi wlisa gaxda. am dros mas dawerili hqonda yvela mniSvnelovani mxatvruli qmnileba, garda `gandegilisa~ da `oTaraanT qvrivisa~. igi SemoqmedebiTi simwifis asakSi iyo Sesuli. marTalia, am drois manZilze bevri ram Seicvala `aCrdilSi~, magram ar Secvlila poemis ideur-Sinaarsobrivi mxare. piriqiT, kidev ufro gaRrmavda da gafarTovda is, ramac ukve adreul variantSi iCina Tavi. cvlilebebi ZiriTadad Seexo poemis mxatvrul mxares, gansakuTrebiT mis kompozicias... STabeWdileba, rac am nawarmoebis gacnobis Sedegad mkiTxvels rCeba, esaa poemis zogadi, mimoxilviTi xasiaTi. aq, am poemaSi ara gvaqvs tradiciuli poemisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli siuJeti, ambavi, rac ganviTarebis garkveul safexurebs Seicavs. ar moqmedeben tradiciuli poemisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli personaJebi. poema lirikuli wyobisaa. igi warmoadgens avtoris lirikul gansjas, misi Sexedulebebis, mosazrebebis gamoxatvas zogjer TviT avtoris, xolo mometebulad poemis erTob poeturi personaJis -- aCrdilis piriT gamoTqmuls, did, uaRresad mniSvnelovan, Cveni qveynis TvalsazrisiT sasicocxlo sakiTxebze, romlebic poetis Relvis sagans Seadgenen. aq daxatulia saerTo, ganzogadebuli suraTebi Cveni qveynis awmyodan da warsulidan. momavlisadmi poetis damokidebulebacaa naCvenebi da esec zogad planSi. magaliTad, ilia WavWavaZe am poemaSi exeba socialurad mwvave, batonymobis, sakiTxs. gansxvavebiT sxva mwerlebisagan, rom47

lebic Cvens mwerlobaSi ilias Semdeg gaixdian am sakiTxs gansaxierebis sagnad, i. WavWavaZe poemaSi batonymobis konkretul suraTs ar xatavs, aq ar arian warmodgenili konkretuli batoni da misi yma. calkeulis daxatvis SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gaCndes sawinaaRmdego azri imis Sesaxeb, rom avtori faqtebs sworad ar asaxavs, anda iTqvas, rom nawarmoebSi gansaxierebuli sinamdvile gamonakliss warmoadgens, es mebatone kia gulqva, magram sxvebi mas ar gvanan.1 ilia WavWavaZis `aCrdilSi~ naCvenebia, rom sazogadod batonymobis sistemaa uvargisi da miuRebeli. poeti uCvenebs, rom calkeuli mebatonis Tvisebebi ki araa arsebiTi, aramed TviT sistemis xasiaTi. TviT batonymuri wyobaa safuZvelSive dasagmobi, radgan igi xels uwyobs, badebs Seubraleblobas, sisastikes, adamianis Zarcva-glejas, yidva-gayidvas. sakiTxisadmi amgvari midgoma, masalis ase mowodeba ukve safuZvelSive spobs sxvagvari gagebis SesaZleblobas da amdenad didia misi socialuri Rirebulebac. ilia WavWavaZe sruliad garkveviT moiTxovs socialuri wyobis Secvlas, Secvlis gzad ki mas revoluciuri gza miaCnia, gza Zveli sistemis ngrevisa da axlis Senebisa. am poemaSi Tavisuflebazecaa laparaki da es sakiTxic zogadobis planSia gancdili. konkretuli saxe Tavisuflebisa poemaSi naCvenebi araa. adamiani unda ganTavisufldes da ganTavisufldeba kidec. is amaRldeba da gankacdeba, `warTmeul niWTa kvlav moipovebs,~ sxvas ar Seaviwrovebs, `Zirs ar daswevs~ -- aseTia poemaSi gamoxatuli Tavisuflebis Sinaarsi. ilia WavWavaZe am poemaSi sagangebod Cerdeba `Cveni xalxis erovnul Taviseburebebze, romelTac, misi azriT, gansazRvres am raodenobrivad patara xalxis arseboba mravali saukunis ganmavlobaSi~.2 aq gadagvarebis is saSiSroebacaa mZafrad danaxuli, rac Cvens qveyanas emuqreboda erovnuli Cagvrisa da socialuri ukuRmarTobis pirobebSi. warsulisa da awmyos Sepirispirebis safuZvelze naCvenebia meoris ubadrukoba pirvelis gmirul sulTan SedarebiT. ilia WavWavaZes ar SeuZlia Segueba arsebulTan, magram igi farTo TvalTaxedvis Semoqmedia. amitom gadaulaxav sevdas ar eZleva. igi cildeba sevdis farglebs da imedis sferoSi gadadis. am imedis niSnad aris aq daSvebuli cidan aqamdis arnaxuli cisartyela. poema `aCrdilSi~ momavlis perspeqtivacaa danaxuli; momavlis safuZvels poeti Tavisuflebis pirobebSi Tavisufal Segnebul SromaSi xedavs, SromaSi, romelic damonebuli ki ar iqneba, Zaldatanebas ki ar daemyareba, aramed pasuxi iqneba adamianis Sinagan moTxovnilebaze, mis arsebobas gaamarTlebs da SemoqmedebiT xasiaTs SeiZens. qveynis sulieri bedniereba maSin iqneba uzrunvelyofili, roca qarTveli `zogad cxovrebas gaikvlevs da mcnebis naTliT ze-aRzidul, amaRlebuli WkviT ganWvrets sazogado cxovrebis denas~. isic aRsaniSnavia, rom `mZlavri kavkasis~ xalxTa Tanaarseboba da maTi myari kavSiri miaCnia poets rogorc Cveni, aseve kavkasiis yvela xalxis saimedo momavlis sawindrad. poema `aCrdilSi~ zogad formaSi gancdili da amave xasiaTis suraTebis saxiT warmodgenili sakiTxebi Semdeg gaSla-gafarToebas, gaRrmavebas da sxvadasxva aspeqtiT konkretul gansaxierebas poulobs ilia WavWavaZis momdevno nawarmoebebSi: `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi yaCaRis cxovrebidam~, `glaxis naambobi~, `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~, `mgzavris werilebi~; lirikul leqsebSi: `guTnis deda~, `elegia~ da a.S. es viTareba ki imazec migviTiTebs, rom `aCrdili~, iseve rogorc prozauli `mgzavris werilebi~, ilias saprogramo xasiaTis nawarmoebia.

1

amgvari damokidebuleba, rogorc cnobilia, kidec gaCnda d. WonqaZis `suramis cixis~ mimarT. vgulisxmobT al. orbelianis werils `darTuls darTuli~, `ciskari~, 1959, 6, gv. 106, j. WumburiZis publikacia. 2 g r . k i k n a Z e , metyvelebis stilis sakiTxebi, gv. 191.

48

ilia didi erudiciis xelovania da gasagebia, rom misi nawarmoebebis, kerZod ki `aCrdilis~ Seqmnisas bevri literaturuli faqtic kvebavs poetis gonebas da warmosaxvas. mocemul SemTxvevaSi sainteresoa im mimarTebis gaTvaliswineba, rasac ilia did goeTesTan da, kerZod ki, mis `faustTan~ unda amyarebdes. ilia WavWavaZe, rogorc misi memkvidreobidan naTlad igrZnoba, goeTes safuZvlianad gaecno. man didad Seuwyo xeli qarTveli sazogadoebisaTvis goeTes mniSvnelobis gaTvaliswinebas, xolo, meore mxriv, iliam goeTes sakacobrio Sinaarsis idealebTan qarTuli aspeqtiT misvla scada, rac gamoCnda kidec `aCrdilsa~ da `mgzavris werilebSi~. amiT, erTi mxriv, ilia WavWavaZe qarTuli mwerlobis Tvalsawiers afarToebda, msWvalavda ra mas zogadsakacobrio interesebiT da qarTveli kacis Tvalsawiersac afarToebda. amas Cveni sazogadoebis, Cveni literaturis winsvlisaTvis sasicocxlo mniSvneloba hqonda, radgan Tomas manis sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `fausti~ aris tipuri poema germaneli xalxisa da mTeli kacobriobisaTvis, romelsac gadaSli rogorc biblias da poulob masSi adamianis sulis damamSvidebel da mZlavr gamoxatulebas~.1 fausturis filosofiuri Sinaarsi mudmivi da dauRleli winsvlisa, ilia WavWavaZesTan gancdilia praqtikul-sazogadoebriv aspeqtSi da uaRresad socialuri Sinaarsi aqvs SeZenili. goeTeseuli cnobili azris -- `mxolod dauRlel moZraobaSi TavisTavs povebs adamiani~ axlebur ilustrirebas da socialur-politikur enaze dasabuTebas vxvdebiT Cven `mgzavris werilebSi~ myinvarisa da Tergis dapirispirebis saxiT. xolo Tavisufali miwis Tavisufali xalxiT dasaxlebis faustur ideas i. WavWavaZe `aCrdilSi~ socialur niadagze afuZnebs `Sromis sufevis~ saxiT da mas XIX saukunis tvirTad saxavs. cnobili adgili `aCrdilidan~ `Sromis axsnisa~ da `Sromis sufevisa~ uaxlovdeba zrunviT dabrmavebuli, magram gonebis SuqiT ganaTebuli -- moxuci faustis monologs. ilia WavWavaZe `mgzavris werilebSi~ sagangebod msjelobs adamianis, eris sicocxlis arsebiT niSanze. ra aris adamianis sicocxlis niSani, rogor vlindeba igi? aseTia kiTxva, romelsac mwerali svams. ilias am kiTxvaze garkveuli pasuxi aqvs. igi adamianis, eris sicocxlis niSnad m o Z r a o b a s miiCnevs. `moZraoba da marto moZraoba aris... qveynis Ronisa da sococxlis mimcemi~ -- ambobs ilia. `mgzavris werilebSi~ mwerali ar akonkretebs, Tu ra saxis moZraobas gulisxmobs. misi azriT, mTavaria iyos moZraoba. adamianis moZraoba mizandaqvemdebarebuli moqmedebaa. adamiani gonieri arsebaa da misi moZraobis Sinaarsi mizandasaxuli S r o m a a, ramdenadac Sroma garkveuli produqciis Seqmnas gulisxmobs materialuri Tu sulieri Sinaarsisas. zemoTqmuli TavisTavad gulisxmobs, rom Sroma adamianis arsebobis formaa, misi sasicocxlo moTxovnileba. magram Tu Sroma araa Tavisufali, Tu igi iZulebiTia, damonebuli, Zaldatanebaze dafuZnebuli, cxadia, arsebobac damaxinjebulia. aqedan aucileblad gamomdinareobs moTxovna `Sromis axsnisa~. maSasadame, `Sromis axsna~ umal niSnavs pasuxs adamianis biologiur moTxovnaze. Sroma unda Tavisufali gaxdes, Segnebuli, Zaldautanebeli. nayofieri mxolod is Sromaa, romelic adamianis sicocxlis (ara marto biologiuris) aucileblobasTanaa dakavSirebuli, romelic adamianis WeSmariti bednierebis wyaroa, romelSiac vlindeba adamiani. ase exmaurebian erTmaneTs `aCrdili~ da `mgzavris werilebi~. ase gadadis azri da idea erTi nawarmoebidan meoreSi, ganmartavs, avsebs mas. faqtia isic, rom am or nawarmoebze SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba 70-ian wlebSi erTdroulad mimdinareobda. ilia WavWavaZis `aCrdili~, iseve rogorc `mgzavris werilebi~, agebulia `Tavisufali kompoziciis~ principiT. aRniSnuli ki imas gulisxmobs, rom am poe1

T . m a n i , Txzulebani aT tomad, t. X, gv. 47 (rusul enaze).

49

maSi ar aris gadmocemuli movlenaTa TanmimdevrobiT dakavSirebuli siuJetis mqone ambebi. poeti araa SezRuduli ambavTa Sinagani logikiT, Temis ganviTarebiT da a.S. poemis lirikuli gmiri im sakiTxebze gvafiqrebs, rac mas erTob mniSvnelovnad miuCnevia erovnuli TvalsazrisiT. igi sruliad Tavisufalia am sakiTxebis SerCevisas, maTi urTierTdakavSirebisas. nawarmoebis aseT arqiteqtonikaSi uSualod aris gamJRavnebuli poetis Tavisufali neba, misi pozicia, misi damokidebuleba ama Tu im sakiTxisadmi. nawarmoebis kompoziciaze dakvirveba cxads xdis, rom `aCrdilSi~ erTmaneTis gverdiT urTierTdapirispirebuli faqtebi da movlenebi dganan. myinvari ise `aRmoCnda mTebis zemoT,~ TiTqos `cis gasarRvevad aRmozidula,~ magram misi srbola `gangebis ZaliT~ uecrad Seyenebula. myinvari risxviT dascqeris qveyanas, TiTqos unda, rom daamsxvrios, magram amindi wynaria, dila lamazi. bunebis suraTi warmtacia, momxiblavi, magram goneba undoa da es silamaze ar itacebs. saerTod kontrastis xerxis gamoyenebiT miimarTeba aCrdilis dialogi poemis lirikul gmirTan. aq erTmaneTTanaa dapirispirebuli gmiruli warsuli da ubadruki awmyo, iyo ase, magram ase aRaraa... TavisTavad poemis fabulaSivea navaraudevi kontrastuli wyoba -- uaRresad poeturi xati saqarTvelos marad ukvdavi sulis aCrdilisa da uaRresad prozauli sinamdvile. es garemoeba -- erTmaneTisagan mkveTrad gansxvavebul momentTa, saganTa, movlenaTa erTmaneTis gverdiT warmodgena -- maT mkafio aRqmasac uwyobs xels da nawarmoebis Sinagan dinamizmsac apirobebs. poema `aCrdilSi~ yvelaze srulad warmoCnda Wabuki poetis miswrafebebi da idealebi, misi poeturi SesaZleblobebi. socialur da erovnul sakiTxTa gaSuqebisas, ilia WavWavaZes uaRresad konkretuli, mwvave moralisturi tendenciiT gamsWvaluli poemebic aqvs Seqmnili, rogoricaa: `qarTvlis deda~, `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi yaCaRis cxovrebidam~, `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~. `qarTvlis deda~. `qarTvlis deda~ dramatuli poemaa. daiwera is 1860 wels, xolo sabolood masze muSaoba poetma 1871 wels daamTavra da gamoaqveyna kidec. 80-iani wlebidan igi xSirad idgmeboda scenaze. yovelTvis, roca Cvens Teatrs uWirda, qarTuli Teatris mesveurebi dedaqalaqsa Tu periferiaSi ilias poemas mimarTavdnen. didi iyo ilias sityvis momwodebluri Zala, igi mudam afxizlebda Cvens xalxs. gansakuTrebiT gadamdeb xasiaTs iZenda ilias sityva qarTuli laSqris simReraSi, romelic TviTon poetsac gansakuTrebiT moswonda. ilia Tavis megobar petre nakaSiZes, romelsac uZRvna Tavisi poema, ase swerda: `petre, gigzavni xelaxlad gadakeTebuls Sendami naZRvnevs Cems `qarTvlis dedas~. Tu mogewonos, mieci nikolaZes dasabeWdaT. gTxov Seni pirmouridebeli azri macnobo am patara Txzulebazed. kargad ki waikiTxe. me yvelazed ufro jaris simRera momwons, glexur kilozed mowyobilia. Tu mogewonos dasabeWdaT, SenTan mowerili ZRvnobis leqsic daabeWdine amasTan erTad. koreqtura SenTvis momindvia. Seni ilia WavWavaZe~. `qarTvlis dedaSi~ mamuliSviluri valis grZnobis is idealia mxatvrulad gansaxierebuli dramatul formaSi, romelsac ilia momavlis ocnebad da amocanad saxavda. epikuri gansaxierebisagan gansxvavebiT, romlis drosac gmiris xasiaTi ixsneba mTeli sisavsiT, gamovlenis mravalferovnebaSi, dramatuli personaJis gamoxatvis SemTxvevaSi mTavaria `mkveTri konfliqti yovelTvis erTmxriv mimarTul paTossa da mis sapirispiro vnebas Soris sruliad gansazRvruli areebisa da miznebis sazRvrebSi~.1

1

h e g e l i , esTetika, t. III, 1971, gv. 449 (rusul enaze).

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ilias TxzulebaSi swored mamulis winaSe valis grZnoba da Svilis siyvarulis grZnoba ejaxeba erTmaneTs. aq qarTveli deda, davrdomili da dasneulebuli, Tavis erTaderT Svils, bolo nugeSs, mamulis ganTavisuflebisaTvis brZolaSi istumrebs. `qarTvlis dedis~ mxatvruli Rirsebebis garkvevisaTvis unda gavixsenoT, pirvel yovlisa, i. WavWavaZis mier mogvianebiT, 1890 wels, dawerili statia `axali dramebis gamo~. Cvens yuradRebas axla gansakuTrebiT statiis is nawili iqcevs, romelic uSualod miemarTeba avqs. cagarlis dramas `qarTvlis deda~. am statiaSi dramis Teoriis Rrma codnis safuZvelze ilia TvalnaTliv aCvenebs, rom drama sruliadac ar gulisxmobs mxolod garegnuli formis dacvas, Txzulebis weras monologebiTa da dialogebiT, scenebad da moqmedebebad dayofas da `oriode alagas qalisa Tu kacis sikvdilis Cakerebas... garegani saxe dramisa verasdros ver dafaravs Sinaganis carielobas, fuqsavatobas, araraobas... drama usaTuod sulisa da gulis udides Zvraze unda iyos agebuli da aSenebuli, da es udidesi Zvra sulisa da gulisa erTaderTi sagania dramisa, erTaderTi buneba misi~ (V,499). rac Seexeba avqs. cagarlis dramis mTavar gmirs -- qarTvlis dedas, igi `raRac ugrZnobeli da gulqvavi ram aris. dedaSvilurs grZnobas, agre mosalodnels, agre sasurvelsa da sapatios mis gulSi araviTari adgili ar uWiravs. amitom mis mier SvilTa mamulisTvis gawirvas araferi fasi ara aqvs. gawirva maSin aris didsulovnebis saqme, roca gamwirveli TviTon dids rasme hkargavs amiT, roca vxedavT, rom am gawirvam gulSi erTi umTavresi ZarRvi Caswyvita gamwirvelsa, erTi didi ram daaklo, Znelad gasawiri, Znelad gasametebeli, Znelad dasaTmobi adamianisagan. am SemTxvevaSi gulTa Widili dedisa unda gamarTuliyo dedaSvilur da mamuliSvilur siyvarulisa gamo, romelnic am dramaSi erTmaneTs Sexvdnen ise, rom an erTi unda gaiwiros, an meore. orive siyvaruli kanonieria, bunebrivia da miT orive did grZnobas warmoadgens adamianis bunebaSi, Znelad gasawirs, Znelad gasametebels da, ramodenadac an erTi, an meore, Znelad gasametebeli, imodenad TviT ganwirva didia, sapatio da saxelovani~ (V, 503). am SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovani isaa, rom im principebiT, romlebsac ilia WavWavaZe Teoriulad warmoadgens 1890 wels daweril statiaSi, praqtikulad xelmZRvanelobs igi rogorc xelovani ocdaaTi wliT adre daweril dramatul poemaSi. `qarTvlis deda~ warmoadgens dramatul poemas ara garegnuli formiT, imis gamo, rom rogorc ilia ambobs, dialogebisa da monologebisagan Sedgeba, aramed Sinagani Tavisi xasiaTiT. aq patriotuli valis Segneba rTul dramatul viTarebaSi vlindeba. TxzulebaSi naCvenebia, Tu ra didi Widilis fasad daZlevs patriotuli valis grZnoba dauZlurebuli sneuli dedis gulSi dedaSviluri siyvarulis tkivils erTaderTi Svilis mimarT, romelic `siberis misayrdomad STenia~ mas, fasad im sulier ZalTa daZabvisa, romelsac emsxverpla kidec dedis guli. imis gamo, rom advilad ver iZlia deduri siyvarulis grZnoba, ki ar fermkrTaldeba, aramed, piriqiT, swored rom izrdeba mniSvneloba Tavganwirvisa, ramdenadac TvalnaTlivia, Tu ra Zlieri grZnoba daZlia man. mamuliSviluri valis, patriotuli grZnobis sidiadec imiT dasturdeba, rom igi fizikuri katastrofis fasad, magram mainc Trgunavs mSobliur siyvaruls. miuxedavad imisa, rom deda misustebulia da sikvdili uaxlovdeba, miuxedavad imisa, rom aq aris cremli, ar SeiZleba iTqvas, rom poemaSi sentimentaluri gadaxra gvqondes, ar SeiZleba imitom, rom cremlianoba aq erTob dasabuTebulia da sadac mwuxareba, cremli argumentirebulia, iq ukve sentimentalizmTan saqme ara gvaqvs. `qarTvlis deda~ Tematikurad im erovnuli idealis konkretul mxatvrul gansaxierebas warmoadgens, romelic imTaviTve, ilias samwerlo moRvaweobis dasawyisSive gamoikveTa. am azriT, motivTa gansaxierebiT igi uSualod ukavSirdeba poema `aCrdils~ da lirikul leqsebs `qarTvlis dedas~ da `nanas~, romlebic

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win uswrebdnen mas. oda Tavisuflebisa, samSoblo qveynis ganTavisuflebis amocanis `mZlavr kavkasis~ ganTavisuflebis ideasTan dakavSireba saTaves, rogorc iTqva poema `aCrdilSi~, iRebs da `qarTvlis dedaSi~ es idealebi poemis personaJTa samoqmedo idealebad iqcevian. xolo dedis patriotuli valis grZnobis lirikuli gancda, gamoxatuli leqsebSi `qarTvlis dedas~ da `nana~, poemaSi dramatul gaazrebas Rebuloben. `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi yaCaRis cxovrebidam~. ilia WavWavaZes `Tavidanve is azri hqonda SemuSavebuli, rom Tavis qveyanasTan, mis Wirsa da lxinTan yvelaze metad dakavSirebuli iyo glexi. is amuSavebda Tavis miwas, is Sescqeroda Tavis cas. swored am miwaze da am cis qveS cxovreba undoda mas. amitom erovnul grZnobaTa gasaRviZebel yvelaze ufro noyier niadags iliasaTvis glexkacoba warmoadgenda~.1 swored amitomac ilia WavWavaZem Tavis amocanad qarTveli glexkacis cxovrebis, misi sulieri samyaros, asaxva da misi interesebis dacva gaixada. am mizandasaxulebiT iqmneba ilias poema `ramdenime suraTi...~, moTxroba `glaxis naambobi~ da mogvianebiT `oTaraanT qvrivi~. am nawarmoebebis SeqmniT ilia WavWavaZem qarTuli literaturis TematikaSi Semotrialeba moaxdina. aqamde poeziis, sazogadod literaturis sagani ar yofila mSromeli glexkacis cxovrebis Cveneba farTo planiT. iliam ki swored igi aqcia literaturis mTavar sagnad. mSromeli xalxis warmomadgenlebi, maTi ocneba, sixaruli, tkivili ilias nawarmoebebSi warmoCdnen da Rrmad erovnuli da saqveyno idealebis gamoxatva iTaves. ilia WavWavaZe xedavda, rom arsebuli socialuri viTareba glexkacs mZime mdgomareobaSi ayenebda, kacurad yofnis uflebas uspobda. qarTveli xalxis interesebis dacva ki mSromelTa ganTavisuflebis, monuri Sromisagan maTi Tavdaxsnis moTxovnasac ayenebda. poemaSi `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi yaCaRis cxovrebidam~ ilia WavWavaZem gaaanaliza is socialuri pirobebi, romlebic mSromels aiZulebdnen xelSi iaraRi aeRo, Tavis ezo-kuTxes mowyvetoda, SurisZiebis gzaze damdgari tyeSi yaCaRad gaWriliyo, aq Ria cis qveS martokas mxeciviT tyeSi Tavisufleba epovna. Cveulebriv xalxur SemoqmedebaSi da mwerlobaSi iliamde da mis Semdegac ganusaxierebiaT iseTi viTareba, roca adamianis gayaCaRebas safuZvlad edeba ara usamarTlobiT aRSfoTeba, aramed pirovnuli motivi; roca TviTon adamians, kerZo pirs miwvdeba usamarTloba uSualod, roca Tavad igemebs damcirebis saSinelebas, sayvareli adamianis gaubedurebas. swored pirovnuli nawvnevi aiZulebs mas xelSi iaraRi aiRos, yaCaRad gavardes da SurisZiebis gzas daadges, aqedan ki SeiZleba adamiani mivides saerTod usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolis ideamde. amgvari viTareba xalxur `arsenas leqsSic~ aris warmodgenili, d.WonqaZis `suramis cixeSic~ da e. ninoSvilis `simonaSic~. erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba mogveCvenos, rom amgvarsave viTarebasTan gvaqvs saqme i. WavWavaZis poemaSic. rom aqac zaqro piradi SurisZiebis grZnobiT Sepyrobili gavarda tyeSi yaCaRad. roca mama moukles rozgqveS, maSin ifeTqa masSi protestis grZnobam da kakos gzas daadga. sinamdvileSi ki ilias poemaSi arsebiTad gansxvavebul mdgomareobasTan gvaqvs saqme. faqtobrivad mamis uRmerTod rozgqveS sikvdili zaqrosTvis sababia, ukanaskneli wveTia, romelmac sabolood daayena zaqro usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolis gzaze. zaqroSi usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli didi xania mwifdeboda. misma ymawvilurma gulma Rrmad Caimarxa gulSi pirveli naRveli -- Tormeti wlisa rom saxls moaSores, ymawviluri sevda seravda bavSvis guls, `sxvebi lxinobdnen~, mas ki Tvalze cremli ar Sreboda... marTalia zaqro aseT yofas SeeCvia, bavSvi xom male gadiyris naRvels, kidec lxinobda, kidec

1

g r . k i k n a Z e , literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, gv. 273.

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mReroda udardelad da tkbilad midioda TiTqos misi bavSvoba, magram mTavari isaa, rom misi suli ukve sxvagvarad iwrToboda. im zRaprebsa da ambebSi, romlebsac patara mwyemsis biWebi erTmaneTs uyvebodnen, zaqros yvelaze metad arsenas ambavi moswonda, `RviZl dedasaviT~ SeiTvisa, `arsenoba enatreboda~. kakos saxelic gagonili hqonda, bevrjer uocnebia masTan wasvlaze, masTan erTad usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolaze, magram Tu ram akavebda, kidev is, rom `saxl-kari enaneboda~, da roca saxl-karis saqmec ubedurad datrialda, zaqros aRaraferi daakavebda miznis aRsrulebis gzaze. rogorc vxedavT, pirovnuli motivi mxolod sababia sruliad momwifebuli protestis grZnobis gamosaxatavad. man, rogorc iTqva, mxolod ukanaskneli wveTis roliRa Seasrula. kako yaCaRic simarTlisa da Tavisuflebis droSiT gamodis. am azriT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom poemaSi, faqtobrivad pirvelad Cvens literaturaSi, didi damajereblobiT arian daxatulni glexkacobis Rirseuli warmomadgenlebi. `zaqro da kako xalxis ocnebis matarebeli gmirebia~.1 maT aseTebad aqcevs adamianuri uflebebis dacvisaTvis, adamianuri Rirsebis SenarCunebisaTvis brZola. am azriTac Rrmad erovnul Sinaarss atarebs es poema. poema `ramdenime suraTi anu epizodi...~ imiTac aris mniSvnelovani, rom faqtobrivad pirvelad Cvens sinamdvileSi swored aq warmoCnda uaRresad konkretuli qarTuli soflis yofa, qarTuli garemo. qarTuli koloritiT aris avsebuli es poema -- iqneba es mwuxris Jams Ramis simyudroveSi darxeuli meurmis naRvliani simRera Tu mwyemsi biWebis sevdiani, magram mainc tkbilad mosagonari cxovreba, gaxseneba marad cocxali arsenas saxelisa. am poemaSi moTxrobili mwuxare ambebis garemo qarTuli bunebis konkretuli suraTebia. alaznis wynari duduni da kudigoris tyis idumaleba akravT gars xalxis sayvarel gmirebs. yovelive es didad afarToebs poemaSi gansaxierebuli sakiTxis, suraTebis mniSvnelobas da maT zemoqmedebiT Zalasac apirobebs. im daZabuli konfliqtis gamosaxatavad, romelic arsebobs adamianisa da im sazogadoebriv viTarebas Soris, romelSic mas cxovreba uxdeba, i. WavWavaZe Tavis poemas dramatul gaazrebas aZlevs da es viTareba Tavs iCens gansaxierebis garegnul formaSiac, poemas leqsad dawerili piesis saxe aqvs SeZenili. amrigad, poemaSi `ramdenime suraTi...~ i. WavWavaZem damajereblad amxila socialuri wyobis -- batonymobis damRupveli xasiaTi. uCvena, Tu rogor ryvnis zneobrivad socialuri wyoba adamians, romelsac batoni hqvia da yvelafris ufleba aqvs miniWebuli; rogor aiZulebs glexobis saukeTeso warmomadgenlebs SurisZiebiT anTebulebma sakuTari Rirsebis dasacavad iaraRi aiRon da tyeSi yaCaRad gaiWran. `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~. samSoblo qveynis winaSe valis eTikuri Zalis Cvenebas isaxavs miznad i. WavWavaZe Tavis poemaSi `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~. poema istoriuli xasiaTisaa. masSi mxatvrulad aris gansaxierebuli me-13 saukunis saqarTvelos istoriis cnobili faqti. istoriuli Temis mxatvrulad gansaxierebis sakiTxs i. WavWavaZe sagangebod exeba Tavis statiaSi `axali dramebis gamo~. ilias azriT, `istoriuli Janris Txzulebam unda Tvalwin gagvitaros an istoriuli kaci vinme av-kargianobiT, an TiTon cxovreba kerZo Tu sazogadoeburi, romlisame warsulis drosi da epoqisa. gvaCvenos, ra azri, ra gulistkivili, ra swrafva sulisa, ra gonebagaxsniloba, ra zne-Cveuleba xelT hqonia maSindelobas kerZo cxovrebis Tu sazogadoeburis ase Tu ise warsamarTavad~. ilia ar iwynarebs iseT nawarmoebebs, romlebic warmogvidgenen avtorTa mogonil `adamianTa erTmaneTzed iseT damokidebulebas, romelic yovels drosa da Jams, yovels epoqas erTnairad mieCe1

s . C i q o v a n i , rCeuli werilebi, 1963, gv. 194.

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meba~. istoriuli sinamdvilis asaxvis dros faqtebis sizustiT gadmocemis moTxovna sruliadac araa mTavari. mweralma `dee, Tunda ambavi, araki dramisa Tavis sakuTaris fantaziiT Seqmnas, xolo Tu surs istoriuli Rirseba mianiWos Tavis dramas, usaTuod movalea, suli da guli epoqisa im ambavSi Canaskvos, Cahsaxos da dramis svlaSi gadagvixsnas, gadagviSalos sagrZnoblad da dasanaxavad~. ilias miaCnia, rom istoriuli xasiaTebis Sesaqmnelad sruliadac araa sakmarisi `RvTiTmomadlebuli niWi~, rom aseT mwerals `win unda uZRodes didi codna istoriisa, didi gonebagaxsniloba, didi ganaTleba~. cnobilia, rom `aCrdilze~ muSaobisas poetma aRiara, xalxis zne-Cveulebebis, fsiqikis gasacnobad Cveni istoriuli wyaroebi masalas ar iZleviano. aRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze sagulisxmoa, rom faqtobrivad ilia WavWavaZem erTi istoriuli poema Seqmna -- `mefe dimitri Tavdadebuli~ da miT dagvanaxa, `maSindeli kaci ra azriT, ra fiqriT, ra grZnobiT, ra ZlierebiT... Sebmia saqveyno saqmes da ra zne-Cveulebas utarebia droTa viTarebis gzaze~. mainc ram gansazRvra poetis interesi mefe dimitris pirovnebisadmi, ra momentebi SearCia istoriuli masalidan Tavisi miznis gansaxorcieleblad? am mxriv mniSvnelovan cnobas TviTon poeti gvawvdis, kerZod, avtobiografiaSi ilia mogviTxrobs, rom Tavis pirvel skolaSi soflis mTavardiakvanTan man moismina dimitri Tavdadebulis ambavic, romelic Temad gamoiyena mravali wlis Semdeg. rogorc mwerali gvamcnobs, pirvel maswavlebels didi gavlena mouxdenia bavSvis sulier formirebaze. mis mier moTxrobil ambebs SeuZravs yrmis suli. am garemoebiTac SeiZleba aixsnas, rom sasuliero piris RvTiuri madliT ganaTebuli saxe mihyveba i. WavWavaZis Semoqmedebas da ndobiT da rwmeniT msWvalavs yovelives irgvliv. gasagebi da sacnobelia, rom `glaxis naambobSi~ daxatuli sworupovari maswavlebeli sasuliero piria -- mRvdelia. ilia WavWavaZe -- Semoqmedi seriozulad uyurebs eklesias, sasuliero pirs, ramdenadac eris zneobrivi simtkicis erT-erT RerZad mas rwmenis Seulaxaoba miaCnia. ilia WavWavaZisaTvis SemTxveviTi arc is garemoebaa, rom poema `mefe dimitri TavdadebulSi~ ambis saTxrobi asparezi eklesiis ezoa, swored aq, sadac ca da miwa unda SeerTdes, ismenen `tvirTmZime da damaSvrali~ glexebi didi winapris Tavganwirvis ambavs, aq xdeba erTgvari ganwmenda da amaRleba. dimitri mefis ambavma yrma ilias guli aaZgera da Tavdapirvelad bavSvuri mowonebiT, magram mainc sxvagvari ZaliT Caesaxa gulSi. Semdeg ki, roca igi davaJkacda, misTvis TandaTan gaSinaarsda idea qveynis winaSe v a l i s a, idea msxverplad Sewirvisa da mis suls daeufla. eris moWirnaxules, mis winamZRols sakuTari Tavi samSoblos samsxverploze misatan zvarakad esaxeboda. es kargad Cans ilias mTel SemoqmedebaSi da gansakuTrebiT ki mis lirikaSi.1 am ideis epikur formaSi gansaxierebisaTvis erTob mniSvnelovani masala dainaxa poetma Cveni qveynis istoriaSi mefe dimitris Tavganwirvis saxiT. es garemoeba, Cans, cnobili iyo ilias zogierTi axloblisaTvis da poetis am Sinagan impulss garedanac aRvivebdnen. yovel SemTxvevaSi erTgvari roli am mxriv unda eTamaSa poetis uaxloes megobars petre nakaSiZes. amas unda mowmobdes poetis minaweri poemis xelnawerze: `Zmao petre, Sengan Cagonebuls Senve giZRvni~. amrigad, poema p.nakaSiZes eZRvneba. poemaSi, rogorc miuTiTeben, araerTgzis aris Sedarebuli mefis moqmedeba macxovris mowamebriv aRsasrulTan. mefes xatad da magaliTad `qveynis xsnisTvis~ qriste RmerTis Tavganwirva aqvs dasaxuli. man, dimitrim, swored macxovris gza unda gaimeoros Tavisi eris ara marto fizikuri, aramed pirvel yovli1

msxverplSewirvis ideaze i. WavWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi ix. g. kalandariSvili, Tavdadebis idea i. WavWavaZis SemoqmedebaSi, i. WavWavaZisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, 1977, gv. 140-150.

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sa, zneobrivi gadarCenisaTvis. mefe dimitris saqcieli rainduli saqcielia, ramdenadac igi garkveuli ideisaTvis, rwmenisaTvis wiravs Tavs; mefe garkveviT acxadebs, rom igi imitom ar midis urdoSi, TiTqos Tavis gadarCenis gza ar arsebobdes. igi nebiT eZleva mters:

`gana TiTon qriste-RmerTsa gadarCena ar Zaledva, ar ineba da qveynisTvis RmerTi iyo da jvars ecva~.

rogorc miuTiTeben, qristes Zala ara mxolod misi moZRvrebis xasiaTSia saZiebeli, aramed, pirvel yovlisa, imaSi, rom man Tavisi azrebis mixedviT icxovra da adamianebs msxverplad sakuTari sicocxlis mitanis magaliTi misca, umaRlesi zneobrivi magaliTi. qristem `Tavisi moZRvrebis WeSmariteba gaamagra Tavisi sikvdiliT~.1 swored amitom aqcia Semdgomma xanam jvarcma qristianobis qvakuTxedad.2 monRolTa batonobis xanaSi, rodesac eris sulieri mxneoba Seirya, qveyana dacemisa da gadagvarebis safrTxis winaSe aRmoCnda. dimitri mefis raindul Tavganwirvas eris rwmena, zneoba unda gadaerCina iseve, rogorc macxovarma ixsna kacobrioba. istoriul masalaSi dadasturebuli mefis gautexeloba xiblavs poets da Tavisi Semoqmedebis masalad swored Tavganwirvis moments irCevs. Tavganwirvis, gautexelobis motivebi yovelTvis iyo ilias myari interesis sagani. magram, rogorc cnobilia, `idealuri saxeebi... SinaarsiT gvevlinebian, saerTod rom vTqvaT, eTikurad... nayofieri ki mxolod iseTi idealebia, romlebic pirvel yovlisa, exebian namdvilad arsebul RirebulebaTa sferoebs~.3 i. WavWavaZem swored samSoblo qveynis samsaxurSi piradi msxverplis gaRebasa da misTvis Tavganwirvis mzaobaSi dainaxa WeSmariti mamuliSvilis sicocxlis azri XIX s. saqarTveloSi, maSin, roca qarTvel xalxs ruseTis koloniuri politika zneobrivi dacemis safrTxis winaSe ayenebda. amitomac gaxda XIIIs. qarTul sinamdvileSi momxdari faqti XIX s. qarTveli mwerlisaTvis erTob Rirebuli. marTalia, i. WavWavaZis poema mefis saarako gmirobis ambavs gvamcnobs, poemis centrSi mefe dgas. ilias poema am mxriv mihyveba klasikuri esTetikis normebs, magram poeti sruliad Segnebulad erTgvarad kidec uxvevs am moTxovnebidan. jer kidev Tavis droze lesingi miuTiTebda, `Tu gmirulma saxem gaoceba unda aRZras~, mweralma zomiereba im mxrivac unda daicvas, rom grZnobebi ar `gadaxarjos~, roca daxatulia Tavganwirvamde misuli samSoblos siyvaruli, es grZnoba erTi swored gmiruli sulis personaJis Tviseba unda iyos. Tu mis gverdiT ixateba sxva personaJebic, romlebic aseve Tavganwirvis da imave gmirobis CadenisaTvis arian mzad, rac erTma gmirma unda moimoqmedos, maSin Cveni gaoceba da mowoneba `iyofa, nawildeba da gmiri qreba mis msgavsTa Soris~.4 Tu am moTxovnebidan davinaxavT ilias poemas, aRmoCndeba, rom poemaSi mefe dimitrisTan erTad wamoimarTeba saxe qarTveli glexkacisa, romelic ganasaxierebs qarTveli xalxis vaJkacur bunebas, sulier mxneobas, gautexlobas, pirovnuli Rirsebis grZnobas. ilia WavWavaZis Tvalsazrisidan gamomdinare, es garemoeba sruliad gasagebia. `erovnul grZnobaTa gasaRvivebel yvelaze ufro noyier niadags iliasaT1

h e g e l i , religiis filosofia, t. II, gv. 285 (rusul enaze). m e n z i s i , religiis istoria, gv. 318 (rusul enaze); h a r n a k i , qristianobis arseba, krebulSi -- evropis zogadi istoria, V, gv. 100 (rusul enaze). 3 n . h a r t m a n i , esTetika, 1958, gv. 398 (rusul enaze). 4 l e s i n g i , TxzulebaTa krebuli, t. IX, 1904, gv. 9 (rusul enaze).

2

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vis glexkacoba warmoadgenda~ (gr.kiknaZe). roca poeti saTanado magaliTebs `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ ver xedavda, TviTon qmnida Tavisi mZlavri warmosaxviT aseT gmirebs, aman ganapiroba, rom nawarmoebis centrSi dgas mefe -- magaliTi zneobrivi gmirobisa, magram mis gverdiT dgas mSromeli xalxis warmomadgeneli, fizikurad dauZlurebuli, magram suliT mxne moxuci glexi -- simbolo qarTveli xalxis siamayisa da gautexlobisa. `gandegili~. ilia WavWavaZis epikuri poeziis gvirgvins warmoadgens poema `gandegili~. is gamoqveynebisTanave moeqca kritikosTa da mkiTxveli sazogadoebis yuradRebis centrSi. bevri ram iTqva da daiwera poemis Sesaxeb. bevri erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli, urTierTgamomricxveli mosazrebebic ki gamoiTqva poemis problematikis, misi mxatvruli Rirsebebis Sesaxeb. am poemis magaliTze kidev erTxel dadasturda im azris WeSmariteba, rom SexedulebaTa sxvadasxvaobis sababad is Txzulebebi iqcevian, romelTa Rirsebebi nawarmoebis zedapirze ar Zevs da warmavlobis niSniT ar arian daRdasmulni. poema `gandegilSi~ poetma misTvis aqamde uCveulo legendur masalas mimarTa. rogorc TviTon poeti gvamcnobs poemis adreul variantSi, nawarmoebs xalxSi gagonili legenda dasdebia safuZvlad. sazogadod, miTi, legenda, Tqmuleba, gansxvavebiT istoriisagan, garegnuli faqtebis sizustes ar gulisxmobs, amdenad aseTi masala Tavisi gabeduli simboloebiT swored imas hfens naTels, rac Tanadrouli xelovnebis interesis sagans Sedgens, Suqs hfens zogadkacobriuli masStabis filosofiur da fsiqologiur azrs. miTi, legenda maradadamianurs, WeSmarit mxares aTavisuflebs kerZoulis, umniSvnelosa da warmavalis tyveobisagan. amdenad, legendur-miTiuri masala gansaxierebis udidesi SesaZleblobebis gamomJRavnebis saSualebas iZleva. amgvari masala TavisTavad zrdis mxatvruli qmnilebis emociur mxares, ramdenadac gardasuli, ZvelisZveli da araCveulebrivi SinaarsiT mkiTxvelis interess amZafrebs. am SemTxvevaSiac ilia WavWavaZis mZlavri warmosaxviT sulCadgmuli legenda gaxda erTgvari piroba mkiTxvelis interesis warsamarTavad. meore mxriv, isic aris mxedvelobaSi misaRebi, rom ilias mier SerCeuli masala ar aris sakuTriv erovnuli koloritiT aRbeWdili, an, ufro sworad, am niSniT SemosazRvruli. Tavad es masala atarebs sayovelTao xasiaTs, yvelasaTvis gasagebsa da mniSvnelovans. ilia WavWavaZem amgvari masalis SerCeviTac, masze Tavisi safiqralis aRbeWdviT Cveni mwerlobis sazRvrebi gaafarTova, `qarTveli kacis Wkua-gonebas didi gani da siRrme misca~ da `kacobriuli wyurvilis mosaklav wyaros qarTvelic daawafa~. ilia WavWavaZe poema `gandegilSi~ adamianis arsebobis azris, misi daniSnulebis, misi adgilis maradiul problemas aSuqebs da Tanac misTvis, rogorc xelovanisaTvis, mainc axleburi, filosofiuri aspeqtiT. ilia WavWavaZis winaSe es sakiTxi aqamdec idga da mwerali mTeli Tavisi SemoqmedebiT im azrs aviTarebda, rom adamiani socialurad aqtiuri unda iyos, cxovrebis SuagulSi trialebdes da wvlili Sehqondes mis winsvlaSi. ase ayenebs am sakiTxs ilia-moralisti moTxrobebSi `mgzavris werilebi~, `kacia-adamiani?!~. ilias mier daxatuli personaJebis moraluri Sefasebis aspeqti aseTia -- ramdenad warmoadgenen isini sazogadoebis aqtiur wevrebs. ilias mkacri gakicxvis obieqtia adamiani, romelic cuds, borotebas ar sCadis, magram arc arafers kargs ar akeTebs, Tavisi arsebobiT sazogadoebas arafers ar matebs, mconareobaSi atarebs wuTisofels da ukvalod midis am qveynidan. poema `gandegilSi~ iliam sxva aspeqtiT gaaanaliza es sakiTxi yvela droisa da qveynis xelovanTaTvis mimzidvel gandegilobis masalaze. poema `gandegilSi~ ilia xelovanis Tavisufali WvretiT Wvrets adamianis garegan da Sinagan sauflos. swored aseTi SemoqmedebiTi interesebiT avsebuli, Sinaganad gawonasworebuli poeti qmnis Tavis am didebul poemas. `gandegilSi~

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ilia ganTavisuflebulia masalisadmi praqtikul-eTikuri interesebiT midgomisagan. ilia aq sakiTxis filosofiur da fsiqologiur safuZvlebs ixdis gamosaxvis sagnad, adamianis Sinagani samyaros uRrmes SreebSi Sedis da TvalsaCinod gviCvenebs, rom adamiani araTu ar unda ganeridos sazogadoebas, araTu ar unda gandges misgan, aramed adamians Turme arc ZaluZs ganudges sazogadoebas, uari Tqvas masze, ramdenadac gandgoma adamianis arsebiT niSanze, adamianobaze uaris Tqmas niSnavs; adamiani xom, upirveles yovlisa, socialuri arsebaa, misi adamianuroba swored adamianebTan urTierTobaSi mJRavndeba. `adamians ar SeuZlian kacTa krebulis gareT icxovros calked da miukareblad~ (V,401). yovelgvari cda sazogadoebidan, sawuTrodan gandgomis iluziaa, mxolod sxvagvari sazogadoebis ndomis gamoxatulebaa, adamiani ki yovelTvis rCeba sazogadoebis aseT an iseT wevrad. adamianis ganmartoeba, ra Tqma unda, imas ar niSnavs, rom igi axerxebs gandgomas sazogadoebidan... Tu adamians saerTod wavarTmevT adamianur garemos, movwyvetT adamianur pirobebs, igi moklebuli aRmoCndeba adamianuris gamovlenis saSualebasac da gadagvardeba kidec, e.i. daiRupeba rogorc adamiani. magram rogorc ki Cndeba meore adamiani, e.i. rogorc ki adamians adamianur garemos vuqmniT, igi maSinve raRacnairi formiT gamoavlens adamianur bunebas, iqneba es azris, rwmenis Tu biologiur sferoSi... aseTia am poemis mTavari problemis ganxilvis filosofiuri da fsiqologiuri plani, `gandegilis~ mTavari mxatvruli plani. erTi sityviT, Tu ilia Tavidanve imas qadagebda, rom adamiani namdvilad unda adamiani iyos, `gandegilSi~ man ramdenadme sxva aspeqtiT ganixila igive sakiTxi da gviCvena, rom sruliad amaoa sazogadoebisagan mowyvetis cda. `adamianobis SenarCuneba `codvis sadguridan~ ganSorebiT ki ar miiRweva, aramed sadguris gardaqmnis gziT~.1 bunebrivia, sakuTriv asketizmis, misi formebis problema araa ilias SemoqmedebiTi interesis sagani. gandegili asketis cxovrebis masalis Suqze ilia saerTod adamianis arsebobis, misi daniSnulebis zogadsayovelTao ideas dastrialebs Tavs, e.i. Zvel masalas igi axali SinaarsiT avsebs. ilia swored aseT masalas irCevs, ramdenadac asketuri arsebobis formaSi mkafiod iCens Tavs buneba, arsi adamianisa. rogorc aRniSnaven, esec iyo piroba axali drois xelovanTa Seunelebeli interesisa am masalisadmi. magram isic faqtia, rom ilias, rogorc xelovanis, damokidebuleba SerCeuli masalisadmi cxadliv amJRavnebs mis damokidebulebas qristes moZRvrebisadmi saerTod da kerZod ki gandgomilobisadmi, asketizmis gandegiluri formisadmi. mkvlevarTa erTi nawilis msjelobaSi is azri gamosWvivis, rom ilia WavWavaZe qristianobis erTi umTavresi principis asketizmis dagmobiT sazogadod upirispirdeba qristianobas, da es im dros, rodesac aravin sadaod ar ixdis im azrs, rom qristianobas i. WavWavaZe xelovani da moazrovne ara marto udides istoriul mniSvnelobas aniWebs, aramed misi eTikis sayrdeni swored qristes moZRvrebaa. mag., g.qiqoZe wers: ilia WavWavaZem `gandegilSi~ `budistur-qristianul spiritikalizms da asketizms... daupirispira elinizmidan da saqarTvelos erovnuli tradiciebidan momavali humanizmi da bednierebis morali da am ukanasknels gaamarjvebina. am mxrivac ilia WavWavaZis azrovneba sruliad eTanxmeba dasavleT evropis XIX saukunis mowinave adamianebis azrovnebas, romelic am sakiTxSi saukeTesod Teofil gotiem gamoxata: `qriste CemTvis am qveynad ar mosula da me warmarTi var, rogorc alkibiade. golgoTis mwvervalze vnebis yvavilebi arasodes damikrefia da arc odesme im mdinareSi mibanavia, romelic jvarcmulis mkerdidan mTel msoflios Tavs gada-

1

gr. k i k n a Z e , literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, gv. 263.

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esxa. Cems amboxebul sxeuls surs sulis batonobis aRiareba, Cems xorcs ar swadian Tavisi jvarcma~.1 v.kotetiSvilis sityvebiTac, `budasebur, anda qristesebur asketizms gandegilis saxiT mwyemsi qalis CvenebiT daupirispirda sicocxlis xalisianoba, miwis sjuli da daamarcxa kidec am ukanasknelma~.2 sakiTxis naTelsayofad aq unda SemovifargloT asketizmis principebis mokle daxasiaTebiT, romelic Sua saukuneebis qristianulma samyarom SeimuSava.3 Sua saukuneebis saeklesio eTika daefuZna ara sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo da egoistur miswrafebaTa Soris gansxvavebas, aramed miwier moTxovnaTa dapirispirebas zeciurTan. winaaRmdegoba borotebasa da sikeTes Soris qristianuli metafizikis mier dayvanil iqna winaaRmdegobaze RmerTsa da qveyanas Soris. mag. espaneli episkoposi isidore (gard. 633 w.) ambobda: `sikeTe aris swrafva RmerTisaken, boroteba ki -- swrafva miwieri sargeblobis, an warmavali didebisaken~. `RmerTsa da qveyanas Soris araferia saerTo, maT ejavrebaT erTmaneTi~, -- ambobda ekaterine sivnieli,4 amrigad, sulis cxovreba iwyeboda iqidan, roca xorcis cxovreba mTavrdeboda. sicocxles imdenad hqonda fasi, ramdenadac igi warmoadgenda momzadebas momavali cxovrebisaTvis. amdenad, igi unda yofiliyo uwyveti monanieba, xolo gancda saerTo codvilianobisa -- sulis myari ZiriTadi ganwyobileba. yvelaze ufro sruli gamovlena religiurma ideam am droisaTvis pova gandegilur da bermonazvnul cxovrebaSi. es ukanaskneli CaiTvala adamianis cxovrebis da misi srulyofis idealad. cxadia, rom ilias gandegiliseul sawuTros uaryofas arsebiTad swored Sua saukuneebSi SemuSavebuli principebi udevs safuZvlad. gandegili mwyemsi qalis gaocebul kiTxvaze, Tu rogor moSorda qveyanas, pasuxobs:

`ra giTxra Svilo? yvelaze metad suli tkbilia, igi tyve aris wuTisoflisa da eg yoveli mis borkilia~ da a.S.

gandegili swored im motiviT tovebs sawuTros, rom is aris `codvis sadguri~. mwyemsi qali aseT kiTxvas aZlevs gandegils:

`maS vinc qveynad varT, yvela wavwydebiT, veRar davixsniT verafriT sulsa?~

es ar aris SemTxveviTi kiTxva. am kiTxvis dasmas Tavisi didi safuZveli aqvs. es kiTxva sazogadod mTeli Tavisi sigrZe-siganiT dgas religiuri asketizmis winaSe, ramdenadac asketizmis sruli ganxorcieleba niSnavs kacobriobis ganviTarebis SeCerebas da sazogadod STamomavlobis Sewyvetas. gasagebia, rom am TvalsazrisiT eklesia garkveul daTmobaze wavida. eklesiam am winaaRmdegobidan religiur idealsa da grZnobad SezRudvebs Soris is gamosavali naxa, rom dawesda garkveuli xarisxebi zneobrivi moqmedebisa. nebayoflobiTi uaris Tqma qorwinebaze miiCneoda umaRles mdgomareobad, qorwineba ki ufro mdabal, magram mainc nebadarTul formad. xarisxobrivi srulyofilebis es gansxvavebuloba arigebda or winaaRmdegobas -- zegrZnobad idealsa da grZnobad sinamdviles.

1

g . q i q o Z e , rCeuli Txzulebani sam tomad, t. I, 1963, gv. 133. v . k o t e t i S v i l i, rCeuli nawerebi or wignad, w. I, gv. 348. 3 asketizmis principebis mokle daxasiaTebisas ZiriTadad veyrdnobiT hainrix eikenis wigns, Sua saukuneebis msoflmxedvelobis istoria da sistema (rusuli Targmani lindisa), 1907, gv. 275-287. 4 ix. hainrix eikenis dasax. wigni, gv. 278.

2

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rogorc miuTiTeben, Suasaukuneobrivi asketizmi Tavis TavSi Seicavda winaaRmdegobriv xasiaTs da igi sinamdvileSi warmoadgenda ara qristes moZRvrebis gamoxatulebas, aramed misgan srul daSorebas da nasazrdoebi iyo Sua saukuneebis socialur-politikuri da kulturuli atmosferoTi.. eikenis sityvebiT, Sua saukuneebis saeklesio dogmatikam sinamdvileSi mospo keTilSobiluri adamianuroba qristes zneobrivi moZRvrebisa. saeklesio sistemis Sedegad igi gadaiqca Tavis srul uaryofad... Tu odesRac qriste aRudga Tavis `mes~ saamqveyno swrafvebs, xolo sxvaTa mimarT qadagebda moTminebasa da siyvaruls, qristes mimdevrebma amqveyniuris uaryofis umkacresi moTxovna sxvaTa winaaRmdeg mimarTes, xolo TavianTi moqmedebis mimarT udidesi Semwynarebloba gamoavlines.1 cnobili rusi filosofosi vladimer soloviovi Suasaukuneobrivi msoflmxedvelobis Sefasebisas Tvlida, rom Tavdapirvel qristianobasa da Sua saukuneebis msoflmxedvelobas Soris sruli winaaRmdegobaa. WeSmariti qristianobis arsi mdgomareobda qveynisa da kacobriobis gardaqmnaSi qristianuli TvalsazrisiT: miwis sasufevlis cis sasufevlad gardaqmnaSi. Sua saukuneebis didma moRvaweebma, romlebmac qristes moZRvreba dogmad ki ara, TavianT cocxal saqmed aqcies, ver gardaqmnes da ver daixsnes garegnulad qristianuli da Sinaganad warmarTuli sazogadoeba. maT arc SeeZloT xsna qristianuli samyarosi, ramdenadac mcdarad hqondaT warmodgenili, rom SesaZlebelia da unda gadavarCinoT calkeuli sulebi. maT rac undodaT, imas miaRwies -- gadaarCines TavianTi suli da kidev bevri sxva sulic, xolo qveyana da sazogadoeba, romlisganac gamoiyvnen da gamoiqcnen, maTi moqmedebis gareSe darCa da Tavisi gziT wavida. qristianoba, imave avtoris msjelobiT, Sua saukuneebis qristianma moRvaweebma gadaaqcies raRac aRmosavlur dualizmad -- materialuri bunebis, rogorc boroti sawyisis, uarmyofelad. borot sawyisad materialuri buneba TavisTavad ar SeiZleba miviCnioT. buneba ama Tu im sawyiss Rebulobs, ramdenadac pasiuria da inertuli. Tu qristem mariam magdalenelisagan Svidi eSmaki gandevna da igi Tavisi suliT aavso, Semdgomma qristianebma qristes suli CamoaSores materialur bunebas, am sayovelTao mariam magdalenels, da masSi bunebrivad Casaxldnen boroti sulebi.2 magram marTla ar aris uaryofili saxarebis mixedviT amqveyniuri? saxarebaSi aris Zalian cnobili adgilebi, romlebsac imowmeben, roca qristianul asketizmze msjeloben da romlebic TiTqos sxvagvari axsnis safuZvels ar iZlevian... magram sinamdvileSi qristes moZRvreba ar Seicavs asketur princips. amis dasadastureblad, pirvel yovlisa, sagangebod miuTiTeben TviT saxarebiseul qristes pirovnebaze, misi cxovrebis wesze. gansxvavebiT ioane naTlismcemlisagan, qriste miwier cxovrebaze xels sulac ar iRebs da Rvinosac svams. qristes cxovreba aravisze ar axdens gandegilis, gamdgari kacis cxovrebis STabeWdilebas. Cven mas vxvdebiT mdidarTa saxlebSi da RaribebTanac, qalTa sazogadoebaSic da qorwilSic. mas dasaSvebad miaCnia, rom fexi dabanon da zeTi scxon. visac igi naxulobs, Zlier morwmunes tovebs Tavis adgilas da utovebs mdgomareobas, sulac ar sTxovs mas, rom Seudges mis kvals. Cans, mas urCevnia, rom isini TavianTi rwmeniT swored iq darCnen, sadac imyofebian, sadac RmerTma ineba maTi yofna. iesos arc Tavisi mowafeebisagan Camouyalibebia raime beruli ordeni. mas ar miucia darigeba mowafeebisaTvis, Tu ra unda eqnaT an ra ar unda eqnaT TavianT yofiT cxovrebaSi. qristeSi Tavis mowafesac ar daunaxavT am qveynis uarmyofeli asketi. maT ar ganudevniaT TavianTi mSoblebi Tu colebi. petre mociqulze hyvebian,

1

2

h . e i k e n i , dasax. wigni, gv. 657. , t. VI, gv. 350.

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rom samisionero mogzaurobis dros mas colic axlda. mociqulTa epoqaSic Cven ver vxedavT swrafvas asketuri cxovrebisaken. qristologebi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas miapyroben imas, rom qristes qadagebaTa ZiriTadi ideebi: mowodeba moTminebisa, codvaTa mitevebisa, moyvasis siyvarulisa, ra Tqma unda, imTaviTve gamoricxavs yovelgvar asketizms. qriste, marTlac, saubrobs adamianis sulis mterze -- mamonaze, romelSiac igi gulisxmobs miwier saunjes da qonebas, am sityvebis farTo gagebiT, amqveyniur siames, rac cdilobs Cvenze gabatonebas; fuli, es xom potenciuri Zalauflebaa pativmoyvareobaze. magram igi maTgan Tavdasaxsnelad am qveynidan gaqcevas ki ar qadagebs, aramed maT winaaRmdeg brZolas, maT daTrgunvas -- es sibnelis mbrZanebelni unda damarcxdnen. ilia WavWavaZe poema `gandegilSi~ sxva did moazrovneTa darad qristianuli religiis umTavres mcnebas ki ar upirispirdeba, aramed swored qristianul poziciaze dgomiT TvalsaCinod uCvenebs, rom Secdomaa qristianobaSi gandgomis safuZvlebis Zieba. qristianobisaTvis SeuTavsebelia TviTizolacia, sxeulis moSToba askezis gziT. ilia WavWavaZe mxatvruli damajereblobiT uCvenebs, rom gandegili cdeba, roca fiqrobs, rom TviTaRkvecaSi, sazogadoebidan ganridebaSia xsnis gza. swored amitom aris aRsavse gandegilis saxe keTilSobiluri tragizmiT. ilia arsad ar abiabruebs Tavis personaJs, arsad ar ucqeris mas niSnis mogebiT, ramdenadac ilias azriT, gandegili msxverplia da ara damnaSave. poets xiblavs kidec Tavisi personaJis rainduli erTguleba da Tavganwirva Tavis mier Tundac mcdarad arCeuli idealisadmi. am TvalsazrisiT garkveul dazustebas saWiroebs mwyemsi qalis tradiciuli interpretacia. mwyemsi qali miCneulia, Cveulebriv, bunebis Svilad, amqveyniuri sicocxlis simbolod, warmarTad da a.S. sinamdvileSi mwyemsi qali ara sakuTriv bunebis, aramed WeSmariti qristianuli rwmenis gamomxatvelia. swored am poziciidan aris gasagebi, rom `giyvardes moyvasi Seni~ ar niSnavs ganridebas moyvasisagan, aramed mis gverdiT yofnas. mwyemsi qalisaTvis gaugebaria RmerTma mouwodos adamians am qveynis uaryofisaken, roca TviTon man Seqmna igi `uTvalavi feriTa~:

`vfiqrobdi, neta, maS risTvis morTo ese lamazad wuTisofeli? gana misTvis, rom adamianma SeaCvenos da aiRos xeli?~

mwyemsi qalisaTvis, swored namdvili qristianuli poziciidan, romlis Tanaxmad RmerTi ar moiTxovs raime gansakuTrebuli garegnuli wesebis dacvas, sruliad gaugebaria, `RmerTs raSi unda am yinulebSi yofna kacisa~. mwyemsi qalisaTvis jansaR qristianul poziciaze dgomiT gaugebaria, ratom unda swyindes RmerTs, rom `kaci Sehxaris qveyanas, RvTiTve dabadebulsa~? rogorc saTanadod cxadyofilia, bibliur qristianobas ar uaruyvia arc es qveyana da arc xorci gamoucxadebia mas sulis sapyrobiled `anu ara uwyiTa, rameTu £orcni ege Tquenni taZarni Tquen Soris sulisa wmidisani arian, romelege gaqus RmrTisagan da ara xarT TaviT T¢siT~ (pavle, I korinT. 6,19). maSasadame, amqveyniuri xorcieli ar uaruyvia qristes da arc mis mowafeebs da pirvel saeklesio mamebs, aramed maT aRiares, rom bevri sacduria amqveynad, xorcma SeiZleba sacdurs Segvyaros, Tu mis moTxovnebs oden gavabatonebT, aseTia ilias poziciac `gandegilSi~. erTi sityviT, mwyemsi qalis piriT avtori swored am pirvelqmnil qristianul WeSmaritebebs gadauSlis gandegils da is suls amiT aryevs, TiTqos erTbaSad gamoafxizlebs mas. aseTia zogierTi is sakiTxi, romlebic poema `gandegilis~ problematikis sferos moicavs.

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ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli proza. tradiciulad, ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli memkvidreobis yvelaze mniSvnelovan ubnad mis prozas miiCneven. mweralma Svidi dasrulebuli da kidev ramdenime daumTavrebeli moTxroba dagvitova, romlebSiac man erTob Rrma interesebi gamoavlina. am moTxrobebSi didi mwerali qarTul yofas asaxavs, yofas dastrialebs Tavs; magram, ra Tqma unda, viwro yofiTi sakiTxebiT ar ifargleba. iliam Tavis prozaul nawarmoebebSi didad gaafarTova mxatvruli xedvis are. ilias prozauli qmnilebebis namdvil Sinaarss Cveni qveynisaTvis, qarTveli erisaTvis erTob aqtualuri socialur-politikuri sakiTxebi gansazRvraven. es sakiTxebi ki mwerlis mier swored yofiT planSia dasmuli. `mgzavris werilebi.~ ilia WavWavaZis yvela prozaul qmnilebas erovnulsocialuri problematikis konkretuli gansaxierebis SemTxvevaSi yovelTvis Tan axlavs ganxilvis zogadi aspeqti, magram, yvela sxva Txzulebisagan gansxvavebiT, mWevrmetyveluri prozis SesaniSnavi nimuSi `mgzavris werilebi~ yuradRebas iqcevs swored Tavisi zogadi SinaarsiT. jer kidev samocian wlebSi Seqmnili es Txzuleba ilia WavWavaZis mTeli Semoqmedebisa da praqtikul-sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis programis uSualo asaxvaa. swored am nawarmoebSia TavCenili pirvelad is sakiTxebi, is ideebi, romelTaTvisac ilias mTeli Tavisi sicocxlis manZilze ar uRalatnia da romelTa gaSlas, gaRrmavebasa da gafarTovebas mis Semdgom TxzulebebSi vxvdebiT. nawarmoebi, pirvel yovlisa, yuradRebas ipyrobs axalgazrda mwerlis interesTa sifarToviT da sakiTxTa siuxviT. interesebi aq nairgvaria rogorc socialur-politikuri, ise eTikur-esTetikuri xasiaTisa, xolo warmmarTveli erovnuli idealebia. sakiTxTa ganxilvis erTaderTi aspeqtic erovnulia. Txzulebis ideur-Tematikuri simdidre da nairferoba moTxrobis kompoziciuri TaviseburebebiTac aris gansazRvruli. moTxrobis kompoziciur RerZs warmoadgens axalgazrda qarTveli inteligentis ucxoeTidan Tavis qveyanaSi dabruneba da mis mier nanaxisa da gancdil-nafiqris gadmoSla. Txzuleba kerZod asaxavs am mogzaurobis erT monakveTs vladikavkasidan fasanauramde. magram sivrcisa da drois mixedviT am mcire monakveTis gavliT miRebuli STabeWdilebebi itevs mwerlis did saTqmels. cnobilia, rom mogzaurobas uZvelesi droidanve didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda. rogorc erTgan TviTon ilia aRniSnavs, `amboben mgzavroba kacs Tvals uxilebso, gonebas uxsniso~.1 aqedanac gamomdinare, mogzaurobis kompoziciur RerZad gamoyeneba uZvelesi gzaa mxatvrul literaturaSi. am formas mimarTavdnen sxvadasxva literaturuli interesebisa da esTetikur-mxatvruli amocanebis realizebisas. aseTi Txzuleba kompoziciurad iZleva erTob farTo, faqtobrivad, SemousazRvrel SesaZleblobebs yofiTi, eTnografiuli aRwera-daxasiaTebis, xalxebis zne-Cveulebebis, cxovrebis wesis, erovnul TaviseburebaTa daxasiaTeba-gadmosacemad, sakuTriv mwerlis dakvirvebebis, STabeWdilebebis, mosazrebebis, ideebis gadmoSlis TvalsazrisiT. aseTi tipis Txzuleba xelovanis SesaZleblobebis gamomJRavnebis TvalsazrisiT marjve sasinji qvacaa, ramdenadac aseT TxzulebaSi mkafiod Cans mwerlis interesTa sfero, dakvirvebis unari, ganzogadebis unari da siRrme, gancdaTa da azrTa wyoba da a.S. yovelive amis gaxsenebas axla is mniSvnelobac aqvs, rom davrwmundeT, Tu rogor TvalnaTliv gamoCnda `mgzavris werilebSi~ ilia WavWavaZis brwyinvale SesaZleblobebi -- interesebis sifarTove, siRrme, dakvirvebisa da ganzogadebis unari, didi erudicia, satirikosis mZlavri niWi.

1

i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , Txzulebani oc tomad, t. II, gv. 566, `kacia-adamianis~ winasityvaobis mesame varianti.

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`mgzavris werilebi~ sruliadac araa ubralo Tavmoyra samgzavro Canawerebisa, rogorc xSirad vxvdebiT literaturaSi. mwerali aq yvelafers ki ar aRwers, rasac xedavs da ganicdis, igi SerCevis aucileblobis winaSe dgas, e.i. irCevs asasaxav obieqtebs da sakiTxebs. am azriT mwerali Tavisufalia arCevanisas -- razec unda imaze mimarTavs Tavis yuradRebas. amdenad, mwerlis poziciis gasarkvevad arsebiTia ara marto is, Tu ra Seaqvs mwerals nawarmoebSi, aramed isic, rac mas ar miaCnia TxzulebaSi Setanis Rirsad. Txzuleba faqtobrivad garkveuli epizodebisagan Sedgeba, romlebic erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli arian mwyobri TvalsazrisiT. yoveli aseTi epizodi garkveuli konkretuli azrisa da ideis matarebelia. Txzulebis pirvel epizodSi aqamde Cvens literaturaSi arnaxuli ZaliTaa wamoyenebuli realisturi literaturis aucileblobis moTxovna, moTxovna iseTi mwerlobisa, romelic sasurvelsa da warmosaxuls ki ara, aramed obieqtur sinamdviles warmoadgens, mtkiced gausworebs Tvals arsebuls da wyluls uwamlebs kidec. rusi mxatvrebi erTob poeturad, lamazad warmogvidgenen ilias mier ramdenime mZlavri StrixiT moxazul `pirdaubanel da Tavdauvarcxnel~ sqelkisera `iamSCikis~ briyvul saxes, imis `oyrayul sanaxaobas~, `imis midun-modunebul zlazvnas, uadamiano da pirutyvul mixvra-moxvras~. `ramodenadac suraTia kargi, or imodenad saZagelia namdvili~. `mgzavris werilebSi~ didi TvalsaCinoebiTaa mowodebuli mefis ruseTis teqnikuri CamorCenilobis, sruli ubadrukobis suraTi, naCvenebia ruseTis imperiis mmarTvelobis sruli ugunureba da siClunge. ruseTis imperia, rogorc mgzavris rus oficerTan saubriT irkveva, eyrdnoba gonebaClung, mouqnel ugunur aparats. ruseTis imperiis Zala `Rvinosa da arayTan Zalian daaxloebuli~ samxedro aparatiTaa gansazRvruli, romlis imperiisadmi brma morCileba da TviTkmayofilebac damyarebulia imperiul zraxvebze da Sovinistur instinqtebze -- dapyrobil `velur~ qveynebsa da xalxebSi, romlebic mas sZuls, -- rusuli ganaTleba da civilizacia Seitanos izleris baRis da iqauri kaxpa feriebis kulturis saxiT. rus oficerTan Sexvedris epizodis mxatvruli Zala da mniSvneloba mis politikur gamiznulobasa da ganzogadebaSia. mweralma ruseTis samxedro mmarTvelobis tipuri suraTi daxata. `oficroba da Cinovnikoba bevri modis ruseTidan~ qarTveli Tu sxva xalxebis `gasanaTleblad~- es `ganaTleba~ ki izleris baRis `civilizaciaSia~ gansxeulebuli, romelic Tavisi garyvnilebiT zneobrivad scems imperiaSi Semaval qveynebs. es oficeri mwerlobaze da mecnierebaze debs Tavs. oficris uaRresad cocxali saxe satiruli midgomiTaa Sesrulebuli. oficerTan saubris epizodebSi mwerlis mier TvalsaCinod isicaa miTiTebuli, rom ruseTSi, Cveulebriv, qveynis winsvlis saCveneblad cifrebs moixmoben, TiTqos raodenobrivi zrda iyos ganmsazRvreli qveynis winsvlisa da progresisa. ruseTis imperiis stomaqSi yofnis samocdaaTi wlis manZilze saqarTvelos oci generali hyolia, Tu samocdaaTi wlis manZilze amas kidev oci daemateba, oficris azriT, es saqarTvelos ueWveli didi dawinaureba iqneba. mwerali am epizodSi imasac gviCvenebs, rom adamiani aq imis mixedviTac fasdeba, Tu ra Tanamdeboba uWiravs. sakmarisia oficers gaego, rom saqme aqvs ara vinme sapatio Tanamdebobis pirTan, aramed daxlidarTan, rom myis Seecvala damokidebuleba da Tavxedurad zemodan cqriT daewyo misi `damoZRvra-ganaTleba~. xolo mwerali mgzavris am SeniRbvis xerxs imitomac mimarTavs, rom oficeri arafriT ar SeizRudos da daubrkoleblad gadmoSalos Tavisi Tavi, mTeli Tavisi avladideba. bevrma drom gaiara `mgzavris werilebis~ Seqmnidan, magram rusi oficris saxe darCa, rogorc tipuri ganmasaxierebuli ruseTis imperiis samxedro moxe62

lisa. mas Zmebi gamouCdnen rogorc yofaSi, aseve literaturaSi (am mxriv Tundac al. yazbegis naCalnikebi da generali rad Rirs). marTalia, icvleboda wyoba da forma, magram ar icvleba imperiuli manqanis Sinaarsi. rogorc adrec aRiniSna, myinvarisa da Tergis Sepirispirebis epizodSi mwerali moZraobas, moqmedebas adamianisa da eris arsebobis namdvil Sinaarsad aRiarebs. myinvarisa da Tergis Sepirispirebis aspeqtSi ganxilul sakiTxs avsebs da afarToebs dRisa da Ramis Sepirispirebis epizodi. Rame yvelaferi mdumarebas eZleva. wydeba `adamianis morWmuli xmauroba~. sibnele aris saukeTeso dro da asparezi `adamianis bedis SesaWedad~ borkilTa Wedvisa. sibnele aris xelSemwyobi `im xelobisa, romelsac TvalTmaqcobas eZaxian da romelic adamianis damfrTxal gonebas ubedurebas bednierebad aCvenebs xolme~, magram mwerals is asuldgmulebs, rom kvlav gaTendeba da sicocxlec amad Rirs. erovnuli interesebis gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT yvelaze mniSvnelovan epizodad TxzulebaSi moxele lelT RuniasTan mgzavris saubaria CaTvlili. ilia WavWavaZe lelT Runias piriT qadagebs umaRles erovnul ideals, romelsac arasodes moakldeba Zala da xibli. mWevrmetyveluria lelT Runias saxe imdenad, ramdenadac igi amaRlebulia mwerlis erovnuli koncefciis simaRleze. nawarmoebis am epizodSi uCveulo enobrivi formiT da didi mWevrmetyveluri ZaliT aris naCvenebi fasi erovnuli Tavisuflebisa, `roca avad Tu kargad Cven Cveni Tavni Cvenadve gveyudnes~. moxeves Zveli dro moswons imitom, rom eri Tavisufali iyo. mgzavri ekiTxeba moxeves -- `exla rom mSvidoba aris?~. es kiTxva TiTqos gangeb daismis, ramdenadac adrec da ilias Semdgomac mZlavr argumentad moCans azri mSvidobis Sesaxeb, romelic didi damarwmunebeli ZaliT aris warmoCenili genialuri n. b a r a T a S v i l i s mier jer poema `bedi qarTlisaSi~erekle mefis sityvebis saxiT: `axla ki droa, solomon, roma mSvidoba naxos saqarTveloma~ da Semdeg leqsSi `saflavi mefis iraklisa~:

`sadac aqamdis xmliT da ZaliT flobda qarTveli, mun samSvidobo moqalaqis marTavs aw xeli~.

Zalze mniSvnelovania da mravlismTqmeli lelT Runias pasuxi: `rais vaqnev carial mSvidabas carial stvamaqiT. rai arn mSvidaba? uxmar satevars Jangi daedvis, usrbolo wyalCi bayayni, Wia-Wuai, qvemZromi gamravldis. udegar, usvenar TergCi ki kalmaxi icis! rai arn mSvidaba cocxval kacTaTvis? rai arn mteroba, Tu eri erobs? carial mSvidaba miwaCic gveyofis~. erTi sityviT, lelT Runias mixedviT, fasi ara aqvs mSvidobas, Tu eri Tavisufali araa. Tu n. baraTaSvilis dros uamravi omebiT dauZlurebuli qveynisaTvis sasicocxlo mniSvneloba hqonda mSvidobas, mosvenebas: radgan Tu `daakvirdeba kaci im saSinel garemoebaTa, romelTac abezars moiyvanes Cveni eri... is ara gvgonia ise gakadnierdes, rom am wyurvils dasvenebisas ukiJinos, xangrZliv SfoTebs Semdeg sveneba upriania, rogorc calke kacisaTvis, isec mTeli erisaTvis. amas buneba iTxovs~ (V, 527), ilia WavWavaZe ukve sul sxva ideals saxavda Tavisi droisaTvis. lelT Runias piriT ilia axla 60-70-iani wlebisaTvis sxva azrs qadagebs: roca eri Tavisufali iyo, `eri erobdis, guli gulobdis, vaJai vaJabdis, qalai qalabdis~... danebebis, damorCilebis fsiqologia, pirvel yovlisa, ers sulierad cems da zneobrivad ryvnis: `awina eroba daiSalis, meZav-mruSobai Camovardnis... mtroba-bZarvai gaxSirdnis... eri davardnil galaxul arn, vrdomil-krTomil. warxda qarTvelTa saxeli, qarTvelTa wesT-wyobai~. axlandel mSvidobas egebis kidev is dro sjobda, mteri rom dagvecemoda asaklebad. `mters...far-xrmaliT SeveTamaSiT, vigeriebdiT... adrida mterTan brZolaCi, sworebis jobinobaCi, saxel vSaobdiT~... axla ki, moxevis azriT, `mavale svamexi ufros gvawiokebs, ufros saxls gviklebs~... Tu mters far-xmaliT davuxvdebodiT da movigeriebdiT, `svamexs

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rai eyvis, ver mosageriebel, ver SesaTamaSebel... svamexTan vaJai rai saxels CamorCebis~. ilia am metad damafiqrebel azrs kidev sxva drosac miubrundeba. gaivlis ocdaaTze meti weli da ilia dawers: `xmlianma mterma ver dagvaTmobina, ver wagvarTva Cveni miwa-wyali, Cveni qveyana. xmlians mters gavuZeliT, gadavrCiT. qveyana da saxeli SevinaxeT, saxsenebeli ar amovikveTeT, SevirCineT, saqolavi aravis avagebineT. xmliT moseulma mterma vera dagvaklo-ra, SromiT da garjiT, codniT da xerxiT mosuli ki Tan gagvitans, fex-qveSidan miwas gamogvaclis, saxels gagviqrobs, gagviwyvets, saxsenebeli qarTvelisa amoikveTeba da Cvens mSveniers qveyanas, rogorc upatrono saydars, sxvani daepatronebian~... (`ra giTxraT, riT gagaxaroT~). xolo am brwyinvale publicistur werils 20 wliT win uswrebs ilias didebuli leqsi `kiTxva-pasuxi~, sadac sxva formiT, sxva emociuri ZaliT igive gulistkivilia gadmoSlili:

`kargi rama xar, Cemo qveyanav, lamazad morTul da mokazmuli; magram ramdenadc mSvenieri xar, imdenad ufro mikvdeba guli...~

ilia ara mxolod mxatvrulsa da publicistur naazrevSi gamoxatavs Tavis gulistkivils mosalodneli saSiSroebis Sesaxeb, aramed praqtikuli saqmianobiTac amyarebs, rom qveyana gayidvisagan daixsnas, qarTuli miwa-wyali gadaarCinos... rogorc iTqva, amis erTi didi gamoxatuleba iyo ilias moRvaweoba bankSi. `mgzavris werilebSi~ warmodgenili programis, ideebis ganxorcielebas Sealia ilia WavWavaZem ara marto Tavisi mZlavri mxatvruli niWi, aramed mTeli Tavisi sulieri da fizikuri Zala da energia. swored amitomac, rogorc aRiniSna, es nawarmoebi ara marto samwerlo, aramed ilia WavWavaZis praqtikul-sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis programasac warmoadgens. `glaxis naambobi.~ilia WavWavaZe Tavis pirmSod prozaSi socialurad mZafr `glaxis naambobs~ Tvlida. prozaul TxzulebaTagan `glaxis naambobiviT~ xangrZlivad arc erTi Txzuleba ar utarebia ilias, vidre sabolood gamokveTda `SemoqmedebiT quraSi~. rogorc miuTiTeben, `XIX saukunis Cvens qarTul mwerlobaSi pirveli mwerali ilia WavWavaZe iyo, romelmac personaJis mTeli sulieri mdgomareoba uSualod misi yofiTi viTarebidan gamoiyvana~.1 iliam uCvena, rom socialuri viTareba xels uwyobs adamianSi amgvari Tu imgvari interesebis gabatonebas da sabolood mis xasiaTsac gansazRvravs. usaqmuroba, ufleba adamianebze ganusazRvreli batonobisa, ugulebelyofa yovelgvari movaleobisa, erTi adamianis mier meoris viTarca nivTis, ukeTes SemTxvevaSi, viTarca pirutyvis flobis ufleba adamianSi badebs da aRvivebs ulmobelobis, Seubraleblobis, Jinianobis midrekilebebs. mTlad uarsayofi da ukusagdebi axalgazrda ar iyo daTiko, masSi ukeTesi Tvisebebic iCenda Tavs. bavSvi xom `Zalian niWieri da gonieri bunebisa~ iyo. raRac adamianuri, vaJkacuri, Seudrekelobis, Tavmowonebisa da siamayis grZnobebi, grZnoba sinanulisa, rogorc moTxrobidan Cans, man bolomde SeinarCuna. magram igi rom batoni iyo, aman iTamaSa gadamwyveti roli mis avkacobaSi. sazogadod TviTneba da jiuti usaqmobam, ganuzomelma uflebebma, movaleobis Seugneblobam velur instinqtebs daumona, avxorcul-pirutyvulma Jinma aitaca igi da bevri gaaubedura, bolos da bolos man ar daindo ZmasaviT Sezrdili glexis Svili gabrieli, Jins daemona, yvelaferi daiviwya, sibralulic, sinanulic, rasac mohyva samudamo gaubedureba gabrielisac da pepias ojaxisac.

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gr. k i k n a Z e, literaturis, Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, gv. 294.

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ilia WavWavaZis pozicia naTelia: mwerali gmobs daTikos warmomSob socialur garemos, igi mis srul mospobas moiTxovs, adamianma Tavisi Rirseba unda daibrunos. sulieri moRvaweobis, saTnoebisa da sikeTis gziT svla ar aris piroba, safuZveli bednierebisa, sayovelTao saTnoeba unda gaxdes piroba darRveuli mTelis gaerTianebisa. mweralma am moTxrobaSi qarTveli mSromeli kacis codna-ganaTlebis miRebis udides saWiroebazec miuTiTa da TvalnaTliv cxadyo, Tu ra didi zemoqmedebis Zala aqvs maswavleblis cocxal sityvas da pirad magaliTs. ilia WavWavaZis mier daxatuli mRvdeli rCeba saxalxo maswavleblis, sulieri moZRvris mZlavr tipad. rogorc iTqva, ilias Semoqmedebis da moRvaweobis safuZvels qristianuli eTika warmoadgens. es kargad Cans mTel mis SemoqmedebaSi, magram konkretuli gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT am mxriv pirveli vrceli Txzuleba, romelic yuradRebas iqcevs, swored `glaxis naambobia~. erTia qristianuli principebis qadageba, magram meorea, rodesac am principebis individualizacia da konkretizacia, mxatvrul saxeebSi warmodgena xdeba grZnobad-esTetikur planSi. swored am mxriv aris mRvdlis STambeWdavi saxe gansakuTrebuli zemoqmedebis ZaliT aRbeWdili. gamoTqmulia azri, romlis Tanaxmadac, ilia WavWavaZis mRvdeli viqtor hiugos `sabralonis~ episkopos mirielis gavleniT unda iyos Seqmnili.1 bunebrivia, vifiqroT, rom ar SeiZleba arsebobdes hiugos `sabralonis~ zemoqmedebis kvali `glaxis naambobze~ im ubralo mizezis gamo, rom v. hiugos `sabraloni~ gamovida 1862 wels, e.i. swored im wels, roca sabolood dasrulda `glaxis naambobis~ pirveli eqvsi Tavi, romelSiac mRvdeli da gabrielis ganswavlis wlebi mTlianad aris aRwerili. gacilebiT ufro marTebuli Cans is mosazreba, romlis Tanaxmadac ilias `glaxis naambobs~ safuZvlad daedo realuri faqtebi mwerlis cxovrebidan, rom erTgvarad soflis mTavardiakvnis STagonebiT unda iyos Seqmnili `glaxis naambobis~ mRvdeli. marTlac, `glaxis naambobis~ bevri pasaJi ilias yrmobis da siWabukis mogonebebiT, gancdiliTa da nanaxiT aris nakvebi da Rrma poeturobiTac gamoirCeva. am mxrivac aris saintereso nawarmoebis eqspoziciuri nawili da gabrielis ganswavlis amsaxveli Tavebi. erTgvarad amiTac aixsneba, rom iliasaTvis moucilebeli da Zvirfasia, saamayoa is, rasac igi moTxrobaSi exeba da asasaxav masalad ixdis. es im werilebidanac kargad Cans, rasac am moTxrobis SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT Tavis meuRles da Tavis megobrebs -- kirile lorTqifaniZes da niko nikolaZes swers. yovelive aRniSnuli am moTxrobas gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebs CvenTvis. `kacia-adamiani?!~ ilias prozis mSvenebas warmoadgens axalgazrdobis Jams Seqmnili satiris ukvdavi nimuSi, moTxroba `kacia-adamiani?!~. Tematikuri TvalsazrisiT aqac iseve, rogorc `glaxis naambobSi~, batonymuri urTierTobaa asaxuli. Cveulebriv, mwerlebi batonymur urTierTobas asaxavdnen, rogorc saSinel sisastikes, gulqvaobis gamovlenas-adamians abamen kevrSi pirutyvsaviT da sulsa xdian, adamians mwevarSi cvlian an qor-SavardenSi, ymis Rirsebas Telaven, namuss xdian da a. S. aseTi viTarebaa asaxuli d. WonqaZis `suramis cixeSic~, ilias `aCrdilSic,~ `ramdenime suraTSic....~ da `glaxis naambobSic~ ... araferi amis msgavsi ar xdeba `kacia-adamianSi?!~. aq arc sisastikea, arc yidva-gayidva, arc namusis axdaa naCvenebi. luarsabsa da darejans arc aravin SeubamT kevrSi da arc aravin gauyidniaT. aba yma-glexis gaupatiurebis av zraxvas luarsabi gulSi rogor gaivlebs. mere rogor Sexedavs Tavis erTgul darejans TvalebSi. marTalia, saRamo xans bolTis sacemad gamosuli luarsabi

ase fiqrobs k. abaSiZe. aseve fiqrobs n. uruSaZe, ix. misi statia -- ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebis paralelebi franguli literaturidan -- ilia WavWavaZisadmi miZRvnil saiubileo krebulSi, 1939, gv. 275.

1

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`erTi-orjer msunagsaviT macduris TvaliT~ ki gadmoxedavs moxdenil glexis patarZals, romelic meveleebis mier daWerili kameCis gaSvebas sTxovs qalbatons, `luarsabi miTam da samacdurod gaiRimebs~ da `Taviseburad kbilebs siamovnebis niSnad kidec daakraWunebs~, magram es aris da es, amaze iqiT ar midis misi `danaSauli~. luarsabis `sisastike~ mouravisadmi mimarTul sayvedurSi Tu gamoixateba, ratom 15 sabegro uremi ar gagzavna man, Tumca aTi sabegro urmis meti Tavis dReSi ar Sebmula. kneina darejanis mrisxaneba ki imaSi gamoixateba, rom `iq mujluguns wahkravda sakeravze mTvlemare wirplian gogosa, aq TavSi Cautyapunebda ZonZebSi gaxveul patara murian biWsa... aq imas gauwyreboda -- raze? TiTon kneinamac ar icoda, razed, aq imas gamogilanZRavdaT, risTvis, arc es icoda kneinama~. luarsabisa da darejanis es da amgvari moqmedeba SeZrwunebas ki ar iwvevs, aramed Rimils, ramdenadac dacinvis sagania es maTi usaqmuri saqmianoba. ilia WavWavaZem am moTxrobaSi gviambo adamianTa moSvebulobisa da mconarobis, maTi cxoveluri yofis, sulieri sicarielis istoria. gansxvavebiT `glaxis naambobidan~, romelSiac, marTalia, batonymobaa gakicxuli, magram midgoma mwerlisa sinamdvilisadmi seriozulia, `kacia-adamianSi?!~ Tavidan bolomde gamomJRavnebulia satiruli midgoma, romelic ZiriTadad ironiis gziT xorcieldeba. iliam am moTxrobaSi TvalnaTliv uCvena, rom gareSe yovelgvari sisastikisa da mxecuri instinqtebis gaRvivebisa, Tavisi raobiT batonymuri urTierToba TavisTavad aris damRupveli, ramdenadac igi abatonebs usaqmurobas, adamians adamianis saxes ukargavs, adamiani cxovelis doneze dahyavs; sazogadoebriv aqtivobas aclis. ilia WavWavaZe batonymuri urTierTobis Sefasebisasac, iseve rogorc yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi, xelmZRvanelobs erovnuli TvalTaxedviT. igi, ra Tqma unda, sruliadac ar fiqrobs, rom batonymobas sazogadoebis erTi fenisaTvis -- glexebisaTvis moaqvs ubedureba, ilia fiqrobs, rom ukeTes dReSi arc isini arian, visac batonebi hqvia da visac ymebis nivTiviT flobis ufleba aqvT miniWebuli. daRupulni arian batonebic, ramdenadac saxeze gvaqvs maTi zneobrivi dacema, gadagvareba, cxovelur doneze daSveba da, xSir SemTxvevaSi, gavelurebac. batonymuri wyoba sazogadod ukargavs adamians adamianis saxes imis miuxedavad, batonia igi Tu yma. ilias sruliadac ar warmoudgenia viTareba ise, rom Cagruli fena TiTqos mxolod angelozebs warmoadgenen, zneobrivad srulqmnilT da ucodvelT. batonymobas maTSiac Cauklavs adamianuri, sacodav cxovelebs damsgavsebian isinic. ufro marjveni da moxerxebulni pirmoTneobisa da cbierebis gzas dadgomian. ilia fiqrobs, rom batonymoba damRupvelia ara romelime fenisaTvis, aramed saerTod sazogadoebisaTvis, erisaTvis. sazogadoeba gaTiSulia or sruliad sxvadasxva nawilad, romelTa Soris araferia saerTo, iTeleba adamianis pirovnuloba. ilias pozicia naTelia -- mxolod batonymuri institutis mospobis gziT, jansaR erovnul ZalTa gaerTianebiT, roca adamiani daibrunebs warTmeul adamianur uflebebs da Rirsebas, socialur ZalTa urTierTTanamSromlobis miRwevaSi aris qveynis WeSmariti xsnis gza. `oTaraanT qvrivi~. Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweobis mogviano xanaSi ilia WavWavaZem Seqmna didebuli `oTaraanT qvrivi~. am moTxrobaSi mweralma misTvis Cveuli sidinjiT ganixila xidCatexilobis, wodebaTa Soris urTierTobis problema. rogorc viciT, es problema iliasaTvis axali ar iyo da igi mTeli misi Semoqmedebis manZilze iCenda Tavs. idga igi `glaxis naambobSi~ da mTeli simwvaviTac. magram `glaxis naambobisagan~ gansxvavebiT, aq problema axali socialuri urTierTobis fonze ganixileba, gaRrmavebulicaa, ganxilvis aspeqtebic gafar66

Toebuli. pirvel yovlisa, es imasac mowmobs, rom ilia WavWavaZis saxiT socialurad gamZafrebuli xedvis uaRresad fxizeli xelovani hyavda Cvens qveyanas. mweralma `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ dagvanaxa, rom, Tu adre, batonymobis pirobebSi xidis gadeba sxvadasxva sazogadoebrivi fenis warmomadgenelTa Soris principulad SeuZlebeli iyo, rac ar unda siaxlove yofiliyo batonsa da ymas Soris, mainc sruli gaugebroba da ufskruli yofda maT, batonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg axali socialur-ekonomikuri urTierTobis dros wodebaTa, adamianTa Soris iuridiuli Tanasworoba iqna aRiarebuli, ramdenadac adamiani iuridiulad ganTavisuflda, magram, rogorc irkveva, iuridiuli Tanasworuflebianoba da Tavisuflebis aRiareba sruliadac ar niSnavs faqtobrivad TanabarRirebulebis ganxorcielebas. socialur wodebebs Soris TavCenili fsiqoligiuri, inteleqtualuri da kidev sxva saxis jebirebi, gaugebroba maT Soris, aseTi Tanasworobis siyalbes mowmobs. gaugebroba exeba ara azrebis, ideebis sferos mxolod, aramed iseT sferos, sadac TiTqos yovelgvari jebirebi adamianebs Soris moxsnili unda iyos. `Sengan mefe monas eymoso~ -- acxadebda aleqsandre WavWavaZe, roca siyvarulis yovlisSemZleobaze saubrobda Tavis didebul leqsSi. saqme swored siyvarulis grZnobas exeba. ilia WavWavaZem mxatvruli argumentebiT cxadyo, rom siyvarulis sferoSic sruli gaugebrobaa. rogorc arCili eubneba kesos, laparaki TanagrZnobas ki ar exeba -- SesaZloa ar moswoneboda da ar eTanagrZno qals vaJisaTvis da aq gvariSvilobis `cxraklite~ arafer SuaSi yofiliyo. magram saqme isaa, rom `Rirsebis Tayvaniscemas~ viRa Civis, keso verc ki miuxvda siyvaruls, kaci Turme Tavs evleboda, `wminda Suqi mSvenieris sulisa amaod da uqmad-Ra javarsaviT efineboda~ da efineboda `civs kedels~. ilia WavWavaZe faqizad aanalizebs ara marto Cveni qveynis da ara marto ilias drois TvalsazrisiT erTob mtkivneul promlemas da misi gadawyvetis perspeqtivasac Zalian frTxilad, poetur-figuraluri suraTis saxiT warmogvidgens. am mxriv aris gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo da-Zmis, arCilisa da kesos saubari Txzulebis im TavSi, romelsac `dasawyisi ganTiadisa~ hqvia. mwerlis upirvelesi da erTaderTi amocanac is aris, rom TvalnaTliv gvagrZnobinos sinamdvile, is, rac aris; misi amocana araa gvaCvenos is, rac unda iyos. Tu mweralma sinamdvile gvagrZnobina da SegvZra, amiT igi Tavis amocanas maqsimalurad ganaxorcielebs. amdenad araa marTebuli mxatvrul qmnilebaSi socialur-politikuri programa veZeboT. mxatvruli metyveleba Taviseburi fenomenia da misi pirdapiri Targmani ekonomikur-politikur enaze sruliad dauSvebelia. erTi sityviT, araa marTebuli ilia WavWavaZisagan moviTxovoT pasuxi iseT kiTxvaze, romelzec damakmayofilebeli pasuxi praqtikulad vera socialur-politikurma programam ver gasca mTeli moazrovne kacobriobis masStabiT. miuxedavad aRniSnulisa, aq erTi ram mainc SeiZleba iTqvas. jer kidev n. nikolaZisaTvis iyo cnobili, rom ilia WavWavaZe wodebaTa faqtobrivi daaxloebis, maT Soris arsebuli zRvaris Semcirebis erT-erT saimedo safuZvlad maTi sulier-inteleqtualuri daaxloeba miaCnda. am SemTxvevaSi gadamwyveti sityva unda eTqvas aRzrda-ganaTlebas. roca ilias mTel Semoqmedebas viTvaliswinebT da ara marto mis `oTaraanT qvrivs~, es mosazreba safuZvlianad gvesaxeba. jer kidev k. abaSiZis droidan isic cnobilia, rom xidCatexilobis problemas `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ aqvs sxva aspeqtic -- aspeqti adamianTa urTiergaugebrobisa pirovnul planSi, ufro sworad, sazogadod adamianis martoobis aspeqti, rac sosia mewisqvilis tragediis saxiTac iCens Tavs, pirvel yovlisa, da oTaraanT qvrivis, viTarca dedis, tragediis saxiTac. mwerlis azriT, es `saWirboroto da wyevlakrulviani~ sakiTxic dgas `am uTavbolo da uswormasworo wuTisofelSi~.

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`sarCobelazed~. `oTaraanT qvrivis~ Seqmnamde rva wliT adre daiwera SesaniSnavi moTxroba `sarCobelazed~, romelSiac sazogadoebisa da misi calkeuli wevris urTierTobis, danaSaulisa da sasjelis, uflebisa da movaleobis marad mtkivneul sakiTxebzea yuradReba gamaxvilebuli da sadac iliam mxatvruli sityvis sferoSi pirdapir gailaSqra sikvdiliT dasjis winaaRmdeg. ilia WavWavaZem aq, am moTxrobaSi, cxadyo, rom sazogadoeba srul gulgrilobas da upasuxismgeblobas iCens Tavisi calkeuli wevrisadmi da ukve amiT faqtobrivad adamians danaSaulisaken ubiZgebs. sazogadoeba damnaSavis gazrdas uwyobs xels, raTa Semdeg gulgrilad dasajos igi. faqtobrivad sazogadoebam uari Tqva Tavis umTavres funqciaze -- iyos dainteresebuli Tavisi calkeuli wevris bediT, radgan igi, sazogadoeba, wevrebisagan Sedgeba, xolo uaris Tqma umTavresze niSnavs saerTod sazogadoebis moSlasa da gadagvarebas. aRniSnuli ise ar unda gavigoT, TiTqos ilia mxolod sazogadoebas debs brals, xolo calkeul adamians aTavisuflebs pasuxismgeblobisagan. iliasaTvis rom moraluri pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi erTi umTavresia, es misi `kacia-adamianis?!~ mixedviTac kargad Cans da `glaxis naambobis~ mixedviTac. i. WavWavaZis azriT, adamiani, ra Tqma unda, agebs pasuxs Tavis saqcielze, moqmedebaze, oRond mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mas arCevanis SesaZlebloba aqvs. luarsab TaTqariZe, daTiko ageben pasuxs TavianT saqcielze, radgan maT SeeZloT sxvagvarad ecxovraT, sxvagvarad moqceuliyvnen, magram es maT ar indomes; xolo Tu adamians Tavisufali arCevanis SesaZleblobas movuspobT, Tu mis win mxolod erTi gza da gamosavali iqneba, bunebrivia, igi verc agebs pasuxs Tavis saqcielze. Tu nawarmoebSi dasmul problemebs kidev ufro CavuRrmavdebiT, maSin gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aq is faqti ipyrobs, rom mwerali maincdamainc adamianis CamoxrCobis faqts gulubryvilo glexis, petres TvaliT gvayurebinebs. aq, am nawarmoebSi, viTareba isea warmodgenili, rom araTu sazogadoebis aSkarad gamokveTili damnaSave Zalebi -- Zmebis, maminacvlis, dedis, mosamsaxure gogobiWebis, usulgulo adamianebis saxiT -- amzadebdnen Zmebis danaSauls, aramed faqtobrivad isinic xelSemwyobad gamodiodnen, visac Zmebi, `marTla, ecodebodaT~, magram SveliT ki verafers Svelodnen. amiTac aixsneba sruli ukompromisoba gaavebuli Zmebisa, romlebic `yvelas gadaemternen -- maminacvals, dedas, avsa da kargsa~. `patarebi viyaviT, -- wers beJanis umcrosi Zma petres, -- yvela xedavda, rom TvalnaTliv gvZarcvavdnen, aravin ar gamogvesarCla, aravin mogveSvela, aravin xma ar amoiRo, Cveni codva yvelam daido kisrad. maminacvalma ki ara, Tqven yvelam gagvZarcveT Cven, Tqven yvelam mogviReT bolo...~ rogorc miuTiTeben, petre Zveli yaidis sofleli glexia, mas Tavisi Tavi jer ar ugrZnia sazogadoebis wevrad, igi jer bunebasTan mWidro kavSirSia, vidre socialur RirebulebebTan. petre `sazogadoebis yvelaze pasiur wevrTa ricxvSia. amdenad misi `danaSauli~ Tanacxovrebis kanonebisadmi yoveli calkeuli adamianis winaSe aseve minimaluria da `pasiuri~. magram moxucma petrem esec ar icis. igi udanaSaulod grZnobs Tavs, rogorc bunebis erTi natexi~.1 marTalia, petrem ymawvilis gulSi maSin `tkbili naRveli Casaxa~, misma `gulkeTilobam moinadira~, magram, -- agrZelebs umcrosi Zma, isic gaqreba, vici. gana Sen ki amxanagi ara xar Cemis maminacvlisa! gana Sen ki ar damirCe erTaderTi Zma! gana Sen ki ar miiyvane is sarCobelamde~. pasiuri, aramebrZoli sikeTec saboloo jamSi danaSaulis xelSemwyobad gamodis da sinamdviles sasikeTod ver cvlis -- ase SeiZleba gavaSinaarsoT is mkacri ganaCeni, rac CamoxrCobilis Zmam SeZrwunebul, Tavzardacemul petres gamoutana.

1

g . k a n k a v a , literaturuli werilebi, 1980, gv. 19.

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`nikolooz gostaSabiSvili~. ilias moTxrobaTagan erTgvarad gamocalkevebiT dgas patara saSobao moTxroba nikolooz gostaSabiSvili. es moTxroba yrmobisdroindel STabeWdilebebTan mibrunebas, maT gacocxlebas warmoadgens da amasTanave rainduli suliskveTebiTaa aRbeWdili. ilia WavWavaZe qarTul mwerlobaSi momZlavrebuli im tendenciis sawinaaRmdegod, romlis Tanaxmadac viTareba ise ixateba, rom Cveni qveynis `mterni kacismWamelni arian, qarTvelebis sisxlis msmelni, yovels adamianobaze xelaRebulni da qarTvelebi ki yovlis adamianobiT srulni, erTi qarTveli aT da oc momxdurs umklavdeba iolad~, iseT viTarebas xatavs, roca qarTvel vaJkacs mteric Rirseuli vaJkaci Sexvdeba. nikolooz gostaSabiSvilis sulgrZelobiT aRsavse saqciels -- damarcxebuli mtris Rirsebis Seulaxaobas, Seurcxvenlobas da sicocxlis Cuqebas mteric, agreTve vaJkaci, saTanado RirsebiT Rebulobs: `mec sicocxles Tu visganme viCuqebdi, marto SenisTana vaJkacisagano~-, eubneba igi gamarjvebul qarTvels. am moTxrobis mTavari personaJi nikolooz gostaSabiSvili Tavisi maRali SegnebiT, mtris vaJkacobis danaxviT da aRiarebiT rainduli gagebis mwvervalze adis.

ilias prozis Tematikuri aqtualoba. ilia WavWavaZis moTxrobaTa didi nawili TiTqos uaRresad konkretuli socialuri garemos, konkretuli socialuri wyobis kritikas isaxavs umTavres amocanad, xolo es garemo, socialuri wyoba ki iyo da aRarasodes gameordeba. miuxedavad amisa, ar SeiZleba iTqvas, rom ilia WavWavaZis Txzulebebma Tematikuri aqtualoba dakarges, rom am mxriv isini CvenTvis aRar arian sagulisxmoni, rom Tanamedrove mkiTxvels isini am mxriv saazrovno sazrdos ar awvdidnen. ratom xdeba mainc ase? rogorc cnobilia, ilia WavWavaZe calkeul TxzulebaSi gansaxilvelad iRebs erT umTavres sakiTxs da ara sakiTxTa wyebas da amas igi sruliad garkveuli mizniT mimarTavs. erTi mxriv, aseTi nawarmoebi aRsaqmelad ufro advilia da mkiTxvelis interesic ufro mobilizebuli. ilias, rogorc mwerlis, amocana imTaviTve iyo sisadave da sicxadis Setana yvelaferSi, ise rogorc es CveviaT did xelovanT, romelnic TavianT Txzulebebs mkiTxvelis aRzrdis funqciasac akisrebdnen. naTqvams adasturebs Tundac mwerlis muSaobis gaTvaliswineba moTxrobebze `glaxis naambobi~ da `kacia-adamiani?!~. Tavdapirvelad mwerals Cafiqrebuli hqonda erTi moTxrobis dawera, romelic gaaerTianebda orive moTxrobis siuJetur xazebs. Semdgomi muSaobisas iliam es adrindeli Canafiqri or moTxrobad daSala, or damoukidebel nawarmoebad. man ar miiCnia mizanSewonilad erTbaSad ramdenime Temis erTad mowodeba. am dros naklebia mkiTxvelis mier TiToeulis gaazrebis siRrme, yuradReba gadanawilebulia ramdenimeze. amrigad, erT TxzulebaSi erTi umTavresi problemis dasmaa damaxasiaTebeli iliasaTvis, magram am problemas igi mravalmxriv gansjis, mravalmxriv aanalizebs. `mravalplaniania ilias TxzulebaTa umravlesoba. misi midgomis mravalplanianoba ar SeuzRudavs da Seukvecia mis naTelsa da garkveul mizanswrafvas, rogorc es TiTqosda mosalodneli iyo. es uTuod imiT aixsneba, rom farToa ilias gaazreba da xedva. yvelafris yovelmxriv gamomkvlevia is da amiT icilebs igi Tavidan SesaZlo calmxrivobas~.1 mivmarToT magaliTisaTvis ilias ukvdav `kacia-adamians?!~. rogorc miuTiTeben, aq satirul formaSia gakicxuli batonymuri urTierToba da esaa nawarmoebis mTavari Sinaarsi, magram, cxadia,

1

g r. k i k n a Z e, literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, 1978, gv.274.

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rom `kacia-adamianis?!~ mTavari Sinaarsi amiT ar mTavrdeba. es rom ase yofiliyo, am moTxrobas Tavisi istoriuli funqcia Sesrulebuli eqneboda da axla mxolod literaturis istoriis TvalsazrisiT Tu iqneboda saintereso. aseT Txzulebebsac xom uamravs icnobs literaturis istoria. magram cxadia, rom luarsab TaTqariZis cxovrebis istoria ar eZleva daviwyebas, luarsabi Cvengan moucilebeli personaJia, mudam Cveni Tanamdevi. am moTxrobis gamZleobas, pirvel rigSi, isic apirobebs, rom mxolod erTi socialuri wyobisaTvis specifikur urTierTobebze, adamianTa qcevebze da moqmedebebze ar amaxvilebs mwerali yuradRebas. iliam am moTxrobaSi Tavisi asaxvis obieqtad gaixada Rrmadmdebare adamianuri Tvisebebi da mankierebebi -- mconaroba da uqnaroba, sizarmace da gonebis mTvlemareba, gaumiznavi Surianoba, qiSpoba da Widili maxlobelTa Soris, udardeloba da pirmoTneoba. es Tvisebebi ki arc batonymobas moutania da arc mas gahyolia Tan. isini yvela xelsayrel pirobebSi SesaZloa xelaxali ZaliT wamotivtivdnen. `risTvis movidnen da risTvis wavidnen?~ -- kiTxulobs mwerali da es ukve is kiTxvaa, romelic gvaiZulebs davfiqrdeT. erTi sityviT, am nawarmoebSi mkafiod dgas problema adamianis arsebobis azris, misi umTavresi misiis Sesaxeb. moTxrobaSi yofiTi wvrilmanebis momarjvebiT, maT safuZvelze, sruliad CveulebrivSi, erTferovansa da yoveldRiurSi aRmoaCina ilia WavWavaZem uaRresad mniSvnelovani erovnuli satkivari da safiqrali. marTalia, didi xani gavida mas Semdeg, rac istorias Cabarda is socialuri instituti, romlis RviZli Svilebic iyvnen moTxrobis personaJebi da romlis gaSiSvlebac iyo mwerlis erTi didi amocana, magram isic xom faqtia, rom moTxrobas ar daukargavs, Tu ar moumatnia mxatvruli Rirseba da mniSvneloba Cvens gulSi da es imitomac, rogorc iTqva, rom ilia gamZle adamianur Tvisebebze, urTierTobebze amaxvilebs yuradRebas, romelnic raRacnairi formiT yovelTvis arseboben da romelTa win wamoweva, gabatoneba `TaTqariZeobis~ gamococxlebis saSiSroebas yovelTvis aCenen... ilia WavWavaZe dResac gvafrTxilebs da socialuri sifxizlisa da aqtivobisaken mogviwodebs, es momentic apirobebs am Txzulebis Tematikur aqtualobas. aseve sadReisodac gvafiqrebs moTxroba `sarCobelazed~. yvela droSi sagulisxmo iqneba sakiTxi sazogadoebisa da misi calkeuli wevris uflebebisa da movaleobebis Sesaxeb, danaSaulisa da sasjelis Sesaxeb. Tu sazogadoeba araa ubralo jami adamianebisa, aramed moraluri erTeulia, maSin igi pasuxismgebelia misi calkeuli wevris winaSe da wevrisaTvis. sazogadoeba ar SeiZleba gulgrili iyos calkeuli wevris bedis mimarT. mxolod aseT SemTxvevaSi aqvs sazogadoebas ufleba moiTxovos calkeuli wevrisagan, pasuxi agos Tavis moqmedebaze. sanamde adamians sanetaro naRvels auSlis yrmobis suraTebis gaxseneba, sanamde bavSvobis wlebis gaxsenebis survili da xalisi Seswevs, manam ar SeiZleba ar aaRelvos igi ilias saSobao moTxrobam. xolo vin ar daisaxavs idealad, romel droSi SeiZleba ar iyos siamovnebis momgvreli is siCauqe da rainduli simaRle qarTveli kacisa, rac Rirseuli mowinaaRmdegis dandobasa, misi vaJkacobis danaxvasa da aRiarebaSi gamoixateba. `glaxis naambobis~ mRvdelTan ziareba, misi swavlebisa da namoqmedaris gancda-gaSinaarseba xom yoveli drois axalgazrdobas aamaRlebs sulierad da `pirad aRdgomas adResaswaulebs~, rogorc ambobda didi pedagogi iakob gogebaSvili.

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gana `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ dasmuli sakiTxebia darCenili da mijaWvuli mxolod mecxramete saukunesTan? `oTaraanT qvrivSi~ dasmul sakiTxTa wyeba da grZnobebi CvenTvisac Zvirfasia da moucilebeli. adamianTa TanabarRirebulebis sakiTxi, adamianis Sinagani Rirsebebis danaxva da aRiareba yovelTvis iqneba gansjisa da mowonebis obieqti. mainc romelma drom, romelma moZRvrebam gadaWra adamianTa Soris uTanabrobis problema, gana sxvadasxva socialuri fenis, adamianTa erTianobis, eris erTianobis problema araa Cveni drois umwvavesi problema? Sromis didebuli himni, rac am moTxrobaSi oTaraanT qvrivis daxasiaTebis aspeqtSic da giorgis daxasiaTebis planSic rom JRers da saxierdeba, Tavis fassa da Rirebulebas, bunebrivia, arc CvenTvis kargavs. veraviTari agitacia da moralizeba ver Seenacvleba mas Sromis fasisa da Zalis Cvenebis TvalsazrisiT. dedaSviluri grZnobis iseTi niuansebia aq warmodgenili, dedaSvilobis grZnobis iseTi RaRadisi ismis, rom igi arc erTi drois mkiTxvels ar datovebs gulgrils da SeZravs, ramdenadac am grZnobas Caqroba ar uweria. erTi sityviT, ilias TxzulebebSi yvela faqtsa da movlenas axlavs ganxilvis moraluri plani, rac yvela droisaTvis mniSvnelovnad da aqtualurad aqcevs maT. ase icileben droiT SemosazRvrulobis samoss ilias qmnilebebi, ase maRldebian drozec da garkveul socialur viTarebazec.

ilia WavWavaZis prozis mxatvruli mxare. rac ar unda zogadsayovelTao Sinaarsisa da aqtualobisa iyos saTqmeli Sinaarsobrivad, sabolood igi mainc ver gansazRvravs Txzulebis Rirsebas da misi gamZleobis sazomad ver gamodgeba. nawarmoebis gamZleobas, pirvel yovlisa, misi mxatvruli Rirsebebi gansazRvraven. mainc ra mxatvruli Taviseburebebi gamoarCeven ilias qmnilebebs. ra arsebiT niSan-Tvisebebze SegviZlia axla gavamaxviloT yuradReba? pirvel yovlisa, am mxriv yuradRebas iqcevs ilias prozaul TxzulebaTa masala. ilia WavWavaZemde Cvens sinamdvileSi ZiriTadad mweralTa yuradReba gamaxvilebuli iyo gamogonili, ucxo da ucnauri ambebisadmi. TavisTavad cxadia, rom aseTi masala nakleb atarebda erovnul xasiaTs. ilia WavWavaZem uari Tqva ucxosa da gamogonilze, ucnaursa da Soridan momdinareze. man Tavis nawarmoebebSi qarTveli kacis erovnuli Taviseburebebis Cveneba daisaxa miznad. iliam sruliad Segnebulad uari Tqva TvalismomWrelsa da damainteresebelze; man Cvens literaturaSi daamkvidra sruliad Cveulebrivi, yofiTi masalisadmi interesi. mis moTxrobebSi asaxulia yovlad Cveulebrivi Cveni mosawyeni cxovrebis erTferovneba da masSia danaxuli mwerlis mier erTob seriozulica da mniSvnelovanic. swored yofis prozaulobaSi aRmoaCina man uaRresad erovnuli satkivari da es aqcia Tavisi asaxvis sagnad. ilias mier asaxuli sinamdvile yvelas Tvalwin mimdinare movlenebia, magram ara yvelasaTvis SesamCnevi. amas mxolos didi mwerlis maxvili Tvali amCnevs da CvenTvisac SesamCnevs xdis. ilia WavWavaZem qarTveli mkiTxvelis gemovnebis gardaqmna da xelaxali aRzrda moindoma da gaakeTa kidec. iliam Tavisi Txzulebebis sayrdenad ambebi ar aiRo, faqtobrivad, man uari Tqva yovelgvar saintereso, gamarTobel ambebze. rogorc aRniSnaven, ilia WavWavaZis dainteresebas sruliad ubralo ambavi iwvevs, radgan iq xedavs igi yvelaze mniSvnelovans. sruliad umniSvneloze, TiTqos wvrilman ambebze aago iliam Tavisi ukvdavi `kacia-adamiani?!~. am moTxrobaSi araferi xdeba iseTi, ramac SeiZleba ambis TvalsazrisiT daZabos mkiTxveli. mTeli nawarmoebi erTi qarTveli Tavadis ojaxis uazro cxovrebas mogviTxrobs, col-qmris yoveldRiuri

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saubrebis, maTi garemos daxasiaTebas warmoadgens. ilia aq dascinis kidec sentimentaluri, saintereso ambebisadmi mimarTuli gemovnebis mkiTxvels da Tavis mimarTebas masalisa da asasaxi obieqtebisadmi Zalian mkafiod warmoadgens. ilia WavWavaZe -- mwerali rom dainteresdes, usaTuod siuJeti sruliad sada da ubralo unda iyos. ambavi ar ganagebs `kacia-adamianis?!~, `oTaraanT qvrivis~ Txrobas. es Txzulebebi agebulia personaJTa cxovrebis mxolod ramdenime epizodze, romlebic arsebiTia am personaJTa ragvarobis gasaTvaliswineblad da agreTve Zalze mniSvnelovanis -- qarTuli cxovrebis arsebiT momentebze misaTiTeblad. ilia swored am momentebs uRrmavdeba, maT aanalizebs sxvadasxva mxridan da ase aqcevs maT mkiTxvelisTvisac Zalze mniSvnelovnad, ahyavs igi esTetikuri aRqmis sruliad axal safexurze. sagangebod miTiTebulia da daxasiaTebulic iliaseuli detalizaciis maRalmxatvruloba. ilia movlenebis dasaxasiaTeblad, dasaxatavad iseT detalebs irCevs, iseT detalebs ixdis dakvirvebis sagnad, iseT niuansebs amCnevs, romlebic sxvisTvis SeumCnevelia, anda romelTa mxatvruli Rirebuleba iliamde sxvaTaTvis cxadi sruliadac ar iyo. ilia WavWavaZem swored aseT wvrilmanebs mianiWa arsebiTis gamoxatvis funqciac, swored am umniSvnelom da sxvaTa mier SeumCnevelma SeiZina iliasTan udidesi Rirebuleba. ilias mTeli yuradReba swored aseT wvrilmanebzea gadatanili. aRniSnulis TvalsaCino dadasturebaa `kacia-adamiani?!~ da gansakuTrebiT ki luarsabis saarsebo garemos vrceli aRwera-daxasiaTeba. es detalebi, wvrilmanebi iliasTan udides Tvisebriv datvirTvas iZenen, metad mniSvnelovanis mimTiTeblad gamodian. swored wvrilmanebi miuTiTeben ilias mier daxatul personaJTa, movlenaTa namdvil Sinaarsze da namdvil bunebaze. mxatvruli nawarmoebis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi adamiania. Txzulebis ideur-Tematikuri simdidre, misi dakvirvebisa da analizis unari, sazogadod mwerlis mxatvruli SesaZleblobebi umal personaJTa miseul gansaxierebaSi iCens Tavs. ilias mier daxatuli personaJebi mkiTxvelis warmosaxvaSi Rrmad iWrebian da mere misgan moucilebeli xdebian. naTqvami vrceldeba ilias mier daxatul yvela personaJze. Znelia daxatva iseTi personaJisa, romelic tipis myari niSan-TvisebebiT gamoirCeva. bevr mwerals vicnobT, romelTac an saerTod ar dauxatavT tipi, Tumca bevri weres, an daxates TiTo-orola. i. WavWavaZis mier daxatuli personaJebi, rogorc miuTiTeben, uklebliv yvela tips warmoadgenen. tipia luarsabic, darejanic, lamaziseulic da mouravi daToc, `iamSCikic~ da rusi oficeric, oTaraanT qvrivic da arCilic... ilia WavWavaZis mier daxatuli tipebi mxolod literaturel Rirebulebebs ar warmoadgenen, aramed maT Rrma socialuri datvirTvac aqvT, socialuri gamZleobaa maTi arsebiTi niSani. i. WavWavaZe ar gaixdis Tavisi asaxvis obieqtad imgvar movlenas an arsebas, romelsac socialuri mniSvneloba ara aqvs. SemTxveviTi ar aris ilia WavWavaZis dakvirvebisa da asaxvis sagani. misTvis amasTanave niSandoblivia, rom personaJis daxatvisas mis arsebiT niSnebze amaxvilebs yuradRebas, niSnebze, romelTac misi, am personaJis, socialuri raobis Cvenebis funqcia ekisreba. Tanac ilia miiswrafvis, rac SeiZleba meti sisruliT, meti niSniT warmoaCinos igi. i. WavWavaZisaTvis, rogorc xelovanisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT misi Semoqmedebis adreul safexurze niSandoblivia konkretuli garegnuli portretebis mowodeba. Tanac portreti, ise pirdapir da sruladaa gansaxierebuli, rom mkiTxvels warmodgena eqmneba masze, mis warmosaxvas TiTqmis arafris damateba aRar sWirdeba. amasTanave, ilias bevri personaJi imTaviTve warmoCndeba sulieri ragvarobiTac. mwerali e.w. pirdapiri daxasiaTebis gzas adgas am SemTxvevaSi. CvenTvis personaJi misi xasiaTis TvisebebiT imTaviTve gamokveTilia, Semdgom da Semdgom masze mkiTxvelis warmodgena mdidrdeba mxolod faqtobrivi masaliT. 72

i. WavWavaZe personaJis daxasiaTebis mizniT farTod, detalurad mimarTavs misi saarsebo garemos Cveneba-daxasiaTebas. garemo organuli nawilia personaJis portretisa. amitom ilias mier aRwerili garemos gaTvaliswineba arsebiTad tipis portretis gaTvaliswineba da misi warmodgenaa. swored am mxrivaa mniSvnelovani luarsab TaTqariZis kar-midamos farTo detaluri daxasiaTeba. rogorc miTiTebulia, luarsabis kar-midamos srul antipods warmoadgens oTaraanT qvrivis saxl-kari da isic pirdapir personaJis portretze mimTiTebelia. garegnuli portretizaciis gzas mihyveba mwerali Tavis adreul TxzulebebSi da ramdenadme Semdegac. magram ilia, rogorc didi xelovani, ar ifargleba mxolod gansaxierebis aseTi pirdapiri gzis gamoyenebiT. ilia WavWavaZem Tavisi ukvdavi `oTaraanT qvriviT~ daamtkica, rom misTvis gansaxierebis sxvagvari gza araa ucxo. ilia WavWavaZem arc erTi garegnuli niSniT ar migviTiTa oTaraanT qvrivis portretze, magram ise mZlavria am personaJis xasiaTis gaSla, rom mkiTxvels araviTari ukmarisobis grZnoba ar uCndeba, TiTqos garegnuladac kargad icnobs mas. TviTon saxelic ki ar icis mkiTxvelma misi. arc kesos, giorgis garegnuli portretebi dauxatavs mwerals. isinic naTlad aRimarTebian mkiTxvelis warmosaxvaSi da es mxolod maTi sulieri Tvisebebis, moqmedebisa da qcevis TvalnaTliv daxasiaTebis xarjze xdeba. rogorc aRiniSna, ilia WavWavaZis bevri personaJis xasiaTi imTaviTve warmodgeba, nawarmoebis Semdgomi msvlelobis manZilze mxolod masalobrivad izrdeba, xolo personaJTa meore nawilis xasiaTi TandaTanobiT iSleba da izrdeba nawarmoebis ganviTarebis manZilze. isini nawarmoebis dasasruls aRweven Tavis gamokveTilobas. am TvalsazrisiT aris saintereso gabrieli da daTiko, oTaraanT qvrivi da giorgi; maSin, roca luarsabis, darejanisa da daTos xasiaTebi imTaviTvea mocemuli. ilia WavWavaZe personaJTa Sinagani samyaros, gancdebis, sulieri mdgomareobis gadmosacemad sxvadasxva gzas mimarTavs, magram misTvis gansakuTrebiT niSandoblivia garegani moZraobebis, moqmedebebis aRwera. am moqmedebebiTa da moZraobebiT mwerali uSualod miuTiTebs personaJTa Sinagan Tvisebebze. maSasadame, iliasaTvis safuZveli adamianis moqmedebaa da masze dayrdnobiT aris gaSlili adamianTa gancdebi. mwerali ki ar mogviTxrobs, ras ganicdis misi gmiri, aramed TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs mis gancdas. nawarmoebis kompoziciuri daxasiaTebis TvalsazrisiT sazogadod cnobilia, rom nawarmoebis umniSvnelovanes nawilebs Seadgenen misi dasawyisi da dasasruli. ilia WavWavaZis moTxrobaTa dasawyisebze dakvirveba cxads xdis, rom ilia ambis Txrobas iwyebs arsebiTis CvenebiT, umTavresis Tvalwin dayenebiT, raTa Semdeg TandaTanobiT gadmogviSalos am mTavris Casaxvis pirobebic, ganviTarebac da dasasrulic. erTi sityviT, gaaanalizos igi. rogorc aRniSnulia, `ilia WavWavaZes, rogorc mwerals, Zalian emarjveba konstruqtuli motivis gamokveTa, e.i. gamokveTa imisa, rac misTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovania. ra mizniTac yvelaferi danarCeni aris gadmocemuli. am konstruqtul motivs ilia Weds mkiTxvelis gonebaSi~.1 rac Seexeba ambavTa dasasruls, ilia WavWavaZis moTxrobaTa umravlesoba SekiTxviT mTavrdeba. SekiTxviT mTavrdeba `kacia-adamianis?!~ ambavi -- `risTvis movidnen da risTvis wavidnen?~; SekiTxva ismis moTxroba `sarCobelazed~ boloSi -- `marTla-da Cveni beberi petre ra SuaSi unda iyos?~. faqtobrivad aseve SekiTxviT mTavrdeba `oTaraanT qvrivi~ -- `marTla ro codoa... magram sxva vin ar aris codo? erTic es aris saWirboroto da wyevlakrulviani sakiTxavi am uTavbolo da uswormasworo wuTisofelSi~. Tu imasac miviRebT mxedvelobaSi, rom

1

g r . k i k n a Z e , ilia WavWavaZe rogorc xelovani, wignSi `ilias krebuli~, I, 1998, gv. 55.

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ritorikuli SekiTxviTve mTavrdeba axalgazrdobisdroindeli `mgzavris werilebi~, aRmoCndeba, rom mwerali aiZulebs mkiTxvels, isic dafiqrdes, masac Tavisi problemebis rkalSi iTrevs. xolo hiugos sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, `SegeZlos aiZulo, rom ifiqros, es iSviaTi unaria, es rCeulTa niWia~. ilia WavWavaZis moTxrobaTa kompoziciuri Taviseburebebis gasaTvaliswineblad didi mniSvneloba eniWeba imis Cvenebasac, Tu ra adgili uWiravs aq bunebas da rogor aris igi gansaxierebuli. Tu gavixsenebT `mgzavris werilebs~, aq bunebis farTo suraTebia aRwerili. bunebis suraTebi aq sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis, adamianuri cxovrebis analogons warmoadgens. buneba mwerlis mier socialur enazea Targmnili da radgan mwerlisaTvis mTavari socialur-politikuri sakiTxebia, buneba am sakiTxebis gansaxilvelad, am sakiTxebze misaTiTebladaa moxmobili. `ra didebuli ramaa myinvari!~ -- ase ambobs mwerali, es Cveni gancdac aris. Cvenc amis msgavsi grZnoba dagveufleba myinvaris danaxvisas. magram mwerlis Semdgomi aRwera myinvarisa ukve sakuTriv ilias grZnobisa da poziciis gamoxatulebas warmoadgens. `glaxis naambobis~ dasawyisSi `nadirobis trfialis~ vrceli aRweraa mocemuli, xolo am aRweras is mniSvneloba aqvs, rom swored nadirobasTan aris dakavSirebuli mTxrobelis Sexvedra glaxasTan, moTxrobis mTavar gmirTan da, garda amisa, es nawili erTgvari miniSnebacaa moTxrobis mTavari laitmotivisa. sazogadod buneba ilias TxzulebaTa kompoziciaSi mtkicedaa Casmuli da igi aucilebel elements warmoadgens nawarmoebis Semdgomi gaSla-gaRrmavebisaTvis. amitom bunebis suraTebi ilias moTxrobebSi ZiriTadad mokledaa moWrili, mwerali did dros ar uTmobs mas; Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, es suraTebi ar aris moklebuli damoukidebel cxovelmyofelobasac, xasiaTdebian TvalsaCinoebiT, radgan isini erTob TvalsaCino, dinamizmiT savse formiT warmodgebian. aRniSnuli ki imasac gulisxmobs, rom ilias bunebis sxvagvarad xilvac SeuZlia, mas bunebis mSvenierebiT TavisTavadi tkbobis unaric aqvs, magram Tu ar eZleva amgvar grZnobas, sazogadod amgvari suraTebis mowodebas, mxolod imis gamo, rom mas sul sxva saTqmeli aqvs mkiTxvelisaTvis -- didi da seriozuli da bunebiT tkbobisaTvis adgils ar itovebs. es rom marTlac asea, ilias rom Tavisuflad SeuZlia bunebis TavisTavadi mSvenierebiT datkbes, mis winaSe gairindos, kargad Cans, magaliTad, `oTaraanT qvrivis~ im Tavebidanac, romlebic asea dasaTaurebuli `javri dedisa~ da `eZaxis~. ilia WavWavaZis TxzulebaTa kompoziciuri Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswineba imis garkvevasac gulisxmobs, Tu rogor mTxrobelTan gvaqvs saqme misi saxiT. ilia WavWavaZe, rogorc amboben, faqtebis mweralia, magram igi faqtis doneze arasdros ar rCeba. igi am faqtebs saguldagulod aanalizebs. ilia WavWavaZe -- mTxrobeli -- yovelTvis Cans Tavis nawarmoebebSi. igi Tavdapirvelad yovelTvis gvamzadebs ambisaTvis. mkiTxvelsa da ambavs Soris garkveuli manZili arsebobs, am manZilis arseboba mwerals aucileblobad miaCnia. ilia mkiTxvels uSualod gadasawyvetad ar utovebs sakiTxs, TviTon warmarTavs mkiTxvelis fiqrTa dinebas. ilia ara marto aRwers Tavisi gmirebis qcevebsa da moqmedebebs, aramed gansjis kidec. igi srul kmayofilebas, rogorc xelovani, maSin aRwevs, roca Tavis mimarTebas gamoxatavs. ilia msjavrmdebeli xelovania. amdenad aris gasagebi ilia WavWavaZe satirikosi da moralisti. roca ilia WavWavaZis Txzulebebs vkiTxulobT, Cven yovelTvis vgrZnobT sityvis uCveulo Zalas. ZarRviania da gamZlea ilias sityva. frazis siaxlisa da sinedlis gancda ar gvtovebs ilias kiTxvisas. sruliad Cveulebrivi sityvebic ki masTan uCveulo konteqstSi eqcevian da axlebur sicocxles, axlebur Sinaarss iZenen. es garemoeba ki ilias did niWzec miuTiTebs, frazis grZnobazec da mis did pirovnul Zalazec.

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ilia WavWavaZis publicistika. SeuZlebelia ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebaze raime garkveuli warmodgenis Seqmna misi mdidari publicisturi memkvidreobis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. arc erTi mxatvruli qmnileba rom ar daewera ilia WavWavaZes, igi mainc darCeboda qarTul literaturaSi, rogorc didi mwerali, didi reformatori qarTuli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisa, axali qarTuli saliteraturo enisa. mxatvruli Semoqmedeba, rogorc aRiniSna, mxolod erTi ubania ilias SemousazRvreli memkvidreobisa. meore did ubans warmoadgens Rrma filosofiursocioligiuri, socialur-ekonomikuri, literaturul-esTetikuri, iurisprudenciuli, istoriuli... interesebiT gamsWvaluli peblicistika. rogorc amboben, ar darCenila marTlac arc erTi ubani qarTuli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisa, qarTveli xalxis sazrunavisa da satkivarisa, romelsac ilias publicisturi kalami ar Sexebodes da Tavisi arsebiTi sityva ar eTqvas. cnobilia, rom publicistikas literaturis sxva gvarTagan gamoarCevs Tanamedroveobis mtkivneuli, aqtualuri sakiTxebiT daintereseba. am azriT, publicistika yvelaze TvalnaTliv uCvenebs garkveuli drois, epoqis, momentis moTxovnebsa da sazrunavs. publicistika, rogorc miuTiTeben, am azriT Tanadroulobis istorias warmoadgens. publicistikis umTavres amocanas ki Seadgens sazogadoebriv azrze, sazogadoebriv cxovrebaze uSualo da pirdapiri zemoqmedebis moxdena. garda amisa, `WeSmariti publicistikis qmediTi Zala Seudareblad ufro Zlieria da efeqturi sazogadoebrivi cnobierebis asamaRleblad, vidre azrovnebis raginda ra sxva formisa~ (i. evgeniZe). rogorc istoria gviCvenebs, publicisturi literaturis gansakuTrebuli gamococxleba, wina planze wamosvla iseT epoqebSi xdeba, rodesac sazogadoeba didi kataklizmebis, gaWirvebis, an aRmavlobis gzaze dgeba. XIX saukuneSi, Cveni qveynisaTvis garkveulad mZime pirobebSi, roca qveyanas uSualod daemuqra erovnuli gadagvarebisa da dacemis safrTxe, swored publicistika aRmoCnda literaturis is ubani, romelic didma mwerlebma, didma mamuliSvilebma eris mtkivneul sasicocxlo sakiTxebze msjelobisas eris gamosafxizleblad, sazogadoebriv cxovrebaze zemoqmedebis mosaxdenad gamoiyenes. amgvari viTarebiTac iyo dapirobebuli, rom SemoqmedebiTi simwifis asakSi myofma iliam sruliad Segnebulad uari Tqva mxatvrul Semoqmedebaze da mTlianad publicistikas mimarTa. qveynis moWirnaxules da did moralists miaCnda, rom swored publicisturi sityva iyo im qmediTi Zalis mqone, rac axla qarTveli eris Rirsebebis dacvis saqmes sWirdeboda. rogorc ukve aRniSnulia, `ilias erTi didi damsaxureba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom qarTul sinamdvileSi man Cauyara mtkice safuZveli publicistikas -- am sityvis farTo da saukeTeso gagebiT. marTlacda, ilia WavWavaZemde Cven ver davasaxelebT verc erT moRvawes, romlis statiebsa da gamosvlebs ase Tu ise TvalsaCino kvali daetovebinos Cveni mwerlobis am dargis ganviTarebaSi. publicistikas ilia WavWavaZem moupova sruli moqalaqeobrivi ufleba qarTul mwerlobaSi da manve aiyvana igi iseT simaRleze, romelsac ver wvdeba da ver Seedreba verc erTi publicisturi gamosvla mTeli XIX saukunis manZilze~.1 miuTiTeben, rom publicistika yovelTvis aris an faruli an Ria brZola garkveuli poziciis, mosazrebis dasamkvidreblad. amdenad, publicistikisaTvis niSandoblivia tendenciis pirdapiri gamoxatva, polemikuri xasiaTi. ilia WavWavaZe Cvens sinamdvileSi iyo nimuSi mebrZoli publicistisa. ilias publicisturi sityvis udidesi Zala azris erTob naTlad gamoxatvaSi mdgomareobs. ilia wvdeba mowinaaRmdegis azris arsebiT mxares da Seuvali logikiT TandaTanobiT gamok1

g r . k i k n a Z e , qarTuli satirisa da iumoris ganviTarebis istoriisaTvis, 1972, gv. 308.

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veTs mis srul usafuZvlobas, uazrobas. xSirad ilias midgoma satirulia gansaqiqebeli obieqtisadmi, am dros mis SesaZleblobebs sazRvari ara aqvs. gansakuTrebiT niSandoblivia misTvis gakicxvis ironiuli gza. ilia marjved iyenebs cnobil xalxur gamoTqmebs, andazebs, cnobil gavrcelebul striqonebs mxatvruli nawarmoebebidan da maT iseT konteqstSi aqcevs, rom sruliad axlebur Sinaarss aniWebs... ilia WavWavaZis publicisturi sityva gansakuTrebiT mZafria, roca igi Cveni qveynis Rirsebas icavs gareSe Tu Sinauri mtrebisagan, roca ilia Tavs esxmis Cveni istoriis gamyalbeblebs, icavs qarTveli xalxis wmidaTawmidas, erovnul saunjes -- qarTul enas, mis uflebebs. gansakuTrebiT iCina Tavi ilias publicisturma SemarTebam rusifikatoruli politikis Semotevis Jams -- 80-90-ian wlebSi, roca araTu qarTuli ena gamoacxades kanonis gareSe, aramed sityva `saqarTvelos~ xmarebac ki akrZales. aseT mZime pirobebSi ambobda ilia gadamwyvet sityvas. ilia Tavganwiruli mebrZoli iyo. marTalia, am brZolaSi ilias ar aklda sifrTxile da taqti, magram sifrTxile momdinareobda erovnuli saqveyno saqmis interesebidan -- TviTon saqveyno saqme ar dazianebuliyo aCqarebuli mouzomeli nabijiT -- ai, ra azriT xelmZRvanelobda ilia. ilia brZolaSi Seupovari iyo. igi Cveni qveynis mtrebis mimarT daundobeli iyo da pirgamexebuli. bevria amisi magaliTebi, romelTagan gansakuTrebiT gamoyofen ilias galaSqrebas reaqciuli gazeTis `moskovskie vedomostis~ redaqtor katkovis winaaRmdeg, roca am gazeTSi eris abuCad amgdebi statia daibeWda; statia, romelSiac daufaravad iyo gamJRavnebuli zizRi Cveni xalxis, Cveni qveynis warsulis mimarT. saqme is iyo, rom qarTul TeatrSi daidga d. erisTavis drama `samSoblo~. patriotulma warmodgenam xalxi aRtacebaSi moiyvana, metadre maSin, roca scenaze qarTuli droSa gaSales. es ambavi myisve acnobes moskovSi katkovs da isic maSinve amxedrda. misi gazeTi Tavxedurad urCevda qarTvelebs -- miatoveT Tqveni sizmrebi, Tavi daanebeT bodvas da rotvas raRac warsulze. rac Seexeba Tqvens droSebs, girCevT axlave CaabaroT godfruas cirks, iq jambazebi da takimasxarebi ukeT gamoiyeneben, vidre Tqveni Teatrio. iliam Cveuli simZlavriT da simZafriT gasca pasuxi katkovs. marTalia, znedacemul katkovs ver moarjulebda ilias mrisxane pasuxi, magram, i. mansvetaSvilisa ar iyos, qarTvels ki imedi Caunerga, agrZnobina, rom gaWirvebaSi marto ar iyo, rom mas hyavda eris gambedavi winamZRoli. aseve iyo maSinac, roca qarTveli enis dauZinebelma mterma, ganaTlebis mzrunvelma ianovskim ganizraxa, skolebSi qarTuli enis swavleba moespo. qarTvelebma maSinac ilias miapyres Tvali. ilia WavWavaZem saqmis mTeli arsis gaTvaliswinebiT, didZali pedagogiuri literaturis damuSavebisa da gaazrebis safuZvelze dawera iseTi werili, rom TviT specialistebic ki gaakvirva. ilia WavWavaZe yvelas ar Tvlida pasuxis gacemis Rirsad. iliasTan polemikis, misi gakenwvlis mosurne bevri ireoda mis garSemo, magram igi xmis amaRlebas mxolod maSin CaTvlida saWirod, Tu metoqe angariSSi Casagdebi iyo da sakiTxic sazogadoebrivs, erovnuls Seexeboda, erovnuli Rirseba Tu ilaxeboda nebsiT Tu uneblieT. ilia sagangebod awon-dawonida, gansjida sakiTxs da mxolod amis Semdeg daeZgereboda mowinaaRmdeges. igi Rrmad iyo darwmunebuli Tavis simarTleSi da amitomac iyo udreki da uSiSari. rogorc iTqva, publicistika Tanadroulobis problemebiTaa gamsWvaluli; amdenad, igi mainc lokalur drosTan da garemoebebTan aris mijaWvuli da garkveuli drois gasvlis Semdeg Tavis fersa da elvarebas kargavs, radgan Zveldeba masSi dasmuli problemebi da, bolos da bolos, literaturis istorikosis interesis obieqtiRa rCeba. TiTqos ilia WavWavaZis publicistikac am ulmobel kanon76

zomierebas unda daqvemdebareboda, TiTqos drois msaxvral xels misTvisac unda waerTmia Tavdapirveli aqtualoba, magram es ar moxda... da imitomac, rom ilias publicistika yvelaze TvalnaTliv gviTvaliswinebs XIXs. saqarTvelos sazrunavsa da safiqrals. am azriT, ilias publicistika aris mecxramete saukunis donis gamomxatveli. mas arc sadReisod mohklebia aqtualoba da ara marto imitom, rom ilias droindeli bevri satkivari isev sazrunavad da satkivarad rCeba saqarTvelos, aramed imitomac, rom ilias problematika Cveni qveynis, eris sasicocxlo amocanebs ukavSirdeba da momavlis safiqralsac gviTvaliswinebs. yvela droSi mimarTaven ilias naazrevs; yovelTvis eqneba did ilias uaRresad sagulisxmo saTqmeli gulisyurmipyrobili qarTveli mkiTxvelisa da aramarto qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis.

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akaki wereTeli (1840-1915)

akaki wereTeli axali qarTuli literaturis udidesi warmomadgenelia. man Seqmna Seudarebeli mxatvruli Sedevrebi lirikis, eposisa da dramaturgiis dargSi. masve ekuTvnis brwyinvale narkvevebi, feletonebi, memuarebi, publicistur-kritikuli werilebi, statiebi literaturismcodneobis, Teatris, istoriis, xalxuri Semoqmedebis, qarTuli enis, swavla-aRzrdisa da sxva sakiTxebze. Tavis umdidres SemoqmedebaSi akaki wereTelma gamoxata epoqis mowinave ideebi, xalxis saukeTeso fiqrebi, miswrafebebi, mebrZoli suliskveTeba da momavlis mtkice rwmena. poetis mTeli mxatvruli memkvidreoba STagonebulia xalxis saukeTeso idealebiT. SoTa rusTavelis Semdeg TiTqmis arc erT qarTvel poets ar Rirsebia iseTi Zlieri siyvaruli da sxivmosili popularoba, rogoric, ilia WavWavaZesTan erTad, wilad xvda akaki wereTels. akakim iliasTan erTad XIX s. meore naxevris qarTul literaturaSi erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli brZola daukavSira mSromelTa ganTavisuflebis ideas. akaki wereTlis Semoqmedeba xasiaTdeba mebrZoli patriotizmiT. poeti daundoblad ebrZoda crupatriotebs, Sovinistebs da umReroda xalxTa Soris megobrobas da siyvaruls. akakis rwmeniT, adamianma yvelaferi, TviT sicocxlec ki unda Seswiros samSoblos. `vinc mamuls sulsac ar swiravs, imas ar hqvia mamuliSvili~, qveynisTvis Tavganwiruli gmiri ukvdavia, igi `sikvdilSi poebs sicocxles da is iqneba TviT ukvdaveba~ -- werda akaki. ganuzomelia akakis damsaxureba axali qarTuli literaturis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. Tavisi mowinave SexedulebebiT man, iliasTan erTad, mtkice safuZveli Cauyara Semdgomi periodis qarTuli literaturis ganviTarebas. akakisa da ilias saxelTanaa dakavSirebuli saerToerovnuli axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTareba, qarTul literaturaSi kritikuli realizmis damkvidreba. akaki wereTelma aamaRla qarTuli mxatvruli sityva, ganaviTara poeturi gamosaxvis formebi. man sabolood daamkvidra xalxisaTvis gasagebi, misawvdomi, namdvili saxalxo mwerloba, romelsac axasiaTebs naTeli, gamWvirvale saxeebi, klasikuri sisadave, Rrma ideuroba, maRali ostatoba. SemoqmedebiT muSaobas poeti nayofierad uTavsebda udides sazogadoebriv-saxalxo moRvaweobas. ar yofila CvenSi arc erTi sayuradRebo amocana, romlis gadawyvetaSi akakis aqtiuri, xelmZRvaneli monawileoba ar mieRos.

cxovreba da moRvaweoba

akaki wereTeli daibada 1840 wels, 9 (21) ivniss zemo imereTis erT-erT ulamazes sofel sxvitorSi, saCxeris maxloblad. am soflis Sesaxeb TviTon poeti wers: `sofeli sxvitori daba saCxeris nawilia da mdebareobs mdinare Cixuris pirad, gaRma-gamoRma gorakebze~. am kekluc sofels dahyurebs maRal kldeze age-

buli Zveli cixe `modinaxe~, romelic akakis daxasiaTebiT, `cixeT-cixe, amayi cixea~, mtrebis winaaRmdeg qarTveli xalxis gmiruli brZolebisa da mravali mware droebis mowme. STamomavlobiT akaki warCinebul feodalTa gvareulobas ekuTvnoda. wereTlebi cnobili Tavadebi iyvnen. saqarTvelos saistorio wyaroebsa da mxatvrul literaturaSi xSirad gvxvdeba am gvaris gamoCenil pirTa saxelebi. cnobilia wereTelTa saCxerisa da sxvitoris Sto. akakis mama -- rostom rostomis Ze wereTeli sxvitoreli wereTlebis STamomavali iyo, erTaderTi memkvidre Tavisi mSoblebisa. mamis adre gardacvalebis gamo saTanado swavla-ganaTleba ver miuRia. dediserTa oboli bavSvi mometebulad Sin izrdeboda da ZiriTadad Sinauri swavla-ganaTlebiT dakmayofilebula. rostom wereTeli sakmaod Wkviani, gonebamaxvili da moswrebuli mosaubre yofila, Wadrakis kargi moTamaSe. akaki igonebs: `mamaCemi, Zlieri gonebis kaci iyo, moswrebuli da enamWevri, Tumca ki xSirad enamwarec. dedaCemi ityoda xolme: `am Cems Svilebs mamamisis ena gamohyvaT daxurdavebulio~. rostomi ojaxis saqmeebSi ar ereoda. miuxedavad misi axirebulobisa da gulficxi xasiaTisa, sasaxleSi is qalbatonze ufro hyvarebiaT. gareSeebic siyvaruliT eqceodnen Turme rostoms da `mTavrobac did pativsa scemda~. akakis deda -- ekaterine iyo cnobili feodalis ivane abaSiZis asuli. man mTeli sicocxle qmar-Svilis erTgulebas Sealia. ekaterine metad gamrje, bejiTi, Wkviani da Sromismoyvare adamiani yofila. ojaxis mTel saqmes is ganagebda. dilidan saRamomde gamudmebiT Sromobda. ekaterines didi Rvawli miuZRvis Svilebisa da, kerZod, akakis gonivrul aRzrdaSi. igi ar anebivrebda Svilebs xSiri alersiTa da xvevna-kocniT. ekaterine didad dainteresebuli yofila qarTuli literaturiT. igi student Svils avalebda axali wignebis gamogzavnas. akaki mTeli sicocxlis manZilze saTuTad atarebda dedisadmi Rrma pativiscemasa da usazRvro siyvarulis grZnobas. Zveli Cveulebis Tanaxmad, patara akaki aRsazrdelad ZiZas miabares maxlobel sofel savaneSi. aq izrdeboda akaki ZiZis, glexis qalis, farsadan yanCavelis meuRlis -- mano saduniSvilis ojaxSi. glexis ojaxSi gabarebam udidesi roli Seasrula momavali poetis fizikur, zneobriv aRzrdasa da gonebriv ganviTarebaze. savaneSi akaki mTel dReebs atarebda glexebTan yanebSi, tyeSi saqonlis movlaSi. akaki Zlier afasebda soflad glexis ojaxSi mSromelTa SvilebTan gatarebul cxovrebas, laRi bunebis wiaRSi `pirveli Skolis gavlas.~ `ar SemiZlia ar gamovtyde, rom Tu ki ram darCa CemSi keTili da kargi, ufro imis wyalobiT, rom me sofelSi viyavi gabarebuli da glexebis SvilebTan erTad vizrdebodi.~ eqvsi wlis akaki mSoblebma ZiZas moaSores da mamis saxlSi daabrunes. sasaxleSi akakis sruliad axali cxovreba unda daewyo. savaneSi glexis biWebTan cxovrebas miCveul bavSvs sasaxleSi Tavdapirvelad moswyinda. dedam bavSvs glexis biWebi miuCina gasarTobad. patara akaki dedis meTvalyureobiT aqac glexis biWebTan atarebda dros. ufrosma dam, anam, patara akakis Seaswavla qarTuli wera-kiTxva. bavSvi xarbad daewafa qarTuli wignebis kiTxvas, mas ramdenjerme gadaukiTxavs `vefxistyaosani.~ 1850 wels akaki quTaisis gimnaziaSi miabares. maSindeli gimnaziebis mizans ruseTis imperiis erTguli qveSevrdomebis aRzrda Seadgenda. saswavlebelSi gamefebuli iyo fizikuri dasja, dasmena, mliqvneloba da saswavlo masalis uazro, meqanikuri dazepireba. akakize mZime STabeWdileba moaxdina saswavleblis cxovrebam. miuxedavad amisa, akaki, rogorc gamorCeuli niWis axalgazrda, bejiTad swavlobda da klasidan klasSi qebis furclebiTa da sxvadasxva jildoTi gadadioda.

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gimnaziis meSvide, damamTavrebel klasSi yofnisas akakim gadawyvita saswavleblidan gamosvla da samxedro saswavlebelSi Sesvla. es azri poetma miiRo misi sayvareli maswavleblis, poloneli rodzieviCis gavleniT. rodzieviCs akakisTvis gaucvnia didi poloneli klasikosis, adam mickeviCis poemis Tavganwiruli gmiri -- konrad valenrodi da misi saarako ambavi. konradi mtris banakSi gadavida, daeufla samxedro saqmes, uebro mxneobiT da gmirobiT maTi ndoba daimsaxura da xelT igdo mTavarsardloba da, bolos, moxerxebulad gamoiyena Tavisi mdgomareoba -- Suri iZia mterze da misi jarebi gaanadgura, samSoblos ki Tavisufleba moupova. akaki gaitaca samxedro samsaxurSi Sesvlis survilma da valenrodiviT Tavisi qveynis daxsnis mizanma. mamam Svils samxedro saswavlebelSi Sesvlis ganzraxva mouwona da akakimac gimnaziis daumTavreblad peterburgs miaSura, sadac samxedro samsaxurSi imyofeboda misi Zma iliko. peterburgis qarTvel studentTa zegavleniT da gamoCenili qarTveli mecnieris general petre bagrationis rCeviT, akakim gulidan amoiRo adrindeli ganzraxva da sabolood gadawyvita universitetSi Sesvla. igi Tavisufal msmenelad Cairicxa peterburgis universitetis aRmosavlur enaTa fakultetze. am periodSi peterburgis universitetsa da sxva umaRles saswavleblebSi ramdenime aTeuli qarTveli studenti swavlobda, maT Soris ilia WavWavaZe, niko RoRoberiZe, besarion RoRoberiZe da sxv. erTi wlis Semdeg peterburgSi Cavida akakis siyrmis megobari kirile lorTqifaniZe, xolo 1861 wels qarTvel studentTa wres Seematnen niko nikolaZe, giorgi wereTeli da sxv. qarTvel studentTa meTauri da ideuri xelmZRvaneli ilia WavWavaZe iyo. studentobis wlebSi akaki energiulad mecadineobda. 1861 wels peterburgSi daiwyo studentTa gamosvlebi. am moZraobaSi monawileobas iRebda qarTveli studentobis mowinave jgufi. bevri maTgani daapatimres. kerZod, n. nikolaZe, k.lorTqifaniZe, g. wereTeli, b.RoRoberiZe da sxv. sapatimrodan ganTavisuflebis Semdeg zog maTgans aukrZales peterburgSi cxovreba, maT Soris n. nikolaZes. peterburgSi aralegalurad mcxovreb n. nikolaZes TavSesafari akaki wereTelma misca. peterburgis periodi metad nayofieri aRmoCnda akakis safuZvliani ganaTlebis, erovnuli TvalTaxedvis ganmtkicebis da poeturi kulturis amaRlebis saqmeSi. akaki pirdapir damswre iyo ruseTis mowinave moazrovneTa gamosvlebisa, azrTa mZafri Widilisa, romelsac 60-ian wlebSi adgili hqonda peterburgSi. akaki wereTlis ideuri da politikuri kulturis Semdgomi ganviTarebis saqmeSi garkveuli roli Seasrula peterburgis mowinave qarTvel studentTa literaturul SemoqmedebiTma wrem. studentebis am wreSi poeti xSirad kiTxulobda Tavis nawarmoebebs. 1862 wels akakim daamTavra sauniversiteto kursi da waradgina sakandidato Sroma, dRevandeli gagebiT sadiplomo Sroma, `vefxistyaosnis~ originalobis Sesaxeb. universitetma moiwona es naSromi, magram akakim ver waradgina gimnaziis damTavrebis mowmoba, ris gamo man verc universitetis damTavrebis diplomi miiRo. akaki daqorwinda moskovSi da amis Semdeg dabrunda samSobloSi da Seudga metad rTul da nayofier sazogadoebriv da SemoqmedebiT muSaobas. eris interesebisaTvis mebrZolma poetma iaraRad kalami moimarjva da pirdapir daudga aboboqrebul cxovrebas. poeti ar daTanxmda Sesuliyo iseT samsaxurSic ki, romelsac cnobili qarTveli moRvaweebic ar gaurbodnen. magaliTad, erT dros quTaisis saadgilmamulo bankis sazogado krebam akakis erTxmad SeaZlia bankis direqtoroba, magram poetma kategoriuli uari ganacxada am erTgvarad sapatio Tanamdebobis dakavebaze. madlobis Semdeg krebas Tavisi uari Semdegnairad dausabuTa: `me rom di80

reqtoroba vikisro, sakuTrad me moxeleobas unda daudva guli da eg iqneba CemTvis borkili. Tumca oqros borkili CemTvis piradad sasargebloa, magram mainc borkilia da im saqmeSi xelisSemSleli, romelsac me amdeni xani vemsaxurebi~. akaki wereTeli samudamod darCa profesiul poetad. arsad samsaxurSi ar Sesula. mTeli sicocxle erovnuli Cagvrisagan samSoblos ganTavisuflebas da socialuri usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolas Seswira. da, marTlac, akaki friad nayofier SemoqmedebiT muSaobasTan erTad udides sazogadoebriv da kulturul moRvaweobas eweoda. ar darCenila CvenSi im dros arc erTi RirsSesaniSnavi Tu naklebad mniSvnelovani saqme, romelSic Tavisi mniSvnelovani wvlili sityviT Tu saqmiT ar Seetanos: akakim uaRresad principuli brZola Caatara cxovrebis konservatuli formebis da Zveli yofis winaaRmdeg. am SemTxvevaSi igi gverdiT edga meore did samocianels -- ilia WavWavaZes. man didi da nayofieri muSaoba gaswia mTel rig kulturul-saganmanaTlebo dawesebulebaTa dafuZnebisa da ganviTarebis saqmeSi. akaki wereTels didi Rvawli miuZRvis axali qarTuli realisturi Teatris ganaxlebasa da ganviTarebaSi. rusuli mmarTveloba yovelmxriv aviwroebda qarTul kulturul-saganmanaTleblo da saswavlo-saaRmzrdelo dawesebulebebs, maT Soris Teatrsac, romelsac ar hqonda sakuTari Senoba, saTeatro mowyobiloba, ar hyavda msaxiob-reJisorTa da dramaturgTa kadrebi. Tavis mogonebaSi poeti werda: `erTxel ilia Semovida CemTan da miTxra: daviRupeTo!... Teatri xelidan gamogvacales da ase kargad dawyebuli saqme unda SevaCeroT am sezonSi da es xom daRupvaao!... mec Cemi guldawyveta gamovucxade. mere momibrunda da miTxra, modi erTi Sen mohkide xeli am saqmeso~... ilias winadadebiT akakim ikisra dasis direqtoroba, samxatvro nawilis xelmZRvaneloba. daiqirava Senoba, Semoikriba msaxiobebi da gamarTa warmodgenebi. Semdeg wels iliasa da akakis iniciativiT daarsda `qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoeba~, romelic mravali wlis manZilze xelmZRvanelobasa da materialur daxmarebas uwevda qarTul Teatrs. akaki am sazogadoebis gamgeobis Tavmjdomaris moadgiled airCies (Tavmjdomare ilia WavWavaZe iyo). akakis daxmarebiT qarTul scenas SeeZina mravali RirsSesaniSnavi moRvawe, maT Soris gamoCenili msaxiobi mariam safarova, qarTuli Teatris reformatori kote marjaniSvili da sxvebi. Tavisi mravali dramatuli TxzulebiT akakim gaamdidra Teatris repertuari da qarTuli literatura. gansakuTrebiT nayofieri muSaoba gaswia akaki wereTelma qarTuli perioduli presis ganviTarebis saqmeSi. poetis energiuli mxardaWeriT da monawileobiT daarsda im dros TiTqmis yvela Jurnal-gazeTi. akaki Tavisi SesaniSnavi mxatvruli produqciiT, feletonebiT, publicisturi werilebiT, xalxuri Semoqmedebis nimuSebiTa da istoriul-literaturuli narkvevebiT asazrdoebda qarTul presas. poeti TanamSromlobda iseT organoebSi, rogoric iyo: `ciskari~, `droeba~, `krebuli~, `iveria~, `Temi~, `kvali~, `jejili~, `Teatri~ da sxv. scemda Tavis sakuTar Jurnals -- `akakis Tviuri krebuli~. akaki wereTelma axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis ganviTarebis, srulyofisa da damkvidrebis istoriul saqmeSi didi roli Seasrula. poeti Rrma principulobiTa da TavdadebiT ibrZoda uniWobis moZalebis winaaRmdeg literaturaSi, xalxisaTvis gasagebi, saerTo erovnuli literaturuli enis ganviTarebisa da dacvisaTvis. akaki wereTels saWirod miaCnda qarTuli literaturuli enis Sevseba, misi gamdidreba saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi Semonaxuli sityvebiT da gamoTqmebiT, magram im pirobiT, Tu aseTi enobrivi masala deda enis kanonebis Tanaxmad iqneboda aRmocenebuli da mSobliuri enis bunebriv, kanonzomier ganviTarebas

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xels Seuwyobda. amasTanave, akaki gabedulad icavda mSobliur enas rusifikatoruli politikis mkacri Semotevisagan. poets Rrmad swamda, rom

`enaSi aris Zalac saidumlo gonebis! vinc dahkargavs, gaxdeba wera sxvisi monebis~.

akaki wereTels yovelTvis izidavda xalxuri Semoqmedeba. mTeli sicocxlis manZilze igi dauRalavad iRvwoda xalxuri sityvierebis Segrovebisa, Seswavlisa da gamocemisaTvis. `zepirsityvaoba, -- werda poeti, aris sarke Cvenis warsulis, rogorc xorcielis, ise sulieris cxovrebisa. imis dakargva, daviwyeba Cveni sikvdilia da Tu sikvdili ar gvinda, unda male miveSveloT da SevagrovoT... da bevrs margalits SeviZenT saSviliSvilod xelixel sagogmanebels~. akakis iniciativiT daarsda folkloris Seswavlis specialuri fondi. garda amisa, Tavis JurnalSi -- `akakis Tviuri krebuli~ -- man pirveli adgili folkloris beWdvas dauTmo. akaki wereTeli iyo erT-erTi iniciatori `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis~ daarsebisa, `qarTuli wignis gamomcemelTa amxanagobis~ da sxva kulturul-saganmanaTleblo sazogadoebaTa Seqmnisa. poeti bevrs muSaobda `vefxistyaosnis~ saredaqcio komisiaSi. akaki metad did da nayofier muSaobas eweoda sajaro leqciebisa da saliteraturo saRamoebis CatarebaSi. akaki xalxis sayvareli leqtori, mxatvruli, gamometyvelebiTi kiTxvis didi ostati da literaturuli saRamoebis mSveneba iyo. akaki sistematurad mogzaurobda saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi, qalaqebsa da soflebSi, safuZvlianad swavlobda xalxis cxovrebas, mis miswrafebebs. akaki qarTlis, kaxeTis, samegrelos, afxazeTis, guriisa da sxva kuTxeebis xSiri stumari iyo. poetma triumfaluri mogzauroba Caatara raWa-leCxumSi da erTxel ewvia svaneTsac. 1908 wlis dekemberSi qarTvelma xalxma didi zeimiT gadaixada sayvareli poetis samwerlo-sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis ormocdaaTi wlis iubile. akaki wereTlis saxelovani moRvaweobis iubile saxalxo dResaswaulis niSniT Catarda da ruseTis kolonialuri politikis winaaRmdeg protestis demonstraciad gadaiqca. TbilisSi zeimze saqarTvelos yoveli kuTxidan Camovidnen delegaciebi. zeimSi monawileoba miiRes sxva xalxebis warmomadgenlebma. sayovelTao aRtaceba gamoiwvia scenaze didi vaJas gamoCenam da misma momxibvlelma leqsma, romelic ase bolovdeboda:

`madlobeli var guliTa, SoTais sulis lxenama, samSoblos samsaxurisTvis Cangi gikurTxos zenama~.

akakis saiubileo saRamoebi saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela qalaqsa da sofelSi Catarda. didi sazeimo saRamoebi gaimarTa baqoSi, moskovsa da peterburgSi. bolo dros akaki avadmyofobda. 1909 wels igi samkurnalod gaemarTa parizSi. parizis gazeTebma gulTbili werilebi uZRvnes didebul qarTvel poets da misi samSoblos gmirul istorias. safrangeTidan dabrunebuli akaki peterburgsa da moskovSi imyofeboda da ruseTis orive did qalaqSi mas sagangebo Sexvedrebi mouwyves. 1914 wlis bolos akakis dambla daeca. mis sanaxavad sxvitorSi sistematurad modiodnen qarTveli sazogadoebis mowinave warmomadgenlebi. 1915 wlis 25 ianvars avadmyofs kvlav Caeqca sisxli tvinSi da Ramis pirvel saaTze akaki garda82

icvala. qarTvelma xalxma sayvareli poeti uRrmesi mwuxarebiTa da pativiscemiT waasvena sxvitoridan Tbiliss da didi gloviT dakrZala mTawmindaze qarTvel mweralTa da moRvaweTa panTeonSi.

akaki literaturisa da xelovnebis Sesaxeb . akaki wereTeli esTetikis Teoretikosi ar yofila, magram werilebSi, recenziebSi, mxatvrul Semoqmedebasa da sxva saxis nawerebSi araerTxel gauSuqebia da Camouyalibebia Tavisi esTetikur-literaturuli Sexedulebani; gamouTqvams sayuradRebo mosazrebani mwerlisa da mwerlobis daniSnulebis, misi mniSvnelobis, xasiaTis, mimarTulebis, specifikisa da ideur-mxatvruli Rirsebis Sesaxeb. akakis kritikulma werilebma, recenziebma, calkeulma statiebma, mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi gamoTqmulma Sexedulebebma da uaRresad mdidarma SemoqmedebiTma moRvaweobam udidesi roli Seasrula gasuli saukunis meore naxevarSi qarTuli esTetikuri azrovnebis ganviTarebisa da kritikuli realizmis damkvidrebis did istoriul saqmeSi. qarTuli literaturis Tavisebureba gasuli saukunis 60-ian wlebSi ganapiroba erovnuli da socialuri Cagvrisagan qveynis ganTavisuflebisaTvis brZolis istoriulma procesebma. samSoblos siyvarulma, adamianis daCagrulma mdgomareobam, `mTa-barobam uswormasworo cxovrebisa~, mSromelTa idealebis, maTi `sanatrebisa~ da miswrafebebis, maTi glovisa da sixarulis, Wirisa da lxinis, Zulebisa da siyvarulis aSkarad danaxvam da saxeobrivma gamoxatvam farTo gasaqani pova realistur mxatvrul mwerlobaSi, xelovnebasa da publicistikaSi, gamoiwvia qveynis samsaxurSi Cadgomis Zlieri miswrafeba, rameTu, samocianelTa azriT, xalxia cxovrebis mamoZravebeli Zala, fesvi erovnebisa, fuZe qveynisa da erovnebis didebisa. amitom aRiarebul iqna mwerlobis Rrma moqalaqeobrivi da mebrZoli xalxurobiT STagonebuli paTosi. am periodSi gansakuTrebiT gamdidrda da gamravalferovnda literaturisa da xelovnebis Tematika, sinamdvilis asaxva daiwyes Rrma ideuri, revoluciur-demokratiuli TvalsazrisiT. qarTvel samocianelTa SemoqmedebaSi erovnuli da socialuri motivebis urTierTmWidro kavSirSi, koloniuri Cagvris gamwvavebis gamo, farTod aisaxa nacionalur-ganmaTavisuflebuli brZolis motivi, koloniuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZolis paTosi, samSoblos siyvarulisa da mebrZoli patriotizmis suliskveTeba. es STagoneba samocianelTa TviTmyobadi Tvisebaa, maTi esTetikuri mrwamsis ganxorcielebis qvakuTxedia. demokratiulma, mebrZolma, WeSmaritad patriotulma idealebma ganapiroba mxatvruli literaturis Rrma ideuroba, aamaRla misi sazogadoebrivi da politikuri funqcia. amis gamoa, rom samocianel moRvaweebs mwerloba did saxalxo, qmediT Zalad miaCndaT. erovnuli da socialuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZolaSi akaki wereTeli mTavar iaraRad mwerlobas Tvlida. igi aRiarebda poeziis sabrZolo paToss: `kilo Cemis mwerlobisa, -- acxadebda akaki, -- sul sxvagvari iqneba: iseTs, iseTs davyef, rom kurdRlebi CirgvebSi akankaldnen da mxecebi soroebidan gamoviyvano. gamoval RreniT Saragzazed da vinc Rirsi iqneba, kunTebs gamovglej... vici, bevrjer mesvrian qvas... bevrjerac damitataneben, magram me mainc, sanam cocxali viqnebi, Cemsas ar moviSli: patara xel-fexis mslaqvel finiasaviT sxvis kalTaSi Tbilad wolas da nebivrobas Sara-gzazed yefis dros sikvdili mirCevnia.~ akaki wereTeli sazogado moRvawisagan, mwerlisagan moiTxovda SekavSirebuli ZaliT brZolas qveynis keTildReobisaTvis. am brZolaSi igi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebda simarTlis mqadagebel mebrZol mxatvrul sityvas. akaki wereTeli mwerals upirveles amocanad usaxavda sazogado saqmeze weras, xalxis interesebis gamoxatvas da ara kerZo, sapirado xasiaTis sakiTxebi83

sadmi gamodevnebas. `is rom vTqvaT, -- werda akaki, -- romelime mazris ufrosi anu msajuli ras sWams, ras svams, ras icvams an ras ixuravs, es, rasakvirvelia, kerZo saqme iqneba, magram Tu ki isini sxvas staceben lukmas da ise sWamen, xalxs atyaveben da miT tans imosaven, amazed rom xma amoviRoT, es sazogado saqme iqneba da ara sapirado da arc gvmarTebs morideba~. akaki sazogado moRvawisagan moiTxovda Seupovarsa da piruTvnel moqmedebas, simarTlisaTvis Tavdadebas, msxverplis gaRebas. akaki, rogorc TviTmyofadi xelovani, sxva qveynis moazrovneTa Sexedulebebs kritikulad swavlobda da SemoqmedebiTad iyenebda Tavis mdidar da mravalferovan SemoqmedebaSi. poeti gmobda brma mimbaZvelobas, literaturasa da xelovnebaSi sxvaTa azrebisa da tradiciebis uniadago wamxedurobiT gadmotanas, erovnuli cxovrebisagan mowyvetil literaturasa da xelovnebas. misi azriT, nasesxebi Tu originaluri ideebi da poeturi qmnilebani `mSobliuri xalxis darjakSi~ unda iyos gatarebuli, mwerlis mier Rrmad Sesisxlxorcebuli, sakuTar poetur quraSi gamowrTobili, sakuTari grZnoba-gonebiT awonili, sakuTari sisxliT nasazrdoebi da gazrdili. uamisod akakis SeuZleblad miaCnda namdvilad TviTmyofadi erovnuli da sakacobrio mniSvnelobis literaturisa da xelovnebis WeSmariti ganviTareba.1 akaki, rogorc TviTon acxadebda, gmobda `wminda xelovnebas~ da masTan erTad xelovnebis uarmyofel nihilistebs. akakis Sua gza hqonda arCeuli. yvelaze koloritulad Tavisi adrindeli esTetikuri Sexedulebani axalgazrda akakim gamoTqva 1865 wels `ciskarSi~ dabeWdil recenziaSi `raodenime sityva `Canguris~ Sesaxeb~, romelic kirile lorTqifaniZis mier peterburgSi gamocemul qarTvel poetTa leqsebis krebuls -- `Congurs~ mieZRvna. aRniSnuli werilis pirveli striqonebidanve igrZnoba axalgazrda Semoqmedis esTetikuri Sexedulebebis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi, misi azri xelovnebis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb. igi gmobs mwerlebis mier unayofo ocnebiT gatacebas, usagnod cis laJvardSi mimofrenas, xalxis cxovrebisagan mowyvetas, usargeblo `tkbilxmovnebisadmi~ gamodevnebas. akaki aRiarebs sinamdvilis, yoveldRiuri WeSmaritebis asaxvas, mSromeli xalxis cxovrebis, misi yofis, sulis, fiqrebisa da miswrafebebis gamoxatvas. amitomaa, rom poeti aRfrTovanebiT miesalma `Congurs~ da aRniSna: Canguri aris pirveli wigni, romelsac asxia qarTuli xorci, udgia qarTuli suli, stiris da kvnesis qarTvelebis kvnesiT da maS raRa saeWvoa, rom yovel rigian qarTvelT naTesavTaTvis sasixarulo iqnebao misi gamocema.2 am werilSi akakim `wminda xelovneba~, moZRvreba `xelovneba xelovnebisaTvis~ da am TeoriaTa mixedviT formis TviTmiznad aRiareba realuri cxovrebisa da sazogadoebrivi interesebis nacvlad, usagno, ganyenebuli, Sinaarsisagan daclili `tkbilxmovnebis~ gamodevneba Seadara bulbulis galobas, SaSvis stvenasa da mercxlis WikWiks. yurs am frinvelTa galobac atkbobs da, maS, absoluturi xelovnebis mimdevrebma Citebic poetebad unda aRiarono, ironiulad dasZenda recenzenti. sagulisxmoa da mravlismetyveli, rom akakis Zalzed moswonda ilias saprogramo leqsi `poeti~ da samarTlianad miiCnia igi didi azris, Rrma ideebis Semcvelad. ilia am leqsiT mkacrad ilaSqrebda uideo, `tkbilxmovani Txzulebebis winaaRmdeg. akakim aRtacebiT miuTiTa leqsis Zalasa da STambeWdaobaze da aRniSna: ai, ras niSnavs kacoba da ara bulbulobao~. aRsaniSnavia, rom axalgazrda akaki am recenziaSi nawarmoebis mxatvrul mxares TiTqos ver afasebs. igi ise gaitaca `wminda xelovnebis~ Tvalsazrisis kri1 2

a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli 15 tomad, t.XIII, gv.356. a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli 15 tomad, t. XI, gv. 20.

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tikam, rom ilia WavWavaZis leqsebis Sefasebisas dauSva erTgvari nihilisturi xasiaTis Secdoma. igi werda: `Tu WavWavaZis leqsebSi marto xelovnebas mivaqcevT yuradRebas, maSin mis leqsebs ar eqneba didi Rirseba, magram Cven marto xelovnebas ar veZebT... Cven veZebT Wkvian azrebs da amas kidevac vpoulobT WavWavaZis leqsebSi~. amave werilSi ki akaki didad afasebda ilias da aRniSnavda: `baraTaSvili da WavWavaZe swored erTs taxtzed sxdomis Rirsebi arian, erTis gauwyvetelis jaWviT gadabmulebi erTi meorezed~. akakis nihilisturma recidivebma Tavi iCina besikisa da zogierTi sxva qarTveli mwerlis Semoqmedebis Sefasebisasac, roca poetma maTi leqsebi moclili kacis sasmenelTa damatkbobel saSualebad miiCnia.1 mogvianebiT poetma Tavisi pozicia da damokidebuleba zogierTi mwerlis mimarT gadasinja da gulwrfelad aRiara: mesamoce wlebSi ruseTidan dabrunebulebs nihilistobis safuari cotad Tu bevrad yvelas gvqonda modebuli da mitomac gagviZnelda xalxis daaxloeba ise male, rogorc Cven gvindoda da gvegonao.2 Tavisi Semoqmedebis mTavr sagnad akakis erovnuli da socialuri Tematika miaCnda, xolo brZolis maxvil iaraRad ki -- mwerloba. didi patrioti literaturasa da xelovnebas udides politikur, socialur da erovnul-moqalaqeobriv funqcias akisrebda da es kredo man praqtikuli SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobiT ganaxorciela kidec. poetis rwmeniT, literaturam realuri cxovreba unda asaxos Tavisi mravalferovnebiT, gamoavlinos adamianTa urTierTobis manamde miCqmaluli aspeqtebi da Sexedos samyaros ara rogorc erTxel da samudamod mocemulsa da dadgenil statuss, aramed, rogorc ganviTarebadsa da cvlads. aqedan gamomdinare, gasagebia, rom akaki mwerlisagan moiTxovda ara marto cxovrebis, xalxisa da sazogadoebriv urTierTobaTa mxatvrul asaxvas, aramed am movlenaTa axsnasac, Sefasebas, msjavris dadebas, aqtiuri rolis Sesrulebas cxovrebis gardaqmnaSi. aRiarebda literaturis ideuri sisavsis aucileblobas, magram poeti amave dros gadaWriT uaryofda mxatvrulad mdare da sinamdvilis ubralo fotografiul aRweras; meqanikuri gadaReba yovelive imisa, rac cxovrebaSi xdeba, kritikuli realizmi rodia. poeti acxadebda: `zogierTebi sazogadod im azrisa arian, rom realizmi moiTxovs mwerlobaSi mxolod protokolur aRwerilobas umet-naklebod, ise rogorc xedavs da esmis mwerals. ase rom, iq Tavisi ar unda gaurios rao... es rom ase iyos, maSin fotografiul suraTebs upiratesoba eqnebodaT xelovnebiT mxatvrobaze da ubralo fotografi emjobineboda gamoCenil mxatvars rafaels, magram es ase ar aris. marTalia, fotografia sworad aRwers, erT fiorsac ar daaklebs, magram ganmaxorcielebel suls ver Caudgams imas, rasac mibaZviT uaxlovdeba da xelovani mxatvari ki imisTana ram damaxasiaTebel niSans aiRebs, SeurCevs misTana wams grZnoba-gonebis gamomxatvelobisasa, rom suls Caudgams da ganaxorcielebs naxats. amaSia misi Semoqmedebis saidumlo Zala, romelsac ufro swrafgadamRebi, magram usulo fotografi ver miswvdeba~. `poeti konkretulad saubrobs mwerlis movaleobaze, mis mxatvrul SesaZleblobebze. `niWierma mweralma stenografiulad ki ar unda gadaiRos yvelaferi, rac gaigona da naxa, aramed Caweros, ara asisa, aTasi sityva-frazisagan unda airCios masalebi, romelnic ukeT daaxasiaTeben misgan aRebul sagans, rasakvirvelia, SemoqmedebiTi ZaliT~. am mosazrebaTa mixedviT akaki samarTlian moTxovnebs uyenebda samoRvaweo asparezze gamosul mwerals: igi dajildoebuli unda iyos poeturi STagonebiT -- `niWi unda hqondes~, saWiroa iyos `naswavli

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a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli TxuTmet tomad, iqve, gv.22.

t. XI, gv. 25.

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da ganviTarebuli~, Rrmad icodes da `Seswavlili hqondes is ena, romelzedac apirebs weras~, unda axasiaTebdes gulwrfeloba, xalxis siyvaruli, `Tavis Tavs ise unda uyurebdes, rogorc mociqulsa da qveynis moZRvars~, iyos uSiSari, principuli, obieqturi, Seupovari, `rasac xalxs eubneba, is unda guliswmindiT iyos naTqvami... piradoba Seswiros sazogados da mzad iyos, rom gaWirveba da usamarTloba aitanos~.1 akaki fiqrobda, rom sityvakazmul mwerlobaSi maRal gemovnebas unda Seerwyas zomierebis grZnoba, azrma unda Seiguos gamoxatvis forma. mSobliuri enis leqsikuri Semadgenlobis Rrma morevidan saWiro da moxdenili sityvebis SerCevasTan erTad mweralma unda zomierad gamoiyenos da sizustiT moargos saTqmels idiomuri Tqmebi. mTavaria, -- fiqrobs poeti, -- pirvel mcnebad gaixados yvela mweralma azrisa da sityvis zusti Sesabamisoba; zedmeti sityva mwerlobaSi, ise rogorc zedmeti xazi mxatvrobaSi, miuRebelia. `gaberili, gabrtyelebuli da bundovani~ sityvebi da gamoTqmebi amaxinjebs mxatvrul nawarmoebs. akakis miaCnia, rom mweralma urTulesi azri martivad da sadad unda miitanos mkiTxvelamde. amiT izomeba mwerlis Zala da ostatobis xarisxi. yoveli faqizi niuansisaTvis saTanado sityvaTa jgufis an sintagmis SerCeva, `sityvis umetnakleboba niWierebis saswor-sazomia. niWiereba ori-sami sityviT gamoTqvams imas, rasac Zaldatanebuli, viTom niWieri ramdenime striqons moandomebs. zomiereba iq SeCerdeba, sadac uniWoba Tavs ver Seikavebs da gaaWianurebs saubars~.2 sityvaTa brZnul, niWier da genialur SerCeva-gamoyenebisa da azris mokled, lakoniurad, STamagoneblad da dinamikurad gadmocemis etalonad akaki SoTa rusTavels asaxelebs da mas mweralTa misabaZ magaliTad saxavs. akakis Rrma rwmeniT, Txzuleba `utyuari... umetnaklebo, sworxazi unda iyos~. `WeSmariti lakonuroba ak. wereTels xelovnebisa da literaturis erT-erT mTavar niSnad da Tvisebad miaCnda~.3 poetis azriT, leqsi xalxis STamagonebelia, `poezia RvTis cecxliTa da ukvdavebis wyaroTi momzadebuli sazrdoa. igi adamianis grZnoba-gonebis gasaviTareblad, maTze zemoqmedebis mosaxdenad, aRfrTovanebis Semqmnel Zalad gamoiyeneba. `leqsi ra leqsia, Tu rom guls ar daesoba~. xelovnebas, `leqss aqvs Tavisi kanonebi da Tavisi saidumlo~. madliani poeturi sityva mkiTxvelsac imas unda ganacdevinebdes, rac avtors ganucdia da ugrZvnia. `mweralma Tu Tavisi grZnoba sxvasac agrZnobina da Tavis mRelvarebiT sxvac aaRelva -- kmara, meti raRa unda mas~.4 xelovnebis `momxiblavma Zalam~ unda gaitacos yvela.5 poeti miuTiTebs, rom `namdvili da niWieri mwerali is aris, romelic Zalauneburad, TavisTavad ikvlevs gzas mkiTxvelis gulisaken da gulis ficarze dauviwyar asoebiT ibeWdeba, imitom, rom nawerSi yovelgvari kanonia mwerlobis daculi~.6 namdvilad momxiblavi da STambeWdavi nawarmoebi ise umetnaklebod unda iyos Sesrulebuli, rogorc `oboli margaliti Tanasworad asxmul yelsabamad~.7 poeti sastikad ebrZvis arabunebriv, gazviadebul, uferul xelovnebas, realisturi xelovnebis miucilebel Tvisebad racxs formis sisadaves, bunebriobas, misawvdomobasa da sinatifes. arabunebrivi mokazmuloba da Seferadeba ucxoa WeSmariti xelovnebisaTvis: `xelovneba TavisTavad, martivad mSvenierebaa da Zliereba, rogorc mzeTunaxavs ar eWirveba fer-umarili da morTva-mokazmva, ise arc

1

a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIII, gv. 325. a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIV, gv. 444. 3 d . g a m e z a r d a S v i l i , narkvevebi qarTuli realizmis istoriidan, t. II, 1967, gv. 5 8 0 . 4 a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIII, gv. 350. 5 a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIV, gv. 442. 6 a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIII, 446. 7 iqve, gv. 447.

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xelovnur nawarmoebs -- zedmeti sityva-kazmuloba da gacveTili azrebiT gaelfereba. es ubralo WeSmaritebaa~. akakis rwmeniT, Rrmaazrovani da formiT srulyofili `xelovneba mSvenierebaa da mSvenierebis Tayvaniscema upirvelesi locvaa kacisaTvis~, xolo WeSmariti mwerali xalxis moZRvaricaa da mkurnalic: `es ori Zala da Rirseba, werda poeti, rogorc mkurnalisa, ise moZRvarisac, erTad unda hqondes SeTvisebuli mwerals. erTsa da imave dros umoZRvrebdes da samkurnalo wamalsac aZlevdes xalxs. unda daufaravad amxeldes mis avsa da kargs sazogadoebas... visac es ar SeuZlian, is nurc gamodis sazogado asparezzed~. sainteresoa akakis azri mecnierebisa da xelovnebis erovnuli Taviseburebebisa da TviTmyofobis Sesaxeb. `mecnierebasa da xelovnebas arc sazRvari aqvs da arc sakuTreba ician, yvelas sazogadod ekuTvnian, magram samSoblo ki aqvT da es ukanasknelia sasaxelo saerTod~. cxadia, poeti xelovnebisa da mecnierebis miRwevebs msoflio sakuTrebad miiCnevs, kacobriobis kulturuli saganZuris kuTvnilebad aRiarebs. namdvili xelovneba erovnul sazRvrebs gadalaxavs da moemsaxureba mTel msoflios. magram es imas rodi niSnavs, rom xelovnebasa da mecnierebas sakuTari samSoblo ar gaaCndeT, piriqiT: xelovnebas aqvs garkveuli samSoblo da amiT xdeba igi sakacobrioc. literaturasa da mecnierebas Tu samSoblo ar gaaCnia, eris geniisa da cxovrebis niadagze ar warmoSobila, eris suliT, miswrafebebiTa da idealebiT ar aRzrdila, igi msoflio Sedevric ver gaxdeba. WeSmariti xelovneba, upirveles yovlisa, `garkveuli eris geniis Sedevria, misi xalxis sulieri saunjea~. `TiToeul ers Tavisi sakuTari, erTi meorisagan gansxvavebuli saxe aqvs da maT literaturasac, rogorc sarkes ama Tu im erisas, gansakuTrebuli elferi unda edvas. Cveni mwerlobac utyuari sarke unda iyos qarTvelobisa: Sig unda isaxebodes saqarTvelos mravalferovani buneba misi miwa-wyaliT, mTa-bariT, tye-veliT da sxvani. qarTvelis grZnoba-goneba xorcSesxmulad unda moZraobdes Sig umetnaklebod, zomierad; awmyo warsuls unda eTanxmebodes da orive erTad ki momavlisaken miiwevdes. Tu es ar iqneba, Cveni mwerlobac umniSvnelo iqneba, rogorc ubralo ram usaxo landi~. Semdeg iqve agrZelebs akaki, rom literaturas `Tavisi mSobliuri sarCul-sapire eWirvebao~.1 akaki mkacrad ekideba yvelas, vinc ver amCnevs, an ar surs dainaxos erovnuli literaturis TviTmyobadi damaxasiaTebeli da specifikuri Taviseburebani, erovnuli safuZveli da mniSvneloba msoflio literaturis ganviTarebaSi. ugvartomo kosmopolitebis winaaRmdeg poeti amtkicebda, rom nacionaluri literatura SeuZlebeliao aRorZindes eris specifikuri pirobebis, misi sulieri cxovrebis Seswavla-asaxvis gareSe. eris cxovreba da miswrafeba literaturis sarCul-sapirea da erovnuli TviTmyobadi literatura SeuZlebelia arsebobdes am `sarCul-sapires~ gauTvaliswineblad. am garemoebis ugulebelyofiT mwerloba Tavis saxes dakargavs, igi `umniSvnelo iqneba, rogorc ubralo ram usaxo landi~. poeti aRiarebda aucileblis, progresulis, kargisa da sasargeblos sistematurad Seswavlas, kritikul aTvisebas, Segnebul `gadmoyvanasa~ da `gadmonergvas~ mowinave qveynebidan, magram, poetis rwmeniT, `am Sromasac Tavisi Sesaferisi wesrigi da kanoni aqvs: jer niadagi unda moumzadoT, Torem umisod nergi ar ixarebs~.2 cnobilia, rom b. belinski mwerals mTeli sazogadoebis idumal fiqrTa mpyrobelad Tvlida.3 akakis azriTac, mwerali mTeli xalxis moZRvari, aRmzrdeli da mwvrTnelia: mwerals, rogorc qveynis did moZRvars, yurs ugdeben aw da maradis da amitomac misi movaleoba da sarbieli didia. mweralma sakuTari piradoba sazogados unda Seswiros, radganac `ciuri niWi qveynis samsaxu1

a k a k i w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t.XIV, gv. 29-30. iqve, gv. 30 3 b . b e l i n s k i , rCeuli Txzulebani, t. III, 1948, gv. 792.

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rad aris gaCenili da ara sapiradod~. akakis aRniSnuli Sexeduleba uaRresad amaRlebs mwerlisa da mwerlobis avtoritets, mis udides mniSvnelobasa da funqcias xalxis cxovrebaSi. mxatvruli nawarmoebis Seqmnisas poetis erT-erTi ZiriTadi `mizani misawvdomi, gasagebi da naTeli xatis SeqmnaSi mdgomareobda da swored es misawvdomoba da sicxade aris akakis xatovanebis uZiriTadesi niSan-Tviseba~.1 akaki gmobda naCqarev, daumuSavebel da moumwifebel azrsa da grZnobamoklebul Txzulebebs; amgvar nawarmoebs igi adarebda bavSvisTvis gakeTebul saTamaSo sastvens da usulgulo xelovneba, xelovnebis aCrdilad, usargeblo drois kargvad miaCnda. poets swamda, rom WeSmaritad mxatvruli ram jer mwerlis arsebaSi mwifdeba, gadaixarSeba, mwerlis SemoqmedebiTs brZmedSi SemuSavdeba da bolos da bolos guliT didxans natarebi, grZnobasa da gonebaSi Rrmad damuSavebuli ibadeba. `rasac da razedac wers mwerali, -- acxadebs akaki, -- Tu is gulSi didxans ar utarebia, sakuTari grZnoba-gonebiT ar usazrdoebia da Tavis droze ar warmouSobavs, garegnulad mSvenieric rom iyos, sruli mainc ar eTqmis~.2 mwerali sakuTari SemoqmedebiTi praqtikiT iZleoda imis naTel magaliTs, Tu ra didi Tavdadeba, titanuri ruduneba, Rrma codna, farTo ganaTleba da SemoqmedebiTi wvaa saWiro WeSmariti mwerlobis warmoqmnisaTvis. am moTxovnebs akaki uyenebda yvela mwerals: `rac ufro didi niWis patronia kaci, ufro meti Sroma, swavla, ganaTleba da Tavdadeba sWirdeba Tavis samwerlo moRvaweobis pirnaTlad SesrulebisaTvis. ra aris marto niWi, Tu Tanve ar exleba Sromismoyvareoba da gulwrfeloba~. poetis azriT, niWiT dajildoebuli mweralic ver Seasrulebs Tavis mowodebas, Tu ar eqna dauRalavi Sromis unari, udidesi pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba, patriotuli Tavdadeba, Rrma codna da farTo erudicia. `zogierTebs gaugoniaT, rom mwerlisaTvis zegardmo STagonebaa saWiro da is aRar ician, rom imasac kibe eWirveba maRliT Camosasvlelad da es kibe aris, niWis garda swavla, codna da Sromismoyvareoba~.3 akakis es Sexeduleba uaRresad principuli da safuZvliania, igi arasodes dakargavs Tavis did mniSvnelobas. damwyeb poetebs akaki garkveviT eubneboda: `niWi getyobaT, magram ganviTareba gakliaT da gauwvrTnelad niWi ra gamosadegia? xom gagigoniaT: uWkuo, magram naswavli da ganviTarebuli -- maRla-maRla mfrinavi kaWkaWiao, Wkviani, magram uswavleli da uvici -- jaWviT dabmuli lomio~.4 sxva SemTxvevaSi ki poeti acxadebda: `ganuviTarebeli niWi frTaSekvecili Sevardenia, romelic maRla veRara hfrens da dabla siarulsac ver axerxebs~, da dasZenda: `rogorc yvavili uciurnamod, ise niWi usulier-sazrdod sWkneba da nayofi veRar moaqvs~.5 poeti mkacrad akritikebda da mwared dascinoda im crurwmeniT gabruebul moleqseebs, romlebic darwmunebulni arian, rom maTTvis swavla-ganaTleba da grZnoba-gonebis ganviTareba sruliad saWiro ar aris, radganac isini zegardmo CagonebiT arian gamsWvalulni da RmerTi elaparakeba maT! . . sakvirvelia, -- dasZens poeti -- `naxevar saukuneze metia, rac me leqsebs vwer, sxva xeloba ara maqvs da erTxelac ar maxsovs, rom RmerTi damlaparakebodes!~.6 zemoaRniSnuli `poetebis~ didi Secdoma is gaxldaT, rom isini gulubryvilod afasebdnen poeziisa da poetis warmomavlobis Sesaxeb adre gavrcelebul warmodgenebs, ar uwevdnen angariSs axali epoqis Sexedulebebs da uaryofdnen swavla-ganaTlebasa da poeziaSi sakuTari mimarTulebis saWiroebas. marTalia, ilia mimarTavda gamoTqmas:

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g r . k i k n a Z e , literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, 1978, gv. 314. a . w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sr. krebuli, 1961, t. XIII, gv. 355. 3 iqve, gv. 31. 4 iqve, gv. 326. 5 a . w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sr. krebuli, 1961, t. XV, gv. 194. 6 a . w e r e T e l i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. XIV, gv. 565-566.

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`RmerTTan misTvis vlaparakob", `me ca mniSnavs" da sxv. da amasTanave ilia da akaki erTad acxadebdnen: poezia `ciuri niWia" da sxv. magram isini Sors idgnen mwerlobis mistikuri da `romantikuli idealizmis gagebisagan" da, rogorc kritikuli realizmis did mesveurebs, `Tavisi drois literaturuli vulgarizatorebisagan gansxvavebiT... esmodaT, rom poezia Tavisi warmoSobiT, Tavisi bunebiT aris adamianis maRali sulieri moTxovnilebis, misi SemoqmedebiTi geniis, misi amaRlebis, mSvenierebisadmi, idealurisadmi swrafvis gamosxiveba~.1 maT swamdaT, rom `poetsa xalxi dahbadavs da xalxis cxovreba ZuZus awovebs~.2 bunebamdidar kacs, rac ufro meti niWi aqvs, ufro meti masala eWirveba grZnoba-gonebis gasaxurveblad, rom aenTos, midamos Suqi mohfinos, gaanaTos da garemos siTbo ar gamoulioso -- dasZenda akaki, magram namdvili mwerlisaTvis es yvelaferi rodia! WeSmariti xelovanis Tvisebad akakis miaCnda maRali ideuroba, swori mimarTuleba, poeturi STagoneba, talanti, gulwrfeli Sinagani wva. xelovani unda iwvodes, rogorc patruqi, vinaidan `rac ar iwvis, ar anaTebs~. amas rom werda, akaki qvecnobierad Tavis Tavs gulisxmobda: igi xom wminda sanTlad enTo misi xatis -- samSoblos winaSe da Suqs saxatesac -- mTel qveynierebasac hfenda.

akaki wereTlis mxatvruli Semoqmedeba. akaki wereTelma mdidari SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreoba dagvitova. mis kalams ekuTvnis mravali originaluri, gadmokeTebuli da naTargmni Txzuleba. akaki wereTeli axal qarTul literaturaSi kritikuli realizmis udidesi warmomadgenelia. ilia WavWavaZesTan erTad man umaRles safexurze aiyvana mecxramete saukunis meore naxevris qarTuli mwerloba.

akaki wereTlis lirika. akaki wereTeli, pirvel yovlisa, didi lirikosia. misi lirikuli Sedevrebi Rrmad erovnuli da sakacobrio mniSvnelobisaa. `akakis leqsebi gverdSi amoudga msoflio mwerlobas~ (al.xaxanaSvili). poetma Tavisi SemoqmedebiTi cxovreba lirikuli poeziiT daiwyo da imTaviTve miipyro xalxis yuradReba. gasuli saukunis samocian wlebSi erTbaSad cxadi gaxda, rom qveyanas moevlina sruliad axali poeturi samyaro, romlis fuZemdeblebi ilia da akaki iyvnen. akakis lirikiT moxiblulma xalxma zepirad daiswavla poetis Sedevrebi, didi gatacebiT aqcia isini tkbil simRerebad da momavlisaTvis brZolaSi win gaimZRvara. lirika akakis stiqiaa. poetis mTel SemoqmedebaSi: poemebSi, moTxrobebSi, dramatul nawerebSi, publicistikaSi uxvadaa CarTuli lirikuli grZnobiT savse mRelvare leqsebi, rac kidev ufro amdidrebda mis memkvidreobas momajadoebeli lirizmiT. akakis mTeli Semoqmedeba da maT Soris lirika STagonebulia maRali moqalaqeobrivi interesebiT, qveynis erovnuli da socialuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZolis idealebiT, samSoblosa da xalxis Rrma siyvaruliT, xalxurobiT, demokratizmiT, mebrZoli humanizmiTa da optimizmiT. akakis leqsebSi pirvelad aisaxa mSromeli glexobisa da samSoblos amaRelvebeli realisturi suraTebi. maTSi didi mxatvruli ostatobiT da maRalemociurobiT asaxulia qarTveli xalxis mowinave miswrafebani, sibrZne, daucxrobeli mebrZoli suli, didi tradiciebi, gmiroba da vaJkacoba, sixaruli da aRtaceba, mwuxareba da tanjva, risxva da imedi. akakis lirika samSoblos Tavisuflebis, misi bednieri momavlis, sicocxlis, sinaTlis, silamazis, siyvarulisa da ubiwoebis didebuli himnia, xolo borotebis,

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g . a s a T i a n i , vefxistyaosnidan baxtrionamde, 1974, gv. 200-201. i l i a W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli aT tomad, t. III, gv. 45.

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sibnelis, Cagvris, simaxinjisa da biwierebis mrisxane laxvari da mowamluli isaria. akakis lirika WeSmariti politikuri lirikis nimuSia. igi momavlis daucxromeli simReraa. akakis lirika gamoirCeva maRali ideuri sisavsiT, didi mxatvruli ostatobiT, iSviaTi simsubuqiT, naTeli plastikuri saxeebiT, trfoba-siyvaruliT gamTbari alersiani, guliTadi wminda xalxuri melodiebiTa da sagalobeli kilo-intonaciebiT. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia mdidari metrika, momxiblavi riTmebi, sisadave, moqnili, ankara wyarosTvaliviT spetaki sufTa da gamWvirvale poeturi stili, mdidari ena. akakis lirikis saerTo xasiaTs savsebiT Seesabameba poetis sityvebi: poezia ucnauri ciuri xma da locvaa (`ocneba Tarze~), xolo qveynis orgulTaTvis SxamnaRveli da Zirmwarea. qarTul literaturismcodneobaSi akaki samarTlianadaa aRiarebuli, rogorc fuZemdebeli axali realisturi poetikisa, man `mTebi dasdga margalitebis~ (galaktioni). didma iliam `eris rCeuli~ uwoda akakis, romlis leqsebis qnari atkbobs xalxis grZnoba-gonebas. gamoCenilma pedagogma iakob gogebaSvilma akaki daaxasiaTa, rogorc `ialbuzi qarTuli poeziisa~, xolo artur laistis azriT, akaki TviTmpyrobeli meufe iyo poeziisa. didma mecnierma eqvTime TayaiSvilma akakis `poeziis qurumi~ uwoda. gamoCenilma mkvlevarma vaxtang kotetiSvilma Tavis droze aRniSna: akakis poezia `es rekaa alionis zarisa, mzisken miaxloebas rom maxaroblobs;~ xolo cnobilma poetma aleqsandre abaSelma akakisadmi miZRvnil leqsSi (`akakis~) aRniSna: `sdgas saqarTvelo oqros TasiviT, Seni leqsebis neqtariT savse~. akakis lirika qarTuli poeturi geniis mSvenebaa. igi maradiuli movlenaa, erisa da kacobriobis mxatvruli sityvis uWknobi ganZia. akakim bavSvobidanve daiwyo Sairebis gamoTqma. Tormeti wlisam dedis pativsacemad ezos auzis qvis magidaze daawera akrostiquli leqsi. Semdeg, Wabukobisas, ukve `ciskarSi~ aqveynebda leqsebs: `gabrwyindi Cemo kandelo~, `p.w,~, `Cems veneras~, `navi~ da sxv. maTSi poeti erTgvar xarks uxdida romantikosTa garkveul tradiciebs da cxovrebis ukuRmarTobis mimarT gamoxatavda sevdasa da mwuxarebas. mas aRelvebs sikvdil-sicocxleze dafiqreba, iswrafvis cxovrebaSi tkboba-siamisaken da gamoxatavs mSobliuri qveynis siyvaruls. leqsSi `gabrwyindi Cemo kandelo~ xanmokle, wamieri sicocxlis simbolod gamoyenebulia anTebuli sanTeli, Ramisa da sibnelis damTrgunveli naTeli, sinaTle, gabrwyinvebuli kandeli, romelic `iwvis da TandaTan sdneba~. analogiuri saxeebi ufro amaRlebul formebSi xSiria akakis SemoqmedebaSi, mag., `xatis win~ da sxv. TiTqos poeti ar emorCileba swrafwarmavali cxovrebis bneleTs, ukuRmarT xvedrs da acxadebs:

`gabrwyindi, Cemo kandelo, minaTle bneli Ramisa!...~

amgvari ganwyobilebiT Wabuki poeti TiTqos exmaureba n. baraTaSvils. leqsi `p.w~ daTariRebulia 1858 wlis 7 seqtembriT, xelmowerilia inicialiT `w~ da dabeWdilia Jurnal `ciskarSi~ 1859 w. 3. `ciskris~ amave nomerSi, akakis leqsTan erTad daibeWda ilias leqsi: `mec Sav Tvalebs~. friad nayofieri iyo akakis poeturi SemoqmedebiTi moRvaweoba studentobis periodSi. misi leqsebi xSirad ibeWdeboda `ciskarSi~. am drois leqsebma akakis didi popularoba moutana da 20-22 wlis Wabukma erTbaSad uniWieresi poetis saxeli, sayovelTao aRiareba da siyvaruli daimsaxura. am drois leqsebidan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia `saidumlo baraTi~, `qarTvlis salami~, `Zvel samefos~, `amao Zebna~, `dedam rom Svili gazardos~, `salamuri~, `muSuri~, `sabralo guli~, `lodini~, `apelaciis mcodne~, `futuro~, `fariseveli~ da sxv. mokrZalebuli poeti adre Tavis leqsebs avtoris xelmouwerlad, inicialebiT beWdavda, ar surda

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Tavisi saxelisa da gvaris gamJRavneba, magram misdauneburad da Seutyoblad mainc aSkara gaxda avtoris vinaoba. pirveli leqsi, romelic avtoris saxelisa da gvaris xelmoweriT gamoqveynda, iyo `saidumlo baraTi~. `saidumlo baraTi~ akakis lirikis erT-erTi Sedevria. igi trfobis mwveli grZnobiT gamTbari leqsia, tkbili emociebiT aRsavse. dawerilia msubuqi, sada da gulSi Camwvdomi poeturi xilviT, suraTovania. amitom dabeWdvisTanave iqca igi sasimRero leqsad, satrfialo himnad. saerTo mowonebasTan erTad arqaistebi iwunebdnen leqsis `mdabio, raRac soflur enas~ da sTxovdnen poets `darbaisluris eniT wereo~. ase daiwyo da gaiSala poetis didi SemoqmedebiTi muSaobis gza poeziis mwvervalebisaken. akakis mTeli Semoqmedeba, da kerZod lirika, mravalferovania. masSi, rogorc iTqva, gansaxierebulia epoqis mwvave problemebi, erovnuli da socialuri motivebi, mebrZoli patriotizmi, mSobliuri enisa da xalxTa Soris megobrobis sakiTxebi, poetis da poeziis daniSnulebis sakiTxi, qalis, silamazis da siyvarulis Taviseburi saxe, xasiaTi, funqcia da sxv. akaki wereTelma realisturi Sexedulebebi mwerlisa da mwerlobis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb gamoxata ara marto mraval publicistur-kritikul werilsa, sajaro gamosvlasa da sityvaSi, aramed, upirveles yovlisa, Tavis lirikul leqsebSi: `poeti~, `Canguri~, `zRvao, aReldi, aReldi~, `pasuxi~, `poetis programa~, `rCeva~ da sxv. akaki mwerlisagan moiTxovda brZolas qveynis keTildReobisaTvis. am brZolaSi igi gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebda simarTlis mqadagebel mxatvrul sityvas:

`sityva igiv Tesli aris, norCi guli miwa-xnuli da abibin-amwvandeba, rom mouva gazafxuli~.

magram akaki yovelgvar sityvas ar aniWebda Rirsebas, igi ebrZoda usagno mwerlobas da moiTxovda drosa da cxovrebis pirobebTan Sefardebul mebrZol sityvasa da qmediT saqmes. `mwerloba zneobiTi da gonebiTi mesarkeobaa. nawerSi, rogorc sarkeSi, naTlad unda isaxebodes mwerlis Tanadrouloba misi siswor-simrudiT; rom saistorio suraTebi gadaeces momaval droebas da rogorc sarkeSi is ixateba, rac mxolod mis garSemoa da rac mas gulSi Cahyurebs, ise poetis nawerSiac imas unda vxedavdeT, rac mis guls, rogorc xalxis Tanaziars mohxvedria, da maSasadame, mwerals neba ara aqvs, rom yoveldRiur saerTo movlinebas, ragind wvrilmanic iyos, Tvali aaridos. rac ufro niWieria poeti, ufro Zlierad eqvemdebareba am zemomoyvanil pirobebs~. akakis azriT, poeti `garemoebis sayviria~. es Sexeduleba poetisa da poeziis Sesaxeb man mkafiod gamoxata leqsSi `poeti~, romelSic igi werda:

`es guli, sarked qceuli, bunebis naTavxedia, mxolod mis saxes giCvenebT, rasac Sig Cauxedia; enac mas ambobs, rac smenas sxvisagan gaugonia, an Tvals unaxavs da Wkuas gauzom-auwonia!~

akaki wereTels swams, rom poeziis ZiriTadi daniSnuleba simarTlisadmi samsaxursa da mowinave, wminda azrebis ganmtkicebaSi mdgomareobs:

`me Canguri misTvis minda, rom simarTles msaxurebdes,

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ganamtkicos azri wminda, guls siwmindiT axurebdes!~ (`Canguri~)

poets kargad esmoda, rom misdroindel sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi simarTlis damcveli, marTlis mTqmeli, realuri sinamdvilis kritikulad amsaxveli, xalxis keTilSobiluri miswrafebebis ganxorcielebisaTvis mebrZoli mwerali sastik damcirebasa da tanjvaSi Cavardeboda: unda icodes mweralma, rom mas moelis mtroba, SurisZieba da devna....patiosani da namdvili mwerali yovelTvis unda moelodes risxvas, lanZRvas, ginebas, gaTrevas -- werda poeti. akakis ar eSinoda devnisa da mtkiced acxadebda:

`gamiqvavdes maSin ena, Tu rom vismes mivefero da gamixmes es marjvena, Tu simrudiT simT vaJRero!... ragind bediT viyo kruli, saSinelic meqnes bolo, ar Sedrkeba Cemi guli, ginda qviTac daviqolo!~ (`Canguri~)

akaki wereTels poeziis funqciad mCagvrelis ganadgureba da Cagrulis nugeSiscema miaCnda: daCagruli, romlis samsaxuric akakis mwerlobis ZiriTad daniSnulebad miaCnda, aris koloniuri Cagvris marwuxebSi moqceuli samSoblo da socialuri usamarTlobis mZime uRelSi gabmuli mSromeli xalxi. mxatvruli literaturis Rirsebas akaki mis mebrZol, revoluciur suliskveTebaSi xedavda. igi gmobda usicocxlo poezias da umReroda mebrZol suliskveTebas. myudroebaSi CaZiruli yovelgvari ganZi qveynisaTvis usargeblo da dafarulia: mxolod mrisxane brZolis gziT SeiZleba saunjis salaro gaixsnas da xalxis, qveynis sasargeblo da xelmisawvdomi gaxdes:

`margalitebis salaro Seni ufskruli gulia, myudroebis dros is ganZi qveynisTvis dafarulia. mxolod rodesac mrisxaneb, guls uxsni mze da mTvaresa, im margalitebs Sestyorcni Sens Semkvrels aremaresa. poeto, nurc Sen ekrZalvi mrisxane gulis Relvasa! . . Zilis dros quxils nu moSli da sibnelis dros elvasa!~ (`zRvao, aReldi, aReldi~)

amrigad, akaki wereTeli literaturas sazogadoebriv funqcias akisrebda. mas sinamdvilis kritikul-mxatvruli asaxva mwerlobis sagnad, xolo mwerali xalxis moZRvrad, mkurnalad, qveynis interesebisaTvis Seudrekel mebrZolad miaCnda. samSoblos mZime mdgomareoba Zlier awuxebda poets da am niadagze mas zogjer mwvave naRveli da sevda eufleboda. mgosani mwuxarebiT moTqvamda samSoblos tanjul bedze. akakis sevda erovnuli, sazogadoebrivi xasiaTisaa. am grZnobis gamoxatvas poetma miuZRvna lirikuli poeziis Sedevrebi: `Siqasta~, `Cemo Tavo, bedi ar giweria~, `muxambazi~, `aRmarT-aRmarT mivdiodi me nela~, `axali weli~ da sxv. 1863 wels dabeWdil leqsSi `Siqasta~ axalgazrda poeti naTlad aRiarebda, rom misi tragikuli gancdis, naRvliani cremlisa da sevdis sa92

fuZveli kerZoobiTi xasiaTis ki ar aris, aramed misi obieqtia samSoblos mware xvedri:

`nurvin scdilobs, im cremlebSi naxos kerZo siyvaruli! iq iqneba saidumlo gulgamxeTqi, dafaruli! yovel wuTSi tanjvas naxavs saqarTvelos gamomxatvels da mwaresa nakadulSi grZel moTxrobas, gulis damwvels~.

1872 wels gamoqveynebul leqsSi `muxambazi~ poeti miuTiTebda:

`ras miqvian piradi mwuxareba? mokvdes kaci, Tu pirutyvs edareba?! viRas axsovs Tavisi satkivari, Tu satrfo hyavs im dros mas cocxal-mkvdari?~

sevdiani ganwyobileba da dramatizmiT aRsavse sulieri mwuxareba poetma gamoxata leqsSi `Cemo Tavo~... samSoblos mZime mdgomareobiT Sewuxebuli, avbediviT guldamwvari mgosani naRvlianad uCivis avbedobas, mwvaved ganicdis mware gulisZgeras da sevdianad gamoTqvams:

`Cemo Tavo, bedi ar giweria! Cemo Cango eSxiT ar giJReria! Cemo gulo tkbilad ar giZgeria, radgan vxedav, satrfo Cemi mteria! ...~

satrfo-samSoblos mZime xvedriT gamwarebuli poetis gulSi tanjvis mZafri cecxli anTia da marad iwvis mwuxarebis aliT. sulieri tanjviT mRelvare poets yvelgan mware naRveli da Sxamiani gveli eCveneboda, igi ganapirebulad grZnobs Tavs, Zmurad aravin uwvdis xels, aravin anugeSebs. Rrmad Sewuxebuli poeti swyevlis ukuRmarT sofels da naRvlianad acxadebs:

`aRara aqvs bolo am Cems satanjvels, arvin maZlevs sanugeSod Zmurad xels, Cems SarbaTSi naRvels vsvWvret da vardSi gvels, misTvis vwyevli da vemduri am sofels, romlisganac me gzebi ameria!.. ~

sevdiani poeti sabolood guls mainc ar itexs, mters ar axarebs da imedianad acxadebs: `Tu xalxSi var, ZaliT Rrubels vadareb da mowyeniT Cemzed mters ar vaxareb...~ sulis simtkiciT anTebuli lirikuli gmiri Tavisi mwuxarebiT aRsavse guliTa da masTan erTad momavlisaTvis Tavdadebuli ZalisxmeviT aRvivebda xalxSi mebrZol suliskveTebas. leqsSi gamoyenebuli mxatvruli ganmeorebani: `Cemo Tavo, Cemo Cango, Cemo gulo~ da masTan dakavSirebuli sevdiT aRvsili formebi: `ar giweria, ar giJReria, ar giZgeria~ da sxv., agreTve yoveli strofis Semdeg ganmeorebiT warmodgenili taepebi: `Cemo Tavo...~ vidre `Cemi mteria~, dabolos pirveli strofis mTlianad refrenad gamoyeneba aZlierebs lirikul gancdas, emociur da azrobriv STabeWdilebas, mwvave sulier mRelvarebasa da dramatizms. leqsi dawerilia oTx- da xuTtaepiani strofebiT da gamarTulia TerTmetmarcvlovani metriT, riTac gaZlierebulia intonacia, melodiuroba, keTilxmovaneba da musikaloba. leqsis saerTo xasiaTi da mexuTe taepebis daboloebani: `oxeria~, `ameria~, `gamiSveria~, `mtveria~ da sxv. muxambazur stils uaxlovdeba.

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1872 wels daibeWda leqsi `muxambazi~ (`naxevari cxovrebis gza gavlie~). leqsis lirikul gmirs ar Sordeba mwuxareba, radgan misi satrfo -- samSoblo saRaTas Zils miscemia da mtrisgan dabeCavebuli cocxal-mkvdar mdgomareobaSia. akaki aRniSnavs, rom misi satrfo, misi mwuxarebisa da sevdis obieqtia damonebuli, gaZarcvuli:

`magram iciT, Cemi satrfo vin ari? Zveli turfa, dRes mkvdariviT mZinari! fexSiSveli, Tavzed leCaqmoxdili, ugrZnoblad xdis sawyals saRaTas Zili!~

samSoblos damcireba, dauZlureba da abuCad agdeba mwuxarebiT avsebda da tanjvis cecxliT wvavda poets. cecxlmodebuli mgosani Tavs evleba momakvdav satrfos da mware cremls Rvris, magram mtrebis Tvalis asaxvevad Wiris cremls malavs da icinis: `ar mSordeba mwuxareba da Wiri, magram mainc sul vicini, ar vstiri~, -- wers igi. guldaTuTquli poeti sabolood imeds ar kargavs da elodeba mZinari satrfos gaRviZebas, mis qorwils, gamarjvebis did zeims:

`mxolod amis gaRviZebas me vucdi, Tu lodinSi udrovod ar movxucdi! moveswrebi, rom gamifrTxos man Zili da mimReros misi turfa qorwili!~

leqsi dawerilia xalxur melodiur hangze da xalxuri motivebis saxieri gamoyenebiT. igi dabeWdvisTanave iqca saxalxo simRerad. sevdian poets arc axali wlis mosvla axarebs, radgan mas cxovrebam bevri Sxam-naRveli Seasva, daukarga trfobis taxti, dauketa samoTxis kari da waarTva tkbili momavali. ukmayofilo poeti naRvlianad acxadebs:

`maS nu milocavT me axal wels! CemTvis erTia `axali~, `Zveli~, Tu SarSan vsvamdi mwaresa naRvels, am sasmels welsac veli da veli!~ (`axali weli~)

`aRmarT-aRmarT mivdiodi me nela~.... dawerilia 1876 wels. poetis sevda, Rrma mwuxareba, naRveli da mwvave tkivilebia gamoxatuli am brwyinvale SedevrSi. leqsis dasawyisSi avtori gviziarebs im did sulier aRfrTovanebas, romelic mas mianiWa mSobliuri bunebis aRqmam. mSobliurma bunebam poets sixaruli mohfina, STabera mas sicocxlis cxovelmyofeli Zala da sikvdilis SiSi daaZlevina:

`aRmarT-aRmarT mivdiodi me nela, serze Sevdeq, Wmunvis ali menela, mzeman sxivi momafina maSina, sicocxle vgrZen, sikvdilma ver maSina~.

aRfrTovanebul mgosans moevlina poeturi STagoneba tkbili Cangis asaJRereblad, magram sazeimo netareba xanmokle aRmoCnda. poeti mwared Caafiqra samSoblos bedma da dainaxa, rom misi satrfo `sxvas hmonebda~ da `alersiT mTvrals ver uxilavs isari~. motyuebulma da mtrisagan moxiblulma satrfom ar usmina mwuxarebiT guldamwvar poets. sevdiT aRvsilma da sasowarkveTilma poetma mwared amoikvnesa:

`Cemo Tavo, veRar gkurnen wamaliT! daRmarT-daRmarT dauyevi, wa maliT! iq CabrZandi, sad gelian lodebiT! bariT, niCbiT, kuboTi da lodebiT! daiviwye, vinc gaxsovda maradis xeldakrefiT ganisvene maradis!~

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leqsisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia majamuri forma, mosazRvre daqtiluri riTma, simboluri da alegoriuli saxeebi, naRvliani, elegiuri kilo da intonacia, rac aZlierebs lirizms da sevdian ganwyobilebas. akaki gmobda pesimizms, uimedobas, umoqmedobas da didebiT umReroda Tavisuflebas, momavals, aqtiur moqmedebasa da brZolas. magram amasTanave optimisti poetisaTvis ucxo rodia xalxis avbedobiT gamowveuli mwuxarebisa da sevdis gamoxatva, piriqiT, igi mas bunebriv movlenad miaCnda da kicxavda kubosTan momRerals. xalxis Wir-varamiT guldamwvar mgosans bevrjer ukvnesebia `guli wyluli~, `suli kruli~, `Tvalni cremliT anatiri~ da misi mgrZnobiare mebrZoli lirika araerTxel aJRerebula xalxis kvnesiTa da godebiT, misi mwuxarebiTa da sevdiT, misi sasoebiTa da momavlis rwmenisa da mebrZoli suliskveTebiT. misi Cangi STagonebulia Wmunvisa da sixarulis maRali grZnobiT da momavlis didi miswrafebiT. igi werda:

`sad aris Cveni Canguri, qveynis Wiri da lxinio, samSoblos sisxli da xorci, misive naRvel-tvinio?~ (`Temur-lengis tyve~)

an kidev:

`Cveni samSoblos sicili da misi mware kvnesao. . . orive -- erTad simebma Sig gulSi Caikvnesao~ (`Temur-lengis tyve~)

poetma Tavis sevdanarev lirikaSi asaxa mgrZnobiare gulis kvnesa, mRelvare sulis tkivilebi, imis gamo, rom mas samSoblos ubedurebam mware Sxami Seasva da cxovreba samsalad uqcia (`gaTxoveba~), rom, vidre misi satrfo ar ganTavisuflebula, misi `guli mkvdaria~, rom `sicili bevrjer cremlze mwarea~ (`muxambazi~), rom poets wilad xvda sicocxlis mTels manZilze mxolod simware, tanjva da Wiri, rom igi samSoblos mZime mdgomareobis gamo moklebulia Svebasa da bednierebas, rom mas `vin aRirsebs sasufevels, jojoxeTi uZevs gulSi~ (`saRamo~), rom is `jojoxeTs~ marad guliT atarebs da amis gamo Sewuxebuli poeti acxadebs: `aRara aqvs bolo am Cems satanjvels...~, rom cxovrebam mas gza-kvali auria da mwuxare sityvebi warmoaTqmevina, magram mebrZoli poeti mudam gmirobis trubaduria, igi STagonebulia brZolis paTosiT, revoluciuri optimizmiT. akakis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa sinamdvilis SegrZneba, misi mxileba, dagmoba, mis mimarT siZulvilis grZnobiT gamsWvalva da momavlis brZolis gaRviveba. amitom savsebiT gasagebia poetis sityvebi: damWknari vardi cremlebiT ar ganeldeba.... arao! da WirSi tirili ver uzrunvelyofs ubedurebisagan Tavis daRwevas. amitom, -- acxadebs poeti, -- ar unda vitiroT, radgan `vaJkacsa ar Svenis cremliT glovani!...~ akaki momavlis didi momReralia. imedis SaravandediT mosil poets ver aSinebda mozRvavebuli risxva da cxovrebis ukuRmarToba. optimizmiT STagonebuli poeti acxadebda:

`gavkaJebivar Sav bedsa, davdivar Seupovari! ver SemaSinebs risxviT ca, Wirzeda Wiris mTovari!~ (`gamofxizleba~)

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akaki gadmogvcems, rom gulis ficarze nemsis yunwis odena adgilic ver vipove, rom ekliT ar yofiliyos naCxvletio. miuxedavad amisa, mis guls yovelTvis amxnevebda momavlis rwmena. poeti werda: `Sua gulzed ewera didis asoebiT `imedi~, marjvena kuTxiT `gamarjveba Sromas~, marcxniv: `qeba gambedaobas~. akaki STaagonebda xalxs: uimedoba, usasoeba da `gulis gatexa codvaa~.... dRes Tu aqaiq dasusxul yvavilebsa vxedavT, momaval nayofs gviCvenebs damwifebulsao da gatacebiT umReroda diad momavals, mis simbolur xats: amirans, satrfos, vards, cisartyelas, ganTiads, ciskris varskvlavs, gazafxuls, sinaTles, mxsnel gmirebs da sxv. gmirulad ibrZoda erovnuli da socialuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg da mzad iyo sisxliT moerwyo brZolis veli:

`SevstrfiT, SevgalobT momaval vardsa, aRarad vimCnevT dRevandels ekals!... dee, gagvkawros! . . sxvebis saniSnod sisxliT da ofliT movrwyavT gza da kvals~.

poets Rrmad swamda xalxis uSreti Zala, misi momavali da amitomac misi tanjva da sixaruli WeSmaritad saxalxo xasiaTs atarebda da STagonebuli iyo xalxurobiT, humanizmiT, demokratiulobiT da momavlis rwmeniT. igi darwmunebuli iyo, rom boroteba damarcxdeboda, simarTle da sinaTle gaimarjvebda, gaiRviZebda da ganikurneboda miZinebuli samSoblo, gamofxizldeboda xalxi, gaswyvetda jaWvs amirani, moispoboda Cagvra. am rwmeniT dajerebuli poeti, didi `trubaduri xalxis imedebisa~,1 alegoriul leqsSi `avadmyofi~ naTlad gamoxatavda Cauqrobel imeds:

`ar momkvdara, mxolod sZinavs da iseve gaiRviZebs!... vinc Senatris imis sikvdils, umal masve daamiwebs!~

sastiki reaqciis periodSi gamoqveynda akakis alegoriuli leqsi `RmerTo, wvima moiyvane~ (1882 w.), romelic momavlis rwmenisa da revoluciuri brZolis namdvil mowodebad iqca. leqsis alegoriuli saxeebi naTeli da savsebiT gasagebia; igi mimarTulia carizmis winaaRmdeg da gamoxatavs brZolis paToss:

`RmerTo, wvima moiyvane wiTeli da Sxapunao, rom gavideT samuSaod da davsZaxoT `hopunao!~ RmerTo wvima moiyvane, miwis gamalbobelio, rom gaswyvitos Wia-Wua, qveynis damamxobelio!~

leqsis aSkara politikur xasiaTze garkveviT migvaniSnebs poeti im werilSi, romelSiac CarTulia igi (`cxel-cxeli ambebi~). aq akaki werda: `maRlidan sicxe gvaWers, Zirs dedamiwa ixrakeba da garSemo tyeebs cecxli ukidia... vidagebiT!.. vin dagvinelebs im cecxls, romelic Semoparebulad jadoqariviT gviberavs da Zirs gvinaxSirebs?~, -- kiTxulobs poeti da Tavad pasuxobs: `imas Cveulebrivi wvima veRaras uSvelis... misTvis saWiroa is wvimebi, nugzar erisTavis dros rom yofilan, sisxlis wvimebi~; `wiTeli wvima~, `Sxapuna wvima~, `sisxlis wvimebi~2 xalxuri metaforuli saxea da masTan erTad ukavSirdeba istoriul ambebsac. sxva adgilas poeti dasZenda: ekals, borotebas `Ziri amovugdoT, sisxliT vRe1 2

p . i n g o r o y v a , axali qarTuli literaturis fuZemdebelni, 1975, gv. 341. a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani, t. XII, gv. 188.

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boT mTa da velio~ (`gogia meCongure~). leqsi dawerilia xalxur hangsa da kiloze, rac kidev ufro Zlier STabeWdilebas axdens mkiTxvelze. momavlis rwmena da ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis idea mkveTradaa gamoxatuli alegoriul leqsSi `WaRara~ (1893 w.). mebrZoli, gautexeli, bnelSi imediT mkveseli poeti ar epueba mCagvrelTa risxvas. cxovrebam mas usazRvro tanjva miayena, didZali Sxami Seasva: `aRmevso guli wveT-wveTad naRveliTa da SxamiTa... var bevri `vais~ mnaxveli da bevri `uis~ gamgone~. mgosani gmirulad xvdeba gasaWirs, guls ar itexs da Zlieri poeturi xmiT umReris momavals:

`magram imedi, cis niWi rom gamielvebs glax gulsa, Tavi tariel mgonia, ocnebiT garemoculsa. vuxmob fridons da avTandils, mxari mxars mivceT, xeli-xels, nestan-darejan qajebs hyavT, moelis turfa gamomxsnels~.

poetma kargad icoda, rom xalxis sulieri amaRlebisa da gmirobisaTvis didi mniSvneloba hqonda genialuri `vefxistyaosnis~ da istoriul gmirTa saxeebis mxatvrul gamoyenebas da xSirad mimarTavda maT samagaliTo xatebs. imedis didi rwmenisa da brZolis Rrma gamoxatulebaa sityvebSi:

`ra vuyoT, TeTri merios?! sisxliT SevRebav WaRaras da sul sxva xmaze davukrav am Cems dafsa da naRaras~...

imedis mTesveli poeti qveynis mxsnel, meTaur gmirs elodeba da acxadebs:

`ara, ayvavdes imedi!... guls ver gamitexs WaRara!... gmirebs uZaxis, uyivis Cemi dafi da naRara!...~

ufro adre (1881 w.) akakim mkveTrad gamoxata momavlisadmi rwmena da brZolis suliskveTeba:

`is danaSTen sicocxleSi ar natrobs mets aRarasa, rom samSoblos mtris sisxliTa iRebavdes WaRarasa!...~ (`ukanaskneli natvra~)

mogvianebiT (1893 w.) akakim sxva situaciaSi kvlav gamoxata brZolis medgari suliskveTeba da momavlis rwmenisadmi erTguleba:

`poetis guls, gaxurvebuls sadac elavs, Relavs grZnoba, ras daaklebs TviT WaRara? ras daaklebs xnovanoba?~

mebrZoli optimizmi bolomde mihyveba akakis Semoqmedebas. sastiki reaqciis wlebSi poeti momavlis rwmeniT amxnevebda xalxs da eubneboda: `is niadagi, is xalxi, romelmac warmoSoba didi mouravi, mTawmindelebi, petriwi, rusTaveli da sxva msoflio gmirebi... kidev warmoSobs imisTana gmirebs, romelic Tqven geWirvebaT da moeliT... me ver moveswrebi im momavali gmiris mirqmas, magram gulSi imedebiT ki Caval saflavSi da Cemi ukanaskneli simRera iqneba: ar momkvdara, mxolod sZinavs-meTqi~.

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samSoblos usazRvro siyvaruli akakim gansakuTrebuli siZlieriT Semosa leqsSi `ganTiadi~. didebulma mgosanma didi gulwrfelobiTa da iSviaTi mxatvruli ostatobiT umRera `ca-firuz, xmeleT-zurmuxtovan~ samSoblos siyvarulis unazes grZnobas, misTvis Tavdadebis gmirul ideas:

`ca-firuz, xmeleT-zurmuxto, sulis Camdgmelo mxareo, Seni var, SenTvis movkvdebi, Senzedve mgloviareo!...~

`ganTiadi~ poetma uZRvna cnobili qarTveli moRvawis -- dimitri yifianis xsovnas. amas adasturebs leqsis striqonebSi moxsenebuli `Tavdadebuli~, `raindsa, urCsa mtrisasa~, romelic gulisxmobs veragulad moklul qarTvel moRvawes, xolo `saSviliSvilo samare~, `Tavdadebulis saflavi~, romelsac `mnaTobi sxivebs maRliT hfens~, `mdinare nanas umReris~ da `mTawminda gulSi ixutebs~ -- dimitri yifianis saflavs. leqsis dasawyisSi asaxulia mSobeli qveynis buneba da misi dedaSviluri zrunva samSoblos erTguli Svilisadmi. mTawminda Cafiqrebuli Sehyurebs ciskris mokaSkaSe varskvlavs, cis mnaTobebi sxivebs hfenen Tavdadebuli gmiris saflavs. mSobliuri bunebisa da samSoblos unazesi siyvarulis gamo grZnobamoreuli mgosani Tavis gulispasuxs umReris turfa saqarTvelos:

`ca-firuz, xmeleT-zurmuxto, Cemo samSoblo mxareo, sneuli davbrunebulvar, mkurnalad Semeyareo!... ver avitane obloba, sisxlis cremlebi vRvareo; wamZlia sulma da gulma, Sens naxvas daveCqareo...~

leqsSi Caqsovilia samSoblosadmi usazRvro siyvarulisa da Tavdadebis idea. msoflio literaturaSi iSviaTia meore iseTi didi poeti, romelsac akakis msgavsad emReros samSoblos keTilSobilur siyvarulze. didi mgosani ganuSoreblad Tavs dastrialebda mSobel xalxs da gulSi samaradisod Camwvdomi ufaqizesi grZnobiT umReroda:

`mSveniero, Sen getrfi Seni mona erTguli! SenTvis suldgmuls, Senganve, SenTvis miZgers es guli!~

didi STagonebiT, warmtaci ferebiTa da aRmafreniT, ganumeorebeli sisadaviT da uSualobiT umReroda deda samSoblos poeti leqsSi `suliko~:

`sayvarlis saflavs veZebdi, ver vnaxe, dakarguliyo!... gulamoskvnili vCiodi: `sada xar, Cemo suliko!~ ekalSi vardi SevniSne, oblad rom amosuliyo, gulis fancqaliT vkiTxavdi: `Sen xom ara xar suliko!...~ niSnad Tanxmobis kokobi cvar-margalitiT ciuri dabla cremlebiT dahyara... ~ da sxv.

es leqsi qarTvelma xalxma akakis sxva leqsebTan erTad sasimRerod aitaca da mas axla msoflios mravali xalxi aRtacebiT mReris.

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`akakim es maradiuli satrfo konkretul xatad aqcia, Tan iseT xatad, romelic konkretulobasTan erTad didi ganzogadebis SesaZleblobebiT dajildoebuli aRmoCnda~.1 samSoblos siyvarulis satrfos siyvarulad simbolur-alegoriuli gamoxatva damaxasiaTebelia saerTod qarTuli literaturisaTvis. magram es xerxi gansakuTrebuli sxivmosilebiT uaRresad farTo masStabiT ganaviTara da iSviaTi mravalferovnebiT gamoiyena akaki wereTelma. poetma mas mianiWa naTeli gamWvirvaleba da silamaze. Zveli mwerlobisagan gansxvavebiT, siyvaruls akakim daumkvidra realuri, konkretuli da mimzidveli Sinaarsi, mianiWa axali moqalaqeobrivi, politikuri funqcia. akaki wereTeli iseTi gatacebiT, imgvari grZnobiT da vnebianobiT xatavs Tavis satrfialo sagans, rom zog SemTxvevaSi Zneli gasarkvevia, namdvilad xorciel satrfos umReris poeti Tu satrfo-samSoblos. akaki wereTlis patriotul lirikaSi samSoblos siyvarulis grZnoba gansakuTrebul xasiaTs atarebs. mijnuroba, satrfos siyvaruli aq realur da amaRelvebel xasiaTs iRebs. igi ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis paToss STaagonebs mkiTxvels. akaki wereTlis patriotizmisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia humanizmi da gulwrfeli pativiscema da aRiareba sxva erTa Rirsebisa. amitom iyo, rom poeti ganasxvavebda erTmaneTisagan ruseTis biurokratias, ruseTis xelisuflebis imperiul, Sovinistur miswrafebebs da rus xalxs. akakis patriotizmi xalxTa megobrobis ideiT aris gaSuqebuli. akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel ideasTan aris dakavSirebuli socialuri Cagvris mospobis idea. poeti medgrad ibrZoda batonymuri urTierTobisa da TviTmpyrobelur-memamulur-burJuaziuli wyobilebis winaaRmdeg. akaki TanagrZnobiT da gulisxmierebiT ekideboda mSromeli xalxis interesebs. poetma Tavisi Cangi imTaviTve uZRvna glexis beds, misi ganTavisuflebis ideas. erovnuli da socialuri ganTavisuflebisaTvis brZolis idea akaki wereTlis Semoqmedebis qvakuTxedi iyo. poeti gamoxatavda xalxis miswrafebebsa da Tavisuflebis ideebs. akakim Tavis poeziaSi gviCvena batonymuri uRlis qveS daCagruli ymisa da Semdeg naymevi glexis tanjuli cxovreba. man ilia WavWavaZesTan erTad mkveTrad gailaSqra batonymobis winaaRmdeg da asaxa yma glexis uuflebo da autaneli mdgomareoba. 1861 wels daweril leqsSi `muSuri~ poetma gamoxata yma glexis ubeduri, tanjuli cxovrebis SemaZrwunebeli suraTebi:

`marto CvenTvis ar vmuSaobT, sxvisac gvmarTebs samsaxuri: batoni gvyavs, varT sawyali upatrono, ubeduri~.

akakis daxasiaTebiT, yma glexisaTvis ar arsebobda samarTali. mas yvela Cagravda da devnida. misi cxovreba gabmuli tanjva iyo. batonymuri wyobilebiT sastikad devnili yma glexi mwuxarebiT acxadebda:

`Sindis wknelebze weria Cveni saxeli da gvari. . . ganvagrZoT, Zmebo, muSuri, Cveni sevdis ganmaqari!~ (`muSuri~)

poeti moeloda, rom `reformebis~ Semdeg glexi ganTavisufldeboda Cagvrisa da tanjvisagan, moipovebda garkveul adamianur uflebas swavlisa da cxovrebisaTvis, amitom man leqsiT `imeruli nanina~ 1864 wels miuloca yma glexis ax1

g r . k i k n a Z e , literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, 1978, gv. 324.

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alSobil Svilebs momavali Tavisufleba. magram akaki wereTeli xedavda, rom `reformebiT~ xalxis namdvili miznebi ar miRweula, amitom igi pawawina glexis Svils afrTxilebda: `nu gZinavs!... gaiRviZe, ican qveyanao! Senc Seitye ama soflis cru gamocanao!~ kargad iswavle, gaerkvie cxovrebis Rrma movlenebSi, `Seni daCagruli Zmebi Sen unda ixsnao~. poetis samarTliani SexedulebiT, xalxTa ganTavisuflebisaTvis warmoebuli brZola `reformebiT~ ar damTavrebula. poeti darwmunda, rom mefis mier Catarebuli `reformebi~ sruliadac ar aumjobesebda mSromelTa mdgomareobas. sinamdvileSi TviTmpyrobelobis mier Catarebul glexTa `ganTavisuflebas~ mSromelTa cxovrebis gauareseba mohyva. poeti kargad amCnevda, rom batonymoba faqtobrivad kvlav ZalaSi darCa. `gagvibatonda burJua, gamtkicda batonymobao~, -- werda akaki. mSromeli xalxis amgvari autaneli mdgomareoba Zlier awuxebda akakis: igi Tavs dastrialebda glexkacis mware beds, `cud droSi danabadi~, `jojoxeTis saxnisiT~ guldaRaruli poeti TanagrZnobiT mimarTavda glexebs:

`mimxvdari aris eg Tqveni SeubRalavi goneba, rom pirutyvsaviT ar Svenis mSromel kacs sxvisi moneba!~ (`muSebs~)

akakis swamda, rom adamians mxolod Sroma akeTilSobilebs da Sromaa misi bednierebis wyaro, cxovelmyofeli Zala, Sroma adamianis udides gardamqmnel saSualebad miaCnda poets. amitom mraval leqsSi (`simRera mkis dros~, `muSis natvra~, `muSuri~ da sxv.) umRera patiosan Sromasa da gamrje glexobas, romelsac uyvars Sroma, Sromasa da saqmianobaSi Weds momavals, mtkice xasiaTsa da gamZleobas. poeti gulwrfelad aqebda glexis Sromismoyvareobas, ubraloebas, gulkeTilobas, amtanobas, maxvilgonierebas, pirdapirobasa da gamWriaxobas. sasikvdilo sarecelze mwolare poetma glexebisagan naCuqari xonCa moiTxova da, rodesac CaaTvaliera zed warwerili sityvebi: `gaumarjos akakis~ -- Tavi veRar Seimagra, qviTini daiwyo. akaki wereTels mSromeli miaCnda momavali cxovrebis fesvad, glexobaze amyarebda xalxis ganTavisuflebis imeds. ruseTis TviTmpyrobelobis winaaRmdeg brZolis wyurviliT aris gaJRenTili akakis leqsi `xanjals~. igi dawerilia 1882 wels. gasuli saukunis 80-ian wlebSi, Savi reaqciis mZvinvarebis dros es leqsi aRafrTovanebda xalxs mtris winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad. leqsi `xanjals~ TiTqmis meoTxedi saukunis manZilze aralegalurad, xelnaweris saxiT vrceldeboda da mxolod 1905 wels moxerxda misi dabeWdva. akaki wereTeli xedavda, rom yovelgvari Tavisuflebis mosapoveblad aucilebeli iyo ruseTis imperiis winaaRmdeg iaraRiT brZola. poeti samSoblos gamoxsnis imeds xanjalze, brZolis basr iaraRze amyarebda. galesili xanjali mas miaCnda usamarTlod daCagrulis Semwed da megobrad:

`Seni Wirime xanjalo, rkinao xvarasnisao, Sen, erTaderTo imedo, mtrisagan gamoxsnisao~.

xanjals evaleba mtris umowyalod ganadgureba, umarTlod daCagrulis gankurneba, mtris gulTan mociquloba. cxovrebis maxinj movlenaTa da usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi akaki wereTeli uxvad iyenebda satirasac. poeti dauzogavad amaTraxebda yvelas, vinc aferxebda erovnuli ganTavisuflebis saqmes. igi `gesliani isriT~ gabedulad ebrZoda xalxis mtrebs. akaki satiras gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobas aniWebda.

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satirul leqsSi `apelaciis mcodne~ akakim gakicxa biurokrati moxele, CanCuras Svili, vinc tyavs aZrobda xalxs, sCadioda aTasgvar usamarTlobas, meqrTameobas:

`amboben: -- qrTami sZulso, ar iZRvnis arc qaTamsa, mxolod maSin ar iwyens, Tu msuqani vacia. magram es zvarakia! amas vin etyvis qrTamsa, sxvam rom hqmnas, is sxva aris! es swavluli kacia!~

Tavisi satira akaki wereTelma mimarTa agreTve carizmis nasufraliT gamokvebili `finiebis~ winaaRmdeg. poeti iSviaTi moxdenilobiT amxelda amgvar pirTa sasacilo moqmedebas:

`misi yefa mxolod marto Suria... vis aSinebs sasacilo muria?! magis xerxi erTi lukma puria: gadaugdeb, gaCumdeba muria. vinc gaaZRebs, misi Sinauria, imas hmonebs da kuds uqnevs muria~ (`patara muria~)

akakim gakicxa TviTmpyrobelur-biurokratiuli reJimi. poetis moxdenili daxasiaTebiT, TviTmpyrobelur-memamulur sazogadoebaSi Wkuas, guls da saerTod yvela keTilSobilur grZnobas cvlis kuWi, sicrue, cbiereba, angareba. poeti uSiSrad aaSkaravebs mefis xelisuflebis sibriyvesa da veragobas:

`qurdebi sWrian samarTals, marTlebs uyrian borkilsa, da qveynis mteri iuda dascinis mamuliSvilsa. briyvi da uswavlelebi TavSi udgia Wkvianebs... gahqres es Jami baremRa, netavi ras igvianebs?!~

mourideblad amxelda poeti carizmis TvalTmaqcobas da borotmoqmedebas:

`Tvals mixveven, enas mglejen da magdeben sakireSi! urcxvad Svid-Svid paraskevsa miTvlian me erT kviraSi~ (`Tvals mixveven, enas mglejen~)

es gonebadakarguli egoistebi mxolod piradi keTildReobisaTvis iyvnen gatacebuli da xalxi, qveyana arafrad miaCndaT:

`mec is minda mec iq Seval, sadac tkbila, sadac Tbila! Torem, Tu me ar viqnebi, qva qvazedac nu yofila!~ (`didi vinme~)

Tavisi drois arc erTi gasakicxi movlena ar gamorCenia poets, yvelas xvdeboda misi mebrZoli satiris maxvili. akakis lirikuli poezia uaRresad emociuri da STambeWdavia. masSi ostaturadaa gamoyenebuli mravalsaukunovani da mravalferovani tradiciebi da manamde ucnobi poeturi xerxebi da formebi. akakis leqsebs axasiaTebs didi xelovnebiT gamoyenebuli mxatvruli simboloebi, alegoriuli, igav-arakuli Janri da narTauli formebi. akakis poeziaSi gamoyenebulia mqadagebluri, mWev101

rmetyveluri, ritorikuli, mimarTvis, energiuli mowodebis, vedrebis, aRtacebisa da sxva poeturi formebi da intonaciebi. akaki didi polemistia. igi Tavisi ideuri poziciis da miswrafebaTa mkafiod gamoxatvisa da dacvis mizniT Tavis poeziaSi xSirad mimarTavda polemikas. misi poeturi polemikisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ukompromiso, naTeli, argumentirebuli, energiuli, mebrZoli paTosi. akakis polemika gvaocebs Tavisi enamoswrebulobiT, enawylianobiT, gonebamaxvilobiT, didi emociurobiT. akakis `Sxamnarev da Zirmware~ kalams, mis gamkenwlav `akakur enas~ yvela ekrZaleboda, ufrTxoda. akakis poezias amSvenebs misTvis damaxasiaTebeli mxatvruli gamosaxvis mravalferovani da sulis SemZvreli saSualebebi. misi poezia uxvadaa nasazrdoebi xalxuri masaliT, saxeebiT, versifikaciiT, riTmiT, erovnuli simRera-galobis im musikaluri kiloTi, romelic, akakis azriT, `arc sxvisi eniT gamoiTqmis, arc kalmiT aiwereba. imisi mxolod grZnoba SeiZleba~. igi eris `saunjea~ da vai im xalxs, romelsac is grZnobis saunje, is kilo daekargeba. akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebi. mowinave idealebi, erovnuli Cagvrisagan xalxis ganTavisuflebisadmi didi miswrafeba poetma gamoxata Tavis istoriul poemebSic. akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebi, ise, rogorc mTeli misi Semoqmedeba, Rrma ideurobiTaa STagonebuli da maRali mxatvruli ostatobiT Sesrulebuli. akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebi qarTuli literaturis mSvenebaa. gasuli saukunis samociani wlebidan gansakuTrebuli interesi gamoiwvia qarTveli xalxis istoriuli cxovrebis Seswavlis, mwerlobaSi mSobliuri warsulis Tematikis gamoyenebisadmi farTo miswrafebam da realisturi poemebis ganviTarebam. qarTveli samocianelebi didad afasebdnen qveynis istorias, misi Seswavlis aucileblobas da mniSvnelobas awmyos gagebis, momavlis ganWvretisa da xalxze zemoqmedebis saqmeSi. warsuli cxovrebis Seswavlis mniSvnelobis Segneba, misi dafaseba, xalxis Sinagani ganviTarebis kanonebis gaTvaliswineba da mwerlobaSi istoriuli Tematikis gamoyeneba gansazRvravda qarTveli xalxis mravalsaukunovani istoriisadmi akaki wereTlis damokidebulebas, mis politikur, mxatvrul-esTetikur interess. xalxis Zvel namoqmedars qmediTi Zala aqvs, Tu mas SemoqmedebiTad aviTvisebT da gonivrulad gamoviyenebT. akakis rwmeniT, gamocdileba da sasaxelo tradiciebi keTili momavlis interesebs unda emsaxurebodes. Tu erma yovelgvari kavSiri gawyvita warsulTan, dakarga warsulis xsovna da samudamo daviwyebas misca istoriuli cxovrebis gamocdileba da yovelive is, rac sasargebloa sazogadoebis ukeTesi mermisis damkvidrebisaTvis, aseTi eri, -- akakis rwmeniT, -- daiRupeba. akaki wereTeli Rrmad swavlobda Cveni qveynis warsuls, mis mdidar literaturas, xalxur Semoqmedebas, matianeebSi moTxrobil ambebs, Cveni qveynis warsulis istoriuli cxovrebis amsaxvel rogorc qarTul, ise ucxour wyaroebs. am masalebis gamoyenebis safuZvelze poeti xatavda warsulis realistur saxeebs... akaki, rogorc realisti mwerali, movlenaTa realistur asaxvas ar aigivebda protokolur aRwerilobasTan. igi realisti mwerlisagan moiTxovda aRebuli sagnis `SemoqmedebiTi ZaliT~ daxatvas. SeiZleba dabejiTebiT iTqvas, rom saerTod akakis istoriuli poemebis ZiriTadi siuJetebi agebulia istoriul wyaroebSi dacul cnobebze. xandaxan akaki mimarTavs poetur gamonagonsac da moxdenilad qargavs mas Txzulebis mxatvrul qsovilSi, magram es gamonagoni didi ostatis xeliT sinamdvilis fonzea mxatvrulad gamokveTili da Seesatyviseba warsuli istoriuli cxovrebis garkveul viTarebas.

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akaki wereTeli istoriul Tzxulebebs or jgufad yofda: namdvil istoriulad da `viTom istoriulad~ anu `istoriul gvarad~. orive saxis nawarmoebi poets saerTod istoriuli xasiaTis Txzulebad miaCnda. `sazogadod istoriuli Txzuleba, -- werda akaki, -- ueWvelia, WeSmaritebazed unda iyos damyarebuli; magram aris erTgvari Txzulebac, Tumca ara namdvilad istoriuli, magram `viTom istoriuli~, anu `istoriuli gvari~, rodesac TxzulebaSi, rogorc moqmedeba, ise moqmedi pirebic gamogonilia ganZraxviT; magram ise namdvilad ki, rom im drois, ra drosac ekuTvnis, xasiaTsa da viTarebas namdvilad gvixatavs, da rac ambavi moxdeboda, swored ise unda momxdariyo, rogorc avtori gvixatavs da ara sxvagvarad~1. poetis es Sexeduleba savsebiT naTelyofs istoriuli Txzulebisadmi misi damokidebulebis xasiaTs. akaki wereTlis istoriuli poemebidan gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva `bagrat didi~, `naTela~, `kikolas naambobi~ da `Tornike erisTavi~. aRniSnuli poemebiT daimkvidra akakim istoriuli poemebis didostatis ukvdavi saxeli. akakis es poemebi qarTuli literaturis mdidari saganZuris SesaniSnavi SenaZenia. akaki wereTlis istoriuli poema `bagrat didi~ Seiqmna 1875 wels. cnobilia, rom poema `bagrat didis~ fabula agebulia saqarTvelos istoriis erT-erT metad mRelvare epizodze. nawarmoebSi asaxulia qarTveli xalxis gmiruli brZola Temur lengis winaaRmdeg. am uTanasworo Tavganwiruli brZolis suraTebSi daxatulia bagrat didis datyvevebis, misi garegnulad gamahmadianebisa da samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebis didi istoriuli movlenebi. rogorc viciT, veragi yaenis, mrisxane Temur-lengis Semoseva udides ubedurebad daatyda Tavs qarTvel xalxs. saqarTvelos manamdec didi gaWirveba unaxavs agresorebis ZaladobiT, magram Temur-lengis SemoseviT gamowveuli aoxreba umagaliTo iyo. misma Semosevebma `qveynis aoxrebiTa da didZali xalxis daRupviT saqarTvelo ise daasusta, rom Cvenma qveyanam saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi gamokeTeba veRar SeZlo~.2 Temur-lengi didZali jariT gamoemarTa saqarTvelos dasapyrobad. 1386 wels Temuri `nacadi rCeuli jariTurT uecriv... saqarTvelos dedaqalaqs Tbiliss moadga, sadac TviT mefe bagrati imyofeboda~. mefe cixeSi gamagrda. daiwyo sastiki brZola. qarTvelebi gmirulad ibrZodnen da zRva sisxlis fasad icavdnen dedaqalaqs... Temur-lengi gars Semoertya cixes da brZaneba gasca, radac ar unda dajdomodaT, SeemusraT cixesimagre. qarTvelTa gmiruli brZolis miuxedavad, ricxvmravalma mterma aiRo Tbilisi. mterma bagrat mefe Tavisi ojaxiTa da amaliT tyved Caigdo. datyvevebul mefes yaenma gamahmadianeba mosTxova. qarTuli da somxuri istoriuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, bagratma, Temurisagan Tavis daRwevisa da samagieros gadaxdis mizniT, garegnulad mahmadianoba miiRo. Temurma uxvad daasaCuqra qarTveli mefe. bagratma yaens aRuTqva mTeli saqarTvelos dapyroba da gamahmadianeba. gaxarebulma Temurma 12000 rCeuli meomriT gamoistumra igi saqarTveloSi. rodesac bagrat mefe mouaxlovda saqarTvelos sazRvrebs, man winaswar gafrTxilebuli Svilis, giorgis meoxebiT mTlianad gaJlita Temur-lengis jari da amiT Suri iZia mterze. aRniSnul istoriul movlenebze da gadmocemebze aago akaki wereTelma `bagrat didis~ fabula. poemaSi asaxuli movlenebi, rogorc aRvniSneT, ZiriTadad istoriul wyaroebzea damyarebuli. mTavari personaJebic: bagrat didi, lengTemuri da mefis Ze giorgi istoriuli pirebi arian. TxzulebaSi arsebiTad daculia istoriuli simarTle. aq istoriuli movlenebis SemoqmedebiTad asaxvasTan erTad didi poeturi ostatobiT isea gamoyenebuli `mxatvruli gamonagoni~ da `poeturi Sevseba~, rom isini savsebiT bunebrivad da kanonzomierad Seesaty1

2

a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani, t. XII, gv. 138. n . b e r Z e n i S v i l i , i v . j a v a x i S v i l i , s . j a n a S i a , saqarTvelos istoria, 1946, gv. 284.

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visebian namdvil istoriul viTarebas. am poemaSi gardasuli drois mxatvrulSemoqmedebiTi asaxva STagonebulia qveynis ukeTesi momavlis ganxorcielebis idealebiT, erovnuli Cagvris mospobisaTvis xalxSi nacionalur ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis gaRvivebis miswrafebiT. qarTveli xalxis tragikuli istoriuli epoqis, samSoblos TavisuflebisaTvis yovelgvari piradis gawirvis mxatvruli gansaxierebis safuZvelze poeti mZafrad akritikebda Tanadroulobas da xels uwyobda xalxSi gamarjvebis imedis ganviTarebas. poema `bagrat didis~ ideuri sidiade imaSic mdgomareobs, rom masSi samSoblos siyvaruli, misTvis Tavdadeba, misi dafaseba da pativiscema, umaRles mwvervalzea ayvanili. TxzulebaSi didi STagonebiT gatarebulia is azri, rom adamianma yvelaferi unda Seswiros samSoblos keTildReobas. saWiro SemTxvevaSi mamuliSvilma samSoblosaTvis unda daTmos ojaxi, colic, Svilic, yovelgvari maRali mdgomareoba da TviT sicocxlec ki. pirovnulis uyoymanod gawirva sazogadosaTvis, samSoblosaTvis -- bagratisa da isak moZRvris dialogsa da mTel poemaSi garkveviT xazgasmulia es uaRresad keTilSobiluri ideali:

`colis damkargvi sxva cols SeirTavs, mkvdar Svils uqarvebs meore Svili, magram magiers ki veRar poebs kaci, Tu ar hyavs mas deda tkbili~.

aq `deda~ -- samSoblos simboloa. is azri, rom samSoblos da xalxis interesebs yvelaferi unda davuqvemdebaroT da, saWiro SemTxvevaSi, unda SevwiroT kidec sakuTari dideba, ojaxi, sulic da sicocxlec, warmoadgens poemis wamyvan ideur Sinaarss. poemaSi xazgasmulia qarTveli xalxis gmiroba da simamace, misi qeduxreli brZola mravalricxovan agresorTa winaaRmdeg. akakis daxasiaTebiT sastiki gansacdelis Jams mxneobiT aRWurvil qarTvelebs `gulSi ar edoT SiSi~. poemaSi aRniSnulia, rom saqarTvelos bedma `mohfina viTa kalia, mZvinvare, mxecqmnili mongolTa Zala!~qvemoT poeti dasZens: Temur-lengma `rom simxniTa verra gaawyo, man moindoma rom sZlios ricxviT~. magram mravalricxovan uTanasworo brZolebSi qarTvelebi ar Sedrknen da saarako gmiroba gamoiCines. Zlieri saxelmwifoebis dapyrobiTa da miwasTan gasworebiT galaRebuli da Tan auracxeli jaris imediT gaTamamebuli Temur-lengi darwmunebuli iyo, rom qarTvelebsac advilad daimonebda, magram motyuvda. gmirma qarTvelma xalxma bevrjer agema mters damarcxeba. qarTvelebis es gamarjvebani TbilisisTvis brZolaSi unda momxdariyo. Tbilisis garSemo didi brZolebisa da qarTveli jaris Seupovari gmirobis Sesaxeb `qarTlis cxovreba~ mogviTxrobs: rodesac Temur-lengi uricxvi jariT saqarTvelosken gamoemarTa `viTarca Relvani zR¢sani ganZ¢nebulni~, gardmovlo aboci, TrialeTi, sabaraTiano, `saSinelebiTa da zariTa~ sastikad aaoxra dasaxlebuli mxareebi. amis mcnobi bagrati ar SeuSinda mZvinvare mters, gaamagra Tbilisi. Temur-lengi amas ar moeloda. igi `egreT hgonebda T¢T mis lvasa da morCilebasa mefisa bagratisa, viTarca morCil eqmna aTabagi da sxuanica mravalni~.1 brZolis velze gamovida mefe bagrat qarTveli jariT da mtris urdoebs Seutia da `iqmna brZola Zlieri imier da amier, da moisrna orkerZove simravleni spaTani da ufrosRa mravalni moswyvides spani lang-Temurisani~.2 poeti poemaSi istoriuli simarTliT, realisturad xatavs qarTvelTa gmirobas da moZalade mtrisadmi Seurigeblobas. akaki Temur-lengis sityvebiT qarTvelebs ase axasiaTebs:

1 `qarTlis cxovreba~, t. II, 1959, gv. 449. teqsti dadgenilia yvela xelnaweris mixedviT s. yauxCiSvilis mier. 2 iqve, gv. 450.

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`...gana ar vici, raa qarTveli? mis Sesadari arsad minaxavs, Tumc aziisa var me momvleli! suliT maRali da guliT mtkice!.. misi ganzraxva uzakvelia da, sanam pirSi suli udgia, mis damonebac ufiqrelia~.

qarTvelTa amgvari Tvisebebis win wamoweviT poeti nergavda Tanadroul sazogadoebaSi xalxis Zalebisadmi rwmenas, aRvivebda erovnuli TviTSegnebis grZnobebs da xels uwyobda ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis ganviTarebas. xalxis uWknobi sibrZniT aris STagonebuli poemis Semdegi striqonebi:

`cocxal monaze umjobesia Tavisuflebis ZebnaSi mkvdari! imisi saqme STamomavlobas bnels gaunaTebs rogorc lampari~.

monur cxovrebasTan SedarebiT Tavisuflebis ZebnaSi sikvdilis upiratesobis aRiareba savsebiT gamoxatavs xalxis gmirul, mebrZol suliskveTebas, mis qeduxrelobas. TavisuflebisaTvis daRupuli gmiris `saqme STamomavlobas bnels gaunaTebs, rogorc lampari~, aseTia poemaSi gamoxatuli suliskveTeba. rogorc aRiniSna, poemis mTavari personaJebi bagrat didi da Temur-lengi istoriuli pirovnebebia. bagrat mefe (bagrat V) giorgi brwyinvalis Zis, daviTis Svili iyo da mefobda meToTxmete saukunis meore naxevarSi, daaxloebiT 1360-1393 wlebSi. qarTul, somxur da berZnul saistorio wyaroebSi bagrati moxsenebulia, rogorc `didi mefe~, `mefeT-mefe~, `usaxelovanesi mxedarTmTavari~, `Zlevamosili da Zlieri~. poetic bagrats axasiaTebs aseve, rogorc `saxelganTqmul, dRemde svian~ mefes, gulads, gmirs. bagrats samSoblosaTvis `ofli da sisxli erTad uRvria~, ver aSinebs ubedureba, igi gulmagari, mxne da lomguli gmiria. mzad aris `tkbil deda samSoblos~ yvelaferi Seswiros. bagratis rwmeniT, vinc samSoblos gawiravs da dakargavs, `is saukunod ukunisamde nuRa moelis keTilsa bolos~. samSoblos gareSe mas arad uCns samefo gvirgvini, saxeli, dideba da piradi brwyinvaleba. bagrati Wkviani da moxerxebulia. man garegnulad miiRo mahmadianoba da miT motyuebul Temur-lengs miuzRo samagiero. saerTod istoriulad cnobili pirebi akakim, Tavisi mxatvruli amocanebis Sesabamisad, umTavresad ise daxata, ra saxiTac iyvnen isini daxasiaTebuli da warmodgenili ZiriTad saistorio wyaroebSi. poetma mdidari mxatvruli gamonagonisa da mravalferovani istoriul-literaturuli masalis mxatvrul-SemoqmedebiTad gamoyenebis saSualebiT poeturad Seavso, gaacocxla da garkveuli mizniT warmarTa Txzulebis personaJTa urTierTobani, amasTanave uzrunvelyo saxeTa istoriuloba da Tanamedroveobis mwvave problemebTan maTi dakavSireba. poemis personaJi ioseb (berobaSi isak) moZRvari istoriulad cnobili pirovneba ar aris, igi `mxatvruli gamonagonia~, magram savsebiT Seesabameba istoriul sinamdviles. did poetur quraSi gatarebuli istoriuli masalebi da garkveuli koncefciiT daxatuli saxe isak moZRvrisa da masTan dakavSirebuli situaciebisa warmoadgens iseT `mxatvrul gamonagons~, romelic savsebiT Seefereba epoqas da simarTliT warmogvidgens iseT personaJs, romelic `ra drosac ekuTvnis, xasiaTsa da viTarebas namdvilad gvixatavs~. igi savsebiT bunebrivad da mTeli uSualobiT eqsoveba `bagrat didis~, rogorc istoriuli Txzulebis, saerTo mdinarebas. aseTi tipebi namdvilad cocxloben Cveni xalxis cxovrebasa da warmodgenaSi. TxzulebaSi iosebis saxe warmodgenilia, rogorc didi patrioti, samSoblosa da qveynisaTvis Tavdadebuli, qeduxreli gmiri. iosebi mTeli siamayiT acxadebs:

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`Cemi col-Svili, Cemi saxl-kari, amqveyniuri me netareba, yvela Sevwire tkbil samSoblosa, mindoda misi bedniereba!~

iosebi mozRvavebuli mtris winaaRmdeg brZolaSi `sisxlze sisxls~ umatebda da, miuxedavad mravali avbedobisa, bolomde inarCunebda Rrma optimizms. is bagrats moagonebs:

`TeTri ara maqvs Tavze imdeni, ramdenic tanze mtrisgan Wriloba~ ar Semdrekia arodes guli, miT davimtkice qarTvlisSviloba~.

TxzulebaSi es personaJi kalmis ramdenime mosmiTaa Sesrulebuli. igi erTgvari epizoduri saxiTaa naCvenebi, magram iseTi poeturi STagonebiTaa Cafiqrebuli da iseTi aspeqtebiTaa gansaxierebuli, rom mkiTxvelze waruxocel STabeWdilebas axdens. am personaJis saxiT poetma gamoxata qarTveli xalxis sibrZne, gautexeloba, mtrisadmi Seurigebloba, moZaladisadmi daumorCilebloba. mis dialogSi mefesTan igrZnoba xalxis didi rwmena, rom mtrisagan aoxrebuli qveyana kvlav ayvavdeba, `gmiruli misi saxeli ukunisamde ar daaviwydeba~ da `samSoblos maRal didebas~ adamianma yovelive piraduli unda Seswiros. poemis pirvel karSive asaxulia lang-Temuris mier Tbilisis aRebisa da bagrat didis datyvevebis epizodebi. ZiriTadad aq aris mocemuli Txzulebis eqspozicia. meoreSi ki warmodgenilia datyvevebuli bagrat didisa da misi moZRvris, isakis dialogi. orive gmiri mzadaa sakuTari interesebi da TviT sicocxlec ki anacvalon samSoblos interesebs, misi Tavisuflebis saqmes. am keTilSobiluri miznis misaRwevad Tavdapirvelad maT erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli gza aqvT arCeuli: isaks --simtkice, aSkara brZola da qeduxreloba, bagrats ki -- xerxis gamoyeneba, sarwmunoebis garegnulad Secvla, miT veragi lang-Temuris motyueba da Semdeg SurisZiebiT samSoblos ganTavisufleba. mamuliSvilebi bolos gaugeben erTmaneTs, isakic bagratis mier arCeul gzas daadgeba. arsebiTad am karSi inaskveba nawarmoebis siuJeturi kvanZi. mesame karSi lang-Temurisa da bagratis dialogSi asaxulia movlenaTa iseTi Semdgomi kulminaciuri ganviTareba, romliTac sabolood uzrunvelyofilia gmir qarTvel patriotTa sabrZolo meTodebis ganxorcieleba -- Temuri aZlevs 12000 jariskacs bagrats, gzavnis saqarTvelos dasapyrobad. bagratis xerxma gaWra. ukanasknel meoTxe karSi qarTvel gmirTa ocnebis ganxorcielebaa daxatuli. bagratma Temuris jarebi viwro xeobaSi moaqcia da igi winaswar gandobili Svilis -- giorgis daxmarebiT sul erTianad gaJlita. aq movlenaTa siuJeturi ganviTareba mTavrdeba da finali aSkaraa. saerTod poema kompoziciurad Sekrulia da TiTqmis sruliad Tavisufali zedmeti xlarTebisagan. aRsaniSnavia, rom TxzulebaSi personaJebi Zalze gansazRvruli raodenobiTaa warmodgenili. amasTanave, maTi xasiaTebi araa sisruliT gaSlili. poema Tavisi ideuri mizandasaxulebis Sesabamisad Sesrulebulia xan lirikuli, xan paTosiT aRsavse intonaciiT. istoriuli ambis sidiadisa da siRrmis gadmosacemad poets aurCevia ZiriTadad aTmarcvlovani leqsis zoma. aRniSnuli garemoebis gamo poema erTgvarad moklebulia ritmul mravalferovnebas, magram samagierod miRweulia warsulis tragikuli movlenebis kolorituli asaxva da mopovebul gamarjvebaTa sazeimo STamagonebeli gadmocema. TxzulebaSi TiTqos igrZnoba poema `bedi qarTlisas~ erTgvari qrola (bagratisa da iosebis dialogi, mwvave paeqroba, bolos Serigeba da sxv.). samecniero literaturaSi gamoTqmulia azri, rom poema `bagrat didi~ akakis cnobil poemebTan SedarebiT mxatvruli TvalsazrisiT ver dgas Tavis si106

maRleze~.1 poemaSi `ar igrZnoba is simsubuqe da uSualoba, rac ase SesamCnevia mis sxva nawarmoebebSi~.2 aRniSnuli mosazrebebi gasagebia, Tu poema `bagrat didis~ mxatvrul Taviseburebebs marTlac SevafasebT akakis sxva, ufro maRalmxatvrul poemebTan Sedarebis TvalsazrisiT. magram samarTlianoba moiTxovs isic aRiniSnos, rom calke aRebuli es nawarmoebi xasiaTdeba saintereso mxatvruli TaviseburebebiT. igi, rogorc akakis pirveli dasrulebuli istoriuli poema, Tavisi RirsebebiT garkveul yuradRebas imsaxurebs. poema TavisTavad moklebuli ar aris lirikul sifaqizes, paToss, kompoziciur Sekrulobas da siuJetur simaxviles. poemis ena sada da xalxuria. amasTanave isic unda aRiniSnos, rom poemas aklia erTgvari damuSaveba, ris gamoc garkveuli strofebi da situaciebi yovelTvis ar JReren akakisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli poeturi xmiT. poemis daxasiaTebisas isic saTqmelia, rom am poemis Seqmnisas, garda erovnuli niadagisa da erovnuli istoriisa, erTgvari impulsi gaxda jer kidev gimnaziaSi swavlisas akakis maswavleblis -- poloneli rodzieviCis saubrebi da didi poloneli poetis, adam mickeviCis poema `konrad valenrodis~ gacnoba. akakis `bagrat didisa~ da adam mickeviCis `konrad valenrods~ Soris garkveuli msgavsebis elementebi aSkarad SeiniSneba. akaki moswavleobidanve iyo gatacebuli didi poloneli mwerliT da misi gmiriT da roca saqarTvelos istoriaSi valenrodis gmirobasTan damsgavsebuli faqti aRmoaCina, mas siamovnebiT miswvda. poema `kikolas naambobi~ dawerili unda iyos 1885-1886 wlebSi. arsebobs azri, TiTqosda kikola sxvitoris axlomdebare sofel orRulis mkvidri kikola kalmaxeliZea. akaki am glexis ambavs gascnobia mezobeli glexebis meSveobiT. cxadia, poemis dawerisas akakim gamoiyena sxva masalebic, kerZod xalxuri gadmocemebi, qarTuli Tu sxva istoriuli wyaroebi, krwanisis omis momswre-monawileTa monaTxrobebi an maT STamomavalTa mier gadmocemuli cnobebi. `kikolas naambobs~ gansakuTrebuli adgili uWiravs akakis istoriul poemebSi. Tu sxva TxzulebebSi mTavar personaJebad ZiriTadad mefeebi da didebulebi arian warmodgenili, `kikolas naambobSi~ ZiriTadi moqmedi gmiria xalxis dabali fenidan gamosuli yma glexi kikola. avtoris mizans Seadgenda SaravandediT Seemosa samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebuli saxalxo gmiri -- glexi kikola da masTan erTad mSromeli mosaxleobis is razmi, romelmac saarako gmiroba gamoiCina Semoseuli mtris winaaRmdeg sastik brZolaSi. aRa-mahmad-xanma qarTl-kaxeTis samefos kvlav kategoriulad mosTxova `iranis uzenaesobis cnoba... qarTl-kaxeTis mowinave wreebma da mefem civi uariT gaistumres aRa-mahmad-xanis mociquli~.3 maT ruseTTan hqondaT xelSekruleba dadebuli da pirobas ar uRalatebdnen. amas mohyva veragi Sahis didZali jariT Tavdasxma saqarTveloze. mteri Tbilisis karibWes moadga. krwanisis velze unda gadawyvetiliyo qveynis bedi. dadga qarTveli xalxis yofna-aryofnis sakiTxi. poemis ZiriTadi siuJeti am tragikul movlenazea agebuli. am brZolaSi qarTvelTa mxedrobam erekle meoris xelmZRvanelobiT kvlav uCvena kacobriobas Tavisi gmiruli SemarTeba, samSoblosTvis saarako Tavdadeba. am istoriul simarTles rom asaxavs akaki wereTeli, iqve gviCvenebs qarTvelTa damarcxebis mizezsac. mZafri guliswyromiT aris mxilebuli gadagvarebuli feodalebis veragoba, batoniSvilTa urTierTSuRli da gautanloba. Tavdapirvelad naCvenebia qarTl-kaxeTis samefos mZime saSinao da sagareo mdgomareoba. brZolebSi gaWaRaravebuli erekle uCivis xandazmulobas, amasam b e r k i g a C e C i l a Z e , akaki wereTeli, 1949. gv. 93. S . r a d i a n i , a xali qarTuli literatura, 1954, gv. 329, Sdr. guram asaTiani, vefxistyaosnidan baxtrionamde, gv. 305-306. 3 i. c i n c a Z e , aRa-mahmad-xanis Tavdasxma saqarTveloze, Tb., 1963, gv. 3.

2

1

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Tan, siberis Jams RmerTs movsZuldio, -- acxadebs gvirgvinosani. swored aseT dros moiSala Sinagani erTianoba da gareSe mtrebmac axla moices Zalao. amas zed isic daerTo, rom batoniSvilebs Soris Tanxmoba aRar aris, isini erTmaneTs hglejen kalTas, sxvadasxva mxriv miiweven. momravldnen moRalateebic. swored amiT isargebles gareSe mtrebmac da qveyanas Tavs daatyda sparselTa Tavdasxma. poemis es eqspoziciuri nawili mrume ganwyobilebas qmnis miT ufro maSin, roca mkiTxvelis winaswar Sesamzadeblad avtori aviTarebs eris konsolidaciis ideas. aq mkafiod aris Tqmuli:

`mas Semdeg, rac saqarTvelo or nawilad gayofila, mSvidoba da mosveneba aRarc erTSi ar yofila. gvaviwydeba, rom Zmebi varT, erTmaneTis ganayari; erTis sisxliT morwyuli gvaqvs mindori, tye, mTa da bari~.

kikolasaTvis warmoudgenelia ZmaTa Soris uTanxmoeba. igi Tavs erTiani qveynis moqalaqed grZnobs da tomobrivi gankerZoeba misTvis iseve ucxoa, rogorc mamulis Ralati. es aris glexTa wridan gamosuli WeSmariti mamuliSvili. kikolas kontrastuli saxea misi Zma, batonis yurmoWrili mona-morCili, vinc daemorCila sakuTari mebatonis gulisTqmas da ar gahyva meomrebs mamulis dasacavad. TviT kikolas dedac wyevlis kikolas umadur Zmas. deda kikolas mimarTavs: Svilo, dRemde giglovdi, Senze vicvamdi Savsao, dReidan vigloveb im Sens Zmas, moRalates da avsao~. zurab wereTlis saxe -- es aris moRalate feodalis saxe, romelic `yizilbaSuri~ medidurobiT zians ayenebs saqarTvelos. zurabi istoriuli piria. istoriulad mas didi wvlili miuZRvis imereTis samefos ruseTTan dakavSirebaSi, magram akaki mas yvelgan uaryofiTad gvixatavs. zurabs, rogorc mefis pirvel saxlTuxucess, samefo karze didi gavlena moupovebia. mefec ki `umisod veras hbedavda~. igi, rogorc mebatone, sastiki da daundobelia. man sastiki mopyrobiT Suri iZia kikolasa da mis ojaxze, ar daindo xalxis sayvareli mkurnali oTar TurmaniZe, xolo, rodesac mefem saTaTbirod miiwvia qarTl-kaxeTis daxmarebaze, uaryofiTi rCeva misca mefes. saerTo-saxalxo saqme man imereTisaTvis Soreul da saziano saqmed gamoacxada. gamTiSveli politikis mimdevarma ase ganacxada: `raT daviwyluloT sxvisaTvis guli, roca isari Cven ar gvesobao~. es zviadi feodali veragulad atyuebs mefe erekles, radgan daaimeda igi, Caaba sastik omSi da TviTon ki imereTisaken gabrunda... poemis mixedviT, moRalate wereTelma muxanaTurad daRupa mefe solomonic, risTvisac xalxi mas wyevla-krulviT ixseniebda. poemaSi mravali istoriuli movlena simarTliT aris warmosaxuli, magram imis aRniSvna, rom TiTqos solomonsa da zurab wereTels krwanisis omSi monawileoba ar mieRoT, istoriul WeSmaritebas ar gamoxatavs. aRniSnulis irgvliv azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa. zogi wyaro uaryofs imerTa mxedrobis -- solomon mefisa da zurab wereTlis monawileobas am brZolaSi, zogi ki aRiarebs. rogorc Cans, poeti `kikolas naambobis~ werisas emyareboda rusi avtorebis -- butkovisa da dubrovinis tendenciur monacemebs. maSindeli qarTuli istoriografiis dabali done da problemaTa Seuswavleloba akakis aiZulebda dayrdnoboda oficiozur cnobebs, aman ki istoriuli simarTlis damaxinjeba gamoiwvia mis poemaSi. mogvianebiT poetis mimarT sayveduris werilebic daibeWda, akakic Caeba kamaTSi, magram problemis gaSuqebaSi gardatexa maSin ar momxdara. rac Seexeba poemaSi asaxul qarTvelTa gmirobas, obieqturi sinamdvilea da ara poetis fantaziis nayofi.

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poema saerTod maRalmxatvruladaa Sesrulebuli. leqsi moqnili da elastikuria. yoveli mxatvruli saxe naTeli da gamWvirvalea. moqmedeba dinamikuria. poeti gvevlineba epikuri Txrobis didostatad. nawarmoebSi uxvadaa gamoyenebuli xalxuri leqsika, brZnuli Tqmebi, hiperbolebi, Sedarebani da sxva. akaki wereTeli mTel Tavis SemoqmedebaSi gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobda erovnuli konsolidaciis, qarTveli xalxis mtkice erTianobis, sruliad saqarTvelos mTlianobis ideas. poema `naTela~ swored am sakiTxs exeba. poema pirvelad daibeWda 1897 wels. TxzulebaSi gadmocemulia qarTvelTa patriotizmi. samSoblosaTvis Tavdadeba da gmiruli paTosi erTmaneTs erwymis. gmir qarTvel mamakacebTan erTad aq daxatulia gmiri qarTveli qalis patriotuli saxe. poeti gviCvenebs Cveni qalebis siwmindes, zneobriv ubiwobas, ojaxisa da qmris ganuzomel siyvaruls. akakis azriT, Cveni qalebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT patriotizmia damaxasiaTebeli. poema `naTela~ istoriul Temazea agebuli. masSi SemoqmedebiTadaa gamoyenebuli mematianeTa cnobebi, qarTul da ucxour enebze arsebuli saistorio wyaroebi, mxatvruli literatura da folkloruli masalebi, poemis siuJeti gamdidrebulia poeturi gamonagoniT. poemaSi asaxulia qarTveli xalxis avbedoba monRolTa Semosevisas da amer-imerTa imdroindeli aSliloba, Ralati da sisxlisRvra. damxobili Zmobisa da erTobis daSlis niadagze `dadga bneli, sazareli dro mxecebis sanavardo!... mzis sxivebis veRar mWvreti gaxma ia, daWkna vardi~. amiT isargebles agresorTa urdoebma da Savi dRe gauTenes qveyanas: yoveli mxriT gaismoda sulTambrZoli `vai, viSi~ da dacemul qarTvelobis aRar hqondaT mis mtrebs SiSi~. moZaladeebma qveyana gaanadgures, `mTa da bari gaaswores, SeaerTes zRva da vake~. poemaSi didi simZafriTaa dagmobili samefoTa da tomTa Soris Ralati da daundobeli brZola. aq xazgasmulia, rom mZime viTarebaSi saqarTvelos moevlina kidev ufro didi ubedureba: ZmaTa Soris Suri, gautanloba, undobloba da sisxlisRvra. separatizmis, urTierTqiSpis, Ralatis niadagze adre ZlierebiT ganTqmuli saxelmwifo dauZlurda da daeca, gadagvarebisa da gadaSenebis dro daudga. `naTelaSi~ daviT guramiSvilis cnobili striqonebis gamoyenebiT, akaki xatavs amereTsa da imereTs Soris arsebuli uTanxmoebis suraTs:

`mama-papis waRma xnuli SviliSvilTa daRma farcxes! da amereT-imereTmac erTmaneTi daamarcxes~.

jer kidev 1867 wels gaz. `droebis~ furclebze akaki miuTiTebda: `Sav-ukuRmarT droebisagan daTesili ZvelTaganve uTanxmoeba ubedurad moimko saqarTvelom, rodesac is, saqarTvelo, ganawilda ramdenime samefod da samTavroebad... Zmuri kavSiri gawyda maT Soris da mizezic es iyo saqarTvelos dacemisa da gaoxrebisa~. poeti kargad xedavda mecxramete saukuneSi qarTveli xalxis erovnuli konsolidaciis process da imediTa da sasoebiT Sehxaroda am mniSvnelovan movlenas. poemis personaJi, samegrelos mTavari cotne dadiani istoriulad cnobili pirovnebaa. is iyo erisTavT-erisTavis, Sergil dadianis vaJi da cxovrobda XIII saukuneSi. mematieneni mas didi pativiscemiT ixsenieben da axasiaTeben rogorc saTno, warCinebul da brZolaTa Sina saxelovan kacs. sxva adgilas JamTaaRmwereli cotnes Sesaxeb wers: cotne dadiani iyo `saTnoeba maRali da gansaTqmeli, saqme sakvirveli da yovlisa qebisa Rirsi~. misi gmirobis ambavi Taobidan Taobaze gadmodioda. cotne dadiani monawileobda monRolTa batonobis winaaRmdeg mowyobil koxtas Tavis SeTqmulebaSi. igi sruliad saqarTvelos patriotebTan erTad amer-imerTa erTiani sabrZolo SekavSirebiT lamobda qveynis gaTavisuf109

lebas. Sendobilebma gadawyvites ajanyebis mowyoba da droc daTqves. manamde unda ezrunaT jaris Sekrebaze. cotne gaemarTa Tavis samTavroSi laSqris sawvevad. saubedurod, SeTqmuleba gamJRavnda. monRolebma gandobilni Sepyrobilni waiyvanes qalaq anisSi da noinis brZanebiT Seudgnen maT saSinel wamebas -- xelfexSekrulni, gaSiSvlebulni daawvines mzeze. cotnem gaigo ra SeTqmulTa Sepyroba, vaJkacurad gaiziara maTi bedi. noinma didad gaikvirva dadianis amgvari qceva. am gmirobiT aRfrTovanebulma gaaTavisufla qarTvelni. saistorio wyaroebze dayrdnobiT akakim warmosaxa cotnes STambeWdavi saxe. man SemoqmedebiTad gaiziara JamTaaRmwerlis cnobebi. amasTan, poemaSi CaurTo saintereso, momxibvleli epizodebi, gaamdidra igi poeturi gamonagoniT: adidebuli mdinaris (yvirilas) vaJkacurad gadalaxva (sxvaTa Soris, es xerxi akakis sayvareli xerxia. gavixsenoT glaxa baqraZis mier adidebuli aragvis gadalaxva moTxrobaSi `baSi-aCuki~), naTelasTan gamocxadeba, patriotuli davalebis miReba, pirobis Sesruleba, qorwili xopSi, sxvadasxva mxridan patriotTa sasaxlis aRwera, tyvedpyrobil SeTqmulTa werili, cotnes saubari noinTan, naTelasTan Sexvedra urdoSi da sxv. am poemaSi akakisaTvis ufro damaxasiaTebelia zogadi StrixebiT personaJis gamokveTa. cotnes daxatvisas avtori iyenebs folklorul personaJTa damaxasiaTebel niSnebs, `vefxistyaosnis~ mZleTamZle personaJebis zog Tvisebas. poemis ideuri Sinaarsis gaSlis TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovani personaJia modinaxes cixis mflobelis, qveli wereTlis asuli naTela. am saxis Seqmnisas akakis fantazias asazrdoebda Cveni qveynis istoriuli cxovrebis cnobili movlenebi, mxatvruli literatura da xalxuri Semoqmedeba. qarTul saistorio wyaroebsa da folklorSi mravali gmiri qalis saxe gvxvdeba, romelnic Semkobilni arian Rirseuli TvisebebiT. wlebis manZilze xalxi umReroda, qeba-didebas asxamda patriot qalebs, xolo xalxur mTqmelebs da mematianeebs ar aviwydebodaT maTTvis saTanado adgilis miCena. akakimac marjved waatana xeli masalebs da maT Targze aago naTelas saxe. poeti gmir qals axasiaTebs, rogorc qarTveli xalxis erovnuli erTianobisaTvis mebrZol patriots, visTvisac umTavresia samSoblos momavali. mas Tavi ubedurad manamde miaCnia, sanam qarTvels monRolis uReli adgas, guls uklavs is viTareba, rom `lixs iqiT moZme qarTveli ymad gauxdia monRolebs~, misTvis Zvirfasia imgvari davalebis micema satrfosaTvis, romelic qveynis ganTavisuflebis saqmes emsaxureba. am mxriv igi nestan-darejans Camohgavs. akaki poeturi aRmafreniT xatavs qalis saxes. modinaxes cixis patroni, qveli wereTlis asuli oblobaSi gazrdila, `ciT mowyvetili varskvlavi edemSi rguli vardia... odnav upoben lal-bageT kbilebi margalitisa, Tan axlavs ena bulbulis da moWikWike Citisa~. naTelas sulieri sidiade misi momxibvleli garegnobis sruli adekvaturia. garegnul portrets avtori did yuradRebas uTmobs. `tanadoba aqvs alvis xis da Tvaladoba mTvarisa, Rimili ciskris varskvlavis, sxivosan moelvarisa~. cisferTvaleba naTela `samoTxis Camsaxvelia, koWebamde scems xuWuWi, Savi ukuni bnelia~. naTelas momxibvlelobiT mravali vaJkaci dainteresebula, magram `vefxistyaosnis~ gmir qalTa darad masac gulidan ar scildeba Segoneba `sjobs, sayvarelsa uCvenne saqmeni sagmironia!~ da naTelac swored imas igulvebs saqmrod, vinc samSoblos mtrebs risxvad moevlineba. akaki mravalnair xerxs iyenebs personaJis bunebis ukeT warmosaCenad. naTelas simRera `Congurs simebi gavubi~ saqarTvelos mTlianobis ideiTaa STagonebuli da sruliad saqarTvelos erTobis, eris konsolidaciis gamomxatveli himnia. naTelas simRera xalxma aitaca da sayvarel simRerad aqcia:

`Conguri saqarTveloa, simebi Cven varT yvelao, sxvadasxva kuTxis mcxovrebni odela-dela, delao!.

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erTi maTganic rom gawydes, maSinve unda Svelao, rom ar gafuWdes Conguri odela-dela delao...~

akakis mouSoreblad awuxebda eris konsolidaciis problema. am motivTan dakavSirebiT man 1876 wels gaz. `droebaSi~ gamoaqveyna feletoni `Canguri~. aq akaki werda: `saqarTvelo es aris Conguri, romlis simebsac Seadgenen: qarTli, kaxeTi, imereTi, guria, samegrelo, afxazeTi, svaneTi, aWara, lazistani da sxv. TiToeuls amaTgans Tavisi sakuTari xma aqvs, magram kerZod TavisTavad arc erTs ara aqvs Zala, Tu erTmaneTs ar SeuTanxmdnen~. es motivacia mgosanma mravaljer gaimeora. kerZod `vefxistyaosanze~ wakiTxul leqciaSic ki. xolo dasrulebuli kompoziciis leqsis saxiT warmoadgina poema `naTelaSi~. akaki wereTlis epikur TxzulebebSi gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva poema `Tornike erisTavi~. igi xasiaTdeba ubadlo mxatvruli ostatobiT da Rrma ideurobiT. am nawarmoebiT poetma SemoqmedebiTad ganaviTara da gaamdidra axali qarTuli literaturis Zvirfasi saganZuri. aRniSnul poemaSi akaki wereTelma didi poeturi xedviT asaxa Cveni qveynis gmiruli warsulis didi istoriuli movlenebi, xalxis sibrZne, saxelovani tradiciebi, gautexeli mxneoba, uSreti Zliereba, humanizmi, maRali idealebi da didi mxatvruli ZaliT daayena igi Tanadroulobis interesebis samsaxurSi. poemis siuJeti agebulia meaTe saukunis meore naxevris istoriul movlenebze. aRniSnuli epoqa metad saintereso xanaa qarTveli xalxis cxovrebaSi. am periodSi, ramdenadac es im dros SesaZlebeli iyo, safuZveli Caeyara saqarTvelos gaerTianebas, `erovnulad dakuwuli sxeulis gamTelebas~,1 qveynis politikur Zlierebas, ekonomikur aRmavlobas da kulturul-literaturuli cxovrebis warmatebas. am xanaSi sakmaod momwifda da ganviTarda qarTveli xalxis erovnuli TviTSegneba. im dros saqarTvelo tols ar udebda mezobel xalxebs, qarTvelebi agebdnen kulturis centrebs TviT bizantiaSic da Tavdadebulad iRvwodnen qarTuli mecnierebisa da kulturis ayvavebisaTvis, mSobliuri enis ganviTarebisa da misi Rirsebis dacvisaTvis. imdroindeli saqarTvelo axlo urTierTobaSi imyofeboda msoflios Zlier da mowinave saxelmwifoebTan. qarTvelebs Zala SeswevdaT daxmarebodnen Zlier saberZneTs da daexsnaT igi barda skliarosis darbevisagan. saistorio wyaroebidan cnobilia, rom bizantiis samefos aujanyda sardali barda skliarosi. mojanyem zedized daamarcxa bizantiis keisris -- basilis jarebi, miadga sataxto qalaqs da lamobda mis aRebas. SeSinebulma, udao damarcxebis saSiSroebis winaSe mdgarma basilma, daxmarebisaTvis mimarTa tao-klarjeTis mefe daviT kurapalats. daviTma miaSvela keisars Tormeti aTasi qarTveli Tornike erisTavisa (Tornike im dros berad iyo Semdgari aTonis mTaze) da jojikis mTavarsardlobiT. qarTvelma meomrebma sastikad daamarcxes barda skliarosi da saberZneTi gadaarCines darbevas. cnobilia, rom barda skliarosis ajanyeba daiwyo 976 wels da grZeldeboda 979 wlamde. ufro sworad, Tornikem skliarosis jarebi sabolood daamarcxa 979 wlis 24 marts2. poeti Txzulebis pirvelsave taepebSi gvacnobs qarTveli xalxis gmirobasa da vaJkacobas. poets Rrmad swams, rom qarTveli eri kvlav cocxalia, ar momkvdara da gvasuldgmulebs ukeTesi momavlis imedi:

`naSTi Zveli didebisa ar gamqrala jerac yvela...

1 2

k. k e k e l i Z e , Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoria, t. I, 1951, gv. 44. k. k e k e l i Z e , etiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan, t. II, gv. 224.

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dResac misi SaravandiT niSans gvaZlevs cisartyela!... Svid samTavros mogvagonebs moelvare is Svidferi da gvimRerebs ar momkvdara, gaiRviZebs isev eri~.

poemaSi asaxuli mTavari movlenebi, ZiriTadad istoriuli faqtebi qveynis cxovrebis sinamdvilidanaa aRebuli. nawarmoebis mTavari personaJebi: daviT kurapalati, ioane da Tornike erisTavi, bizantiis imperatorebi konstantine da basili, dedofali Teofania, barda skliarosi, moqis Tavadi afraniki da sxv. istoriuli pirebi arian. yvela maTganis mxatvruli saxe mdidar istoriul wyaroebsa da xalxur gadmocemebs eyrdnoba. poetma mdidari istoriuli faqtebi, masalebi istoriuli simarTliT aametyvela, mianiWa maT maradiuli poeturi ukvdaveba. `Tornike erisTavi~ namdvilad istoriuli, saxalxo heroikuli poemaa. poeti aRniSnavda ra winaparTa did damsaxurebas qveynisa da msoflios, gansakuTrebiT saberZneTis winaSe, miuTiTebda, rom Cven valdebuli varT SeviswavloT Cveni warsuli, gavicnoT Cveni mama-papebi da maTi Rvawli, rom Cvenc maTis mibaZviT, droisa da adgilis Sesaferad awmyoSi momavlisaTvis viSromoT. akaki wereTlis mier `Tornike erisTavSi~ qarTveli eris istoriuli damsaxurebis xazgasmas udidesi mniSvneloba hqonda qarTvelebis erovnuli siamayis grZnobis gaRvivebisaTvis, misdami pativiscemis, misis avtoritetis aRiarebisa da zrdis saqmeSi. amiT poeti xalxSi aRvivebda patriotizmis suliskveTebas, koloniuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZolis miswrafebas. saistorio wyaroebSi gakvriT aris moxsenebuli zemoqveynebis qarTlisaTvis gadmocemis Sesaxeb. akakim am cnobas sagangebo mniSvneloba mianiWa, rogorc did erovnul da saxelmwifoebriv movlenas. es aris xazgasmuli Tornike erisTavis sityvebSi mefesTan da kaTalikosTan saubarSi:

`samagierod qarTls hpirdebian zemo qveynebis dabrunebasa; mxolod amisTvis me daveTanxme imaT survils da imaT nebasa~.

saistorio wyaroebiT dasturdeba, rom zemoqveynebi adre marTlac qarTvelebs ekuTvnodaT (sabinini), xolo skliarosis damarcxebis Semdeg bizantiis keisarma is dapirebis Tanaxmad daubruna saqarTvelos. poemaSi aRniSnulia, rom, brZolis velidan gamarjvebuli qarTveli jaris dabrunebisas, Tornike erisTavma mefes gadasca upirvelesi da gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo saCuqari -- zemoqveynebis dabrunebis sigeli. es suraTi iSviaTi sazeimo STagonebiTaa poemaSi daxatuli. am sakiTxis Sesaxeb saqarTvelos istoriis wignSi aRniSnulia: `madlierma basilma am daxmarebis sanacvlod daviTs didi miwa-wyali aCuqa: karinis anu erzerumis olqi, mezobeli basianis olqi (amJamad paseni), harqisa da apahuniqis olqebi, metad mniSvnelovani cixe xaldo-ariWi da klisura (zekari) mTavar gzaze erzerumidan trapizonisaken da sxv.~.1 cnobilia, rom bizantia am droisaTvis msoflioSi saxelganTqmuli qveyana iyo Tavisi ganviTarebuli kulturiT, mdidari mwerlobiTa da swavla-ganaTlebiT. am kulturiT dainteresebuli iyo saqarTveloc. igi yovelTvis cdilobda `bizantiis kulturis centrSi SeWras~ (k.kekeliZe) da es miswrafeba ganaxorciela kidec barda skliarosis damarcxebis Sedegad miRebuli alafis gamoyenebiT -- aTonis mTaze iveriis monastris agebiT. es istoriuli cnoba mTeli mxatvruli simarTliT da didi poeturi ZaliT daxata akakim Tavis poemaSi.

1

n. be r Z e n i S v i l i , iv. javaxiSvili, s. janaSia, saqarTvelos istoria, 1946, gv. 158.

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poemaSi asaxulia mravali vnebebis, miswrafebis, aqtiuri moqmedebisa da wrfeli grZnobis Semcveli xasiaTebi... am mxriv gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva qarTveli sardlebis: orbeliZis, jojikis, javSaniZis da lomkac savarsamiZis epizoduri saxeebi. aRniSnuli personaJebi ZiriTadad istoriulad an gadmocemebiT cnobili pirebi arian. Txzulebis pirvel TavSive gviCvena avtorma sardal orbeliZis SesaniSnavi saxe da misadmi simpatiuri grZnobiT Sepyrobili mkiTxveli nawarmoebis bolomde ganicdis mis mdgomareobas, Sestrfis mis vaJkacobas, wuxs misi avbedobiT da Seuwyveteli, didi interesiT adevnebs Tvalyurs masTan dakavSirebul movlenebsa da situaciebs. poemaSi daviT kurapalati daxatulia im amaRlebuli saxiT da momxiblaobiT, rogoric Seefereboda mis istoriul rolsa da saqveyno avtoritets. daviTi gamoCenili istoriuli pirovnebaa, igi saqarTvelos, ufro zustad, taoklarjeTis Zlieri mefe iyo, saqarTvelos erTian saxelmwifod SekavSirebis fuZemdebeli. daviT kurapalati TxzulebaSi iSviaTad gamoCndeba xolme, igi epizodur CarCoebSia moqceuli, magram yoveli misi gamoCena did STabeWdilebas axdens mkiTxvelze. Tornike erisTavi, rogorc viciT, istoriuli pirovnebaa. poetma Tanamedroveobis progresuli ideebis Suqze asaxa igi `istoriuli sunTqviT~. Tornikes mxatvruli saxe scildeba epoqis CarCoebs da Tavisi keTilSobiluri TvisebebiT, moraliT, moqalaqeobrivi idealebiT exmaureba Tanamedroveobis, mowinave kacobriobis suliskveTebas. Tornike erisTavis Sesaxeb wyaroebSi SedarebiT mcire cnobebi moipoveba. giorgi mTawmindelis TxzulebaSi `cxovreba iovanesi da efT¢mesi~ mxolod ramdenime Strixia warmodgenili am didi mxedarTmTavris cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb. aq aRniSnulia, rom `didi Tornik T¢isa queyanasa monazon iqmna~. Tornikes aTonSi misvlisas `friadi sixaruli iqmna monastersa Sina mas dResa, rameTu arca didi aTanasi umecar iyo Tornikis saqmesa da warCinebulobasa da `axovanebasa~.1 xolo amave TxzulebaSi sxva adgilas naTqvamia: `....didi Tornik wyobaTa Sina aRzrdil iyo da salaSqroTa saqmeTa... ubnoba da hambavi uyuarda~.2 Txzulebis siuJetur ganviTarebaSi poeti TanmiyolebiT amdidrebs Tornike erisTavis saxes. skliarosis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi naCvenebia qarTveli mxedarTmTavris didi gamocdileba, uswrafesi mosazrebuloba, razmTawyobis ubadlo xelovneba, saomari moqmedebis brZnuli strategia da taqtika. barda skliarosTan SedarebiT Tornike erisTavi erTgvarad kontrastuli saxea. skliarosi, marTalia, frTxili da gamocdili sardalia, magram amasTanave igi brazmoreuli, nerviuli da mousvenaria: `kbilebs ilesavs brazmoreuli, arc dRe, arc Rame aRar aqvs Zili~; Tornike erisTavi ki dinji, auRelvebeli, windaxeduli, SorsmWvreteli, brZeni, iSviaTi gulisxmieri, uaRresad energiuli da didi taqtis sardalia. mxcovanebis miuxedavad, axasiaTebs Wabukuri simxne. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia Tornike erisTavis mebrZoli humanizni. mtrebTan omSi dauzogvels, mxnes utex mxedarTmTavars damarcxebuli mtris mimarT udidesi pativiscema da gulisxmiereba axasiaTebs. mas amoZravebs rainduli suliskveTeba. damorCilebuli mtris mimarT SurisZieba damamcirebel, Seuracxmyofel grZnobad miaCnia.

`vaJkacs rom bedi sxvas daamonebs, dasatanjavad isic eyofa!~

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g i o r g i m T a w m i n d e l i , cxovreba iovanesi da efT¢mesi, 1946, gv. 17. iqve, gv. 29.

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-- aseTia Tornikes pozicia. mtris banakidan tyved Cavardnil meomarTa Rirsebis dasacavad sardali Tavisianebs ubrZanebs: nurvin gabedavs datyvevebulebs, rom miayenos Seuracxyofao. kacTmoyvareobis maRali grZnobiTaa gamTbari gamarjvebuli mxedarTmTavris sityvebi: `sikvdili yvelas aTanasworebs: Tvisians, ucxos, mters da moyvares!~. gmiri qarTveli mxedarTmTavris omis Semdeg gacemuli brZaneba aseTia: `gaurCevelad, qarTveli iyos, ginda sparseli, ginda berZeni, ginda somexi, sul erTianad mohkideT xeli!... vecadoT yvelam da nu davaklebT daWrilebs movlas da mkvdrebs samares~. amrigad, Tornike erisTavis saxe samSoblosa da xalxis diadi sagmiro saqmeebiT, misi sibrZniT, mdidari grZnobebiT, saukeTeso miswrafebebiT aris STagonebuli. amitomaa, rom igi qarTvel gmirTa gundSi ise brwyinavda, rogorc gvirgvinSi pirveli Tvali~. poema `Tornike erisTavi~ didi mxatvruli ostatobiTaa Sesrulebuli. igi gamoirCeva iSviaTi poeturi saRebavebiT, sada, daxvewili saxeebiTa da ambavTa saintereso ganviTarebiT. poemis mxatvruli Taviseburebebi pasuxoben epopeis ideur mizandasaxulobas. Txzulebis fabula, kompozicia, siuJeti personaJTa daxatvis ostatoba, poeturi gamosaxvis saSualebaTa SerCeva-gamoyeneba, bunebis suraTebi, ena da mxatvruli asaxvis sxva saSualebebi savsebiT emsaxureba nawarmoebis ideis srulyofilad STamagoneblad gadmocemis amocanas. poeti didi ostatobiT xatavs batalur scenebs, brZolis suraTebs. uaRresad STambeWdavad aris aRwerili brZolis yvela epizodi:

`kiJina, kvnesa, wyeva, muqara da Caxa-Cuxis xma gulsazari areulia da fexiT gaaqvT cxenebs daWrili da cocxal-mkvdari~.

gansakuTrebiT did eqspresiulobas da mxatvrul uSualobas aRwevs poeti omis Semdgomi suraTis daxatvaSi. poemis es Tavi STagonebulia Rrma humanizmiT, sastiki protestiT kacTa borotnamoqmedaris, adamianTa xocva-Jletis, kacobriobis gamanadgurebeli omebis winaaRmdeg. SeuZlebelia mRelvarebis gareSe waikiTxos adamianma tragizmiT aRsavse striqonebi, romlebic gvisuraTeben mTvariT ganaTebuli naomari velis suraTs:

`gaanaTa da gamoaCina dasanaxavi gulSesazari, TiTqos undoda eCvenebina kacisTvis borotnamoqmedari. sul daWril mkvdrebiT mofenilia xeoba, Rele, tye da mindori! visic sicocxle dilas hyvaoda, axla Seqmnila leSi da mZori~.

poeti uWknobi SaravandediT mosavs im mamuliSvilis ukvdav saxels, romelmac `Tavis samSoblo qveynis xsovnaSi samaradisod daxuWa Tvali~:

`dedis cremlebis man sapasuxod aq brZolis velze sisxli daRvara... da Seasrula miT Rirseulad mamuliSvilis ukvdavi vali, Tavis samSoblo qveynis xsovnaSi samaradisod daxuWa Tvali!~

uaRresad faqizad aris poetis mier Sesrulebuli Wabuki gmiris erTgvari datireba. Wabuks did saqveyno movaleobasTan erTad guls uxurvebda sxva faqizi grZnobac. magram sikvdilma yvelaferi ferflad aqcia, ganuxorcielebeli datova bevri misi ocneba:

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`vin icis, radara saidumlo man saiqios Tan waitana? Sors sadme qarTlSi dedam gamoscnos, an gulis satrfom es gamocana!~...

es striqonebi da aRwerili epizodebi saerTod TavianTi didi mxatvruli STagonebiT aRviveben xalxSi omebis, kacTa xocva-Jletis winaaRmdeg mimarTul protests. poemis mxatvrul RirsebaTagan gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs leqsis simsubuqe, misi maRali poeturi aRmafrena. poemaSi umTavresad gamoyenebulia aTmarcvlovani leqsi da rvamarcvlovani Sairi. literaturuli da xalxuri formebi, andazebi da aforizmebi, Tqmulebebi (amirani), brZnuli Tqmebi gabneulia mTel poemaSi. amiranis leqsis CarTviT poetma ufro naTlad da aSkarad ganasaxiera Tavisi erovnuli idealebi. poema `gamzrdeli~. `gamzrdeli~ akakis poeturi muzis brwyinvale mwvervalia. igi Tavisi SinaarsiT, TematikiT, problemaTa aqtualobiT, ideuri mizandasaxulobiTa da mxatvruli ostatobiT axali qarTuli literaturis erT-erTi mSveneba da gvirgvinia. poema pirvelad gamoqveynda 1898 wels da swrafad gavrcelda xalxSi. iTargmna mraval enaze. poema miZRvnilia pedagogebisadmi (saTauris qveS miniSnebulia: `namdvili ambavi. vuZRvni Cvens pedagogebs~). `gamzrdeli~ mravalplaniani nawarmoebia. masSi asaxulia sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis aqtualuri problemebi: axalgazrdobis aRzrdis, aRmzrdelis rolisa da pasuxismgeblobis problema, adamianis harmoniuli aRzrdis, zneobriv-moraluri da maRalmoqalaqeobrivi Tvisebebis gamomuSaveba-ganmtkicebis aucilebloba, WeSmariti, wminda siyvarulis mniSvneloba da Zala adamianis cxovrebaSi da sxv. poemis eqspozicia ixsneba moqmedebis adgilis aRweriT:

`mTis mwvervalze, cis maxloblad, mercxlis buded raRac moCans, TvalT isari Senatyorcni, ver arCevs mis sigrZes da gans~.

am Tvaluwvdenel simaRleze dgas patara facxa, romelic gvxiblavs Tavisi ubraloebiT. es ubralo `sadgomi~ Tavisi siturfiT aWarbebs didebul nagebobebs. es haerovani facxa samyof savaned aurCevia axalgazrda afxazs -- baTus. baTus cxovrebis sakuTari filosofia amoqmedebs. misi cxovrebiseuli pozicia naTelia: mas surs Tavisufali, laRi, tkbili da bednieri cxovreba, xolo umTavresi da gadamwyveti xibli da gataceba baTus STagonebisa aris wminda da erTguli siyvaruliT gamTbari, bednieri trfobisa da mSvenebis madliT aRvsili netareba. poemis dasawyisSive SuqfeniT asaxulia baTusa da nazibrolas wminda siyvaruli. baTum da nazibrolam mTlianad, mtkiced da mTeli arsebiT daukavSires erTmaneTs TavianTi sicocxle. samegrelos asuli nazibrola saarakod momxiblavi sulieri silamaziT da `xorcieli niWiT~ iyo damSvenebuli. igi, poetis daxasiaTebiT, `mowyvetili cis varskvlavi, edems alvad asulia~. poeti aRtacebiT amkobs nazibrolas silamazes:

`elferobiT vardi aris, sinaziT ki morcxvi ia... trfobisaTvis jer pirvelad gulis kari gauRia~.

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poetis azriT, col-qmris maRali zneobrivi siwminde da fizikuri mSvenebiT momadlebuli `sulTa kavSiri~ burjia saocnebo ojaxis `salocavi taZrisa~ da `eris siyvarulisa~. amitom Sehxaris mgosani baTusa da nazibrolas wminda siyvaruls da laR netarebas:

`netavi maT, maT siyvaruls da maT uxmo aRsarebas!... erTad grZnoben am qveynadve sasufevlis netarebas...

siyvarulis wminda grZnobam aamaRla baTusa da nazibrolas adamianuri Rirsebani da SeaZlebina maT `mTis mwvervalze~, `cis maxloblad~ nivTierad ubralo cxovreba amaRlebul netarebad ganecadaT. eqspoziciis bolo strofiT poeti migvaniSnebs tragikul situaciaTa moaxloebaze:

`magram xangrZliv es sofeli gaaxarebs vismes gana? TaflSi urevs mware naRvels! mtrisas misi gamocana!..~

poemis Semdegi siuJeturi ganviTareba xasiaTdeba erTimeoreze moyolebuli mZafri tragikuli movlenebiT, Rrma sulieri tkivilebiTa da mZime gancdebiT. tragizmiT aRsavse situaciebis asaxvas win uZRvis bunebis sastiki mZvinvarebis suraTi. aseT mZime viTarebaSi baTus estumra Zmadnafici mordu safar-begi, romlis stumrobasac aRfrTovanebiT egebeba. safar-begma ZiZiSvils auwya Tavisi gasaWiri. igi mouxiblavs silamaziT ganTqmul zia-xanums. am `jadoqarma~ trfobis safasurad daavala: `Tu giyvarvar da xar Cemi mogvareo, inalifas lurji cxeni am sam dReSi momgvareo~. safar-begs erTaderTi gza aqvs inalifas cxenis xelSi Casagdebad -- moparva. baTum mordusTvis Tavi gawira da ikisra am metad saxifaTo saqmis Sesruleba:

`Sen eg saqme me momande, me vizam Sens magivrobas: an mogiyvan im cxens, an Tavs Sevwirav Sens megobrobas!~

facxaSi marto darCenili safari sZlia cdunebam da gamousworebeli codva Caidina. baTus Tavzari dasca erTguli da saTayvano meuRlis agre ganadgurebul mdgomareobaSi xilvam, `da rom krintic ar dauZravs, iqve uxmod Caikeca~. aq gamoCnda kidev erTxel baTus sulieri simaRle, man anugeSa tanjuli nazibrola:

`Cu, nu stiri genacvale! rac ginaxavs, sizmaria, daiviwye isev male!.. me da Seni siyvaruli wminda aris, viT lampari~.

baTu namdvili raindia. gamoirCeva iSviaTi moTminebiT, nebisyofis simtkiciT, ubadlo TavSekavebiT. igi gvaocebs sulieri wonasworobiTa da vaJkacobiT. uaRresad mwvave tkivilebis gancdisas baTu TavSekavebuli, `mSvidi saxiT~ da RimiliT aRviZebs codvil stumars. stumars Tavisi guliswyroma maspinZelma mxolod mas Semdeg acnoba, rac ojaxidan karga manZilze gaacila: `safar-bego, pirSaoba Seni vici, Semityvia!.. da dReidan Cven ors Sua mociquli aris tyvia!~ baTus Rrma rwmeniT, morduoba rjulze umtkicesi da xelSeuxebelia. ragind didi Secodeba da danaSauli miuZRodes, mas ZiZiSvili mainc ver Seexeba.

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safar-begis ZiriTadi ubedureba nebisyofis sisusteSia, mas ara aqvs TavSekavebis unari, gadaWarbebiT emociuria da vnebaTaRelvis amyoli, kontrols ver uwevs sakuTar moqmedebas da qcevas. poemaSi safar-begi calmogvad ar aris daxatuli. poeti mis saxes warmogvidgens SedarebiT rTuli formiT, gviCvenebs rogorc uaryofiT, ise dadebiT Tvisebebsac. igi ar aris umecari, gamoucdeli da jabani, icnobs cxovrebas, aris Seupovari da uSiSari vaJkaci. safar-begi grZnobs Cadenil mZime danaSauls da mwvaved ganicdis sindisis qenjnas. igi gulwrfelad aRiarebs Tavis codvas da gulwrfeladve iTxovs sikvdilis fasad gamoisyidos danaSauli, sikvdiliT gaimrTelos sindisi. man Seigno Tavisi umsgavso saqcielis biwiereba da morCilebiT uCvena gulmkerdi haji-usubis mier SemarTul dambaCas. magram yvelaferi dagvianebuli iyo. misi uzneo saqcielis gamosworeba aRar SeiZleboda. igi morduobis gamtexia da `Cveulebis gadamgdebi~, xalxisa da aRmzrdelis Semarcxveni. marTalia, is borotebis Cadenis winaswari ganzraxviT ar misula ZiZiSvilis ojaxSi, magram, rac ar unda iyos, man upatiuri saqcieli Caidina. aRsaniSnavia, rom saxelovani qalebi mijnurisa da saqmrosagan moiTxovdnen saqveyno saqmisaTvis Tavdadebas, gmirul-patriotul Tavganwirvas, safar-begi ki daemorCila zia-xanumis ukadris survils. marTalia, Zlieri patronisagan bedauris motacebas erTgvari vaJkacoba da SemarTeba sWirdeboda, magram es saqveyno saqmed ar iTvleba. safar-begi am SemTxvevaSic erTgvari sulmokleobis da ganusjeli gadawyvetilebis mimyoli gaxda. poemaSi sagangebodaa aRbeWdili gamzrdelis roli da misi maRali pasuxismgebloba adamianis aRzrdis metad sapatio saqmeSi. poeti did pativs scemda WeSmarit maswavleblebs da pedagogiuri moRvaweoba xalxis cxovrebis erT ukeTes da umaRles sarbielad miaCnia. pedagogikis klasikosTa msgavsad, poeti aniWebda ra aRzrdas udides mniSvnelobas, aRmzrdelis movaleobas uaRresad keTilSobilur da friad sapasuxismgeblo movaleobad Tvlida. aRmzrdelis rolis, pasuxismgeblobisa da mniSvnelobis problema didad ainteresebda da ainteresebs yovel xalxs, msoflio sazogadoebas. aRniSnuli problemis Sesaxeb imTaviTve gamoiTqva mravali saintereso azri. gansakuTrebuli paeqrobisa da mecnieruli msjelobis sagani gaxda amjerad CvenTvis saintereso problema: a) bavSvis suli, cnobiereba aris dauwereli sufTa qaRaldi (Whita paper), anu laTinurad, aristoteledan momdinare, Tabula rasa -- sufTa dafa. mecnierebi uaryofdnen Tandayolil ideebs da aRiarebdnen, rom aRmzrdels SeuZlia nebismieri sasargeblo Tvisebebi daweros bavSvis sufTa gulze, aRzardos igi garkveuli mimarTulebiT. aRzrda yovlisSemZlea da garemo wre udides zegavlenas axdens mozardisa da ymawvilebis xasiaTze, Tvalsazrisze da sxv. (jon loki). b) sapirispiro azris mixedviT, bavSvis suli da cnobiereba ar aris sufTa dafa. mas Tan dahyveba memkvidreobiTi, bunebrivi monacemebi -- STamomavlobis genebi, rasac angariSi unda gaewios adamianis aRzrdis procesSi, romelTa Tanaarseboba garkveul SemTxvevaSi arTulebs an aadvilebs aRzrdas. yovel SemTxvevaSi, mZime Tandayolili Tvisebebis gasworeba zogjer SeuZlebeli xdeba. aRzrdis Sesaxeb uamravi socialur-politikuri, istoriul-filosofiuri, pedagogiur-fsiqologiuri, humanitarul da sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaTa miRwevebiT warmoqmnil mimarTulebaTa, principTa, SexedulebaTa, Teoriul da praqtikul gamocdilebaTa mier dagrovil masalaTa Soris akaki angariSgasawev faqtorad miiCnevda bunebriv, garemo wris, Tandayolil memkvidreobiT monacemebsac da acxadebda:

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`magram marto wvrTna ras izams, Tu bunebamc ar uSvela~.

amis gamo safar-begis sruli, yovelmxrivi aRzrda SeuZlebeli gaxda, miuRweveli Seiqna misi bolomde sasurveli aRzrda, misi fsiqo-fiziologiuri xasiaTebisa da TvisebaTa mTlianad gardaqmna. miuxedavad amisa, rogorc iTqva, akaki adamianis aRzrdis mTel pasuxismgeblobas aRmzrdels akisrebs. yovel SemTxvevaSi, poema `gamzrdeli~ STagonebulia keTilSobiluri idealiT, rom aRmzrdeli Tavis moRvaweobas ise unda afasebdes, rogorc sakuTar sicocxles. cudad Tu kargad aRzrdilis pasuxismgebloba pirvel rigSi aRmzrdelma unda gaiziaros da pasuxi agos sakuTari Tavisa da xalxis winaSe. amgvari aRmzrdeli imsaxurebs xalxis did siyvaruls, ndobas da pativiscemas. akakim erTi kalmis mosmiT gaacocxla brZeni, idealuri aRmzrdelis saxe. haji-usub `cnobilia mxolod WkuiT da gonebiT~, igi ganaTlebuli pirovnebaa: `zRva da xmeli movlili aqvs, mnaxvelia ca da qveynis~. cxovrobs xalxis WiriTa da lxiniT. yvelasaTvis misabaZi, brZeni moZRvaria, `sadac kia gvariSvili, yvela misi aRzrdilia~. am olimpiur xats aciskrovnebs saqmisadmi usazRvro pasuxismgebloba da gmiruli Tavganwirva. igi safar-begs eubneba:

`Sen sikvdilis ra Rirsi xar! sasikvdilo me var mxolod, rom kacad ver gamizrdixar!~

didma moZRvarma `safeTqelSi miiWeda cxeli tyvia!~..

`Caikeca sulTambrZoli, wamlis kvamlSi gaexvia...~

gamzrdelis saxis CvenebiT poetma Taviseburi naTeli sxivi Seitana pedagogikis arsis sakacobrio problemaTa gadawyvetis saqmeSi. `gamzrdeli~, ise rogorc poetis sxva mxatvruli Sedevrebi, gvxiblavs Tavisi uaRresad naTeli warmtaci da sada poeturi formebiT. poemis yvela saxe Tavisi Rrma dramatizmiT, mZafri sulieri gancdebiT izidavs da ajadoebs mkiTxvels. Txzuleba Sesrulebulia lakoniuri, dinamikuri stiliT. aq yoveli poeturi sityva da gamoTqma isea SerCeuli da Casmuli mxatvrul qsovilSi, rom sityvaTa minimumiT miRweulia azrisa da gancdis erTianoba.

akaki wereTlis mxatvruli proza. sazogadod, gavrcelebuli Sexedulebis mixedviT, akaki wereTlis mxatvruli Semoqmedebis stiqia lirikaa, magram amasTanave dabejiTebiT unda aRiniSnos, rom akaki mxatvruli prozis didi ostatia. man Tavis SesaniSnav prozaul TxzulebebSi farTod gamoiyena am Janris saxelovani tradiciebi da, ilia WavWavaZesTan erTad, xeli Seuwyo axali qarTuli prozis Semdgom ganviTarebas. leqsebisa da poemebis werasTan erTad, akaki nayofier SemoqmedebiT muSaobas eweoda prozaSi. SedarebiT mcire moculobis prozauli nawarmoebebis gverdiT poetma mogvca ufro farTo mxatvrul-prozauli tiloebi -- `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ da `baSi-aCuki~, romlebSiac asaxa epoqis mwvave problemebi. akaki wereTlis mxatvruli prozis ZiriTadi motivebi igivea, rac poetis mTeli SemoqmedebiTi memkvidreobisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. akakim ramdenime aTeuli patara da ori farTo moculobis moTxroba dagvitova. misi mcire moTxrobebis saTanado Seswavla praqtikulad mxolod am bolo dros daiwyo. SedarebiT meti yuradReba eTmoboda mis or mniSvnelovan moTxrobas -- `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ da `baSi-aCuki~.

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`eSmakebi~. akakis dRemde cnobili yvelaze adrindeli prozauli nawarmoebia `eSmakebi~ p. ingoroyvas azriT, igi dawerilia 1865-1868 wlebSi. `eSmakebi~ saTavgadasavlo Janris nawarmoebs warmoadgens~.1 moTxrobaSi asaxuli unda iyos avtoris cxovrebis erTi epizodi. ambavi Tavidan bolomde pirveli piris TxrobiT miimarTeba. zafxulis sicxisagan Sewuxebuli mTxrobeli peterburgidan saagarakod gaemgzavra qalaqis maxloblad mdebare sofel pargolovoSi. aq mas gadaxda sakmaod mZime usiamovneba. Txzulebis erT-erTi gmiris, lidia ivanovnas mijnurma, Savwverebianma kacma, romelsac ucxoeTSi uswavlia TvalTmaqcoba, isargebla soflis mcxovrebTa crumorwmuneobiT da eSmakuri maqinaciebiT daikava erTi glexis sacxovrebeli saxli. yvelas swamda, rom am saxls dapatronebodnen eSmakebi, romelTa gaZeveba SeuZlebeli iyo. eSmakebi saxlSi aravis anebebdnen cxovrebas. maTi SiSiT soflelebi axlosac ver ekarebodnen im adgilsamyofels. saagarakod Camosulebic, raki gaigebdnen saqmis viTarebas, uars acxadebdnen am saxlSi cxovrebaze. Txzulebis mTavari gmiri ar SeuSinda `eSmakebis~ TvalTmaqcobas da daiwyo cxovreba swored am saxlSi. misma am gabedulma moqmedebam yvela gaakvirma. pirveli Rame `ucnaurma~ mdgmurma normalurad gaaTia saxlSi, magram meore Ramidan mas Tavs daatyda mravali usiamovneba da SiSi. TvalTmaqcobaSi daxelovnebuli Savwverebiani kaci RamiT `eSmakebis~ saxiT evlineboda moagarakes da saSinel SiSs, tanjvas da faTeraks ganacdevinebda. magram ganawameb mdgmurs erT Rames moulodnelad gamoecxada didi xnis unaxavi mijnuri da yvelaferi gairkva. mZime saTavgadasavlo SemTxvevebi Tavidan moicila. natanji gmiri Tavis mijnurTan erTad axal binaSi gadavida da amieridan saamo dasvenebas mieca, xolo mis mier adre daqiravebuli saxli ki Savwverosan kacsa da mis mijnurs darCaT. am martiv fabulaze agebul TxzulebaSi akaki gakvriT sakmaod saintereso sakiTxs Seexo. poetma mwvave satiriT gakicxa loToba, alkoholizmiT daavadebuli adamianebi da miuTiTa glexobaSi am mavne Cveulebis warmomSob socialur pirobebze. akakis azriT, glexobaSi loToba inergeboda xalxis usazRvro Cagvraze damyarebuli policiuri reJimis gamo. am seniT daavadebuli adamiani, miuxedavad imisa, rom mwvaved ganicdis Tavis ubedurebas, mainc Tavs veRar aRwevs mas. moTxrobaSi gamaTraxebulia carizmis moxeleebi, romlebic sargebloben ganuzomeli uflebiT da mourideblad Zarcvaven glexobas. TxzulebaSi mkveTradaa naCvenebi socialuri ukuRmarTobis gamo dabeCavebuli glexebis CamorCeniloba, SezRuduloba da crumorwmuneoba, agreTve kerZo interesebiT gatacebuli zogierTi inteligentis gaiZveroba. specialuri literaturidan cnobilia, rom `eSmakebi~ Sesrulebulia noveliseburi maneriT. misTvis damaxasiaTebelia sxarti, mokveTili, sada da dinamikuri Txroba. moTxrobis siuJeti swrafad da metad sainteresod viTardeba. mkiTxvels Zlier itacebs moxerxebulad ganviTarebuli fabula, mtkice kompoziciuri mTlianoba, moqnili da lakoniuri dialogebi, movlenaTa swrafi mdinareba, personaJTa cocxali da mimzidveli saxeebi. akakis poeziisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli satirul-iumoristuli midgoma sinamdvilisadmi mkveTrad aisaxa akakis prozaSic. `rogor Temazec ar unda iyos dawerili akaki wereTlis prozauli Txzuleba, TiTqmis yvelgan Cans mwerlis satiruli da iumoristuli tendencia. movlenisadmi aseT damokidebulebas amJRavnebs mwerali yovel SesaZlo SemTxvevaSi -- iqneba es Tanamedrove sazogadoebrivi viTareba, epizodi Cveni istoriuli warsulidan, Tu romelime SemTxvevaSi misi piradi cxovrebidan~.2

1 2

l . a s a T i a n i , cxovreba akaki wereTlisa, 1953, gv. 229. g r . k i k n a Z e , qarTuli satirisa da iumoris ganviTarebis istoriisaTvis, 1953, gv. 362.

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moTxroba `eSmakebi~ umTavresad iumoristul xasiaTs atarebs. masSi asaxuli sinamdvile ZiriTadad mwerals komikuri gaazrebiT aqvs warmodgenili. aq savalalo, samwuxaro da gansakuTrebiT SiSis momgvreli movlenebis gverdiT vxvdebiT Rimilis momgvrel situaciebs, romlebiTac kidev ufro naTlad da garkveviT warmovidgenT movlenaTa srul saxes, personaJTa xasiaTs. udavod, Rimilis momgvrelia akakis mier daxatuli mTvrali glexis suraTi. mTxrobelis SekiTxvaze: `ramdeni xania mas ukan, rac Tavisufleba gamoacxadeso~, glexi upasuxebs: `muxins rom Zroxa daexrCo, maSin~; an kidev saxlis mepatrone glexis mimarTva mdgmurisadmi: `ar SeiZleba, rom sul axlave miboZoT? vin icis rom rame agitexon eSmakebma, CamogaxrCon Tqvenc im nemeciviT, mere vinRa gadamixdis danaSTen fulebs? rac dagrCebaT, imasac sxvebi waiReben, Tqveno brwyinvalebav!~. diliT gamoRviZebuli msaxuri xmamaRla, seriozulad ekiTxeba oTaxSi myof batons: `Tqveno brwyinvalebav! CamogaxrCven eSmakebma, Tu isev cocxali brZandebiTo?~. personaJTa amgvari miamiti damokidebuleba movlenebisadmi da msjeloba uTuod Rimils iwvevs. TxzulebaSi didi ostatobiTaa gamoyenebuli moulodnelobisa da saidumloebis xerxi, rac metad aZlierebs mkiTxvelis interess. aq gvxvdeba zRapruli elementebi. mag., revolveridan gasrolili eqvsi tyviis acileba moCvenebis mier, civi tyviebis saTiTaod msrolelisaTvis dabruneba da sxv. saidumloeba-moulodnelobis xerxebis ostaturi gamoyenebiT mwerali moxdenilad aRwevs Txzulebis siuJeturi xazis saintereso gaSla-ganviTarebas. mkiTxveli mouTmenlad elis gasaidumloebul ambavTa Sinaarsis da saidumloebiT moculi situaciebis gaxsnas, xolo movlenaTa moulodneli gaxsnis Sedegad miRweulia mxatvruli emociurobis Semdgomi mZlavri aRmavloba. `Cemi Tavgadasavali~. akaki wereTlis prozaSi moTxroba `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ gamoirCeva Tavisi Janrobrivi TaviseburebiT. igi ZiriTadad avtobiografiuli xasiaTis mxatvruli nawarmoebia. aRniSnul TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebis safuZvelze SeiZleba samarTlianad miviCnioT qarTul literaturul kritikaSi `Cemi Tavgadasavlis~ Sesaxeb gamoTqmuli azri: `CvenSi amgvari mwerloba ar aris ganviTarebuli. am mxriv SeiZleba akaki wereTeli novatoradac CaiTvalos. es novatoroba ki mniSvnelovania~.1 marTlac, msoflio literaturaSi farTodaa cnobili avtobiografiuli xasiaTis Txzulebebi, is CvenSic gavrcelda. sxvas rom Tavi davaneboT, sakmarisi iqneba davaxasiaToT d.guramiSvilis `daviTianis~ zogierTi adgili, giorgi wereTlis `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~, al. yazbegis `namwyemsaris mogonebani~ da sxv. am aRniSnul TxzulebebTan SedarebiT akakis `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ Taviseburi nawarmoebia. igi Tavisi mxatvruli ostatobiT, siuJetur-kompoziciuri individualobiTa da arqiteqtonikiT, movlenaTa danaxvisa da Sefasebis TvalsazrisiT garkveviT gansxvavdeba miTiTebuli Txzulebebisagan da warmoadgens axal, novatorul specifikur avtobiografiul mxatvrul nawarmoebs, romelSiac avtobiografiul masalasTan erTad ostaturadaa Caqsovili mogonebebi, biografia da daxasiaTebani cnobili qarTveli moRvaweebisa da sazogadoebrivi movlenebis Sesaxeb. mTeli nawarmoebi, romelSic asaxulia erTimeorisagan gansxvavebuli mravali masala da cxovrebis metad saintereso movlenebi, gaerTianebulia ZiriTadi moqalaqeobrivi motivis -- mowinave erovnuli da socialuri idealebis garSemo. igi xasiaTdeba garkveuli mTlianobiT; gadmocemis erTiani mxatvruli stiliT. mwerali didxans muSaobda am nawarmoebis Seqmnaze. erTi feletoni saTauriT `fareSoba~, romelic garkveuli cvlilebiT `Cems Tavgadasa1 v. k o t e t i S v i l i , qarTuli literaturis istoria (XIX s.), d. gamezardaSvilis redaqciiT, 1959, gv. 397.

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valSi~ Sevida, poetma gamoaqveyna gazeT `droebaSi~ jer kidev 1877 wels. cxadia, akaki didxans atarebda gulSi Tavis Canafiqrs, xolo 90-ian wlebSi dawyebuli intensiuri meSaobis Sedegad Txzulebis pirveli nawilis pirveli Tavi ukve dabeWda `kvalSi~, xolo pirveli nawili mTlianad gamoaqveyna Tavis `krebulSi~ 1897-1899 wlebSi. meore nawilis pirveli Tavi akakis 1908 wels unda daemTavrebina. amrigad, `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ drogamoSvebiT, sul mcire, 15-20 wlis ganmavlobaSi uweria. Txzuleba avtors farTo gegmiT hqonia gaazrebuli. masSi asaxuli unda yofiliyo poetis mier nanaxi da sarwmunod gagonili, namdvili sarke qarTveli xalxis naxevarsaukunovani cxovrebisa. igi mravaltomiani mxatvruli nawarmoebi unda yofiliyo. amis Sesaxeb pirveli nawilis calke gamocemasTan dakavSirebiT akaki sazogadoebas auwyebda: `am TxzulebaSi yvelaferia moxsenebuli, rac ki naxevari saukunis ganmavlobaSi minaxavs da sarwmunod gamigonia... aq arian moxsenebuli: 1. Cveni moRvaweebis werilebi, magaliTad: gabriel episkoposis, dimitri yifianis, iakob gogebaSvilis, giorgi wereTlis, niko nikolaZis, vano maCablis da sxvaTa mravalTa, visi werilic ki sazogado saqmes Sexebia, 2. biografia sazogado moRvaweebisa da Cemi piradi Sexeduleba maT Sesaxeb, 3. bankebis daarseba CvenSi, wera-kiTxvis sazogadoebis, Teatrisa da maT gamo gamowveuli arCevnebi, zedmoyolebuli avan-CavaniT, 4. batonymobis ambavi, 5. Zveleburi zneCveulebani, 6. maTi gadavardna da samagieros SemoReba, 7. saistorio anegdotebi da sxvani.... erTi sityviT, Cemi SeZlebisadagvarad, namdvili sarke naxevari saukunisa! es nawarmoebi, romlis xelmZRvanelobas TviT me vkisrulob, rom Cemda gunebisad gamoices, mravaltomiani iqneba. da radganac erTad maTi gamocema ar moxerxdeba, jer unda gamoices pirveli tomi, romlis beWdvasac am ianvridan Sevudgebi~.1 rogorc vxedavT, mwerals ver ganuxorcielebia farTo gegmiT mofiqrebuli am mravaltomiani Txzulebis Seqmna. marTalia, bevr im sakiTxze, romlebic winaswar ganzraxul gegmaSia navaraudevi, akakis xSirad gamouTqvams Tavisi azri da maTTvis saqveynod cnobili leqsebi, statiebi, feletonebi, Tu sxvadasxva narkvevic ki miuZRvnia, magram erTiani stiliT, mTliani Sinagani kavSiriT Sekruli mravaltomiani Txzulebis Seqmna, rogorc es gegmiT hqonia ganzraxuli, mainc ganuxorcielebeli darCa. Semdeg poets ucdia `savsebiT~ gamoexata Tavisi cxovrebis istoria leqsis formiT, magram am mizniT wamowyebuli Txzuleba `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ (leqsad) daumTavrebeli aRmoCnda. yoveli es aSkarad miuTiTebs, rom akaki wereTeli udidesi SemoqmedebiTi miswrafebiT iRvwoda miTiTebuli mxatvruli CanafiqrebisaTvis xorci Seesxa, magram, rogorc vxedavT, am SemTxvevaSic Tavisi ganzraxva bolomde ver miuyvania. cnobilia, rom ugrZnoblad, usulod da zerelad Seqmnili nawarmoebi akakis namdvili xelovnebis aCrdilad miaCnda. `rasac da razedac wers mwerali, Tu is sakuTar grZnoba-gonebiT ar usazrdoebia, didxans gulSi ar utarebia da Tavis droze ar warmouSobavs garegnaT mSvenieric rom iyos, sruli mainc ar eTqmis~.2 akakis am esTetikuri Sexedulebis Suqze naTeli xdeba, Tu ratom afasebda igi ase didad `Cems Tavgadasavals~ da ratom uyvarda igi gamorCeuli siyvaruliT. am grZnobas poeti aSkarad gamoxatavda Tavis cnobil gancxadebaSi: `erTaderTi Cemi TxzulebaTagani, romelic gansakuTrebiT miyvars da gasaoxreblad menaneba, aris `Cemi Tavgadasavali~. naTqvamia: `yvavsac Tavisi baxala moswonso~. SeiZleba didi ar iyos-ra, magram me ki wminda guli da wrfeli suli maqvs Sig Cadebuli~.3

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a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani TxuTmet tomad, t. XIV, gv. 163. a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani TxuTmet tomad, t. VIII, gv. 14. 3 a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani TxuTmet tomad, t. XIV, gv. 163.

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`Cemi Tavgadasavali~ Taviseburi mxatvruli nawarmoebia. masSi, rogorc aRvniSneT, avtoris TavgadasavalTan erTad asaxulia metad mniSvnelovani sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis movlenebi da daxasiaTebulia gamoCenili qarTveli moRvaweebi. Txzulebis mTavari gmiris cxovreba daxatulia farTo sazogadoebrivi yofis fonze. nawarmoebis siuJeti namdvil ambebzea agebuli. am TxzulebaSio, werda akaki, yoliferia moxsenebuli, rac ki minaxavs da sarwmunod gamigoniao. mwerali Rrmad flobs aRebul masalas, mas garkveviT aqvs warmodgenili asaxvis obieqti, adamianTa yofa-cxovrebisa da sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis movlenebi. avtori gamsWvalulia rwmeniT, rom `yoveli arsi, sulieri Tu usulo, xiluli Tu uxilavi erTsa da imave msoflio kanons eqvemdebareba: daibadeba, izrdeba, daberdeba, kvdeba!~. cxovrebis mimdinareobis am sayovelTao kanons emorCileba bunebisa da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yoveli movlena da masTan erTad adamianic. amitom cxovrebis evoluciis Sesacnobad aucilebelia movlenebis dasabamidan, warmoSobidanve gaTvaliswineba. am mizniT poeti Tavgadasavals iwyebs gmiris (TviTon mwerlis) dabadebidan da mis ganviTarebas gviCvenebs farTo sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis asaxvisa da ganxilvis rTul situaciebSi. nawarmoebSi asaxuli movlenebi da situaciebi gaerTianebulia am ZiriTadi magistraluri xazis garSemo. upirveles yovlisa, poeti xatavs mSromelebs, rogorc cxovrebis mamoZravebel mTavar Zalas; gaxazulia dabali fenebis moralur-zneobrivi sispetake da cxovelmyofeloba. akaki kicxavs batonymur wyobilebas, feodaluri urTierTobis dromoWmulobas, mebatoneTa gaunaTleblobas da CamorCenilobas. am movlenaTa asaxvis fonze uaRresi pativiscemiT xatavs glexobis cxovrebas da gansakuTrebiT afasebs glexis ojaxSi gatarebul bavSvobas. cnobili sityvebi: -- ar SemiZlia ar gamovtyde, rom Tu ki ram darCa CemSi kargi da keTili ufro imis wyalobiT, rom me sofelSi viyavi gabarebuli da glexebis SvilebTan erTad vizrdebodio, -- mWevrmetyvelurad RaRadebs glexobisadmi poetis mier uaRres pativiscemas. sainteresodaa naCvenebi glexobis brZola siko wereTlis usamarTlo moqmedebis winaaRmdeg da sxv. TxzulebaSi sagangebodaa xazgasmuli xalxuri Semoqmedebisa da TamaSobaTa udidesi roli adamianis keTilSobiluri aRzrdis saqmeSi. TxzulebaSi didi uSualobiTa da sada, bunebrivi mdinarebiT aris asaxuli bavSvis fsiqologia, misi gancdebi, sulieri mdgomareoba da Cvevebi. dauviwyaria mkiTxvelisaTvis patara akakis gancdebi -- gamowveuli kurdRlis daWeris, `wiTeli wuwki~ Roris damarcxebis, nesvis moparvis, Saqris namcecebis akrefis da sxv. saerTod am TxzulebaSi poeti gvevlineba bavSvis sulieri cxovrebis mxatvruli asaxvis didostatad. yuradRebas iqcevs Zveli skolis uaryofiTi mxareebis aRwera. mwerali udidesi xelovnebiT axasiaTebs gasuli saukunis ormocdaaTiani wlebis skolaSi gamefebul swavlebis sqolastikur meTodebsa da aRzrdis CamorCenil wesebs. igi udidesi guliswyromiT amxels moswavleTa fizikur dasjas, mSobliuri enis devnas, gimnaziis Savrazmel, biurokrat maswavleblebs. mwerlis xatovani daxasiaTebiT maSindeli gimnazia sazarel bneleTs warmoadgenda. nawarmoebSi asaxulia mowinave maswavlebelTa mimzidveli portretebi (rodzieviCi, troe). akakis mier daxatuli Zveli skolis cxovrebis suraTebi, swavlebis miuRebeli wesebi da meTodebi iseTi mxatvruli sinamdviliTaa daxatuli, rom igi gamoyenebulia pedagogikur mecnierebaSi Zveli skolis dasaxasiaTeblad. gansakuTrebul interess iwvevs TxzulebaSi moTxrobili akakis studentobis periodis ambebi da peterburgis universitetSi moswavle qarTvel studentTa garkveuli jgufebis daxasiaTeba. samocianelTa Soris akaki pirveli mweralia, romelic diferencirebulad miudga qarTveli studentebis Sefasebas da

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maTSi mosawon TvisebebTan erTad aSkarad xedavda uaryofiT movlenebsac. poeti sastikad gmobda studentTa Soris gavrcelebul orpirobas, gautanlobas, cilismwameblur moqmedebas da sxv., ris gamoc erTgvari devnili poeti yvela maTgans CamoSorda, garda orisa -- erTi maTgani iyo kirile lorTqifaniZe da meore -- niko nikolaZe. am wreSi kiTxulobda akaki studentobis periodSi daweril Txzulebebs. didi mniSvneloba aqvs ruseTis kulturuli cxovrebis, literaturuli brZolebis, didi rusi moazrovneebis: CerniSevskis, dobroliubovis, pisarevis, zaicevisa da peterburgis universitetis Sesaxeb moTxrobil epizodebs maSindeli ruseTis sazogadoebriv-kulturuli cxovrebis gasaTvaliswineblad da akakis SexedulebaTa Sesaswavlad. metad mniSvnelovania nawarmoebis bolo nawilSi warmodgenili gamoCenil qarTvel moRvaweTa Taviseburad da sainteresod Sesrulebuli portretebi. aq Cven gvaqvs mxatvruli sityvis ubadlo ostatis mier erTi xazis mosmiT Sesrulebuli cocxali da metad mimzidveli suraTebi, romelTa STambeWdavad daxatviT qarTveli xalxis iseT gamoCenil moRvaweebze, mwerlebze, rogorebic arian: grigol orbeliani, dimitri yifiani, al. orbeliani, ivane kereseliZe, lavrenti ardaziani, giorgi wereTeli, niko nikolaZe, sergei mesxi da aleqsandre yazbegi -- TiTqmis sruli STabeWdileba grCebaT. `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ STagonebulia patriotuli idealiT. misi avtori mkiTxvelebs mouwodebs qveynis keTilReobisaTvis Tavdadebuli, principuli brZolisaken. Tavisi poeturi cxovrebis sazogadoebriv-istoriuli movlenebis fonze daxatviT akaki wereTeli STaagonebs mkiTxvels, rom adamianma unda iaros win da piradi interesebi sazogadoebrivis samsxverploze unda miitanos. `piradobaze xelaRebuli viyavi... mxolod sazogado maxalisebda da Seupovrad da gabedviT mivdiodi Cemi gziT momavlis molodinSi~, -- wers akaki. avtori gmobs umoqmedobas, inertulobas da mouwodebs moZraobisa da brZolisaken. yvelaze ufro metad afasebs Wabukur gatacebas da amitom guli Wabukobisaken miuwevs, rac, misi gagebiT, uSreti energiis, dauRalavi da Tavganwiruli brZolis simboloa. akaki ilia WavWavaZiseburi gagebiT etrfis giJmaJ xevis wyals -- Cixuras, rogorc daucxromeli moZraobis gamoxatulebas. rogorc specialur literaturaSia aRniSnuli, `Cemi Tavgadasavali~, ise rogorc akakis zogierTi sxva moTxroba, gamoirCeva Txrobis lirikuli formiT. gadmocemis aseTi forma avtors saSualebas aZlevs Tavisi gancdebisa da Sexedulebebis meti sisruliT gamosaxatavad, movlenebisa da situaciebis meti momxiblaobiT gadmosacemad. miuxedavad imisa, rom `Cemi Tavgadasavali~ Tavisi poeturi formiT, mxatvrul TaviseburebaTa mixedviT ar aris agebuli erT uwyvet siuJetur qargaze, igi mainc mTliani, erTiani Sinaarsis matarebeli nawarmoebis STabeWdilebas tovebs. kompoziciuri Sekruloba aq miRweulia avtoris poeturi cxovrebis gadmocemiT sazogadoebriv movlenebTan kavSirSi, an kidev, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis qargaze poetis Tavgadasavlis asaxviT. nawarmoebi sruliad Zaldautaneblad da bunebrivi mdinarebiT viTardeba. mimzidveli ferebi, sada metyveleba, movlenaTa asaxvis maRali ostatoba, avtoris gonebamaxviloba, moxdenili iumori pirdapir momajadoebelia. `baSi-aCuki~. istoriuli moTxroba `baSi-aCuki~ mecxramete saukunis qarTuli prozis mSvenebaa. am TxzulebaSi mkafio gamoxatuleba pova Cveni xalxis istoriis erTma metad dauviwyarma xanam: meCvidmete saukunis movlenebma. kerZod ki kaxeTis 1659 wlis ajanyebam. am tragikul periodSi qarTvelma xalxma gamoavlina Tavisi saukeTeso erovnuli Tvisebebi, maRali patriotizmi da kaxeTis saqme mTliani saqarTvelos saqmed miiCnia. moTxrobis wera akakim 1896 wels daamTavra. pirvelad igi daibeWda. `kvalSi~.

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nawarmoebis istoriuli garemos gaTvaliswineba aucilebelia misi mxatvruli faqturisa da ideuri mizandasaxulobis ukeT gasarkvevad. amitomac saWiroa aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos cxovrebis aRniSnuli xanis suraTebi gulmodgineT SehqondaT qarTvel JamTaaRmwerlebsa da mematianeebs TavianT foliantebSi. akaki wereTeli uxvad sargeblobda am moRvaweTa naSromebiT. akakis did daxmarebas uwevda literaturuli tradiciac. jer kidev grigol orbelianma miaqcia yuradReba aRniSnuli epoqis gmirebs -- ajanyebis meTaur biZina ColoyaSvils da mis TanamebrZolebs -- elizbar da Salva qsnis erisTavebs. es adamianebi `sadRegrZeloSi~ didebis SaravandediTaa Semosili. giorgi erisTavma `osuri moTxroba~ anu `zare da yanimaTSi~ kaxeTis ajanyebis momwyobTa gmiroba asaxa, xolo anton fucelaZem poemaSi `wyaloba~. arc vaJa fSavelam datova uyuradRebod es Tema. poema `baxtrionSi~ warmosaxulia epoqis umniSvnelovanesi momenti. aRsaniSnavia, rom miTiTebul TxzulebebTan SedarebiT akakis `baSi-aCuki~ Sinaarsobrivad ufro farTodaa mofiqrebuli da gadawyvetili. kaxeTis ajanyeba aq danaxulia mTeli saqarTvelos wmidaTawmida saqmed, qarTveli eris didebisa da saxelis saqmed. `baSi-aCukSi~ kaxeTis gaTavisuflebisaTvis warmoebul brZolaSi qarTl-kaxeTis, TuS-fSav-xevsureTisa da mTiul-moxeveebTan erTad gamoyvanilia dasavleT saqarTvelos warmomadgenlebic. Txzulebis mravalplanian siuJetSi yuradRebas iqcevs gare politikuri viTarebis amsaxveli movlenebis logikuri, mwyobri dalagebis akakiseuli manerac. mravalsaukunovani, uTanasworo brZolebiT dauZlurebul qveyanas mosvenebas ar aZlevda sparseTi da osmaleTi. aRmosavleTis es ori veSapi lamobda qarTveli xalxis srul damonebasa da mospobas. sparseTis Sahis cbieri da mzakvruli politikiT aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi kaxelebi unda ayriliyvnen da maT adgilas unda Camosaxlebuliyvnen ulusebi. amis Semdeg Sahi mTel amierkavkasiaSi gabatondeboda. qarTveloba umagaliTo gmirobiT umklavdeboda mters. xalxis erTi nawili xsnis imeds erTmorwmune ruseTze amyarebda. rusuli orientaciis gaZlierebam saqarTveloSi didad SeaSfoTa isedac mZvinvare Sahi. am ambavma didad Caafiqra osmaleTis sulTanic. iranis Sahi, `kaci mzakvari da aRsavse yovelTave siborotiTa~ sastikad gamZvinvarda, uricxvi jariT Semoesia kaxeTs da cecxliTa da maxviliT musri gaavlo qveyanas. Sahis politika nel-nela sruldeboda: aiCexa venaxebi, ganadgurda baRebi, moiSala sarwyavi sistemebi, gailewa tyeebi, gadaiwva xexilis koromebi. mcxovrebTa umravlesoba an gaixizna, an sxvagan gadasaxlda, didZali xalxi tyved Cauvarda sparsul mxedrions da sparseTis cixeebSi Rafavda suls. vaxuSti bagrationi aRniSnavs, Sahma `mosrna moswyevna, ahyarna, moaoxrna da ganZarcvna~ kaxeTi; `wariyvana ayrilni kaxni tyved da dasxna romelnime mazandars, xvarasans da ferias~. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ vkiTxulobT: `Saabaz Cavlo kaxeTi da amoswyvita, moaoxra, da sxvani ahyarna da Tana waasxna... da rac-odenni Seipyres, colSvilianad ahyares da waasxes, romelime ferisa~. es momenti qarTlis samefos cxovrebisa daaxloebiT amgvaradve aqvs gamoxatuli akaki wereTels. cnobilia, rom Teimuraz pirveli sistematurad agzavnida elCebs ruseTSi da moskovs daxmarebas sTxovda iranel agresorTa winaaRmdeg samarTlian brZolaSi. rodesac Teimurazi CrdiloeTidan mokavSires moeloda, iran-osmaleTis mmarTvelni uqmad ar isxdnen. isini gafacicebiT adevnebdnen Tvals am maTTvis saSiSari megobrobis ganmtkicebis ambavs. isini elCebs elCebze agzavnidnen da moiTxovdnen ruseTTan urTierTobaze xelis aRebas. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi isini ganadgureba-darbeviT imuqrebodnen. morRveulma da darbeulma qveyanam mainc ruseTis orientacia irCia da amiT orive agresoris mrisxaneba daitexa Tavs.

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moTxrobaSi es mZime viTareba aseTnairadaa warmosaxuli: oTaxSi martodmarto Caketil Teimuraz mefes `win edva ori werili. erTi CrdiloeTidan da meore aRmosavleTidan gamogzavnili. pirveli tkbili iyo, alersiani da imediT gamamxnevebeli, meore -- rCeva-sayvedurebiTa da muqariT savse; erTi gulSi uxicinebda, da meore ki gulze hkbenda: `Teimuraz-xan, -- swerda Sah-abaz pirveli, -- Sevityve, rom papiSenis kvals Sesdgomixar da gadamTieli ginda karze momayeno saWirborotod... Teimuraz-xan! gadaigde gulidan eg orivesaTvis mavnebeli survili, Tvara, Tavman Cemman, veRar gadaurCe Cem samarTlian risxvas, veRarc Sen da veRarc Seni samefo~. am werilis wakiTxvis Semdeg Teimurazma, Rrmad Cafiqrebulma, gadawyvita sparselebTan yovelgvari kavSiris gawyveta da ruseTTan samudamo dakavSireba... man saswrafod Sekriba didebulebi da imave `dRes darbazma xmis umetesobiT gadawyvita, rom gaewyvita kavSiri sparseTTan da mihkedleboda CrdiloeTs~. Teimurazis aRniSnul nabijs mohyva Sahis sastiki wyroma. bevri istoriuli piris mxatvrulad gardasaxuli saxe SemogvanaTebs Txzulebidan, magram yvelaze mkafio maT Soris mainc centraluri gmiri -- baSi-aCukad monaTluli imereli ymawvili kaci... igi xalxis wiaRidan gamosuli erovnuli gmiria. mis SegnebaSi Rrmad aris damkvidrebuli azri, rom mamuli upirvelesi safiqralia. mas uangarod unda emsaxurebodes kaci. igi amayad acxadebs: `Cemi gansacdeli raRa saxsenebelia, Seni Wirime, maSin rodesac mTeli saqristiano gansacdelSia Cavardnili?!~. baSi-aCuki rogorc garegnobiT, aseve Sinagani meobiTac gamorCeuli pirovnebaa. aseve sulierad da xorcielad wminda adamiania biZina ColoyaSvili. man samSoblos Tavisuflebas Seswira Tavi. Tavis biZas -- jandiers, romelic sparselebis mxareze gadasvlas urCevda, biZinam ase ganucxada: `uwmindur sicocxles me wminda sikvdili mirCevnia.. me CemdaTavad gazafxulis maxaroblobis dros sikvdili mirCevnia zamTris winaswarmetyvelebaSi medidurad sicocxles... aq am patara axmetaSi, -- ambobs igi, yvelaferi malamod ecxeba Cems grZnoba-gonebas: miwa, wyali, mTa, tye, klde da veli, yvela erTad naTesauris kavSiriT gadabmula CemTan!.. vgrZnob raRac erTsisxlxorcobas maTTan!~. avtorma metad amaRelvebeli da RrmaSinaarsiani sityva aTqmevina moTxrobis erT-erT mTavar gmirs. moxuci kaci elizbar qsnis erisTavi samefo darbazis winaSe ambobs: `rac foTlebia xisaTvis, Cvenc iseve varT qveynisaTvis da rac weliwadia foTlebisaTvis, ise saukunea CvenTvis~... saqarTveli Cveni cxovrebis xea... sanamdis misi Ziri ar Sesustdeba, Rero ar SeinZreva da fesvebi magrad eqneba gadgmuli, Stoebis SerxeviTa da foTlebis dacveniT ara uWirs ra: Cvenc erTi foTolTagani varT, adre Tu gvian dasacveni, da Cveni mizeziT raT unda miadges gaWirveba samefos?~. amgvari magaliTebi avtors ara mxolod imisaTvis sWirdeba, raTa aCvenos warsulis sidiade, aramed imisaTvisac, raTa Tanamedrove qarTvelobas `saxed da xatad~ warmoudginos ZvelTa saqmeni sagmironi, misabaZi ideali daanaxos Tanamedrove qarTvels. calkeul personaJTa garda kidev erTi saintereso personaJi gamoiyvana mweralma -- es gaxlavT eri, xalxi, mSromeli glexoba. im dros, roca morRveuli qveynis Tavadaznaurobis erTi nawili gadagvarda da moRalateobis gzas daadga, swored am tragikul momentebSi qveynis erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobas Zalas matebda mSromeli glexoba. `glexobas, -- vkiTxulobT TxzulebaSi, im muSa-xalxs, romelic yoveldRe mama-papebis mowamur sisxls samSoblos mTa-barze msxverplad danTxeuls, patiosan Sromis ofls aRvrida, ar hqonda jer kidev saero kavSiri gawyvetili... igi mzad iyo, rom kvariviT anTebuliyo, da ucdida mxolod naperwklebs, saidanme monakvess!~. mSromelma glexobam, xalxma da misma

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sibrZnem Causaxa biZina ColoyaSvils mtris damarcxebis imedi da sabolood STaagona sayovelTao ajanyebis brZnulad, xerxianad mowyobis gza. xalxis wiaRidan gamosuli adamianebisagan Semdgari partizanuli razmebi anadgurebdnen da SiSis zars scemdnen verag dampyroblebs, maT agentebs. swored xalxis Zlevamosili laSqris meoxebiT SeZles mowinave Svilebma qveynis gaTavisuflebac. akaki Tanabar siTbosa da qebas miagebs qarTvel mandilosansac. am moTxrobaSic qalebi gamoyvanilni arian mamakacebis Tanabrad. pirimTvarisa, pirimzisa da melano Seudarebeli patriotebi arian. isini TavdadebiTa da, amave dros, sazrianad ibrZvian mamakacebis gverdiT. amave dros, maSinac ki, rodesac Tavs icaven, aCveneben ucxo tomis warmomadgenlebs Seudarebel zneobriv simtkices, sulier simdidres. gansakuTrebul yuradRebas iqcevs pirimTvarisas portreti da Sinagani Seuvaloba. mtris xelSi fufunebiT cxovrebas man amjobina garduvali sikvdili. igi istoriuli pirovneba ar aris, magram misi saxe moqargulia realuri qarTveli qalebis Tvisebebze dayrdnobiT. aq mxatvruli gamonagoni da istoriuli sinamdvile erTmaneTs ar ewinaaRmdegeba, piriqiT, urTierTs avseben. `pirimTvarisas msgavsi qalebi, wers akad. k. kekeliZe, -- feodalur qristianul saqarTveloSi SesaZlebeli da warmosadgenia~.1 akaki wereTlis realizmis Zlieri mxare isaa, rom igi istoriis wiaRidan mxolod sasaxelo da dadebiT momentebs ki ar gamoixmobs, aramed uaryofiT, dasagmob momentebsac. am TvalTaxedviT metad sainteresoa im moRalate TavadTa saxeebis Cveneba, romelTac SemaZrwunebeli roli Seasrules qarTveli xalxis istoriaSi. TxzulebaSi gakicxulia Tavadi abaSiZe, romelmac aTi erTmaneTze ukeTesi qaliSvili mihgvara saCuqrad mefes. misma moqiSpe wereTelma ki baqraZis tyupebi ar daindo da amiT asiamovna vaxtang mefes (Saxnavazs). akakis basr kalams gaukicxavi ar darCenia qarTl-kaxeTis zogierTi mefe, maTi axlo winaprebi da samefo karis moxeleni. aRmosavleT saqarTvelo naxevrad gaTaTrda, Semovida sparsuli zne, Cveuleba, rjuli da kanonebi, ena SeibRala, samarTalwarmoeba ucxo enaze mimdinareobda, moRalate Tavadaznauroba dabal wodebas daawva Tavze. `qarTul tkbil RiRins, vaJkacur Sexmatkbilebasa da sasoebis momgvrel galobas bolo mouRo TaTrulma Seqaqanebam!.. tkbili Canguri da salamuri zurna-Wianurma Caylapa~.. mxolod `orovela~ da `mumli muxasa~ SerCenia muSa xalxs~. maSindeli sparsuli politikis nayofi da Sedegi rom aCvena, amiT mweralma Tanamedrove qarTvelebs daanaxva mefis carizmis politikis arsic, kolonializmis sisastike da veragoba. rac Seexeba moqmed pirT: zaal aragvis erisTavs, biZina ColoyaSvils, elizbar da Salva qsnis erisTavebs, Teimuraz pirvels, qarTlis mefe vaxtangs, Sahnavazad wodebuls, Sah-abass, ali-yuli-xans, feiqar-xans da sxvaT, isini istoriuli pirovnebebia. maT Sesaxeb uxvi masala moipoveba saistorio wyaroebsa da dokumentebSi, literaturul nawarmoebebSi. qarTveli mematiane kaxeTis saxalxo ajanyebis meTaurad zaal aragvis erisTavs asaxelebs. zaal erisTavma `Semoifica qsnis erisTavi Salva da elizbar da kaxi sufraji biZina ColoyaSvili da Semoifices mTis kacni fSav-xevsur-TuSni... amaT gaatana Tana zurab, Ze Tvisi, da warvidnen Ramesa erTsa. daesxnen Tavsa sultansa baxtrions da amowyvites, da mosrnes baxtrionis cixeSi mdgomni elni, da rac iyvnen, mihyvnen iqidame meotiTa, Cavidnen alaverds da, romelnica mun iy1 k. k e k e l i Z e , `baSi-aCukis~ erTi epizodisaTvis (akaki wereTlisadmi miZRvnili saiubileo krebuli, Tsu, 1940, gv. 198).

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vnen TaTarni da elni, rac esaxla, yovelni mosrnes piriTa maxvilisaTa~ (qarTlis cxovreba, t, II, 1959, gv. 438). saistorio wyaroebis mixedviT, zaal erisTavi xSirad amxedrebula mtrebis winaaRmdeg da mravalgzis gaumagrebia zurgi Teimuraz pirvelisaTvis agresorTa winaaRmdeg brZolebiT. magram igi xSirad icvlida orientacias da xan Teimurazs emxroboda da xanac mis mtrebs umegobrdeboda. igi ar yofila samSoblosaTvis Tanmimdevari mebrZoli, erTguli da umwikvlo mamuliSvili. mas kaxeTis ajanyebisas piradi interesebi asuldgmulebda. igi yaenis winaaRmdeg amxedrebula imis gamo, rom am ukanasknelma samefo taxtze zaalis nacvlad dasva rostom mefis Svilobili vaxtangi, Sahnavazi. yovelive amis gamo, rogorc Cans, akakim mizanSewonilad ar miiCnia kaxeTis ajanyebis meTaurad misi gamoyvana, amitomac amgvar centralur figurad biZina ColoyaSvili aRiara. aRniSnuls isic uwyobda xels, rom mixeil sabininis mier `saqarTvelos samoTxeSi~ gamoqveynebul anton pirvelis TxzulebaSi kaxeTis ajanyebis meTaurad biZina ColoyaSvilia gamoyvanili, zaal erisTavi ki meryev TanaSemwed. `baSi-aCukSi~ asaxuli mravali movlena antonis Txzulebas mihyveba. zaal aragvis erisTavis saxe `baSi-aCukSi daxatulia, rogorc mSobliuri miwawylis moamage da samSoblos moyvaruli pirovneba. igi mtkivneulad ganicdis qveynis mZime mdgomareobas. kiriles sizmris pirveli mosmenidanve is veRar faravda Tavis ganwyobilebas da `qveyniur zraxvebs veRar aRwevda Tavs~. akaki zaalis sasaxlesac qveynis imedad saxavs: `kldovani kidis Tavze, Rrublebidan gamosuliyo uzarmazari cixe-darbazi, Seupovrad gadmomdgariyo da sanugeSod gadahyurebda are-mares~. amave sasaxleSi Seikribnen SeTqmuli erisTavebi da Seeficnen erTmaneTs samSoblos ganTavisuflebisaTvis sabrZolvelad. zaali TanaugrZnobs qveynis ganTavisuflebis ideas, magram Seqmnil viTarebaSi mtris uricxavi jaris damarcxeba SeuZleblad miaCnia. aragvis erisTavs gamocdileba afiqrebines, rom es ori aTasi qarTveli mxedari sul tyuilubralod gawydeba ricxvmraval mtris winaaRmdeg brZolaSi da Semdeg ganrisxebuli dampyrobi kidev ufro met ubedurebas daatexda Tavs dauZlurebul qveyanas. zaali iCens sifrTxiles da erTgvar gaubedaobas. kiriles sizmrisa da meuRlis SegonebiT zaali daTanxmda ajanyebaSi monawileobaze. saistorio wyaroebis cnobiT, kaxeTis mmarTvelad 1659 wels Sah-abasis mier daniSnuli iyo selimxani. moTxrobaSi ki xan ali yuli xania kaxeTis mmarTvelad gamoyvanili, xan feiqar xani da xanac orive erTdroulad. rogorc Cans, anton pirvelis nawarmoebis safuZvelze Seutania akakis Tavis TxzulebaSi selim xanis nacvlad feiqar xani. `baSi-aCuki~ xasiaTdeba maRalmxatvrulobiT. akaki ambis didebuli mTxrobelia. mis mier SeTxzuli fabula momxibvlelia Tavisi moulodnelobebiT, lirikuli adgilebiT, iumorisa da tragizmis ostaturi SerwymiT. akakis prozas Taviseburi ritmic moepoveba. akakis stilisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia isariviT winmswrafi kompozicia. igi arafers iseTs ar CarTavs TxzulebaSi, rasac SeuZlia dinamikurobis Seneleba. amitomacaa, rom TxzulebaSi ar gvxvdeba arc erTi uadgilo detali, gaWianurebuli dialogi an monologi. `baSi-aCukis~ avtori personaJTa xatvis didostatia. mis mier gamoqandakebuli saxeebi samaradJamod rCebian mkiTxvelis xsovnaSi da mkafioobiT xasiaTdebian. avtori personaJis vrcel daxasiaTebas ki ar iZleva, aramed mokles, xolo ZiriTadad gvixasiaTebs mas moqmedebaSi, dinamikaSi. personaJTa vnebebi, sulieri ltolvani savsebiT saxiers xdian maT. akaki arc portretis xatvis tradiciul wess icavs. TiTqmis araferia naTqvami istoriul pirTa garegnobaze. samagierod mwerali ufro metad zrunavs gamogonil personaJTa garegnuli iersaxis mkafiod gamoxatvaze. am mxriv saq127

restomaTioa baSi-aCukis brwyinvale portreti: `tanmaRali, welSi werweti, mxarbeWiani, fafanak ukangadagdebuli, gaCeCili TmiT da gawkvertilis ulvaSebiT titvela pirze, swored sasiamovno Sesaxedavi iyo.~ sxartadaa gamokveTili abduSahilis portretic: `erTi SexedviT, Casxmuli, uzarmazari, Savi marmarilos qandakeba egoneboda kacs. Savi wverebi tevrad eyreboda gulmkerdze, didi ulvaSebi aqeT-iqiT totebad scemdnen sigrZisad. didi Savi Tvalebi, sqeli warbebiT gadmoxurul-daCrdilulebi, saocrad brialebdnen.~ mwerali didi ostatobiT gviCvenebs mTavari personaJis pirvel gamosvlas. mTavari figuris pirveli gamoCena -- es akakisaTvis udidesi mniSvnelobis problebaa. am problebas igi warmatebiT wyvets. baSi-aCuki pirvelad vaJkacuri saqmiTa da moqmedebiT SemoiWreba moqmedebaSi -- guldagul gadalaxavs modidebul aragvs da rwmenas da imeds unergavs yvelas. Tavdapirvelad moxveWili simpaTiebiT baSi-aCuks momgebianad warmoaCens mkiTxvelis winaSe mTxrobeli Txrobis manZilze. moTxrobaSi xSirad aris gamoyenebuli zRaprebi, xalxuri Tqmebi, gadmocemebi, andazebi, idiomuri gamoTqmebi da sxva. yvelafer amas akaki Tavisebur iers aniWebs da mSvenier saSen masalad iyenebs moTxrobis mxatvruli qsovilisaTvis. Cvens literaturas sakmao tradiciebi moepoveba sizmris literaturul masalad gadamuSavebisa. am wess arc akaki Ralatobs. zRaprul motivebze agebuli kirile mRvdlis sizmari maRali esTetizmiT gamoirCeva, damainteresebelicaa da siuJetis ganviTarebasac xels uwyobs. sizmarma Caafiqra yvela, zogierTs raRaca eniSna, zogierTs ki sifxizle gaumaxvila, zogsac eWvianoba gauorkeca. man gaamxneva Salva da elizbar qsnis erisTavebi, gaaaqtiura zaalis meuRle da sxvebi. amave dros zRapari sxva mxrivac aris sayuradRebo. igi TiTqosda fokusSi aqcevso nawarmoebis mTel ideur-Sinaarsobriv mizandasaxulobas, amkafioebs qarTvelTa miswrafebas Tavisuflebisaken da gvamcnobs maT dajerebul optimizms. igi simboluri saxea qveynis gaTavisuflebisa da momavali aRorZinebisa. TxzulebaSi kargadaa Casmuli saxalxo garTobebisa da zeimebis amsaxveli pasaJebic. isini umTavresad sakvanZo sakiTxebis gamovlenisa da siuJetis daZabulad gaSlis mizniT arian gamoyenebulni. aseTi saxalxo gasarTobebia jiriTi, yabaxi, agreTve sazeimo ceremonialebi mefeTa karze da sxv. aseTi pasaJebi TiTqosda damoukidebeli mniSvnelobisani arian, sinamdvileSi ki personaJTa xasiaTis gaxsnas emsaxurebian. amas garda, isini siuJetis ganviTarebasac uwyoben xels. amrigad, niWieri xelovanis xelSi erTi da igive literaturuli xerxi ramdenime mizans eqvemdebareba. avtoris erT-erT didebul miRwevad iTvleba idumalebis xerxis didostaturi gamoyeneba. amgvari idumalebiT arian mosili tyupebi, abduSahili... didad damainteresebeli da damZabvelia abduSahilis mier Svlis daWra, trial mindorze tyeSi mzeTunaxavTan Sexvedra, Svlis goniereba, qalis gauCinareba, pirimTvarisas Tavganwirva, abduSahilis fexze eqvsi TiTis qona da sxv. mweralma leo qiaCelma sagangebod miuTiTa `baSi-aCukSi~ gamoyenebul mravalferovan poetur xerxTa gamoyenebis Taobaze. gansakuTrebiT gaamaxvila yuradReba moulodnelobisa da saidumloebis xerxebis Tavisebur gaSlaze.1 marTlac, mkiTxvels ajadoebs siuJetis amgvari gaSla. moulodneli momentebiTa da idumalebiT mosili pirovnebebis mier Seqnili situaciebi erTmaneTis ganviTarebis pirobacaa da mTliani siuJeturi xazisac. am mxriv brwyinvale magaliTebia: zaal aragvis erisTavis meuRlis ucabedi Sekivleba, abduSahilis pirovneba, rom igi mkiTxvels TaTari hgonia, magram garkveulad kidev ukvirs misi ra1

l.q i a C e l i , Txzulebani, t. IV, gv. 345.

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Racnairi lmobiereba da adamianuroba. bolos ki aRmoCndeba, rom igi qarTveli yofila da yvelaferi naTeli Seiqneba. abduSahils satrfo mkvdari hgonia da igi cocxali aRmoCndeba. saidumloebiT iyo mosili melanosa da abduSahilis daZmobis ambavic. moulodnelad gairkva, rom isini marTlac sisxliT da-Zma yofilan. literaturis specialistebi xSirad miuTiTeben, rom WeSmariti literatura -- es aris damajereblis daujereblad, xolo daujereblis damajereblad mowodebao. am formulis mixedviT Tu ganvsjiT, maSin `baSi-aCukis~ avtori prozis klasikosia. es jadosnuri Tviseba man moTxrobaSi Warbad gamoavlina.1 Tavisi kompoziciis mosxletilobiT, enobrivi poziciiTa da mxatvruli saxeebis originalobiT `baSi-aCukma~ qarTveli xalxis didi siyvaruli moixveWa. am nawarmoebiT akaki wereTelma Taviseburi stili da xatvis manera daamkvidra qarTuli mxatvruli prozis ganviTarebaSi.

dramatuli poemebi. `Tamar cbieri~ akaki wereTlis pirveli leqsad dawerili istoriul-dramatuli poemaa. poemis adrindeli redaqcia daiwera 1885 wels. saboloo redaqcia gamoqveynda 1898 wels. didma qarTvelma kompozitorma meliton balanCivaZem am Txzulebis mixedviT dawera opera `Tamar cbieri~. `Tamar cbieri~ agebulia Cveni qveynis istoriis uaRresad mZime da tragikul epoqaze. dramaSi asaxulia imereTis samefos XVII s. meore naxevris, gansakuTrebiT ki giorgi gurielis mefobis (1681-1683) tragikuli periodi. masSi CarTulia darejan dedoflisa da aRmosavleT saqarTvelos cxovrebis garkveuli epizodebi. mefeTa da dedofalTa da mTavrebs Soris samefo taxtis dauflebis mizniT gamudmebulma mtrobam, samSoblos Ralatma qveyana udides gansacdelSi Caagdo. TavianTi miznebis gansaxorcieleblad qveynis moRalateebi xSirad iwvevdnen dampyrob agresorebs, iranis Sahebs, osmaleTis sulTnebs da faSebs, romlebic kidev ufro anadgurebdnen isedac dauZlurebul qveyanas. imereTis samefoSi uaRresad tragikuli mdgomareoba Seiqmna aleqsandre mefis gardacvalebis Semdeg. taxtze misi Ze bagrati avida. igi isiZa cbierma dedinacvalma darejan dedofalma, Teimuraz I asulma, aleqsandre mefis qvrivma; miaTxova mas Tavisi Zmis -- daviTis asuli. eqvsi Tvis Semdeg veragma darejanma Seipyro bagrati, `aRmoaxdina Tvalni, wargvara coli, SeirTo qmrad vinme vaxtang WuWunaiSvili, daeufla taxts da amefa vaxtangi~. bagratis momxreebma faSa moixmares, romelmac taxtze isev dabrmavebuli bagrati dasva. darejanma moqrTama faSa, romelmac xelaxla gaamefa darejani da misi meuRle. male darejani da vaxtangi SeTqmulTa mier iqnen mokluli da isev bagrat uTvalo gamefda. amasTanave, imereTs moadga qarTlis mefe vaxtang V (Sahnavazi) da imereTis mefed Tavisi mcirewlovani Ze arCili dasva (Semdeg cnobili mefe da poeti), xolo dadianad dasva Samadavle, uwoda mas leon da `misca Zmiswuli Tvisi Tamar meuRled~. arCili iZulebuli gaxda male daetovebina imereTis taxti da kvlav bagrati gamefda. qarTlis mefesTan damoyvrebiT gaTamamebulma leon (levan) dadianma ar indoma bagratis mefoba da didZali jariT ekveTa mas. brZolaSi damarcxda dadiani, mefem igi Seipyro da Tamari TviTon SeirTo colad.2 dadiani isev ekveTa bagrats, sZlia da daibruna Tamari. bagratma osmalebis da giorgi gurielis daxmarebiT, didi sisxlis Rvris fasad kvlav daamarcxa dadiani da isev waarTva meuRle. ase uwyalod oxrdeboda qveyana, Tamari xelidan

1 akakis prozis da, kerZod, `baSi-aCukis~ poeturobas sagangebod ikvlevs gr. kiknaZe. ix. misi literaturis Teoriisa da istoriis sakiTxebi, gv. 277-294. 2 qarTlis cxovreba, II, daviT CubinaSvilis gamoc., 1854, gv. 202-205. Sdr. qarTlis cxovreba, II, sim. yauxCiSvilis red., gamokv. da SeniSvnebi, 1959; nik. dadiani, qarTvelT cxovreba, teqsti gamosca, winasity., gamokvleva, komentarebi, saZieblebi, leqsikoni daurTo S. burjanaZem, 1962, gv. 162-163.

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xelSi gadadioda. bagratis gardacvalebis Semdeg (1681 w.) samefo taxts da Tamar dedofals daeufla giorgi gurieli. yvelaze metad iCagreboda mSromeli glexoba, qeduxreli patriotebi gmirulad ibrZodnen rogorc Sinauri, ise gareSe mtrebis winaaRmdeg da sisxlis fasad icavdnen qveyanas. akakis drama `Tamar cbieris~ ZiriTadi motivi patriotizmia. TxzulebaSi samSoblos siyvaruli aRiarebulia, rogorc uzenaesi grZnoba, romelsac yvelaferi emorCileba. naCvenebia poetis uzenaesi valdebulebis da moqalaqeobrivi pasuxismgeblobis Zala. nawarmoebSi daxatulia avtoris ideali siyvarulis grZnobis, misi daniSnulebis, fizikuri silamazis da maRali sulieri mSvenierebis urTierTmimarTebis Sesaxeb. motivTa amgvari siuxve da misi gadawyvetis dros gamovlenili pozicia `Tamar cbiers~ erTob sayuradRebo dramatul Txzulebad aqcevs. Tamar dedofali istoriulad cnobili pirovnebaa. saistorio da literaturuli wyaroebis daxasiaTebiT, Tamari iyo `friad kekluci da aRmatebuli mSvenierebiTa, srul umetesad~ (vaxuSti, qarTlis cxovreba). akakim Seudarebeli poeturi aRmafreniT daxata Tamar cbieris xorcieli siturfe, qveynad ganxorcielebuli edemuri fizikuri mSveniereba da zneobrivi biwiereba, sakuTari siamovnebisaTvis qveynis gawirva. akaki didad afasebda silamazes, `ciur niWad~ Tvlida. magram `Tamar cbierSi~ sagangebod xazgasmulia, rom marto garegani silamaze yovelTvis rodi amSvenebs adamians. maSin, rodesac mSveniereba xdeba biwierebis, mruSobisa da siZvis, veragobisa da Ralatis, dacemis mizezi, amgvari silamaze uarsayofi, sazizRari da dasagmobia. swored aseT uaryofiT movlenad miaCnda poets Tamar cbieris silamaze da TviT Tamari. `leCaqis nacvlad eSmakis qseli mas Tavze xuravs da imereTi misgan garyvnili dRes borotebis morevSi scuravs~. goCa-mgosnis mier dedoflis saocari silamazisa da SemoTavazebuli siyvarulis uaryofa da SeCveneba gamomdinareobs akakis naTeli poziciidan, rom siyvaruli mxolod garegnuli Tviseba ki ar aris, aramed igi sulis Tvisebaa, namdvili siyvaruli sulTa kavSirSia. xorcieli da sulieri silamaze da amaRlebuli siyvaruli, akakis rwmeniT, patriotuli STagonebis xarisxiT fasdeba. Tamar cbieris zRapruli silamazis gamo aoxrda qveyana; mis gamo erTmaneTs ejaxebodnen mefe, mTavrebi, erisTavebi da aCaRebdnen ZmaTa sisxlismRvrel omebs. erTi sityviT, Tamar cbieris silamaze amaRlebuli sulieri mSvenierebiT ki ar iyo STagonebuli, aramed igi qveynis damRupvel Zalad iyo movlinebuli da amis gamo gakicxuli, uaryofili da dagmobilia misi silamaze da siyvarulic; amitom uaryo goCam Tamaris silamazec da mis mier SemoTavazebuli siyvarulic. goCas mier Tamaris trfialis uaryofam ukiduresad gaamwara dedofali da daswama mgosans Zalad Seuracxyofis mcdeloba da dilegSi Caamwyvdevina. cxadia, Txzulebis am nawilSi gamoyenebulia bibliuri gadmocema. faraonis meuRlisagan SemoTavazebuli siyvarulis iosebis mier uaryofis gamo, gamwarebulma dedofalma cili daswama mas da faraons moaxsena, CemTan dawola moisurvao. ganrisxebulma faraonma iosebi sapyrobileSi Seagdo. Tamar dedofali goCas Segonebisa da zogi sxva situaciis zemoqmedebis Sedegad, aRiarebs Tavis Secodebas da iTxovs Sendobas, codvebis mitevebas. `Tamar cbieris~ adrindeli xelnaweris mixedviT dedofali Sendobil iqna mefis mier. darbazSi sazogado gaocebaa, mgosani aRtacebiT wamoiZaxebs `RmerTo!~ eSveba farda. aRniSnuli redaqciis mixedviT dedofali Tavs ar iklavs. momdevno redaqcia poets Seucvlia. aq Segonebuli dedofali acxadebs:

`is, vinc sicocxliT ver gamaZRara, sikvdiliT igrZnobs srul netarebas!~

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axdis beWdis Tavs da Seswovs Sxams. momakvdavi Tamari mimarTavs mefes: `mefeo, mgosans nu moiSoreb... qveynis ... di....deba~. dedofali kvdeba. mgosani wamoiZaxebs: `ra drosa kvdeba!~ eSveba farda. bolo redaqcia naTlad gviCvenebs poetis principul pozicias, rom moRalate, avxorci, Tundac Segonebuli da Sendobili qalis, dedoflis taxtze darCena SeuZlebelia. amasTanave, akaki marTebulad miiCnevs, rom samSoblos da xalxis moRalate Sendobil iqnas, igi mkacrad unda daisajos; Tamar cbiermac Sesaferisi sasjeli gamoutana Tavis Tavs. axali redaqciiT Zlierdeba dramatizmi. Tamar cbieris saxe kidev ufro tragikuli xdeba. poeti Tavisi mxatvruli mizandasaxulobis Sesabamisad gverds uvlis garkveul istoriul cnobebs da Tamar cbieris saxes aqac amdidrebs mxatvruli gamonagoniT. istoriulad cnobilia, rom Tamar dedofals Tavi ar mouklavs. igi dedoflad darCa aleqsandre bagratis Zis mier giorgi gurielis samefo taxtidan gaZevebamde, magram istoriuli realiebi amis Semdeg poets aRar gamouyenebia. man Tamar cbieris ganwmendiT daasrula drama. akakis mier gansakuTrebuli poeturi STagonebiTaa daxatuli xalxis wridan gamosuli goCa mgosani. igi mowodebulia samSoblos mtrebis winaaRmdeg brZolisaTvis, misi idealia dacemuli qveynis aRdgena, gaerTianeba da gaZliereba. akakis rwmeniT, rogorc iTqva, WeSmariti poeti xalxis winamZRolia, igi maRali moqalaqeobrivi idealebiT unda iyos STagonebuli, iyos nimuSi qveynisaTvis Tavdadebisa. goCas saxe avtorma Semosa zneobrivi sxivmosilebiT, brwyinvale poeturi SaravandediT. mgosani zizRiT ukuagdebs Tamar dedoflis mier SeTavazebul tkbil da nebier cxovrebas. goCa-poeti saTaveSi udgas Tamar dedoflis ganadgurebisaTvis aRZrul saxalxo moZraobas, xolo, roca veragma darejanma `ukuRma scara Cveni qveyana~ da `taxtze asuli farisevloba sisxliT da cremliT, Sav pirs ibanda~:

`maSin gavida xalxSi mgosani, saero cremli Cangze damRera da xalxis guli miZinebuli gamoafxizla da aaZgera~.

mgosnis Zala ganusazRvrelia. man poeturi STagonebiT SeZlo xalxis gamofxizleba, aRelveba, sabrZolvelad gamoyvana da borotebis daTrgunva. darejan dedoflis winaaRmdeg xalxis ajanyebis sulisCamdgmelad goCamgosnis aRiareba scildeba istoriul WeSmaritebas, igi avtoris mxatvruli fantaziis nayofia da Seesabameba mwerlis akakiseul ideals. goCas saxe aRbeWdilia agreTve metad keTilSobiluri miswrafebiT -- saqarTvelos erovnuli konsolodaciisaTvis, ufro zustad, sxvadasxva samTavrod da samefod daqsaqsuli da dasustebuli qveynis erT mTlian saxelmwifod gaerTianeba da mterTa Cagvrisagan samSoblos ganTavisufleba aris mgosnis ideali. erTgan akaki werda: `damarcxebuli mxolod maSin aris kaci, rodesac sasoebas dahkargavs ... da Zalmomreobas SiSiT daemorCileba! Torem visac simarTle da WeSmariteba imediT SekavSirebuli gulSi uRviva, is yvelgan da yovelTvis gmiria~.1 swored amgvar pozicias emyareba goCas poeturi saxe. igi darwmunebulia Tavisi keTilSobiluri idealebis ganxorcielebaSi da momavlisaTvis brZolaSi mosalodneli damarcxebis SemTxvevaSic uaRresad amaRlebul saxalxo gmirad rCeba. igi mefes mimarTavs:

`mSvidobiT, mefev! Sen aq darCebi samefo taxtze monad mjdomare! me ki mefurad Sevxvdebi sikvdils! darbazis nacvlad melis samare!~

1

a k a k i w e r e T e l i , Txzulebani, t. XIII, gv. 131.

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saerTod, goCa-mgosnis saxe erT-erTi brwyinvale furcelia da saintereso masala mwerlobisa da mwerlis daniSnulebis Sesaxeb akakis mrwamsis naTelsayofad. giorgi gurieli istoriuli pirovnebaa. igi guriis erTi Zlieri mTavari iyo, ris gamoc mas samefoSi garkveul angariSs uwevdnen. mas mravaljer miuRia monawileoba imereTSi mefeTa, dedofalTa, mTavarTa, maRal sasuliero pirTa mier Zalauflebis aRebis mizniT atexil ZmaTa sisxlismRvrel brZolebSi da qveynis aoxrebaSi. mefe bagratis gardacvalebis Semdeg gurieli daeufla imereTis taxts, kanonieri coli gauSva -- bagratisa da Tamaris asuli darejani da colad SeirTo sidedri, mefe bagratis qvrivi, dedofali Tamari, riTac, ganarisxa RmerTi, saaqaos Sercxva da saiqios wawymda~ (farsadan gorgijaniZe). qveynis damSvidebis, borotebis aRkveTis nacvlad, mefe giorgi nebier cxovrebas eweoda. saxelmwifo marTvis sadave uzneo dedofalma Caigdo xelT. amgvari daxasiaTebis Semdeg akaki erTgvarad apoeturebs gurielis saxes. akakis poemis mixedviT, giorgi gurieli TiTqos keTilSobili idealebiT iyo STagonebuli, magram garemoebam, pirvel rigSi ki Tamar cbierma ar misces saSualeba maTi ganxorcielebisa, ris gamoc igi tragikul gmirad iqca. poeti TandaTan gvamzadebs mefe giorgis mimarT simpaTiurad ganwyobisaTvis. mefem Seigno Tavisi umweo mdgomareoba da qveynisaTvis saziano moqmedeba dagmo, moinania codvebi da aRiara:

`gana mefoba eTqmis cocxal-mkvdars! mefe rom viyo, sxvisi brZanebiT gavimetebdi gana megobars?!~

goCa-mgosnisa da masxaras SegonebiT mefe giorgim xasiaTi da moqmedeba Seicvala. igi kvlav gaitaca saqveyno saqmis keTilSobilurma idealebma, Seimosa Zlieri nebisyofiT, gamoerkva, moikriba Wkua-goneba, icno qveynis mokeTeebi da aRtacebiT warmoTqva:

`aw kmara! isev mefe var, mefe var, mefe gvirgvinosani! da TanaSemwed ori kaci myavs: erTi masxara, erTic mgosani~.

saistorio wyaroebis cnobiT, giorgi gurielma sul ori weli imefa (16811683). xonTqaris daxmarebiT 1683 wels imereTis taxts daeufla bagratis Ze aleqsandre, giorgi gurieli gadaixvewa guriaSi da imereTis taxtis dabrunebis mizniT moawyo axali SeTqmuleba. Zlier brZolaSi `moisrnen orgniTve umravlesni~ da moklul iqna giorgi gurieli (1684 w.) es cnobebi akakis poemaSi aRar Seutania. masxara da cira xalxis Svilebia. isini gmirulad ibrZvian samSoblos keTildReobisaTvis. isini gabedulad amxelen mmarTveli wris mier qveynad gabatonebul Znelbedobas, aoxrebas, sisxlis Rvras. orive personaJi aqtiurad monawileobs SeTqmulebaSi. maT sjeraT, rom Tamar dedoflis mokvliT moisxamen `mTeli qveynis madls~. masxaras simRerebsa da sityvebSi Caqsovilia xalxis miswrafebebi. ara marto me-17 saukunis, aramed akakis Tanadroulobis sastiki mxilebaa xumaras simReraSi:

`maRliT cecxlis wvima modis, dabla dgeba sisxlis Rvari... ca da miwa gadabrunda, gagvisworda mTa da bari!.. Zma Zmas swiravs, mama-Svilsa, megobarsa megobari~.

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aseve ara marto me-17 saukunis imereTze SeiZleba gavrceldes Semdegi striqonebi:

`es sofeli swored sagiJeTia: yvela sCemobs Wkuas, grZnobas, gonebas!.. veRar varCevT marTals da moCvenebuls! vin gadurCes ugnurebis monebas?! garegnoba, Wreli sanaxaoba, TvalsaCino, saTvalTmaqco Tviseba, ai, qveynad ra amaRlebs kacad kacs!... vis rad unda WeSmariti Rirseba?!~

akaki, didi optimisti da momavlis ubadlo momRerali, masxaras simReraSi aqsovs Tavis Rrma ideals da mouwodebs:

`cao, cao, moiwminde, dagviyene isev dari, Sevardeno, frTa gaSale, cis kamaras Tavi hkari!...~

mebrZoli suliskveTeba SaravandediT mosavs masxaras saxes. cira ubralo moaxlea. igi goCas naTluli da Svilobilia. mas Segnebuli aqvs qveynis umweo mdgomareoba da mzad aris msxverplad Seewiros samSoblos interesebs. mas ezizReba mefe giorgisa da Tamar dedoflis bilwi moqmedeba. cira guliT uTanagrZnobs gurielis kanonier meuRles, romelic dedam da qmarma gaswires da udabnoSi gamoamwyvdies. Txzulebis mixedviT, Taliko (unda iyos: darejani -- p.k.) ciras dedis gazrdilia, misi ZuZu uwovnia. ciras patriotul miswrafebas ZiZiSvilobis movaleobac aZlierebs da iwvevs sabrZolvelad. dobilisa da qveynis gamoxsniT gatacebuli cira kisrulobs dedoflis mokvlas. cira Tavis satrfos mouwodebs sagmiro saqmisaken da eubneba:

`nestan-darejan msxverplsa Txoulobs, xataeTs gzavnis satrfos saomrad da TinaTini mis gmirs avTandils istumrebs xangrZliv moymis saZebrad...~

SoTas poemiT STagonebis safuZvelze cira Tavis satrfos awvdis xanjals da avalebs Tamar dedoflis mokvlas: `Sen unda mokla qveynis orguli, samagierod mec Seni var da SenTvis movkvdebi~. es saxalxo davaleba da ciras siyvaruli gadaawyvetinebs niko guriels Tavisi valis aRsrulebas. cira dedoflis sarecelTan misul guriels vaJkacurad amxnevebs, xeli ar agiTrToldes, gaupe gulio. Rrma siyvaruliT anTebuli cira trfialze maRla saqveyno interesebs ayenebs da satrfos pirobad udebs: sagmiro saqme aRasrule da Semdeg davemonebi Sens siyvaruls da erTgulebaso. dabali wridan gamosuli cira poetma daxata rogorc samSoblos erTguli gmiri qali. `Tamar cbieri~ akakis pirveli leqsad dawerili piesaa. dramatuli poemis yvela moqmedeba erTmaneTTan logikuradaa dakavSirebuli. mecnierebaSi gavrcelebuli klasifikaciis mixedviT replikebi orgvaria: rezultaturi da makavSirebeli (rgolebi).1 `Tamar cbierSi~ umTavresad gamoyenebulia moqmedebaTa damakavSirebeli replikebi, e.i. iseTi replikebi, romlebic Seicaven movlenaTa ganviTarebis maniSnebel impulss, xazs da mkiTxvelis (mayureblis) interesebs apirobeben. dramaSi yvela replika makavSirebelia. `Tamar cbieris~ pirvel moqmedebaSi ciram ikisra dedoflis mokvlis organizacia da moqmedebis damaboloebeli mgosnis sityvebi (replika): `nuTu mas, vinc es Cveni qveyana saocrad garyvna da daamcira, pasuxs miagebs samagierod erTi ubralo moaxle cira?!~ da sxv. aq farda eSveba sa1

v. v o l k e n S t e i n i , dramaturgia, 1937, gv. 104 (rusulad).

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intereso situaciaSi. replika amaxvilebs yuradRebas moqmedebaTa Semdgomi msvlelobisadmi. meore moqmedeba mgosnis dapatimrebiT mTavrdeba. SeTqmulebis mTavari xelmZRvaneli gansacdelSia. mkiTxveli (mayurebeli) gazrdili interesiT elodeba mgosnis bedisa da SeTqmulebis momaval msvlelobas, mis Sedegs. aqac replika makavSirebelia. niko gurieli ciram daiTanxma dedoflis mokvlis aqtis aRsrulebaze da ai nikos replika: `sicocxle ciras, sikvdili Tamars!~. analogiuri funqciisaa meoTxe moqmedebis bolo replika da situacia kvlav damakavSirebelia. CaiSala SeTqmuleba. cira daapatimres. mkiTxveli (mayurebeli) mouTmenlad elodeba mexuTe moqmedebas. `Tamar cbieris~ personaJTa daxasiaTebisas poets mravalmxrivi interesebi amoZravebs. didi mxatvruli ostatobiTaa gamoyenebuli dinamikuri da emociuri monologebi, mimzidveli dialogebi, personaJTa urTierTdamokidebuleba, portretuli xatebi, replikebisa da lirikuli wiaRsvlebis moxdenilad gamoyeneba. Txzuleba Sesrulebulia 8,10,11-marcvlovani leqsiT. leqsis versifikacia gamoyenebulia movlenaTa specifikuri xasiaTis Sesabamisad. mag., mgosnisa da dedoflis, mefis... dialogebi da monologebi ZiriTadad gamarTulia aTmarcvlovani leqsiT. aRniSnuli zoma Txzulebis wamyvani formaa. zogierTi aspeqtis STambeWdaobis kidev ufro gaZlierebis, aRzevebuli grZnobebis, dinji da Rrma Segonebisa da sxv. SemTxvevaSi poeti mimarTavs TerTmetmarcvlovan leqss. masxaras monologebsa da dialogebSi poeti iyenebs rvamarcvlian leqssac. amgvari variacia xels uwyobs Txzulebis rogorc ideur-mxatvruli Sinaarsis, ise moqmedi gmiris -- masxaras saxis srulyofas. rvamarcvliani leqsia gamoyenebuli iseT situaciebSi, rodesac masxara mware dacinviT, iumoriTa da gesliani sarkazmiT kicxavs uaryofiT personaJebs, movlenebs da amRerebulia igi xalxuri Sairis hangze, xalxuri melodiis kiloze da gaformebulia narTauli an pirdapiri TqmebiT. leqsis versifikaciuli mravalferovneba, misi SerCevis principi da gamoyenebis ostatoba saerTod damaxasiaTebelia akakis poeziisaTvis. `patara kaxi~. `patara kaxi~ xuTmoqmedebiani dramatuli poemaa. igi agebulia meTvramete saukunis istoriul movlenebze, kerZod, Wabuki irakli batoniSvilis mier 1735 wels gareSe mtrebze saxelovani gamarjvebisa da qarTveli xalxis patriotul SemarTebaze. analogiur Temaze aleqsandre jambakur-orbelianma 1862 wels daamTavra da vrceli winasityvaobis darTviT dabeWda Jurnal `ciskarSi~ prozauli formiT piesa `batoniSvilis iraklis pirveli dro anu Tavdadeba qarTvelebisa~ (tragedia oTx moqmedebad). aRniSnuli nawarmoebi `patara kaxis~ erT-erTi literaturuli wyaroa. akakis nawarmoebis istoriuli qarga aseTia: 1722 wlis zafxulSi ruseTis Zlevamosili jarebi Zlieri sazRvao flotiT kaspiis sanapiroze idga da petre pirvelis gegmiT iranSi SeWras apirebda. petre didma daxmareba sTxova qarTlis mefe vaxtang VI-s. mefe `sixaruliTa didiTa~ Sexvda imperatoris gamowvevas da 30 Tu 40-aTasiani laSqriT 1722 wlis agvistos ganjaSi dadga. magram agvistos bolos petre pirvelma daarRvia piroba, uRalata vaxtang VI-s, omi gadado da moulodnelad astraxans gabrunda. vaxtang VI TiTqmis sami Tvis ganmavlobaSi idga ganjas da sasowarkveTili da imedgacruebuli gamobrunda Tbiliss. `Seeqmna mefes Wmunva didi~ (sexnia CxeiZe). iranisa da osmaleTisaTvis cxadi gaxda vaxtangis zraxvebi. swored aman gansazRvra iran-osmaleTis uricxvi Semosevebi qarTlSi. qveyana moisra da ganadgurda. vaxtangs qarTlSi aRar daedgomeboda da didi amaliT ruseTs gaemgzavra. am xanebSi kaxeTi eWira gamahmadianebul konstantines, erekle pirvelis Zes, romelsac Saxis karze ewoda mahmad-yuli-xani.

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Sahma vaxtang meeqvses CamoarTva mefoba da gadasca igi mahmad-yuli-xans, romelic osmaleTis xonTqarma axalcixis faSas -- usuf-faSas RalatiT moakvlevina. amis Semdeg taxti konstantines Zmam, Teimuraz meorem daikava. magram gaZlierda ra kaxeTSi osmal urdoTa da moTareSe lekTa Tavdasxmebi, qveynis rbevasa da awiokebas sazRvari aRar hqonda. mefes kaxeTSi aRar edgomeboda da amitomac `Teimuraz warvida fSavs da iyofeboda mun~ (vaxuSti). momxvdurni atyvevebdnen mcxovrebT da osmaleTis bazrebzed hyiddnen. mematianis gadmocemiT, `iyo tirili da vaeba~... ase gaiafda tyve, rom `TiTos vaJkacs orol minalTunad aZlevdnen, romelic ar gauvidisT, cxvruleb yelsa moWridian da zogs wyalSi yridian~ (papuna orbeliani). amis gamo mosaxleobac mTianeTSi gaixizna. qveyanas ganadgureba emuqreboda. `TiTqmis mTels saqarTvelos xalxsa gatenils Tofzed eZina~ (al. orbeliani). qveynisaTvis metad tragikul aseT viTarebaSi gmiruli omi gadaixada 15 wlis Wabukma batoniSvilma ereklem (akakis azriT, meCvidmete welSi gadamdgarma ufliswulma). Wabuki iraklis gmiruli saqmeni da Rvawli gamosaxa akakim Tavis `patara kaxSi~. oman xerxeuliZe gadmogvcems: `welsa 1735 movidnen lekni da qiziyi moarbives: maSin iyo Ze mefisa Teimurazisa irakli wlisas 15, romel-man Semoiyara soflebidam jari, ewia neiSnis mindorSi da Zlierad Semoebnen lekni. garna TviT ese yrma, Ze mefisa Teimurazisa irakli, meored Sevida Sinagan jarsa da lekisasa da pirvelad aman mokla kaci da amisa mxilvelTa kaxTa erT-pirad mimarTes yiviliT da wina wariqcies jari lekisa, ahyares tyveni da saqoneli da moswyvites umravlesni, da movida maRaros gamarjvebuli, romlisTvis friad mxiarul-iqmnen kaxni, ixiles ra simxne da mamacoba memkvidrisa Tvisisa~. nawarmoebis ideur mxares gansazRvravs patriotizmi da ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolis paTosi. mxilebulni arian moRalateni, gamcemni, piradi interesebiT gatacebuli adamianebi. sainteresoa `patara kaxis~ Seqmnis istoria. akakis Tavdapirvelad dauweria xuTmoqmedebiani drama proziT `irakli batoniSvili~. sacenzuro komitets uari uTqvams nebarTvaze. akakis erTi wlis Semdeg dramatuli sazogadoebisaTvis gadaucia drama garkveuli cvlilebebiT, uwodebia ra misTvis `gela~. 1889 wels prozad dawerili `irakli batoniSvili~ da `gela~ poets gauleqsavs da uwodebia misTvis `patara kaxi~. rogorc redaqciebis Sedareba cxadyofs, leqsad daweril `patara kaxSi~ patriotuli idea kidev ufro gamZafrebula. scenaze ganxorcielebuli `patara kaxi~ aRtacebiT miiRo rogorc mkiTxvelma, aseve mayurebelma. `patara kaxis~ teqstze kompozitorma n. sulxaniSvilma dawera opera, romelic, samwuxarod, dakargulia. SemorCenilia mxolod ramdenime aria (mag., `daigvianes... jer arsad sCanan~). nawarmoebis personaJTa moqmedeba, miswrafebani, suliskveTeba STagonebulia patriotizmiT. erovnuli paTosi mkafiod gamoxata poetma Semdeg sityvebSi:

`kmara moneba! kmara moTmena! dro aris adges erTpirad eri, an brZolis velze suli dalios, an moigeros mosuli mteri!~

didi STamagonebeli ZaliT JRers akakis mowodeba:

`sjobs monobaSi gadidkacebuls Tavisuflebis ZebnaSi mkvdari!~

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sanukvari saqarTvelos erTianobis idea am TxzulebaSic TvalsaCinodaa gamokveTili poetis mier. aq xazgasmulia, rom kaxelTa ubedureba gaiziares mTielebma, rom mTa dairazma baris misaSveleblad. TxzulebaSi aRniSnulia, rom mijnurobaze maRla dgas samSoblos siyvaruli. trfobis grZnobiT anTebuli levan qvabuliZe aRiarebs, rom siyvaruliT gatacebaze ufro `udidesi win gviZevs vali~ da es valia mamulisaTvis Tavdadebao. levanisaTvis, rogorc didi grZnobis patronisaTvis, es Sewirva ar aris advili saqme. igi aRtacebuli turfas siyvaruliT ase acxadebda: `asi sicocxle rom mqonodes, erTad Sen Semogwirav!... Sen daganacvlebo~. siyvaruli misTvis iyo udidesi netareba. miuxedavad siyvarulis grZnobis ase mZlavrad tarebisa, samSoblos interesebi, movaleoba qveynis winaSe man ufro maRla daayena. Tavis mxriv, mwerlis CanafiqriT, turfas swored siyvaruli ubiZgebs mamulis ganusazRvreli siyvarulisaken da igi Tavis satrfosTan erTad Tavs swiravs mSobel qveyanas. ase rom, akakis SemoqmedebaSi saerTod da, kerZod, am TxzulebaSi siyvaruli sazogadoebrivi, erovnuli poziciidanaa Sefasebuli, am grZnobas didi sazogadoebriv-politikuri datvirTva aqvs. poeti didad afasebda qarTveli qalis rolsa da damsaxurebas samSoblos winaSe. rodesac qarTvelTa jari umZimes gansacdelSi aRmoCnda, mariam dedofalma da masTan erTad brZolis xazis axlos myofma qalebma erTxmad mouwodes erTmaneTs: wavideT Cvens ZmebTan, qmrebTan da SvilebTan da maTTan erTad Cvenc pirnaTlad warvsdgeT Cvens ZvelebTano. am sityvebis warmoTqmisTanave maT leCaqebi moixades da gmirul-patriotuli SemarTebiT gaemarTnen brZolis xazisaken. nawarmoebSi aris aseTi pasaJi: rodesac qarTveli jari mterma rkalSi moaqcia da meomrebs daRupva daemuqra, am dros isini moulodnelad ixsna brZolis velze gamoCenilma glexobam. glexTa gundebs win qalebi uZRodnen. akaki, rogorc didi demokrati, gansakuTrebul rols aniWebs qveynis gadarCenaSi mxolod mSromel glexobas. swored glexobas axasiaTebda optimizmi. es gamoixata maT simRerebSiac, mag., `yanao, muSis samoTxev~... da gansakuTrebiT `mumli muxasa~. mgosani fiqrobs, rom mterze gamarjvebis saqmeSi gadamwyveti roli glexobas ganekuTvneba: akakim mSromeli xalxis rolis asaxviT TiTqos Seavso `qarTlis cxovrebis~ adgilebi da istoriul Temaze Seqmnil nawarmoebebSi Tavadaznaurobis gverdiT sapatio adgili miuCina glexobasac. Zvel saqarTveloSi Tavdadebul patriotebTan erTad zogierTi iseTi Tavadic gamoereoda, romelic Ralatobda mamuls, gadadioda mtris mxareze. aseTi SemTxvevebi gaxSirda e.w. `TaTrobis~ periodSi. dawvrilebiT am movlenis Taobaze msjelobs vaxuSti: `kvalad iyo tura ramazaSvili... ganvida tura Wirsa Sina da iwyo man Tavoba lekTa da kirTeba laSqrobiT kaxeTs, vinaTgan uwyoda adgilni da simagreni da misaval-warmosavalni; garna etikobiTa misiTa mravalgzis sZles WarelTa. mere kvalad mouxda tura da warudga amas paata moTaved kaxTa~. magram omis dros paata cxenidan Camovarda da `mohkla turam TvisiTa wixliTa. xolo sxvani mosrna da wavida alafiTa~.1 ase rom, akaki simarTliTa da dananebiT laparakobs moRalate Tavadebisa da maTi STamomavlebis Sesaxeb. aRniSnuli istoriuli faqti `patara kaxSi~ Semdegnairadaa asaxuli:

`mamamiss zaals kargad vicnobdi, erTxel sikvdilsac gadavarCine, rodesac tura ramazaSvili mis win satevriT Zirs davawvine~.

1

qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV batoniSvili vaxuSti, aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa, 1973 , gv. 614.

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ramaziSvili rom movkalio, -- ambobs gela, -- misi jaric SekrTa da Sedrka, ikadra ukuqceva da guladobisaTvis swored maSin Semarqves `guladi gelao~. poeti guliswuxiliT msjelobs moRalateTa veragobaze. igi acxadebs: `qveynis orguli rom ar dazogos, yvela kacsa aqvs sruli ufleba~. TxzulebaSi asaxuli arian istoriuli pirni: mefe Teimuraz meore, Tamar dedofali, patara kaxi da givi ColoyaSvili. Teimuraz meore iyo erekle pirvelis Svili. igi samwerlo moRvaweobasac eweoda. Teimurazi sakmaod dakvirvebuli politikuri moRvawe iyo. Znel epoqaSi igi galomebiT ebrZoda gareSe Tu Sinaur mters. TviTonve laparakobs amis Taobaze: `vwerdi cxens mjdomi, vlaSqrobdi iqiT da aqeTo~. meistorieni aRniSnaven, rom `Teimurazma moineba ruseTs wasvla. aramed ar utevebdnen kaxni. merme Camoiyvanes kvalad Telavsave 1731 welso~. swored patara kaxis cnobili laSqrobis win, 1734 wels, oman xerxeuliZis cnobiT, Teimurazma `Semoikribna kaxni... Tavs daesxa da gaemarjva osmalTa zeda da mravalni mowyvitnes da ukan iqca usuf-faSa meoti da mieriT verRa-ra ikadres osmalTa Sesvlad kaxeTad~. akaki zustad rodi mihyveba saistorio wyaroebs. akakim kargad icoda fasi Teimuraz II moRvaweobisa, `am Zveli arwivis~ damsaxureba. igi Teimurazs gvacnobs, rogorc `saxelganTqmul da Tavmomwone, namdvil gmirs~, magram amasTanave miawers mas gadaWarbebul sifrTxiles, rac iwvevdao garkveul situaciebSi mis gaubedav moqmedebas. akakis azriT, Teimurazs ukve aRar SeuZlia `omSi triali~, radgan is `gulis frialma~ daasneulao. akakis uaryofiT moqmedebad miaCnia Teimurazis mier baris datoveba da Tavis Sefareba mTaSi. brma gela ki ambobs:

`eh, Teimuraz, ra mtyuani xar, rom moaSure am mTis simagres da barelebi oxrad dahyare. damnaSave xar, magram mefe xar da vin ras getyvis? vin ras mogkiTxavs?~

akakim garkveul situaciebSi mefis esa Tu is Tviseba daupirispira batoniSvilis ama Tu im Tvisebas. aseT dros igi umTavresad iyenebs mxatvruli kontrastis xerxs. mama-Svilis SepirispirebiT-SedarebiTi daxatvis gziT avtori axerxebs mkafio saxe gamoxatos saqarTvelos momavali didebuli da brwyinvale mefisa. istoriuli pirovnebaa dedofali Tamar. igi iyo vaxtang VI asuli `mSvenieri da miuwTomeli~, saTnoebisa da sikeTis sruli gansaxiereba. istorikosTa daxasiaTebiT, Tamari Wkviani da SorsmWvreteli yofila, didi avtoriteti mouxveWia rogorc kaxeTSi, ise mis farglebs gareT. Tamar dedofals didi Rvawli miuZRvis gareSe mtris winaaRmdeg brZolebSi. oman xerxeuliZis cnobiT, Sah-nadiri `ganZvinda saqarTvelosa zeda da ganigula ayra maTi da mowyveta qarTl-kaxeTis erisa. hscna ra ese mefeman Teimuraz, waravlina dedofali Tamar, asuli mefis vaxtangisa vedrebad yaenisa winaSe, raTa ara aswyvitos qarTl-kaxeTisa xalxi da dascxresca mrisxaneba misi qristianeTa zeda: xolo movida ra dedofali Tamar daRestanSi nadir-SahsTana da evedra auyrelobasa qarTl-kaxeTisasa da esreTve acnoba ucodveloba Tvisisa mefisa Teimurazisa da erTguleba Zisa Tvisisa irakli meorisa, romlisaTvis myis Tanad lmobier-iqmna mZlavri igi pativ-sca, viTarca dedasa da yoveli Txovili mianiWa da gamouteva didiTa niWiTa kaxeTs~.1 analogiuri cnobebi sxvasac moepoveba. poetic saTanadod iyenebs maT. poetis mier daxatuli dedofali Teimuraz mefes gabeduli da gadamwyveti moqmedebisaken mouwodebs. mas dauSveblad miaCnia gulis gatexva da usasod yofna. `sadac vera sWris sif1 o m a n x e r x e u l i Z e , mefoba irakli meorisa mefis Teimurazis Zisa (`qarTlis cxovreba~, II, 1854, gv. 478).

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rTxile... iqa sjobia gambedaoba~. Tamar dedofals miaCnia, rom Svili misi samSoblos samsxverplod aRuzrdia:

`rogorc qarTvel qals, Cemi irakli qveynis samsxverplod gamomizrdia da sxva dedebTan mec erTad Cemi movaleoba gadamixdia~.

rogorc iTqva, akaki bataluri scenebis xatvis didi ostatia. marTalia, `patara kaxis~ batalur scenebs mayurebeli scenaze ver xedavs (mis msvlelobas igi meTvalyureTa da SikrikTa cnobebis mixedviT ecnoba), magram sabrZolo epizodebis amgvar gadmocemasac udidesi xibli axlavs akakis TxzulebaSi. akakim icis moulodneli situaciebis, saidumlo ambebis, Sorisdebulebisa da sxva xerxTa drouli CarTva Txrobis saerTo arqiteqtonikaSi da STabeWdilebac saTanadoa. grZnobebi, emociebi dinamikurad cvlian erTmaneTs da nawarmoebidan statikuroba gandevnilia. yvelaferi aRniSnuli imaze metyvelebs, rom `patara kaxi~ leqsad Sesrulebuli qarTuli dramaturgiis erT-erTi saukeTeso nimuSia. amrigad, uaRresad sagulisxmo da mravalferovania akakis SemoqmedebiTi cxovreba. akakis Semoqmedeba da praqtikuli saqmianoba qarTveli xalxis didebisa da Rirsebis dacvis, Tavisuflebisa da momavlis damkvidrebis did saqmes emsaxureboda. akaki mudam da ganuyrelad idga eris majiscemis sadarajoze. swored amitom uwoda mas ilia WavWavaZem `rCeuli~ erisa; mas akakis poeziis gareSe verc warmoedgina qarTuli lirika. akakis Rvawli ukvdavia. sakacobrio idealebTan erTad mis SemoqmedebaSi organulad aris gaerTianebuli qarTveli xalxis saukeTeso idealebi, sibrZne, fiqrebi da gancdebi, misi keTilSobiluri miswrafebani, faqizi survilebi. amitom aris akaki namdvili saxalxo mgosani, amitom Seiyvara igi madlierma mSobelma erma, aRiara sulier winamZRolad, did moWirnaxuled da Searqva mas qarTveli xalxis `ugvirgvino mefe~.

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giorgi wereTeli (1842-1900)

cxovreba da moRvaweoba

giorgi wereTlis cxovreba, sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba da Semoqmedeba uaRresad saintereso da mravalferovania. me-19 saukunis 60-iani wlebidan amave saukunis dasasrulamde Znelia davasaxeloT mniSvnelovani erovnuli saqme, siaxlis Semcveli saqveyno wamowyeba, romlis meTauri da sulis Camdgmeli Tu ara, aqtiuri monawile mainc g. wereTeli ar yofiliyo. progresulad moazrovne am mweralsa da sazogado moRvawes usazRvrod uyvarda Tavisi samSoblo; igi mudam mowiwebiT ixseniebda saqarTvelos diad warsuls, TavgamodebiT ibrZoda awmyos Wrilobebis moSuSebisa da bednieri momavlisaTvis. g. wereTeli iyo pedagogi, Jurnalisti, mxatvruli sityvis ostati, prozaikosi, poeti, dramaturgi; realisturi esTetikisa da kritikuli realizmis erTerTi damamkvidrebeli, filologi, literaturis Teoretikosi, kritikosi, Teatraluri moRvawe, istorikosi, ekonomisti, arqeologi, folkloristi, bunebismetyveli, Cveni qveynis soflis meurneobisa da mrewvelobis ganviTarebisaTvis Tavdadebuli moamage, progresuli azrebisa da ideebis mqadagebeli, erovnuli da socialuri uTanasworobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli. g. wereTlis mTel moRvaweobas, saerTo mizanswrafvas maRali sazogadoebrivi, socialuri da erovnuli idealebi asazrdoebs.

*** giorgi wereTeli 1842 wlis 14 maiss dabadebula zemo imereTSi, sofel gorisaSi, saSualo SeZlebis aznaurisa da saxelmwifo moxelis, `naswavl kacad~ cnobil eqvTime wereTlis ojaxSi. momaval mwerals deda ise adre gardaecvala, rom misi xsovnac ki ar SerCenia Svils. bavSvs zrdida gulisxmieri, metad mzrunveli, mkacri, magram Svilis didad mosiyvarule mama. dedis magivrobas uwevda ZiZa. eqvTime wereTeli Tavisi droisaTvis ganaTlebuli da qveynisaTvis gulSematkivari kaci yofila. mas kargad scodnia Zveli qaTuli literatura da saistorio mwerloba. ueWvelia, aseTi mama did gavlenas moaxdenda Svilis sasurveli midrekilebis ganviTarebaze, codnisadmi siyvarulis grZnobis gaRvivebisa da saerTo ideuri miswrafebis Camoyalibebaze. g. wereTels arc deduleTi hyolia uwignuri. giorgisa deda barbare iyo xonis wminda giorgis eklesiis dekanoz Toma quTaTelaZis asuli da imereTis episkoposis, germanes diswuli. dedis Zma, germane episkoposi Semdeg quTaisis gimnaziaSi g. wereTels aswavlida qarTul enasa da saRmrTo sjuls. aseTma ojaxurma

da axlonaTesaurma wrem didi gavlena moaxdina g. wereTlis midrekilebasa da ganwyobilebis formirebaze. raki g. wereTels deda adre gardaecvala, igulisxmeba, unda hyoloda ZiZa, aRmzrdeli. vin iyo es ZiZa da sad izrdeboda patara giorgi? Cvens yuradRebas iqcevs is garemoeba, rom g. wereTlis `mgzavris wignebSi~, `gulqansa~ da `pirvel nabijSi~ samegrelos bunebisa da yofis warmtaci suraTebia naCvenebi. `pirvel nabijSi~ avtorma ara marto aRwera samegrelos is soflebi, gorakebi da Releebi, romlebic im dros rukazedac ki ar iyo aRniSnuli, aramed maRalemociurobiT warmogvidgina am kuTxis mTisa da baris peizaJebi. garda amisa, g. wereTelma moqmedi gmirebic umTavresad samegrelodan Semoiyvana. cxadia, warmodgenili sinamdvilis gardasaxva SeuZlebeli iqneboda am mxaris yovelmxrivi gacnobisa da Seswavlis gareSe. magram saidan, rogor? -- ai kiTxvebi, romlebic pasuxs moiTxoven. rogorc gairkva, g. wereTeli izrdeboda samegreloSi da dedis magivrobas uwevda mas megreli ZiZa. es faqti naTeli gaxda i. WavWavaZisadmi miwerili g. wereTlis baraTis mignebiT. g. wereTeli wers i. WavWavaZes: `...iqneb Tqven ar iciT da me TviTon samegrelos dedis ZuZuTi var gazrdili da sxva mis meti ar maxsovs. `es aris is adgilio,-- ganagrZobs giorgi wereTeli, -- sadac pirvelad dedis alersi migvrZnia, saca pirvelad gamixelia gonebis Tvali da samegrelos mdidar bunebas aRuZravs CemSi ukeTesi grZnobebi!...~ aseTi gulSi Camwvdomi sityvebiT ixseniebda mwerali saqarTvelos am mSvenier kuTxes, romelTanac mas akavSirebda sayvareli ZiZa da bavSvuri tkbili mogonebani. amrigad, eWvmiutanlad cxadi gaxda, rom giorgi wereTels bavSvobis wlebi samegreloSi gautarebia. am niadagze daikava mis SemoqmedebaSi ase farTo adgili samegrelos bunebam, yofam da sinamdvilis gansasaxiereblad saWiro literaturulma personaJebma. saarqivo masalidan vigebT, rom g. wereTeli izrdeboda samegreloSi, axalsenakSi, -- Tanafia gabeskirias ojaxSi da rom Tanafias meuRle ZiZaa g. wereTlisa. cxadia, rom glexis ojaxSi bavSvobis wlebis gatarebam, glexur garemoSi didxans yofnam g. wereTels gaacno xalxis cxovreba, romelic ase farTod warmoadgina Tavis cnobil nawarmoebebSi. mamis ojaxSi pirveldawyebiTi ganaTlebis miRebis Semdeg g. wereTeli quTaisis gimnaziaSi Seiyvanes. im wlebis STabeWdilebani g. wereTelma ganzogadebuli saxiT mxatvrulad warmogvidgina `gulqansa~ da `pirvel nabijSi~, `Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~. am nawarmoebebSi naCvenebia mowafeTa autaneli mdgomareoba da daxasiaTebulia aRzrdis is policiuri meTodebi, romlebic gabatonebuli iyo imdroindel skolaSi. g. wereTeli erT-erT karg mowafed iTvleboda gimnaziaSi da warmatebiT daamTavra kidec igi. rusul da qarTul literaturaSi farTod gaTviTcnobierebulma da sakmao codniT aRWurvilma Wabukma gadawyvita sauniversiteto ganaTlebis miReba.

*** gimnaziis damTavrebis Semdeg, 1860 wels, g. wereTeli gaemgzavra peterburgs da Cairicxa universitetis fizika-maTematikis fakultetis sabunebismetyvelo ganyofilebis studentad. g. wereTels, rogorc niWier axalgazrdas, stipendia imTaviTve dauniSna kavkasiis komitetma. roca giorgi peterburgs Cavida, maSin iq swavlobda qarTveli axalgazrdobis mTeli Taoba: i. WavWavaZe, a. wereTeli, n. nikolaZe, kir.lorTqifaniZe, b. RoRoberiZe, n. RoRoberiZe da mravali sxva. 140

qarTveli axalgazrdoba, maT Soris g. wereTelic, izrdeboda ruseTis mowinave inteligenciisa da evropis mowinave adamianTa progresul ideebze; am garemoebam erTgvarad gansazRvra momavali mwerlis moRvaweobisa da SemoqmedebiTi ganviTarebis gza. 1861 wlis Semodgomaze revoluciurad ganwyobilma peterburgis mowinave studentebma mefis mTavrobis winaaRmdeg farTo demonstracia moawyves. am moZraobaSi g. wereTelma aqtiuri monawileoba miiRo. mefis policiam sastik zomebs mimarTa. sxvebTan erTad g. wereTelic daapatimres, jer daamwyvdies petre-pavles cixeSi, Semdeg ki krondStadtis satusaRoSi moaTavses. sapatimrodan gamoSvebis Semdeg mas aukrZales universitetSi swavlis gagrZeleba, magram g. wereTeli mainc axerxebs leqciebze daswrebas; 1862 wlis oqtombridan mas darTes neba eswavla meore kursze. studentTa moZraobaSi monawileoba giorgi wereTlisaTvis garkveuli sazogadoebriv-revoluciuri naTloba iyo. es garemoeba Seiqmna safuZveli imisa, rom g. wereTeli Tavidanve samociani wlebis mowinave adamianebis wreSi moxvedriliyo. cnobilia g. wereTlis, rogorc student-revolucioneris, suraTi krondStadtis patimarTa Soris. studentTa areulobis gamoZiebis saarqivo masalebi, sxva oficialuri cnobebi metyveleben, rom qarTveli axalgazrdebi aqtiurad monawileobdnen studentTa mRelvarebaSi. Tumca g. wereTeli universitetis pirveli kursidanve gatacebuli iyo sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebiT, gadawyvetili hqonda kidevac mecnieruli muSaoba am gziT gaegrZelebina, magram male dasZlia literaturisa da, saerTod, sazogadoebriv mecnierebaTa siyvarulma da misi miswrafeba axali mimarTulebiT warimarTa. g. wereTlis didi interesi mecnierebisadmi, Sromis unari, niWi studentobaSive gamomJRavnda. meore kursis studentad yofnis dros g. wereTels garkveuli Sexedulebac ki gamoumuSavebia da sakuTari Teoriis SemuSaveba ucdia embriologiaSi -- CanasaxTa ganviTarebis mecnierebaSi. samociani wlebisaTvis peterburgSi ocdaaTze meti qarTveli axalgazrda swavlobda, romelTa goneba mdidrdeboda axali mowinave ideebiT. amdenad, peterburgi, rogorc yvela Cveni samocianelisaTvis, g. wereTlisaTvisac akademiuri wrTobis qalaqi iyo. g. wereTlis, rogorc mwerlis, sazogado moRvawisa da moazrovnis, profili gamokveTilad gamoCnda saqarTveloSi dabrunebisas. misi ideuri miswrafebis Sinaarsis saboloo Camoyalibeba SesaZlebeli gaxda qarTuli erovnuli kulturis safuZvelze, romelsac Seerwyo mowinave rusuli da evropuli kultura. evropuli kulturis monapovris g. wereTliseuli aTviseba gulisxmobda demokratizmis, humanizmisa da patriotizmis erTobliobas. es unaTebda gzas g. wereTlis mwerlobas, moRvaweobas. *** cxovrebaSi ukve Rrmad Caxeduli, nakiTxi, ganswavluli da farTod ganaTlebuli axalgazrda g. wereTeli 1863 wlis miwuruls peterburgidan samSobloSi dabrunda da farTo sazogadoebriv-literaturul moRvaweobas Seudga. g. wereTlis brwyinvale literaturuli debiuti iyo 1863 wels i. WavWavaZis `saqarTvelos moambeSi~ g-Telis fsevdonimiT dabeWdili statia -- `ciskars ra akakanebda?~.1 am RrmaSinaarsiani weriliT daedo saTave g. wereTlis aqtiur brZolas qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azrisa da Cveni qveynis cxovrebis ganaxlebisaTvis; masSi gamovlinda g. wereTlis mowinave literaturul-esTetikuri Sexedulebani.

1

`saqarTvelos moambe~, 1863, 5.

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statias -- `ciskars ra akakanebda?~- dReisaTvis ara marto istoriuli, aramed garkveuli SemecnebiTi mniSvnelobac aqvs. yovlad SeuZlebelia imsjelo TergdaleulTa saerTo, sazogadoebriv da literaturul Sexedulebebze, samoRvaweo asparezze gamosvlis, mamaTa da SvilTa brZolis xasiaTze da am statias gverdi auaro. rogorc i. WavWavaZis werili `saqarTvelos moambeze~ ilias moRvaweobis saprogramo werilia, aseve g. wereTlis `ciskars ra akakanebda?~ da `maTusalas aRsareba~ Seiqmna g. wereTlis literaturuli da sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis Sinaarsis ganmsazRvreli, samwerlo mrwamsisa da ideuri miswrafebis gamomxatveli. am werilebis paralelurad g. wereTeli iwyebs mxatvrul nawarmoebTa gamoqveynebas. 1866-1867 wlebSi daibeWda misi ramdenime moTxroba, maT Soris `monadiris naambobi~, `mgzavris wignebi~ da sxv. amas daemata isic, rom 1866 wels g. wereTelma daaarsa gazeTi `droeba~, romliTac mis winaSe farTo Jurnalisturi moRvaweobis asparezi gadaiSala. g. wereTeli 1863-1866 wlebSi aqtiurad Caeba literaturuli da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ferxulSi. ruseTidan saqarTveloSi CamosvlisTanave, 1863 wlis miwurulSi, g. wereTelma daiwyo maswavlebloba jer quTaisSi da Semdeg TbilisSi. quTaisSi misi mowafe yofila Semdgom saxelmoxveWili pedagogi da moRvawe aleqsi WiWinaZe, xolo TbilisSi cnobili sazogado moRvawe g.TumaniSvili. orive mowafe g. wereTels axasiaTebs rogorc SesaniSnav maswavlebels. am xnidan moyolebuli, g. wereTeli TiTqmis aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi ar wyvets kavSirs skolasTan da aswavlis mSobliur enasa da literaturas Tbilisis sxvadasxva saswavlebelSi. g. wereTels ara marto maswavleblobis periodSi, aramed mTeli sicocxlis manZilze ar Seuwyvetia zrunva skolebze, swavla-aRzrdis saqmeze. amis TvalsaCino magaliTia g. wereTliseuli cda da zrunva TbilisSi universitetis daarsebis Taobaze. qveynis ganaTlebis, qarTveli xalxis sulieri kulturis amaRlebis mizniT dainteresebuli g. wereTeli swavlisa da ganaTlebis yvela mxares aqcevda yuradRebas, iyenebda yvela SesaZlo moments am mtkivneuli sakiTxebis dayenebisa da gadawyvetis mizniT. `droebis~ erT-erT nomerSi g. wereTelma moaTavsa nekrologi besarion RoRoberiZis gardacvalebis gamo. b. RoRoberiZe maswavlebeli iyo da g. wereTelma es faqti garkveuli ideuri mizniT gamoiyena. es mizani iyo mSobliur enaze swavlebis principis damkvidrebis propaganda. b.RoRoberiZes man did damsaxurebad CauTvala, rom igi TavgamodebiT zrunavda skolebSi qarTuli enis danergvisaTvis. g. wereTeli sajarod moiTxovda mSobliur enaze swavlebas: `xalxs unda ganaTleba Tavis enazeo~. g. wereTeli yovelgvari mosalodneli devnis miuxedavad, daundoblad akritikebs swavlebis gabatonebul sistemas, swavlebis uvargis meTodebs, saskolo policiur reJims, ruseTis biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis Sedegad damkvidrebul saaRmzrdelo reJims. g. wereTeli Wkuis, swavlis, zneobisa da ganaTlebulobis urTierTkavSirs ase warmogvidgens: `qveyanaze Zvirfasi Wkuisa ara aris ra~... magram mwerals mxolod es ar miaCnia didi adamianobis sawindrad. igi wers: `rac unda niWieri, mxne da SesaniSnavi sazogado moRvawe iyos kaci, Tu rom mas zneoba ar uvarga, misi moqmedeba sikeTis magivrad borots SeamTxvevs qveyanas~.1 qarTuli skolebis bediT dainteresebul g. wereTels 1893 wlis `kvalSi~ mouTavsebia werili `swavlis saqme CvenSi~, sadac mohyavs magaliTad is, Tu rogor

1

`kvali~, 1893, 4.

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gulcivad Sexvda mosaxleoba skolebis gaxsnas, roca gaiges, rom swavla qarTul enaze ar iqneboda. qveynis saqmisaTvis gulSematkivari g. wereTeli ara marto TviTon werda xalxisaTvis Camafiqrebels, STamagonebelsa da gamamxnevebel statiebs, aramed Tavis Jurnal-gazeTebSi farTod aTavsebda saerTo erovnuli viTarebis maniSnebel, mosaxleobis gamaTviTcnobierebel, sabrZolo ganwyobilebis Semqmnel sxva werilebs. yovelive zemoTqmulidan cxadi xdeba, Tu raoden didia g. wereTlis Rvawli qarTveli axalgazrdobis aRzrdis, swavlebis, ganaTlebisa da erovnuli gaTviTcnobierebis saqmeSi. amdenadve, didia misi damsaxureba Cveni skolisa da qarTuli pedagogiuri azrovnebis istoriaSi. *** g. wereTlis damsaxureba qarTuli Jurnalistikis istoriaSi ganusazRvrelad didia. mefis ruseTis policiuri cenzuris pirobebSi man SeZlo Seeqmna Zlieri qarTuli presa. metad mZime viTarebaSi moaxerxa gamoeca ramdenime qarTuli gazeTi, Jurnali da exelmZRvanela maTTvis. g. wereTeli ara marto damaarsebeli, redaqtori da gamomcemeli iyo zemoaRniSnuli Jurnal-gazeTebisa, aramed, amave dros, igi iyo qarTuli da rusuli presis progresuli azrebiT ganmsWvaluli maxvilkalmosani TanamSromeli. g. wereTlis literaturulma moRvaweobam sistematuri xasiaTi miiRo mas Semdeg, rac 1866 wels daarsda gazeTi `droeba~. `droebaSi~ gamoqveynda `mgzavris wignebis~ garkveuli nawili, `gulqanis~ ramdenime Tavi; sxvadasxva xasiaTis ramdenime publicisturi werili. *** glexkacobasTan uSualo kavSiris damyarebis mizniT g. wereTelma 1868 wels daaarsa `sasoflo gazeTi~. am gazeTSi qveyndeboda samecniero-popularuli werilebi soflis meurneobis, zooveterinariis, medicinisa da, saerTod, glexkacobis yofa-cxovrebasTan dakavSirebul Teoriul da praqtikul sakiTxebze. `sasoflo gazeTma~ imTaviTve gaiTqva saxeli mTel saqarTveloSi da dRes igi amSvenebs qarTuli presis istorias. Tumca mecxramete saukunis 70-iani wlebis saqarTveloSi gamodioda gazeTi `droeba~, romelic qarTul sazogadoebriv azrs uZRveboda, ers Wrilobas uSuSebda da xalxs afxizlebda, magram qveynis gonebrivma dawinaurebam kidev meti sulieri sazrdo moiTxova. sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi momwifda niadagi axali literaturuli Jurnalis gamocemisaTvis. marTalia, am dros gamodioda samecniero-literaturuli Jurnali `mnaTobi~, magram is martooden literaturuli organo ar iyo. axalma ideurma miswrafebam, axalma esTetikurma moTxovnilebam Zlieri literaturuli organos daarsebis aucilebloba dRis wesrigSi daayena. saWiro iyo qarTuli mwerlobis saukeTeso nimuSebis saqveynod gamotana. am saWiroebam progresulad moazrovne Cveni inteligenciis winaSe mkafiod moxaza axali Jurnalis Sinaarsis konturebi. saTanado sja-baasis Semdeg am saqmis organizacia g. wereTelma iTava. 1871 wlis 25 ianvars g. wereTelma TxovniT mimarTa kavkasiis mefisnacvals Jurnalis gamocemis nebarTvis Sesaxeb. `krebulSi~ ibeWdeboda ara marto qarTvel da araqarTvel klasikosTa nawarmoebebi, qarTuli xalxuri sityvierebis nimuSebi, aramed istoriuli, literaturuli, eTnografiuli da publicisturi xasiaTis sazogadoebrivad saintereso statiebi, feletonebi, werilebi. `krebu143

li~ warmarTavda Cveni mxatvruli sityvis Semdgomi zrdis saqmes da tons aZlevda qarTuli mxatvruli azrovnebis ganviTarebas. `krebulSi~ gamoqveynda: i. WavWavaZis `glaxis naambobi~, `mgzavris werilebi~; a. wereTlis mravali saintereso leqsi; g. wereTlis `mgzavris wignebis~ orive nawili, `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~, komedia `jibri~. aqve daibeWda al. WavWavaZis, n. baraTaSvilis, m.gurielis, g. waladidelisa da sxvaTa leqsebi da moTxrobebi. `krebulma~ gamoaqveyna i. WavWavaZis mier Targmnili Seqspiris `mefe liri~, akakis naTargmni molieris `skapenis cuRlutoba~, g. wereTlis mier germanulidan Targmnili goeTes `egmonti~ da rusulidan Targmnili `doqtor krupovis Txzulebidan~. `krebulma~ udavod didi samsaxuri gauwia qarTvel mkiTxvelebs, qarTul mwerlobas. 1873 wlis oqtombris ukanasknel ricxvebSi g. wereTelma, sazRvargareT wasvlis gamo, `krebuli~ gadasca k. lorTqifaniZes. `krebuls~ amis Semdeg didxans ar uarsebia, magram qarTul Jurnalistikas man dautova saxelovani tradiciebis mqone didi memkvidreoba, romelic didebiT mosavs g. wereTlisa da n. nikolaZis saxelebs. *** g. wereTeli, garda imisa, rom iyo damaarsebeli da redaqtori `droebis~, `sasoflo gazeTis~, Jurnal `krebulisa~, aqtiurad TanamSromlobda agreTve sxvadasxva qarTul Jurnal-gazeTSi. 1893 wels g. wereTlis CagonebiT anastasia TumaniSvilma daaarsa kvireuli samecniero da naxatebiani gazeTi `kvali~. marTalia, gazeTis gamomcemeli da redaqtori oficialurad anastasia TumaniSvili iyo, magram, faqtobrivad, 1898 wlamde `kvals~ ideurad da teqnikuradac g. wereTeli xelmZRvanelobda. g. wereTelma Tavisi faqtobrivi xelmZRvanelobiT gamomavali `kvali~ axali azrebisa da Sexedulebebis gasamJRavneblad, gasavrceleblad daubrkoleblad dauTmo mesame dasis warmomadgenlebs da 1898 wlidan TiTqmis mTlianad maT gadasca. *** 1877-1878 wlebSi g. wereTeli peterburgis yoveldRiuri politikuri da literaturuli gazeTis -- "" -is specialuri samxedro korespondentia. g. wereTlis mier ""-is furclebze dabeWdil werilebSi profesionali Jurnalistis xeli igrZnoba. g. wereTlis korespondenciebSi, arcTu ise iSviaTad, mocemulia qarTveli xalxis didi warsulis ama Tu im mxaris istoriuli mimoxilva. saqarTvelos didi warsulis istoriuli mimoxilviT, saqarTvelos mowyvetili qarTuli provinciebis sididis, simdidresa da strategiul mniSvnelobaze miTiTebiT, muslimanuri fanatizmisagan qristianTa daxsnis moraluri ideebis qadagebiT g. wereTeli cdilobs daainteresos mefis mTavroba, samxedro sardloba, rom ruseTma SemoierTos TurqeTis mier dedasamSoblos moglejili saqarTvelos teritoria, gaanTavisuflos igi TurqTa batonobisagan. g. wereTelma kargad icis, rom yvelaferi es advili araa, magram misi survilia, rogorme am omiT ruseTma daikavos iseTi strategiuli poziciebi, rom sazavo molaparakebis dros dazaveba warmarTos ruseTis sasargeblod. es sargebeli saqarTvelos sargebeli iqneboda. ruseTis mier aWarisa da lazeT-WaneTis dakaveba da Semomtkiceba TavisTavad gamoiwvevda am mxaris gaTavisuflebas Turqi dampyroblebisagan, erTian saqarTvelos Seqmnas, rac mwerlis miswrafeba iyo.

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g. wereTlis moRvaweoba centralur rusul presaSi martooden yoveldRiur gamocemebSi TanamSromlobiT rodi isazRvreba. yuradRebas ipyrobs g. wereTlis monografiuli xasiaTis akademiuri Sromebi, romlebic rusul Jurnalebsa da samecniero akademiur krebulebSi ibeWdeboda. *** g. wereTels saTanado wvlili Sehqonda Tbilisuri rusuli presis saqmianobaSic. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa misi urTierToba literaturulpilitikur gazeT " "-Tan. Tavisi droisaTvis cnobili sazogado moRvawe g.TumaniSvili didi gulisxmierebiT igonebs im ambavs, Tu rogor gauWirda ruseT-osmaleTis omis wlebSi da omis damTavrebis Semdeg " "-s da rogor miiwvies g. wereTeli am gazeTis muSaobis gamosacocxleblad. ar aris interesmoklebuli aRiniSnos, rom g. wereTlis istoriul, literaturul, eTnografiul, publicistur da sxva Sinaarsis Tu xasiaTis statiebsa da werilebTan erTad rusulad ibeWdeboda misi mxatvruli Txzulebani. amdenad, misi Tanamedrove rusi mkiTxvelisaTvis g. wereTlis arc mxatvruli proza iyo ucnobi. `saqarTvelos moambidan~ `kvalamdis~ gavlili Jurnalisturi moRvaweobis istoria da rusul presaSi aqtiuri TanamSromloba g. wereTels did Jurnalistad warmogvidgens. *** erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraoba, romelic gansazRvravs TergdaleulTa moRvaweobis Sinaarss, moicavs qarTveli xalxis rogorc erovnuli da socialuri Tavisuflebis, aseve xelovnebis, literaturisa da, saerTod, qveynis kulturuli cxovrebis axali, progresuli gziT warmarTvis ideas. am didi saqmis erT mniSvnelovan mxares g. wereTlis moRvaweobaSi warmoadgens qarTuli Teatris aRorZinebis problema. g. wereTels Rrmad swams, rom Teatrs didi wvlilis Setana SeuZlia xalxis gaTviTcnobierebis saqmeSi. xalxis esTetikur aRzrdaSi Teatrs igi imdenad did mniSvnelobas aniWebs, rom mas `erovnul taZars~ uwodebs. aq pirvel rigSi aRsaniSnavia is faqti, rom ruseTidan dabrunebisTanave sxva sazogadoebriv saqmianobasTan erTad g. wereTeli gatacebiT ebmeba qarTuli Teatris ganaxlebisaTvis saWiro muSaobaSi; monawileobas iRebs scenismoyvareTa wreSi -- droebiT Teatralur dasSi. qarTvel scenismoyvareTa am dasis monawile g. wereTeli 1893 wlis `kvalis~ #51-Si gamoqveynebul Teatralur mogonebaSi wers: `axalgazrdoba 1867 wels tfilisSi gaitaca qarTul msaxiobTa TamaSobam... erTxel maxsovs Cven SevadgineT qarTul warmomadgenelTa dasi; vTamaSobdiT melodramas `maikos~ da komedia `Zunws~. g. wereTeli aq dasaxelebul dramatul TxzulebebSi gulisxmobs g.jabadaris `maikos~, romelic 1853-1854 wlebSi idgmeboda, da g.erisTavis `Zunws~. g. wereTeli ara marto scenismoyvareTa dasis wevri da msaxiobi iyo mxolod, aramed dasadgmelad gamiznuli piesebis, repertuaris Sedgena-SerCevisa da im drois reJisorTa kolegiis saqmianobis dauzarebeli monawilec iyo. 1867 wels TbilisSi Semdgari scenismoyvareTa jgufi g. wereTlis monawileobiT amzadebs niadags axali, mudmivi Teatris Sesaqmnelad. g. wereTeli qarTuli TeatrisaTvis daucxromlad imitom zrunavda, rom am `erovnul taZars~ Tavis scenidan Tanmimdevrulad SeeZlo qarTveli xalxis yovelmxrivi ganviTareba, erovnuli grZnobis mZafrad gaRviveba. misi azriT, `sce145

na unda iyos sazogadoebis skola, mwvrTneli da mamxilebeli misi naklulovanebisa da ara Semaqcevari samasxro oxunjobisa~. aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom g. wereTelma sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis asparezze gamosvlisTanave gaamaxvila sazogadoebis yuradReba qarTuli Teatris arsebobis aucileblobaze. jer kidev 1866 wlis `droebis~ #11-Si man dramatuli xelovneba miiCnia xalxis gonebrivi ganviTarebisa da zneobrivi amaRlebis erT-erT ZiriTad saSualebad, xolo Zlieri qarTuli Teatris Camoyalibeba, maRali Teatraluri kulturis Seqmna, misi popularizacia, speqtaklebis Sinaarsze sazogadoebis yuradRebis gamaxvileba -- maRali erovnuli idealebis samsaxurad. am ideiT Cagonebuli g. wereTeli gardacvalebamde eweoda qarTuli Teatraluri saqmis propagandas, mis popularizacias. g. wereTlis TqmiT: `pirvelma Suqma ganaTlebisam sxvaTa Soris Teatris saSualebiT SemosWvrita qarTvels sazogadoebaSi. erma dainaxa Tavisi cxovrebis suraTi scenaze bevrnairi naklulovanebiTa, dainaxa agreTve ufro ganaTlebuli cxovrebis suraTebica... qarTvelma sazogadoebam Seigno umjobesi gonebiTi da zneobiTi natvra, anu rogorc ityvian ideali~. amitomac yoveli speqtaklisagan igi moiTxovs gonebrivi da zneobrivi sawyisebis maRalemociur formebSi Cvenebas. ideurobis gareSe g. wereTlisaTvis ar arsebobs xelovneba, am SemTxvevaSi Teatri, warmodgenebi. Teatri ara marto ubralo gamrTobia mxolod, misi mizani sruliadac araa `saxumaro sityvebis an laTaiebis warmoTqma scenidan, aramed is aris damafiqrebeli, sulis aRmZvreli da grZnoba-gonebis mwvrTneli~. rogorc vxedavT, aq sworadaa gansazRvruli Teatris daniSnuleba. marTlac, ra iqneboda Teatri am didi sazogadoebrivi funqciis gareSe? da g. wereTlis eniT rom vupasuxoT -- `dambaCebisa da Tofebis satkacatkuco, amoRebuli xanjlebis satrialo da saoxunjo asparezi~. mwerlis Rrma rwmeniT: `scena unda iyos namdvili kacis bunebis da misi naklovanebis an Rirsebis gamomxatveli, rom sazogadoeba hpoebdes masSi an Tavis wvrTnas, an keTilSobilur gatacebas~. realizmi, realisturoba -- ai, pirveli moTxovna, rasac g. wereTeli uyenebda piesas da speqtakls. amitomac werda igi molieris komediebis `colis SerTvevinebasa~ da `Zalad eqimis~ dadgmis gamo: `madloba RmerTs, rom bolos mainc gveRirsa imisTana suraTis naxva, romelic cxovrebis sinamdviles cxadad warmogvidgens~.1 es bunebrivi da gasagebicaa, radganac igi yovelTvis amodis xelovnebis realisturi Teoriis ZiriTadi principebidan. g. wereTeli qarTuli scenidan STamagonebeli qarTuli sityvis gagonebas moiTxovda-- sityvas RrmaSinaarsiansa da moxdenili formis Semcvels, metyvelebas didi emociebis mqones, romelic mayurebels ganuviTarebda maRal gemovnebas, gauRvivebda mSobliuri enis pativiscemas, siyvaruls da aRuZravda patriotul grZnobas. g. wereTlis mzrunvel damokidebulebas qarTuli Teatrisadmi, miswrafebas misdami asuldgmulebda ara marto rwmena imisa, rom Teatri xalxis gaTviTcnobierebisa da aRzrdis saSualebaa, aramed isic, rom scena amaRlebs erovnul grZnobas, xels uwyobs qarTuli enis daxvewas, gamarTuli saliteraturo enis damkvidrebas. g. wereTels qarTuli scena erovnuli kulturis ganviTarebis, axali azrebis danergvisa da dedaenis Rirsebis dacvis faqtorad miaCnda. qarTuli metyvelebis bunebriobis dacvas, gamoTqmis Snosa da lazaTs igi xedavda `namdvili qarTuli kilos gamoTqmaSi~ -- intonaciaSi, rac varaudobda ucxo gavlenis acilebas, qarTuli enis siwmindis dacvas, gamoTqmis bunebriobis SenarCunebas, metyvelebis literaturul gaformebas. g. wereTeli TiTqmis yvela recenziaSi aqcevda yuradRebas enis sakiTxs. am SemTxvevaSi mas ainteresebda sakiTxis ori mxare: a) rogori eniTaa dawerili

1

`droeba~, 1866, 11.

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originaluri piesa da, Tu naTargmnia, rogoraa Targmnili; b) rogor ismis aqtioris metyveleba scenidan. amgvari moTxovnisa da Sefasebis mraval SemTxvevaTa Soris davasaxelebT g. wereTlis recenzias a. sumbaTaSvilis dramis -- `borkilis~ dadgmis gamo. am recenziaSi vkiTxulobT: `raica Seexeba qarTul Targmans, ena SemuSavebulia da namdvili qarTuli kiloc ara aqvs. TviT moTamaSeebsac vurCevT sityvebi Tanaswori xmis dakvriT gamoTqvan da dabolovebas nu hkvecaven~. qarTuli gamoTqmis bunebriobis dacvisa da damaxasiaTebeli intonaciis SenarCunebisaTvis g. wereTeli ar erideba msaxiobTa swavlebasa da darigebas, rom `qarTul enas ufro Svenis Tanasworad xmis dakvra da gamoTqma sityvebisa~. cxadia, enobrivi faqti, metyvelebis gamarTuloba umniSvnelovanes rols asrulebs, rogorc gagebinebis ZiriTadi saSualeba, magram scenaze mas unda movepyraT rac SeiZleba frTxilad, faqizad. scenidan unda ismodes sasiamovno qarTuli metyveleba, gamarTuli qarTuli sityva. *** Teatris ideuri gzis gansazRvrisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs repertuars. nacionaluri Teatris Sinaarss qmnis nacionaluri repertuari. erovnuli dramaturgiis gareSe ver iarsebebs sisxlsavse Teatri da ver moaxdens saWiro gavlenas xalxis sulieri cxovrebis ganviTarebaze. g. wereTels gadaudebel amocanad miaCnda mtkice qarTuli repertuaris Seqmna. mwerlis aseTi Sexeduleba ganpirobebuli iyo qarTuli esTetikuri azrovnebis xasiaTiT. xelovneba da literatura xalxisa da eris samsaxurSia; maSasadame, Teatri da repertuari am saqmes unda emsaxurebodes. raki Cveni cxovrebis gamomsaxvel sityvakazmul mwerlobas, Teatrsa da speqtakls aqvs didi maorganizebeli, esTetikuri, SemecnebiTi, socialuri da patriotuli mniSvneloba, cxadia, gamarTlebulia g. wereTlis moTxovna -- realisturi dramaturgia, realisturi repertuari. mtkice da saimedo safuZveli, romelsac unda emyarebodes Teatri, g. wereTlis azriT, esaa saerTod mSobliuri dramatuli literatura, erovnuli repertuari. am principiT g. wereTeli icavs erovnuli repertuaris arsebiT upiratesobas Teatris saerTo repertuarSi: `gveyo amdeni gadmokeTebuli da ucxo xalxebis cxovrebidan aRebuli drama-komediebis cqera, -- ayalibebs Tavis Tvalsazriss am sakiTxze g. wereTeli, -- Cveni sazogadoeba imaTgan verafers dids magaliTebsa da STabeWdilebebs veRar gamoitans, radgan ucxo cxovreba erTob daSorebulia Cvens Sinagan yofa mdgomareobaze da xalxi im warmodgenebs ufro ise uyurebs, rogorc ubralo gasarTobs da dros gasatarebels rame TamaSobas. qarTul scenas am SemTxvevaSi ekargeba Tavisi umaRlesi mniSvneloba: is aRar aris eris zne-Cveulebis sawvrTneli skola~. maSasadame, qarTul Teatrs ufro meti saaRmzrdelo da mecnierul Zalas aniWebs nacionaluri repertuari, am ukanasknelSi gamoCndeba xolme xalxis yofa-cxovreba, qveynis socialuri viTareba, eris patriotuli miswrafeba. g. wereTeli winaaRmdegi araa, rom ucxouri maRalmxatvruli dramatuli Txzuleba Setanil iqnes Cvens repertuarSi da daidgas qarTul scenaze, zogjer am faqts Zalian did mniSvnelobasac aniWebs, magram pirveli moTxovnilebis aucilebel saqmed is Tvlis qarTuli Zlieri repertuaris Seqmnas. g. wereTels Rrmad aqvs Segnebuli erovnuli repertuaris fasdaudebeli mniSvneloba mayurebelze ideuri da emociuri zegavlenis sicxovelis TvalsazrisiT. swored amis gamo werda igi: `Cveni cxovrebidan aRebuli suraTi da saxioba, rac unda naklovaneba hqondes mas, mainc ufro eintereseba qarTvel mayurebels, vidre naTargmnebi, gansakuTrebiT axlandel garemoebaSi, roca operaSi siaruli modad

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gamxdara, qarTveli mayurebeli ase fiqrobs: ucxo qveynis repertuaridan naTargmnis cqeras, iseve operebSi wasvla mirCevniao da originaluri piesebis Sesaxeb ki amas ver ityvis, radganac rac unda iyos, Cveni cxovrebis suraTebis scenaze dadgma axalsa da Tavisebur rasme mainc warmogvidgens~. g. wereTeli ramdenime dramatuli Txzulebis avtoria. maT Soris komedia `jibri~ daibeWda 1871 wlis Jurnal `krebulis~ meore wignSi, xolo dramebi -- `ojaxis asuli~ da `dari~ ar dabeWdila. g. wereTlis rogorc gamoqveynebuli, ise gamouqveynebeli piesebi oTxmocian wlebSi xSirad idgmeboda qarTuli Teatris scenaze da misi repertuaris xarvezis mniSvnelovan Sevsebas warmoadgenda. Tavisi droisaTvis am nawarmoebebs qarTuli Teatri garkveuli interesiT ekideboda, magram am dramatul nawarmoebebs dRes qarTuli scenisaTvis mxolod istoriuli mniSvneloba aqvs. qarTuli Teatris repertuaris gasamdidreblad g. wereTeli Targmnida agreTve sazRvargareTuli dramatuli mwerlobis saukeTeso nimuSebs. am mxriv gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsia Sileris `vilhelm teli~, romlis erTi nawilis (scena meore) Targmani daibeWda jer kidev 1868 wlis `droebaSi~. g. wereTlis Teoriul-esTetikur Sexedulebebs, calkeul mosazrebebs Tu SeniSvnebs Teatris Sesaxeb dResac ar daukargavs saerTo cxovelmyofeloba, garkveuli mecnieruli da praqtikuli interesi. *** g. wereTlis mdidar literaturul memkvidreobaze sruli warmodgena rom gvqondes, unda vicnobdeT misi Semoqmedebis erT mxaresac -- esaa g. wereTlis damokidebuleba saqarTvelos did warsulTan. am damokidebulebis xasiaTis gasarkvevad saWiroa zogadad mainc gaviTvaliswinoT: 1. g. wereTlis daintereseba saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebiT; 2. g. wereTeli, rogorc qarTuli literaturis istorikosi, Teoretikosi, kritikosi, Cveni didi mwerlobis damfasebeli; 3. g. wereTlis urTierToba xalxur sityvierebasTan. g. wereTlis samwerlo niWi, mravalmxrivi sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis Sinaarsi, samSoblos samsaxuris grZnoba, patriotuli ganwyobilebis Seunelebeli siTbo gamsWvalulia saqarTvelos didi warsulis Seswavlisa da popularizaciis, qarTveli xalxis awmyosTvis brZolisa da samSoblos momavlis Rrma rwmenis keTilSobiluri ideebiT. qarTveli xalxis kulturuli warsulis SeswavliT dainteresebul g. wereTels Rrmad aqvs Segnebuli: `...rom axali, Zvelis Seuswavlelad, fesvebdaWrili xea, saTamaSod miwazed dayenebuli. gava ramdenime dRe da am xes foTlebi uWkneba, scviva; TviT xe fuRurovdeba da male matlebi daxraven. romel xalxsac surs Tavisi ieri SeinarCunos, Tavisi vinaoba darCes, is usaTuod unda CaRrmavdes da gaicnos Tavisi istoriuli zrda~. g. wereTlis am xatovan TqmaSi didad sagulisxmo azria Caqsovili. g. wereTeli eris kulturis istorias uyurebs rogorc ganviTarebis jaWvs, gapirobebuls obieqturi garemoebiT, istoriuli kanonzomierebiT. movlenebis ganviTarebis axsnas eZebs mizezisa da Sedegis SesabamisobaSi. am Sesabamisobis dadgenis SesaZleblobis safuZvelze cdilobs istoriuli procesis xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebas. am saxelmZRvanelo principiT igi dgeba mecnieruli kvlevis marTebul gzaze. am niadagze miuTiTebs, rom `...xalxis cxovrebis keTil-warmatebis gamsazRvreli aris mravali xniT misi istoriuli cxovrebis nayofi, da ara kacis Zalas ageTi biji ar SeuZlian sazogadoebaSi rom moaxdinos~. rogoria pirovnebis urTierToba am procesTan da ra rolis Sesruleba SeuZlian mas? g. wereTeli am kiTxvaze pasuxobs: `TiToeuli piris cxovreba imgvarad aris SekavSirebuli mTel sazogadoebis cxovrebasTan, rom arc SeuZlian misi zemoqmedebisagan Tavi ixsnas, arc misgan gacalkdes da arc maszed amaR148

ldes... misi gamWriaxoba da Rvawli, rogorc sazogadoebis win, agreTve STamomavlobis win fasdeba, Tu ramdenad ucvnia imas es faqti... an Tu ra mxriT warumarTavs is, rom rogorme am faqts SesZleboda cxovrebisaTvis moetana imdeni keTili, ramdenic misgan iyo SesaZlo~. g. wereTlis azriT, istoriis Semoqmedi xalxia, magram gamorCeul pirovnebebs SeuZliaT warmatebiT Seuwyon xeli saqveyno saqmes. g. wereTels saqarTvelos gmiruli warsulisa da kulturuli Zlierebis Cveneba sWirdeba, rogorc safuZveli qveynis Tanamedroveobis ganwyobilebis asamaRleblad, ukeTesi momavlis SeqmnisaTvis, xalxis sabrZolo imedisa da rwmenis gasamtkiceblad. am mizniT mwerals ainteresebs qarTveli xalxis SemoqmedebiTi Zalis sidiadis gamomsaxveli cxovrebis yvela sfero. *** g. wereTels, upirveles yovlisa, is afiqrebda, rom saqarTvelos istoriis wyaroebi, kulturis Zeglebi da masalebi mecnierul wesrigSi ar iyo moyvanili da rom xalxma cota ram icoda Tavisi warsulis Sesaxeb. g. wereTlis istoriuli Sromebis ara marto ganxilva, aramed saTauris CamoTvlac ki sakmaod naTel warmodgenas miscemda mkiTxvels imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogori interesiT ekideboda igi mSobliuri qveynis istorias. g. wereTlis kalams ekuTvnis oTxmocamde monografiuli Sroma, statia da werili saqarTvelos istoriis, materialuri kulturis, arqeologiisa da eTnografiis Tu xalxis adaTisa da wes-Cveulebis sakiTxebze. yovelive amas Tu davumatebT g. wereTlis cnobil naSromebs, romlebic daibeWda moskovis saimperio arqeologiuri sazogadoebisa da aRmosavleTis komisiis SromebSi, romlebmac sayovelTao aRiareba pova maSindel mecnierul wreebSi, rogorc didi mecnieruli mniSvnelobis gamokvlevebma, maSin cxadi gaxdeba mwerlis didi damsaxureba saqarTvelos mdidari warsulis Seswavlis saqmeSi. g. wereTlis aseTi nayofieri muSaoba am dargSi miuTiTebs imaze, rom igi organulad iyo dainteresebuli saqarTvelos saxelovani warsulis SeswavliT. rasakvirvelia, interess didi da zogjer gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs, magram, amasTan erTad, farTo ganaTleba, erudicia da dauRalavi Sroma mwerals gzas ukafavda saqarTvelos didi istoriis Sesaswavlad, mis gamosamzeureblad. g. wereTeli ara marto TviTon aqveynebda masalebs saqarTvelos warsulze, aramed aRtacebiT egebeboda yovel axal gamokvlevas am dargSi. sagangebo aRniSvnis Rirsia 1880 wlis `droebis~ #17 da 19-Si dabeWdili misi vrceli recenzia dim. baqraZis naSromze `mirian mefe da wminda nino~. aRfrTovanebuli recenzenti maRal Sefasebas aZlevs aRniSnul gamokvlevas, rogorc didi Rirebulebis mecnierul monografias da xazs usvams mis patriotul mniSvnelobas. aseTive mowonebiT ekideboda mari broses, al. xaxanaSvilisa da sxvaTa damsaxurebas, rac araerTxel gamouxatavs beWdurad Tu sityvierad. saqarTvelos uZvelesi kulturis evropisaTvis gacnobis gzad rusuli presa iTvleboda. am saSualebas mizandasaxulad iyenebda g. wereTeli. igi usayvedurebs qarTvelobas, rom Tavisi warsulis qveynis gareT gatanis saqmisaTvis SedarebiT cotas zrunavs. erT Tavis werilSi g. wereTeli gvamcnobs: `evropis ganaTlebuli erebi TandaTan did yuradRebas aqceven kavkasias da kavkasiis niadagze uZveles droidan dabinavebul erebs. maT Soris pirveli adgili uWiravs kulturuli mxriT qarTvelebs~. magram, askvnis is, Cven ver viCenT fxas, ver vawvdiT saTanado masalaso. evropeli mecnierebis am dainteresebas gamoyeneba unda qarTuli kulturis farTod gacnobisaTvis, popularizaciisaTvis, magram vinRaa gamkiTxavi. Tavadaznauroba fuqsavatur cxovrebas eweva, mamulebis gayidviTa da udardeli cxovrebiTaa garTuli, inteligencia xelmoklea, lukma149

purs Zlivs Soulobs, amitomac ar SeuZlia `win miegebos evropis mecnierTa saqebur guliswadils Cveni qveynis gacnobisaTvis. gahyves mas, auxsnas Cveni warsuli, naSTi Cveni istoriuli cxovrebisa~. g. wereTels gadaudebel saWiro saqmed miaCnia, rom Cvenma sakredito dawesebulebebma gaiRon fuli, gauwion finansuri daxmareba qveynis saqmis mcodne kacebs, rom maT masalebi da cnobebi miawodon evropel mecnierebs, rac gamoiwvevda saqarTvelos saxelis Sors gatanas. mwerali miuTiTebs im garemoebazedac, rom zogi qveynis warmomadgenelni axerxeben msoflioSi gaitanon TavianTi qveynis kulturuli monapovari, Cven ki ver mogvixerxebia. isini Tbili mopyrobiT, saWiro zrunviT, cnobebis droulad miwodebiT imsaxureben ucxoel mecnierTa yuradRebas, iwveven aqeT, inadireben maT guls, aCveneben yvela masalas da amiT gadian msoflio arenaze. saWiroa gadavdgaT gabeduli da mtkice nabijebi. gavacnoT Cveni qveynis sidiade evropis gamoCenil mecnierebsa da xalxebs, msoflios mivawodoT cnobebi da masalebi Cven did warsulze. yovelive amisTvis gvWirdeba saxsrebi, mondomeba. saxsrebi gaiRon SeZlebulebma, mondomeba xalxma da inteligenciam unda gamoiCinos -- aseTia mwerlis patriotuli survili. g. wereTlis azri da goneba qarTvelologiuri saqmis yvela sferos swvdeba. igi ara marto ukmayofiloa, aramed wuxs kidevac, rom Cveni qveynis warsulisa da awmyos Sesaswavlad ara gvaqvs saWiro rukebi, igi wers: `amasTanave ar SemiZlian mwuxarebiT ar vTqvaT, jer aqamde qarTul enaze aramc Tu rigiani, sulac ara gvaqvs geografiuli karta~. es saqme isea miSvebuli, rom `yovel gonier kacs ewyineba~. ra vqnaT am didi xarvezis Sesavsebad? mwerlis azriT, saqmis mosagvareblad droulad unda daviwyoT mzadeba, moqmedeba, rom SevqmnaT pirveli rigis saWiro rukebi. g. wereTeli wers: `dro aris SevudgeT dawvrilebiTs Seswavlas Cveni qveynisas. amisaTvis aucileblad saWiroa Sesdges qarTuli geografiuli sazogadoeba, romelmac Tavisi moqmedeba jer kartebis gamocemiT unda daiwyos~.1 saqarTvelos warsuliT daintereseba, Cveni eris istoriis sakiTxebis damuSaveba da amiT mowinave kulturuli erebis planSi moqceva Cveni samocianelebis saerTo sazrunavi iyo. Tu ra aris eris istoria, ra adgili ukavia da ra mniSvneloba aqvs mas eris cxovrebaSi, amis Sesaxeb ilia WavWavaZe mogviTxrobs: `...istoria igi didebuli taZaria, saca uwiravs erTians sulsa erisasa da saca aRumarTavs ers Tavis didebul da didbunebovan kacTa uwmindesni xatni da zed waruweria didTa saqmeTa moTxroba, viTa saSviliSvilo anderZi... did-bunebovan kacTa da saxelovan gmirTa magaliTebiT istoria swurTnis ersa, zrdis da didebuli saqmeni kidev guls ukeTeben moqmedebisaTvis, aqezeben, amxneveben, Tu nametnavad is magaliTebi eris sakuTari istoriisani arian~. g. wereTlis damsaxureba isaa, rom man jer kidev adre, sanam frTas gaSlida ilias `iveria~, `droebasa~ da `krebulSi~ daayena es sakiTxi. amitomac saqarTvelos didi warsulis SeswavlisaTvis aqtiur moRvaweobaSi g. wereTeli erTi pirvelTagania. g. wereTeli qarTuli mwerlobis didi moWirnaxulea. rodesac g. wereTelze vmsjelobT, Cvens yuradRebas ipyrobs mwerlis mier gamocemuli ramdenime wigni, statia da werili qarTul mwerlobaze, qarTvel mwerlebze. 1870 wels g. wereTelma, n. berZeniSvilsa da p.umikaSvilTan erTad gamosca d. guramiSvilis TxzulebaTa krebuli `daviTiani~. am gamocemis vrcel winasityvaobaSi mwerali gulistkiviliT aRniSnavs, rom Cveni didi mwerlobis saukeTeso nimuSebi jer kidev xelmiuwvdomelia farTo mkiTxveli sazogadoebisaTvis da rom saamayo warsulsa da umdidres mxatvrul literaturaze xalxs arasruli warmodgena aqvs.

1

`kvali~, 1895, 20.

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`daviTianis~ winasityvaobaSi metad sayuradRebo mosazrebania gamoTqmuli rogorc literaturis istoriis, aseve literaturis Teoriis rTul problemebze. g. wereTeli akeTebs istoriul eqskurss, raTa mkiTxvel sazogadoebas garkveuli warmodgena misces saqarTvelos did warsulze, sakacobrio mniSvnelobis mdidar qarTul literaturaze, kulturaze. mkvlevari maxvilgonierad uZebnis axsnas Cveni mxatvruli literaturis sinamdvilesTan damokidebulebisa da Janrebis ganviTarebis xasiaTs; sagangebod Cerdeba sakaro poeziasa da eposze. rusTavelisa da `vefxistyaosnis~ sidiadis xazgasmisaTvis warmodgenilia literaturuli motivisa da Sinaarsis zogadi Tu kerZo sakiTxebis axsna. g. wereTeli msjelobs literaturaTmcodneobisaTvis saintereso sakiTxze -- miTsa da zRaparSi warmodgenili sinamdvilis xasiaTze da am sakiTxis axsnas literaturis sxva Janrebs ukavSirebs. `is veeba cxra Taviani devebi, is grZneuli kacebi, -- wers g. wereTeli, -- romlebic xan vefxvad gadaiqcevian, xan frinvelebad; is uzarmazari veSapebi, romelTac piridan cecxli amouquxT da piri Tu daaRes mTels sofels da qalaqs gadaylapaven -- sul bunebis movleniT SeSinebuli kacis gonebis monaWoria~.1 miTisa da zRapris am Tvisebis axsna ueWvelad sworia. magram CvenTvis didi mniSvnelobis faqti isaa, rom es ganmarteba garkveul mizans emsaxureba da gamoyenebulia rusTavelis genialuri qmnilebis sidiadis maCveneblad. miTiurobis principis axsnidan gamomdinareobs sinamdvilis realisturi Cvenebis rusTaveluri gageba da g. wereTliseuli ganmarteba, rom `rusTavelma pirvelad poeziiT daanaxa saqarTvelos ers, rom bunebaSi saSiSi ar aris ra. is Tavis mravalferovnebiT kacis gonebis dasaCagravad ki ara, imis sawvrTnelad aris gaCenili~. rusTavelisa da `vefxistyaosnis~ maxvilgonieri daxasiaTebisa da aRorZinebis xanis mwerlobis mokle ganxilviT mkvlevari miiCqaris d.guramiSvilis poeziisaken. igi gviCvenebs literaturul, kulturul da sazogadoebriv fons, raTa d.guramiSvili naTlad warmogvidginos qarTuli kulturis didi memkvidreobisa da maRalpoeturi metyvelebis saxelovani tradiciis brwyinvale da originalur gamgrZeleblad. am mizniT g. wereTeli qarTuli literaturis saTaveebidan akeTebs eqskurss `vefxistyaosnamde~, ixilavs aRorZinebis xanis mwerlobas da Cerdeba d. guramiSvilze. aRsaniSnavia is garemoeba, rom mkvlevriseuli aseTi mimoxilva mkiTxvels zogadad acnobs qarTul literaturas da kulturul warsuls. meore mxriv igi qmnis winapirobas guramiSvilis poeziis gagebisaTvis, misi mniSvnelobis garkvevisaTvis. marTalia, qarTuli poeziis gvirgvinad mas `vefxistyaosani~ miaCnia, magram aqve warmoaCens im noyier niadags, romelzedac unda gafurCqniliyo S. rusTavelis poeturi genia. analogiuri fonia warmosaxuli d. guramiSvilis poeziis sididis Sesaqmnelad da naCvenebia, Tu ra niadagi aciskrovnebs d. guramiSvilis poetur niWs. g. wereTlis azriT, d. guramiSvilis didi poeturi Zalis sxivosnoba imaSia, rom mas aqvs didi realisturi Sinaarsi. `guramiSvilis TxzulebebSi moWorili ara aris ra. avtori rasac ambobs, sul misi TvaliT danaxuli da gamocdilia. is Zalas ar atans Tavisi azris gamoxatvas~. saqarTvelos awewil-dawewilma mdgomareobam ganapiroba d. guramiSvilis piradi bedi da poeziis Sinaarsi. magram mamulis siyvaruliT gamsWvalulma poetma piraduli interesebi saqveyno samsxverploze miitana. g. wereTeli ara marto ikvlevs, afasebs da axasiaTebs qarTveli xalxis saxelovan warsuls, mis kulturas, mwerlobas, aramed kidevac icavs mas yovelgvari Tavdasxmisa da Semotevisagan.

1

`daviTiani~, 1870, gv. VII.

151

*** mecxramete saukunis meore naxevris saqarTveloSi Seqmnili literaturuli dajgufebebis, anu dasebis Camoyalibebisa da saqmianobis Sinaarsis gasaTvaliswineblad g. wereTeli gvawvdis sayuradRebo cnobebsa da mosazrebebs. g. wereTeli werda: `1890 wlidan dahbera kvlav axalma progresulma siom. qarTul literaturaSi gamoCnda araCveulebrivi mimarTulebis TiTo orola axalgazrda, romelmac Tavi iCina `kvalSi~ 1893 w. Taviseburi programiT. eseni arian ekonomiuri materializmis Teoriis mimdevarni~.1 g. wereTelma mis mier SemCneulsa da monaTlul axaldaselebs farTod gauRo `kvalis~ karebi da amiT maT misca SesaZlebloba es popularuli gazeTi gamoeyenebinaT axali azrebisa da miswrafebis gasavrceleblad. mweralma guliT uTanagrZno mesame dass. g. wereTlis mesame dasisadmi damokidebulebis sakiTxma literaturul kritikaSi imTaviTve gamoiwvia azrTa sxvadasxvaoba. erTni g. wereTelSi marqsists xedavdnen, meoreni -- Ria gulis maspinZels, romelmac xelgaSlilad miiRo isini `kvalSi~ da sxv. TviTon giorgim mwvaved Seutia k. abaSiZes im mosazrebis gamo, rom g. wereTeli mesamedaselebma moarjules, gadaibireso da sxv. am niadagze mweralma k. abaSiZes Cveni literaturuli cxovrebis istoriis ucodinarobaze miuTiTa. g. wereTeli ideurad axlo grZnobda Tavs mesame daselebTan, arc marqsiszmSi iyo gaurkveveli, Tumca, marqsisti ar yofila. igi mxolod samocianelTa Soris ufro radikaluri miswrafebisa da ganwyobilebis gamomxatveli iyo. g. wereTlis, rogorc mwerlisa da sazogado moRvawis, originalobasa da Taviseburebas qmnis misTvis Cveuli siaxlis grZnoba -- cxovrebis ganviTarebis perspeqtivis danaxva, rom axali, mowinave azrebi da ganwyobileba magnitiviT izidavs mis sulsa da guls. g. wereTlis cxovrebis istoria -- studentobis pirveli dReebidan moyolebuli sicocxlis ukanasknel wuTamde -- siaxlisken ltolvisa da miswrafebis mkafio gamoxatulebaa. cxovrebis ganviTarebiT gamowveuli axali moTxovnilebis pasuxis gacemis saWiroebiT aris gapirobebuli yovelTvis g. wereTlis yofna mowinave ideebis saTaveebTan. farTo ganaTlebis mqone mwerlis, Jurnalistis, publicistis, istorikosis, arqeologis, literaturaTmcodnis da ekonomistis nayofieri kalami Rrmad wvdeboda samSoblo qveynis interesTa sxvadasxva mxares. unda SevniSnoT, rom g. wereTlis sicocxleSi calke wignad gamoica mxolod misi ramdenime mxatvruli nawarmoebi da erTi krebuli or tomad 1893 wels; mwerlis aseTma daudevrobam sakuTari literaturuli memkvidreobisadmi daazarala mweralica da mkiTxveli sazogadoebac. Tumc yvelas sjeroda, rom Zvirfasia g. wereTlis literaturuli memkvidreoba; amas aRniSnavda presa, literaturuli kritika, calkeuli mkiTxveli, magram misi Txzulebebis gamocemis saqme mainc ver mogvarda. g. wereTlis saflavTan warmoTqmul sityvaSi akaki SeniSnavda: `mova dro, rodesac sazogado moRvaweebs sakuTari SegnebiT da ara sxvebis xmis ayoliT daafaseben da maSin giorgis nawerebis sidiade, sikeTe gaakvirvebs yvelas~. g. wereTlis mravali werilia dabeWdili qarTul da rusul presaSi fsevdonimiTa da xelmouwerlad. fsevdonimebi ZiriTadad amoxsnilia, magram gamourkvevelia bevri xelmouwereli werili. g. wereTlis mravalricxovani fsevdonimebidan davasaxelebT zogierTs: g.-Teli -- aseTi xelmoweriT g. wereTelma 1863 wels Jurnal `saqarTvelos moambeSi~ moaTavsa cnobili werili `ciskars ra akakanebda?~. amave fsevdonimiT aqveynebda igi Tavis nawarmoebebs `droebaSi~, `krebulsa~ da `kvalSi~.

1

`kvali~, 1897, 46.

152

Teli -- `droebasa~ da `saxalxo gazeTSi~. g. goriseli -- `droebaSi~, `krebulSi~, `kvalSi~. `krebulis~ mkiTxveli, X, XX da imereli -- gazeT `droebaSi~. krazanasa da damswres fsevdonimiT `droebaSi~ daibeWda ramdenime werili da agreTve zogierTi leqsi. g. w. -- am fsevdonimiT aTavsebda nawarmoebs `iveriasa~ da `kvalSi~; g-eli; g.-li; XX-eli; damswre; X-eli; mazakvali -- fsevdonimebiT ibeWdeboda `kvalSi~. g. wereTlis mier fsevdonimebi umTavresad gamoyenebuli iyo JurnalistikaSi, magram aris SemTxvevebi, roca igi xelmouwerlad an fsevdonimiT aqveynebda mxatvrul nawarmoebebsac. magaliTad, `mgzavris wignebi~ xelmouwerlad daibeWda `droebaSi~, `krebulSi~ ki -- xelmoweriT. g. wereTlis fsevdonimebSi yvelaze xSirad gvxvdeba mwerlis saxelTan da gvarTan dakavSirebuli Semoklebebi da inicialebi, xolo rusul JurnalistikaSi amJamad cnobili fsevdonimebi mwerlis saxelisa da gvaris Sekvecidan momdinareobs da warmodgenilia inicialebiT. rusul presaSi dabeWdil statiebs g. wereTeli xels awerda: . , . . . es ukanaskneli inicialebi ufro metad gvxvdeba " "-Si. *** g. wereTlis mravalmxrivi moRvaweobis Sinaarss mSobliuri qveynis didi siyvarulis grZnoba aTbobda. saxelovani mwerali gardacvalebamde dauRalavad emsaxureboda xalxis Tavisuflebis interesebs, naklebad zrunavda piradi mdgomareobis uzrunvelsayofad. g. wereTlis maRali miswrafeba sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba da SemoqmedebiTi muSaoba iyo. mwerlis am midrekilebam imTaviTve iCina Tavi da studentobis pirveli dReebidanve iwyo saqveyno saqmeebisaTvis fiqri da moqmedeba. es fiqri da zrunva qveynis sikeTisaTvis, axali da progresuli ideebiT ganaTebuli, arasodes Senelebia mas da samSoblos saqmis Tavkaci iyo yovelTvis. dauSreteli energia, moZravi buneba, romantikuli gataceba, siaxlis grZnoba, moqmedebis cxoveli interesi, romelic keTilSobiluri maRali ideebiT iyo gamiznuli, bolomde SerCa did mwerals. eris bedis gulSematkivari, mravalmxrivi nayofieri SromiT daqanculi moRvawe da saxelovani mwerali g. wereTeli gardaicvala 1900 wlis 12 ianvars, 58 wlis asakSi. g. wereTlis gardacvalebas qarTveli xalxi ganuzomeli mwuxarebiT Sexvda. qarTuli da araqarTuli presa gulistkiviliT aRniSnavda am samwuxaro ambavs. qarTulma dramatulma sazogadoebam glovis niSnad Teatris kari daxura, warmodgenebi gadado, `kvalma~ rvagverdiani ori specialuri nomeri miuZRvna g. wereTlis gardacvalebasa da dakrZalvas. g. wereTlis gardacvalebis gamo `iveria~ werda: `Zneli warmosadgenia qarTveli kaci, mcodne qarTuli wera-kiTxvisa, rom gansvenebulis g. wereTlis saxeli ar gaegos, saxeli im kacisa, romelmac am ocdaaTi wlis (1862 w.) winaT aRapyro xeli Tavisi niWieri kalmiT da sikvdilamde Tavi ar gaunebebia mwerlobisaTvis. arc erTi Jurnali, gazeTi ar dabadebula qarTul enaze, rom gansvenebuls giorgis mWrelis maxvilisa da madlianis kalmiT daxmareba da Semweoba ar aRmoeCinos~. g. wereTlis gardacvalebis xma moedo rogorc saqarTvelos, aseve kavkasiasa da ruseTs. uamravi depeSa modioda qveynis sxvadasxva kuTxidan. depeSebi iyo evropidanac. mwuxarebas gamoxatavdnen ara marto qarTvelebi, aramed sxvadasxva

153

erovnebis warmomadgenlebic. depeSaTa Soris iyo ingliseli mwerlisa da sazogado moRvawis, qarTuli kulturisa da qarTveli xalxis didi pativismcemlis marjori uordropis depeSa. depeSebi imdenad bevri yofila, rom `kvali~ werda: `yvela depeSis dabeWdvas mTeli nomeri moundebodao~. i. WavWavaZis `iveriam~ g. wereTlis gardacvalebis gamo nekrologi mowinave werilad misca, riTac gulistkiviliT auwyebda sazogadoebas didi mwerlis gardacvalebas. am werilSi g. wereTeli daxasiaTebulia, rogorc mxatvruli sityvis ostati da uangaro erovnuli moamage. `iveriaSi~ vkiTxulobT: `mesamoce wlebis mraval moRvawe mweralTa saukeTeso gunds erTi, Cveni Raribi literaturis didi moWirnaxule wevri kidev gamoaklda. didis mwuxarebiT vacnobebT mkiTxvelebs, rom guSin, oTxSabaTs, 12 ianvars, nasadilevis 4 saaTsa da 15 wuTs, tfilisSi xangrZlivi avadmyofobis Sedegad gardaicvala Cveni mwerlobis erTerTi deda-boZTagani giorgi eqvTimes-Ze wereTeli~.1 `iveriam~ wereTlis dasaflavebis dRes, mwerlis xsovnis aRsaniSnavad, kvlav mowinave miuZRvna. ilia da misi organos TanamSromlebi cxadad grZnobdnen im danakliss, rac qarTulma mwerlobam ganicada. ai, ras vkiTxulobT am mowinaveSi: `Cven pativsa vcemT cxedars im kacisas, romelic suliTa da guliT qarTveli iyo, romelsac Tavisi erisa da qveynis sasikeToT hqonda guli aRZruli da Tavisis sazogado moqmedebis sagnadac swored es erisa da qveynis sikeTe hqonda dasaxuli~.2 g. wereTlis dasaflavebis dRes, 16 ianvars, diliT, g. wereTlis cxedari binidan qaSveTis eklesiaSi waasvenes. panaSvidis gadaxdis Semdeg xalxi didubisaken daiZra. g. wereTlis kubosTan, didubeSi, pirveli sityva akakim warmoTqva: `Zvirfaso amxanago, TanaSezrdilo da Tanave Seberebulo giorgi!~ -- ase mimarTa akakim am did moamages da Semdeg ase gaagrZela: `guli miRondeba, Tvalze cremli momdgomia da tirils ki ver gibedav imitom, rom SenisTana gansvenebuls tirili ar SeSvenis~. g. wereTlis gardacvalebas farTod gamoexmaura imJamindeli rusuli centraluri presac. am mxriv sainteresoa ` ", sadac daibeWda al. xaxanaSvilis vrceli werili, romliTac daxasiaTebulia g. wereTlis damsaxureba mwerlobisa da mecnierebis winaSe. xolo Tbilisurma rusulma presam didi qarTveli mwerlis gardacvaleba aRniSna ara marto gancxadebebiT, saerTo samgloviaro werilebisa da depeSebis moTavsebiT Tavis furclebze, aramed mwerlis pativiscema gamoxata imiTac, rom imave 1900 wels Targmna da dabeWda g. wereTlis moTxrobebi: `mamida asmaTi~, `mecxvaris naambobi~ da `Tofis srola~. g. wereTlis gardacvalebas gamoexmaura inglisuri kvireuli gazeTi `Spectator~, romelic 1900 wlis martis nomerSi aTavsebs cnobas g. wereTlis gardacvalebis Sesaxeb, mimoxilulia misi moRvaweobac. mowinave qarTveli inteligenciis TaosnobiT, 1900 welsve calke wignad gamoica g. wereTlis gardacvalebisa da dasaflavebisadmi miZRvnili krebuli, romelSiac moTavsebulia mwerlis mokle biografia da TiTqmis yvela werili, leqsi da sityva, Tqmuli Tu dawerili g. wereTlis gardacvalebis gamo.

1 2

`iveria~, 1900, 9. iqve, 1900, 11.

154

giorgi wereTlis mxatvruli Semoqmedeba farTo mxatvruli tiloebi

` mgzavris wignebi~. `mgzavris wignebi~, anu `kikoliki, Cikoliki da kudabzika~ mogzauruli Janris mxatvruli nawarmoebia. am Txzulebis pirveli oTxi Tavi 1867 wlis `droebam~ gamoaqveyna. rac Seexeba danarCen Tavebs, -- mexuTe, 1870 wlis `droebis~ me-16 nomerSi, xolo meeqvse 22-e nomerSi daibeWda. Janrulad Taviseburma da Tematikurad saintereso am nawarmoebma imTaviTve miipyro sazogadoebis yuradReba da ori erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego Sexeduleba SemuSavda. erTni savsebiT uaryofdnen `mgzavris wignebis~ mxatvrul Rirebulebas, meoreni maRal Sefasebas aZlevdnen mas. 1874 wels Zveli seminaristis fsevdonimiT gr. orbelianma `ciskarSi~ dabeWda statia saTauriT `mgzavroba svaneTisaken g. w.~ da ganixila g. wereTlis `mgzavris wignebi~. werilis Sesaval nawilSi gr. orbeliani werda: `me ar Sevexebi avtoris ideasa, arc mis mimarTulebasa. me veZieb qarTuls moTxrobaSi mxolod qarTulis enis siwmindesa~.1 aseTi dapirebis miuxedavad, gr. orbeliani nawarmoebis sxva mxareebsac Seexo da Txzulebis vrclad ganxilvis Semdeg gaakeTa daskvna: `ara, es mgzavroba aris raRac maxinji, dabadebuli avtoris gonebaSi! esoden Secdomileba, esodeni ucodinaroba enisa, esodeni uazroba, rogor unda ipoebodes erTs patara TxzulebaSi~.2 poetma-kritikosma ugulebelyo nawarmoebis ideur-Sinaarseuli simaxvile, xelaRebiT daiwuna g. wereTlis samwerlo ena da, amdenad, uaryo am nawarmoebis ideur-esTetikuri mniSvneloba. marTalia, g. wereTeli uxvad xmarobda dialeqtizmebs, ar iyo daxvewili `mgzavris wignebis~ ena, magram savsebiT uaryofa am nawarmoebisa ar iyo marTebuli. gr. orbeliani marTali iyo, roca calkeul sityvebs, gramatikul formebs uwunebda g. wereTels, magram Tu mxolod calkeuli sityvebisa da gramatikuli formebis mixedviT vimsjelebT, yuradRebas miipyrobs arqaizmebis uxvad gamoyeneba, romelic zogjer Zalian amZimebs da bundovans xdis Tavad kritikosis metyvelebas. raki gr. orbelianma `mgzavris wignebi~ ganixila ideur-Sinaarseul da mxatvruli mxareebis erToblivad warmodgenis gareSe, ver amoxsna Txzulebis SemecnebiTi da esTetikuri mTlianobis Sinaarsis WeSmariti buneba, amitom misi Sefaseba calmxrivi aRmoCnda. arc anton furcelaZe yofila kargi Sexedulebisa g. wereTlis am nawarmoebze. `mgzavris wignebi~ Seiqmna k.abaSiZis mcdari kritikuli Sexedulebis ganmsazRvreli, romliTac damcirebul iqna g. wereTlis samwerlo niWi. `g. wereTlis moTxrobaSi, Tuki SeiZleba amgvar nawarmoebs moTxroba daerqvas, araks, naskvs ambavisas aras dagidevsT~.3 k. abaSiZe ver gaerkva mogzauruli Janris nawarmoebis bunebaSi, ver gaigo misi kompoziciuri xasiaTis Tavisebureba. sinamdvilis Cveneba mgzavrobis mxatvruli aRweriT, Janrulad imiT iyo saintereso, rom es xerxi mwerals aTavisuflebda kompoziciuri SezRudulobisagan, eZleoda farTo SesaZlebloba TxrobaSi sasurveli pasaJebi Caesva, ideuri tendenciis gamomxatveli epizodebi CaerTo. cdeboda didi poeti gr. orbeliani, cdeboda k. abaSiZec. orives Sexeduleba calmxrivi da araobieqturi iyo. mowinave qarTulma literaturulma kritikam imTaviTve daikava warmodgenili Sexedulebis sawinaaRmdego pozicia. am mxriv sayuradReboa: n. nikolaZis, a.

1

`ciskari~, 1874, seqtemberi da oqtomberi. iqve. 3 k . a b a S i Z e , etiudebi, t. II, 1912, gv. 47.

2

155

wereTlis, al. xaxanaSvilis da im droisaTvis cnobili sxva kritikosebisa da sazogado moRvaweebis: Teofile xuskivaZis, xomlelis (r.fancxava), fxas (i.fancxava) da sxvaTa Sexeduleba, romlebic maRal Sefasebas aZlevdnen am nawarmoebs da saerTod g. wereTlis samwerlo niWs. `mgzavris wignebi~ rom Zalian moewona sazogadoebas da siyvaruliT miiRo is, amaze miuTiTebs cnobili sazogado moRvawisa da literaturis kritikosis n. nikolaZis mier 1894 wels dabeWdili statia. igi werda: `roca am ocdaxuTi wlis winaT mkiTxvelebSi TiTqmis imgvarive moZraoba Seiqna, rogoric cotaTi uwin b-n ilia WavWavaZis `kacia-adamianma~ moaxdina. mgonia, cota ar aris amiT naTqvami. mTelma sazogadoebam miaqcia yuradReba avtoris niWs. misi cxoveli suraTebi, misi iumori, misi tipebi yvelas moswonda. `ucnobi ram gagvacno am kacmao~ -- ambobda Tu grZnobda mkiTxveli. didi imedebic dabada yvelaSi am bednierma dasawyisma. yvela eloda, ai, axali beletristi gauCnda Cvens mwerlobasao, fxizlad da cocxlad metyveli Cveni qveynis cxovrebis ucnobi mxareebisa da sxv. im dros -- rogorc dResac -- qarTuli beletristika mdidari rodi gaxldaT SesaniSnavi, niWieri mSromelebiT. miT ufro saamo Seiqna qveynisaTvis am axali talantis asparezze gamosvla. yoveli axali xana misi `mgzavris wignisa~ axal aRtacebas, axal umaRles lodins da imedebs hbadebda~.1 es vrceli amonaweri, motanili n. nikolaZis statiidan, naTlad metyvelebs nawarmoebis maRal Rirsebaze, sazogadoebis gulisxmier damokidebulebaze am Txzulebisadmi. sazogadoebis interess nawarmoebisadmi aZlierebda sinamdvilis gadmocemis iumoristuli toni, romelic ase emarjveba g. wereTels, da yovelgvari Seferadebis gareSe daxatuli Cveni qveynis duxWiri cxovreba, socialuri yofis mZafri suraTebi, batonymuri urTierTobisa da saqveyno cxovrebis sxva mankieri mxareebis gakicxva. g. wereTlis `mgzavris wignebSi~ aRwerilia mecxramete saukunis meore naxevris saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi cxovreba, dasavleT saqarTvelos bunebis kolorituli peizaJebi. `mgzavris wignebis~ ideur-Sinaarseul mxareSi yuradRebas ipyrobs batonymuri urTierTobis gakicxva, erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli ideis mxatvruli gaRrmaveba, TviTmpyrobelobis, Cinovnikebisa da moxeleebis mxileba, angarebisa da karieris moyvaruli inteligenciis Cveneba, qveynis momavlis Rrma rwmena. nawarmoebSi naCvenebia Tavadaznaurobis daqveiTebuli mdgomareoba, glexkacobis duxWiri cxovreba, inteligenciis erTi nawilis ganwyobileba. `mgzavris wignebis~ gmirTa saxeebi daxatulia reformamdeli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis fonze; mZafradaa warmodgenili batonymobis gauqmebis molodinis gancdebi; gadmocemulia glexkacobisa da TviT avtoris siZulvili batonymobisadmi. aRweril movlenebs mwerali warmogvidgens iumoristuli toniT. qarTuli literaturis mkvlevari prof.al. xaxanaSvili `mgzavris wignebis~ Sesaxeb werda: `...cocxali eniT dawerili `mgzavris wignebi~ anu `kikoliki, Cikoliki da kudabzika~ gesliani satiraa Tanamedrove uwesobaze~.2 nawarmoebSi TvalnaTladaa naCvenebi batonymuri urTierTobis mier adamianis rogorc fizikuri, ise sulieri gadagvareba. es Seexeba yvela wodebas. movigonoT mwerlis mier daxatuli, `rumbiviT gasiebuli, jorze Sedebuli~ odiSeli mebatonis Tavad dazgas saxe da misi mxleblebi, fexSiSveli, dakonkili msaxurebiTa da mwevar-meZebrebiT. Tavad dazgas daukargavs kacuri saxe; batonymur urTierTobas cxovelur mdgomareobamde miuyvania, gadaugvarebia igi rogorc fizikurad, aseve sulierad. g. wereTeli ramdenime StrixiT gvaZlevs mkafi1 2

`moambe~, 1894, 3. a l . x a x a n a S v i l i , qarTuli sityvierebis istoria, 1918, gv. 226.

156

od daxatul dazgas saxes. dazga socialurad luarsab TaTqariZis axlo naTesavia. magram igi dasavluri variantia, Romisa da mWadis motrfiale. ai, rogor warmogvidgens mwerali odiSel Tavads: `mTidan CamoToxarikda erTi Tagvisodena Savi jori, romelzedac didi Zaris sisxo kaci Sedebuliyo~; avtori agrZelebs dazgas daxasiaTebas epiTetebiT, SedarebebiTa da metaforebiT. kikolas moridebul SekiTxvaze `maTi brwyinvaleba dazga yvelis vaWariviT gaikriWa da meti ara sTqva ra. is ijda gamoSterebuli, duqnis win. imis sveli Tvalebi da axirebuli Rimili TiTqos mudam Tevzsa da Roms Setrfoden. magram me ki ar mjera, rom am pativcemulis arsebis muceli marto Roms gaeberos ase saSinlad... imas ufro bevri mWadis gundebi unda eylapa Tavis glexebisa sasuq indoursaviT~.1 dabolos, sainteresoa dazgas suraTis damamTavrebeli detalebi, romelic asea warmodgenili: `brwyinvale dazgam moiTxova Tavisi jori da isev zed Seedo. sawyali jori kuds cxared acmacunebda, etyoboda, rom mZime tvirTiT saqme hqonda gaWirvebuli; gaWirvebis dasamtkiceblad kudis ZirSi muzika daukra da waToxarikda~. odiSeli Tavadi dazga, Tumca ramdenime StrixiT, magram sruladaa daxatuli. dazga warmoCenilia groteskul planSi, ar iqneba gadaWarbebuli, Tu vityviT, rom dazga gacilebiT dabla dgas adamianurad, vidre luarsabi. luarsabi dazgasTan SedarebiT `moxdenil da maxvilgonier~ raindad moCans. aseve daukargavT adamianuri individualoba ymebsac im ukacuri cxovrebis pirobebis gamo, romelSic batonymobas Cauyenebia isini. bunebis simdidre, simSveniere araraobadaa qceuli maTTvis. amis gamo gaRatakebisa da gadagvarebis gzaze Semdgara mosaxleoba. SimSils, siSiSvles, autanel siRaribes SemaZrwunebel mdgomareobamde dauqveiTebia xalxi. gulis siRrmeSi Camwvdomi siZlieriT xatavs g. wereTeli autanlad mZime adamianuri cxovrebis suraTebs: `Tav-gadaxdili wnelis qoxebi, waqceuli Robe, ferdmimxmari ZaRlebi, romelTac Cems misvlaze ymuili Seqmnes da zeze ki ar wamodgen, albaT SimSilisagan weli ver aeTriaT, ori sami kiser-moxexili Rori qeciani goWebiT... bolos erTs dabRunZuls da kar-gaRebuls qoxs mivadeqi. Sig axalgazrda qali perangis amara ijda da ganis Caqebi iRliebamdis Sexeuli hqonda, ase rom gul-mkerdi sul erTianad motitvlebuli uCanda. akvanSi srulebiT titvela bavSvi egdo da artaSnebis magivrad baliSis CiTis nafleTebiT iyo Cakruli... ucxo kacis danaxvaze qalma Tavi CaRuna da mxolod titvela mkerdis dafarvas apirebda perangis nafleTebiT, magram erT ZuZus rom daifaravda, meore maSinve Tavs gamoyofda. gamovtrialdi da sxva qoxs mivaSure. ezoSi sami rva-rva wlis pawawina qal-vaJi TamaSobdnen da Tavidan fexamdis rac dedis muclidan ar dahyolodaT, imis meti ara ebadaT ra tanze...roca im meore qoxSi Sevixede, erTi Rrma moxucebuli kaci damxvda. perangisa da SemofleTilis perangis amxanagis meti imasac ara ecva-ra~.2 rogorc vxedavT, SemaZrwunebeli suraTia daxatuli. iseve rogorc ilias, g. wereTels batonymoba qveynis ubedurebad miaCnda. amitomac aCvena `mgzavris wignebSi~ dazgas, glexebisa da, saerTod, gapartaxebuli soflis suraTebi, romlebic `kacia-adamianis?!~ msgavsad TvalsaCinod gvisaxaven batonymobis damRupvel Sedegebs. `mgzavris wignebis~ gmirTa Soris xatvis sisruliT yuradRebas ipyroben Cikoliki, kikoliki da kudabzika. samive es gmiri tipuria, magram kudabzika yvelaze srulad, mkafiod da damajereblad aris daxatuli. kudabzika dakninebuli aznaurobis warmomadgenelia. misi saxis gamomkveTi damaxasiaTebeli niSan-Tvisebebi Txzulebis sxvadasxva adgilasaa naCvenebi. am gmiris saxeli, qceva, xasiaTi da Sinagani Tvisebebi ise ostaturadaa Serwymuli nawarmoe1 2

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 52. iqve, gv. 101-102.

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bis qsovilSi, rom igi savsebiT tipuri, maRalmxatvruli saxea: `mardi da metiCara iyo. imis qera Tmaze, niskartian cxvirze da wvrilad gawkipinebuls ulvaSebze rom Segexedna, maSinve ityodi, es imereli unda iyoso. aseTi amayi da ukadrisi ram iyo es dalocvili, tyuila ceri rom geCvenebina, erT adgilze Sexteboda. aseTs gaxrekils cxenze ijda, rom Zvlisa da tyavis meti ara iyo ra, swored wyalSi amowumpuls virTagvas hgavda. kudabzika xSiraT mosWimavda xolme sadaves, rom Tavis bedaurisaTvis kiseri moedrika da amasTanave hkravda dezebians quslsa, rom cotaze mainc gaecundrukebina, viTom SemxedeT, rogors raSze vzivaro. sawyals virTagva cxens imis dezebisagan gverdebi hqonda gaclili~.1 g. wereTels am gmiris Sesaxeb meti rom araferi eTqva, am StrixiTac mainc cocxali warmodgena gveqneboda mis pirovnebaze, qcevaze, xasiaTsa da garegnobaze. unda SevniSnoT, rom kudabzika mgzavrobis mTel manZilze gauTaveblad trabaxobs, rac TviTdaxasiaTebaa erTgvarad. misi mdgomareobasTan Seusabamo qceva da ampartavnoba mkiTxvelis Rimils iwvevs yovelTvis. rogorc g.qiqoZe miuTiTebs: `mkiTxvelis Tvalwin cocxlad dgas Tavisebur rosinantze, `virTagva bedaurze~ mjdomare kudabzika, romelsac Tavisi winaprebis qonebrivi dovlaTidan araferi SeurCenia da amitom ufro uazrod yoyoCobs da ufro TavgamodebiT ebRauWeba Tavis wodebriv privilegiebs~.2 n. nikolaZe werda: `mTel am TxzulebaSi sruliad rom araferi yofiliyo, garda marto erTi kudabzikobis aRwerisa, maSinac Cvens mwerlobaSi ukvdavi darCeboda `mgzavris wignebi~, imitom rom kudabzika -- namdvili tipia~.3 kudabzikas daxatvaSi g. wereTelma gamoamJRavna didi iumoristuli niWi. iumori, gesliani satira damaxasiaTebelia g. wereTlis SemoqmedebisaTvis. groteskic araa ucxo g. wereTliseul xatvis maneraSi. marTebulad aRniSna al. xaxanaSvilma g. wereTlis Sesaxeb, rom `satiruli maTraxi, romelic man gaiRo qarTuli sazogadoebis naklovanebaTa gasakicxavad, Cveulebrivi saSualeba ar iyo Cvens mwerlobaSio~.4 es satiruli maTraxi gamoyenebulia imdroindeli uaryofiTi sinamdvilis gasakicxad, dasagmobad. iumoristul-satiruli ferebiTaa daxatuli am nawarmoebSi imdroindeli sazogadoebrivi sinamdvile, yvela uaryofiTi personaJi. akaki wereTelma `mgzavris wignebi~ did nawarmoebad CaTvala, xolo kudabzika ara marto erovnul, aramed msoflio tipadac ki miiCnia: `zepirsityvierebam erTi zRapruli tipi gadmogvca qarTvelebs: `nacar-qeqia~, romelic iseTive sasaciloa, rogorc `don-kixoti~, `falstafi~ da `ivane duraki~... axla gadavideT im axal tipze, -- wers poeti-kritikosi, -- romelic Tvalwin xorcSesxmiT dagviyena `mgzavris wignebis~ avtorma. es gaxlavT `kudabzika~. Tu marTla `don-kixoti~ daZvelebuli raindobis tipia, es `kudabzika~ ususuri da swored ver gagebuli kulturis nayofia. rodesac `kudabzika~ Tavis gaxrikul baxze zis, Tavs uqinCavs, dezebs gverdebSi uCxukurebs da axtunebs, sruli darwmunebulia, rom raSze vzivar da unda Tavi zecas miaWiros; magram rodesac misi raSi muclis tkiviliT gamwarebuli miwaze kotrials daiwyebs, `kudabzikac~ sasoebadakarguli dedamiwaSi apirebs CaZvrenas. amgvari tipebi, rasakvirvelia, msoflio tipebic arian, magram kerZod ki namdvili nacionaluri tipia dRevandeli Cveni cxovrebisa~.5 kudabzikas qceva ise tipuria, rom kudabzikaseuli metiCroba, fxukianoba da sasacilo ampartavnoba mkafiod vlindeba d. kldiaSvilis gmirTa qcevaSic. ku1

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. 1, 1947, gv. 41. g.q i q o Z e , etiudebi da portretebi, 1958, gv. 174. 3 `moambe~, 1894, 3. 4 al.x a x a n a S v i l i , qarTuli sityvierebis istoria, 1918, gv. 226. 5 `kvali~, 1894, 23.

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dabzika imdenad marTladaa daxatuli, rom misi Tvisebebi naTlad warmogvidgeba siRaribisagan dakninebul, magram uniadago, wodebriv TavmowonebaSerCenil imerel aznaurTa saxeebSi d. kldiaSvilisa da n. lorTqifaniZis TxzulebebSi. kudabzikas gaZvaltyavebuli cxeni agrZelebs gzas d. kldiaSvilis `samaniSvilis dedinacvalSi~. kikoliki inteligenciis im nawilis warmomadgenelia, romelsac swavla-ganaTlebis miReba piradi keTildReobisaTvis gaumiznavs. am miswrafebas igi jer kidev universitetis studentad yofnis dros amJRavnebda; codnac zerele hqonda, Tvali Tanamdebobis miRebisaken eWira. igi cdilobs am qveynis ZlierTa guliswyroma ar daimsaxuros. pativmoyvarea, mas piradi keTildReoba, mSvidi cxovreba, didi Tanamdeboba asuldgmulebs. kikolikis devizia `yovelma kacma yvelaze uwin TavisTavze unda izrunos~. misi azriT, `Tu mxrebze sqeli jinjilebi gaqvs, Tu gulze didi ordeni gaqvs Camokidebuli, maSin xar pativcemuli da Cemis azriT, -- acxadebs igi, -- asec unda iyos, vinc ufro Wkviania da moxerxebulia, is poulobs amaebs~. kikolikis idealia piradi warmateba da bedniereba. yovelgvar saqmeebs piradulobis ganaRdebis saSualebad iyenebs, es iqneba samsaxuri, mogzauroba Tu gazeTebis gamocema. colis SerTvac ki angarebis grZnobas, materialur keTildReobas daumorCila. moigoneT misi ocneba SeZlebuli sovdagris qalis SerTvis Taobaze. amitom ambobda kikoliki: `jer unda viSovnoT nivTieri keTilmdgomareoba da mere qveyanas sikeTe unda movfinoT~. Tanamgzavris guliswyroma kikolikis mimarT, am SemTxvevaSi g. wereTlis mier mTeli simZafriT gamosaxuli, gvaZlevs srul warmodgenas kikolikis miswrafebaze da warmoadgens am personaJis mkafio daxasiaTebas. `ehe, kikoliko, saiT gautie? gana iseTi droa, rom bedniereba Tbil sawolSi unda eZios Cveneburma axalgazrdam? gana lamazi coli da lazaTiani artala unda iyos Cveni gulis wadili? rom kidec eRirso magisTana bednierebas, gana isargeblebdi? gana SegiZlia rbil doSakze lamaz qalTan Caxutebuli dilis Tvlemas miece; Sens sasaxles gared aTasi da ori aTasi kaci rom javrSi da unugeSobaSi iyos Cavardnili... nuTu Sen natrob tkbil gancxromas funTuSa qalis mklavze, nuTu Sen natrob tkbilad daZinebas?~ magram qveynisa da xalxis interesebiT gatacebul avtors kikolikma ironiulad Sexeda da `dacinebiT waulaparaka -- daiwyo Taviseburad...~ kikoliki individualistia mTeli Tavis arsebiT, pirvel rigSi piraduli, sakuTari ojaxuri cxovrebis uzrunvelyofa ainteresebs mas da ara saqveyno saqme. amitomac ambobs: `me mxolod maSin davstrialeb qveynis sasargeblo saqmes, roca Cemi kuWi gamZRaria da Cemi guli dakmayofilebuli~. ai, ra zraxvebi amoqmedebs kikoliks. vin iyo kikoliki? kikolikis prototipad imTaviTve miCneul iqna niko RoRoberiZe, romelic 1861 wlis studentTa areulobis monawile iyo peterburgSi, `droebis~ TanamSromeli, Semdeg quTaisis saTavadaznauro bankis Tavmjdomare, bolos ki Savi qvis mrewveli WiaTuraSi. maSasadame, kikoliki namdvilad arsebuli adamianis literaturuli saxea, romlis tipurobas aravin uaryofda. mTxrobelis, ufro zustad, g. wereTlis kikolikTan damokidebulebis saboloo garkvevisaTvis sainteresoa `mgzavris wignebis~ finali. ai, ras gvamcnobs avtori: `Cemi navi agorebul zRvaSi iyo Securebuli. zRvis dawynarebis imedi ar mqonda, magram warmoidgineT, me es sulac ar maSinebda, me mxiarulad viswrafodi win da, Tund kidev davRupuliyav, imedi mqonda, sikvdilis Jams mxiaruleba ar moscildeboda Cems saxes. meore dRes kikoliks gavSordi im ganzraxviT, rom meored aRar SevyriliyaviT. is abreSumis muTaqaze Tav-dadebuli tkbils ocnebaSi davtove. me-ki Cemis gaukreWeli joriT Weqa-quxilSi gaWirvebis gzas Sevude-

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qi~.1 es mxatvruli gancxadeba iyo g. wereTlis moRvaweobis gzamkvlevi. siRaribisa da mudmivi xelmokleobis miuxedavad, g. wereTeli mTeli Tavisi sicocxle marTali gziT vidoda; man gakicxa kikolikebi, misi Tanamoazreni da mSobliur xalxsa da qveyanas TavdadebiT emsaxura mxatvruli Tu publicisturi sityviT. rac Seexeba Cikoliks, masac piraduli keTildReobis grZnobebi amoqmedebda, misTvis sazogadoebis saqme imdenad iyo saintereso, ramdenad misi materialuri uzrunvelyofis zraxvebi iqneboda ganxorcielebuli. saubarSi Zalian ganaTlebul kacad mogaCvenebdaT Tavs, sinamdvileSi diletanti iyo. `maRali frazeologia wyarosaviT gadmosdioda piridan Cikoliks~. Zalian uyvarda Tavis gamoCena, amitomac: `sadac mividoda yvelgan cdilobda pirveli adgili daeWira da dasamtkiceblad, rom pirveli iyo, Sublze kakardas da yelze sisxlis jvars ar icilebda~. Cikolikma iseTi sityva-pasuxi icoda, rom yvelas imadlierebda, yvelas hpirdeboda, magram saqmiT aravisTvis Tavs ar iwuxebda. g. wereTlis daxasiaTebiT Cikoliki iyo: `CvenSi rom ityvian `ena tartala, saqme patara, Romi ar eyo xuTi kardala~. piradi keTildReobisaTvis mzrunavi, egoisturad ganwyobili inteligencia fexs ikidebda CvenSi da g. wereTelmac imaT winaaRmdeg mimarTa maxvili, gaakritika mkacrad, amxila isini. `xelovnebis namdvil realur gzaze, -- werda xomleli, -- saqarTveloSi imTaviTve dadga b-ni g. wereTeli, romlis sityva-kazmul nawerebSi umet-naklebod, didi sicxoveliT daixata, gaiSala da dasuraTda Cveni cxovrebis viTarebis arsebiTi Tvisebani da ucxo mxareni... Cikoliki, kikoliki da kudabzika gasaocaris sinamdviliT, cocxlad aris daxatuli, es SesaniSnavi Txzuleba warCinebuli talantis mqone mxatvris nawarmoebia~.2 daxasiaTebul gmirTa galereidan calke dgas saRaTa. misi cxovreba da xasiaTi avtobiografiulia. misi survilia emsaxuros qveyanas, xalxs. igi batonymobis winaaRmdegia, TanaugrZnobs glexobas, saerTod dabeCavebuls. survili aqvs naxos xalxi Tavisufali, bednieri da ganaTlebuli, TviTonac mzadaa Tavi dados am saqmisaTvis, oRond ki es saqme ganxorcieldes, survili ausruldes. erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis ideas nawarmoebSi ganasaxiereben saRaTa da x-ski. orive personaJis msjeloba didi damajereblobiTaa warmodgenili nawarmoebSi da gamoxataven samSoblosaTvis uangaro, Tavdadebuli siyvarulis grZnobiT gatacebul axalgazrda mowinave inteligentebis ganwyobilebas, miswrafebas. am saxeebma imTaviTve miipyro sazogadoebis yuradReba da didi mowonebac daimsaxura. pirvelis prototipad miCneul iqna TviTon avtori -- g. wereTeli, meoresi -- poloneli studenti vladislav xoroSevski. x-skisa da saRaTas wuxilSi ismis poloneli da qarTveli xalxebis erovnuli CagvriT gamowveuli ukmayofilebis xma, saocnebo gmirad italiis erovnuli gmiri garibaldia miCneuli. sasurveli mizania ruseTis TviTmpyrobelobis damxoba, erovnuli Tavisufleba. garibaldis heroikuli saxis miTiTebiT nawarmoebSi gamoxatulia mwerlisa da misi zogierTi gmiris ganwyobileba, erovnuli da socialuri ideali. poloneli studenti x-ski, romelsac garkveuli adgili aqvs daTmobili nawarmoebSi, gamoyvanilia xalxTa Zmobisa da patriotuli ideebis saqadageblad. `mgzavris wignebSi~ vkiTxulobT: `am ymawvils surda qarTvel studentebs daaxloveboda da imaTTan kavSiris SekvriT da Zmuri moqmedebiT gaetacebina eseni da Tavis TanamemamuleebTan daeaxlovebina... Cven Tu erTmaneTi kargad ar gavicaniT da erTmane1 2

g . w e r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I. 1947, gv. 201. `kvali~, 1894, 16.

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Tis gulis pasuxi dawvrilebiT ar SevityveT, cxovrebaSi kargad ver wava Cveni saqmeo; mova dro, roca Cven erTmaneTis saWironi gavxdebiT da Tu axlave ZmebiviT ar SevizardeT, Tu aqave am universitetis saqmeebSi erTmaneTis daxmareba ar viswavleT, mere ufro vrcels asparezze sadRa movnaxavT erTmaneTso; garemoebiT daSorebulni, azriTa da guliT mainc unda viyoT erTmaneTis Zaf--gatarebuli da Tu xels ara, xmas mainc unda vaZlevdeT erTmaneTs, rom saerTo Wiri gavinawiloT~.1 es saerTo Wiri iyo TviTmpyrobeluri ruseTi, mefis nacionaluri politika. Zmobisa da saerTo saqmisaTvis brZolis mizniT nawarmoebSi Semoyvanili poloneli studenti erTa solidarobisa da xalxis Tavisuflebis mqadagebelia. amrigad, erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebel ideas nawarmoebSi ganasaxiereben saRaTa da x-ski. am ori personaJis ganwyobilebaSi g. wereTelma gamoxata Tavisi erovnuli miswrafeba. samSoblos siyvarulis grZnobis gamovlinebam, patriotulma miswrafebam erTgvarad dafara nawarmoebis publicisturi simSrale. am nawarmoebis gmirTa prototipebi asea miniSnebuli: saRaTa -- g. wereTeli, meliq-aRa -- stefane meliqiSvili, kikoliki -- nikoloz RoRoberiZe, studenti xski -- vladislav xoroSevski da a. S. namdvili ambebis aRweram da realurad arsebuli adamianebis gamoyvanam nawarmoebis personaJebad, `mgzavris wignebs~ misca mxatvruli narkvevis xasiaTi. am niadagze gaakeTa daskvna mkvlevarma l. asaTianma, `rom i. WavWavaZis `mgzavris werilebTan~ erTad giorgi wereTlis `kikoliki, Cikoliki da kudabzika~ warmoadgens mxatvruli narkvevis klasikur nimuSs gasuli saukunis qarTul literaturaSi~.2 g. wereTelma sinamdvile marTlad aRwera, Cveni qveynis mZime cxovreba Seulamazeblad aCvena. albaT aseT viTarebas Tu gulisxmobda igi, roca Tavis Tavs `Seuferavi realizmis~ warmomadgenels uwodebda. ramdenadac ar unda Seekavebina Tavi, g. wereTeli Zlieri mxatvruli warmosaxvis gareSe ver Seqmnida maRalemociur saxeebs, ver dagvainteresebda movlenebiTa da suraTebiT. Rrma lirizmi, publicistika, zogjer qadagebac, mwvave iumori, mwared damcinavi satiruli toni, groteski nawarmoebs aZlevs did cxovelmyofelobas da amiT naCvenebia mwerlisa da xalxis zizRi da siZulvili mebatonisadmi, batonymobisadmi, TviTmpyrobelobisadmi. samarTlianad aRniSna mweralma demna Sengelaiam, rom `es SesaniSnavi wigni erTsa da imave dros aRsavsea Rrma lirizmiTa da Sxamiani sarkazmiT, siyvaruliT mSobliuri xalxisadmi da mZulvarebiT mCagvrelTa mimarT, poeziiTa da publicistikiT, usazRvro TanagrZnobiT gapartaxebuli glexebisa da zizRiT muqTaxora Tavadaznaurobisadmi~.3 cxovrebis g. wereTliseuli Cveneba `mgzavris wignebSi~ zogjer mxatvrul dokumentaciamde midis. namdvili ambavi, zustad aRwerilia STambeWdav mxatvrul Zalad iqceva da iZens did SemecnebiT da esTetikur Tvisebas. `mgzavris wignebSi~ aRwerili batonymobis gauqmebis wina dRe, gauqmebis dro da procesi iZleva am xanis imereTis cxovrebis Seuferadebel suraTebs. nawarmoebSi dasmulia mTeli saqarTvelosaTvis mtkivneuli sakiTxebi, magram foni mainc dasavleT saqarTveloa, -- imereTi am cnebis farTo mniSvnelobiT. l. asaTiani werda: `pirveli didi nawarmoebi g. wereTlisa -- `mgzavris wigni~ anu `kikoliki, Cikoliki da kudabzika~ -- me-19 s. qarTuli literaturis erT-erT Sedevrad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. am nawarmoebSi g. wereTeli Seexo Tavisi drois uaqtualures da umwvaves socialur problemebs... avtoris didi literaturuli ostatoba, dauSreteli iumori da Rrma codna Tanamedrove cxovrebis viTarebisa, -- ai udidesi mxatvruli Rirsebebi, romelic am nawarmoebebs axasiaTebs~.4 marTa1

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 111. `mnaTobi~, 1932, 6. 3 `mnaTobi~, 1950, 2. 4 `mnaTobi~, 1932, 5-6, gv. 313.

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lia, `mgzavris wignebis~ qarTuli literaturis Sedevrad gamocxadeba uTuod gazviadebaa, magram isic cxadia, rom warmodgenil saerTo SefasebaSi ismis WeSmaritebis xma. mogzauruli Janri did SesaZleblobas aZlevda avtors erTmaneTTan kompoziciurad aucilebeli mtkice kavSiris gareSe aRewera movlenebi, eCvenebina saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxis cxovrebis suraTebi, yofis realiebi, saerTo koloriti. aqve unda SevniSnoT, rom g. wereTelma pirvelad am nawarmoebiT ase farTod Semoiyvana Cvens literaturaSi dakninebuli imereli aznaurebi. aqedan gaekafaT maT gza d. kldiaSvilisa da n. lorTqifaniZis SemoqmedebaSi. `mgzavris wignebi~ TvalsaCino mxatvruli nawarmoebia rogorc ideur-Tematikuri Sinaarsis gaazrebiT, aseve mxatvruli gamosaxvis saSualebaTa gamoyenebis xasiaTiT. Znelia warmoidginoT mecxramete saukunis meore naxevris qarTuli sazogadoebrivi cxovreba ise, rom ar moiSvelioT `mgzavris wignebi~ miuxedavad imisa, rom es nawarmoebi publicisturia TiTqos, gaumarTavi da dauxvewavia enobrivad. misi gverdis avla ara marto g. wereTlis Semoqmedebis, aramed mecxramete saukunis qarTuli literaturis Seswavlis drosac ver xerxdeba. `mgzavris wignebis~ mniSvneloba ueWvelad didia imiTac, rom misi Tematikuri are exeboda epoqis aqtualur problemebs, romlebic awuxebda mecxramete saukunis meore naxevars. amitomac simarTlis gamomxatvelia mosazreba, rom is `marto moTxroba ar aris, es imave dros manifestia 60-iani wlebis qarTveli axalgazrdobisa, es saprogramo dokumentia~.1 `gulqani~. g. wereTlis `gulqans~ saintereso istoria aqvs. am romanis ramdenime Tavi pirvelad gamoqveynda 1868 wlis gazeT `droebaSi~ saTauriT -- `ramdenime suraTi moTxrobidan `gvritia~. `gulqanis~ nawyvetebi amave 1868 wlis oqtomber-noemberSi daibeWda `sasoflo gazeTSi~ saTauriT -- `bakuriZe da misi glexi petriela~, `TaTias sikvdili~ da `bakuriZis ymebis SiSi~. `droebaSi~ dabeWdili nawyvetebi mxolod Tavebadaa warmodgenili, `sasoflo gazeTSi~ ki Tavebi dasaTaurebulia. amrigad, `gulqani~ sxvadasxva saxelwodebiTa da Tavebis dasaTaurebiT erTdroulad ibeWdeba `droebasa~ da `sasoflo gazeTSi~. magram sacenzuro komitetis `gulisxmieri~ CareviT, erTdroulad Sewyda misi beWdva. didi mondomebis miuxedavad, mZime sacenzuro pirobebis gamo, g. wereTelma ver moaxerxa am nawarmoebis mTlianad dabeWdva. 1895 wlis `kvalis~ ramdenime nomeri aseT gancxadebas beWdavs: `1896 wlis xelismomwerlebs `kvalisas~ daurigdebaT premiad axali romani g. wereTlisa, saxelad `gulqan~. romani Sedgeba sami nawilisagan~. magram TviTmpyrobelobis, biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis mamxilebel, mefis ruseTis saxelmwifo moxeleebis gamkicxavma nawarmoebma daafrTxo cenzura. romanis `tendenciuri Sinaarsis~ gamo sacenzuro komitetma akrZala `gulqanis~ gamoqveyneba da xelnaweri daakava. es dakaveba samudamo datyvevebis momaswavebeli iyo. amas grZnobda avtori, amitom man jer sacenzuro komitetsa da Semdeg Sinagan saqmeTa saministros mimarTa. scada axlo megobrebis -- a. cagarlisa da n. maris daxmarebac, rom `gulqanis~ dabeWdvis ufleba mieRo, magram yovelgvari molodini uSedego aRmoCnda. `gulqanis~ pirveli da meore nawili daibeWda 1928 wels, Jurnal `mnaTobSi~. samive nawili calke wignad pirvelad gamovida 1929 wels, v. xuroZis redaqciiTa da winasityvaobiT, xolo Sesworebuli sruli teqstiT gamoica 1935 wels, m. duduCavas redaqciiTa da komentarebiT. sinamdvilis mxatvruli gansaxierebis TvalsazrisiT g. wereTlis `gulqani~ cxovrebis realisturad Cvenebis princips emyareba da kritikuli realizmis tradicias agrZelebs. romanSi aRwerilia batonymuri urTierToba, am urTier1

g. wereTlis rCeuli nawerebi g. natroSvilis redaqciiT, t. I, 1947, gv. 21.

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Tobis gauqmebis xana, reformis momdevno periodi, kapitalizmis aRmavloba saqarTveloSi. nawarmoebis ideuri arsi Semdeg ZiriTad sakiTxebs moicavs: 1. batonymuri urTierTobis mwvave xasiaTi da am urTierTobis rRvevis Cveneba; 2. kapitalizmis ganviTareba da axalfexadgmuli burJuaziis aRmavloba; 3. biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis mxileba, mefis ruseTis moxeleebis gakicxva. romanSi feodaluri urTierToba warmodgenilia yvela uaryofiTi TvisebiT. didi mxatvruli simarTliTaa aRwerili ymebisa da Sinaymebis mware Sroma, r.bakuriZis ojaxis materialuri silaRe, xelgaSlili, usaqmuri da udardeli cxovreba. mkveTradaa mocemuli r. bakuriZis pirovnebis daxasiaTeba. angareba da piraduloba misi xasiaTis ganuyreli Tviseba iyo. is yovelTvis cdilobda `mezobeli daeCagra da TviTon amaRlebuliyo, yvelaze didi gamxdariyo~.1 yirimis omSi ufrosad yofnis dros naZarcv-nagleji `bajaRloebi bakuriZem sul foxlebiT Camoitanao~ -- ambobda xalxi. guriis ajanyebulTa gacemiTa da dabezRebiT maioris jinjilebs miaRwia da kargi gamonarCenic miiRo. r. bakuriZis siavis, adamianebs ki ara, Citebsac eSinodaT, -- gadmogvcems mwerali. `gulqanSi~ batonymoba daxasiaTebulia, rogorc uaryofiTi socialuri instituti da amave dros naCvenebia am institutis rRvevis procesi. batonymobis wiaRSi aRmocenebulia axali elementebi, romelic winaaRmdegobas uwevs da Signidanve arRvevs batonymobas. es winaaRmdegoba gamovlenilia yma glexis petriela kvesaZis moqmedebaSi. petriela xelze mosamsaxure iyo qalaqSi. iq isunTqa Tavisuflebis sioTi. qalaqidan dabrunebulma ar miiRo axali valdebuleba, ar daemorCila batonis neba-survils, ar ikisra xabazoba. `-- Sen brZane, ar gamovacxobo? -- gajavrebiT Seutia bakuriZem. -- ra vqna, Seni Wirime, gamocxoba Cven papas da mamas ar marTebia. -- Sen es Tqvi, xabazoba xom ici? Tfilis qalaqs rom iyavi, Turme kargad xabazobdi! -- Tfilis qalaqs, Seni Wirime, sul sxvaa. iq CemTvis vmuSaobdi, TavisTvis raRacas izams kaci, imas batonisTvis rava izams!... -- aba, rom gibrZanon, ar gamoacxob?.. -- ra vqna, Seni Wirime, ar mmarTebia da...~ bakuriZis ganrisxebis miuxedavad, petrielas saboloo pasuxi iyo: `rac ar mmarTebs, imis gakeTeba ar SemiZlia~.2 aseTi pasuxis mosmena mebatonisaTvis advili ar iyo, miT umetes, rom Tbilisidan dabrunebuli petriela welze fexs idgamda da ojaxic fexze wamoayena. bakuriZem Suris TvaliT Sexeda kvesaZeebis ojaxs, petrielas damorCileba, Sinamosamsaxured gaxdoma ganizraxa. magram, mwerlis eniT rom vTqvaT, `aq batonis xmali folads Sexvda. petriela iseTi glexi ar iyo, rom Tavisi uflebis Seuferebeli Zala aetana. man gaarRvia batonis Zalmomreobis kedeli da gavarda~. winaaRmdegoba ufro metad garTulda. mebatone sastikad uswordeba kvesaurebs, magram petrielas mainc ver imorCilebs. r. bakuriZis mkacrma da usamarTlo damokidebulebam gaapartaxa gamrje, Tavmdabali glexis ojaxi. r. bakuriZis sisastikem Seiwira daTia kvesaZe, misi coli, qaliSvili da petriela aiZula gadakarguliyo soflidan. r. bakuriZe imdenad ukacuria, rom mxolod muSaxelis, mosamsaxuris dakargva awuxebs da ara udanaSaulo ojaxis daRupva. `im beber dedakacs Tundac Cemi Wiri wauRia, axalgazrda gogo menaneba. erTi kargi xelze mosamsaxure damekarga, -- wailuRluRa mebatonem~. r.bakuriZisa da daTia kvesaZis ojaxebis urTier1 2

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv. 193. iqve, gv. 211.

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Tobis CvenebiT mocemulia ori wodebis tipur warmomadgenelTa Soris gamarTuli mwvave brZolis suraTi. batonymobis mkacri kanonebisa, mebatone bakuriZisa da boqaulis ukacuri qcevis Sedegad gapartaxda daTia kvesauris ojaxi. deda-Svilis ori kubos erTdroulad gamotana -- aris umZafresi tragikuli scena. es ambavi isea gadmocemuli, suraTi ise SemaZrwunebladaa daxatuli, rom SeuZlebelia mkiTxveli ar aRaSfoTos bakuriZisa da boqaulis araadamianurma qcevam, ar aRavsos udanaSaulo kvesaZeebis sibraluliT da TanagrZnobiT. g. wereTels mTeli arsebiT sZulda batonymoba. es siZulvili man mxatvrulad gamosaxa `mgzavris wignebSi~, `gulqansa~ da `Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~, xolo publicistur werilSi -- `maTusalas aRsareba~ mweralma Tavisi aRtaceba batonymobis gauqmebis gamo mTeli sisavsiT gamoxata. batonymoba gauqmda. amieridan erTmaneTs upirispirdeba yofili mebatone revaz bakuriZe da misgan pirovnulad Seuracxyofili, ojaxurad gaqelili yofili yma petriela, SemdegSi cnobili vaWari piotr ivaniC gawerilia. am dapirispirebaSi gadmocemulia axali, winaaRmdegobebis Semcveli, sinamdvile; daxatulia Zveli da axali urTierTobis warmomadgenlebis srulyofili saxe, magram amaT Soris moqmedebaSi ufro metadaa naCvenebi -- aRmavali, axalgazrda burJuaziis miswrafebis gamomxatveli yofili yma. saxlidan gadavardnilma petrielam Savi zRvis sanapiros miaSura. moxerxebuli vaWrobiT didZali fuli daagrova. ramdenime xnis Semdeg gadasaxlda quTaisSi, gamoicvala gvari da gaxsna duqani, qvianaSi gadasaxlebul r. bakuriZis ojaxis maxloblad. cnobili sovdagari piotr ivaniC gawerilia dauaxlovda bakuriZis ojaxs, romelic xelgaSlil evropul cxovrebas eweoda. bakuriZe gawerilias maRaziidan nisiad iZenda sxvadasxva Zvirfas saqonels, samagierod aZlevda Tamasuqs. `revazs sovdagris Tamasuqi TiTqmis Tavis mosageb sagnad miaCnda~, radganac vaWari xSirad ar awuxebda galaRebul mebatones. r. bakuriZes azradac ar mosvlia, rom Tamasuqi igive fuli iyo im droisaTvis. piotr ivaniCma moxerxebulad gamoiyena es Tamasuqi da sasamarTlos dadgenilebiT, im valSi bakuriZes rom emarTa nisiis saxiT, xelT igdo mebatonis saxl-kari da ezo-mamuli. rogorc vxedavT, fulma daipyro asparezi. movlenebi viTardeba axali urTierTobis warmomadgenlis, cxovrebis axali gmiris sasargeblod, istoria am axals uWers mxars. magram brZola mwvavea da sastiki. Zveli advilad ar uTmobs axals. am brZolaSi iRupeba piotr ivaniCi, magram axali cxovrebis gza gakafulia. naCvenebia ganviTarebis perspeqtiva. gawerilias gzas agrZelebs misi noqari. bakuriZis ojaxi gapartaxda. mwerali Tavisi ganwyobilebiT aRmavali burJuaziis mxarezea. igi mxars uWers aReb-micemobis ganviTarebas. amitomac aTqmevina erT-erT gmirs: `vaWari marilia qveynis. is arCens xalxs, zrdis warmoebas da TviTonac mdidrdeba. yvelas lukmas aZlevs bunebis simdidris waReb-wamoRebiT, maSin rodesac CarCi suls xdis yovelnair warmoebas da xalxs tyavs aZrobs~. g. wereTelma `gulqanSi~ mkafiod gamosaxa batonymobis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli da kapitalizmis ganviTarebisadmi Tavisi simpaTiuri damokidebulebis tendencia. mxatvrulad aCvena agreTve mefis ruseTis moxeleebis zneobrivi dacemuloba, meqrTameoba, xalxis awiokeba, socialuri devna da mkvidr mcxovrebTa Seviwroeba. g. wereTlis mier `saxelmwifo moxeleebi iseTive uaryofiTi tendenciiTaa warmodgenili romanSi, rogorc feodaluri aristokratia~.1 g. wereTlis mier `gulqanSi~ saaSkaraozea gamotanili xorxianeTis gamgis -- quTaisis gubernatoris ojaxisa da am ojaxis garSemo Tavmoyrili samxedro

1

m. d u d u C a v a , `gulqani~, 1935, gv. XI.

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aristokratiisa da bobola moxeleebis garyvnili da TavaSvebuli cxovreba. xorxianeTis gamge iTvisebs saxelmwifo qonebas, iRebs qrTams, cxovrobs xelgaSlilad, magram igi sasjels gadarCa imitom, rom Camosul revizors gulqani mona qaliviT miarTva. xorxianeTis gamgis cols da mis garSemo Semokrebil qalebs da oficrebs adamianuri saxe daukargavaT. gulqanic am wreSi trialebda, igi im moralur faseulebebze izrdeboda, rac qvianas saqalebo saswavleblis ufrosis TanaSemwem da xorxianeTis gamgis colma STaagones. amitom gasakviri ar aris gulqanis daqaneba garyvnilebis gzaze. gulqani bavSvobidanve anCxli da TviTneba iyo, izrdeboda nebierad, mebatonis qalis yaidaze. gulqani miabares quTaisis saqalebo saswavlebelSi. bakuriZis ojaxs uZneldeboda erTaderTi Svilis moSoreba, magarm isic icodnen, `rom axlandel droSi urusulod da utancaoT maRal sazogadoebaSi gamoCenac aRar moxerxdebodao~.1 gvritos pirvel xanebSi sZulda qalTa pansionati, magram male mieCvia, Seegua skolas, sadac qarTuli akrZaluli iyo da qalebs Cinovnikebisa da sxvaTa salaRobod zrdidnen. g. wereTelma gaakritika rogorc gimnaziis, aseve saqalebo saswavleblis -- pansionatis saaRmzrdelo wesebi da warmogvidgina gaukuRmarTebuli swavlebis sruli suraTi. marTlad aCvena sistema, Tu rogor amzadebdnen mefis erTgul msaxurs, monasa da morCils, usulgulo moxeleebis, Cinovnikuri biurokratiisa da oficrebis sacoleebs, garyvnilsa da znedacemul adamianebs. `qali rom asakSi Seva, -- vkiTxulobT romanSi, -- iman yvelaferi unda daiviwyos, Tavis ded-mamac, ojaxic da gadasafrenad unda emzadebodes, magram ise ki, rom Tvali karg, lamaz da uzrunvelyofil sabudarSi Casafrenad eWiros... qalis swavla-ganaTleba amaSi unda mdgomareobdes. ra Cveni saqmea geometria da algebra, an bunebis mecniereba? raSi gamogvadgeba?.. gamocdilebiTac bevrs SeiZens qali, Tu karg sazogadoebaSi kavalrebTan gaqnils mandilosnebs daukvirdeba da SeiTvisebs imaT xerxsa~.2 amas Tu davumatebT xorxianeTis gamgis colis zneobriv swavlas, rom `WeSmariti siyvaruli sicruea, qmris erTguleba sisulelea. axla aRaravin aRar Cadis magisTana sisuleles, visac ki cxovreba esmis da Tavmoyvareoba aqvs...~3 cxadi gaxdeba, Tu ra viTarebaSi izrdebodnen maRali wris qalebi, rogor iqceodnen did moxeleTa colebi. TviTneburma aRzrdam, lidia petrovnasa da quTaisis gubernatoris colis uzneo darigebam, didma gvariSvilobam, mebatonurma qedmaRlobam, xelgaSlilma udardelma cxovrebam, moxdenilma garegnobam, mefis didi moxeleebis, samxedro aristokratiisa da oficerTa pirferobam gaaamaya, gaamedidura gulqani, amoagdo cxovrebis kalapotidan da gaukafa gza garyvnilebisaken. gulqanis gadagvareba, patriotuli grZnobis dakargva, qarTveli xalxis siZulvili g. wereTelma ufro mkafiod Crdiloel vaWarTan urTierTobaSi aCvena. gulqanis saubari nikolai nikiforoviCTan qarTuli kulturisa da qarTveli xalxis Sesaxeb, gulqanis sazogadoebrivi yofisa da aRzrdis bunebrivi Sedegia. roca gulqani augad axsenebs qarTul kulturas, lanZRavs qarTvel xalxs, es mxolod mkiTxvelis uaryofiT reaqcias iwvevs da ara wyenas, radganac igi qarafSuta, uzneo qalis mieraa warmoTqmuli. g. wereTlis `gulqanis~ gmirebis sarbieli xorxianeTi, anu imereTia, magram maTi moqmedeba wvdeba mTel saqarTvelos. g. wereTlis `gulqani~ socialuri romania. nawarmoebis Tema ori mTavari Senakadis Semcvelia -- batonymuri urTierToba da kapitalizmis ganviTarebis procesi saqarTveloSi. fabula erT ZiriTad ambavze -- r. bakuriZisa da petrie1

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv, 272. iqve, gv. 275. 3 iqve, gv. 487.

2

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la kvesaZis urTierTobazea agebuli. am ZiriTad ambavs erTvis biurokratiulCinovnikuri mmarTvelobis warmomadgenelTa cxovrebisa da moqmedebis mxileba. ori sxvadasxva socialuri wrisa da epoqis tipur warmomadgenelTa cxovrebisa da urTierTobis saCveneblad ramdenime CarTuli epizodia warmodgenili -- gulqanis cxovrebis istoria, arCevnebis ambavi quTaisSi, inteligenciis erTi nawilis moqmedeba, romelic sisxlsavses xdis nawarmoebis ideur Sinaarss, mxatvrulad kravs nawarmoebis siuJetur qargas da srulad warmogvidgens epoqis xasiaTs. nawarmoebSi ambavi gaSlilia naturaluri meurneobis rRvevisa da kapitalizmis ganviTarebis Cvenebis fonze. siuJeturi paralelebi erTi ideuri CanafiqriT erTiandeba da kompoziciuri rkali mTliandeba. nawarmoebi isea agebuli, rom ambavi yovelTvis ar misdevs erTmaneTs. kompoziciuri svla zigzagiT midis, amiT yuradReba da interesi ki ar neldeba, aramed ufro Zlierdeba, radganac movlena bunebrivad viTardeba da siuJeturi mTlianobac daculia. `gulqanis~ ena saerTo saliteraturo enas mihyveba, magram igi uxvad Seicavs kuTxuri metyvelebis formebs da, poeturi leqsikis TvalsazrisiT, TvalSi sacemia imeruli dialeqtizmis saWiroebis gareSe gamoyeneba. g. wereTeli bunebis suraTebis daxatvis, poeturi samkaulebis, tropuli metyvelebis Cinebuli ostatia. gamosaxvis am saSualebebiT igi aZlierebs sinamdvilis warmosaxvis TvalsaCinoebas, emociurobas, esTetikurobas. avtori did ostatobas iCens gmiris Sinagani brZolisa da mwvave gancdebis gadmocemaSi, aseve gmiris garegnobis mxatvrul CvenebaSi. sanimuSod SegveZlo dagvesaxelebina gulqanis mSvenierebis aRwera, petrielas daxasiaTeba, sardion enuqiZis saxe, dragunis oficris lizobliudovis Tvaltanadoba, Siukas garegnobis sxarti daxatva. sul ramdenime sityva da Siukas portreti Camoqandakebulia. g. wereTeli uCveulo mimzidvelobiT xatavs xorxianeTis gamgis ojaxSi gamarTuli wveulebis scenebs. yvelaferi mozomilia, gadmocemulia emociuri metyvelebis formiT. saxeebi daxatulia didi mxatvruli taqtiTa da poeturi moswrebulobiT. Rrmaazrovani, magram advilad Casawvdomi da amosacnobi metaforebi, moxdenili Sedarebani, gemovnebiT SerCeuli sxarti epiTetebi, mxatvruli gamosaxvis kompoziciuri da sxva sityvieri saSualebebis gamoyenebis poeturi gamizvna, gaazreba axasiaTebs g. wereTlis mxatvrul sityvas. ` pirveli nabiji~. g. wereTlis mdidar literaturul memkvidreobaSi `pirvel nabijs~ upirvelesi adgili uWiravs. am nawarmoebSi mxatvrulad warmoisaxa kapitalizmis ganviTarebisa da feodaluri yofis rRvevasTan dakavSirebuli is ZiriTadi problemebi, romlebic g. wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi adreve iyo gaazrebuli. `pirveli nabiji~ g. wereTlis SemoqmedebiTi mowifulobis xanaSi, oTxmocdaaTian wlebSi daiwera da gamoqveynda. is daibeWda literaturul krebul `cdaSi~, romelsac 1889-1891 wlebSi `qarTulis mwerlobis moyvarulTa gamocema~ aqveynebda quTaisSi. `pirvel nabijSi~ mkveTrad gamovlinda g. wereTlis maRali samwerlo Tvisebebi -- didi mxatvruli tilos gaSlis ostatoba, tipuri saxeebis gamokveTis xelovneba, ganzogadebis simarTle, stilis daxvewiloba. `pirveli nabijis~ ZiriTad Temad aRebulia kapitalizmis ganviTarebis procesi saqarTveloSi da miT gamowveuli socialuri cvlilebani. sinamdvilis mxatvrul gansaxierebaSi mwerlis ideuri tendencia Sepirobebulia surviliT, mimzidveli ferebiT daxatos erovnuli burJuaziis aRmavlobis suraTebi da aCvenos Cveni qveynis cxovrebis axali gziT ganviTarebis perspeqtiva.

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nawarmoebis ideis mxatvrulad gaSlis socialur fonad gamoyenebulia burJuaziasa da Tavadaznaurobas Soris arsebuli winaaRmdegoba. mwerlis mkafio ideur Canafiqrze miuTiTebs romanis saTauri `pirveli nabiji~ da mTavari gmiris gvari -- fulava. `pirveli nabijis~ arqiteqtonika siuJeturad sam Senakads moicavs: 1. baxva fulavas Tavgadasavali, romliTac gadmocemulia aRmavali qarTveli burJuaziis cxovrebis istoria; 2. ieremia warbas cxovreba, riTac naCvenebia Cveni Tavadaznaurobis gadagvarebuloba, dacemuloba; 3. garyvnil validas, polkovnik lebovisa da sxva samxedro da samoqalaqo moxeleTa ojaxebis aRviraxsnili cxovrebis Cveneba. ZiriTadi ambis siuJetur ganviTarebas, mxatvrul Sesisxlxorcebas -- baxva fulavas cxovrebisa da moqmedebis istoriis mxatvrul Cvenebas Tan axlavs qarTveli Tavdaznaurobis dacemisa da mefis ruseTis moxeleebis gaxrwnis gamomsaxveli suraTebi. `pirvel nabijSi~ sagulisxmoa avtoris mier gmirTa Semoqmedebis ared mTeli saqarTvelos gamoyeneba. marTalia, erTiani saqarTvelos idea TergdaleulTa ideaa da mxatvrul literaturaSi es momenti ufro mkveTrad xazgasmulia akaki wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi, magram `pirveli nabiji~ pirveli romania qarTul literaturaSi, sadac moqmedeba imier-amierSia gaSlili. ambis gaSlisa da movlenebis ganviTarebaSi ZiriTadi rkali SemosazRvrulia istoriulad ori sxvadasxva socialuri wris warmomadgenlis -- baxva fulavasa da ieremia warbas urTierTobiT. erTia -- glexi, mwyemsi, xelze mosamsaxure, Semdeg vaWari, aRmavali burJuaziis warmomadgeneli, xolo meore -- cxovrebis kalapotidan amovardnili usaqmuri, moqeife, moCxubari, ukacuri. socialuri mdgomareobiT `pirveli nabijis~ gmirebi asea warmodgenili -- mdabioTa wre: baxva, esma, esmas deda, ivane mWedeli, nestora; maTi mopirdapireni -- ieremia, valida, wunkala da sxva wvrili da msxvili moxeleebi. am dapirispirebaSi mwerlis simpaTia yovelTvis mdabioTa mxarezea. Sepirispirebulia ara marto baxva da ieremia, aramed esma da validac. esma mSromeli, lamazi, nazi, wynari; validac lamazi, magram fuqsavati, gaqeqili, romelsac TvalSi Sehyureben bobola samxedro pirebi da mosamsaxureebi, rogorc trfobis obieqts. validac am moments SesaniSnavad iyenebs. gansaxierebis simarTle da gmirTa moqmedebis is xasiaTi, romelic `pirvel nabijSia~ warmodgenili, varaudobs kapitalizaciis process saqarTveloSi, erovnuli burJuaziis aRorZinebas, qarTveli vaWris saxis gamokveTilad Cvenebas, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ganviTarebis tendenciaze miTiTebas. baxva fulava `pirveli nabijis~ mTavari gmiria, mwerlis ideuri Canafiqris mxatvrulad ganxorcielebuli saxea. amitomac romanis Tematikuri arsis ideurad gadawyvetis TvalsazrisiT upiratesad baxvas cxovrebisa da moqmedebis sferoa sayuradRebo. TiTqmis yvela movlena, romelic aRwerilia nawarmoebSi, pirdapir Tu arapirdapir baxvas pirovnebasTanaa dakavSirebuli. yofili Txis mwyemsi baxva fulava didZali fulisa da savaWro saqonlis garda feodaluri mamulisa da saxl-karis patroni gaxda. es momenti miniSnebaa imisa, rom axali socialuri Zala, burJuazia mZlavrad ikidebs fexs, irRveva saukuneobrivi tradiciis mqone feodaluri yofa, idilia. sayuradReboa, rom nabatonaris, didi feodalis saxl-karis dagiraveba bankSi da sajaro vaWrobiT gayidva nawarmoebSi naCvenebia rogorc saerTo damaxasiaTebeli movlena mecxramete saukunis meore naxevris saqarTvelosaTvis. amaze miuTiTebs Tundac gazeTiT gamoqveynebuli gancxadebebis faqti. aRniSnuli viTareba gvamcnobs Tavadaznaurobis materialur daqveiTebasa da fuladi meurneobis farTod ganviTarebas.

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Tavadis miwa-wyals eufleba axali socialuri urTierTobis warmomadgeneli. es movlena cxovrebis ganviTarebis bunebrivi Sedegia. baxvam SeiZina didZali qoneba feodaluri saxl-karisa da mamulis saxiTac. es momenti imis xazgasmaa, rom kapitalizmi ipyrobs rogorc qalaqs, aseve sofels. movlenis meore mxare isaa, rom baxva Semoifargla savaWro operaciebiT, mamulisa da saxl-karis SeZeniT, ar isurva kapitali daebandebina msxvil warmoebaSi, ar Caeba saqarxno-safabriko mrewvelobaSi. iyo Tu ara aseTi xasiaTis warmoeba imdroindel dasavleT saqarTveloSi? -- ara. vTqvaT, mwerals unda gadaelaxa es sinamdvile, daenaxa xvalindeli dRis SesaZlebloba, magram g. wereTeli xom kritikuli realizmis warmomadgenelia, igi Tavis SemoqmedebaSi namdvil cxovrebas emyareba yovelTvis, amitomac gmirTa moqmedebis sfero bunebrivad warmoadgina, xolo perspeqtivis konturebi noqris, nestoras saxiT moxaza. tendencia saerTo ganviTarebis SesaZleblobaSi aCvena. feodalizms saukuneobrivi istoria hqonda saqarTveloSi. feodalizmis epoqam Seqmna maRali kultura da yofis didi tradicia. axalfexadgmuli burJuaziis warmomadgenlebs -- mejRanuaSvils, gawerilias, fulavas rom guli TavadiSviluri cxovrebisaken miuwevT, feodaluri yofis didi gavleniTaa gamowveuli. Tu baxva fulavas mixedviT vimsjelebT, SevamCnevT, rom baxvas rainduli, keTilSobiluri da romantikuli qceva esmas winaSe, sofelSi Tavadurad dafuZnebis survilebi, baxvas Cacmuloba da garegnuli ieri ufro TavadiSviluria, vidre vaWrisa. g. wereTels kapitalizaciis maxaroblad miaCnia foTSi rom cecxlis gemma iwivla. am movlenas sixaruliT Sexvda avtori. es Tbili gancda Sedegi iyo g. wereTlis im Sexedulebisa, riTac varaudobda savaWro urTierTobebis saerTo ferxulSi saqarTvelos Cabmas, bunebrivi simdidreebis eqsploatacias, warmoebisa da mrewvelobis aRorZinebis saWiroebas. kapitalizmis ganviTarebis Sedegad qveynis mamoZravebeli fuli Seiqmna, is gaxda yovlisSemZle, fetiSi. samarTlis, patiosnebis, niWisa da sxvaTa sazomad fulia miCneuli, yvelaferi fulzea damokidebuli da fuliTve izomeba. es kargad esmis g. wereTels da mis personaJebs, rac naCvenebia baxvas magaliTze. sanam fuli hqonda, kaci iyo baxva, sazogadoeba mowiwebiT ekideboda. Semoelia fuli da loT CarCad gadaiqca mis adre pativismcemelTa TvalSi. marTalia, fulianma baxvam samarTali ver daadgina, mteri ver daasjevina ise, rogorc mas undoda. ajobes am mxriv, daiCagra kidevac, magram es aixsneba imiTac, rom kapitalizmma jer kidev ver daZlia Cveni qveynis feodaluri yofisa da biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis zRudeebi. Tumca cxadia isic, rom baxvaseuli samarTlis dadgenaSi, ieremias mokvlaSi, mainc fulma Seasrula arsebiTi roli. marTalia, baxva daiRupa rogorc pirovneba, magram misi daRupviT ar daRupula sistema, ar Secvlila kapitalizmis ganviTarebis principi. asparezs Camoscilda mxolod misi erT-erTi warmomadgeneli. baxvas biZaSvili nestora, romelic `kunZebisa da simindis vaWrobaSi monawiled hyavda Seyvanili~, ikavebs baxvas adgils, agrZelebs baxvas dawyebul saqmes. aseve agrZeleben am saqmes baxvas saqmis mimdevarni -- farna da sxva noqrebi da vaWrebi. ara fizikurad, aramed ideuri miswrafebiT baxva maSin daiRupa, roca man vaWrobas, aReb-micemobas mianeba Tavi da SurisZiebis grZnobiT gamsWvalulma daiwyo samarTlis Zebna esmas mkvlelis, baxvas ojaxisa da saqmianobis damRupvelis ieremiasaTvis samagieros gadasaxdelad, magram ver ipova samarTali. Tumca baxvas TiTqos ar daukargavs imedi da amitomac ambobs kidevac: `roca ieremias cimbirisaken gavistumreb, iseve vaWrobis saqmes Sevudgebi~. es iyo ukanaskneli gaazreba baxva fulavas dakarguli mdgomareobis aRdgenisaTvis.

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roca sasamarTlom ieremias Tormeti wlis katorRa miusaja, baxvam Sveba igrZno: `baxva fulavam ieremias gansjis Semdeg saSineli mZime tvirTi moixsna zurgidan. igi suliT damSvidda, daamda~. magram xanmokle aRmoCnda baxvas damSvideba. umaRlesi sasamarTlos did moxelesTan validas gaarSiyebis Semdeg katorRamisjili ieremia gaaTavisufles. baxvas imedebi sabolood CaiZira. baxvam dakarga yovelgvari rwmena marTlmsajulebisa. amis Semdeg baxvam gamonaxa sxva gza -- gza piradi Surisgebisa. gadawyvita TviTon daedo msjavri ieremiasaTvis. gadawyvetileba sisruleSic moiyvana. es faqti `pirveli nabijis~ bolo striqonebSi mTeli simZafriTaa gamoxatuli. baxvas xanjliT gangmiruli ieremia sisxlSi curavs. baxva doinjSemoyrili dgas, gaqcevas ar kadrulobs da qveyanas amcnobs: `samarTali gavaCine, samarTali! qveyanam ar maRirsa samarTali da me TviTon gavaCine... ai, axla gavcocxldi! me axla gavxdi uwindeli baxva... amieridan saca unda viyo, yvelgan baxva merqmeva da qudic Tavze mexureba~.1 marTalia, savaWro-savaxSo kapitalis ganviTarebis suraTebi pirvelad qarTul mwerlobaSi g. erisTavisa da l. ardazianis SemoqmedebaSi gamoCnda, magram g. wereTlis `pirveli nabiji~ sruliad axali etapia. am mxriv g. erisTavis komediebSi mxolod savaxSo kapitalis pirveli Casaxvisa da ganviTarebis suraTebia naCvenebi. rac Seexeba l. ardazians, man farTod gviCvena savaWro da savaxSo kapitalis ganviTarebis garkveuli safexuri, magram ar yofila warmodgenili iseTi rTuli operaciebi, romelTac baxva fulava awarmoebda. mejRanuaSvili CarCia, mevaxSeobiT SemozRuduli. baxva farTo aReb-micemobis ferxulSia Cabmuli. baxvas moqmedeba mTel saqarTvelos moicavs TiTqmis. rkinigzis farTo qselis Cveneba, miTiTeba qalaqebze -- foTi, Tbilisi, baqo, baxvas saqonliT datvirTuli gemebi foTSi, sxvadasxva saqonlis maRaziebi mzadebaa didi mrewvelobisaTvis. amitomac g. wereTlis Semoqmedeba, da kerZod `pirveli nabiji~, Tematikuri arsis ideuri gadawyvetilebis TvalsazrisiT, Cveni sinamdvilis sruliad axali safexuria. baxvas komersantuli operaciebi axali movlenaa qarTul literaturaSi. *** kapitalizmis ganviTarebis Sedegad Tavadaznauroba gaRatakebisa da zneobrivi daqveiTebis gzas daadga. axali urTierTobis damkvidrebas Tan mohyva axali cxovrebis garTulebuli moTxovnilebani. gaCnda fufunebis sxvadasxva saqoneli, Tavadaznauroba TiTqos ukan ar ixevs, magram misi Semosavali ver faravs gasavals, iqmneba mwvave mdgomareoba. didi mamulis, uzarmazari ezo-saxlkarisa da samasi komli ymis patroni iyo erT dros Tavadi TavqfilaZe. `aba, vin mosTvlis, ramdeni warCinebuli lxini gadaxdila am ganier ezoSi! ise dReoba rogor Caivlida, rom aq sami Tu oTxi Zroxa mainc ar dakluliyo, sami Tu oTxi sapalne Rvino erT ijraze ar daleuliyo... `2 magram gaqra didebisa da bednierebis dReebi. gauqmda batonymoba. Tu aqamde `samasi komlis naWirnaxulevi am dids ojaxSi dauSreteli simdidris wyaroT hqonda~, didi socialuri cvlilebebis Sedegad `dRes es siuxvis wyaro damSrala~. raki Sinaymebi gamoecala, Sromas miuCveveli Tavadi TavqfilaZe qalaqSi gadasaxlda, magram iq ufro rTuli Seiqna cxovreba. axali drois moTxovnilebiT yvelafers fuli dasWirda, fuli, kapitalizmis epoqis kerpi. TavqfilaZis ojaxi didkacobasa da xel-

1 2

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 433-434. iqve, gv. 241.

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gaSlil cxovrebas ar iSlida, `saswavlebelSi gamozrdili misi qalebi axal modebs ayolodnen, ar iklebdnen balebs, piknikebs da maskaradebs~. TavqfilaZis vaJebma swavlaze guli aicrues da `mieCvien sastumroebSi Trevasa da banqos TamaSs~. aseTsa da amden xarjvas TavqfilaZis mamulis Semosavali, ra Tqma unda, ver dafaravda. Tavadma TavqfilaZem mevaxSeebisagan didi procentiT sesxis aReba daiwyo. ver uSvela am sesxebmac. bolos mTeli misi mamuli da saxl-kari bankSi daagirava, ris Sedegadac moxda is, rom Tavadma TavqfilaZem gazeT `droebis~ erT-erT nomerSi sruliad moulodnelad amoikiTxa: `Tavadis TavqfilaZis adgilmamuli, ezo da saxl-kari isyideba bankSi saerTo vaWrobiT, sargeblis Seutanlobis gamo~.1 tragikuli iyo moxuci nabatonarisaTvis aseTi ambis gagoneba, miT ufro, rom mdgomareoba gamouvali Canda. SeZlebuli Tavadis odesRac didebuli ezo, saxl-kari da mTeli mamuli sajaro vaWrobiT SeiZina baxva fulavam, feodalis nasaxlarze cxovreba axleburad moawyo. rac Seexeba ieremia warbas, `pirveli nabijis~ erT-erT mTavar gmirs, misi qceviT g. wereTelma mkafiod gviCvena daRupvis gzaze damdgari Tavadaznaurobis warmomadgenlis saxe. ieremia warbas saxeSi naCvenebia yvela is uaryofiTi Tviseba, rac damaxasiaTebelia uSromel cxovrebas miCveul socialuri wris warmomadgenelTaTvis. ieremias cxovrebis aRweriT mwerali sinamdviles ise xatavs, rom gmiris mTeli moqmedeba mkiTxvelSi zizRs iwvevs. mowafeobis pirveli periodis damTavrebis Semdeg ieremiam dakarga WeSmariti adamianuri Rirseba. bavSvobis wlebis Semdeg ieremias saxe mweralma warmogvidgina, rogorc sazogadoebisaTvis gamousadegari adamiani, magram mefis moxeleebis mfarvelobiT ieremia yovelTvis axerxebs sapatio adgilis dakavebas, danaSaulis Cadenis Semdeg dausjeli rCeba. g. wereTelma ieremias saxiT gvaCvena sinamdvile, uaryofiT sinamdviled, da uaryofiTi xasiaTis gmirs saTanado ganaCenic gamoutana, misi cxovrebis istoriac gagvacno. jer kidev gimnaziaSi yofnis dros ieremia warba dauaxlovda swavlaze gulacruebul amxanagebs, romlebmac misi meTaurobiT daiwyes saeWvo cxovreba. gimnaziidan garicxvis Semdeg aTasi cudi xma dadioda quTaisSi ieremias yofaqcevis gamo. `erTxel gavarda xma, rom s. zeganas erTi mdidari mRvdeli yofila. imas lamazi qali hyolia, mRvdlis ojaxi gaucarcvavT da qali gauupatiurebiaTo. avazakebis moTave yofila ieremiao. am saqmis gulisaTvis ieremia ramdenime Tve kidec iyo datyvevebuli satusaRoSi~.2 amieridan iwyeba ieremias avazakuri saqcielis, yaCaRuri moqmedebis grZeli istoria. g. wereTelmac ieremias bavSvobis, siWabukisa da, rac mTavaria, saTanado Tvaltanadobis gamomxatveli gvari -- warba ar akmara da gaavazakebis Semdeg meore gvaric miaSvela -- firaliZe. mweralma gvaris epiTeturi SinaarsiT gamoxata ieremias yaCaRuri buneba. ieremias quTaisSi aRar edgomeboda, man foTSi gadainacvla. igi Sevida samxedro samsaxurSi -- cxenosan miliciaSi, romelic foTSi idga da zRvis sanapiroebs icavda kontrabandistebisagan. magram ieremiam TviTon daiwyo kontrabandistTa mfarveloba, meqrTameoba, uweso cxovreba. igi foTSi ufro metad gairyvna. `RviniT SeJinJRilebuli~, utifari ieremia pirvelad foTSi Sexvda esmas pirveli maisobis dResaswaulze da Seuracxyofa miayena gasarTobad mosul xalxs, esmas, baxvas. es dRe gaxda esmas cxovrebis sabediswero mizezi. aqedan iwyebs ieremia fiqrs imaze, Tu rogor Seasxas xorci Tavis mzakvrul zraxvebs. esmas mokvlis Semdeg is gadavida TbilisSi, Tavi Seafara silamaziT ganTqmul, zneobrivad maxinj validas. kacismkvleli yaCaRi, garyvnili da uzneo ie1 2

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 243. iqve, gv. 327.

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remia validas meSveobiT samxedro samsaxurSi Cairicxa. marTalia, ieremia daeca moralurad, magram mweralma mTlad ar waSala mis arsebaSi adamianuri niSanwyali; ieremias awuxebs, rom umanko esma mokla. am ambis mogoneba aforiaqebs mis suls. `im Ramis Semdeg Cemi sicocxle ganaxevrebulia, Cemi guli kupris morevia, gvel-bayayiT avsebuli. me aw raRam unda manugeSos?.. mSvidobiT aw mosvenebav, mSvidobiT siamovnebav...~1 Tu ieremia warba xandaxan sinanuliT igonebda esmas sikvdils, Tbilisis maRali sazogadoebis gacnobis Semdeg sruliad dakarga yovelgvari adamianuri Rirsebis niSanwyali. daaviwyda esma da Tavisi danaSauli. igi xedavda, rom mkvleloba, Ralati, meqrTameoba samarTliT ar isjeboda. aman ufro waaTamama igi. is darwmunda, rom yvela didi moxele danaSauls Cadioda, magram aravin ar sjida. Tu mfarveli gyavs, rac ginda is qeni da, ai, ieremiamac gaiCina mfarveli, silamaziT ganTqmuli validas saxiT. epoqis viTareba, fuladi meurneobis ganviTarebiT gamowveuli cvlilebebi garkveul gavlenas axdenen cxovrebis zedapirze amotivtivebul uzneo ieremia warba-firaliZeze. jer erTi, ieremia CaerTo rTul kontrabandistul kombinaciebSi, didZal fuls gamokra xeli polkis mommarageblad yofnis dros, dabolos, gaxda Tbilisis savaWro klubis wevri. ieremias gaucruvda molodini, gamdidrebisa da uzrunveli cxovrebis nacvlad katorRisaken uCvenes gza, rogorc kacismkvlels, magram sakmarisia gaqnili validas gaarSiyeba umaRlesi sasamarTlos wevrebTan da ieremias sasjelisgan anTavisufleben. aq sainteresoa ara marto validas da ieremias pirovneba, aramed mefis ruseTis marTlmsajulebis xasiaTi. aseTi mfarvelobis gamo iyo, rom ieremia yovel Rames dawolis win validas suraTs akocebda xolme da ase mimarTavda: `Sen rom ara, vin icis, me axla sad viqnebodi, iqneba madnebis muSaobaSi suli amomZroboda~. valida ifaravda ieremias imitom, rom igi misi garyvnilebis mesaidumle iyo. ieremiam daRupa ara marto Tavisi Tavi, aramed esma, baxva da mravali sxvac. mweralma ieremia warbas pirovnebaSi gviCvena cxovrebidan gariyuli qarTveli Tavadaznaurobis warmomadgenlis mkafiod gamoxatuli tipuri saxe. `ieremia warba erT-erTi yvelaze damajerebeli da reliefurad daxatuli tipia mecxramete saukunis qarTul literaturaSi~.2 *** kapitalizaciis procesis suraTis daxatvisa da Tavadaznaurobis gaRatakeba-daqveiTebis CvenebasTan erTad g. wereTlis fxizel Tvals ar gamohparvia biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis moxeleebis uxamsi saqcieli, romelic ase damajerebladaa warmodgenili `pirvel nabijSi~. carizmis mmarTvelobis sistema ryvnida adamians, aCvevda meqrTameobas, usamarTlobas da aTasgvar borotebas. mefis moxele xels iRebda yvela adamianur Rirsebaze da piradi interesebiT amoqmedebuli yovelgvar umsgavso saqmes kadrulobda. `pirvel nabijSi~ gaqnili adamianebis ori jgufia saintereso: a) boqauli jgirkoCa, veqilebi: wunkala da sivila; b) polkovniki lebovi, valida, umaRlesi sasamarTlos wevrebi da sxva didi moxeleebi.

1 2

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 344-345. g . q i q o Z e , etiudebi da portretebi, 1958, gv. 180.

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boqauli jgirkoCa gaiZvera moxelea, romelmac baxva fulavas mier ieremia warbasTvis miyenebuli Wrilobis ambavi gangeb gaazviada, moimizeza policmeisteris Careva da umniSvnelo saqme baxvas metad garTulebulad moaCvena. jgirkoCam daarwmuna baxva gansacdels agacdeno. yovelive es naangariSevi iyo fulis gamosatyueblad. gaqnilma policielma baxva gaaba maxeSi da samasi maneTi qrTami igdo xelSi. `ai bismarkis Subli~ -- wamoiZaxa gamarjvebulma jgirkoCam da amayad gaiar-gamoiara oTaxSi; `ocdaaTi Tumani avswapne~ -- warmoTqva jgirkoCam nasiamovnebi xmiT da papirosi gaabola. unda aRiniSnos, rom boqaul jgirkoCas da baxvas saubris scena, baxvas gulubryviloba didi samarTliTaa gadmocemuli. amas isic emateba, rom saxeli jgirkoCa ironiulia Sinaarseulad. jgirkoCa megruli sityvaa da karg kacs niSnavs, boqauli ki gaqeqili meqrTamea. maSasadame, am sityvis forma da Sinaarsi ar Seesabameba gamosaxatav azrs, rac ironiisTvisaa Cveuli. didi STamomavlobis mTavarmarTeblis ojaxis axlobeli polkovniki lebovi amoraluri adamiania; misTvis `qalia tkbileuloba, kacisaTvis gaCenili. me miyvars es tkbileuloba da ise gauznevebuli var, rom arc erT uzneo bavSvs ar Camovuvardebi tirilSi, oRond ki es muraba viSovno~.1 es gancxadeba gamoxatavs lebovis cxovrebis azrs. Tumca moxucebulma lebovma colad SeirTo valida, magram Tvali mainc sxvisken eWira, radgan `misTvis siyvaruli maisis vardis krefad iyo gadaqceuli~. `lamazi qali inglisis punSi ariso~, ityoda lebovi. `kacis dRiur varamSi is gaCenila mxolod sisxlis asaRelveblad, Ronis mosakrefaT. vardic vargia, sanam norCia, surnelovani da feri wasvlia. roca daWkneba, Semdeg axali kokori unda eZebovo~.2 es moraluri kodeqsi tipuria mefis moxeleebisa da maRali wris warmomadgenelTaTvis. biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri wris zneobrivi dacemuloba naTlad Cans im `darigebaSi~, romelsac validas aZlevs misi dedobili: `... colqmroba da namdvili siyvaruli Sori-Sors aris erTmaneTze. qalisaTvis qmari saxelia da zneobis fari...Tu qmari ar SeiSnobs umanko gulis erTgulebas, vai mis gunebas!.. Sen xar gvariSvilobiT da warCinebuli damokidebulebiT -- lebovis meuRle, sazogadoebisagan dafasebuli da mTavarmarTeblis karze miRebuli... amas Semdeg TviT Senzea damokidebuli Seni bedniereba... lebovma, nekresis qarebiT Sepyrobilma beberma kacma, rac unda, isa hqnas... Sen ra?.. ecade Sens siamovnebas, oRond, xerxianad moiqeci, rom sazogadoebis TvalSi Sens garegans yofaqcevas Cirqi aravin mosdos... Cvens sawolTan vis ra saqme aqvs?...~3 am darigebaSi mweralma gamoxata did moxeleTa da mmarTvelobis warmomadgenelTa ojaxebis zneobrivi mrwamsi. gamzrdelisa da dedobilisagan aseTi zneobrivi rCevis miRebis Semdeg validam axali gziT warmarTa Tavisi cxovreba. `trfialebaSi is eZebda raime nivTiers sargeblobas. misTvis sul erTi iyo patiosani kaci, gind avazaki, meqrTame, mruSi, xazinis qurdi da samarTlis damarRveveli, mxcovani, gind Wabuki, oRond igi misi nebis morCili yofiliyo da, rasac daasaqmebda, aesrulebina~.4 am gziT validam didi saxeli da gavlena moipova. yvela warCinebuli fexTa mtvrad gaixada. amitom axerxebda igi yvela saeWvo saqmis mogvarebas. arSiyobiT daatyveva umaRlesi sasamarTlos wevri da gaaTavisuflebina kacismkvleli ieremia warba. garda validas imedisa, ieremia warbam `axla sxvagvari zneobiTi Rone moica, bevri ram axali Seityo Tbilisis didkacobis cxovrebidan: zogs colis mkvleloba braldeboda, zogs yalbi fulebis moWra, zogs yalbi anderZiT auracxeli

1

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 360. iqve. 3 iqve, gv. 384-385. 4 iqve, gv. 385.

2

172

qonebis miTviseba, zogs saidumlo mkvleloba, romlis gamo ubralo kacebi dausjiaT, TviT mkvlelebs ki sapatio adgilebi eWiraT dResac sazogadoebaSi~.1 aseTi viTarebiT damSvidebuli ieremia advilad moeloda sasjelisagan gaTavisuflebas. molodini gaumarTlda, meore mxriv, baxva fulavam dakarga yovelgvari imedi marTlmsajulebisa da roca amaSi sabolood darwmunda, ganaCeni borotmoqmedebas TviTonve gamoutana. rogorc vxedavT, `pirveli nabijiT~ kapitalizmis ganviTarebasa da Tavadaznaurobis daqveiTebasTan erTad, mZime sacenzuro pirobebis miuxedavad, ostaturadaa naCvenebi biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis aparatis gaxrwna, samxedro da samoqalaqo moxeleebis usamarTloba, garyvnileba, amoralizmi. *** nawarmoebSi yuradRebas ipyrobs ara marto Tematikuri aqtualoba da Sinaarseuli simarTle, aramed misi mxatvruli qsovili, sinamdvilis emociurad gamosaxvis xerxebi da saSualebani. `pirveli nabijis~ umTavresi kompoziciuri Taviseburebaa siuJetis paralelurad gaSlis xerxi, rac did SesaZleblobas iZleva farTod iqnes naCvenebi sinamdvilis sxvadasxva mxare, cxovrebis rTuli Sinaarsi, mravalferovneba. es SesaZlebloba mwerals moxdenilad aqvs gamoyenebuli da monaTesave ambebis mxatvruli gamTlianebiT, nawarmoebi Sekrulia kompoziciurad, Tema ki gadawyvetilia maRalostatobiT. nawarmoebi kompoziciurad isea agebuli, rom ambis Txroba ar midis pirdapiri gziT. xSirad momdevno Tavi ar warmoadgens wina Tavis gagrZelebas, es ki siaxles da mkiTxvelis dainteresebas iwvevs. aris SemTxveva, roca ambis ganviTarebiT iqmneba situacia, romlis mixedviT Sedegis gaTvaliswinebaa SesaZlebeli. winaswari mixvedris es SesaZlebloba mwerals ise aqvs mxatvrulad mofiqrebuli, rom mkiTxvelis interesi nawarmoebisadmi ki ar neldeba, aramed Zlierdeba kidec. g. wereTlis SemoqmedebisaTvis niSandoblivia ambis ganviTarebis Cveneba moulodnelobis xerxiT, riTac saWiro mxatvruli efeqtia miRweuli. moulodneli kompoziciuri svlebi Txrobas sainteresos xdis. ambis moulodneli gziT ganviTarebis SemTxvevebi gvxvdeba rogorc `pirvel nabijSi~, ise g. wereTlis sxva nawarmoebSic. magram es umTavresad gamowveulia ambis siuJetis gaSlis kompoziciuri saWiroebiT. am TvalsazrisiT `pirvel nabijSi~ ori momentia saintereso: erTi -- savaWro klubis wevrobis gareSe ieremiasTvis mouxerxebeli iyo avetiqas qaliSvilis gacnoba da avetiqas ojaxTan daaxloeba; meore -- niSnobis Rames ieremias dasapatimreblad boqaulis gamocxadeba amZafrebs ambis ganviTarebas, iZleva moqmedebis gamwvavebis SesaZleblobas da aZlierebs mkiTxvelis interess. am dapatimrebis Semdeg naCvenebi unda iqnes kacismkvlel ieremias gaTavisufleba umaRlesi marTlmsajulebis mier. aseTi kompoziciuri Canafiqri xels uwyobs mwerals, mkafiod aCvenos mkiTxvel sazogadoebas Cinovnikuri aristokratiis qceva da marTlmsajulebis xasiaTi. g. wereTels emarjveba kontrasti da dapirispirebac, riTac qmnis naTel warmodgenas ama Tu im gmirze Tu movlenaze. am mxriv sayuradReboa, rogorc kontrasti da dapirispireba: baxva -- ieremia; esma -- valida; esmas deda salome -- validas dedobili da sxv.

1

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 364.

173

g. wereTels saerTod exerxeba mwvave socialuri dapirispirebis mxatvruli Cveneba. es Cveneba Sepirobebulia gmirebis socialuri miswrafebis kontrastiT. socialuri sinamdvile aRsavsea winaaRmdegobiT. am winaaRmdegobaSi moqceuli gmirebis mdgomareoba xSirad gamouvalia da sicocxle tragikuli. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa baxvas, esmas, salomes, ieremias, givisa da sxvaTa cxovreba. `pirveli nabijis~ siuJetis ganviTarebas axlavs rTuli dramatuli konfliqtebi, romelic tragikulobaSi gadadis xolme, magram mwerali xelovnuri efeqtis xerxs, romantikul TamaSs ki ar mimarTavs, aramed ambis ganviTareba Cveulebrivad mihyavs namdvil, cocxal viTarebaSi; sinamdvilis mxatvruli gansaxierebis gamo konfliqtebi da tragizmi nawarmoebSi bunebrivadaa warmodgenili. g. wereTeli Rrmad swvdeba gmiris sulis moZraobis siRrmes. misTvis Seucnobeli ar rCeba personaJis gancdis arc erTi niuansi. movigonoT: erTi mxriv, esmasa da, meore mxriv, baxvas Cafiqreba pirveli maisis dResaswaulidan dabrunebis Semdeg, esmasa da baxvas siyvarulis gancdebi da naTeli gaxdeba mwerlis fsiqologiuri wvdomis Zala. g. wereTeli `pirvel nabijSi~ ara marto rTuli socialuri viTarebis fons gvixatavs, sazogadoebrivi diferenciaciiT gamowveul mwvave konfliqtebs gviCvenebs, aramed gmirTa saTuT sulier samyaroSi gvaxedebs da zogjer lirikulad gvamcnobs personaJTa Rrma adamianur gancdebsa da ganwyobilebas. publicisturi aqcentuaciis miuxedavad, g. wereTlisaTvis ucxo araa Rrma emociuri damokidebuleba sinamdvilisadmi. igi Tavis gmirTa ara marto moqmedebas, qcevasa da xasiaTebs gviCvenebs, aramed gvixatavs mimzidvel portretebs, Tvaltanadobas, Sinagan sulier Tvisebebs. zogjer yovelive es ramdenime StrixiTaa warmodgenili. g. wereTeli gmiris portretis daxatvis, personaJis garegnuli Tu Sinagani niSan-Tvisebis gadmocemis, saerTo aRweris Cinebuli ostatia. personaJis mxatvruli daxasiaTebis, Semkobis -- qebis Tu Zagebis, upiratesi sityvieri saSualeba epiTeti da Sedarebaa. g. wereTeli orives Cinebulad iyenebs. g. wereTlis mier met-naklebadaa naxmari gamosaxvis TiTqmis yvela sityvieri forma. amdenad, mwerlis poetikuri stilistikis sfero mravalferovania, mdidari da sxartia. gansakuTrebiT iTqmis es tropul metyvelebaze, romelic qmnis g. wereTlis samwerlo enis eqspresiulobas, Rrma emociurobas. g. wereTeli iyenebs poeturi enis yvela saxes, raTa sinamdvile maRalmxatvrulad warmogvidginos. magram `pirvel nabijSi~ epiTeti warmmarTvelis rolSia. es gasagebicaa. radganac mwerali exeba aqtualur socialur problemebs, bunebrivia, unda daaxasiaTos sazogadoebrivi sinamdvile, am sinamdvilis gamomxatveli adamianebi. g. wereTeli mimarTavda gapirovnebasac, movlenisa da sagnis gaadamianebas, cxovelTa da mcenareTa samyaros adamianuri TvisebiT warmodgenas. am xerxis gamoyeneba `pirvel nabijSi~ iwvevs warmodgenisa da gaazrebis sferos gafarToebas.

*** g. wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia bunebas. lamazi da warmtacia igi TavisTavad, magram cxadia, rom ufro warmtacia mwerlis TvaliT danaxuli peizaJebi. am warmtacobas is afermkrTalebs, rom socialuri cxovrebaa mouwyobeli. amis gamo yovelTvis ar emTxveva bunebis sidiade da simSvide personaJis sulier mdgomareobas.

174

ieremia warbas daWris Semdeg mZime fiqrebSia garTuli baxva. mware gancdebi awvalebs mas, mkiTxveli grZnobs baxvas sulier tkivilebs, magram buneba am dros mSvidi da Cveulebisamebr zviadia. `mze gadaweuli iyo dasavleTisaken. misi Suqi oqrosfraT Rebavda are-mares, Sors zRvis kandeli da dasavleTisaken miqceuli fanjris SuSebi ise prialebdnen, TiTqos cecxlis ali mosdebodeT, Savi zRva laJvardis fraT iwva Tavis kalapotSi da bumberazsaviT CasZineboda. mis Zils ar akrTobda arc kacebis xmauroba, arc samxedro musikis griali... ar SeakrTobs spilos Zils koRoebis wuwuni~.1 sxva SemTxvevaSi buneba fonia da ara TanamgrZnobi. is ver ayuCebs gmiris tkivilebs, ver amSvidebs mis suls: `mze daiwura dasavleTiT, caze alisferi atlasi gaekra da bumberazi qeCo narinjisfrad SeiReba. buneba damtkbari, damyudrebuli iyo; mxoloT ar iyo damtkbari da dayuCebuli baxvas gulisTqmebi. mis gulgvamSi da tvinSi iyo saSineli qartexili, aRZruli sxvadasxva Savis fiqrebisagan, mis guls gahqonda bagabugi; gaSmagebuli sisxlis zvirTebi tans rom ver daetia, TavSi avardnoden, iq upirebdnen kefis axeTqas da gadmoTxevas~.2 mwerlis mier daxatuli bunebis simSveniere ver umsubuqebs baxvas gulis dardebs, ver gamohyavs igi siyvarulis buranidan. cota xniTac ver daiviwya baxvam misi mwveli esma bunebis didebul wiaRSic; `misi saxe baxvas ar Sordeboda, misi cocxali suraTi baxvasaTvis is iagundis kvercxi iyo, romelic mzeWabuks win ugoravda. arc es mSvenieri, didebuli buneba, arc texuris Sxuili, arc TviT misi Savi bedauris amayi tareba da Semaqcevari gaxtom-gamoxtoma ar aviwyebda esmas sinarnares, romelic am dros mis gonebis Tvalebs Tilismis kvercxiviT win miugoravda. mas mudam Tvalwin edga esmas lazaTiani TamaSi, misi mercxliseburi navardoba, misi mwyeruli gogmani, misi seriozuli xma da Congurze ganazebiT damRereba~.3 buneba arc sxva SemTxvevaSia `pirvel nabijSi~ gmiris mSveleli, damxmare, ubedurebis winaTmgrZnobi, personaJis TanamgrZnobi. socialuri winaaRmdegobiT gamowveul wuxils veras Svelis buneba, sazogadoebrivi borotebisagan ver hkurnavs, veravis Svelis. socialuri konfliqti Tavisi gziT midis, SeiZleba imitomac, rom sazogadoeba da buneba sxvadasxva kanonebiT moqmedeben. magram al. yazbegis, vaJa-fSavelas da sxvaTa gmirebs xom uTanagrZnobs buneba, efardeba personaJis sulier mRelvarebas, g. wereTeli ki yovelTvis ar amyarebs axlo urTierTobas personaJsa da bunebas Soris. g. wereTeli adamianis Rrma fsiqologiuri gancdebis gadmocemis, rTuli socialuri konfliqtebis Cvenebis garda, bunebis suraTebis warmtacad xatvis ostaticaa. kidev erTi mniSvnelovani detali. sizmari literaturaSi Zalian xSirad gamoyenebulia rogorc simboluri miniSneba. g. wereTelma moxerxebulad CaurTo baxvas sizmari, romelmac mkiTxvels agrZnobina winaswar, simbolurad miuTiTa mosalodnel ubedurebaze. magram es miTiTeba pirdapiri ki araa -- qaragmulia, savaraudebelia. amitom mkiTxvelic ar Rebulobs am sizmars, rogorc aSkara winaTgrZnobas, magram Sedegis garkvevis Semdeg grZnobs mxolod mis Zalas. rac Seexeba `pirveli nabijis~ enas, igi gamarTulia literaturulad, magram am nawarmoebSi mainc ismis imeruli dialeqti. magaliTad: SeCurTul wvivebs, gamosinkulia, sxapvas TamaSobda, eSmakma amatura, ufro uReldeboda, xmali vkvevkve TavSi, fuli bJiriviT eyara jibeSi da sxv. ismis agreTve avetika sovdagris kiloc: zaxrumal, razboiniki da sxv. magram yvela es elementi umTavresad moCans personaJis saubarSi. amiT mwerals unda, uCvenos personaJis yofis kolorituloba, esec rom ar iyos, amgvari gamoTqmebi imdenad umniSvneloa, rom sruliad ar bRalavs nawarmoebis enas da stils. dialeqtis ena aqa-iq

1

g . w e r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 251. iqve. 3 iqve, gv. 271.

2

175

ismis mwerlis metyvelebaSic, magram igi imdenad mcirea, rom `pirveli nabijis~ ena ar imsaxurebs sayvedurs. arc TiTo-orola barbarizmi asustebs nawarmoebis mxatvrul Rirsebas. `pirveli nabiji~ g. wereTlis farTo mxatvruli tiloebidan gamoirCeva enobrivi daxvewilobiT. Tu `mgzavris wignebi~ mwerlis pirveli nawarmoebi iyo da gamoqveynda im dros, roca axali saliteraturo ena arc ki iyo sabolood dadgenili, xolo `gulqanis~ saboloo redaqciis gakeTeba cnobili mizezebis gamo avtoris sicocxleSi ver moxerxda, `pirveli nabiji~ daiwera da gamoqveynda mwerlis mowifulobis xanaSi, ris gamoc am nawarmoebze gulisxmieri muSaobis didi SesaZlebloba hqonda. Sedegic sasurveli aRmoCnda. cxovrebis Rrma codna, aRweris sizuste, yofa-cxovrebis saintereso detalebis kolorituli Cveneba g. wereTlis beletristuli niWis niSandoblivi Tvisebebia. `pirvelma nabijma~ avtors didi prozaikosis saxeli daumkvidra qarTul mwerlobaSi. ar aris gadaWarbebuli, roca amboben: `beletristikaSi g. wereTelma Rrma kvali gaavlo da veravinRa da verc veraferi veRar waSlis am kvals... amis metic rom ara gaekeTebia ra g. wereTels, esec sakmao iyo, rom igi yvela qarTvelisaTvis, vidre qarTvelobs, sacnauri iyos~.1 Tanadroulobis xazgasma, ideuri gaazrebis simaxvile, mimzidveli Sinaarsi, sinamdvilis Cvenebis kolorituloba, cocxali ena, mxatvruli komponentebis poeturi mTlianoba, rac damaxasiaTebelia g. wereTlis SemoqmedebisaTvis da, kerZod, `pirveli nabijisaTvis~, g. wereTels klasikosi mwerlis saxels uqmnis qarTul literaturaSi.

moTxrobebi

Tu g. wereTlis romanebSi pirdapir aris naCvenebi kapitalizmis ganviTarebisa da naturaluri yofis rRvevis procesi, moTxrobebSi es movlena warmodgenilia kapitalizmis ganviTarebaze uSualo miTiTebis gareSe. suraTebi isea daxatuli, rom igulisxmeba batonymobis gauqmeba, fuladi meurneobis ganviTarebas daurRvevia feodaluri yofa da amis Sedegad Tavadaznaurobis cxovreba morRveula, dakninebula. qarTveli Tavadaznauroba me-19 saukunis meore naxevarSi ufro metad gaRatakda, daqveiTda, magram umravlesobam mainc Sroma ar isurva, arc qedmaRloba da ampartavnoba moiSala. aman ganapiroba am wodebis cxovrebis Semdgomi ganviTarebis istoriuli gza. es movlena g. wereTels SesaniSnavad aqvs naCvenebi moTxrobebSi. maTSi odesRac warCinebuli, magram dRes daqveiTebuli, gaavazakebuli Tu gaborotebuli adamianebis mkafiod daxatuli saxeebia warmodgenili. garda amisa, moTxrobebis ciklSi sagangebodaa dasmuli da gaazrebuli swavla-aRzrdisa da ganaTlebis problema CvenSi. g. wereTeli ramdenime saintereso moTxrobis avtoria. maT Soris yvelaze metad sayuradReboa: `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~, `ruxi mgeli~, `mamida asmaTi~, `RvTis wyaloba~. `Cveni cxovrebis yvavilis~ pirveli aTi Tavi 1872 wlis Jurnal `krebulis~ ukanasknel oTx nomerSi gamoqveynda, xolo sxva danarCeni Tavebi imave `krebulis~ 1873 wlis pirvel da meore nomerSi daibeWda. moTxrobas mkiTxveli sazogadoebis cxoveli interesi gamouwvevia. cnobili pedagogi da mwignobari ilia feraZe g. wereTels swerda: `swored erTi kviris win Cems wignTsacavSi vnaxe Seni Txzuleba `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~, romelic Turme jer arc ki wamikiTxavs me!.. movkide xeli, wavikiTxe erTxel, wavikiTxe meored... xelis aReba ar mindoda...didi STabeWdileba moaxdina man Cems arsebazed...

1

g. wereTlis dasaflavebisadmi miZRvnili krebuli, 1900, gv. 93. i. fancxavas sityva.

176

Cemi samagistro Txzulebis weras Tavi mivanebe, Seni Txzuleba rom wavikiTxe... minda Rirseuli fasi davsdo am Zvirfass ganZs Cveni mwerlobisas... daxe Cems uvicobas! aqamdis ar wamikiTxavs Turme ra saunje yofila Cvens literaturaSi. ramdeni kiTxvebi aRmiZra da gadamiSala Tvalwin Senis Txzulebis wakiTxvam da Seswavlam~.1 aRniSnul Txzulebaze maRali Sexedulebisaa Cveni Tanamedrove literaturaTmcodneobac. g. wereTlis am cnobili moTxrobis ideur Sinaarss qmnis: 1. axalgazrdobis aRzrdisa da swavlebis arsebuli viTarebis Cveneba ojaxsa da skolaSi; 2. feodaluri urTierTobis uaryofiTi mxareebis miTiTeba; 3. biurokratiuli mmarTvelobis saganmanaTleblo sistemis ugunuri xasiaTi, xalxis patriotuli grZnobis Seuracxyofa Cinovnikebis mier. am nawarmoebis saTauriTac mJRavndeba mwerlis mizandasaxuloba, saocnebo survilebi, momavlis rwmena da saTuTi damokidebuleba axal Taobisadmi. mocemulia swavla-aRzrdis arsebuli sistemis gaSlili kritika. moTxrobis mTavari gmiri dito qvelaZe nebivrad izrdeboda mamis ojaxSi. didi da patara yvela misi neba-survilis aRmsrulebeli iyo. patara ditos araerTxel dautuqsavs, uwvalebia Sinaymebi Tu mosamsaxureebi, maT Soris misTvis Zalian sayvareli Tornike kvimataZec. es zviadi da TviTneba ymawvili Seiyvanes skolaSi. nebivrad aRzrdil ditosTvis pirveli dRidanve mZime Seiqna Cinovnikuri skolis aRzrdis uxeSi wesebi. erTi ukiduresobidan meore ukiduresobaSi aRmoCnda igi. `dito rva saaTidan mokidebuli, Tormet saaTamdis sul fexze idga. amas garda `uCiteli~ focxveriviT Camouqrolebda xolme ymawvilebs~,2 yviroda ditosaTvis sruliad gaugebar sityvebs, xan amas mivardeboda, gaqoCravda, xan imas uSiSvlebda saxazavs TavSi ise Ronivrad, rom ymawvili erTs iwivlebda da gulwasuli mieyrdnoboda kedels. axla ki moagonda ditos saxlSi rom aSinebdnen: `daica skolaSi migcemT da bare oriodejer agawripinebeno~. moswavleebisadmi damokidebulebis im suraTebma, romelic ditom skolaSi dainaxa, gaakeTebina daskvna: `marTlac, saswavlebeli ki ara, aq sawvalebeli yofilao~.3 da gadawyvita gaqceva, magram Zvirad daujda es ganzraxva. amieridan ditos ufro mkacrad moekidnen, misi xvedri xSirad cema da `garozgva~ Seiqna. fizikur sasjels sxva Sedegi mohyva, bunebiT mkvircxl, niWier ditos `uCitlisagan lineikis cemiT xelis guli gasqelebuli hqonda da am gasqelebas tvinSic ki Seetanebina uazro, gaugebari sityvebis dazepirebisa gamo~...4 quTaisis gimnaziis mZime saaRmzrdelo wesebma, aRsazrdelisadmi policiurma damokidebulebam, erTob ukacurma sasjelma `dito sul gamoalenCa~. gaugebari sityvebis zepirobam daaClunga da `bunebiT niWieri ymawvili gamodga klasSi yvelaze uniWo~. magram misi biZis meSveobiT qarTuli wera-kiTxva iswavla, amiT gaexsna goneba, Seecvala ganwyobileba, gamxiarulda. gaigo, rom wera-kiTxvis saSualebiT sxvisi da sakuTari azrebis gadacema yofila SesaZlebeli. ucxo, gaugebari frazebis dazepirebiT daretianebuli dito Zlivs movida gons. gana marto dito iyo aseT mdgomareobaSi? -- swavlebis policiur meTods, gaugebaris gaugebarive eniT dazepirebas `borkilebze da xundebze ufro magrad hqonda Sepyrobili mTeli Cveni axalgazrdobis Wkua da mexsiereba. Zvirad Tu vinme gadarCenia am borkilebs Cvens STamomavlobaSi gonebiTa da mexsierebiT dajujavebas~5 -- gadmogvcems mwerali. uvargis saaRmzrdelo sistemas Tan erTvoda uvargisi maswavlebloba: `imaTSi iseTebic erien, rom `stolnaCalnikobaSi~ aTi weli emsaxurnaT da raki imedi

1

saqarTvelos ssr mecn. akademiis xelnawerTa instituti, g. wereTlis fondi, 106. g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv. 24. 3 iqve, gv. 25. 4 iqve, gv. 40. 5 iqve, gv. 43.

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dahkargodaT umaRlesi adgilis miRebaze, eTxovnaT maswavlebloba q...sis gimnaziaSi~.1 aseTma maswavleblebma ara erTi da ori niWieri axalgazrda aacdines gzas. am sabediswero Sedegis gamo ambobda lega: `cxra weliwadia kuziani Cem guls Cxvletda mowamluli sityvebiT. imisma piiturma sulelobam mexsiereba damikarga da swavlaze guli wamixdina. wignisa da sawer-kalmis danaxva WiriviT mezareba. Txutmeti weliwadi gimnaziaSi gamovikali Tavi da ra viswavle?~.2 magram am mZime mdgomareobaSi myofi quTaisis moswavleTa nugeSi iyo, Tumc xasiaTgatexili, magram mainc keTili maswavlebeli umanski. moTxrobaSi TviTmpyrobeluri skolis ara marto aRzrdis saerTo uxeSi wesebia aRwerili, romlis Sedegad dito da misi amxanagebi ver gaerkvnen sapyrobileSi iyvnen Tu skolaSi, aramed gamovlenilia zogi maswavleblis reaqciuli ganwyobileba, aqedan maTi damokidebuleba qarTveli moswavleebisadmi. magram imeds is saxavda, rom quTaisis gimnaziis moswavleTa aRmzrdelebs Soris iyo TiTo-orola maswavlebeli, romelTagan mozardebi ismendnen Tbil sityvas da eCveodnen damoukidebel azrovnebas. am mxriv sainteresoa maswavlebel umanskis saxe. g. wereTlis mier umanskis saxe daxatulia didi poeturi siTboTi da simpaTiiT. naCvenebia, rogor gaumwara TviTmpyrobelurma reJimma mas sicocxle, magram mowinave inteligentma mainc SeinarCuna gulwrfeli adamianuri grZnoba da Sinagani keTilSobileba. umanski progresulad moazrovne, ganaTlebuli maswavleblebis warmomadgenelia. umanskis ukanaskneli mimarTva mowafeebisadmi programuli rCevaa, samoRvaweo gzis maCvenebelia, cxovrebis ganaxlebisaTvis brZolisaken mowodebaa. umanskis rCevaSi Cans is gulwrfeli maRaladamianuri da humanuri msoflSegrZneba, romelic mTel inteligenciaSi, imperiis teritoriaze mosaxle xalxebis mowinave SvilTa cnobierebaSi danerges samociani wlebis saxelovanma rusma revolucioner-demokratebma. isini ganasaxierebdnen axal revoluciur ruseTs, romelic saTaveSi edga xalxTa ganmaTavisuflebel moZraobas. ditos arsebaSi sruli gardatexa moxda mSobliuri, qarTuli wera-kiTxvis SeswavliT. qarTuli wignebis dawafebiT axali xana daiwyo mis cxovrebaSi. ymawvilma igrZno wignis Zala, swavlis mniSvneloba da bejiTad daiwyo mecadineoba. xSirma cema-tyepam, udanaSaulod, umizezod dasjam, `rozgma~, gaugebari sityvebis dazepirebam daamaxinja, daaClunga moswavleebi. mZime materialurma pirobebma, Jveriis facxaSi umeTvalyureod yofnam ymawvilebi da maT Soris ditoc uzneo saqmes, qurd-bacacobas miaCvia. ganaTlebis cudi sistema, aRzrdis biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri meTodebi, swavlebaSi mSobliuri enis ugulebelyofa, maswavlebelTa umravlesobis uvargisoba, aRzrdis saerTo mZime pirobebi, rac am nawarmoebSia warmodgenili, naCvenebia sinamdvilis Rrma codniT. roca vecnobiT am sinamdvilis mxatvrul suraTebs, advilad vakeTebT daskvnas, Tu ras SeeZlo gamoewvia axalgazrdobis damaxinjeba, maTi cxovrebis gzis gamrudeba. quTaisis gimnaziaSi gabatonebuli swavla-aRzrdis wesebis susxi g. wereTelma, mis TanamedroveebTan, n. nikolaZesa da sxvebTan erTad mwared ganicada. aqve igrZno man mwvave erovnuli tkivili. es tkivili sul awuxebda did mwerals, amitomac aRzrdis sakiTxi man jer kidev `gulqanSi~ daayena, arc `pirvel nabijSi~ daviwyebia igi, magram swavla-aRzrdis Tema ZiriTadad `Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~ gaSala da dagmo biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis aRzrdis uvargisi principebi, dagmo carizmis mier dakanonebuli marTvisa da ganaTlebis sistema, amxila gonebaSezRuduli Ci1 2

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv. 76. iqve, gv. 87.

178

novnik-pedagogebi. sakuTrad gancdili, nanaxi da gagonili g. wereTelma imgvarad ganazogada, rom daxata tipuri sinamdvile, gviCvena simarTle. `Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~ Tematikuri TvalsazrisiT yuradRebas iqcevs rogorc feodaluri yofis sakiTxebi, ise erovnuli motivi. g. wereTeli TiTqmis yvela TxzulebaSi exeba mebatonisa da glexkacis mdgomareobas da yovelTvis sxvadasxva kuTxidan gviCvenebs am ori wodebis samtro urTierTobas. am moTxrobaSi igi ditos ojaxis fonze didi damajereblobiT gvixatavs glexkacobis siZulvils mebatoneebisadmi, maT urTierTbrZolas. erTi personaJis moswrebuli gamoTqma: `batoni yvela glaxaa. deiqca da deiRupa sadac batonis saxsenebeli iyos~,1 gamoxatavs mwerlis ganwyobilebas da exmaureba `kako yaCaRis~ cnobil taeps: `batoniSvili kargi ra aris, avi ra iyos~. movigonoT agreTve batoniSvilis mier Tornikes ulvaSebis wiwkna, batonis saxlis msaxurTa SiSi da kankali ditosa da misi mamis winaSe, yovelgvari simwris atana ditos survilebis asasruleblad da Cven win gadaiSleba batonisa da glexkacis mdgomareobis, maTi urTierTdamokidebulebis naTeli suraTi. `Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~ TvalsaCinodaa miTiTebuli agreTve feodaluri urTierTobis pirobebSi soflis axalgazrdobis gasvla qalaqad, fulis SeZena, soflad dabruneba, rac erTgvarad wasabaZi Seiqna sxvebisaTvis: `glexis qalebi Tavis pawawa Svilebs eubnebodnen: `Cemi kikoc ki ar gadavardeba erT dros kaxeTSi da ar daixuravs TaTrul cxvris qudsao~. did da patara soflebSi am koxtad morTul `gakaxelebuls da gaqalaqebuls biWebs Sescqerodnen~. ufro sworad, Senatrodnen maT bedsa da mdgomareobas. magram `imereTis mebatoneebi Cumad kbilebs aRrWenden yovel amisTana koxta biWis Sexvedraze: am mamaoxrebma sul wagvixdines glexebi... mosamsaxureebs gvibriyveben~.2 erovnul motivs g. wereTlis SemoqmedebaSi sapatio adgili ukavia. `Cveni cxovrebis yvavilSi~ ki es sakiTxi ori momentiTaa warmodgenili: a) saqarTvelos warsuli; b) saqarTvelos awmyo, romlebic mefis moxeleebis mier abuCad agdebulia. g. wereTeli am nawarmoebSi ise marTlad warmogvidgens TviTmpyrobelur skolas, misi moxeleebis sibriyves, biologiur Sovinizms, rom mkiTxvels samarTlianad ufleba aqvs `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~ miiCnios farTo mxatvrul tilod, sadac mxilebulia carizmis mTeli wyobileba, kerZod, saskolo politika. *** qarTul literaturaTmcodneobaSi farTod moikida fexi Sexedulebam, rom `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~ avtobiografiuli nawarmoebia da, rom `dito qvelaZe TviT giorgi wereTlis odnav saxeSecvlili oreulia~, 3 rom `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~ gakeTebulia umTavresad avtobiografiul masalaze~4 da sxv. aseTive azrisaa qarTuli literaturis araerTi mkvlevari da kritikosi. magram dRemde aravis ucdia raime faqtobriv masalaze miTiTeba am debulebis dasadastureblad. nawarmoebis Sinaarsi ki aRniSnul mosazrebas ar adasturebs. Cveni azriT, am Txzulebis avtobiografiulad gamocxadeba arafriT ar aris gamarTlebuli, radganac amis saSualebas ar iZleva TviT nawarmoebSi mocemuli realiebi. Tu `Cveni cxovrebis yvavili~ avtobiografiuli moTxrobaa, es nawarmoebi unda Seicavdes g. wereTlis cxovrebis ZiriTadi xazis Cvenebas, an unda warmogvidgendes mwerlis cxovrebis garkveul epizodebs, mTavar momentebs, ZiriTad Strixebs, mxatvrulad gansaxierebuls. dabolos, nawarmoebis mTavari gmiri, romlis garSemo

1

g . w e r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. II, 1948, gv. 54. iqve, gv. 10. 3 g. qi q o Z e , etiudebi da portretebi, 1958, gv. 176. 4 l. a s a T i a n i , `mnaTobi~, 1932, 5-6.

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iSleba mTeli ambavi, dito qvelaZe riTime mainc unda emsgavsebodes g. wereTels. mwerlisa da gmiris cxovrebis esa Tu is mniSvnelovani momenti unda emTxveodes erTmaneTs. aseTi arc damTxveva da arc msgavseba nawarmoebis Sinaarsis mixedviT ar dgindeba. metic, g. wereTlis bavSvobisa da siWabukis cxovrebis gza da dito qvelaZis yrmobisa da mowafeobis xanis Sinaarsi, aRzrdisa da cxovrebis istoria sruliad sxvadasxva xasiaTisa da Tvisebisaa. am nawarmoebSi aRwerili viTareba saerToa mocemul epoqaSi warmodgenili sinamdvilisaTvis. SeiZleba am nawarmoebis zogi detali analogiaze miuTiTebs, magram es analogiuri TviT sinamdvileSi iyo bevrisTvis niSandoblivi. g. wereTeli, rogorc didi realisti mxatvari, tipur xasiaTs tipur garemoSi xatavda da aCvenebda, amitomac ditos mxatvruli saxe SeiZleba bevrs hgavda da agonebda kidec Tavisi drois mkiTxvelebs. Znelia warmoidginoT iseTi realisturi nawarmoebi, romelic mwerlis gancdils, gagonils, sinamdvilesTan Sefardebuls, mxatvruli fantaziiT gamogonils an SesaZlo varaudis elements ar Seicavdes. magram aseTi viTareba ar gvaZlevs uflebas amgvari xasiaTis nawarmoebni avtobiografiulad miviCnioT. an kidev, nuTu nawarmoebis gmiris yoveli miswrafeba, qceva, xasiaTi avtoris midrekilebisa da cxovrebiseuli saerTo Sinaarsis, maTi igiveobis gamoxatulebaa? amrigad, cxovrebis Rrma codnis, gancdilis, nanaxisa da gagonilis ostaturi Serwymis safuZvelze g. wereTelma Seqmna mxatvruli sinamdvile da dagvixata dito qvelaZis marTali saxe. igi gimnaziis moswavleTa garkveuli nawilis zogadi saxea. `Cveni cxovrebis yvavils~, SesaZloa, dahkravs avtobiografiuli ieri, magram aramc da aramc saubari g. wereTelsa da dito qvelaZis igiveobaze ar SeiZleba. `ruxi mgeli~ g. wereTlis erT-erTi cnobili moTxrobaa. nawarmoebSi mxatvruladaa naCvenebi Tavadaznaurobis materialuri da moraluri daqveiTeba, am niadagze dawyebuli mwvave SuRlis tragikuli xasiaTi, biurokratiul-Cinovnikuri mmarTvelobis warmomadgenelTa usamarTloba, meqrTameoba, saerTo ukacuroba; glexkacobis duxWiri cxovreba. moTxrobis saTauri `ruxi mgeli~, nawarmoebis gmirTa moqmedebisa da konfliqtis gaSlis are -- sawioke, gmirTa gvarebi -- kvimataZe, jibiaSvili, personaJis metsaxeli -- ruxi mgeli nawarmoebis ideuri arsis gamomxatvelia, amasTan simbolurad miuTiTebs Txzulebis personaJTa bunebaze, xasiaTsa da sulier Tvisebebze. es momenti sainteresoa, rogorc mxatvruli gamosaxvis Taviseburi xerxi. rogorc moTxrobidan Cans, sawiokes asze met mebatones ZiriTad saarsebo saSualebad SerCa gauyofeli erTi mTa da tye -- sawioke. am tyis Tanabrad gamoyeneba ver mouxerxebiaT, ris gamoc xSirad imarTeboda samkvdro-sasicocxlo brZola. isini erTmaneTs eqiSpebian, Tu vin vis daaswrebs tyis Semokodvas an glexebis dabegvras, awiokebas, gaZarcvas, mecxvareebis gaqurdvas da sxv. am niadagze araerTi usiamovneba momxdara, magram sasamarTloSi saqme yovelTvis avTandil kvimataZis sasargeblod mTavrdeboda, radganac avTandils hyavda iseTi gulSematkivari, rogoric samson jibiaSvili iyo. aznauri samson jibiaSvili iyo sawioke mTis mebatoneTagani, sasuliero akademiadamTavrebuli, igi saxelmwifo samsaxurSi Sesuliyo jer `stolnaCalnikad~, Semdeg ki mazris ufrosis TanaSemwed muSaobda, magram `Citi fcqvnaT ara Rirso~, -- ifiqra gulSi samsonma, mianeba Tavi saxelmwifo samsaxurs~. sakancelario xrikebsa da kanonebSi gamowvrTnilma jibiaSvilma gadawyvita: `...veqilaT gamxdariyo da kancelariis ganjinebis magieraT xalxis jibe gamoexra~.1 marTalia, samson jibiaSvili sxva sofelSi cxovrobda, misi saxl-kari sawiokes sakmaod Sori manZiliT iyo mocilebuli, magram, miuxedavad amisa, iq momxda1

g . w e r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 438.

180

ri raime SemTxveva arasodes ar gamohparvia mas. `rogorc-ki Seityobda, mTaSi `saWmo~ gaCenilao, isic maSinve amxedrdeboda Tavis lurjaze, rom saufliswulo ar dahkargoda. ai, amitom uyvarda mas Tavisi saxlis aivanze jdoma da sawioke mTisaken cqera~.1 gawuwkebuli veqilis xedva Sors swvdeboda `aT, TxuTmet versze RobemZvrala Citic ver afrindeboda, rom mis Tvalebs ar SeeniSna~. sawiokes mcxovrebTa Soris samson jibiaSvils hyavda suliTa da guliT ganuyreli megobari, misi siavkacis Tanamonawile aznauri avTandil kvimataZe. am orTa megobruli kavSiri iyo erT-erTi mizezi, erTi mxriv, sawioke mTis isedac gaRatakebuli mebatoneebis erTaderTi sarCo-sabadeblis xelidan gamoclis, meore mxriv, glexebis awiokebis. avTandil kvimataZe erTi imaTTagani iyo, romelsac mudam sasamarTloSi hqonda saqme. igi gafacicebiT daeZebda iseT SemTxvevebs, romelTa gasaCivreba SeiZleboda. aRZrul saqmes yovelTvis igebda samson jibiaSvilis CareviT. avTandil kvimataZe mTeli dRe dawanwalobda sawioke mTaSi. igi `sakvirveli daxelovnebuli iyo soflis darajobaSi~.2 awuxebda mebatoneebs, stacebda glexebs, risi warTmevac ki SeiZleboda, amitomac am rux Coxosans ruxi mgeli Searqves. Txzulebis mTavari gmirebis -- jibiaSvilisa da kvimataZis Tvisebebis Cvenebis Semdeg, mweralma moamzada niadagi kvanZis SekvrisaTvis. gaCnda konfliqti. sajarod daupirispirdnen erTmaneTs mebatoneebi baana da avTandili, risi Sedegic iyo maTi urTierTobis tragikuli dasasruli. saqmis Sinaarsi amgvari gaxldaT: sawioke mTis monawile aznaurma baanam saerTo Sekrebilobaze saxalxod usayvedura avTandil kvimataZes imis gamo, rom man xelmeored Semokoda baanas mier Semokodili xeebi. es ki avTandilma iukadrisa. ganviTarda rTuli konfliqti, rac erTmaneTisaken miwev-mowevaSi gamoixata. baanam Tofic ki moimarjva, magram am SemTxvevas raime marcxi ar mohyolia, sabolood ki es momenti sabediswero Seiqna orive mxarisaTvis. samson jibiaSvilma saCivari Seudgina avTandilsa da Seatanina sasamarTloSi. viTomda baanas didi danaSaulisa da mkvlelobis ganzraxvis Taobaze da sxv. daiwyo gamoZieba, magram qrTamma da samson jibiaSvilis gavlenam sasamarTloze ukuRmarTad gadawyvita baanas saqme. amis Sedegad baanam satusaRoSi dalia suli. avTandilis saqcielma da baanas udanaSaulo sikvdilma aaRelva sofeli, magram avTandili da samsoni udardelad saubrobdnen baanas sikvdilze da soflis awiokebis gegmas adgendnen: `Sen Tu cocxali meyole, meti ra miWirs! am sawioke mTas xelSi dagaWerineb, oRond is aRsrulebiTi furclebi daatake sawiokelebs. samoqalaqo boqauli Cauyene yvelas. kapeiki aravis moeZeva. avuweroT mTaSi monawileoba da gavuyidoT. mag ZaRlebis Wamas, me da Sen vWamoT, ara jobia?~.3 erTxel, roca avTandil kvimataZe da samson jibiaSvili tkbilad saubrobdnen soflis aoxrebaze, ramdenime vaJkacma moiTaTbira xalxis awiokebisaTvis samagiero miezRoT avTandil kvimataZisa da samson jibiaSvilisaTvis. marTlac morigi Tevzaobisas `SavaT SefuTnuli arsebani daesxnen Tavze~... samsoni da avTandili sikvdilis piramdis miiyvanes cemiT. meore dRes, avTandili da samsoni cxenebze gadakidebuli miiyvanes avTandilis saxlSi. `samson jibiaSvils didxans aRar ucocxlia... avTandili Tumca morCa, magram sisxlis furTxeba daawyebina, is saxlidan aRar gamodioda...~4 avTandilis Svilebma, romlebic mTel mxareSi cnobili iyvnen `ruxi mglis lekvebad~, es ambavi daabrales baanas Svils. Siukas ZaliT aTqmevines gamomZieblis winaSe, rom mas TiTqos baanas Svili ecnos Tavdasxmis dros. Tumca mTeli sofeli

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g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 440. iqve, gv. 443. 3 iqve, gv. 455. 4 iqve, gv. 462.

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uaryofda baanas Svilis am saqmeSi monawileobas, magram, miuxedavad amisa, baanas Svili mainc gadaasaxles ruseTis Soreul kuTxeSi. gaukuRmarTda baanas ojaxis saqme, magram arc kvimataZisa da jibiaSvilis ojaxebs dasdgomia kargi dRe. mweralma `ruxi mgeli~, iseve rogorc sxva bevri nawarmoebi, namdvil ambavze aago, Txzulebis gmirTa saxeebi realuria da TiTqmis yovel maTgans prototipi hyavs. sayuradReboa a. gaCeCilaZis mier gamoqveynebuli `ramdenime axali cnoba~1 g. wereTlis Semoqmedebasa da `rux mgelze~, sadac miniSnebulia im abaSiZeebis saxelzec ki, romelTa cxovreba da urTierToba gamoiyena mweralma Tavisi moTxrobisaTvis. rogorc sxva nawarmoebTa ganxilvisas aRiniSna, g. wereTlis personaJTa da aRwerili ambisa da movlenis ukan sinamdvile dgas. g. wereTlis, rogorc niWieri mwerlis, didi Rirseba is iyo, rom konkretuli faqti Tu saxe zogadobis simaRlemde ahyavda da tipur viTarebas xatavda. am gziT imereTis aznaurTa dakninebis, daqveiTebisa da zogjer maTi mgluri instinqtebis CvenebiT warmosaxulia gaRaribebuli da moralurad dacemuli qarTveli aznaurobis cxovreba. amdenad, `ruxi mgeli~ sainteresoa rogorc konkretul faqtebze agebuli Txzuleba, magram saqarTvelosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli saerTo tipuris gamomxatveli. g. wereTlis beletristikul nawarmoebTa Soris, mxatvruli dasrulebis TvalsazrisiT, erT-erT saukeTesod misi `ruxi mgeli~ unda CaiTvalos~.2 `mamida asmaTi~ 90-iani wlebis damdegs, 1888 wels daiwera da gamoqveynda. am droisaTvis sakmaod sagrZnobi iyo axali sazogadoebrivi urTierTobis damkvidreba. msgavsad `ruxi mgelisa~, `mamida asmaTi~ warmoadgens iseT Txzulebas, romliTac daxatulia imereTis aznaurTa materialuri daqveiTebisa da moraluri dacemis naTeli suraTebi. magram gansxvavebas Sinaarseulad is qmnis, rom aq aznauroba ise dakninebula, rom da Zmas ar indobs, Zma -- das, mamida da biZa -- ZmisSvils. am nawarmoebis kiTxvisas umal TvalSi gvecema disa da Zmis samkvdro-sasicocxlo dapirispireba, romlis Cveneba iSviaTi SemTxveva iyo qarTul mwerlobaSi. magram droeba Seicvala da damkvidrda axali yofa. es sinamdvile g. wereTelma dakvirvebuli mxatvris TvaliT dainaxa da ganasaxiera ukvdav moTxrobebSi. `mamida asmaTSi~ erT mxarezea asmaTi, meoreze -- rosafi. orives fiqri, azri da zraxva iqiTkenaa mimarTuli, Tu rogor waglijon erTmaneTs miwis nakveTi da sxva romelime sasargeblo da gamosaCeni nivTi. mtrobisa da Suris sagania ara marto miwa-wyali. aramed oboli naTelac. naTelas aRmzrdeli mamida asmaTi da meurve biZa -- rosafi daupirispirdebian erTmaneTs. orives interess erTi nivTieri sarCuli aqvs -- rogorme naTelas wili mamul-deduli miisakuTron da Tanac misi gaTxovebiT xeli moiTbon mTxovnelisagan fulis aRebiT. es momenti gansazRvravs da-Zmas Soris arsebuli konfliqtis xasiaTsa da Sinaarss. qurdobas, yaCaRobas, meqrTameobasa da roskipobas abralebs asmaTi Tavisi Zmis -- rosafis ojaxs. asmaTsa da rosafs Soris grZeldeba dausrulebeli qiSpoba imis gamo, Tu vin daaswrebs 10-12 wlis oboli Zmiswulis -- naTelas gaTxovebas. orives amoZravebs materialuri gamorCenis molodini, angarebis survilebi. mkafiod isaxeba kiTxva -- vin daisakuTrebs naTelas -- meurve biZa Tu aRmzrdeli mamida. orive mglis TvaliT Sehyurebs erTmaneTs. magram SepirispirebulTa Zala tolfardovania. brZolac didxans grZeldeba. asmaTma kalapotidan amovardnili aznauri oTari Svilobilad aiyvana, rom amiT ufro mZlavrad daupirispirdes rosafs. Zmis mimarT gaborotebulma asmaTma pirveli sabrZolo nabiji gadadga, mosavlisa da miwis nakveTis miTvisebis mizniT Tavis Svilobil oTars aawiokebina glexe1 2

`literaturuli gazeTi~, 1962, 22. g.q i q o Z e , etiudebi da portretebi, 1958, gv. 182.

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bi rosafis yanaSi. rosafis SuriT aRgznebulma asmaTma moisyida oTari da cxovrebis lukmas danatrebuli oTaris amyoli sxva aznaurebi, raTa gadawvas Zmis saxl-kari da xelT igdos mamiseuli skivri, romelSic viTom raRac anderZi da dedis naqoni Zvirfasi `gulis qinZisTavi~ inaxeba. rosafis saxl-kari gadaiwva, skivri gaitaces, magram Sig araferi ar aRmoCnda. aman Seqmna mZime sulieri mdgomareoba, saSineli imedgacrueba. asmaTs ar gaumarTlda molodini, tyuilubralod gadawva Zmis ojaxi, dis da Zmis aseTi urTierToba aSkarad metyvelebs odesRac warCinebuli wodebis Semoubruneblad dacemasa da dakninebze. moralurad daqveiTebuli da gaavebuli disa da Zmis suliskveTeba ostaturadaa gadmocemuli `mamida asmaTSi~. qvrivi, uSvilo, upatrono asmaTi TiTqos TafliviT tkbilad unda iyos ZmasTan, magram saarsebo saSualebis SenarCunebis mglur instinqtebs gaumZvinvarebia igi. orive mxare piradulsa da SiSvel egoistur zraxvebs Seupyria da amdenad daukargavT ara marto saerTo humanuri, aramed naTesauri daZmuri grZnobac. cbierebis, laqucobis, motyuebis da pirferobis klasikuri scenaa asmaTisa da rosafis meuRlis -- mzexaTunis Serigebis aqti. naTesauri grZnoba, alersi, tkbili sityva angarebis safaria rZlisa da mulis urTierTobaSi. amis dadasturebaa agreTve rosafisa da asmaTis damokidebuleba obol naTelasTan, sadac mamobrivi da dedobrivi zrunvis ukan mtaceblis eSvebi Cans. mamida asmaTi rTuli saxea. marTalia, igi erTi SexedviT gvagonebs ilias oTaraanT qvrivs, magram gansxvaveba ufro didia, vidre msgavseba. oTaraanT qvrivi enamwarea, magram guli keTili aqvs. igi pirdapiri, mouridebeli, pirSi mTqmeli dedakacia; mas `pilpilmoyrili madli uyvars~, magram mkvaxe sityvebis ukan yovelTvis keTili buneba moCans. asmaTis sulieri samyaro kontrastulia. avi, boroti, moZule, daundobeli, gautaneli, meore mxriv, TiTqos keTili, mzrunveli, mosiyvarule. igi jiutia da principuli, magram gaRunvaca da ukan daxevac SeuZlia, Tu saWiro aRmoCnda, rac ucxoa oTaraanT qvrivisaTvis. mamida asmaTi pirfera, gulzviadi, gorozi da moqnilia. igi mravalsaxovani pirovnebaa. mas saSiSi Tvalebi aqvs. es Tvalebi misi sulis gamomzeurebaa. is yovelgvar siaves gaakeTebs, oRond survili daikmayofilos. oTaraanT qvrivi keTilia, mamida asmaTi avia, daundobeli. miuxedavad asmaTis moxerxebisa da gaiZverobisa, is mainc damarcxebuli aRmoCnda ZmasTan -- rosafTan brZolaSi. rac Seexeba rosafs, igi erTi SeZlebuli aznaurTagani iyo, romelsac, quTaisis oTxklasiani sasuliero saswavleblis damTavrebis Semdeg, Sorapnis mazris gamgeobaSi mwerlis Tanamdeboba eSovna. rosafi am Tanamdebobas moxerxebulad iyenebda. ufrosebTan rom axlo urTierToba daemyarebina, amis gamo arc ufross da arc mis `sekretars~ ar aklda `ZRveni~ glexkacobisagan, magram misi mfarveli CerCeti mazris ufrosi moxsnes da `sekretars~ saxazino fulebis miTvisebisaTvis sapyrobileSi ukres Tavi. rosafma sasjels daaRwia Tavi, mamiseul ojaxSi dabinavda da oboli Zmiswulis -- naTelas meurveoba ikisra. aqedan daiwyo winaaRmdegoba, am momentidan garTulda urTierToba mas da asmaTs Soris. axalgazrdobaSi yvela Tavmomwone mandilosans misken eWira Tvali, miT umetes, rom `tans ecva buzmentebiT gamowyobili qulaja, ganieri Sarvali, buxris qudi. ijda yovelTvis matareblis bedaurze da yelze Camogdebuli abreSumis baRdadi lamazad mifarfaSebda~.1 axla ki ormocdarva wlis rosafi `asmaTis mtrobas udrood gaeTeTrebina~.2

1 2

g. we r e T e l i , rCeuli nawerebi, t. I, 1947, gv. 493. iqve, gv. 494.

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asmaTisa da rosafis ambis fonzea naCvenebi moyiale, TavzexelaRebuli aznauri oTari. am saxis SemoyvaniT mwerali amZafrebs ambis siuJetur ganviTarebas. oTari warmosadegi Sexedulebis vaJkacia, magram usaqmuri da uSromeli, soflidan sofelSi daexeteba. Tumc lxiniTa da qeifiT atarebs dros, magram saqaTmeSi SeZromas da qurdbacacobasac ar ukadrisobs. TviTon mudam qeifSi garTuls Sin col-Svili mSieri exoceboda. oTari cxovrebisagan gariyuli aznauris saxea. igi enaTesaveba ieremia warbas, tariel mklavaZes da winaparia d. kldiaSvilis uqnara da sxvis xarjze moqeife gmiris -- platon miminoSvilisa. oTaris Tvaltanadoba, lxinis Sno da lazaTi xiblavda yvelas. Tumca Sroma sZulda, magram uyvarda yiali. axlomaxlo ki ara, Soreuli soflebis yvela dReoba zepirad icoda. misi `samoRvaweo~ asparezi iSleboda goridan foTamde. lxinsa da dReobebze daupatiJebeli wveva misi Cveuleba iyo. `mamida asmaTSi~ yuradRebas ipyrobs naTelas saxe. adreve daoblebuls, or mzrunvels Soris mouxda yofna. asmaTi zrdida, rosafi meurveobda. asmaTs guliT uyvarda Tavisi gazrdili, arc rosafs sZulda igi, magram orive gamosarCens uTvalTvalebda. aTi wlis naTelas asmaTma gaTxovebis Cagoneba dauwyo. eSinoda rosafma ar damaswros da misi wili miwa-wyali ar daisakuTroso. arc rosafsa da mis meuRle mzexaTuns eZinaT. rosafma daaswro da naTela Tavis colis axlo naTesavs moatacebina. damarcxda, gatyda asmaTi. naTelas, mamidas CagonebiT, saqmro warmodgenili hyavda pirtitvela da TmaxuWuWa, magram miaTxoves wverulvaSian kacs. naTelas saTuTad uyvarda qmarica da Svilic. magram mainc gatacebiT Sehyurebda bedis varskvlavs caze. aq sainteresoa naTelas gaoreba, ocnebisa da sinamdvilis dacileba, warmosadgenisa da realuris sxvadasxvaoba. g. wereTeli SesaniSnavad icnobs Tavadaznaurobis fsiqologias. mwerali niWierad aCvenebs maT cxovrebaSi momxdar Rrma cvlilebas: materialur gaRatakebas mohyva sulieri daqveiTeba. aznaurTa sulieri daqveiTebis klasikuri gamomxatvelia `mamida asmaTi~. *** g. wereTeli samociani wlebis qarTvel moRvaweTa im saxelovan jgufs ekuTvnis, romelmac ilia WavWavaZis meTaurobiT erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis droSa aRmarTa. man socialuri da erovnuli problemebis dasmiTa da gadawyvetiT, esTetikuri idealebis gamizvniT, Tavisufali mxatvruli SemoqmedebiT ara marto gaamagra ilias da akakis ideuri pozicia, aramed maTTan erTad qarTuli azrisa da mwerlobis ganviTarebis axali gza gakafa. g. wereTeli, iliasa da akakisTan erTad, mxatvruli SemoqmedebiT, literaturuli werilebiT, publicisturi statiebiT, sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobiTa da praqtikuli saqmianobiT gamoxatavda qarTveli xalxis diad miznebs. g. wereTlis ideuri mrwamsis radikaluri xasiaTi imTaviTve cxadi iyo sazogadoebisaTvis. radikalur moazrovned darCa igi `saqarTvelos moambidan~ `kvalSi~ dabeWdil Tavis ukanasknel werilamde. g. wereTlis radikalizmi da demokratizmi yovelTvis gamoxatavda qarTveli xalxis Tanamedrove Tavisufali cxovrebisa da naTeli mermisis survilebs.

184

anton furcelaZe (1839-1913)

anton furcelaZe nayofieri da mravalferovani mweralia. mis kalams ekuTvnis sakmaod mozrdili poemebi ( `Tamar Razneli~, `bagrationebis dideba~, `marabda~, `wyaloba~, `ciskara~), dramatuli Txzulebebi (`didi mouravi~, `avazakebi~, `asuli israelisa~), moTxrobebi (`marTa~, `qitesa~, `Cveneburi saqmis bolo~, `ToTa~, `vai marTalTa~, `samis Tavgadasavali~), istoriuli romani (`maci xvitia~), leqsebi, gamokvleva giorgi saakaZeze, literaturul-kritikuli da ekonomikuri xasiaTis werilebi da sxva mravali. Jurnal `ciskridan~ dawyebuli, misi Txzulebebi ibeWdeboda `droebaSi~, `mnaTobSi~, `imedSi~, `moambeSi~. amasTan erTad igi muSaobda Targmanebze da aqarTulebda rus da evropel mweralTa Semoqmedebas. mas ekuTvnis puSkinis, krilovis, nekrasovis, Seqspiris, baironis, barbies, beranJes, haines da sxvaTa Txzulebebis Targmanebi. igi, Tu erT SemTxvevaSi dainteresebuli iyo giorgi saakaZis pirovnebiT, sxva SemTxvevaSi werda werilebs Savi yvavilis wamlobaze; dramatuli Txzulebebis werasTan erTad msjelobda qarTuli enis gramatikuli normebis Sesaxeb. qarTveli xalxis mZime istoriuli warsulis amsaxvel TxzulebebTan erTad, bankebis mniSvnelobasa da lotos TamaSiT sazogadoebis erTi nawilis gatacebaze laparakobda. a. furcelaZis Sesaxeb s. mgalobliSvili wers, rom igi mesamoce wlebSi iyo wevri didebuli razmisa, romelsac margalitis Tvlebad usxdnen ilia WavWavaZe da akaki wereTeli da amSvenebdnen sergei mesxi, giorgi wereTeli, iakob gogebaSvili, dimitri baqraZe da sxvani da romelsac 70-ian wlebSi Caemata mRelvare sulis niko nikolaZe. a. furcelaZes am razmSi TvalsaCino adgili eWirao, daaskvnis igi. a. furcelaZes mxatvrul TxzulebebSi mniSvnelovani problemebi aqvs wamoyenebuli da damuSavebuli. mwerali arc erT sakiTxs zereled ar Sehxebia. roca igi epikur nawarmoebSi apirebs gadmogvces Tavisi damokidebuleba saqarTvelos istoriul warsulTan, moxazavs mTlian epoqas da hqmnis `Tamar Raznels~, romelic 1700 strofs Seicavs; roca igi dainteresda giorgi saakaZis pirovnebiT, mas miuZRvna rogorc didi dramatuli da epikuri Txzulebebi, iseve didi gamokvleva giorgi saakaZis droindeli saqarTvelos politikuri mdgomareobis Sesaxeb; man dawera tragedia `avazakni~, romelSiac didmniSvnelovani, sazogadoebrivad aqtualuri sakiTxi daamuSava. a. furcelaZes exerxeboda Temebis SerCeva, romelTac saTanadod warmoaCenda mxatvrulad. anton furcelaZe daibada 1839 wels Suagul qarTlSi, sofel mereTSi, md. patara liaxvis pirad. mamamisi nikoloz, mcire mamulisa da bevri Svilebis patroni iyo. antonma bavSvoba sofelSi gaatara da dedis -- barbare gedevaniSvilis asulis xelmZRvanelobiT miiRo pirveli Sinauruli gakveTilebi dedaenasa da literaturaSi. mamas undoda Svili Tbilisis gimnaziaSi Seeyvana, magram xelmokleobisa da wvrilSvilianobis gamo es survili ver Seesrulebina. Svili rom uswavleli ar darCenoda, nikolozma antoni ruseTSi (qal.orioli) samxedro saswavlebelSi gagzavna (saxelmwifo xarjze). antonma saswavleblis damTavreba ver SeZlo, radgan erTxel varjiSisas fexi itkina da dakoWlda. es momxdara 1854 wels. samSobloSi dabrunebuls, radgan swavla veRar gaugrZelebia, xeli miuy-

via TviTganviTarebisaTvis, waukiTxavs yvelaferi, rac xelSi moxvedria, goneba ganuviTarebia da 1858 wels TbilisSi gadmosaxlebula, sadac daaxlovebia dimitri yifians, ivane kereseliZes, `ciskris~ TanamSromlebs da werisaTvis miuyvia xeli. male daiwyo leqsebis beWdva, marTalia TargmanebiT (`ciskari~ 1861 wlis 8, II, 12 da sxv.), romelTac miayola originaluri Txzulebebica da sxvadasxva xasiaTis werilebic. JurnalSi TanamSromloba cxovrebis wyaro ar iyo, mas uSovia samsaxuri davrdomilTa TavSesafarSi. amasTan, Caeba sxvadasxva TviTganviTarebis wreebSi. masTan xSirad uvliaT petre umikaSvils, dimitri yifians ufrosi vaJiT nikoTi, muSa-xelosnebs da sxvaT. TbilisSi cxovrebis pirvelsave xanebSi igi dauaxlovda qalaqis dabal mosaxleobas, gaecno maT da rogorc s. mgalobliSvili gadmogvcems, gamobrZmedila cxovrebis SeswavlaSi, SeuTvisebia rusi mwerlebis azrebi, gansakuTrebiT ki CerniSevskisa da gatacebula misi moZRvrebiT. TavdaviwyebiT daswafebia agreTve dobrolubovis, gercenis, lavrovis, pisarevisa da sxvaTa nawerebs. 1862 wlidan Tbilisis gimnaziaSi aRmzrdelad msaxurobda, Semdeg wels man `ciskarSi~ dabeWda werili daniel WonqaZis nawarmoebis Sesaxeb. man gailaSqra batonymobis drois udierobisa da, saerTod, socialuri usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg. 1867 wlidan a. furcelaZe `ciskris~ faqtiuri patronia da cdilobda misi gezis Secvlas, mas uxdeboda kamaTi redaqtorTan. 70-ian wlebSi man miiRo veqilobis ufleba, rac gamoiyena batonymobis gadavardnis Semdegi drois glexTa uflebebis dacvisaTvis. s. mgalobliSvili gviambobs, Tu ra TavgamodebiT icavda antoni glexebs, xSirad Tavisi mezobeli da nacnobi Tavadebisa da aznaurebisagan. 1869 wlidan Jurnal `mnaTobis~ TanamSromelia, 1873 wlidan redaqtorobs gazeT `guTnis deda~-s, Semdeg msaxurobda saTavadaznauro bankSi, sadac erTxel direqtoris Tanamdebobac ki eWira. anton furcelaZe gardaicvala 1913 wels, dasaflavebulia mereTSi. mis Zegls misive poemis -- `Tamar Raznelis~ ramdenime striqoni aweria:

`me wilada mxvda xvedri mware, Znelad saamo, Cvens iarebSi da wylulebSi xelebis reva, miT wyluls vamtkivneb me sneulTa da amis gamo SeviZinevi moZmeTagan lanZRva da wyeva~.

a. furcelaZis literaturul-esTetikuri azrovneba SemuSavda im principebis safuZvelze, romelzec agebuli iyo qarTveli samocianelebis Sexedulebani. misi azrovnebis wyaroc is moZRvreba iyo, romelic miiRo maSindeli saqarTvelos inteligenciam. man gaiazra utilitaruli Sexeduleba xelovnebisa da literaturis daniSnulebaze. marTalia, a. furcelaZe ar ekuTvnoda `TergdaleulTa~ jgufs, mas ganaTleba ar miuRia ruseTisa Tu ucxoeTis universitetebSi, ar yofila studentTa moZraobis monawile, magram misi mrwamsi cxovrebasa da sazogadoebis urTierTobaze swored 60-ian wlebSi Camoyalibda. xelovnebisa da mecnierebis gamoyenebiTi TvalsazrisiT Sefaseba, mxatvruli sityvis, rogorc xalxis sazogadoebis sneulebis winaaRmdeg wamlad xmareba iyo mTavari im dros literaturisaTvis. aRsaniSnavia, rom xSirad a. furcelaZe ufro radikaluria, vidre sxva misi Tanamedrove, ufro uarmyofelia da memarcxene, Tumca erT Sexedulebaze da ganwyobilebis niadagze dgoma ar SeeZlo. moRvaweobis manZilze mas bevr qarTvel moazrovnesTan hqonda kamaTi, raSic igi amJRavnebda Seurigeblobas. amisi mizezi, albaT, iyo misi TviTganviTareba, yvelaferze xelis Sevlebis survili da yvelafris kiTxva. a. furcelaZis, moRvawisa da mwerlis, xasiaTi gamomJRavnda imaSic, rom 7080-ian wlebSi igi xalxosnuri moZraobisaken gadaixara da gadaiqca am moZraobis praqtikul moRvawed. swored misma Seurigebelma da ukompromiso xasiaTma miiy186

vana igi 70-iani wlebis revoluciur moZraobasTan. igive s. mgalobliSvili gvacnobebs, rom `1873 wlidan q. gorSi daarsda social-revolucionuri (xalxosnuri) saidumlo wre, romelmac miznad daisaxa gaecno xalxisaTvis mTavrobis mavne wes-wyobileba, Caexedebina glexoba Tavis cxovrebaSi, daerwmunebina igi, rom umamulod misi ganTavisufleba Zvel batonymobaze uaresi iyo, rom am garemoebam glexoba ufro yurmoWrili yma gaxada nabatonarisa... anton furcelaZe ...gaxda goris wris suli da guli. erTad vmuSaobdiT da vcdilobdiT mogvewyo stamba sof. tyviavSi aralegaluri wignebis sabeWdavad...~1 a. furcelaZe Tavisi nihilisturi ganwyobilebiTa da praqtikuli moRvaweobiT Seefereboda qarTul xalxosnobas gasuli saukunis 70-80-ian wlebSi. nihilizmi da xalxosnuri gatacebani dafuZnebuli hqonda im grZnobaze, riTac igi dakavSirebuli iyo mSobliur xalxTan, glexobasTan. glexobis gaTavisuflebis idea iyo mTavari a. furcelaZis moRvaweobaSi. misi araerTi Txzuleba emsaxureba samSoblos siyvarulisa da mSromeli adamianis pativiscemis gamomJRavnebas. misi patriotuli leqsebi agebulia im Temaze, riTac saxeli gaiTqva rafiel erisTavis leqsma `samSoblo xevsurisa~. a. furcelaZes uyvarda Tavisi qveyana, magram ara imdroindel viTarebasa da yofaSi, aramed revoluciurad gardaqmnili. igi eZiebda samSoblos mxsnel gmirs da radgan mas samSobloSi praqtikulad ver naxulobda, qeba-didebas asxamda sxva qveynis erovnuli ganTavisuflebisaTvis mebrZols. a. furcelaZis sayvareli gmiri iyo juzepe garibaldi, italieli erovnuli gmiri, romelmac yvela erovnulad daCagrulTa siyvaruli da pativiscema moipova. a. furcelaZis iniciativiT gorelma revolucionerebma italielebs samZimris depeSa gaugzavnes garibaldis gardacvalebis gamo. a. furcelaZem Tavisi azrebi Camoayaliba im werilebSi, romelnic Jurnal `ciskarSi~ gamoaqveyna 1863 wels. aq gamoxata man Tavisi damokidebuleba mwerlobasa da mxatvruli sinamdvilis mxatvruli asaxvisadmi. 1862 wlis noembris nomerSi man dabeWda patara kritikuli SeniSvna sardion aleqsi-mesxiSvilis erTi daubeWdavi Targmanis Taobaze. werili exeba frangi mwerlis, eJen sus Txzulebis `mimogzauri uriis~ qarTul Targmans. a.furcelaZe imgvaradve msjelobs am kritikul werilSi, rogorc msjelobda ilia WavWavaZe kozlovis poemis qarTuli Targmanis Sesaxeb. msjelobis azri Semdegia: qarTuli literatura Raribia sasargeblo da gamosadegi nawerebiT, saWiroa iseTi Txzuleba, `romelic an suls miekros, an xorcsa~. eJen sus Txzulebis qarTulad mTargmnels sardion aleqsi-mesxiSvils Sromis gawevisas mxedvelobaSi unda mieRo xalxis (qarTveli xalxis) mdgomareoba, xalxisa da qarTuli literaturis saWiroeba da xalxis materialuri SesaZlebloba. `mimogzauri uria~ TviT safrangeTSi aRaraa miRebuli, misi azri da Sinaarsi ar aris qarTvelisaTvis nacnobi, radgan Seexeba iezuitTa borot saqmianobas. nawarmoebi cruromantikulia, misi Targmani `Targamos qarTvelTa mamis eniTaa Sesrulebuli, romelic axla xucess petre laJRaursac aRar eyureba. amasTan erTad, roca gamoicema, Zvirad eRireba, wignis fasi TiTo Tumani~. a. furcelaZe garkveulad iziarebs i. WavWavaZis Sexedulebasa da principebs Targmanze. mas literatura miaCnia cxovrebis Seswavlis saSualebad, radgan amis Semdeg ufro advilia cxovrebis daavadebuli organizmis mkurnaloba. yvelaze mniSvnelovani iyo a. furcelaZis werili daniel WonqaZis `suramis cixis~ Sesaxeb (daibeWda 1863 wlis `ciskris~ ianvris nomerSi), sadac mocemulia aramxolod nawarmoebis analizi, aramxolod msjeloba Jurnalis daniSnuleba-raobaze, mxatvruli nawarmoebis mizanze, `ciskarSi~ gamoqveynebul zogierT Txzulebaze, mweralTa mier masalis gamoyenebasa da aTvisebaze; es werili ar aris mxo1

s . m g a l o b l i S v i l i s teqstebi amoRebulia misi wignidan `mogonebani~.

187

lod `suramis cixisaTvis~ adgilis mikuTvneba qarTul mwerlobaSi, masSi gamoTqmulia a. furcelaZis literaturul-esTetikuri Sexedulebebi, qarTveli mowinave inteligenciis protesti socialuri uTanasworobis winaaRmdeg. a. furcelaZe aqtiurad monawileobda 60-iani wlebis literaturul kamaTSi da axalgazrda Taobis mxareze idga, rac gamoxatulia 1862 wels `ciskarSi~ dabeWdil werilSi `wavida is dro~. igi dascinis Zveli Taobis, e.w. `mamebis~ Taobis warmomadgenlebs, isini `siZvelis mqadageblebad~ miaCnda, xolo maTi naweri uazrod da uSinaarsod. igi amxels Zveli Taobis konservatizms, mxars uWers epoqis axal mimarTulebas, axal moZraobas. maSinve gamoCnda misi Seurigebeli da mojanye buneba. marTalia, igi `ciskarSi~ darCa samoRvaweod, magram sruliadac ar iziarebda maT Sexedulebas, vinc maSin arqaul Sexedulebebs icavda da winaaRmdegi iyo sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisa da literaturuli principebis ganaxlebisa. mas surda Jurnali `ciskari~ waremarTa sxva gziT, undoda misi progresul organod gadaqceva. 1863 wlidan am Jurnalis kritikis ganyofilebas xelmZRvanelobda, sul male `ciskris~ araoficialuri xelmZRvanelic gaxda da iyo misi faqtiuri redaqtori. am drois misi werilebi `suramis cixeze,~ juzepe garibaldis moRvaweobaze, qarTul literaturaze warmoadgenen nimuSebs batonymuri wyobilebis winaaRmdeg laSqrobisa. igi werda ganaTlebis saWiroebaze, cxovrebis evropuli formebis gadmoRebaze, demokratiuli principebis ganxorcielebaze. mravali aqtualuri problema daayena a. furcelaZem publicistur da mxatvrul TxzulebebSi. igi gamodioda patara erebis damcvelad da erovnuli Tanasworobis mqadageblad. misi SexedulebiT xelovneba unda yofiliyo sinamdvilis, cxovrebis suraTebis amsaxveli, literatura unda Camdgariyo cxovrebis gaumjobesebisaTvis zrunvis samsaxurSi. a. furcelaZis msjelobaSi am dros garkveulad Cndeba d. pisarevis radikalizmis anarekli. mis werilebSi, romlebSic mkafiod moCans avtoriseuli memarcxene pozicia, gakritikebulia `saqarTvelos moambis~ publicisturi da mxatvruli Semoqmedebis nimuSebi. swored es gaxda mizezi imisa, rom `saqarTvelos moambe~ da `ciskari~ am dros cxare polemikas awarmoebdnen erTmaneTSi. a. furcelaZem wamoayena sakiTxi SemoqmedebiTi meTodisa da imTaviTve realizmis momxreTa wyebaSi Cadga, mis principul momxred darCa. realisturi meTodis literatura a. furcelaZes mxolod arsebuli sazogadoebis gardaqmnisaTvis undoda, amitomac igi xSirad mxatvruli literaturis mTavar funqcias -- mxatvrulobas, saxeebiT azrovnebas ugulebelyofda da mxolod mebrZoli ideis Cvenebas utovebda xelovnebasa da literaturas. es azrebi man gamoTqva `suramis cixis~ Sesaxeb daweril werilSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom a. furcelaZis es werili aris pirveli sruli da marTebuli Sefaseba d. WonqaZis Txzulebisa. am weriliT man xma aRimaRla batonymobis winaaRmdeg, `suramis cixe~ epoqis sulis gamoxatulebad CaTvala. Jurnalma `ciskarma~ am nawarmoebis dabeWdviT daaRwiao Tavi `apaTiis burans~. nawarmoebma, a. furcelaZis azriT, `dahsca saSineli elda da moswyvita welebi davardnils xalxsa da Zveli azrebis patronebsa, batonebi osman-aRasi darCnen pirRiani; jer didxans ver moegnen cnobasa da bolos, rodesac moipoves grZnoba, daxedes, gadaiRes, gadmoiRes es Txzuleba da rogorc sarkeSi, ise dainaxes Tavisi Tavi~. d. WonqaZis Txzuleba a. furcelaZis mier miCneulia gamwarebuli qarTveli glexobis suraTad, Zveli azrebis mqoneTa mxilebad. es Txzuleba Jurnalis redaqtors sixaruliT miuRia, magram mokrZalebiTa da SiSiT daubeWdavs, radgan eSinoda Turme, Jurnalis xelismomwerTa wyromisa. `suramis cixe~ imdenadaa a. furcelaZisaTvis mniSvnelovani, ramdenadac masSi aRwerilia glexobis mdgomareoba batonymobis dros. a. furcelaZes moswons igi imitom, rom TxzulebaSi daxatulia namdvili ambebi da gamoyvanilni arian namdvi188

li adamianebi, mocemulia ulmobeli kritika sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis ganviTarebis damabrkolebeli mizezebisa, rom masSi ismis protesti adamianis damonebisa da misi pirovnebis gaqelvis gamo. amrigad, a. furcelaZem pirvelsave werilebSi, vidre igi mxatvrul Semoqmedebas Seudgeboda, Camoayaliba Sexedulebani literaturis daniSnulebaze da gamokveTa Tavisi pozicia da ganwyobileba, amasTan survili brZolisa da Setevisa yovelgvari umsgavsobisa da cxovrebis damabrkolebel movlenaTa winaaRmdeg. anton furcelaZis esTetikuri kredos safuZvlad misaCnevia qarTvel samocianelTa Sexedulebani, romlis Tanaxmad xelovnebis nawarmoebis srulfasovneba warmoudgenelia cxovrebis gavleniT warmoqmnis gareSe. igi wers: `Cven srulebiT ar veTanxmebiT imaTa, romelnica gazdeven Zvels azrs da iZaxian: xelovneba xelovnebisaTvis unda iyoso. Cven yovelTvis winaaRmdegis azrisani viyaviT~. momdevno werilebSi, imave 1863 wels, a. furcelaZe aRrmavebs Tavis azrebs da ufro radikalurad gamoTqvams maT. Jurnalis raobaze da, kerZod, qarTuli Jurnalis daniSnulebaze misi azri ar gansxvavdeba i. WavWavaZis mosazrebisagan. i. WavWavaZis werili dasdebia safuZvlad a. furcelaZis Sexedulebas. i. WavWavaZis `saqarTvelos moambezed~ aris amosavali a. furcelaZisaTvis. `yoveli keTilsindisieri Jurnali unda cdilobdes, rom xalxs auxsnas goneba, gamoiyvanos Tavis uSveris mdgomareobidan da uCvenos WeSmariteba da gza WeSmaritebisa. Tu amis winaaRmdegobis qadageba ar SeiZleba...imas mainc unda akeTebdes, rom xalxi ufro da ufro daamonos am gvars azrsa da rwmenasa~-- wers a. furcelaZe. miuxedavad rwmenis siaxlisa, a. furcelaZe, akaki wereTlis msgavsad, i. WavWavaZis `saqarTvelos moambeSi~ ar gadasula TanamSromlad da akakisave msgavsad TviT `ciskarSi~ awarmoebda kamaTs Zvelisa da CamorCenilis winaaRmdeg. mas zogjer ukiduresi uarismyofelisa da xelovnebis avadmaxseneblis, `qarTveli pisarevis~ saxeli erqva. amisi mizezi unda veZioT im enTuziazmSi, rac misTvis damaxasiaTebeli iyo saerTod. rusul literaturaSi gaCnda nihilisti bazarovi, romelic angrevs puSkinis poezias. a. furcelaZe gaitaca am sazogadoebriv-literaturulma movlenam, dawera werili n. baraTaSvilis poeziaze, uaryo igi, `cru ocneba~ uwoda mas. `Cven gvinda poeziaSic da isec, vxedavdeT saqmesa, WeSmaritebas, Cveni gulis pasuxsa, Cveni Tavis cnobas, Cvens garemos...da ara Tqvens opiumisagan mTvralis dagvaris raRac-raRacaebs, vaSauSsa...~ man n. baraTaSvilis poezia usargeblod miiCnia. `mkiTxveli raRac momzadebiT Seudgeba kiTxvas, da roca gaaTavebs, rCeba xaxamSrali, gulcarieli. es imitom, rom aqedan ar gamoaqvT gonebis masazrdoebeli lukma...~ marTalia, a. furcelaZis Sexedulebebi ucvleli ara yofila. 60-70-iani wlebis kritikuli werilebi ufro mkveTri iyo, vidre im saukunis ukanasknel wlebSi dawerilisa, Tumca, maSinac ki, roca igi ukiduresi poziciis mpyrobelad Cans, igi ar gahyolia bolomde ruseTis cnobili uarmyoflebis yvela Sexedulebas. igi zogierTi Tanamedrove da wina epoqis mwerlis Semoqmedebas iwunebda imitom, rom igi memarcxene samocianeli, xelovnebis nawarmoebisagan pirvel rigSi moiTxovda azrsa da Tanamedrove saWirboroto sakiTxebSi garkvevas da ara nawarmoebis maRal mxatvrulobas, Tanac yovelgvari Seferadebis gareSe. amasTan, misTvis miuRebeli iyo raime elementi piradulobisa da literaturul nawarmoebsac srulfasovnad maSin Tvlida, roca masSi xalxis gamwarebuli cxovrebis anarekli iyo mocemuli. a. furcelaZem mxatvruli sityva gamoiyena xalxis daavadebuli gonebis saeqimod, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis dasneulebuli organizmis wamlad. amitom man didi yuradReba miaqcia azrs, Sinaarss da mniSvnelovani adgili dauTmo mxat189

vrul SemoqmedebaSi msjelobas, Teoriebis wamoyeneba-gaSlasa da publicisturobas. a. furcelaZis moRvaweobis dawyeba daemTxva ruseTSi da saqarTveloSi glexobis mdgomareobiT inteligenciis dainteresebis periods, roca yma glexis mdgomareobas afasebdnen, roca adamianTaTvis adamianuri uflebis warTmevis sakiTxs amuSavebdnen. mis winaSec dadga sakiTxi qarTveli glexobis mdgomareobisa batonymobis udier pirobebSi. mwerali batonymobas Seexo rogorc TanamedroveobaSi, ise warsulSic da aCvena, rom es saSineleba arc istoriulad da arc TanamedroveobaSi sxvadasxvagvari ar yofila, rom batonymobis safuZveli da misi gamovlinebis formebi erTgvari iyo warsulSica da mwerlis TanamedroveobaSic, rom es sistema arRvevda erovnuli organizmis mTlianobas. man, garda publicisturi werilebisa, mxatvrul TxzulebebSi, romlebSiac qarTveli xalxis socialur fenebad dayofas Seexo, maRali wodebis warmomadgenelni gamoiyvana moqiSpeebad, uprincipoebad, sakuTar Jinze da survilze mdgom adamianebad, romelTac daukargavT erovnuli Segneba da mxolod SuRlisa da separatizmisaTvis gadaudviaT Tavi. mSromeli glexoba cxovrobs araadamianur pirobebSi rogorc warsulSi, ise awmyoSic, -- aseTia a. furcelaZis azri. Tu Tavis publicistur werilebSi `suramis cixesa~ da `kacia adamianze~ mweralma daayena sakiTxi socialuri uTanasworobisa da erTis mier meoris Cagvrisa, mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSic aranaklebad miuzRo man batonymobis saSinelebaTa mxilebas. igi damajereblad asaxavda yma glexTa mdgomareobas, mebatoneTa gulqvaobas, mgznebare sityviTa da mwerluri siTamamiT kicxavda gabatonebulTa velur, uadamiano damokidebulebas mSromeli da umweo glexebis mimarT, Zirs uTxrida im Sexedulebas, viTomc CvenSi Zvelad batonymoba sasikeTo movlena iyo. a. furcelaZe qarTul literaturaSi pirvelia, romlis TxzulebaSic gamoCnda (daniel WonqaZis `suramis cixis~ Semdeg) is, rom glexobis darbevaSi mebatoneebs exmarebian da xSirad aqezeben kidec mTavrobis moxeleni, eklesiis msaxurni, administraciis warmomadgenelni. mweralma cocxlad gamoxata maSindeli politikuri sistemis CamorCeniloba da uvargisoba, aCvena is, Tu ra dabal safexurze idga saxelmwifoebrivi sistema mefis xelisuflebisa SedarebiT im qveynebTan, romelTa sazogadoebriv-saxelmwifoebrivi mmarTvelobis sistema progresulad eCveneboda mas. a. furcelaZem `marTaSi~ da `maci xvitiaSi~ gaatara azri, rom Seurigebel brZolaSi, romelsac glexoba awarmoebda Tavisi adamianuri uflebebis mosapoveblad, saWiro iyo SeTanxmebuli ZaliT winaaRmdegoba da ara individualuri brZola pirovnebebisa. mamakacebTan erTad qalebsac unda mieRoT monawileoba pirovnebis socialuri gaTavisuflebis saqmeSi. pirveli nawarmoebi, romelic am sakiTxebs uZRvna mweralma, iyo moTxroba `ToTa~, romlisTvisac osebis yofa da viTareba gamoiyena mweralma. osi ToTa yaCaRad aqcia arsebulma sazogadoebrivma viTarebam (aRsaniSnavia, rom a. furcelaZem rogorc moTxrobaSi `ToTa~, ise `marTaSi~ masala aiRo saqarTveloSi mcxovreb osTa yofidan. mweralma kargad icoda maTi viTareba, adaTebi da wesebi). moTxroba `ToTa~ maSin cenzuram metad Seamcira da daamaxinja, magram mainc aris SesaZlebloba misi mTavari azrisa da mimarTulebis amocnoba-wakiTxvisa. masSi dayenebuli sakiTxebi ufro vrclad mweralma gadmosca `marTaSi~ da `maci xvitiaSi~. 1865 wels dawera a. furcelaZem `marTa~, mozrdili moTxroba, romelSiac aRwerilia glexobis yofa-mdgomareoba saqarTveloSi batonymobis gadavardnamde. masSi kargad aris garkveuli glexTa cxovrebis damabrkolebeli pirobebis Ziri. mwerali daufaravad aRnusxavs yvela nakls, rac sazogadoebas axasiaTebs da daurideblad amaTraxebs sistemas, romelic safuZvlad gamxdara baton190

ymobis arsebobisaTvis. moTxroba `marTa~ d.WonqaZis nawarmoebis didi gavleniTaa dawerili, zogierT SemTxvevaSi mis adgilebs imeorebs kidec. a. furcelaZe, SeiZleba iTqvas, avrcelebs d.WonqaZis damuSavebul Temas da kidev ufro usvams xazs qarTveli glexobis umweo mdgomareobas, ufro amaxvilebs yuradRebas im brZolaze, glexobaSi rom aris Casaxuli, klasobriv urTierTobas rom gamoxatavs da TandaTan rom viTardeba. nawarmoebSi ori socialuri fena aris warmoCenili -- glexoba da Tavadebi, romelTa cxovrebasac mwerali maTTvis damaxasiaTebeli mxareebiT warmogvidgens: glexebi Sromoben, Tavadebi usaqmuroben. ras akeTeben es Tavadebi, ra aris maTi saqmianoba? `inaTlebda Tu ara, eseni amoiCridnen iRliaSi purs, amoiRebdnen waTxidan yvels da daikargebodnen, manam kidev puris Wamis dro mouvidodaT~- ambobs mwerali. es fena usaqmuria, parazituli, mSromelTa xelisSemSleli. usaqmurobisagan maT adamianis garegnobac ki dahkargviaT. `axaluxs atarebdnen farCisas, magram esenic iqamde nacveTi iyvnen, rom rac unda kargi Tvali gqonoda, Tu windawin ar icodi, ver gaigebdi ra farCa iyo... waRebidan xSirad gamoeyoT yvela fexis TiTebs Tavi...fexSiSvela siaruls irCevdnen da qalamans ki ar Caicvamdnen...~ amaTi Zma aris rostom tablaZe, moTxrobis mTavari personaJi. igi ufro gamocdilia, saqmiani, qalaqSi namsaxuri. rostomi ufro rafinirebuli Tavadia am klasis damaxasiaTebeli yvela antisazogadoebrivi TvisebiT. igi gaborotebulia imis gamo, rom Sin aravis uyvarda. swored amitom bavSvobidanve imas fiqrobda, iseTi ram saSualeba moeZebna, rom yvelasaTvis gaeswro, pirveli yofiliyo. mas boroti egoizmi ganuviTarda, goneba gaumaxvilda, gamWriaxi gaxda da, amasTan, Tavisi glexebis risxvad iqca. mwerali iZleva maRali klasis warmomadgenelTa degeneraciis suraTs. tablaZeTa usaqmuri da uazro yofa metad hgavs luarsab TaTqariZis yofas. mweralma glexebi adamianuri TvisebebiT aRsavseni daxata moTxrobaSi, isini antipodebi arian Tavadebisa. mSromelni, adamianobiT aRbeWdilni, gulmarTalni da erTurTis damfasebelni, isini batonebis ymebi arian, Tavisufleba warTmeulni. rostom tablaZis moaxle marTa yvelas uyvarda, urigo sityvas misgan veravin gaigonebda. aseTive Rirsebisa iyo tablaZis meore msaxuri sosika, romelsac marTa Sehyvareboda -- sulgrZeli, momTmeni. rostomma Tavisi ymebi araadamianur pirobebSi Caayena. isini batons itanen imisaTvis, rom sisxlis daRvras eridebian, amis nebas adamianoba ar aZlevs maT. magram roca fiala moTminebisa pirTamde aevsoT, maSin ki SeiTqvnen glexebi abezari batonis Tavidan mosacileblad. sosika, ninika, daTo da sxvebi gadawyveten rostomis mokvlas, magram gadamwyvet momentSi maT sZlevT SiSi sisxlis daRvrisa. glexebSi ukve gacocxlda mebrZoli suliskveTeba, igi TandaTan mkveTrdeba. rostomis mxarezea xelisufleba, magram glexebi mainc aRmarTaven xels batonis winaaRmdeg. orWof glexebs marTa mimarTavs aRmgznebi sityvebiT: `maswavleT Tofis gatena, giCvenebT, Tqven rom ver gagibediaT. miyureT me, dedakacsa, miyureT rogor Tavi gamimetnia. sircxvilis Semdeg me sicocxle aRar menaneba TqvensaviT. dRes Tqvens colebs daxades Ciqilebi, Tqvens colebs daasxes Tavze lafi... Tqven ki gaCumebulxarT... momyeviT me da pirveli me mival sisxlis dasalevad...~ marTam cecxli daunTo SeTqmulT. misma sityvebma didi gavlena moaxdina glexebze. a. furcelaZe im azrs adgas, rom batonsa da ymas Soris morigeba ar iqneba, maTi klasobrivi interesebi ver SeTanxmdebian, maT Soris damokidebuleba sisxlis daRvriT unda damTavrdes. glexobas adridanve Segnebuli ar hqonda Tavisi klasobrivi arsi, ver warmoedgina, rom SesaZlebeli iqneboda dawesebuli urTierTobis Secvla. sosika (`marTa~) pirvel xanebSi pasiuria, magram, roca mis winaSe daisva sakiTxi marTasTan dakavSirebisa da batonma ki siyvarulis ufleba ar misca, daiwyo brZola

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rostom tablaZesa da sosikas Soris, rasac rostomis ojaxis amowyveta mohyva. ramdenime cdam am abezari Tavadis mokvlisam, uSedegod Caiara; rostomis gamoCena glexSi Ronesa da SesaZleblobas adunebda, magram, roca moTminebis fiala aivso, maSin ki sosikam da sxvebma iaraRi aisxes da mizansac miaRwies. glexebma Tavisi sisxlismsmeli mokles. 1876 wlidan a. furcelaZe cxovrobda da msaxurobda zugdidSi, igi sasamarTlo dawesebulebis moxele iyo. samegreloSi mopovebuli masaliT da megreli glexobis yofis Seswavlis Sedegad man Seqmna romani `maci xvitia~. Cveni xalxis cxovrebaSi mravlad iyo tragikuli movlenebi. mweralma gansakuTrebiT gaamaxvila yuradReba maTze. samTavroebis separatistuli zraxvani, SuRli da gaugonari qiSpi, feodaluri aRviraxsniloba glexobis isedac savalalo mdgomareobas ufro arTulebda. maTi dawiokeba, osmaleTSi gayidva Zirs uTxrida xalxis momavals. yvela, visac Zala hqonda, yidda glexTa sagangebod darCeul qal-yrmas. osmaleTisa da egviptis bazrebi savse iyo dasavleT saqarTvelodan tyved wasxmuli axalgazrdebiT. `maci xvitias~ daweriT a. furcelaZem pasuxi gasca maT, visac warsuli saTnoebis samefod warmoedginaT. marRaniebi, CiCuebi, ServaSiZeebi, dadianebi da sxvani erTurTs Soris da yvela erTad mTavris winaaRmdeg aSlila, erTmaneTs esevian, angreven, wvaven da iwvis pirvel rigSi glexis saxl-kari, ingreva pirvel rigSi mravaltanjuli glexis ojaxi. yovelgvari boroteba, qurdoba, Zarcva, kvla aris Sedegi socialuri uTanasworobisa. `maci xvitia~ imiTaa saintereso, rom mweralma SeZlo aRewera da ganezogadebina megreli glexis mdgomareoba. nawarmoebSi daxatuli viTareba met-naklebad saqarTvelos yvela kuTxeSia mosalodneli. `glexkacoba sruli kuTvnileba iyo Tavisi batonisa da mTavrisa. imas unda Seenaxa eseni sulian-xorcianad. glexebis colebi da qalebic batonebisa da mTavris sruls uflebaSi ufro iyvnen, vidre qmrisa da mamisaSi. glexkaci iTmenda yvela amas uneblieT. isini ukiduresobamdin mividnen, magram mainc kidev am mdgomareobidan gamosasvlel Rones vera hxedavdnen~. nawarmoebSi daxatulia tipuri suraTebi feodaluri aSlilobisa, TavadTa Soris ganuwyveteli Tavdasxmebisa da brZolebisa. yvelaze metad am mdgomareobiT iCagreboda glexi, metic, igi fizikurad da moralurad nadgurdeboda -- maT itacebdnen, yiddnen aRmosavleT qveynebis bazrebze. es tipuri suraTebi iyo Zveli yofisa sazogadod. `maci xvitia~ metad popularuli nawarmoebia misi mTavari personaJebis -- ekasi da macis saocari TavgadasavliTa da xifaTiT aRsavse bediT. a. furcelaZem glexobis yofa batonymobis gadavardnis Semdegi droisac aRwera. saglexo reformam glexis mdgomareoba ver Secvala. batonymoba moispo, magram glexi mainc ver gaTavisuflda, man ver miiRo miwa, igi yofili batonis, axlandeli memamulis Semyure darCa. batonymuri meurneobis naSTebi, didi gadasaxadebi da memamulisaTvis miwis gamosasyidi fasis gadaxda, rac xSirad glexuri meurneobis Semosavals aRemateboda, iwvevda glexTa ekonomikur gaCanagebas. kapitalisturi warmoebis ganviTarebam soflis mosaxleoba daanawila da maT Soris mourigebeli brZola gaaCaRa. soflis mosaxleobis dayofa qonebis mixedviT Raribi glexobisaTvis autaneli Seiqna. soflis ufrosoba mdidarma nawilma igdo xelSi. sasoflo gadasaxadebs yvelaze erTnairad anawilebdnen. gadasaxadi advili gasastumrebeli iyo SeZlebulTaTvis, magram, iseTi adamianisaTvis, vinc kvers nacarSi acxobs, autaneli da SeuZlebeli gaxda. aseTia nacarkveraZe, arafris mqone glexi, romelic gadasaxadis mixedviT gaTanasworebulia SeZlebulebTan. am qitesa nacarkveraZis yofa aris aRwerili moTxrobaSi `qitesa~.

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a. furcelaZis im TxzulebaTa mixedviT, romlebSic mwerals glexTa mdgomareoba aqvs aRwerili, SeiZleba Tvali gaedevnos cvlilebebs, rac xdeboda qarTul sofelSi feodaluri urTierTobis rRvevisas da kapitalisturi warmoebis ganviTarebis procesSi. Tu `marTa~ asaxavda glexTa yofas batonymur pirobebSi, sxva viTareba aris aRwerili moTxrobaSi `qitesa~, romelsac qvesaTaurad uweria --ambavi saxelmwifo soflis cxovrebidan. am patara TxzulebaSi a. furcelaZem cocxlad warmosaxa ara mxolod qitesa, aramed, saerTod, Raribi, ubadruki, miwasTan gasworebuli glexoba. nawarmoebi dawerilia 1871 wels, roca qarTul sofelSi momZlavrebuli iyo mosaxleobis diferenciacia. swored es viTareba asaxa mweralma moTxrobaSi. misTvis cnobilia yvela wvrilmani glexobis yofisa, amitomac uSualobiT da pirdapirobiT daxatuli qitesas saxe didxans rCeba mkiTxvelTa mexsierebaSi. mwerali aRwers gamogonil sofel briyveTianSi momxdar ambavs, sadac glexebi SeZlebis mixedviT dayofilni arian litrianebad, samCareqianebad, naxevarlitrianebad da Careqianebad. magram sofelSi arian iseTebic, romlebic am danayofSi ver xvdebian, radgan maT sulis garda araferi gaaCniaT. bunebrivia, soflis Tavkacebi SeZlebuli glexebi arian, romelnic Tavissave mezoblebs, Tanasoflelebs -- qitesa nacarkveraZes, bero burtylaZes, mose mwyeraZes da maTs msgavsT metad aviwroeben. mozrdili nafuzris patronma cetiaSvilma da qitesa nacarkveraZem, romelsac erTaderTi Zroxa SimSiliT moukvda, erTnairi gadasaxadi unda gadaixadon -- aseTia soflis TavkacTa gadawyvetileba. am niadagze Cndeba ukmayofileba da Cxubi, rac mTavrdeba ketis trialiT da cema-tyepiT. amis Sedegad burtylaZe da nacarkveraZe arian dalurjebulni da dasisxlianebulni. daCagruli glexebi simarTlisa da samarTlis saZieblad qalaqs midian, saidanac iseve gawbilebulni dabrundebian, rogorc sofelSi iyvnen. mwerali ufro amuqebs saRebavs imiT, rom qitesas 14-15 wlis gogo maro, romelic batonTan idga mosamsaxured, Sin Sercxvenili dabrunda. gamwarebuli qitesa sasowarkveTili iZaxis: `waval. xelmwifesTan waval... RmerTamdin vivli, RmerTamdina...raRad minda Tavi cocxali...~ a. furcelaZem TxzulebaSi daxata qitesas msgavsi uRaribesi, uuflebo, damcirebuli adamianebis mTeli wyeba, romlebic mdidari glexebis, vaWrebis, dawesebulebaTa moxeleebis neba-survils asruleben. aseT yofaSia glexoba saglexo reformis meore dRes. 70-ian wlebSi a. furcelaZe ukve nacadi mwerali iyo. man garkveuli rolic ki Seasrula xalxosnuri mimdinareobis ganviTarebaSi. kavSiri xalxosnebTan mweralma umTavresad gamoxata ekonomikuri xasiaTis werilebiT, romelTac Jurnal `mnaTobSi~ da gazeT `guTnis dedaSi~ beWdavda 70-ian wlebSi. `mnaTobsa~ da `guTnis dedaSi~ gamoqveynebul werilebSi (`Cveni saltolvelo~, `sasoflo werilebi~, `sasoflo bankebisa da mamulis saerTo mflobelobis Taobaze...~) a. furcelaZe sargeblobda rusi `narodnikebisagan~ miRebuli Temuri saerTo mflobelobis ideiT, romelic xalxis ekonomiuri keTildReobis qvakuTxedad unda gadaqceuliyo. cxadia, rogorc yvela xalxosans, masac am dros axasiaTebda winaaRmdegobani. azrovnebis aseTma mimdinareobam, rasakvirvelia, gavlena moaxdina mis mxatvrul Semoqmedebazec. kapitalisturi samyaros kritika a. furcelaZes gaSlili aqvs piesaSi `avazakni~, romelSic aRwerilia e. w. `bneli samefo~, sadac araa erTurTis dandoba, erTurTis Sewynareba. am `bnel samefoSi~ gabatonebulan vaWrebi, flidi da meqrTame Cinosnebi, matyuara advokatebi da sammarTvelo sistemis usindiso warmomadgenlebi. nawarmoebSi daxatulia siClungis pativiscema da dawixlva adamianobisa. burJuaziul-kapitalisturi Segnebis mqone sazogadoeba axSobs siaxles, azris moZraobas. qveyanaze fulia gabatonebuli da fulis raodenoba gansazRvravs adamianis adgils sazogadoebaSi. mweralma amxila avazakuri da mtaceb193

lur-momxveWeli buneba gabatonebuli sazogadoebisa. havaqa dilanovis, zaxar iagoriCis, minas ivaniCis mtaceblur saqmianobasa da uadamianobas aravin reglaments ar udebs, maTi yaCaRoba xelisuflebisaganac da sazogadoebisaganac nebadarTulia. a. furcelaZis TxzulebebSi umniSvnelo adgili uWiravs eklesiis msaxurTa, mkiTxavTa, eqimbaSTa moRvaweobis, crumorwmuneobis damRupveli gavlenis aRweras. misi gmirebi moazrovne axalgazrdebi arian, romelTac SeswevT unari analizi gaukeTon saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebis arss, iqonion mowinave azrebi, romelTa mizani amqveyniuri adamianuri yofis mowesrigeba aris, aris damyareba socialuri Tanasworobisa, adamianTa Soris namdvili adamianuri da gulwrfeli damokidebulebisa. es axalgazrdebi msjeloben momavali sazogadoebis av-kargze. svimon badlaZe, besarion vargisaSvili, vasil nawretiSvili da sxvani gonieri axalgazrdebi arian, maT analitikuri azrovnebis unari aqvT, mgznebared saubroben, riTac axalgazrda Tanamzraxvelebs iCenen. a. furcelaZe sxva TxzulebebSic axdens axalgazrda adamianTa progresuli Sexedulebebis demonstrirebas, kerZod, socialuri borotebis winaaRmdeg maT amxedrebas, an burJuaziuli yofisagan gaqelili pirovnebis damcvelad maT aRzevebas. am axalgazrduli Zalis Rirseba ganaTlebisadmi ltolvaa, demokratiuli azrovnebaa, konkretul problemaTa gadawyvetisaken miswrafebaa. msgavsi inteligentis saxe pirvelad an. furcelaZem daxata moTxrobaSi `marTa~, Tavad rostom tablaZis ZmisSvilis, daviTis saxiT. daviTs Segnebuli aqvs, rom axlovdeba glexobis socialuri gaTavisuflebis dro, magram mas, avtoris daxasiaTebiT naklad, `eniT yoCaRoba~ gamohyoloda, mas ara hqonoda Tavi `saqmezed saqmis miyvanisa~. biZasTan molaparakebisas gancdili marcxis Semdeg igi glexebTan aRiarebs -- rostomTan vera gavawye-rao. daviTis msgavsad, a. furcelaZis sxva nawarmoebSi gamoxatuli naswavli axalgazrdebic maRali fenidan arian gamosulni. mwerali maT akisrebs cxovrebis ukuRmarTobis gamosworebisaTvis fiqrsa da zrunva-saqmes. esenic ewamebian sazogadoebis wevrTa wamebiT, maTi gulebic keTilSobili zraxvebiT aris aRsavse, mzad arian yvelaferi humanuri grZnobebis karnaxiT moimoqmedon. saubedurod sazogadoeba cru rwmeniT, drogadasuli tradiciebiTaa Seborkili, mas ar Seswevs sikeTiT aRgznebuli axalgazrdis dafasebis unari, ris gamoc igi far-xmals yris, Sua gzaze Cerdeba, xsnisa da daxmarebis obieqts Sua wyalSi xels SeuSvebs da gadarCenis imeds uxSobs. sainteresodaa daxatuli nawarmoebSi -- `samis Tavgadasavali~ -- svimon badlaZis saxe. man gauZlo yovelgvar winaaRmdegobas, dasZlia SimSili, dacinva-Seuracxyofa da meZav maSasTan damokidebulebaSi gamoamJRavna maRali adamianuri Tvisebebi. a. furcelaZem am nawarmoebSi mravali saintereso ambavi da bevri adamiani aRwera. is survilebi, romlebic amoqmedebda svimons, samociani wlebis rusul literaturaSi ukve damuSavebuli iyo. am SemTxvevaSi an. furcelaZes magaliTi SeeZlo aeRo n.CerniSevskis romanidan `ra vakeToT?~ svimon badlaZis msgavs adamianebs, marTalia, xalxisaTvis samsaxuris gawevis didi survili amoqmedebT, magram isini metad ususurni arian, xSirad saqmes Sua gzaze Tavs anebeben da garbian soflidan qalaqSi, qalaqidan sofelSi, saqarTvelodan sazRvargareT, survilebiTa da jan-RoniT aRsavseni uazrod iRupebian. es personaJebi `monanie aznaurebic~ arian, romlebic winaparTa mier daSvebul SecdomaTa gamosworebas cdiloben, magram dawyebuli saqme dasasrulamde ver mihyavT uxerxemlobisa da praqtikuli cxovrebis ucodinrobis gamo. svimon badlaZis saxe a. furcelaZem Semdeg araerTxel aametyvela. 1873 wels daweril TxzulebaSi -- `Cveneburi saqmis bolo~, badlaZis oreuli vasil nawretaSvili daxata.

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svimon badlaZe (`samis Tavgadasavali~), vasil nawretaSvili (`Cveneburi saqmis bolo~), miSo (`vai, marTalT!~) SesaniSnavi azris mqoneni arian, maT unari aqvT msjelobisa, SeiaraRebulan Teoriuli codniT, magram ar hyofniT principuloba. gmiri moTxrobisa `vai marTalTa~, miSo, magaliTad, gabedulad Seudga progresis SuqiT ganaTebul gzas, magram, male tydeba da sakuTari qveynisTvis gamousadegari xdeba. miSos saxeSi a. gercenisa da i. turgenevis mier gamoxatuli axalgazrdebis xasiaTebi moaqcia mweralma. sazogadoebasa da amgvar adamianTa Soris SeuTanxmebloba sufevs, konfliqtic amitom xdeba maT Soris, ris Sedegadac pirovneba marcxdeba. miSo hgavs i. turgenevis rudins, uaRresad ganaTlebul adamians, magram fraziors, romelsac saqmisaTvis xeli ver moukidnia; miSoc maRali gonebis patronia, male xiblavs adamians kargi laparakiT, magram saqmes verc is uZRveba. amitomac mieltvis sazogadoebisagan gandgomas, sazRvargareT cdilobs gamgzavrebas. bolos miatova samSoblo, jer garibaldis razmSi Caewera, Semdeg ki parizis komunarebSi gaeria da barikadebze brZolis dros daeca. n. CerniSevskis romanSi, romelic a. furcelaZis idealebis ganxorcieleba iyo, idga sakiTxi qalTa uflebis Sesaxeb. revoluciurma da demokratiulma inteligenciam seriozuli yuradReba miaqcia qalis emansipaciis sakiTxs. maT qalis Tanasworuflebianoba miiRes da mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSic didi adgili dauTmes mas. a. furcelaZem, pirvelma qarTul literaturaSi, daayena sakiTxi qalis ojaxuri da saskolo aRzrdis Taobaze. misi nawarmoebebi, romlebic axalgazrdobis saqmianobas da maT gegmebs exeba, ganekuTvneba qalTa sakiTxsac. mwerlis idealia qalis monawileoba saqveyno saqmeebSi. a. furcelaZis moTxrobaTa gmiri mamakacebi Teoriulad da praqtikulad exmarebian qalebs, romelTac esaWiroebaT ganaTlebac, swavlac, sazogadoebrivi cxovrebac. a. furcelaZem Tavis SemoqmedebaSi didi adgili dauTmo istoriul Temas. saqarTvelos istoriidan mas itacebs erTi momenti, metad Taviseburi da saSineli periodi Cveni qveynis warsulidan -- Sah-abasis Semosevani da qarTvelTa TavdacviTi brZola giorgi saakaZis meTaurobiT. qarTveli xalxis cxovrebis am istoriul monakveTs mweralma miuZRvna mozrdili gamokvleva -- `brZola saqarTvelos mosaspobad da saqarTvelos SesaerTeblad anu giorgi saakaZe da misi dro~. giorgi saakaZis pirovnebiT daintereseba sakmaod didxans gagrZelebula. giorgi saakaZezea dawerili tragedia `didi mouravi~, poemebi -- `marabda~, `Tamar Razneli~, moTxrobebi -- `daviT aslaniSvili-jandieri~ da `SeTqmuleba giorgi saakaZisa~. istoriis Temaze dawerili Txzulebebisa da gamokvlevis mizani aris Cveneba im aSlilobisa da daqsaqsvisa, riTac xasiaTdeba feodaluri saqarTvelo. uaRresad ganviTarebuli separatizmi, wvrilman interesTa win wamoweva, erTurTis winaaRmdeg brZola, ZmaTa Soris sisxlis Rvra -- ai is faqtebi, rac damaxasiaTebeli iyo Zveli, feodaluri saqarTvelosaTvis. zogierTi qveynis gamgeblisa da did sagvareuloTa uazro nabijebi, rac safuZveli iyo qveynis ngrevisa (`bagrationebis dideba~), sagvareulo SuRli da qiSpi (`Tamar Razneli~), did TavadTa gesliani damokidebuleba gulSematkivarTan (`didi mouravi~) a. furcelaZes xSirad auweria. igi istoriuli Temis damuSavebisas im principebiT xelmZRvanelobda, romliTac ilia WavWavaZe da akaki wereTeli. maT saqarTvelos warsulidan amokrifes samSoblos siyvarulisa da misi dacvis gamomxatveli SesaniSnavi epizodebi da TanamedroveT miuTiTes qveynisaTvis brZolis saSualebebze. a. furcelaZemac amas miaqcia yuradReba da, TiTqos ufro daaxasiaTa saqarTvelos warsulSi moqmedi Zalebis roli, dainaxa is saqmeebi, rasac akeTebda maRali wodeba saqarTvelos mTlianobisa da damoukideblobis dangrevis saqmeSi.

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a. furcelaZem i. WavWavaZis msgavsad matianeebSi xalxis yofa ver amoikiTxa da amitom miznad daisaxa TviT Seeqmna xalxis mdgomareobis amsaxveli Txzulebebi. misi SexedulebiT, istoria ar iZleva namdvil cnobebs:

`CvenT matianeT damwerelni yurs ar ugdeben arca xalxsa da arca xalxis yofa-cxovrebas, isini marto mefeTa da sardalT icnobdnen da agviwerdnen maTs omebs da maTs amxedrebas. dajda bakuri qarTlis mefed, mokvda bakuri, bakuris Semdeg dajda farsman, kaci uZluri, sumbatis Semdgom mefed dajda bagrat regveni, mokvda regveni, sumbat, daviT da sxva mefeni~ ( `Tamar Razneli~, Tavi 4, str. 2-3)

aseTia mwerlis azriT saqarTvelos oficialuri istoria. amis sawinaaRmdegod poemaSi `Tamar Razneli~ mweralma daxata saxalxo gmiri -- bero dvaliZe, romelic dampyrobTa winaaRmdeg brZolaSi gauZRveba xalxs. Zveli politikuri yofis kritikiT a. furcelaZe gamodis saxelmwifoebrivi simtkicisa da Zlieri adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis momxred. qveynis saTaveSi unda iseTi gonieri da gamocdili strategi idges, rogoric giorgi saakaZe iyo. istoriul TxzulebebSi mwerali gvixatavs qarTveli qalis, qarTveli dedis gmirul saxeebs. qeTevan dedofali sayvareli gmiria mwerlisa, romlis patriotizmze da gamZleobaze bevrs msjelobs rogorc gamokvlevaSi, ise mxatvrul TxzulebebSi. poemaSi `Tamar Razneli~ dawvrilebiT aris aRwerili qeTevanis wameba. amasTan erTad, masSi daxatulia meore Tavdadebuli qarTveli qalis, givi Raznelis asulis -- Tamaris saxe, romlis simtkices veraviTari muqara ver aryevs. aseTive saxe qarTveli qalisa gaxlavT xerxeuliZeTa deda poemidan `cxra Zma~. keTilSobili aRmzrdeli brZolis velze istumrebs Svilebs da Tavadac gmirulad ibrZvis. istoriul-patriotuli Tema aqvs mwerals damuSavebuli, agreTve, piesaSi `asuli israelisa~. a. furcelaZe kargi ostatia Temis amorCevisa. mwerali cxovrebas misdevs fexdafex da yvela mniSvnelovan movlenas cocxlad da swrafad exmaureba. igi qadagebs arsebuli wyobilebis winaaRmdeg brZolas. Tamamad amxels sazogadoebrivi yofis uaryofiT mxareebs, dauRalavad ebrZvis qarTveli inteligenciis uniaTobasa da SemoqmedebiTi Zalebis modunebas, sityviTa da laparakiT gatacebas, moiTxovs praqtikuli saqmianobis gaZlierebas da jvarze akravs molaybesa da uxerxemlos. mweralma gailaSqra burJuaziul-kapitalisturi sazogadoebis mtacebluri interesebis winaaRmdeg da araerTgan amxila misi mgluri gautanloba. mweralma amxila xelisuflebisa da xalxis moTxovnilebaTa SeuTanxmeblobac. a. furcelaZe Tavisuflebis mqadagebeli iyo, gansakuTrebiT uyvarda TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli adamiani da xalxi. didi gatacebiT eweoda igi garibaldis pirovnebisa da moRvaweobis popularizacias. a. furcelaZis Semoqmedeba aqtualuri da ideurad Ronieria, magram, samwuxarod, mxatvrulobas naklebi yuradReba aqvs daTmobili. mwerali Semoqmedebas iyenebs saqadageblad, azrTa gadmosacemad. amitomacaa, rom misi Txzulebebi aRsavsea ideebiT, SinaarsiT da, naklebad, gamoqandakebuli formiTa da saxeebiT. nawarmoebis aRnagobac Taviseburi gaaCnda mas. didi masala da didi Tema saSualebas ar aZlevs konkretuli momentebi warmoadginos da maTze yuradRebis gamaxvilebiT, mxatvruli detalizaciis saSualebiT, isini tipurni gaxados. masalis siuxve xSirad Warbobs da amitom xSiradve mis TxzulebebSi gvian Cndeba mTavari gmiri. nawarmoebTa stili gaubraloebulia, mwerals uyvars iseT ambavTa detalizacia, romelnic siaxlis TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovans aras warmoadgenen, mis TxzulebaTa gmirebis gvarebic winaswar gansazRvraven maTs xasiaTs: nacarkveraZe, burtylaZe ( `qitesa~), tablaZe ( `marTa~), medgariZe (`vai marTalTa~) da sxvani, da mkiTxvels winas196

war awvdian cnobebs gmiris xasiaTis Taobaze. mwerali uxvad mimarTavs sizmris motivs. a. furcelaZis mxatvruli Semoqmedebisa da publicistikis ena aRsavsea rusicizmebiT, rac avtors sruliad ar eCoTireba. daniel WonqaZes ki usayvedurebda barbarizmebiT nawarmoebis gadatvirTvas. misi saubari yovelTvis saamo mosasmeni yofila, `laparakSi enawylianobas iCendao~, `antoni rom saxlSi Semova, kedlebic ki iciniano~, -- gadmogvcemen memuaristebi. prof. simon xundaZe, werilSi `anton furcelaZe da egnate ninoSvili~1 werda, rom am or mweralsa da publicists Soris arsebobs ideuri naTesaoba, rac istoriuli TanamimdevrobiT unda aixsnaso, rom a. furcelaZem Tavisi mxatvruli Semoqmedebis TematikiTa da publicistikis motivebiT istoriulad Seamzada niadagi eg.ninoSvilis aRmosaceneblad. is, rac ver SeZlo an.furcelaZem Tavisi epoqis xasiaTis gamo, sacnauri da SesaZlebeli gaxda eg. ninoSvilisaTvis, radgan man wina epoqis mweralTa da a. furcelaZis gamocdilebiT isargebla da gadaiqca mecnieruli socializmis mimdevrado. s.xundaZe aCvenebs im adgils, romelic epyra a. furcelaZes qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azris istoriaSi. a. furcelaZem wina rigSi wamoayena pirovneba, misi goneba da Segneba, mas daavala sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis Secvla, magram es Segneba dairRva istoriuli ganviTarebis kanoniT, radgan kapitalizmis ganviTarebam da axli sawarmoo urTierTobis damyarebam sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis gardamqmnel faqtorad proletariatis revoluciuri Zala daadgina. a. furcelaZem Tavis Tanamedrove mwerlebis msgavsad kritikuli realizmis meTodi gamoiyena. mwerali Tavis inteligent gmirebTan erTad aRSofoTebulia arsebuliT, ibrZvis mis gardasaqmnelad, magram, Tu mas maTTan erTad mklavi usustdeba, imis gamo, rom maSindeli sazogadoebrivi Segneba da azri met da sxvagvar SesaZleblobas ver qmnida. mwerlis pirovnebaSi ki imdenad didi iyo miswrafeba revoluciuri gardaqmnis ideisaken, rom Tavisi erTi gmiri, radgan mas saqarTveloSi samoqmedo asparezi ver mounaxa, frang komunarebSi gauria da `kacis simarTlisaTvis~ msxverplad Seswira. simarTlisaTvisa da adamianobisaTvis brZola amoqmedebda anton furcelaZes, rac man Taviseburad gamoxata Tavis mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi.

1

Jurn. `qarTuli mwerloba~, 1929, 11-12.

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XIX saukunis 80-iani wlebi

XIX s. 80-iani wlebi rTuli sazogadoebriv-politikuri viTarebiT xasiaTdeba. erTi mxriv erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli da revoluciur-demokratiuli moZraobis aRmavloba, meore mxriv, reaqciis gaZliereba. literaturasa da, saerTod, kulturul cxovrebas tons jer kidev samocianelebi aZleven, magram samwerlo asparezze ukve gamoCndnen xalxosnuri mwerlobis warmomadgenlebi. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania is garemoeba, rom swored 80-ian wlebSi moRvaweobas iwyeben a. yazbegi da vaJa-fSavela. 80-iani wlebidan iwyeben saqmianobas dramatuli sazogadoeba da qarTuli Teatri, qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba, Cndeba axali perioduli gamocemebi da a. S. asparezze gamodis kritikosTa da publicistTa axali Taoba. mwerlobis ganmsazRvreli mxatvruli meTodi kvlav realizmia, Tumca empiriul-naturalisturi tendenciebic araa gamonaklisi. yovelive aman ganapiroba 80-iani wlebis Taviseburebani saqarTveloSi. *** 70-iani wlebis dasasrulsa da 80-iani wlebis damdegs sagrZnoblad gaZlierda reaqcia mTels ruseTis imperiaSi. miT ufro es igrZnoboda SemoerTebul qveynebSi, sadac socialuri Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZolas erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobac emateboda. saqarTveloSi gaZlierda Seviwroeba erovnuli enisa, Teatrisa, sxvadasxva kulturul-saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebisa. amitom iyo, rom qarTveli mwerlebi, uwinares ki qarTveli samocianelebi Seupovrad ebrZodnen ruseTis xelisuflebis koloniur RonisZiebebs. upirvelesi sagani zrunvisa qarTuli ena iyo. imxanad xelisufleba yovelnairad cdilobda mSobliuri ena ganedevna TviT dawyebiTi skolebidanac ki. amas mohyva i. WavWavaZis, a. wereTlis, s. mesxis, k.lorTqifaniZis, i. gogebaSvilis da sxvaTa saprotesto gamosvla qarTul presaSi. 1881 wels i. WavWavaZe kategoriulad acxadebda: `radganac arsebiTi niSani erovnebisa, misi guli da suli -- enaa, amitomac tlanqi xeli umecaris moxeleobisa yvelazed uwinares enas miswvda. Tu romelsame moxelis xels am SemTxvevaSi azri ram amoqmedebda, eg is azri iyo, rom saxelmwifo enazed ar laparakobeno. ugunureba am azrisa cxadia~.1 aseve icavda Cveni inteligencia qarTuli Teatris erovnulobas. 1879 wels Camoyalibda qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoeba da qarTuli mudmivi Teatri. profesiuli Teatris aRdgenas ganuzomeli mniSvneloba eniWeboda. mas biZgi unda mieca ara marto qarTuli mwerlobisa da, kerZod, dramaturgiis aRmavlobisaTvis, aramed gaeZlierebina erovnuli TviTSegneba, daerazma xalxi brZolisaTvis damoukideblobis mosapoveblad. qarTuli Teatris swored aseTi suliskveTeba ar moewona mefis ruseTis xelisuflebas. amitom iyo, rom d. erisTavis mier gadmokeTebuli v.sardus piesis -- `samSoblos~ dadgmas katkovis Savrazmuli gazeTi -- ` ~ Seuracxmyofeli weriliT gamoexmaura. qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoebis da qarTuli Teatris erT-erTi sulisCamdgmeli i. WavWavaZe iyo, kaci, romelmac Rirseuli pasuxi gasca katkovis gazeTs ( `katkovis pasuxad~, droeba, 1882, 40). aseve mkacrad gamoepasuxa katkovs a. wereTeli `droebasa~ da `kavkazSi~. erovnuli meobis dacva, erovnuli istoriisa da kulturis warmoCena, saerTod, erovnuli Rirsebis xelSeuxebloba qarTvel samocianelebs kvlav upirve1

i . W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. V, 1955, gv. 80-81.

les amocanad esaxebaT. reaqciis periodSi, gansakuTrebiT aleqsandre meoris mkvlelobis Semdeg, es problemebi kidev ufro mwvaved wamoiWra. amitom acxadebs ilia ase dabejiTebiT, rom `saxelmwifo erTobas ar uSlis arc rjulisa da arc eris sxvadasxvaoba~. ilia kategoriulad icavs calkeuli eris uflebebs, misi sityviT, `ruseTi erTi imisTana saxelmwifoa, saca sxvadasxva tomisa da enis erni scxovroben, da mere, ise, rom TavianT mama-papeul miwa-wyalzed Sejgufebulni arian da ara SigadaSig gafantulni. amitomac eris udidess sapolitiko sagans ruseTisas Seadgens jer is, rom sxvadasxva tomis erni rogor unda moewyon SinaobaSi saTiTaod, da mere -- rogor unda moTavsdnen saxelmwifosTan... yvelas unda winaswar scodnoda, rom dResa Tu xvale ruseTi iZulebuli Seiqneboda daeniSna samzRvari saxelmwifo moqmedebisa sazogadod da erovnebisa calked da erTisa da meoris moedani cal-calke Semoefargla ...ruseTs ara hqonda da arc dReisaqamomde aqvs gamorkveuli da dadgenili deda azri maszed, Tu sad Tavdeba ufleba erovnebisa da sad iwyeba saxelmwifosi~.1 qarTveli samocianelebi 80-ian wlebSic dabejiTebiT eZieben socialuri da erovnuli Tavisuflebis gzebs da swored am xanebSi erTxel kidev gancxadda i. WavWavaZisa da mis TanamoazreTa erovnuli koncefcia, romlis mixedviTac, batonymobis gauqmebis Semdeg, mTeli yuradReba erovnul problemaze unda gadaetanaT. uwinares yovlisa, saWiro iyo erovnuli Tavisuflebis mopoveba. es ideali yvela wodebas aerTianebda erTi droSis qveS. amitom aRar iyo saWiro wodebriv winaaRmdegobaTa gaRrmaveba, maTze yuradRebis gamaxvileba. mTeli Cveni erovnuli energia unda warimarTos erTi miznisaken, Cven Sidaklasobrivi brZola aras gvargebs, igi mxolod dagvasustebs. i. WavWavaZe, romelmac kargad icis, rom evropis istoria klasTa brZolis istoriaa, saqarTvelos mimarT gamonakliss uSvebs ( `cxovreba da kanoni~). Cven patara eri varT, msjelobs ilia da yovelgvari Sinagani winaaRmdegoba CvenTvis momakvdinebelia. amitom man warsuli wodebrivi winaaRmdegobebis gaxsenebac aRar miiCnia saWirod. wodebebma xeli unda gauwodon erTmaneTs, unda daingres is zRude, romelic saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi aRimarTa maT Soris socialur-ekonomikuri sxvaobis bazaze. unda aRsdges `Catexili xidi~. es azria mxatvrulad xorcSesxmuli `oTaraanT qvrivSi~. ra safuZvelze moxdeba aseTi feriscvaleba? -ilia, ra Tqma unda, iseTi gulubryvilo ar aris, rom fiqrobdes, TiTqos sakmarisia Segneba, `namusis qudis~ daxurva da yovelive mogvardebao (mkvlevarTa sakmaod didi nawili aseT Sexedulebas miawers i. WavWavaZes). ilias azriT, erTianma Sromam unda gardaqmnas adamiani, mTlianad sazogadoeba, maSin moxdeba `maSvralis gankaceba~ da sruli wodebrivi gaTanasworeba, `Sromis sufeva mova maSina~, rogorc es jer kidev `aCrdilSi~ iwinaswarmetyvela iliam. Tavisufali Sroma `Tavisufal miwaze~ -- goeTes faustis dedaazria magram, rogor unda damyarebuliyo es `Sromis sufeva~? cxadia, iliasTvis igi ar gulisxmobda klasTa brZolas, aramed, rogorc aRvniSneT, erovnuli mTlianobis ideas emyareboda. erovnul RonisZiebaTa gamoxatuleba iyo ara marto qarTuli dramatuli sazogadoebis, qarTuli Teatris da saTavadaznauro bankis daarseba, aramed iseTi didi kulturul-saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebis Camoyalibebac, rogoric iyo `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba~. am wamowyebis iniciatorebi, uwinares yovlisa, isev da isev qarTveli samocianelebi iyvnen. `qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba~ aris ara mxolod kulturuli dawesebuleba, aramed Cveni erovnuli TavSesafari~, -- vkiTxulobT am sazogadoebis 1904 wlis 15 maisis angariSSi da marTlac, daarsebis dRidan (1879 w. 15

1

i . W a v W a v a Z e , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli, t. V, 1955, gv. 79-80.

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maisi, gamgeobis pirveli Tavmjdomare dim. yifiani), vidre likvidaciamde (1927 w. ivnisi) sazogadoeba Taosnobda mraval erovnul wamowyebas, igi Cveni kulturis centrad iqca. am sazogadoebis mfarvelobiTa da xelSewyobiT daarsda sxvadasxva tipis qarTuli skola, biblioTekebi, sazogadoeba exmareboda axlad daarsebul qarTul Teatrs, Jurnal-gazeTebs, beWdavda saxelmZRvaneloebsa da sakiTxav wignebs, uniSnavda stipendiebs ruseTsa da evropis umaRles saswavleblebSi moswavle qarTvel studentebs da a. S. qarTvel moRvaweTa aseTi patriotuli RonisZiebani, cxadia, oficialuri xelisuflebis ukmayofilebas iwvevda. xSiri iyo konfliqti, represiebic. amis erTi yvelaze cxadi dadasturebaa dimitri yifianis tragikuli aRsasruli. rogorc cnobilia, 1886 w. Seuracxyofilma seminarielma ioseb laRiaSvilma mokla seminariis Savrazmeli reqtori Cudecki. egzarxosma pavlem oficialurad, eklesiis ambionidan SeaCvena laRiaSvili da mTeli qarTveli eri. maSin d. yifianma egzarxoss miswera mkacri werili da mosTxova saqarTvelo daetovebina, -- `...Tqveni Rirsebisa da wodebis gadasarCenad gmarTebT, viTarca Seuracxmyofeli, dauyovnebliv gaecaloT Tqvens mier Seuracxyofil mxares~. d. yifiani xelisuflebam gadaayena quTaisis guberniis Tavadaznaurobis marSlis Tanamdebobidan da gadaasaxla stavropols, sadac igi 1887 w. muxanaTurad mokles. am faqtma aRaSfoTa qarTveli sazogadoeba. d. yifianis dakrZalva erovnul manifestaciad iqca. akaki am tragedias gamoexmaura brwyinvale leqsebiT: `ganTiadi~ da `qarTveli ucxoeTSi~. *** rogorc aRvniSneT, 80-ian wlebSi TavianT aqtiur samwerlo da sazogadoebriv moRvaweobas agrZeleben samocianelebi. am periodSi mravali TvalsaCino mxatvruli, publicisturi, literaturul-kritikuli da pedagogiuri nawarmoebi Seqmnes: i. WavWavaZem, a. wereTelma, n. nikolaZem, i. gogebaSvilma da sxv. am xanebSi samwerlo asparezze gamoCndnen a. yazbegi da vaJa-fSavela, romlebic, marTalia, ZiriTadad samocianelTa tradiciebs agrZeleben, magram amave dros didad afarToeben qarTuli mwerlobis ares Tematikurad da Janrobrivad. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani iyo qarTvel mTielTa yofis Cveneba, razec aqamde met-naklebad bundovani warmodgena hqondaT barSi. am mwerlebma qarTvel mkiTxvels gaucnobieres mTis yofa, zne-Cveulebani, iqaur mcxovrebTa idealebi, miswrafebani; rac mTavaria, uCvenes, rom mTas barisagan gansxvavebuli interesebi ar gaaCnia, rom maT erTi satkivari aqvT. amiT a. yazbegma da vaJa-fSavelam kidev ufro warmoaCines erTiani saqarTvelos idea da qarTvel mkiTxvels ganumtkices rwmena, rom gaerTianebuli brZola samSoblos TavisuflebisaTvis yvela qarTvelis sazrunavia. 80-ian wlebSive gaSales TavianTi literaturuli da praqtikuli saqmianoba qarTvelma xalxosnebma. marTalia, 70-ian wlebSi maT ukve Camoayalibes TavianTi jgufebi saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi, magram literaturul asparezze erTiani poziciiT isini 80-ian wlebSi gamovidnen. swored am dros moaxerxes maT sakuTari Jurnalis, `imedis~ daarseba (1881-1883). cnobil xalxosan beletristebTan erTad (rogorebic iyvnen: n. lomouri, s. mgalobliSvili, a. furcelaZe, e. gabaSvili), moRvaweobas iwyeben sxva mwerlebi da publicistebic: s.WrelaSvili, g. maiaSvili (zdaneviCi), m. gurgeniZe, z. gulisaSvili, m. asaTiani, n. xizanaSvili... es jgufi xalxosani mwerlebisa upirispirdeba samocianelebs da polemikas iwyebs `droeba~-`iveriis~ winaaRmdeg. es axali Taoba samocianelebs usayvedurebs, rom isini ar icnoben xalxis cxovrebas, mis satkivars, ar iZiebdnen glexobis mZime mdgomareobis namdvil mizezebs; samocianelTa msjeloba ufro ganyenebuli xasiaTisa iyo da iseT problemebs utrialebda, romelTa gaSuqebas ar SeiZleboda raime pozitiuri, praqtikuli Sedegi mohyoloda. erovnuli sakiTxiT gatacebam

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Cvens samocianelebs TiTqos xalxis saarsebo moTxovnebi daaviwya da a.S. magaliTad, g. maiaSvili Tavis statiaSi `werili Cven sazogadoebriv moRvaweTa mimarT~ (`iveria~, 1882) pirdapir acxadebs: `ar SeiZleba reforma moaxdino romelisame sazogadoebis cxovrebis nawilisa, Tu igi ucnobia da gamourkveveli. amisaTvis aris saWiro svindisieri da yovelmxrivi Seswavla xalxis ekonomiuris cxovrebis yovel mxareTa. mxolod amgvar Seswavlaze damyarebiT SeiZleba daaskvna esa Tu is didi azri, gamoikvlio xelmZRvaneli principi da gzis maCvenebeli naTeli WeSmariti, romlis SemweobiT SesaZlebeli iqneba moipovos kacma zomani da RonisZiebani saWiroebaTa dasakmayofileblad, damaSvral da tanjul mSromelTa gaWirvebis da uilajobis cremlebis mosawmendaT. marTlac, viciT gana cota mainc wesierad exlandeli mdgomareoba xalxisa? SegviZlian vuCvenoT uaxloesi mizezni xalxis wuxilisa, gaWirvebisa da gaRaribebisa?~ qarTuli xalxosnoba rusuli e.w. `narodnikobis~ gamoZaxili iyo. narodnikobam ruseTSi farTo politikuri moZraobis xasiaTi miiRo. misi upirvelesi mizani arsebuli weswyobilebis Secvla, glexuri ruseTis ganTavisufleba da socializmis damyareba iyo. glexoba iyo socialuri Zala, romelsac unda moexdina es cvlilebebi. amitom glexobis gaTviTcnobiereba, masSi ganaTlebisa da revoluciuri suliskveTebis Setana, saerTod, xalxis, glexobis yofis Seswavla misi cxovrebis gaumjobeseba iyo narodnikebis moRvaweobis umTavresi mizani. ruseTSi arsebuli Temuri miwaTmflobeloba () unda yofiliyo safuZveli socialisturi sazogadoebis damyarebisa. amitom ilaSqrebdnen es moRvaweebi kapitalizmis ganviTarebis winaaRmdeg ruseTSi. maT miaCndaT, rom adgilobriv TaviseburebaTa wyalobiT ruseTi ascdeboda evropis ganviTarebis gzas, ascdeboda kapitalistur urTierTobas da pirdapir gadavidoda socializmSi. miuxedavad mravali arsebiTi Secdomisa, es revolucionerebi garkveul TanagrZnobasac imsaxurebdnen, ramdenadac ebrZodnen arsebul reJims ukeTesi momavlis saxeliT. bevri qarTveli xalxosani ara marto saqarTveloSi, aramed ruseTSic moRvaweobda. magram unda iTqvas isic, rom xalxosnoba ar iyo maincdamainc organuli movlena qarTuli sazogadoebrivi yofisa da literaturisaTvis, ramdenadac `narodnikoba~ wminda rusul movlenas warmoadgenda. amitomacaa, rom, miuxedavad rusuli `narodnikobis~ aSkara gavlenisa Cvens sazogadoebriv azrovnebasa da mwerlobaze, xalxosnoba saqarTveloSi mainc sakmaod bevr ganmasxvavebel moments warmoaCens. uwinares yovlisa, es mJRavndeba Temuri miwaTmflobelobis apologiisadmi srul gulgrilobaSi; aseve, kapitalisturi ganviTarebis kritika ar aris wamyvani Tema qarTuli xalxosnuri literaturisa da publicistikisa, piriqiT, zogjer Cveni xalxosani publicistebi adgilobriv vaWroba-mrewvelobis ganviTarebasac ki uWeren mxars; dasasrul, isini ver Semoifarglnen mxolod socialur-ekonomikuri sakiTxebiT da, nebsiT Tu uneblieT, marTalia araTanmimdevrulad, erovnul problemebsac Seexnen. am mxriv, qarTvelma xalxosnebma xarki mouxades mSobliuri mwerlobis did tradicias. amitom ar aris gasakviri, rom Semdeg xalxosanTa erTi nawili ilias `iveriam~ Seifara. *** 80-ian wlebSi kidev ufro Rrmavdeba ara marto literaturuli, aramed sazogadoebriv-politikuri kontaqtebi qarTvel da rus mowinave inteligencias Soris. qarTveli mamuliSvilebis brZolas sakuTari erovnuli uflebebis dasacavad mxars uWerdnen da exmarebodnen ruseTSi gamoCenili mwerlebi da sazogado moRvaweebi. SemTxveviTi ar iyo, rom ilias mZafri polemikuri statia `katkovis pasuxad~ maSinve gadabeWda progresulma rusulma gazeTma `moskovski telegrafma~. am xanebSi n. nikolaZe TavgamodebiT ibrZvis Tavisi maswavleblisa da megobris -- n.

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CerniSevskis gasanTavisufleblad (manve pirvelma gamosca sazRvargareT `CerniSevskis Txzulebani~). iTargmneba rusuli klasikuri literatura, idgmeba a. ostrovskisa da sxvaTa piesebi qarTul scenaze. amave dros qarTuli mwerlobis calkeuli nimuSebic iTargmneba rusulad da xelmisawvdomi xdeba rusi mkiTxvelisaTvis. saerTod, unda aRiniSnos, rom 80-ian wlebSi didad gafarTovda mTargmnelobiTi saqmianoba CvenSi. sakmaod xSirad qveyndeba evropel mweralTa Txzulebebic. am saqmianobaSi ukve aqtiurad monawileoben qarTveli qalebic. unda iTqvas, rom faqtobrivad am periodSi eyreba safuZveli qarTul sabavSvo literaturasac, uwinares yovlisa, iseTi mwerlebis wyalobiT, rogorebic iyvnen: i. gogebaSvili, a. wereTeli, i. WavWavaZe, vaJa-fSavela n. lomouri, e. gabaSvili, a. TumaniSvili -wereTlisa da sxv. literaturuli saqmianobis aseT aRmavlobas, ra Tqma unda, didad Seuwyo xeli qarTuli presis ganviTarebam. 80-ian wlebSi ukve sakmaod bevri gazeTi da Jurnali gamodis. zogierTis dasaxelebac sakmarisia: gaz. `droeba~ (1866-1883), Jurnali `imedi~ (1881-1883), gaz. `Sroma~ (1881-1883), `nobaTi~ (1883-1885, sabavSvo Jurnali `pedagogiuris damatebiT mSobelTa da aRmzrdelTaTvis~), Jurn. `qarTuli biblioTeka~ (1883), gaz. `Teatri~ (1885-1890), gaz. `iveria~ (1886-1906, manamde gamodioda Jurnalis saxiT), weliwdeuli `saqarTvelos kalendari~ (18881905), sabavSvo Jurnali `jejili~ (1890-1920) da sxv. am gamocemebs ukve win uZRoda qarTuli presis garkveuli tradicia da gamocdileba.

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niko lomouri (1852-1915)

biografia

cnobili qarTveli mwerlis -- niko lomouris samSoblo-kuTxea qarTli. swored goris maxloblad, sofel arboSi, 1852 wlis 19 Tebervals daibada niko lomouri. am sofelSi umetesad `qarTuli patiosnebiT savse~ mSromeli adamianebi cxovrobdnen. mwerlis mama iosebic -- miuxedavad imisa, rom mRvdeli iyo, Tavis meuRle efemia gvimraZis qalTan erTad, mZime, glexkacur Sromas eweoda. ase rom, glexkacuri Sromis simkacrisa da keTilSobilebis Sesaxeb Sexeduleba niko lomourisaTvis naucbadevad SeZenili azri ki ar iyo, aramed, imTaviTve, momavali mwerlis sasicocxlo atmosferodan iRebda saTaves da, rasakvirvelia, saTanado inteleqtualuri gawafvis niadagze, mogvianebiT sxva STambeWdaobasa da damarwmunebel Zalmosilebas iZenda mis SemoqmedebaSi. 1860 wels patara niko goris sasuliero saswavlebelSi miabares, Semdeg ki Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi Cairicxa. am droidan iwyeba niko lomouris gamorCeulad azriani SinaarsiT savse cxovreba. cnobismoyvare da bejiTi ymawvilisaTvis pirdapir macocxlebeli mniSvneloba moipova saswavlebelSi yofnam, radgan, sabednierod, Cveni eris didi moamage da moZRvari iakob gogebaSvili moevlina n. lomours mfarvelad. `mas vbaZavdiT yvelaferSi, xSirad wvrilmanebSic ki, mag. laparakis kiloSi, siarulSi da sxva~ -- igonebs mwerali. didi qarTveli pedagogis mier gansakuTrebuli taqtiT danergilma humanurobis grZnobam asazrdova niko lomouris rogorc literaturuli, aseve praqtikul-sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis Sinaarsi. Tbilisis sasuliero saswavlebelSi swavlis dros -- `i. WavWavaZec gavicaniT~ -- aRniSnavs n. lomouri. `gansakuTrebuli zegavlena moaxdina Cemze `glaxis naambobma~, romelSic iseTi aRtacebuli grZnobiT aris aRwerili glexkaci. Cveneburi glexebi pataraobidanve miyvardnen, rogorc naTesavebi... moxsenebulma wignma axla pativiscema aRZra Cems gulSi glexebisa~ -- ganagrZobs mwerali. amave periodSi gaecno igi CerniSevskis, dobrolubovis, gleb uspenskis, nekrasovis nawerebs. `amaT erTianad gaafarToves Cemi warmodgena glexis Sesaxeb~ -- aRniSnavs n. lomouri. TbilisSi swavlis dros gaeRviZa mas SemoqmedebiTi interesebic. 1871 wels. `mnaTobSi~-c daibeWda n. lomouris leqsi. 1875 wels niko lomouri kievSi miemgzavreba. misi didi survilisda miuxedavad, samedicino ganaTleba mieRo da bavSvTa eqimi gamxdariyo -- n. lomourma nivTieri gaWirvebis gamo, ver moaxerxa survilis asruleba da iZulebuli gaxda sasuliero akademiaSi Sesuliyo. am wlebSi n. lomouris mxatvruli interesebi savsebiT momwifda. amaSi didi damsaxureba miuZRvis ilia WavWavaZes, akaki wereTels da iakob gogebaSvils. literaturul niWTan erTad, n. lomouri pedagogiuri alRoTic aRmoCnda dajildoebuli. etyoba imdenad gansakuTrebuli iyo iakob gogebaSvilisa da sxva qarTvel pedagogTa qceva-saqmianobis gavlenis Zala axalgazrda n. lomourze, rom igi sakuTari moRvaweobis qvakuTxedad aqcevs sxvis niWze zrunvas, mis movlasa da dafasebas. niko lomourisaTvis STamagonebeli mniSvneloba moipova ilia WavWavaZis, akaki wereTlis, iakob gogebaSvilis, niko cxvedaZis saqmianobam, 203

maTma mamuliSvilurma miswrafebebma. Tu ara am saTavidan nasazrdoebi didi grZnoba mamuliSvilobisa, aba, sxva ra mizani amoZravebda qarTlidan kievSi Casul sasuliero akademiis student niko lomours, rom cxovrebis megzuroba, literaturuli maswavlebloba gaewia kievSi imereTidan Cayvanil, mSobliur enadaviwyebul, samxedro gimnaziis moswavle daviT kldiaSvilisaTvis -- daviT kldiaSvilisaTvis, romelic Semdeg qarTuli literaturis mSvenebad da siamayed iqca. niko lomouris pedagogiuri unari da mamuliSviluri gznebiT anTebuli guli farTo samoqmedo asparezs eZebda. mwerlis cxovrebaSi es xanac dadga. 1879 wels igi samSobloSi brundeba; muSaobas iwyebs Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi, sadac rCeba 1883 wlis Semodgomamde, Semdeg ki n. lomouri gadmodis mSobliur qalaq gorSi. samsaxuris adgils icvlis mwerali ara materialuri, an kerZo interesiT, aramed wminda moqalaqeobrivi motiviT: mas miaCnia, rom imxanad aucilebeli iyo swored q. gors Semateboda sazogado moRvaweobis suliskveTebiT aRsavse Tundac erTi pedagogi. aq, gorSi, gardacvalebamde atara mweralma maswavleblis sapatio da sapasuxismgeblo tvirTi. bunebiT maswavlebeli iyo niko lomouri: niWis aRmoCena axarebda da yvelafers akeTebda, raTa Cveni qveynisaTvis saimedo mamuliSvilebi aRezarda. Tavad did sulier moZRvarTa -- ilias, akakis, iakob gogebaSvilis Tayvanismcemeli n. lomouri, TviTonac samagaliTo aRmzrdelad da moZRvrad iqca. misi mowafeebi, Semdeg cnobili mwerlebi da moRvaweebi: daviT kldiaSvili, baCana, Tedo razikaSvilebi, ia ekalaZe (iakob cincaZe), anastasia erisTav-xoStaria, natalia aziani, folkloristi grigol afSinaSvili, varlam burjanaZe, cnobili eTnografi da maswavlebeli niko janaSia, bolomde mwerlis did Tayvanismcemlebad darCnen. niko lomouri im adamianTa ricxvs ekuTvnoda, romelTac savsebiT gacnobierebuli aqvT TavianTi cxovrebis mizani: es iyo pirovneba, romelic mxolod sazogadoebrivad Rirebuli movlenebiT cocxlobda da suldgmulobda. man sxvisgan daTesili sikeTis fasi icoda da didi energiis wviT axerxebda am Zvirad Rirebuli saunjis gadacemas mis irgvliv myof adamianebSi. niko lomouri uaRresad inteligenturi, gawonasworebuli pirovneba iyo. man kargad icoda, Tu ras niSnavda XIX saukunis saqarTvelosaTvis sazogadoebrivi grZnobiT savse moqalaqe da, Tavisi SesaZleblobebis kvalobazed, yvelafers akeTebda sxvebisaTvis, sazogadoebisaTvis. umwikvloba, uangaroba iyo misi xasiaTis niSandoblivi mxare da am Tvisebas ayenebda igi sxvaSic yvelaze maRla. sisadave da ubraloeba n. lomours adamianis sulier samkaulad miaCnia da es misi yofiTi cxovrebis iersaxeSic irekleboda. am upretenzio, tkbilad moqarTule inteligent kacs didi zneobrivi sagzali aRmoaCnda, radgan mravali Rirseuli qarTvelisaTvis STamagoneblad da gzismkvlevad mogvevlina igi. simarTliT, gulwrfelobiT, sazogado saqmisaTvis Tavdadebis didi grZnobiT, pasuxismgeblobisa da movaleobis Rrma SegnebiT ipyrobda niko lomouri TanamedroveTa yuradRebas da amitomac iyo, rom mis ubralo sityvasac gansakuTrebuli fasi gaaCnda qarTveli inteligenciis TvalSi. niko lomouri ar iyo gamorCeuli talanti, arc sagangebod produqtiuli mwerali yofila is. zogierTi kritikosi usayvedurebda kidec, rom mas xangrZlivi SemoqmedebiTi Seyovnebebi hqonda. sxvadasxva dros `levan cavelis~, `gorelis~, `arboelis~, `seminarielis~, `Tqveneburis~, `provincielis~, `n. l -s~, `n. l-ri~-s fsevdonimebiTa da inicialebiT niko lomouris Txzulebebi ibeWdeboda Jur. `mnaTobSi~, gaz. `droebaSi~, `iveriaSi~, Jur. `TeatrSi~, `moambeSi~, `ganaTlebaSi~ da sxv. niko lomouri lite204

raturuli da sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis sidiadisa da maradiulobis Segnebas uviTarebda sxvebs da amiTac maRldeboda igi TanamedroveTa TvalSi. ukanasknelad, 1915 w. susxian zamTarSi (5. II), igi tkbili, amaRelvebeli, swored `moyvasis siyvaruliT~ savse sityviT, TviTonac janmrTelobaSeryeuli, goris sadgurze gamoeTxova Cveni eris sulier moZRvars, Tavis did literaturul maswavlebelsa da qomags, didebuli akaki wereTlis neSts. amis Semdeg mwerali avadmyofobda da 1915 wlis aprilSi 63 wlis asakSi gardaicvala. niko lomouri daasaflaves gorSi, wm. samebis eklesiis galavanSi, saidanac 1935 wels misi neSti qalaqis baRSi gadaitanes.

niko lomouris Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi

1. niko lomouris Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi tendenciebis gaTvaliswineba arsebiTad misi moqalaqeobriv-literaturuli mrwamsisa da TxzulebaTa Tematikis daxasiaTebas gulisxmobs. am mwerlis literaturuli debiuti 1869 wels Sedga, roca man gaz. `droebaSi~ dastamba leqsi (i. beraZe). amis Semdeg n. lomouris leqsebi da poeturi Targmanebi erTxans kidev qveyndeboda qarTuli presis furclebze, magram isini garda erTisa (`yinva da patara mowafe~), arc maSin da, cxadia, arc axla ar iqceven mkiTxvelis yuradRebas. niko lomouris, rogorc mwerlis, mxatvruli individualobis dadgenis xanad SeiZleba miviCnioT is periodi, roca man akaki wereTlis rCeviT Tavi daaneba leqsebis weras da qarTvel sazogadoebas warudga rogorc garkveuli socialuri Tvalsazrisis mqone beletristi. Tavisi socialuri poziciis masazrdoebel wyarosa da literaturul simpaTiebze TviTon mwerali miuTiTebs, roca aRniSnavs: `avad Tu kargad vemsaxurebodi glexkacis fexze wamoyenebas. xalxosnoba, saxalxo mimarTuleba (a) gardaiqca Cemi sicocxlis gzis maCvenebel varskvlavado~. am mxriv niko lomouri sakuTari literaturuli mrwamsis CamoyalibebaSi gansakuTrebiT gaxazavda CerniSevskis, dobroliubovis, gleb uspenskisa da nekrasovis mniSvnelobas. mwerlis zemoaRniSnuli miTiTebebisa da misi SemoqmedebiTi masalis ganxilvis safuZvelze, ganmtkicebuli tradiciiT, niko lomouri xalxosani mweralia im niSnebiT, riTac gamoirCeva sofrom mgalobliSvili, Saqro (zaqaria) gulisaSvili, zogierTi niSniT anton furcelaZe, ioseb daviTaSvili da ekaterine gabaSvili. saerTod, saqarTveloSi xalxosnur ideaTa gavrcelebis geografiuli garemoc ki imTaviTve Zalze viwro iyo. ZiriTadad igi qarTliT da, kerZod, goris mazriT Semoifargla. am mxriv, Zalian sayuradReboa is momenti, rom dasavleTi saqarTvelo konkretuli masaliT xalxosnebTan araa SemoqmedebiTi interesis sagnad qceuli. es erTob mniSvnelovani faqtia. etyoba xalxosnuri suliskveTebis gamJRavnebisaTvis qarTli, sadac saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebTan SedarebiT istoriuli avbediTobis gamo, gamZafrebuli iyo aRmosavleTidan SemoWrili despotizmi, ufro met safuZvels iZleoda maRali da dabali fenis doneTa dasaSoriSoreblad. aq, erTgvarad, SedarebiT ufro mkveTri iyo gansxvaveba mebatonesa da glexs Soris. mTeli saqarTvelos masStabiT yvelaze pirquSi saxiT batonymoba swored qarTlSi mZvinvarebda. yvelaze beCav mdgomareobaSic xalxi am kuTxeSi cxovrobda. amitomac, Tuki odnavi sababi xalxosnuri ganwyobilebebis dasayrdenad SeiZleboda gaCeniliyo CvenSi, es swored niko lomouris samSoblo-kuTxe, misi mwerluri interesis sagnad qceuli saqarTvelos es saxelovani kuTxe iyo. Tuki saqarTveloSi xalxosnobis idea da ganwyobileba arsebobda, bunebrivia, es qarTlSi SeiZleboda arsebuliyo. yovelive zemoTqmulic swored

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imaze miuTiTebs, rom xalxosnoba ar iyo sayovelTao movlena saqarTveloSi, e.i. is qarTveli xalxis fsiqoeTnikuri, socialuri da kulturul-istoriuli aucileblobiT dapirobebuli movlena ar gaxldaT; maSasadame, xalxosnoba qarTuli niadagidan ar amozidula da arc qarTveli adamianis erovnul moTxovnilebad qceula misi ideebis momarjveba cxovrebasa da literaturaSi. TviT qarTvelma xalxma ar miiRo da iucxova xalxosnuri ideebi, amitomac werda xalxosnad wodebuli mwerali sofrom mgalobliSvili: `xalxi Cven ar gvikarebda, gansakuTrebiT glexobao~. qarTvel xalxosnebsac, rogorc aRniSnaven `Tavisi eris bunebis Sesabamisad ar gadaumuSavebiaT is Teoriebi, romlebic qarTuli presis furclebze gadmohqondaT... amitom saqarTveloSi `xalxosnurma ideebma ver poves gavrceleba~ (S.vaSaymaZe). imis gamo, rom qarTveli xalxis sayovelTao moTxovnilebebs ar Seadgenda Temis idealizacia, misi upiratesobis aRiareba, TviTamaRlebisa da daxvewis formaTa Zieba, amdenad, xalxosnobis Teoriuli ideebis qadagebas meqanikuri xasiaTi hqonda da amitomac Cveni erovnuli cxovrebis did mesveurebs: ilia WavWavaZesa da akaki wereTels ar gasWirvebiaT qarTvel xalxosan moRvaweTa Teoriuli Sexedulebebis kritika. 1881 da 1883 wels gamoqveynebul ilias `Sinaur mimoxilvebSi~, 1881 wels daweril akakis `pasuxsa~ da 1882 wels `droebaSi~ (44) gamoqveynebul `cxel cxel ambebSi~, ufro adre (1881) misive `mcire ram SeniSvnaSi~, kargad aris naTelyofili e.w. qarTvel xalxosanTa Teoriuli poziciis susti mxareebi, maTi araerovnuli xasiaTi da iluziuri buneba. amitomac iyo, rom literaturuli interesebis mqone xalxosnuri midrekilebebis mwerlebisTvis Zneli ar yofila poziciebis daTmoba da isini sabolood maTsave warmomSob budes, 60-ianelTa poziciebs daubrundnen. aseTi gza airCia niko lomourma, sofrom mgalobliSvilma, giga yifSiZem, anton furcelaZem, ekaterine gabaSvilma, ioseb daviTaSvilma da TiTqmis yvelam -- vinc ki mxatvruli sityvis sferoSi scada bedi. am mwerlebs da maT ideur mesveurebs, romlebic erTxans Jurn. `imedSi~ iyvnen Tavmoyrilni, zogierTma moRvawem `tetiaTa motrfialenic~ uwoda, ramac mogvianebiT niko lomouris mkacri pasuxic gamoiwvia. 1902 wels gaz. `cnobis furcelSi~ (1722, 10.11) `provincielis~ xelmoweriT daibeWda niko lomouris werili `xma provinciidan~, romelSic mwerali ekamaTeba `zangis~ fsevdonimiT moRvawe kritikoss gr. rcxilaZes. aq mwerali ganmartavs Tavis mrwamss da miuTiTebs rogorc garkveul siaxloveze xalxosan moazrovneTa Tu mweralTa samyarosTan, aseve im arsebiTad ganmasxvavebel Taviseburebebze, rac mas da misdagvar mwerlebs mijnavs xalxosnebisagan. niko lomouris TqmiT `TviT saxelwodeba im pirTa, romelnic igulisxmebian `tetiaTa motrfialebad~ uSnoulamazoTa, kuda-aznauruli dacinvaa da sxva araferi. ramdenadac rusuli sityva `~-i, moswrebuli da savsebiT damaxasiaTebelia im moRvaweTa, romelTac ekuTvniT igi, imdenaTve qarTuli `tetiaTa motrfialeni~ Seuferebeli da uazro sityvebia~... aq, erTi mxriv, damcirebulia tetiaT wodebuli glexi kaci, da meore mxriv igini, romelnic am ubadruk sulel tetias etrfian, vin dauwyebs sulel da ubadruks trfialebas Tu ar misive msgavsi?... swored azriTa da WkuiT sacodavi unda iyos is kaci, romelic glexis gulubryvilobaSi idealur umankoebas dainaxavs da mis tanjul arsebobas idiliur gabednierebaT Caracxavs. gasaocaria, rogor da saidan gamoiyvana b.zangma amgvari Seuferebeli daskvna?! rogorc Cans, `cnobis furclis~ kritikosi niko lomours xalxosnobis im nakadis warmomadgenlad Tvlis, romelic glexis kults da yovelive glexuris idealizacias eweoda da romlis TvalsaCino debulebani l. tolstois moZRvrebaSia saZiebeli. niko lomouris pasuxidan irkveva, rom is, sof. mgalobliSvilTan erTad, sxvagvari simpaTiebis matarebeli mweralia. n. lomouris msjelobidan gamomdinare, Tavisi azrovnebis wyobiTa da SemoqmedebiTi intere206

sebiT, igi emijneba kritikosis mier warmodgenil xalxosnobis nakads, roca wers: `tetiaTa motrfiale mwerlebis tipur warmomadgenlebad b.zangi racxavs s. mgalobliSvilsa da n. lomours; vgoneb, es orive pirni glexkacs daaxloebiT icnoben, misi sisxl-xorcni arian, mis cxovrebas dRevandlamde gverdze udganan da amis gamo, vgoneb, rom cotaTi mainc unda icodnen maT am cxovrebis namdvili viTareba Sinaarsi. maS, romelma tartarozma auria maT Wkua-goneba, azri imdenad, rom glexkacis tanjul cxovrebaSi idealuri umankoeba da idiliuri mSveniereba aRmoaCines? xolo me daWeSmaritebiT SemiZlian vsTqva, rom arc erTs zemoT dasaxelebuls pirs sizmraTac ar sCvenebiaT is, rasac maT kritikosi awers~. sailustraciod mwerali rogorc kritikoss, aseve mkiTxvels ase ganumartavs sakuTar TxzulebaTa Tematikur Sedgenilobasa da ideur mizandasaxulobas: `alsa~ da `qajanaSi~ -- n. lomouris TqmiT -- avtori gvixatavs im vaebas da mwuxarebas, romelTac hbadavs glexis cxovrebaSi crumorwmuneoba. mesame moTxrobaSi, romelsac saxelad `bedi ubedurTa~ hqvian, aRwerilia jer gvalvisagan da Semdeg, saSinelis niaRvrisagan gaoxrebuli sofeli. `gigo RrubelaSvilSi~ gamoyvanilia ganaTlebuli axalgazrda kaci, igi Semkulia mravalis keTilis survilebiT: enatreba qveynis samsaxuri, davrdomilis fexze dayeneba... magram mis arsebaSi aRfrTovanebuli ocneba-fantazia daSorebiTa sWarbobs mecnierul swavla-codnas, da umTavresad, amis gamo verafers axerxebs. `samfexa amirana~, `qristiani lekebi~, `yovelis mxridan~ da sxva danarCeni misi moTxrobani xataven da asuraTeben imave glexkacis gaWirvebul mdgomareobas, mwuxarebas, tanjvasa da vaebas, yvela aqedan vgoneb, cxadia n. lomouris literaturuli moRvaweobis azri!... mas unda miaqcios mkiTxvelis yuradReba glexkacis tanjul arsebobas, raTa ganaTlebulma sazogadoebam dasdos raime wamali am tanjul arsebobas, riTime gaaumjobesos, gahkurnos igi~. ase gadmoscems niko lomouri Tavis literaturul mrwamss da bunebrivia, rom misi ideuri da mxatvruli poziciis daxasiaTebisas mas saTanado angariSi unda gaewios. am msjelobis mixedviT, niko lomours araferi aqvs saerTo im narodnikul moZRvrebebTan, romlebic glexis kultsa da idealizacias, Temuri wyobis upiratesobis, rogorc adamianTa socialuri da Tanasworobis utopiur da, Tu gnebavT, fantastikur-iluziur warmosaxvas emyareboda. niko lomouri, uaryofs ra kritikosis mier miTiTebul zemoaRniSnuli xalxosnuri tendenciis arsebobas sakuTar SemoqmedebaSi, wers: `bolos b. zangi brZanebs: amgvarma mimarTulebam, Tavisi dro mosWama da amJamd mas aRaraviTari mniSvneloba ara aqvso. ara, Cemo batono, is mimarTuleba, romelsac sagnad aqvs tanjulTa sibraluli da siyvaruli da maTi Semweoba da daxmareba, ase adre ar mosWams Tavis dros~. tanjuli adamianisadmi sibraluli da siyvaruli aris niko lomouris TxzulebaTa laitmotivi da faqtebze Zaldataneba iqneboda, rom zogjer SiSvlad mocemuli ideuri Canafiqris gamo, isini romelime xalxosnuri Teoriis zegavleniT Seqmnil qmnilebebad gveRiarebina. aq, Tu maincdamainc n. lomouris simpaTiebze midgeba saqme, SeiZleba 70-iani wlebis is xalxosnuri ganwyobilebebi SevniSnoT, romelsac arc sistemuroba axasiaTebs da arc doqtrinis pretenzia aqvs. es imgvari ganwyobilebebia, romlebSic SeiZleba moTavsdes yvela im mwerlis mizanswrafva, visi gulic tanjuli adamianis sibraluliT, siyvaruliTa da daxmarebis surviliTaa savse. cxadia, aseTi ganwyobilebiTa da Tundac ideiT Sepyrobili mwerlebi mxolod xalxosnebi ar iyvnen. erT dros Teoretikosi xalxosnebi TviT glex uspenskisac ki usayvedurebdnen, rom igi Tavisi ideuri mrwamsiT meryeobda da ar iyo xalxosanTa principebis Tanmimdevruli damcveli. es savsebiT gasagebia, radgan mwerali, Tu is namdvili mweralia, arc SeiZleba Tanmimdevrulad misdevdes da icavdes romelime Teorias, mkacrad moxazul programas, an ideologiur dak207

veTas... mwerlis xedvis are yovelTvis ufro farToa, vidre romelic gnebavT Teoriuli sistema. am niadagze imis moTxovna, rom ama Tu im Semoqmedma mxatvrul nawerSi zustad ver gadmosca romelime politikuri, socialuri, filosofiuri da a.S. Tvalsazrisi, ver upasuxa mis principebs, savsebiT araliteraturuli moTxovnaa. mwerali xedavs da man unda aCvenos sinamdvilis mravalferovneba, raoden saWiro da sasurveli ideuri tendenciiT ar unda iyos dapyrobili misi goneba. ase aris es yvela mwerlis da, rasakvirvelia, niko lomouris SemTxvevaSic, romlis mimarT savsebiT samarTlianad miuTiTeben: `mwerals xalxosnoba gagebuli aqvs ara rogorc ideologia, aramed SemoqmedebiTi interesi mxolod, romelsac safuZvelSi mSobliuri qveynisa da mSromeli adamianis siyvaruli udevs. niko lomouri ar yofila TanamSromeli Jurnal `imedisa~, romelSic qarTuli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis pirobebSi gamomJRavnda e.w. `narodnikoba~.1 saerTod ki, rogorc ger. qiqoZe aRniSnavs: `rusulma xalxosnurma azrovnebam gansakuTrebiT Zlieri zegavlena politikuri publicistikis dargSi moaxdina. SedarebiT sustia misi zegavlena mxatvrul literaturaze~.2 amitomacaa, rom am TvalsazrisiT niko lomouri ufro 60-70-iani wlebis rus mweralTa da moRvaweTa xalxosnur ganwyobilebebTan amJRavnebs siaxloves, vidre mogvianebiT warmoSobil xalxosnobis ideologiur moZRvrebebTan. amitomacaa, rom mis nawarmoebebSi araferia iseTi, rac mkveTrad emijnebodes Cveni saxelovani 60-ianelebis -- iliasa da akakis mier arCeul ideur gezs. literaturaSi, niko lomourTan, iseve rogorc xalxosnad wodebul sxva qarTvel mwerlebTan, gare sinamdvilisadmi xalxosnuri tendenciebi da midgoma upiratesad Tematikuri TvalsazrisiT SemoqmedebiTi problematikis SerCeviT interesSi gamoixata. n. lomouri ar aris iseTi tipis mwerali, romelsac gaaCndes polemikur aspeqtSi warsulis did kulturul-literaturul memkvidreobasTan dapirispirebis survili, rasac mag. Jur. `imedis~ Teoriuli mesveurebi avlendnen. igi, etyoba, saTanado realisturi sifxizliT dajildoebuli moRvawe iyo, raki kargad aqvs gasigrZeganebuli, rom qarTul sinamdvileSi, Cveni didi kulturuli memkvidreobis pirobebSi, ar arsebobs araviTari safuZveli imisaTvis, rom qarTveli moRvawe da mwerali daupirispirdes Tavis sulierad masazrdoebel warsuls... winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi rus moRvaweTa ususur epigonobasTan gveqneboda saqme. n. lomours kargad aqvs Segnebuli: rani viyaviT, rani varT da momavlis perspeqtivis TvalsazrisiT met-naklebad ra sWirdeba qarTvel adamians. amitom xalxosnur tendenciaTa gamovlenis are da farglebi mis SemoqmedebaSi ganwyobilebaTa sferos ar scildeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, masalisadmi Tematikuri interesi niko lomourisaTvis is erTaderTi sferoa, sadac mJRavndeba misi xalxosnuri midrekilebani. am mxriv Tematikuris TvalsazrisiT ra SeiZleba iTqvas lomouris Semoqmedebaze?

xalxosani moRvawis anu qadagis saxe niko lomouris SemoqmedebaSi

niko lomouris mrwamsi yvelaze mkafiod gamovlinda moTxrobaSi `gigo RrubelaSvili~. rogorc cnobilia, xalxosnebma sagangebod gaxazes qadagis, moRvawis mniSvneloba xalxisaTvis. es sakiTxi bunebrivad daukavSirda ganaTlebis sakiTxs. niko lomouris am moTxrobaSi naTladaa warmodgenili xalxisaTvis ganaTlebis saWiroebis Sesaxeb msjeloba. gigo RrubelaSvilis magaliTze aq naCvenebia ganaTlebuli pirovnebis fasi da mniSvneloba adamianebisTvis. qarTul li1 2

s. x u c i S v i l i , `niko lomouri~, Sesavali werili -- n. lomouris Txz., t.I, gv. 15. g . q i q o Z e , rCeuli Txzulebani, t. III, Tb., 1965, gv. 315.

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teraturaSi erTgan ilia WavWavaZesTan (`glaxis naambobSi~) daxatuli mRvdelimaswavleblis saxiT gvaqvs aseTi nimuSi, magram niko lomourTan da, sazogadod, xalxosnebTan aseTi pirovnebis fasi da mniSvneloba gansakuTrebuli energiulobiTaa xazgasmuli. `gigo RrubelaSvilSi~ daxatuli ganaTlebuli qadagi anu propagandisti xalxis interesebis sadarajoze mdgomi axalgazrda gigo, Tavisi `ubralo, iaffasiani lurji bluziT~, `yviTeli Calis ganieri qudiT~, `yelze gadagdebuli nacrisferi SaliT~ da `xelSi karga mozrdili Zvirfasydiani wigniT~ garegnulad is dasamaxsovrebeli saxea, romelic ase iyo gavrcelebuli xalxosnuri ideebiT gamsWvaluli 70-80-wlebis rusul sinamdvileSi. aq mwerali xatavs swored am periodSi agrerigad modaSi myof xalxosnuri miswrafebebis axalgazrda kacs, romelic lamazi ocnebiT cxovrobs, aqvs mSvenierebis gancda, magram, roca misi ocneba `sacodavi qoxmaxebiT savse~ sofels, `glexkacis ganuzomel siRaribesa, mis davrdomilebas, misi azrisa, grZnobisa da gonebis dauZlurebas~ xedavs, suli tanjviT evseba. niko lomouris mier warmodgenili xalxosani moRvawis ocnebiT, qveynis sargod momarTuli praqtikuli ideebiT aRsavse pirovneba unda ebrZolos soflis ubadrukobas, mis talaxian orRobeebs, `sacodav qox-maxebs~, savses `saqonlis pativiT~, `sazizRari wumpeebis suniT~, xoleriTa da aTasnairi avadmyofobiT da, rac mTavaria, amgvari pirobebisagan gaubedurebuli, sikeTisadmi grZnobadaClungebuli, gonebiT gaxevebuli adamianebiT, romlebsac arc araferi swamT da arc arafrisa sjeraT. umaduroba aris amgvari ubadrukobis pirmSo. mwerali `gigo RrubelaSvilSi~ realisturad iZleva wminda xalxosnuri ideebiT gamsWvaluli pirovnebis saxes, magram mis idealizacias ki ar axdens, aramed aseTi moRvawis arapraqtikulobas, mis SexedulebaTa iluziur xasiaTsa da uniadagobas aSiSvlebs. erTaderTi, risi imedic SeiZleba hqondes adamians da rasac naTeli Seaqvs mis sulSi, aris rwmena ganaTlebisa. ase rom, niko lomouris mier warmosaxuli xalxosani moRvawis saxe ar SeiZleba gavaigivoT sakuTriv mwerlis mrwamsTan. am nawarmoebiT n. lomouri avlens xalxosnur mimdinareobaTa, maTi amosavali Tvalsazrisebis safuZvlian codnas, magram, ramdenadac es mxatvruli nawarmoebis farglebSi SeiZleboda moxerxebuliyo, iqve iZleva maT kritikas. crumorwmuneobis Tema. erT-erTi Tema, romelic wamyvan adgils iWers niko lomouris (iseve rogorc sxva e.w. xalxosani mwerlebis) SemoqmedebaSi -- esaa crumorwmuneobis Tema. gansakuTrebiT sayuradRebo isaa, rom masTan aRniSnuli Tema Taviseburi midgomiTaa warmodgenili. niko lomouris TiTqmis yovel nawarmoebSi aris miniSneba crumorwmuneobis, rogorc sibnelis, budis Sesaxeb, magram sagangebod mwerali am sakiTxs mainc exeba moTxrobebSi -- `ali~ da `qajana~. aq ara mxolod sakiTxisadmi mwerlis midgomaa gamorCeuli, aramed sayuradReboa isic, rom es Tema Taviseburi gagebiT gveZleva. niko lomouri miiCnevs, rom crumorwmuneoba, romelic adamianis sibneleSi moqcevis pirobaa, saxalxo ubedurebaa. misi arsebobis faqti am mweralTan ganicdeba da aRiqmeba, rogorc tragedia. adre Cvens literaturaSi, rasakvirvelia, sxva mwerlebic asaxavdnen crumorwmuneobas, amxeldnen mis socialur mankierebas, magram maTTan es ar ganicdeboda tragediad. mag., gavixsenoT i. WavWavaZis `kacia-adamiani?!~ -- jados povnis scena. es detali aq aris darejanis inteleqtualuri siClungis gamoxatuleba da luarsabis imave inteleqtualur simaRleze dgomis dadastureba, magram aramc da aramc es araa miCneuli saxalxo ubedurebad. eqimbaSobis Tema. zemoaRniSnul sakiTxTan aris dakavSirebuli meore Tema, romelsac niko lomouri exeba -- eqimbaSobis Tema. `alSi~ `pawia megobreb209

sa~ da `qajanaSi~ gamovlenili es motivi xalxis sibneleSi yofnis dadasturebad aris CaTvlili da, amdenad, es movlenac mwerlis mier saxalxo ubedurebis donezea gancdil-gaazrebuli. am ubedurebis gamosasworeblad niko lomouri xazgasmiT miuTiTebs ganaTlebis yovlisSemZleobasa da sinamdvilisadmi jansaRi damokidebulebis realur Rirebulebaze (`qajana~, `pawia megobrebi~). patriarqaluri ojaxis rRveva. `berua qristesiaSvilSi~ niko lomouri gviCvenebs misi warmosaxvis niadagze Seqmnil patriarqalur qarTul ojaxs, sadac idealuri wesrigi sufevs. am nawarmoebSi kargad aris gamokveTili niko lomouris pozicia. mwerals maxvilgonivrulad aqvs nagrZnobi da gaazrebuli Cveni istoriis sazrisi. qarTveli xalxis istoriulma bedma da aucileblobam gverdigverd daayena, Tavdacvisa da Tavis gadarCenis aucileblobam SeaduRa fenaTa interesebi... am garemoebam, kulturul-zneobrivi tradiciebis erTgvarovnebasTan erTad, erTgvarad Seasusta eris SigniT socialuri urTierTobis simZafre... erovnuli Cagvris pirobebSi Sina socialurze ki ara, gare socialuri konfliqtebis gamomwvev faqtorebze iqna yuradReba gadatanili, riTac gamoiricxa rusuli sinamdvilisaTvis niSandoblivi xalxosnuri moZraobebis gadmonergvis saWiroebani. niko lomouris `berua qristesiaSvilSi~, iseve, rogorc mis sxva nawarmoebebSi, Cven vamCnevT ara glexuri Temisaken () mibrunebis propagandas, aramed erovnuli mTlianobis darRveviT gamowveul tkivils. qarTveli xalxis sxvadasxva fenaTa interesebisa Tu ideologiis mixedviT erT muStad Sekvris da damoukidebeli arsebobis moTxovna dgas aq. xalxosnebad wodebuli mwerlebis da, pirvel yovlisa, niko lomouris nawerebSi aSkarad Cans kriticistuli damokidebuleba narodnikebisagan gaidealebuli patriarqaluri yofisadmi. niko lomouris, rogorc moazrovnisa da mwerlisaTvis, mxolod berua qristesiaSvilis ojaxis magaliTze naTelia, rom CvenSi kapitalisturi cxovrebis momZlavrebis pirobebSi ar arsebobs araviTari Sansi imisaTvis, rom ndoba gamoecxados istoriulad moZvelebulsa da dromoWmuls. sinamdvilisadmi is gulubryvilo xedva, rac berua qristesiaSvils gaaCnia, warmavalia da uniadago, Tumca romantikul elvarebas araa moklebuli, amitomacaa, rom patriarqaluri yofa, romelic kunZuliviT gadarCeniliyo berua qristesiaSvilis ojaxis saxiT, niko lomourma mkiTxvelis winaSe dasca da am dacemis sababic gviCvena: es iyo daTika qristesiaSvili, rogorc axali da Zlieri ekonomiuri faqtoris warmomadgeneli, qalaqis kaci, romelmac icis, rom kanons kanoni unda daupirispirdes da statias statia. mwerlis mkacri realizmi cxovrebis ganviTarebis namdvil perspeqtivebze mianiSnebs mkiTxvels da mas arasodes tovebs yalbi iluziebis amara. niko lomouris mier gacocxlebuli qarTlis sofeli. yvela SemTxvevaSi niko lomouri glexTa mosarCle da qomagi moralisti mweralia. mis nawarmoebebSi, iseve rogorc sxva xalxosnad wodebul qarTvel mwerlebTan, moqalaqeobrivi ufleba moipova glexobam. niko lomouris TxzulebaTa personaJi glexebi: andria (`yovlis mxridan~), babale, gigo sosiaSvili, solomon farcxaZe (`bedi ubedurTa~) gaWirvebasa da socialur usamarTlobasTan Widils aleven TavianT Zal-Ronesa da sicocxlesac. svimona lukaSvili (`qristiani lekebi~) ki, Tavisi miznebiTa da zneobrivi sibeCaviT, gonebrivi SezRudulobiT, SeiZleba iseT glexis magaliTad miviCnioT, romelic saarsebo saSualebaTa Ziebis moTxovnilebam garemos monad aqcia. materialuri siZlieris mopovebis gadaudebelma moTxovnilebam n. lomouris mier daxatuli glexebi sulieri momentisagan erTgvarad ganZarcva da isini xSir SemTxvevaSi gulqva, uxeS adamianebad aqcia. niko lomouric mouRlelad gvixasiaTebs uxeS pirobebSi, zneobrivad dauxvewav garemoSi, patriarqalurad

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SemozRudul fargalSi moqceul adamianTa ubedurebas. ubedurebaa am adamianebisaTvis cxovreba ara mxolod imitom, rom isini miwur qoxebSi, saqonlis Sardsa da WuWyian garemoSi cxovroben, ar gaaCniaT sakmarisad sakvebi, samosi da fuli, dReniadag xariviT Sromoben da mainc Raribebi arian; mwerlis TvalsazrisiT, kidev ufro didi ubedureba isaa, rom maTi Sroma Tavisi xasiaTiT saTanado gaazrebuli Sroma araa. am alalmarTal, patiosan adamianTa sulis gauxeSebis mizezi marto TavadaznaurTa wris warmomadgenelTa Semoteva araa: isini mxolod xmamaRalSvilebis, ylapiaSvilebis, badriZeebis da JamiaSvilebis usulgulo qcevis niadagze gaubedurebuli fena ki araa, aramed sofelSi mimdinare rTuli socialuri diferenciaciis safuZvelze Seqmnili viTarebis msxverplni arian. axali cxovrebis pirobebSi maTive aRzevebuli TanamoZmeebi: mamasaxlisi beso gabaSvili (`qristiani lekebi~), qristesia nacriaSvili (`bedi ubedurTa~), sosika da ninika (`bedi ubedurTa~), -- es is adamianebia, romlebic dros wamoutivtivebia, viTarebas Casafrebian, rom gamorCena naxon, Tundac TanamoZme gahyidon da gaanadguron. niko lomouris nawarmoebebSi gamokveTilad araa mocemuli, Tu glexis fsiqikaSi ranairad mwifdeba protestis grZnoba. aq, Cven, iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda, verc vamCnevT, rom maT SegnebaSi viTarebis mimarT gaazrebuli dapirispirebis moTxovnileba idges. mxolod `wuTisofelSi~ Cans usamarTlo, tlanq da utifar ZalasTan saqmianad dapirispirebis tendencia. niko lomouri, rogorc qarTveli mwerali, mZafrad ganicdis qarTuli soflisaTvis maTi damRupveli saqmianobis Sedegs. mwerlis azriT, araerovnuli burJuaziis SeWras qarTlis sofelSi ormagi ubedureba moaqvs Cveni xalxisaTvis: erTi mxriv, materialurad yvlefs miwis muSa gulubryvilo glexobas, meore mxriv, maT xelSi TiTqmis muqTad uvardebaT erovnuli dovlaTi, -- qarTuli miwa-wyali. niko lomouri fenaTa SigniT arsebul sxvaobebs aCvenebs da gaxazavs. amitomacaa, rom mis mier daxatul TavadaznaurobaSi gvxvdeba rogorc uaryofiTi, aseve dadebiTi personaJebi. saerTod, niko lomouris mier gacocxlebul qarTlis sofels awuxebs, sisxlisgan clis sxvadasxva juris fuqsavati Tavadi, utifari aznauri, ucxo tomis CarC-vaWari da soflis pirobebSi burJuaziuli urTierTobis momZlavrebis xanaSi cxovrebis zedapirze amotivtivebuli regveni, magram gazuluqebuli, moxeled qceuli glexi. mwerlis interesTa gareSe arc religiis msaxurTa saxeebi rCeba. moTxrobebSi `ali~ da `yovelis mxridan~, naTladaa naCvenebi zaqaria diakvnisa da mRvdlis moCvenebiTi sulieri mamoba, angarebiani, mtacebluri buneba; magram maT gverdiT mwerali gvixatavs saTnoebiTa da WeSmaritad qristianuli siwminde-uangarobiT mcxovrebi moxuci episkoposis saxes (`wuTisofeli~). aqedan Cans, rom niko lomouri araa mxatvruli sityvis sferoSi `SiSveli tendenciurobisa~ da xalxosnobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli ukiduresi utilitarizmis momxre. gansakuTrebuli siyvaruliT mwerali gamsWvalulia Cveni sazogadoebis yvela fenidan gamosuli im inteligentebis mimarT, romelTa qceva da saqmianoba niko lomours WeSmaritad saxalxo tipis inteligentis metrad CauTvlia. aseTia gigo RrubelaSvili, vano mxiaruliZe, is RvTisnieri eqimi, imedgadawyvetil mixas (`samfexa amirana~) rom gankurnavs, Tu patara maros mkurnali eqimis -- dauviwyari tarsaiZis saxe `pawia megobrebSi~. niko lomouris patriotuli TvalTaxedva. niko lomouri Tavisi drois Svili iyo. mZafr socialur interess arasodes miuCqmalavs masSi mRelvare patriotuli grZnoba da Segneba. niko lomouris mier daxatuli mwvave socialuri wnexis qveS moqceul glexTa fsiqikaSi Rrmadaa fesvgamdgari mSobliuri miwis mimarT mamuliSvilobis maRali movaleobis grZnoba. qarTveli glexis cxovrebis azrad, niko lomouris warmodgeniT, gamocxadebulia misi nawarmoe211

bis erTi glexi personaJis sityvebi: `sadac dabadebulxar, iqve Cayare Seni Zvlebi~ (`ali~). am principiT cxovrobs, wvalobs, itanjeba, magram sicocxlis ulevi wyurviliT anTebuli, kvlav sicocxles, mama-papis mSvenier tradiciebs, sakuTar enasa da teritorias esarCleba, icavs da efereba am mwerlis mier daxatuli, cxovrebisagan gatanjuli adamianebi. moTxrobaSi `winaparTa aCrdilni~ -- mkafiodaa gamJRavnebuli niko lomouris erovnul-politikuri mrwamsi. niko lomouris istoriuli koncefcia ilia WavWavaZisa da sxva qarTvel 60-ianelTa Sexedulebebis arealSi SeiZleba iqnes ganxiluli. Tavis ufros did TanamedroveTa msgavsad, n. lomoursac miaCnia, rom ena, rwmena da istoriuli idealebi, teritoria is faqtorebia, romelTanac mtkice urTierTobaSi yalibdeba erovnuli fsiqologia. qarTvelTa gadarCenis pirobad mwerals swored is miaCnia, rom Cvenma winaprebma saimedod daicves eris arsebobis SemanarCunebeli es ucilobeli faqtorebi. `winaparTa aCrdilnis~ garda, niko lomouris arc erT TxzulebaSi wina planze araa wamoweuli patriotuli grZnoba, magram es kidev ar miuTiTebs imaze, rom am mwerlis qmnilebebi Tavisufali iyos patriotuli grZnobebisagan. saqme imaSi gaxlavT, rom 80-iani wlebidan Cvens mwerlobaSi socialurma sakiTxma ufro meti simZafre SeiZina, radgan TviT dabal fenaSi, sofelSi gaCnda axali socialuri fena. am garemoebam, erovnuli TvalsazrisiT, axali satkivari gaaCina Cveni inteligenciis winaSe, rasac misma erTma nawilma, da maT Soris n. lomourma, imiT upasuxa, rom mwvave socialur problemaTa Soris patriotul gulistkivils daqvemdebarebuli saxe miuCina. amiT mweralma gaxaza ara am maRali grZnobis gaqrobis, an ukana planze gadawevis saSiSroeba, aramed TviT socialuri grZnobis aqtualizacia CaTvala patriotul aucileblobad. siyvarulis Tema. qarTuli literaturis mkvlevarTa Soris ganmtkicebulia azri, rom niko lomouri araa siyvarulis Zlieri vnebis gamomxatveli mwerali (g.qiqoZe). es Sexeduleba ramdenadme sworia, magram Tavis arsebiT nawilSi is mainc saWiroebs garkveul koreqtivs. niko lomours aqvs vrceli nawarmoebi `wuTisofeli~, sadac mwerali avlens sakmaod seriozul interess aRniSnuli Temisadmi. am metad rTuli grZnobis mxatvruli gansaxierebisas niko lomouri akvirdeba ara TavisTavad siyvarulis fsiqologiur Sinaarss, aramed misi warmoSobis socialur niadags. mwerlis yuradReba mipyrobilia im socialuri garemosadmi, romelic saxes ucvlis am ukeTilSobilesi grZnobis mimdinareobas da adamianTa cxovrebis tragediis mizezad iqceva. mkacr da mtaceblur principebze agebuli garemo auxeSebs adamianis suls, aborotebs nazsa da faqiz arsebas (eTeris saxiT) da adamianuri bednierebis uflebas arTmevs yvela imas, visac siyvarulis grZnobis sidiade swamda. aseTia is mZime yofa, romelsac gamokveTilad gvixatavs mwerali. bunebisadmi mimarTeba. niko lomouri Cveni e. w. xalxosani mwerlebis darad, bunebis Temasac SeeWida. mis qmnilebebSi uxvadaa warmodgenili saqarTvelos, kerZod qarTlis, peizaJebi. mwerali gatacebiT xatavs mSobliuri kuTxis mdinareebs, mTebs, vel-mindvrebs, yvelafers, rasac misi Tvali swvdeba, magram gamorCeuli interesi mipyrobilia iseTi bunebisadmi, romelsac mis TxzulebaTa mTavari personaJebis -- glexebisaTvis sargebloba da dovlaTi moaqvs. sul sxva energiiT acocxlebs igi TavTavebiT damZimebul puris yanebs, yurZniT datvirTul venaxebs, TuraSauli vaSlebiT, Tafla msxlebiTa da qarTlisTvis bunebisagan momadlebuli xileuliT daxunZlul xeebs. am SemTxvevaSi mwerlis interesi mizandaqvemdebarebulia, radgan amgvari buneba glexis cxovrebis materialuri keTildReobis wyaroa da safuZveli. SfoTavs da kvnesis mwerali, roca Savi Rrubeli (`yovelis mxridan~) anadgurebs da spobs glexis imedad gadaSlil am mSveni212

er vel-mindvrebs, baRebsa da venaxebs. amgvari midgoma bunebisadmi miuTiTebs, rom gamorCeuli esTetikuri tkbobis obieqts niko lomourisTvis buneba ar warmoadgens, igi erTvis im gaRrmavebul socialur miznebs, rac misi nawarmoebebis amosavali principia. roca sicxisgan gadaxrukul bunebas warmogvidgens n. lomouri (mag., `bedi ubedurTa~), aqac wamyvani tendencia isaa, rom TvalnaTlivi gaxados mkiTxvelisTvis swored am bunebriv pirobebSi mcxovrebi mSromeli adamianis duxWiri bedi. ase rom, bunebis suraTebi n. lomouris nawerebSi im mizniTaa gadmocemuli, raTa mweralma saTanado foni Seuqmnas Tavis socialursa da patriotul miznebs. mwerali bunebis simSvenieres TavdaviwyebiT ar eZleva, raTa mis fonze ar STainTqas uSualod TxzulebaTa socialuri Sinaarsi, amitomac tkbobiTi momentisadmi interesi aq erTob Semofarglulia da SezRuduli. niko lomouri, rogorc sabavSvo mwerali. rogorc cnobilia, niko lomouri Tavisi praqtikul-sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobiT mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli aRzrdis sferosTan. mTeli 35 wlis manZilze igi eweoda maswavleblis sapatio da erTob sapasuxismgeblo saqmianobas. amitomac, bunebrivia, n. lomourisaTvis ymawvilTaTvis gamiznuli Txzulebebis Seqmnas savsebiT gamokveTili mizandasaxuloba edo safuZvlad. niko lomouris sabavSvo qmnilebebma imTaviTve miipyro mkiTxveli sazogadoebis yuradReba. TviT mwerlis sayvarelma maswavlebelma, iakob gogebaSvilma `bunebis karSi~ Seitana niko lomouris leqsi -- `yinva da patara mowafe~, xolo Secvlili saTauriT nawyvetebi moTxrobebidan: `Zma da da~ moTxrobidan `patara qajana~, `mosavali~ (moTxrobidan `yoveli mxridan~) da `mwyris bude~ (imave moTxrobidan). Semdeg da Semdeg saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebSi bavSvTa sayvarel sakiTxav masalad iqca `ali~ da `pawia megobrebi~. ramdenadac XIX saukunis rusuli sinamdvilisaTvis niSandoblivi sabavSvo literaturis winaSe wayenebuli moTxovnebi arc qarTvel mweralTaTvis yofila ucnobi, amdenad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom n. lomouris is Txzulebebi, romlebic bavSvTa sayvarel nawarmoebebad iqcnen, ZiriTadad akmayofileben am moTxovnebs. marTalia, warmodgenaTa feradovnebiT da maTi swrafi monacvleobiT n. lomouris sabavSvo qmnilebebi ar gamoirCevian, magram mwerlis poeturi aRmafrena mainc iCens Tavs. am moTxrobaTa calkeul pasaJebSi, b. belinskis sityvis perifraziT rom vTqvaT, ar SeiZleba ar vigrZnoT gulis `raRac damatkbobeli SekumSva~, roca gansakuTrebiT mainc, `alsa~ da `qajanaSi~ aRwerili tyis idumalebas, Tu wminda giorgis eklesiis e.w. saswaulqmedebas eziareba bavSvi... aq, n. lomouri aRwevs iseT simaRles, rodesac gancdebi saukeTesod gamoxataven zneobriv ideals da Txzulebac ganTavisuflebulia sqematizmisa da ganyenebuli sentenciebisagan. niko lomouris TxzulebaTa mxatvruli mxare. niko lomouris TxzulebaTa Soris Tavisi mxatvruli zemoqmedebis Zala dRemde aqvs SenarCunebuli swored im moTxrobebs, romlebic imTaviTve ymawvilTa sakiTxav masalad iqna miCneuli. `ali~, `qajana~, `yovelis mxridan~ da `pawia megobrebi~ is nawarmoebebia, romlebSic Cans n. lomouris mwerluri SesaZleblobebi. maTTvis damaxasiaTebelia dauZabavi da bunebrivi Txroba. qarTuli enis (upiratesad qarTluri dialeqtis) sinoyivre. ver vityviT, rom n. lomouri portretis Seqmnis gamorCeuli ostatia, magram calkeul situaciebSi, igi qmnis mxatvruli simarTliT savse saxeebs. ase, magaliTad, STambeWdavadaa gacocxlebuli mwerlis mier SiSiT enaCavrdnili bavSvis portreti. moTxrobaSi `qajana~ vkiTxulobT: `qajanam uceb dainaxa raRac banjgvliani da uTavo; did ketze dabjenili SeinZra da is butbutiT wamovida qaja213

nasaken. qajana wamoxta, undoda daeyvira, piri daaRo, magram yelidan susti xavilis meti aRara amouvida ra. mainc gamotrialda ukan, gadmodga ramdenime nabiji da uceb mowyvetili yvaviliviT daeca dedamiwazed~. maros, babucasa da tarsaiZis daxasiaTebisas aseve dasamaxsovrebeli saxeebia Seqmnili moTxrobaSi `pawia megobrebi~. imis Tqma, rom niko lomouris moTxrobebi gamoirCeva `mxatvruli, mSvenieri, mZlavri poeturi SedarebebiT, mkveTri epiTetebiT (mix. zandukeli), faqtiur viTarebas SeiZleba naklebad gamoxatavdes. misTvis ufro martivi, mudmivi mxatvruli xerxebis gamoyenebaa damaxasiaTebeli. mag., kato (moTxroba `qajana~), `esaa saSineli eSmaki da gudiani gogona~, romelsac `kunapetiviT Savi Tvalebi aqvs~. mSvenieri qali (`gigo RrubelaSvili~) mwerlis TqmiT, `mowyvetil varskvlavs~ hgavs, mas `kalmiT naxati saxe aqvs~, `lamazi loyebi TuraSaul vaSliviT aqvs dabrawuli~ da a.S. magram vimeorebT, rom am sada, martivi epiTetebisa da SedarebaTa gamoyenebis gziTac mwerali garkveul SemTxvevaSi aRwevs saTanado mxatvrul efeqts. `qajanaSi~ katos oinbazobani garkveul iumorul donezea ayvanili. n. lomouri araiSviaTad mimarTavs kontrastuli daxasiaTebis gzas, raTa kidev ufro muq ferebSi warmoaCinos ubedureba-bednierebis, siRaribe-simdidris arsi (mag. moTxroba `tanjuli~). saerTod unda iTqvas, rom niko lomouri, rogorc mwerali, SedarebiT srulyofil dones iq aRwevs, sadac igi Sordeba xalxosnuri Teoriis sqemas... da aseTi swored aris `pawia megobrebi~, `qajana~, `ali~, `yoveli mxridan~... zogierTi pasaJi. niko lomouris sxva Txzulebebs, iqneba es `bedi ubedurTa~, `gigo RrubelaSvili~, `aRara eSveleba ra~, `qristiani lekebi~ da sxv., xalxosnebad wodebuli danarCeni qarTveli mwerlis mraval nawarmoebTa msgavsad, ufro mxatvruli narkvevebis forma aqvs, narkvevisa im azriT, rom isini garkveuli momentiT arian gansazRvrulni da garkveuli adgiliT Semofarglulni. adgilisa da drois es erTgvari lokalizeba, Sinaarsobrivi TvalsazrisiT maT SemozRudvas da, maSasadame, erTgvar erTferovnebasac iwvevs. am moTxrobebSi niko lomouri cdilobs socialurad dapirispirebul ZalTa Widilis Tema ideuri TvalsazrisiT aqtualuri gaxados. sagangebo daZabva kidev sqematizms warmoSobs da garkveulad zRudavs maTi zemoqmedebis Zalas. yvela zemoaRniSnul nawarmoebSi mxatvruli efeqtis Sesustebas xels uwyobs publicisturi elementis moWarbeba. Txrobis procesSi publicisturi paTosi SeiniSneba mxatvrulad SedarebiT srulyofil iseT moTxrobaSic ki, rogorc `qajanaa~, roca mwerali gadmogvcems kikolas ojaxis istorias. is garemoeba, rom mwerali literaturas utilitaruli TvalsazrisiT afasebs, gavlenas axdens imaze, rom am sqematizmis niSniT aRbeWdil qmnilebebSi (`bedi ubedurTa~, `tanjulni~, `gigo RrubelaSvili~, `qristiani lekebi~), niko lomouri ar zrunavs nawarmoebis daxvewisaTvis. magaliTad, mxatvruli dauxvewaobis STabeWdilebas iwvevs aseTi adgilebi: `gaCumebuls mindors zemodam dascqeroda gaSterebuli jaeri~ (`bedi ubedurTa~). babale `ibdRvnida gaTeTrebuls Tmasa; ikawravda Zvlebzed Savad mimxmar loyebs, iglejda pawawkina, mimWknar ZuZuebs...~ sentimentalobis elferi gadahkravs bavSvis aseTnair ametyvelebasac: `Cveni dedo cocqalia sida, alaa? hode, dililme, cocqalia Cveni dedoi. sida, pili lo agal gaago eqla gaagemec...~ da sxv. (`bedi ubedurTa~). mxolod yalb paTetikad SeiZleba aRiqvas mkiTxvelma socialuri ideebiT Sepyrobili axalgazrda moRvawis mimarTva mSvenieri asulisadmi: `rogorc Sena xar mefe Cemis gulisa, amieridgan me viqnebi aCrdili yovelis Senis moZraobisa~... (`gigo RrubelaSvili~), anda aseTi sazeimo SeZaxilebiT savse gancxadebebi:

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`me var mfarveli yoveli davrdomilisa, me var deda yoveli gaWirvebulisa!~ (`gigo RrubelaSvili~). saerTod, rogorc aRniSnaven, `xalxosnebi, rogorc mxatvrebi, TavianTi xelovnebis erT-erT gamarTlebas xalxur metyvelebaze dayrdnobaSi xedavdnen. xalxosnebi gaitaca xalxurma metyvelebam, gaitaca iqamde, rom ganurCevloba daetyoT da am enobriv masalaSi ise CaiZirnen, rom, rogorc ostatebi, TiTqos originalurobisa da sakuTari poeturi xmis dakargvamdec ki mividnen. Rirseba xalxosnebisa -- xalxuri enis gabatonebaSi rom iCina Tavi, udides safrTxesac Seicavda xelovnebisaTvis: individualuri mxatvruli saSualebebisadmi ugulebelmyofeli damokidebulebis gabatonebas.... xalxosnebma ver SeZles dauxvewelisagan Sedevrebis gansxvaveba xalxuri Semoqmedebis did salaroSi da mxatvrisaTvis esoden arsebiTi mniSvnelobis mqone grZnoba -- sityvisa da gamoTqmebis esTetikuri Zalis grZnoba -- ver gamoiCines. xalxosnebi Seityua da CaiTria xalxuri metyvelebis uZiro morevma~ (grigol kiknaZe). cxadia, mwerlis niWierebis erT-erTi gamoxatuleba isicaa, Tu ramdenad flobs igi enas -- mxatvruli qmnilebis am saSen masalas. TavisTavad is faqti, rom n. lomouris moTxrobebi, TavianTi Tematikuri yavlgasulobis miuxedavad, dRemde SemorCa Cvens saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebs da sabavSvo-popularuli literaturis saganZurs, miuTiTebs imaze, rom isini kvlav ganagrZoben mxatvrul sicocxles... garda naTeli humanuri grZnobebisa da ideebisa, riTac TavisTavadaa gamsWvaluli niko lomouris qmnilebebi, isini Seicaven sayuradRebo da sando masalas XIX saukunis qarTuli soflis yofiTi mxaris, am periodis qarTveli glexis materialurad saarsebo wyarosa da niadagis gasaTvaliswineblad. am niSniTac niko lomouri yovelTvis darCeba, Cveni cxovrebis garkveul etapze mainc, qarTuli garemos sando mweral-mematianed.

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sofrom mgalobliSvili (1851-1925)

sofrom mgalobliSvilis mxatvruli Semoqmedebis masala amokrefilia qarTuli soflis yofa-cxovrebidan. TviT mweralma bavSvoba sofelSi gaatara, adridanve SeeCvia igi glexis cxovrebis avsa da kargs, icoda glexis gonebrivi da qonebrivi viTareba. mxatvrul-publicisturi moRvaweobis pirvel xanebSi s. mgalobliSvili asaxavda uRono, upatrono, siRaribesa da uswavleloba-umecrebaSi myof glexobas, romelic WuWysa da ubedurebaSi ixrCoboda; Semdgom mweralma gamoxata erTobis ideebis gavrceleba, roca glexobam gaigo da Seigno Tavisi mdgomareoba da xelSi iaraRi aiRo uflebebisa da Tavisi pirovnebis dasacavad. pirvel xanebSi mwerali glexis yofa-cxovrebis aRmweria, daufaravad maCvenebeli CamorCenilobisa, sofelSi gavrcelebuli epidemiebis saSineli Sedegebisa, mkiTxav-eqimbaSebis saqmianobisa da CarC-vaWarTa TareSisa; Semdeg ki mwerali moTxrobebSi xatavs mCagvrelebis mimarT soflelTa winaaRmdegobas, iZleva medgari socialuri da politikuri brZolis suraTebs. s. mgalobliSvilis Tvalwin bevri saintereso faqti moxda, rac aisaxa mis mxatvrulsa da publicistur SemoqmedebaSi, agreTve sainteresod daweril mogonebebSi. sofrom zaqarias Ze mgalobliSvili mRvdlis Svili iyo, daibada 1851 wels, sofel dirbSi. es sofeli Semdeg man sxvadasxva saxeliT xSirad aRwera Tavis moTxrobebSi. momavali mwerali jer goris sasuliero saswavlebelSi swavlobda, Semdeg Tbilisis sasuliero seminariaSi, romelic 1873 wels daamTavra. seminariaSi misi maswavleblebi iyvnen: iakob gogebaSvili, giorgi ioseliani, niko cxvedaZe, romelTa miTiTebiTa da waqezebiT man bevri ram waikiTxa da iswavla. `amaTi mosvlidan axali xana daiwyo seminariaSi, -- werda s. mgalobliSvili. sagnebs aswavlidnen kargad, Segirdebs adamianurad epyrobodnen, gvaZlevdnen sakiTxav wignebs, gvayvarebdnen samSoblo enas da literaturas~. igi amave xanebSi gaecno rusul literaturas, aralegalur gamocemebsa da im mweralTa Semoqmedebas, romelTa wakiTxvis uflebas moswavleebs seminariis direqcia ar aZlevda, mag., rus revolucioner-demokratebis Semoqmedebas, ilia WavWavaZisa da sxvaTa Txzulebebs. s. mgalobliSvili seminarieli iyo, roca werilebs beWdavda gazeT `droebasa~ da Jurnal `mnaTobSi~, dauaxlovda maT redaqciebsa da TanamSromlebs. seminariis kursis Sesrulebis Semdeg s. magalobliSvili maswavleblobda goris sasuliero saswavlebelSi, amave dros iwyebs muSaobas revoluciur organizaciaSi xalxosnebTan erTad, romelsac am dros xelmZRvanelobdnen mixeil yifiani, Sio daviTaSvili, egnate ioseliani da sxvani. maT undodaT `gaecnoT xalxisaTvis mTavrobis mavne weswyobileba, Caexedebina glexoba Tavis cxovrebaSi, daerwmunebia igi, rom umamulod misi ganTavisufleba Zvel batonymobaze uaresi iyo~... xalxosnebis krebebze, saidumlo Sekreba-TaTbirebze da konferenciebze daswrebam masSi ganamtkica azri, rom praqtikulad unda daexmaros glexobas, magram es praqtikuli nabiji uSedego aRmoCnda, radgan, rogorc TviT s. mgalobliSvili wers -- `xalxi Cven ar gvikarebda, gansakuTrebiT glexoba~.

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es saintereso aRiarebani s. mgalobliSvilisa, axasiaTeben xalxosnuri muSaobis arapraqtikulobas. qarTvelma xalxosnebma glexoba ver aaRelves da ver darazmes, amitom maT muSaobis gezi Secvales da glexobasTan kavSiris sxva formis Ziebas Seudgnen. s. mgalobliSvili wers: `raki xalxSi siaruliT vera gavawyeT ra, Cven moqmedebis fronti da taqtika SevcvaleT. gadavwyviteT maswavleblebs gvemoqmedna moswavle axalgazrdobaze, xelosnebze, gvemarTna iaffasiani saxalxo warmodgenebi. am mizniT qal. gorSi davaarseT moyvarulTa wre. warmodgenebi imarTeboda soflebSic, monawileobas iRebda yvela amxanagebi, sapasuxismgeblo rolebs TamaSobda Sio daviTaSvili, me vkiTxulobdi rafiel erisTavisa da Cem sakuTar scenebs xalxis cxovrebidan... ufros klasebSi, sadac 14-15 wlis ymawvilebi isxdnen, Segvqonda revoluciuri xasiaTis literatura, moTxrobebi, leqsebi~. amisTana muSaobiT s. mgalobliSvili axalgazrdobaSi aRvivebda erTobis, simarTlis, mamuliSvilobis grZnobas. aralegaluri muSaobisaTvis s. mgalobliSvili 1878 wels daapatimres cota xniT. amis Semdeg igi kvlav muSaobs kulturisa da ganaTlebis frontze, goridan TanamSromlobs Jurnal `imedSi~, gazeT `droebasa~ da `iveriaSi~. s. mgalobliSvili kargad axasiaTebs xalxosnuri moZraobis raobas Tavis mogonebebSi: `xalxSi ki egre rigaT ver moikida fexi xalxosnurma moZraobam. es moZraoba utopiuri gamodga. mSvidobiani gziT revolucia vis gaugonia... Cven vcdilobT xalxi pirdapir gadagveskupebina kapitalisturi xanis gauvlelad, socializmSi~. 1897 wlidan s. mgalobliSvili TbilisSi dasaxlda; monawileobda kulturul da Jurnalistur muSaobaSi, TanamSromlobda `moambeSi~, `TemSi~, `Teatrsa da cxovrebaSi~. s. mgalobliSvili gardaicvala 1925 wlis noemberSi. s. mgalobliSvilma samwerlo muSaoba TargmniT daiwyo, romelTac beWdavda Jurnal `mnaTobSi~. 1872 wels dawera pirveli beletristuli Txzuleba `ra mizezia?~, gamoqveynebuli seminarielebis JurnalSi, romelic male gadaakeTa da daarqva `deda maia~. s. mgalobliSvilis Semoqmedebas dasawyisSive hyavda mkiTxvelebi da Semfaseblebi, kerZod, a. wereTeli 1901 wels gazeT `iveriaSi~ gamoqveynebul statiaSi `werili megobarTan~ mimarTavda mgalobliSvils da uxsnida: miuxedavad Seni didi niWisa, dagixelTa, dagimorCila im senma, ucxoeTidan rom Semogvepara (akaki gulisxmobda rusul `narodnikul~ mwerlobas), ese igi kazmul sityviT qadagebam, romelic ase udgeba da uxdeba Cvens cxovrebas, znesa da Cveulebas, rogorc `vodka~ kaxurs da `kvasi~ ojaleSs~-o. wereTeli amxelda zogierTi qarTveli mwerlisa da TviT s. mgalobliSvilis naturalizms, Semoqmedebis primitiulobas, movlenaTa fotografirebas. a. wereTeli miuTiTebda rogorc s. mgalobliSvils, ise sxva qarTvel mwerlebs, romelTa Semoqmedebasac is nakli hqonda, rac poetma s. mgalobliSvilis SemoqmedebaSi dainaxa. am ukanasknelis erTi patara nawarmoebi -- `ukvdavebis wyaro var~ akakim gamoiyena Tavisi Teoriuli mosazrebisaTvis, rac Semdegnairad gamoxata: `Sens niWs Sesaferisi gza aurCevia da Tu aRar gadauxvev, Sen ici! TiTeul ers Tavisi sakuTari erTi meorisagan gansxvavebuli saxe aqvs da maT literaturasac, rogorc sarkes ama Tu im erisa, gansakuTrebiT elferi unda edvas. Cveni mwerlobac utyuari sarke unda iyos qarTvelebisa, Sig unda isaxebodes saqarTvelos mravalferovani buneba misis miwa-wyliT, mTa-bariT, tyiT da veliT da sxvani~. s. mgalobliSvili qarTveli glexobis cxovrebis bevr uaryofiT mxares aRwerda Tavis moTxrobebSi, igi aqveynebda naxevrad publicistur, naxevrad mxatvrul werilebs, romlebSic mimoxilulia qarTuli provinciis cxovrebis mravali mxare. es iyo seria saTauriT -- `provincialuri meTvalyuris Civili da SeniS217

vnebi~, romelTa mTavari Tema xalxis yofis CamorCeniloba gaxldaT. mwerali fiqrobda, rom xalxis ekonomikuri mdgomareoba aris mTavari mizezi misi Cagruli da daqveiTebuli yofisa. mweralma kritikulad daaxasiaTa sazogadoebis maRali fenebi, romelTa arseboba drois uazro kargvasa da cekva-pranWvaSi gamoixateboda. am adamianebis cxovrebas mwerali ulmoblad amxelda. sazogadoebrivi sargeblianobisaTvis Tavdadebul adamians igi mxolod glexobaSi xedavda da fiqrobda, rom mxolod glexobas Seswevs unari Sromisa da, maSasadame, axlis Seqmnisac. magram glexobas, romelic ekonomiurad da iuridiulad Zalze iyo Seborkili, aramcTu saqveyno saqmianobisaTvis, sakuTari Tavisa da ojaxis uzrunvelyofisaTvisac ar yofnida Rone. qarTveli glexobis usasoo socialur-ekonomiuri mdgomareobisa da masebSi revoluciuri ideebis gavrcelebis Temis garda s. mgalobliSvilma mniSvnelovani adgili dauTmo Tavis SemoqmedebaSi maRali wodebis zneobis dacemisa da mis gonebriv-qonebrivi gaRatakebis, ganaTlebuli, magram usaqmuri axalgazrdobis cxovrebis aRwerasac. am xasiaTis TxzulebaTa Soris aRsaniSnavia misi moTxroba `Tavadi ieronime~, romelic, erTgvarad, ilia WavWavaZis moTxroba `kacia-adamianis?!~ asociaciurobiTaa aRbeWdili: ieronimesa da misi meuRlis, salomes saxlis mowyobiloba luarsab-darejanisas gvagonebs, Tavis megobar kacia luarsabiZesTan erTad ieronime ixsenebs batonymobis `netar dros~, swavla-ganaTlebis Sesaxebac TaTqariZiseburi Sexedulebisaa -- Tavadobis daRupvis mizezad wignis gavrcelebas asaxelebs da sxva. magram, cxadia, personaJTa Soris paralelebis gavlebisas ganmasxvavebel detalTa SemCnevacaa saWiro: ieronime batonymobas mistiris, misi gaxsenebiT suldgmulobs, eocnebeba dro, roca yma sikvdilis piras mihyavda cemiTa da tanjviT. luarsabi Sors dgas aseTi sisastikisagan. personaJis msgavs niuansTa xazgasma ki saTanadod gansazRvravs mwerliseul codnas cxovrebaze, viTarebaTa saxeobrivad warmodgenis miseul unars. s. mgalobliSvilis mier daxatuli maRali fenis inteligencia orgvari xasiaTisaa. erTni xedaven uTanasworobas, rasac glexoba cud pirobebSi mouqcevia da laparakSi amtkiceben wodebaTa Soris gansxvavebis xelovnurobas, magram maTi msjeloba mxolod frazebia da ara praqtikuli saqmianoba; meoreni uazro cxovrebas ewevian, maTi arseboba daclilia sazogadoebrivi interesebisagan. es ganaTlebulTa wre momakvdavi Tavadaznauruli yofis dasasrulis gamomxatvelia. es is brwyinvale sazogadoebaa, advilad rom gaeqelvina gareSe gavlenebs, moiRuna da Tavisi sakuTari erovnuli da zneobrivi saxe dakarga. gadajiSebuli adamianebi monawileobas iReben mejlisebSi, valsis cekvaSi, arSiyobaSi, sakuTari Rirsebis damcirebaSi. fanatikurad eTayvanebian ucxosa da gareSes, maTi survilebi garegnuli brWyvialis CvenebaSi mdgomareobs, patara kacebs xorcieli siamovnebis erTi saaTisaTvis msxverplad miaqvT adamianoba da erovnuli Tavmoyvareoba. aseT adamianTa wyeba mweralma daxata moTxrobaSi `did zalaSi~. es moTxroba suraTebia da warmoadgens mwerlis werilebis -- `provincialuri meTvalyuris Civili da SeniSvnebi~-- mxatvrul iersaxes. s. mgalobliSvilma `provincialuri meTvalyuris Civili da SeniSvnebis~ erTi nawili (1878 wlis `iveria~) glexis sacxovreblis aRweras miuZRvna. am werilebSi laparakia glexis saxlSi dabudebul siRaribeze, usufTaobaze, radgan adamianebi da pirutyvi erT WerqveS cxovroben, aqedan Cndeba yoveli siave da avadmyofoba. `aqedan Cndeba civeb-cxeleba, romlis mosarCenadac mkiTxavTan garbian. imdeni moxerxeba ara aqvT, rom TavisiT gaigon mizezi senisa da mkiTxavTan dakarguli dro Tavis kar-midamos gasufTavebas moandomon. gulis Sematkivari ara hyavT, rom tvinSi gauTqvifos es saWiro sagani janmrTelobisa~... glexobis aseTi yofiT Sewuxebuli mwerali erTgan kiTxulobs: `neta veRirsebiT

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`glaxis naambobis~ mRvdelsa?~. am sagazeTo werilis mxatvruli saxe aris moTxroba `deda maia~, agebuli namdvil ambebze da namdvilad arsebul adamianebze. batonymobis gadavardnis momdevno xanebSi glexoba iZulebuli iyo mZime pirobebSi aeRo ijariT `sabatono~ miwa. glexobis umravlesoba CemorCenil meurneobas ver aumjobesebda, xSiri mousavlianoba da SimSili atydeboda Tavze mas. dilidan saRamomde TavauReblad muSaobdnen, ibrZodnen arsebobisaTvis da lukma purisaTvis, magram wlis sarCos Tavs mainc ver uyridnen. muSaobs yvela, didi da patara, qali da kaci. sofel marmaraReleSi glexebs ver mouxerxebiaT sarwyavad gamoiyenon mdinare, igi soflis saxnav-saTess Sors udevs. mindorSi wyali ki ara, mzisagan Tavis Sesafarebeli adgilic ar aris. marmaraRele gamonaklisi araa, is mdgomareoba, rac am sofelSi sufevs, saerToa. glexi did jafas eweva, mas avadmyofobis droc ara aqvs, radgan lukma puris dakargvis SiSi aCrdiliviT Tana sdevs. sandala (`deda maia~) Ramis mexreobaSi gacivda, didi sicxe misca. gauZalianda igi avadmyofobas, magram veRar SeZlo. sicxisagan pirgamSrals amaRelvebeli fiqrebi Tavidan ar scildeba. `TavSi Jruanteli uvlis da Sublze simwriT Wiris ofls asxams, rom am avadmyofobiT imas erTi dRis alo daakldeba, radgan Tavobis amotanamdis guTanze ver dahyo -es uwuxebs guls, es stanjavs sandalas!~. sandala tipuri saxea glexisa. mwerali iseT viTarebaSi xatavs mas, rom mkiTxveli moTxrobis gmirTan erTad ganicdis adamianis gamwarebas. am patara moTxrobaSi saaSkaraozea gamotanili glexobis CamorCeniloba-gaunaTleblobisa da Zvel, damabrkolebel wes-CveulebaTa faqtebi. `ra hqnas sacodavma glexma, -- kiTxulobs mwerali. yvelgan da yvelasagan amas xvdeba rkinis maTraxi, romlis daRic sikvdilamdin ar anebebs Tavsa~. roca glexs gauWirdeba, maSin erTaderT mxsnelad da Wir-varamis Semamsubuqeblad mkiTxavi da Selocva Cndeba. mwerali deda maias vaebas, romelsac macxovrebeli Svili avad gaxdomia, aseTi detalebiT gadmogvcems: `maia xan aqeT miawydeba, xan iqiT, vera gaugia-ra, vera mouxerxebia-ra, ver upovia mizezi, Tu ram Seawuxa, ram miiyvana misi Svili sikvdilis pirze. daiwyebs Taviseburad axsnas, RonisZiebis Zebnas~ da, radgan mizezi ver upovnia, TviT gamoZebnis mas -- romeliRac xati aris gamwyrali mis ojaxze da mas unda pativiscema. `fTilebi da mkiTxavi, -- ai pirveli da ukanaskneli misamarTi RonisZieba Cvenis glexisa~ -- daaskvnis mwerali. maia mkiTxavTan wavida Svilis avadmyofobis mizezis saZebnelad da roca Sin dabrunda, sandala mkvdari daxvda. glexis pirovnebis gaqelva da udieri Zaladoba mas zogjer iaraRs aaRebinebda xelSi da arsebobis dacvas ukarnaxebda. d.WonqaZisa da i. WavWavaZis msgavsad, s. mgalobliSvilma daxata iseTi adamiani, romelSic gaiRviZa iaraRiT brZolis survilma da SurisZiebam. aseT viTarebaSi xatavs igi sose kaiSaurs (`mTiuli sose~), romlis erTaderTi imedi da cxovrebis wyaro, samuSao saqoneli, Tavadsa da mis mouravs -- qitesas wauyvaniaT. sasamarTlo da samarTali ZlierTa mxarezea, amitomac sosem maT ar mimarTa, tyes Seafara Tavi da SurisZiebisaTvis mzadeba daiwyo. radgan momavali kargs aras uqadda, gadawyvita sulic waewymida. `aRar vsaWiroeb amasac~-o, daaskvna man. sosem mokla qitesa mouravis bavSvi. marTalia, amiT mouravis javri amoiyara, magram udanaSaulo bavSvis sisxlma ki gadaria. soses deda marTa Tavs datexili ubedurebisagan gagiJda, xolo TviTon sasamarTloSi gamocxadda da Semdeg cimbirisaken gaemgzavra. mTiulma sosem, d.WonqaZis nodaris msgavsad, TviT ipova samarTali, Tumca bavSvis mokvlis gamo sindisis qenjnas ver morCa. s. mgalobliSvilis SemoqmedebaSi sose aris pirveli, romelic iaraRiT xelSi eqspluatatorTa javrs iyris. batonymobis naSTebi, uzarmazari gadasaxadebi da miwis gamosasyidi fasi glexuri meurneobis Semosavals bevrad aRemateboda. es mdgomareoba iwvevda am

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meurneobis gawriokebas. amisi Sedegi iyo `gaTavisuflebuli~ glexis qalaqSi gadasaxleba lukmapuris saZieblad. s. mgalobliSvilis moTxrobaSi `demetres saxloba~ daxatulia glexobis ubedurebiT aRsavse gza, romelic soflidan qalaqisaken miemarTeba. moTxrobaSi aRwerilia pirveli etapi soflis mosaxleobis qalaqebisaken miswrafebisa. qalaqs gadasaxlebuli glexi xelSi uvardeba vaWars da burJuaziuli amoralobisa da gaumaZRrobis msxverplad iqceva. qalaqSi gadasaxlebuli glexis cxovreba mweralma daxata metad muqi ferebiT, Tumca simarTliT. qalaqi glexis zneobas spobs, mas adamianur saxes ukargavs. demetre lazaTiani axalgazrda iyo, Cacmadaxurva uyvarda, magram roca qalaqSi dasaxlda, Tavis msgavs tanjulTa Soris gaiTqvifa, dasneulda. demetre xelSi Cauvarda vaWar yazaras `sudebs~, `listebsa~ da `poveskebs~. demetre yazaras validan veRar amovida. qalaqma demetres (da mravals misTanas) yoveli adamianuri Rirseba axada. `iqnamde gauWirda, -- ambobs masze mwerali, -- rom xandisxan TavSi elvasaviT gaurbenda ubeduri, Semzaravi azri: gaeyidna namusi sacodavi nenesi~... demetre siRaribem, yazarama da burJuaziulma qalaqma imsxverpla. misi ukanaskneli sityvebi aris mwerlis mier naTqvami protesti usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg: `maS ra vqnaT?!~ ras Svreba cxvari, yasabi rom yelSi danas daabjens xolme~. demetre yelSi danadabjenili cxvariviT msxverpli gaxda burJuaziuli qalaqisa. aseT beds ver gaeqceva soflidan gadmosaxlebuli verc erTi glexi. moTxrobaSi `gmiriseulis qali~ mweralma analogiuri ambavi aRwera. aqac ise ucruvdeba imedi glexs, rogorc `demetres saxlobaSi~. salome, gmiriseulis qalis asuli `darwmunda, rom aq ufro bloma xarks hkrefavs siRaribe, rom kacs abiwierebs, suls ufuWebs, namuss arTmevs. darwmunda, rom soflad es xarji siRaribisa agre rigad ara xdeba xalxsa~. demetres sikvdilis Semdeg misi coli nene welebze fexs idgamda, bolos igi gatexa gaWirvebam da yazaras namusi Searcxvenina. garyvnilma yazaram misi asulis damorCilebac moindoma. nenem es ki veRar aitana da mtarvali mokla. ase amovarda demetres saxloba. qalaqis daxatvaSi s. mgalobliSvili da e. ninoSvili erTgvarad iqcevian. qalaqi spobs soflis Svilebs. nene, demetre, salome s. mgalobliSvilisa, qristine e. ninoSvilisa erTgvar pirobebSi moeqcevian qalaqSi, erTgvarad mZimea maTTvis iqauri garemo. mwerali kritikuli TvaliT ucqeris Tavis Tanamedrove soflis cxovrebasac -- usamarTlobis budes, Tumca igi bevrad maRla dgas burJuaziulvaWrul qalaqze. avtobiografiul TxzulebaSi `warsulidan~ mwerali xatavs idealur sofels, iZleva patriarqaluri yofis gandidebas. mwerlis azriT, Zveli sofeli xasiaTdeboda erTsulovnebiT, soflelebma icodnen erTmaneTis gatana da daxmareba. axali sofeli dacemulia, mcxovreblebs vaJkacuri Tvisebebi dahkargviaT, ojaxebi danawevrebuli da dasustebulia, amitom yvela advilad ereva Ronegamoclil mosaxleobas. Zvelad glexoba SekavSirebuli yofila da Ronec hqonia. mgelbabias (`warsulidan~) azriT imitom, rom `Cveni Tavis patronni Cven TviTon viyaviT~-o. ojaxebi winaT mtkice da mravalricxovani yofila. aseTi ojaxi mwerlis idealia, aseTma simtkicem SeunarCuna sofels mTlianoba, qarTvelma glexobam amitom gauZlo mtris Semosevebsa da darbevebs. Zveladac yofila winaaRmdegobani, brZola, magram glexTa mTlianobas yvelaferi gadaulaxavs. Zveli soflis adamiani faqizi grZnobebiTa da sulgrZelobiT xasiaTdeboda. glexis darbaisloba da adamianuri buneba mweralma romantikulad dagvixata am TxzulebaSi. s. mgalobliSvili daaskvnis: `...maT yofnas hmowmoben mxolod saflavis qvani.... dRes sofels aRar hyavs mkurnali, gulSematkivari. iRupeba yvelaferi, rasac ki Zveli elferi edo~... ase gamoTqva s. mgalobliSvilma sinanuli soflis Zveli, patriarqaluri wyobis mospoba-danergvis gamo.

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soflis mosaxleobisa da memamuleebis urTierTobas mwerali Tavisi soflis konkretul magaliTze xatavs. sofeli dirbi Zvelad ekuTvnoda qarTvelTa qristes saflavis monasters ierusalimSi da adgilobriv Tavadebs. mas Semdeg, rac qarTvelTa monasteri berZnebis xelSi gadavida, mamulic imaT xelSi Cavarda da uzarmazar saxnav-saTess ierusalimidan Camosuli berZeni beri flobda. es berebi arafriT gansxvavdebodnen danarCen sofelTa baton-patronTagan. qristes saflavis monastris msaxurni glexebTan damokidebulebaSi iviwyebdnen qristianobas da glexTa winaaRmdeg xSirad mimarTavdnen policiis Zalas. berebi didZal Rala-kuluxs (xorblisa da Rvinis gadasaxads) axdevinebdnen glexebs. mosaxleobasTan Suamavlad, Tavadebisa da memamuleTa msgavsad, maTac mouravebi hyavdaT. mweralma Tavis SemoqmedebaSi didi adgili dauTmo memamuleTa da glexTa urTierTobis asaxvas. amiT gansxvavdeba igi Tavis TanamedroveTagan -- niko lomoursa da ekaterine gabaSvilisagan. Tu n. lomouri ZiriTad yuradRebas glexTa uswavlelobaze amaxvilebda da qadagebda mavne Cveulebebisa da crumorwmuneobis winaaRmdeg, s. mgalobliSvili memamuleTa da glexTa urTierTobas da maT Soris ekonomiur winaaRmdegobas ganixilavs da asaxavs TxzulebebSi. moTxrobaSi `warsulidan~ mwerals aRwerili aqvs glexTagan berebis sawyobebisa da ambrebis dangreva, glexTa amboxeba qristes saflavis monastris warmomadgenelTa winaaRmdeg. pirvel xanebSi es protesti stiqiuri iyo da ar gamoxatavda ZalTa gaerTianebisa da koleqtiuri brZolis etapebs. soflis mosaxleoba konkretul mowinaaRmdeges xedavda, eseni ki berebisa da memamuleebis mouravebi iyvnen. aseTia gigola guliaSvili (`warsulidan~), romelmac kargad icoda TanasoflelTa ekonomiuri SesaZleblobani, igi udierad eqceoda Tanasoflelebs, aviwroebda mezoblebs Tavisi gamorCenis mizniT. isaka bRunZelaSvili, fidua eSmakuraSvili, sosika mouravi, gigola guliaSvili sxvadasxva TxzulebaTa personaJebi arian, magram erTi xasiaTis gamovlinebaa, isini erTmaneTs hgvanan, rac gamowveulia imiT, rom mwerali namdvil movlenebs iRebda masalad, namdvilad arsebul adamianTa yofa-qcevas aRwerda. glexobaSi protestis Casaxva-ganviTarebas da maTSi cxovrebis arsis analizis gaCenis interess mwerali gadmogvcems moTxrobaSi `Ramis mexre ceco~. 17-18 wlis biWebi, Ramis mexreebi, ufiqrdebian TavianT yofas, magram mizezs da, miT umetes, mdgomareobidan Tavis daRwevis gzas ver pouloben. `i, raT ari, ro zogi duRs da gadmodis da zogs ki SimSiliT kuWi uxmeba, ha, e? Seni ar iyos, ceco, RmerTmani, ro dRe da Ramis gasworeba Tu aris, ra hqvian, vasworebT da, ra vici, uniaTo kia Cveni yvelaferi da~ -- msjelobs moTxrobis erTi gmiri pako. glexi faqtiur mdgomareobas ki xedavs, icis, rom misi namuSevar-naRvawi sxvas miaqvs daumsaxureblad da amaSi cudi Suamavlis rols asrulebs isev glexobidan gamosuli mouravi an mamasaxlisi, romelic sakuTar jibes ivsebs glexis, `naTel-mironis~ monagariT. batonymobis gadavardnam glexobis mdgomareoba ar Secvala. batoni memamuled iqca da glexs mainc ar moscilda tvirTi. mweralma moTxrobaSi `jor-zaqara~, romelsac qvesaTaurad uweria -- `batonymobis win da Semdeg~ -- STambeWdavi saxe daxata baton-memamulisa. batonymobis droso, -- wers igi, -- iyo erTi Cveuleba: iSviaTi yofila iseTi batoni, romelic misdevda saqonlis moSenebas, jogebis yolas, Sinauri frinvelis gamravlebas. roca saWiro iyo yvela zemoCamoTvlili, batoni mouravsa da biWebs gausevda sofels da rasac xels waavlebdnen, ganukiTxavad mihqondaT batonTan diambegisa, mazris ufrosisa Tu sxva romelime stumris saWiroebisaTvis. yvelaferi glexisa -- batonisa iyo. es Cveuleba ZvalSi da rbilSi hqondaT gamjdari batonebs da uxvadac sargeblobdnen miT. glexoba drtvinavda da SfoTavda, magram araviTari ufleba ar hqonda winaaR221

mdegobis araTu gawevisa, gamomJRavnebisac ki. mxolod TiTo-orola Tu gamoCndeboda glexobaSi, romelsac moTminebis fiala aevseboda da batonis winaaRmdeg xels aRmarTavda. ujiaTi, reformamdeli batonis xasiaTi aris mocemuli moTxrobaSi `jor-zaqara~. mis xelSi glexi Tavis Svilebzec vera xarobda, misi adamianuri, mSobliuri grZnobebi Selaxuli iyo: `mSurs roca vucqeriT, rom isini xaroben Tavis SvilebiTa, xels aravin uSlis, aravisi murdali xeli maT namuss ar exeba... Cvena varT mxolod dawyevlilebi...~ batonymobis gadavardnis moaxloebam glexoba aamoZrava, kantikuntad dadioda xmebi, rom batonymoba unda gadavardeso. glexoba jer idumalad msjelobda, radgan misTvis gaurkveveli iyo, Tu rogori urTierToba damyardeboda batonymobis gadavardnis Semdeg. 1864 wlis 8 noembers goris mazraSi sazeimod waikiTxes mefis brZaneba da manifesti, romlis kiTxvasac daeswro rogorc Tavadoba, ise glexoba. am ceremoniam saqmeSi Caxedul glexs azri ver Seucvala. zaqara (`jor-zaqara~) daeswro manifestis kiTxvas gorSi, rogorc glexobis deputati da roca sofel tortlaSi dabrunda, Tavmoyril Tanasoflelebs uambo batonymobis gadavardnis ambavi: `teva aRar iyo gorSi, jer martoka imdeni qor-meZebrebi iyo batonebisa, rom is eyofoda. exla batonebis cxenebis mxleblebi...~ tortlelebis cxovreba ar Seicvala. Tavadi estate maruSaZec Zveleburad ujiaTi xasiaTisa darCa. igi kbilebs amtvrevda mosamsaxureebs da sofelic SiSis qveSa hyavda. estate maruSaZem kvlav mxarSi amoiyena mouravi sosika da sxvani. miwis mizomvis Semdeg glexebi darwmundnen, rom batonymobis gadavardniT araferi miuRiaT ra. sofel tortlas mcxovrebni cud mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndnen: `iseTi udieri gamodga aqauri batoni, rom venaxis mosavalzedac ki meoTxeds arTmevda: kitrze, venaxis lobioze, simindze da mwvanilze~. `batonymobis gadavardnis Semdegac sosika mouravi (misi gvari puriWamiaSvilia) daTareSobs soflis pirutyv saqonelze: daxocda indourebs, qaTmebs, daiWerda kai lamaz, gaTamamebul da galaRebuls, RiWiT gasuqebuls kvebula xbosa da moemzadeboda batonis saxlSi Zveleburad stumrebis dasaxvedrada~. sofelsa da Tavads Soris damokidebuleba axal fazaSi Sevida. sofeli aRar uTmobda batonis mouravs TareSs, batoni ki Zveleburs ar iSlida. sosika mouravs yvela win gadaudgeboda xolme da Tavis uflebas icavdnen. s. mgalobliSvili glexTa masidan gamohyofs erTs da mas Caayenebs moZraobis saTaveSi, igi aris gamomxatveli protestisa. is erTi irgvliv Semoikrebs Tavissave msgavsT, Ronier da yoCaR biWebs da nabatonaris winaaRmdeg daiwyeben moqmedebas. glexobaSi TandaTan izrdeba survili brZolisa. asea daxatuli glexTa martivi organizeba da darazmva moTxrobebSi `Ramis mexre ceco~ da `jor-zaqara~. axalgazrda ceco goderZiSvili, yoCaRi Ramis mexre meTaurobs glexobas. mosazrebiTa da saqmianobiT igi yvelasagan gamoirCeva. siRaribeSi da oblobaSi gazrdils ebraleba yvela obol-Raribi, igi Tavisi pirdapirobiT, grZnobieri guliT yvelas sayvarel adamianad iqceva. mas yvela ujerebs, moxucebic ki pativsa scemen cecos. igi qvrivma dedam vai-vaglaxiT gamozarda. geges axalgazrdobaSive daedga mZime uReli upatrono ojaxis meTaurisa, puris cxobiT, SeZlebul glexebTan qiriT muSaobiT, qerisa da lobios glejiT, simindis ToxniTa da bostnis margvliT aRebuli fuliT gamozarda erTi biWi. siRaribem da gaWirvebam Tavisi daRi daasva cecos. avtoris naambobiT, igi iyo `kanti biWi, anu rogorc CvenSi ityvian, sxarti biWi. imis gamxmar, mgram sufTa saxes siyviTlis feri dascemda... tuCebs umSvenebda axlad akokrebuli ulvaSebi~. ceco kargad xedavda, rom dovlaTi uwesrigod nawildeboda, misi da mezoblebis naSromi sxvas mihqonda. man Tavis tol Ramis mexreebSi Tqva: `egre ar unda iyos, Cemo Zmao. samasi komli kacni varT ZaRlisxevelebi. samas kacs Tu piri eqneba, rogor gadaudgeba win aTi da oci ka222

ci, aba erTi miTxariT! Cven Tu magaT kriWaSi CavudgebiT, avlagmavT, Tavs vaCvenebT, SiSi da ridi miecemaT~. ceco aRara hgavs sandalasa da solomanas (`deda maia~). Tu isini, uRelSi gabmulni, imdenad iyvnen dabeCavebulni, rom sakuTar mdgomareobas ver gansjidnen, ceco ukve analizs ukeTebs glexobis mdgomareobas da daaskvnis, rom erTaderTi gamosavali aris glexobis gaerTianeba da gamTlianebuli moZraoba. magram ceco jer Tavis sofelsa da adgilobriv memamuleTa dapirispirebas ver gascilebia, igi mxolod TavisTan axlo myof eqspluatatorebs xedavs da maT asalagmavad razmavs sofels. cecom fici dado, rom soflis saqmisaTvis Tavs gamoidebda da sxvebsac mouxmo: `deda SeerTos colad, vinc erTmaneTs uRalatos, dedai!~. axalgazrdebmac cecos dauWires mxari. glex cecos exmareba im soflis Raribi aznauri mixa gvaraZe. igic glexTa mfarveli da damcvelia meruesTan, vaWarTan, mamasaxlisTan, mouravTan urTierTobisas. ceco da mixa TiTqos erTmaneTs avseben. ceco WkuiT moqmedebda, azrianad, mixa ufro efeqtis adamiani iyo, orive ki namusiani da glexebis qomagi. `mozardi glexoba, -- gadmogvcems avtori, -- am or biWs Ziel ugonebda. yvelas eseni atrialebdnen da hpatronobdnen~. rogorc n. lomouris SemoqmedebaSi, ise aqac mwerali Rarib aznaurobas glexTa damcvelad gamoiyvans. sxva TxzulebebSi isini mSromelebad hyavs daxatuli, romlebic glexTa Tanabrad muSaoben, amasTan, maTi mamulebic eSmakuraSvilebisa da bRunZelaSvilebis xelSia gadasuli. ZaRlisxevas memamulem glexebs kuluxi ormagad mosTxova, amis Sesruleba bRunZelaSvilsa da eSmakuraSvils miando. sofelma am survils `gaTqmiT~ (piris Sekvra) upasuxa. cecos SegonebiT sofelma eklesiis ezoSi moiyara Tavi da ficis miRebis Semdeg daadgina ZalisdamtanebelTa dasja. ceco da misi amxanagebi teroris gzas daadgnen. cecom, mixam da pakom soflis survili aasrules. kuluxis akrefisas bRunZelaSvilsa da eSmakuraSvils ketebiT scemes da amiT soflis qomagebad gamovidnen. soflelebi aiyolies, umeTaures maT da amiT mizans miaRwies. ufro vrclad glexTa cxovrebis epopea mwerals aRwerili aqvs moTxrobaSi `jor-zaqara~. es nawarmoebi did droul manZils iTvaliswinebs, ambavTa aRwera masSi iwyeba batonymobis gadavardnis wina droidan da midis 1905 wlis revoluciis Semdeg periodamde. moTxrobaSi aRwerilia ekonomikuri da socialuri xasiaTis didi cvlilebebi, romelnic XIX saukunis meore naxevarSi xdeboda Cvens qveyanaSi. yvela es cvlileba gaSuqebulia glexobis cxovrebis fonze. batonymobis gadavardnis ambavma glexs imedi Causaxa da aRafrTovana, axali yofis survili gauRviva, magram glexs imedi ar gaumarTlda. mwerali akritikebs saglexo reformas, aRniSnavs, rom man glexobas Sveba ar moutana, rom mxolod garegnuli cvlileba moxda, Sinaarsi ki Zveli darCa. Tavadma estate maruSaZem ver daTmo batonoba da kvlav moindoma sofelSi parpaSi. glexobam, zaqaria jiRauris meTaurobiT, winaaRmdegoba gauwia mas, arc sasoflo wyali daanebes, aRarc ojaxi Searcxvenines, mamapapidan damkvidrebuli saeklesio miwac waarTves da TavisTvis moxnes. Tavad estates saqmeTa aRmasrulebeli iyo sosika mouravi, gaTavxedebuli glexi, darbevebisa da moZaladeobis monawile. estatem xelisuflebis mxardaWeriT zaqaria jiRauris ojaxi daangria, ramac glexi ufro gaaborota da gaamwara. amis Sedegad zaqariam iaraRs mohkida xeli. moTminebis fiala aivso da mxolod sisxlis daRvra gadawyvets davas. marTlac, Seuracxyofilma da darbeulma zaqaria jiRaurma wamoiZaxa: `Tofi! Cemi Tofi! ooh! kacis sisxlSi unda gavisvaro xeli! unda sisxliT movrwyo es nafuZari~. zaqaria ver daamSvida verc dedis alersma, verc mezoblebis Txovnam. sofelmac dainaxa, rom yovelgvari sazRvari moTminebisa gadalaxulia da metis atana aRar SeiZleba, daaskvna: `wyali aimRvra... es ambavi muqTad ar Caivlis...~

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zaqarias miwa waarTves. aman ki mas brZolis unari gaucocxla. didxans atara man sisxlis daRvris survili, emzada, dros ucada, TandaTan Semoikriba Tanamoazreni Tavis irgvliv da maT gaumJRavna: `fiala moTminebisa aivso. unda gzidan CamoviciloT batoni estate da mouravi sosika. Tqven nu geSiniaT, me vkisrulob, mxolod Tqven nu momaklebT Tqvens megobrobas, Tqvens siyvarulsa~. zaqariam da misma Tanamoazreebma Sehfices: `deda SeerTos colada, vinc erTmaneTs uRalatos~. zaqaria jiRaurma sosika mouravi mokla da Tofs Wde daado, -- es erTi da sxva mravalio. es brZolis faqtiuri dawyeba iyo. sofelSi erTobis kacebma daiwyes siaruli. zaqaria yuradRebiT ismenda maT saubars da TviTac moqadaged iqca, glexebs esaubreboda gadamwyveti brZolis Taobaze, sulier simtkiceze brZolaSi, Tu yvela gawydeba, erTi xom darCeba mZevlado. `ai, es mZevali iseTs ylortebs amoixeTqs, mZlavr ylortebs sisxliT gapoxierebuli niadagidan, rom imis mospoba arafriT aRar SeiZleba~. Tavadma maruSaZem razmi Seqmna, magram arc soflelebi CamorCnen. erTis Tavdadebam mravals auRelva guli. Tavadis razmi sofels musrs avlebda, zaqarias razmi estate maruSaZes samagieros uxdida. zaqarias Tofs ukve ramdenime glexis Tofi aZlevda xmas. axlovdeboda 1905 weli da soflis mosaxleoba moZraobda. glex mamakacs glexi qalis xma da Zala amoudga gverdSi. erTobis mociqulma qalma qalTa sakiTxi wamoayena krebaze da soflis qalebs mouwoda qmrebTan, ZmebTan da mamebTan erTad winaaRmdegobisa da brZolisaken: `yvela qalma, yvela ojaxis dedam unda mamakacebs mivbaZoT. droebiT unda gadavdoT TiTistari da nemsi, akvanic mivdgaT gverdze, movikrifoT sulis Zala. Tu iaraRiT vera, basri frCxilebiT SevebrZoloT usamarTlobas, borotebas. sisxli sisxliT unda moibanos, sisxls sisxli mosdevs, msxverpls msxverpli. gadavaqcioT saxl-kari, baR-venaxi da TviT Cveni gulisficari cixe-simagred, sal-klded!~. revoluciuri moZraoba gaRvivda, sofeli aRfrTovanebulia mopovebuli gamarjvebiT. mwerlis azriT, es revolucia TiTqos sofliT ifargleba, romelic mowyvetilia qalaqis amRelvarebul revoluciur brZolas. arc erTobis mqadagebelni acnoben soflelebs proletariatis Tavganwiruli brZolis peripetiebs. sofelSi axali cxovreba daiwyo: aRarc qurdoba, aRarc avazakoba, aRarc erTurTis gaukiTxaoba. Tavisuflebis sxivi moefina sofels da igic gardaiqmna. estate maruSaZe moiTrguna, soroSi daimala, brWyalebic damala. igi Tavis dros eloda. es droc daudga estate maruSaZes. sofelSi damsjeli razmebi gamogzavna xelisuflebam. estate maruSaZe, simbolo bneli Zalebisa, kvlav aRorZinda. amas msxverpli da sisxlis Rvra mohyva. estate maruSaZem msxverpli Seiwira glexTagan, magram amiT mZlavrad fesvgadgmuli siyvaruli Tavisuflebisa maTSi ver aRmofxvra. TavadTan da usamarTlobasTan brZoliT gaWaRaravebuli zaqaria jiRauri tribunad iqca, irgvliv kvlav xalxi Semoikriba da erTobis sasargeblo qadageba iwyo. Zaqaria isev meTauria soflisa, gmiria. misi sityvebi brZolis ganaxlebis Taobaze aRafrTovanebs glexebs: `sikvdili, sikvdili!... cecxli, cecxli! -- gaisma erTxmad krebaze da are-marem xma gamosca, yovelivem irgvliv gaimeora: sikvdili, cecxli!... gadawyda!.... sikvdils da cecxls Txoulobda xalxi!... sikvdils da cecxls Txoulobda mTeli are-mare. bans aZlevda xalxis guls, taSs ukravda da amxnevebda~... `tkbilia sisxliT naSovni Tavisufleba!~ -- daaskvnis Tavisi gmirebis aRfrTovanebiT aRtacebuli mwerali.

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mamakac revolucionerebTan erTad qalebic aqtiuri mebrZolni arian. marinem, zaqarias meuRlem, Sekrebil glexebs cecxli SeukeTa, brZolis Jini gauZliera: `ras CagiqindriaT Tavebi Wiriani indaurebiviTa! gansacdeli karze mogdgomiaT, Tqven col-Svils namusis axdas upireben. es-Ra SegvanarCuna RmerTma da amasac xelidan gamoglejas emuqrebian~. zaqaria glexobas gauZRva da estate maruSaZisagan cemiT moklulis -- sose inauris saflavze fici daadebina xalxs, rom samagieros miuzRavdnen mtarvals. xalxis suli aforiaqda da stiqiad iqca, sadac qalTa meTauri marinea. sabrZolod gamzadebuli, igi mowodebiT mimarTavs qalebs: `Cvenca gvaqvs iaraRi -- dedis guli. vixmaroT frCxilebi, kbilebi, qva da gunda, bari, Toxi, xeli, fexi, -- warmoTqva mtkiced marinem, kalTa Caikra sartyelSi da qoriviT Semoavlo Tvali xalxsa~. marines sityvam yvelas aRuZra SurisZiebis survili. brZola daiwyo da zaqariam dakarga coli da Svili, magram maTi da sxvaTa bevris javri male amoiyara. aRdgomas, litaniaze estate maruSaZe da misi ojaxi wminda dResaswauls dResaswaulobda da swored maSin gangmira zaqariam estate da misi vaJi arCili. roca mRvdeli ambobda `qriste aRsdgao!~, zaqariam, Tavis siaTaze dayrdnobilma, gabatonebulTa msaxur mRvdels pirSi uTxra: `styui, mamao, jer xalxisaTvis qriste ar amdgara, magram mwams, igi odesme aRsdgeba da mogvaniWebs Cvenc sasufevelsa~. moTxrobis apoTeozSi mweralma momavlis suraTi daxata. aRdgomis batkanma mzis sxivebSi Caiyuryumelava da cisartyelad gadaiqca -- gamodarebisa da simSvidis simbolod. mravalWirgadaxdili zaqariac momavlisaken iyureba da imiT gulgakeTebuli varams ar eqelvineba. mwerlis azriT, isev zaqaria unda yofiliyo momavali aRdgomisaTvis mebrZoli. 1907 wels daweril TxzulebaSi xalxosanma mweralma revoluciuri Zala isev zaqarias dautova da moxuci mWeqare, jer kidev SemZlebeli xmiT aalaparaka. aRsaniSnavia, rom 1905 wlis revoluciuri ideebis mimarT damokidebulebisa da brZolis specifikis TvalsazrisiT SeiniSneba zogierTi msgavseba s. mgalobliSvilis zaqariasa da l. qiaCelis moTxrobis personaJis, tariel goluas xasiaTebs Soris. am nawarmoebebSi gamoxatuli calkeuli situaciebic emsgavsebian erTmaneTs. aseTi suraTi daxata mweralma glexTa winaaRmdegobisa da maTi monawileobisa 1905 wlis revoluciaSi, romlis Tema mas damuSavebuli aqvs agreTve eskizebSi `ukvdavebis wyaro var~ da `pirveli sisxli~. s. mgalobliSvilma or mozrdil moTxrobaSi (`Ramis mexre ceco~ da `jor-zaqara~) aRwera glexobis gamofxizleba da revoluciuri brZolis gzaze dadgoma. TxzulebebSi aRwerili ambebi drois sakmaod did monakveTs moicavs. aseT did manZilze mwerals sxvadasxva adamiani gamohyavs samoRvaweo asparezze. maT dakisrebuli aqvT ara marto sakuTari pirovnebisa da adamianur uflebaTa dacva, aramed soflis meTaurobac. isini mowinave glexebi arian, romelnic yvelaze adre da ukeTesad erkvevian cxovrebis mouwesrigeblobaSi, ayalibeben brZolisa da moqmedebis gzebsa da saSualebebs. soflis mosaxleobac maT mihyveba, ceco, zaqaria midian win, rogorc meTaurni da maT mxars uWers glexoba. am fenidan gamosul meTaurebTan erTad iRwvian sofleli Raribi aznaurebi, romlebic ekonomiuri mdgomareobiT glexebisagan ar gamoirCevian. s. mgalobliSvilis Rrma rwmeniT, xalxSi erTobis sulis Semtani da winaaRmdegobis daZlevisaTvis brZolis organizatori isev glexobidan gamosuli adamiani unda iyos, radgan man kargad icis Tavisianebis raoba da vinaoba, icis, Tu ra uWirs glexs, saiT unda warimarTos glexobis SekavSirebuli Zala. s. mgalobliSvili ar ayalibebs xalxosani moRvawis xasiaTsa da moRvaweobis programas. aseTi adamianis gza mwerals ambavTa da personaJebis aRweraSi aqvs

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mocemuli. aseTi moRvaweni, inteligentebi, glexobis wridan gamosuli axalgazrdebi, avtoris rwmeniT, xalxisaTvis Tavdadebulni arian, misi gonebisa da iuridiuli uflebebis aRdgenisaTvis mebrZolni. eskizSi `saflavSi CamomZaxe~ mweralma xalxis erTguli da misi gaTavisuflebisaTvis mebrZoli ganaTlebuli adamiani gamosaxa. maTe laSxi xalxosani revolucioneria, Tavisi arseboba mas saxalxo ganaTlebis saqmisaTvis Seuwiravs. bevrma da Tavdadebulma muSaobam laSxi motexa, daasneula, loginad Caagdo. roca saqmis gakeTeba aRar SeeZlo, Caufiqrda Tavis mdgomareobas, ganvlil gzas, analizi gaukeTa Tavis mier gakeTebuls da scada gamoerkvia Tavisi adgili xalxTan urTierTobaSi, isic gaaxsenda, rom adre miRebuli hqonda gadawyvetileba, aeRo da etvirTa mZime jvari xalxis samsaxurisa da Sedgomoda golgoTas. qristem, maTes sityvebiT, yvelas erTi ram uanderZa -- visac ki guli Sestkiva sakacobrio saqmisaTvis, unda iRvawos da iSromos. avtorisa da misi gmiris azriT es Sroma soflis maswavleblis movaleobaa da, maSinac ki, roca revoluciuri brZola da proletariatis moZraoba ruseTis uzarmazar teritorias azanzarebda, xalxisaTvis zrunva mxolod soflis maswavleblis SromaSi gamoxata mweralma. maTe laSxi, sasikvdilo sarecelze mwoli, darwmunda, rom misi didi gegma Sesrulebuli ki ara, dawyebulic ar yofila, xalxTan guliTadi kavSiris damyarebac ki ver mouxerxebia. igi did cxovrebas SeeWida da martomebrZolma ver daarRvia misi simagre da simtkice. mxolod ukanasknel wuTebSi mixvda igi, rom xalxTan urTierToba ver daamyara: `me mis TvalSi mRvdlis Svili var. Tavi dauRweviaT Cems winaprebs im Wapnidan, im uRlidan, romelsac xalxi eweva. xeli aRar SeuSvelebiaT misi mZime tvirTisaTvis, ar SeumsubuqebiaT igi~. swored amitomac maTe laSxsa da xalxs Soris, miuxedavad pirvelis Sromisa, urTierToba ver ganmtkicda. sinanuli mdgomareobas ver cvlis. maTe laSxi acxadebs, rom xalxi mxolod Tavis Svils gahyveba yovel saqmianobaSi. xalxis Svilad ki mas glexTa wiaRidan gamosuli adamiani miaCnia, namdvili glexis ojaxis Svili. ara mxolod mRvdlis Svilia aseT mdgomareobaSi, Tavadis asuli Teklec, romelic maTes msgavsad xalxisaTvis iyo Tavganwiruli. namdvili da SesaniSnavi memkvidre maTes saqmianobisa unda iyos glexi petre, mxolod is SeZlebs dauaxlovdes masas. maTe laSxis pirovnebaSi avtobiografiuli xazebi moCans. mwerali xalxosnad darCa bolomde, TviT 1905 wlis revoluciis epoqaSic, Tumca ki dainaxa, rom xalxosanTa rwmena uZluri aRmoCnda glexobis gaTavisuflebis didi misiis SesrulebisaTvis. maTesa da Tekles erTmaneTi uyvardaT da maTes ver gaebedna, gamoecxadebina TeklesaTvis Tvisi grZnoba. maT Soris wodebrivi sxvaobis kedeli idga da maTes amisi eSinoda. mxolod sikvdilis sidiadem misca maTes SesaZlebloba gaemJRavnebina TeklesaTvis siyvaruli. maTe laSxi Sewuxebulia miT, rom xalxis axal, bednier cxovrebas ver moeswreba, Tekles avalebs -- saflavSi CamomZaxe Cemi xalxis bednierebisa da gamarjvebis dReo. 1905 wlisaTvis samzadisi, TviT revolucia da misi damarcxeba s. mgalobliSvils aRwerili aqvs patara moTxrobaSi `da Sehfices~. misi gmiri iliko mSveliZe maTe laSxTan SedarebiT didi upiratesobis mqonea. iliko glexis Svilia, igi mSobliur wres ar moscilebia, xalxic endoba mas, uyvarT da afaseben. iliko masebis organizatoria, erTobis moqadage. igi sargeblobs glexobis gaWirvebuli mdgomareobiT, rom maT miwa ara aqvs da gadaisvris lozungs -- `miwa da Tavisufleba~. xalxi, ilikos sityvebiT aRfrTovanebuli, sixaruliT SesZaxebs: `gaumarjos erTobas!~. moTxrobaSi mocemulia suraTebi erToblivi frontis Seqmnisa, ZalTa konsolidaciisa. magram es revoluciuri Zala mainc calmxrivia, radgan

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iliko, SesaniSnavi agitatori-propagandisti, namdvili `erTobis kaci~, mxolod glexuri SeerTebuli ZaliT fiqrobs revoluciis moxdenas. ilikosaTvis sruliad garkveulia brZolis gza, man kargad icis da Rrmad swams, rom Tavisufleba usisxlod ar moipoveba. `marTalia, ar dagimalavT, -- mimarTavs igi glexebs, -- es erToba bevr Cvengans Seiwiravs... bevri umanko sisxli daiRvreba, magram gamarjveba Cvenia~. ilikos qadagebaSi, mis mier xalxis darazmvaSi, mis sikvdilsa da saxl-karis gadawvaSi mwerali iZleva 1905 wlis revoluciis mTavar etapebs. iliko mokles, misi Tavi straJnikebma margils Camoacves. ilikos saflavze didi xis jvari aRmarTa viRacam. Svilis saflavze aqamde mdumare luka Sedga da xalxs brZolis gangrZobisaken, miwisa da Tavisuflebis mopovebisaken mouwoda. moxuci adamiani mtkiced Sedga Svilis mier arCeul gzaze da Svilis naTeli xsovniT mosilma xalxs aRmgznebi sityvebiT mimarTa. totebdamtvreul muxasa hgavda luka, magram im muxas fesvebi da Ziri hqonda magari (aqac Cndeba paralelebi l. qiaCelis tariel goluasTan). axalgazrda glexma xalxs mouwoda fici daedoT ilikos saflavTan, rom momavalSi ar Sedrkebodnen da brZolas ganagrZobdnen, ar uRalatebdnen im azrebs, erTobis saqmes, rasac iliko msxverplad Seewira... da Sehfices! Tumca brZolis meTauri mokles, magram amiT brZola ar Senelebula, piriqiT, igi grZeldeba da Zlierdeba. yvelaferi es mainc calmxrivia, radgan, rogorc am moTxrobas qvesaTaurSi uweria, igi glexTa cxovrebis aRweraa mxolod. amisTana momentebSi mJRavndeba s. mgalobliSvilis tendenciebi. `iveriaSi~ dabeWdil werilebSi `provincialuri meTvalyuris Civili da SeniSvnebi~ 1878 wels s. mgalobliSvili werda: `me mwvavs, mawuxebs, Cemo megobaro, e Cveni glexobis bedSavi mdgomareoba. sawyalni da sabraloni! ra SeZleba aqvT, RmerTo Cemo, amdeni tkipebis gadamkides! kiseri mokirwyluli aqvT wiTeli, yviTeli, Savi -- ra feric gnebavT, sul aris. erTs moiglejs, meore mouWers...~ mwerali sxvadasxva juris mZarcvelebs gulisxmobda, vinc ar unda yofiliyo igi, soflis moxele, didCinosani vinme Tu ugergilo da loTi maswavlebeli. Tavis SesaniSnav mogonebaSi `warsulidan~ mweralma akaki wereTlis msgavsad gamoiyvana usulgulo adamianebi, ugunuri, loTi, ukulturo Cinovniki-maswavleblebi. maT adamianTa aRzrda abariaT da maswavleblis saxelsac ki atareben, magram rani arian da vin arian isini? moswavleebs maTTvis maTi xasiaTisa da qcevis Sesaferisi zedmeti saxelebi daurqmeviaT. es maswavleblebi arian: qiSmiSa, yeyeCa ivane, purWyia prokle, burnuTis kolofi, bora da sxvani. saswavlo-pedagogiuri procesis safuZvlad maT miRebuli aqvT Tmis agleja, yuris aweva, maTraxi da rozgi. isini zrdian bavSvebs, romlebic maT xelSi eCvevian qurdobas, dabezRebas, usindisoba-upatiosnobas. meqrTameoba, e.w. pativiscema da sxva amgvari mowafeTa Tvalwin xdeba, maswavleblebi mowafeTa daswrebiT erTmaneTs `amkoben~ quCuri epiTetebiT. amgvar maswavlebelTa xelSi mowafeebs dakarguli hqondaT adamianuri saxe, eseni momavali usulgulo Cinovnikebi unda gamosuliyvnen, xalxs rom daawvebodnen mZime tvirTad. mTavrobis moxele, ucxoa Tu Sinauri, glexis mtrad aris movlinebuli. xalxs didi survili aqvs misi Tavidan mocilebisa, rac s. mgalobliSvils xSirad uCvenebia moTxrobebSi. biurokratiuli sistemis kritika s. maglobliSvils mZlavri satiruli toniT aqvs daxatuli moTxrobaSi `wiTeli sarCuli~. moTxrobis mTavari personaJi iuda ReWiaSvili, igive ReWovi, warmoSobiT, moRvaweobiT, moqmedebiTa da sulian-xorcianad Cinovnikia. orpiri, pirferi, mliqvneli, boroti, sxvisi tyavis gamZrobi, sakuTari WuWyiani pirovnebis pativismcemeli da sazogadoebis xorcmeti, yoveli araadamianuri TvisebiT Semkuli, wiTelsarCuliani mundiris mqone

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samoqalaqo samsaxuris generalia. ReWovis mama SezRuduli gonebis patroni yofila, kalendris monad qceuli. Svilis dabadebis dRes kalendarSi amosula iuda da, miuxedavad colis survilisa, bavSvisaTvis daerqmiaT aslani, momaval Cinovniks iuda uwodes. manac gaamarTla Tavisi saxeli praqtikuli cxovrebiTa da moRvaweobiT. roca moizarda, iudas eCoTira Tavisi saxeli da mejRanuaSvilis msgavsad bevri atriala, scada Secvla, magram mizans ver miaRwia da iuda darCa. man umaRlesi saswavlebeli daamTavra, diplomi arSinnaxevrian aryis totze daaxvia, rom beWedgautexelad Camoetana samSobloSi. es diplomi misi Cinovnikobis dasayrdeni da fari iyo. iudas devizi hqonda SemuSavebuli: `ise unda vicxovro, rom erTis xeliT, ginda piriT sami kurdReli daviWiro~. iudas arseboba sazogadoebrivi interesebisagan mTlad daclilia. marTalia, zogjer sazogado krebas eswreboda, magram mxolod imisaTvis, rom gamoCeniliyo, mis Sesaxeb alaparakebuliyvnen. s. mgalobliSvilma Camoayaliba Cinovnikis gza, romelzec ReWovma gaiara: `namussa da sindiss sqel fardas Camovafareb, rom TvaliTac veravin dainaxos... erTi mxriv Cems xalxs vasiamovneb, masTan saxels gavikeTeb... meore mxriv Cem mTavrobas fexqveS gaverTxobi, mis win davdneb-davxoraviWdebi... Tavs angelozad movaCveneb. Tu ase ar moviqeci, win ar wamweven da derefanSi gdebiT da xoxviT suls amomarTmeven. mesame mxriv, arafers da aravis ar davzogav, yvelas cecxl-navTSi gavatareb, vinc ki Cemi survilis Sesrulebas win gadaeRobeba... ra saldaTia is saldaTi, romelic generlobas ar moelis. ai, am Cem paltos meTqi wiTel sarCuls gamovakrav~. radgan aseTi survili hqonda ReWiaSvils, ReWovad gardaqmnils, amitom meTodurad daiwyo misi Sesruleba. miznis miRwevisaTvis mas araferi dauSurebia, vidre patara da usaxo iyo, sxvis xarisxsa da mdgomareobas efareboda da sakuTars iqmnida. wiTeli sarCulis xarisxamde asvlisaTvis xalxs TvalSi nacars ayrida, ufrosebis win iRuneboda, maT xel-fexs ukocnida, cruobda, angelozad eCveneboda da qvemZromiviT xoxavda. umaRles swavlamiRebuli ReWovi TvalTmaqcad, qarTuli kulturis amRorZineblad asaRebda Tavs, namdvilad ki erovnuli mTlianobis dasayrdenis enis winaaRmdeg moqmedebda da biurokratiuli xelisuflebis Cinosan warmomadgenlebs aamebda. iuda ReWovis Cinovnikuri karieris zrda sazogadoebrivi cxovrebisa da revoluciuri moZraobis aRmavlobis paralelurad miemarTeboda. iudasa da mis mfarvels --vorotilovs xalxis amoZraveba SiSis zarsa scemda. marTalia, maT imedi hqondaT yovlad SemZlebeli imperatorisa, magram xalxi ZalaSeuzRudveli aRmoCnda. rac ufro Zlierdeboda moZraoba, miT ufro mJRavndeboda ReWovis antisazogadoebrivi ganwyobileba da xasiaTi. Txzulebis ukanasknel TavebSi aRwerilia is, Tu rogor miezRo samagiero ReWovsa da mis msgavsT misgan SeZulebuli xalxisagan. qariSxalma dabera da iudas niRabi Camoglija, gamoCnda misi RvarZliani, sxvisi fexis mtvris lokviTa da laqiobiT aRvsili guli. yvela amxedrda mis winaaRmdeg. mTeli aremare ReWovs moRalates misZaxoda. ReWovi uaryo xalxma, cxovrebam, Wkuidan Semcdari soflidan sofelSi darboda. ase daangria samSoblos gamyidvelis cxovreba xalxis moZraobam. s. mgalobliSvilma Tavisi Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi Tema gamoiyena sabavSvo TxzulebebisaTvisac. bavSvTa da mozardTaTvis dawerili misi Txzulebebi qarTul JurnalebSi qveyndeboda. am moTxrobebSi mwerali glexsa da mis garemos gamoxatavda da norCi mkiTxvelis yuradRebas soflis cxovrebis sxvadasxva mxareze amaxvilebda. `yayitas qurdi~, `Tinas giSera~, `melia~, `siymawvilis mogonebani~ aRsavseni arian mozardi Taobis gonebriv-zneobrivi aRzrdis surviliT. sabavSvo moTxrobebSi mwerali asakis Sesaferis TxrobiTa da ambis ganviTarebiT mkiTxvels acnobs glexis yoveldRiur cxovrebas, mis bunebasTan urTierTobas, Sromis process.... mwerali mozards STaagonebs samSoblos Ralatis, flidobis, TvalTmaqcobis siZulvils; unergavs bunebis siyvaruls, misi dacvis interess. s.

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mgalobliSvili cocxali, amoZravebuli bunebis mxatvaria. buneba ganyenebuli ki ar aris, aramed adamianTanaa mtkiced dakavSirebuli. swored amitomaa igi mimzidveli da mSvenieri. s. mgalobliSvili glexTa yofa-cxovrebas zedmiwevniT zustad aRwerda. mxatvrul TxzulebebSi gamoxatuli mdgomareobani da adamianTa urTierTobani, gmirebi da xalxi namdvili cxovrebidan arian aRebulni. moTxrobaTa moqmedi pirebi mwerlis nacnobebi da maxloblebi arian. mogonebaSi `warsulidan~ Saqro gegelaSvilis saxeliT TviT mwerali gamodis, xolo mgel-babia, efrosine da sxvani misi bavSvobis droindeli adamianebi arian. mwerals maTTvis saxelebi Seucvlia mxolod, rogorc sasuliero saswavleblis maswavleblebisa da mowafeebisaTvis. s. mgalobliSvilis moTxrobaTa gmirebi erTi soflis mcxovrebni arian, im soflisa, romelsac mwerali sxvadasxva moTxrobaSi xan marmaraReles, xan ZaRlisxevas, xanac bateTs uwodebs. frones xeoba, sofeli dirbi aris s. mgalobliSvilis TxzulebaTa personaJebis sarbieli. mwerlis mTavari sazrunavi iyo reformis Semdegdroindeli glexis cxovrebis mowesrigeba. glexis bunebisa da garegnobis pirdapiri, Seuferavi CvenebiT mas surda mkiTxvelTa ganwyobilebis mobilizeba maTi ekonomiur-uflebrivi mdgomareobis aRdgenis sasargeblod. cxovrebiseuli situaciebisa da adamianTa Soris kavSirebis aRwerisas igi mimarTavda mowodebebs, qadagebas, agitacias, rac, rasakvirvelia, misi mxatvruli Semoqmedebis dones dabla swevda. magram mwerali xalxosnuri SexedulebebiT xelmZRvanelobda da mxatvrul literaturasac utilitaruli miznebisaTvis iyenebda. s. mgalobliSvili soflis kolorits cocxlad warmoadgenda TxzulebebSi. glexis ojaxis yoveldRiuri yofa, soflad gavrcelebuli Cveulebani, metyveleba da ena fotografiul ganmeorebas poveben mis TxzulebebSi. s. mgalobliSvilis moTxrobaTa ena gmirebis enaa, kuTxuri. mwerali uxvad xmarobs ZarRvian gamoTqmebsa da Sedarebebs, xalxis metyvelebaSi damkvidrebul sibrZnis nimuSebsa da andazebs. Semoqmedebis pirvel xanebSi mTeli interesi mas gadatanili hqonda ambis unaklod aRwerisa da glexis dabali ekonomiuri donis Cvenebisaken. Semdeg mweralma dawminda Tavisi enac da personaJTa metyvelebac, igi qarTul saliteraturo enas dauaxlova. rac Seexeba damokidebulebas bunebasTan, misi gamoyenebis Tavdapirveli naturalisturi manera TandaTan Seicvala da mweralma mas adamianis ganwyobilebis warmoCenis funqcia daakisra. mxatvruli damajereblobisa da sicxadisaTvis s. mgalobliSvili xSirad konkretuli magaliTebis moSveliebiT msjelobda, Semdeg ki movlenebsa da adamianur qceva-moqmedebebs azogadebda da mkiTxvels politikuri Tu socialuri protestiT aRsavse Txzulebebs awvdida.

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ekaterine gabaSvili (1851-1938)

ekaterine gabaSvili didxans emsaxura qarTul literaturas. misi pirveli Txzuleba, romelSic mweralma glexobis ganaTlebis sakiTxi wamoayena, 1870 wels daibeWda, xolo ukanasknels -- mogonebebs, gardacvalebis wina wlebSi werda. e. gabaSvilis Semoqmedeba mravalferovania. igi kargad flobs fsiqologiuri etiudebisa da novelebis weris xerxebs, mas Seswevs unari pirovnebisa da sazogadoebis rTuli urTierTobis, sazogadoebis sxvadasxva fenis fsiqikisa da ganwyobilebis gamoxatvisa, qarTveli mSromeli glexobis cxovrebis aRwerisa. e. gabaSvili gamWriaxi da dakvirvebuli mwerali iyo da amitomac misi Txzulebebi qarTveli xalxis cxovrebis sabuTebadac gamodgebian. igi erT-erTi pirvelTagani mwerali qalia XIX saukunis qarTul literaturaSi. man sakuTari niWiTa da SesaZleblobiT gaikafa gzebi, moaxerxa farTo sazogadoebriv-samwerlo asparezze gamosvla, risTvisac mouxda mravali damabrkolebeli movlenis daTrgunva, romlebic Zalze zRudavdnen qalis moRvaweobasa da monawileobas sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. man mwerlobaSi gaitana Tavisi drois cxovrebis maxinji mxareebi, aRwera qalis mdgomareoba da adgili sazogadoebis sxvadasxva safexurze da sferoSi. e. gabaSvili mowme iyo batonymobis gadavardnis meore dRisa, qarTveli glexobis ekonomiur-iuridiuli Seviwroebisa, TavadaznaurTa klasis ideuri, moraluri da qonebrivi gaRatakebisa. man mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi asaxa TvaliT naxuli da gancdili. misi Semoqmedeba yovelTvis idga qarTuli literaturuli kritikis yuradRebis areSi. ekaterine (revaz TarxniSvilis asuli) mwerlobaSi cnobili qmris gvariT -- gabaSvili, daibada 1851 wels gorSi. Tormeti wlis asakamde mas skolaSi ar uswavlia da arc maswavlebeli hyolia, TviT Seiswavla wera-kiTxva da daewafa wignebs. 1863 wels igi mamam Seiyvana fabris pansionSi, TbilisSi, sadac gaecno qarTul da rusul mwerlobas. pansionSi misi maswavleblebi iyvnen: niko inaSvili, niko dedabriSvili, aleqsandre cagareli, ukraineli moRvawe nikoloz gulaki (romelmac Semdeg leqciebi waikiTxa SoTa rusTavelze da ikvlevda qarTul enas) da sxv. pansionSi xSirad dadioda iakob gogebaSvili da moswavle qalebTan saubrebSi Caunergia maTTvis samSoblosa da pedagogiuri saqmianobis siyvaruli. 1868 wels ekaterinem daamTavra pansioni da dabrunda gorSi, Tan gaiyola survili xalxisadmi samsaxurisa, wera-kiTxvisa da ganaTlebis Setanisa xalxis wiaRSi. gorSi igi samrevlo saswavlebelSi msaxurobda. 1870 wlis `droebis~ saaxalwlo nomerSi daibeWda misi pirveli Txzuleba -- `glexkacis azri sasoflo skolaze~. 1872 wels igi misTxovda aleqsandre gabaSvils, dasaxlda TbilisSi da miiRo meuRlis gvari. TbilisSi cxovrebam mas SesaZlebloba misca gascnoboda maSindeli qarTuli literaturis wamyvan Zalebs da maTi Semoqmedebis gavlena ganecada. igi aqtiuri monawile iyo yoveli sazogadoebrivi saqmisa. ilia WavWavaZe, giorgi wereTeli, iakob gogebaSvili, rafiel erisTavi, akaki wereTeli ekaterine gabaSvilis Sromisa da mwerluri niWis damfaseblebi da pativismcemlebi iyvnen, mis SemoqmedebiT muSaobas mimarTulebas aZlevdnen. e. gabaSvilma monawileoba miiRo `vefxistyaosnis~ teqstis damdgen

komisiaSi, iyo wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebisa da misi pirveli gamgeobis wevri, sabavSvo Jurnal `jejilis~ daarsebis erTi iniciatorTagani da misi mudmivi TanamSromeli. qarTvelma sazogadoebriobam e. gabaSvils 1911 wels gadauxada iubile dabadebis 60 wlis Tavze. akaki wereTelma warudgina igi sazogadoebas, xolo niko lomourma daaxasiaTa misi moRvaweoba da Seafasa mwerlis Semoqmedeba. e. gabaSvili SemoqmedebiT muSaobas eweoda Rrmad moxucebulobamde, aqtiurad monawileobda qarTul mwerlobaSi. 1938 wlis agvistoSi mwerali da sazogado moRvawe ekaterine gabaSvili gardaicvala. ekaterine gabaSvili Tavisi msoflmxedvelobiTa da Semoqmedebis xasiaTis TaviseburebiT samocianeli qarTveli mwerlebis tradiciebis gamgrZelebelia, mis SemoqmedebaSi aisaxa qarTveli xalxis yvela socialuri fenis xasiaTi da cxovreba. mweralma gulisyuriT daaxasiaTa rogorc maRali sazogadoebis, ise glexobis socialur-uflebrivi da ekonomiuri mdgomareoba. man mniSvnelovani adgili dauTmo Tavadaznauruli budeebis yofis Cvenebas, amasTan, didi interesiT adevnebda Tvals qarTveli inteligenciis cxovrebas da yvelafers TviTmxilvelis sizustiT aRwerda. mwerlis SemoqmedebaSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoba qalis mdgomareobis Cvenebas kapitalisturi sazogadoebis arsebobis pirobebSi. mweralma cocxali suraTebi daxata yvela sazogadoebrivi fenis warmomadgeneli qalebisa. e. gabaSvilis mxatvruli SesaZleblobebis sasiqadulod unda iTqvas, rom qalTa uflebebisaTvis moRvaweoba mas SiSveli frazebiT ar gamouxatavs, aramed mxatvruli saxeebiT, rac mwerlis praqtikul moRvaweobasac eyrdnoboda. igi Tavisi SemoqmedebiT qadagebda da mkiTxvelsac arwmunebda, rom qalsac SeuZlia hqondes Tavisi sakuTari azri da iniciativa, qalsac unda eweodes angariSi sazogadoebaSi da masac aqvs ufleba sakuTari nagZnob-nafiqris gamomJRavnebisa, sazogadoebriv asparezze gamosvlisa da mis sasargeblod intensiuri muSaobisa. e. gabaSvilis samwerlo moRvaweobis asparezze gamosvlisas maSindeli mowinave qarTveli da rusi inteligentebi, glexTa `gaTavisuflebis~ ubadruki Sedegebis, glexobis yofis, glexis meurneobis gawiokebisa da ganadgurebis sakiTxebs ganixilavdnen mxatvrul Semoqmedebasa da publicistikaSi. inteligencia msjelobda sofelSi aRmocenebul ekonomikur da klasobriv urTierTobaze, mis sazrunavs warmoadgenda glexobis fizikuri arsebobis gadarCena. am sakiTxebs utrialebda e. gabaSvilic. mwerali xatavs xalxisaTvis Tavdadebul adamianebs, gonierTa da SeupovarT, xalxis wiaRSi warmoSobilT, romelTac Tavisi moRvaweoba xalxis momavlisaTvis daukavSirebiaT. mwerlis mier uaryofilni da dawunebulni arian isini, romelTac, marTalia, ganaTleba hqondaT miRebuli, magram mas sasargeblo saqmianobisaTvis ar iyenebdnen. igi gulistkiviliT dascinis gadagvarebul-gadarjulebul maRal fenas, gaavznevebul adamianebs. Tavis TxzulebaTa masalas igi krefs rogorc maRali, ise dabali fenebis cxovrebidan, mas exerxeba mcire moculobis moTxrobaSi erTmaneTs daupirispiros sxvadasxva fenis adamianTa xasiaTi, Seqmnas sxvadasxva ganaTlebis, gancdis, mdgomareobis da Sexedulebis mqone adamianTa mxatvruli saxeebi, cocxali da dapirispirebuli situaciebi. e. gabaSvili mxatvruli sityvis meSveobiT protests gamoTqvamda qarTveli glexis saarsebo saSualebaTa momspobi pirobebis winaaRmdeg, igi ver egueboda energiis uazro flangvas, rasac maSindeli e. w. aristokratiis wre sCadioda, mas ar moswonda `CanCuras Svilebis~ udieroba samSoblosi da xalxis mimarT, ar moswonda inteligencia, romelic erovnul saxierebas kargavda. e. gabaSvilis Semoqmedebisa da praqtikuli moRvaweobis mizani iyo samsaxuris gaweva qarTvelTa

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cxovrebis gaumjobesebisaTvis. TavadaznaurTa cxovrebis suraTebis aRwerisas mwerals gamoaqvs daskvna, rom es fena sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo saqmes veRar akeTebs, rom feodalur-aristokratiuli sazogadoeba axalma ekonomikurma struqturam dasca da miwasTan gaaswora. uzrunvel cxovrebas miCveulni, isini sruliad ver uweven angariSs axal Zalas da, marTalia, garegnul brwyinvalebas inarCuneben, magram Sinaarsi maT cxovrebas aRar gaaCnia (`benuari 3~ da sxv.). am sazogadoebrivi fenis cxovrebis karg codnaSi moCans SemoqmedebiTi Tavisebureba ekaterine gabaSvilisa. ekaterine gabaSvili Tavis SemoqmedebaSi mniSvnelovan adgils uTmobs qarTuli literaturis mTavar Temas -- qarTveli xalxis erovnul mdgomareobas. misTvis ilia WavWavaZe am dargSi moRvaweobis etalonia. akaki wereTlis aRmafrTovanebeli poezia da misi paTosi mwerali qalis gonebas xiblavda. dimitri yifianis veraguli mkvleloba e. gabaSvilma ganicada, rogorc erovnuli ubedureba. rafiel erisTavis leqsma `samSoblo xevsurisa~ e. gabaSvils misca Tema mSvenieri moTxrobisaTvis. 80-iani wlebis qarTveli inteligenciis brZola mefis xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebTan e. gabaSvilis dakvirvebul Tvals ar gamorCenia. misi praqtikuli moRvaweoba erovnuli mTlianobis gamomuSaveba-ganmtkicebas emsaxureboda. mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi e. gabaSvilma daayena sakiTxi erovnul-sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis simtkicisa. rogorc mweralma qalma, Tavis SemoqmedebaSi gansazRvra qalis, dedis roli momavali Taobis aRzrdaSi. deda aris Svilis mimarTulebis mimcemi, misi moqalaqeobis Camomyalibebeli. swored amitom qarTvel qals ar unda daekargos erovnuli xasiaTi da Tvisebebi, ena, zneobis Zala. qalis xelSia momavlis nergi da, maS, pirvel rigSi qalis, rogorc ojaxisa da eris safuZvelmdebelis, gadarCena da movlaa saWiro. Tavisi Tanamedrove mdgomareobisa da pirobebis simaxinjis Cvenebis Semdeg mwerali mowodebiT mimarTavs yvelas: `modi, xeli mivceT yvelam erTmaneTs, mTeli Cveni RonisZieba movixmaroT da vecadneT, iseTi baRi gavaSenoT, iseTi walkoti avagoT, sadac Cvens fesvebzed, Cvens niadagzed, Cvens saukeTeso, rCeuli xexilis Stoebs vamynobT da Cveni xeliTve Cvens momavlis beds movamzadebT~ (`ganaTlebuli qarTveli qali~). amaSi gamoCnda e. gabaSvilis, qarTveli mwerlis didi moqalaqeobriv-patriotuli interesi, misi ideuri kavSiri ilia WavWavaZisa da sxva qarTveli mwerlebis SemoqmedebasTan. ekaterine gabaSvili, rogorc mwerali, aris mimdevari ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli azrovnebisa. man SemoqmedebiTad aiTvisa TergdaleulTa mxatvruli azrovnebis ZiriTadi Temebi, igi kargad erkveoda 50-60-iani wlebis rusul azrovnebaSi, sadac CerniSevski iyo yvelafris warmmarTveli. mwerlis Semoqmedebis asparezi im droSi eteva, romelic saqarTveloSi batonymobis gadavardnas mohyva, roca mTeli wyeba reformebisa Catarda, magram romelTac demokratiul masebs, qarTvel mSromel xalxs, soflis mosaxelobas sikeTe ara moutana ra. guSindeli yma glexi, dRes memamulisa da CarCTa lukmad qceula. es mdgomareoba asaxa mweralma qalma SemoqmedebaSi. igi Tavisi ideuri maswavleblis -- ilia WavWavaZis msgavsad kritikuli realizmis SemoqmedebiTi meTodiT iyo aRWurvili da Tavisi Tanadroulobidan uxvad krefda cocxal faqtebs moTxrobebisaTvis. e. gabaSvili, rogorc namdvil ambavTa da movlenaTa amsaxveli, cxadia, 80iani wlebis qarTuli literaturis mTavar mimdinareobasac gamoexmaura. am drois TxzulebebSi, qarTvel xalxosanTa msgavsad, mas gamoTqmuli aqvs azri, rom glexis erTaderTi xsnis gza iqneboda ganaTlebis sxivis Setana maT yofaSi, maT SegnebaSi. igi xedavda da aRwerda kidec, Tu ra araadamianur pirobebSi uxdeboda cxovreba qarTvel mSromel glexobas, xedavda umsgavso damokidebulebas glexsa da mamulis mflobels Soris, glexsa da vaWars Soris. demokratma mweralma amazrzeni suraTebi daxata glexis ojaxis amogdebisa imis gamo, rom

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gadamTielma vaWarma, viTomc megobar-naTelmironma, glexis ojaxSi Semoitana mourCeneli seni da amiT igi gaapartaxa. e. gabaSvili xangrZlivi Semoqmedebis manZilze, ZiriTadad, soflis mosaxleobis mdgomareobas xatavda. kapitalisturi warmoebis wesi sakmaod Zlevamosilad miemarTeboda maSin da igi soflis cxovrebasac TandaTan imorCilebda. amas iq mcxovrebTa ekonomiur fenebad danawileba mohyva, sofelSi TandaTan movida vaWari, romelic aTasgvari xerxis gamoyenebiT glexis monagarsa da dovlaTs sxva mimarTulebas aZlevs. es rTuli ekonomikuri procesi aisaxa e. gabaSvilis moTxrobebSi. mwerali namdvili ambebis aRweriT amJRavnebs Tavis damokidebulebas soflis cxovrebasa da kapitalisturi elementisadmi. is vaWrebi, romlebic soflis baton-patronebi gaxdnen, pirvel xanebSi qedmodrekilni iyvnen, yvelasi eSinodaT da eridebodaT, savaWros zurgiT an cxeniT daatarebdnen, xelSi arSini da Canaxi eWiraT da SimSilis dasaokeblad gamudmebiT kevi edoT pirSi. baRdasara bainduraSvili (`soflis mevaxSeni~) pataraobidanve SeaCvies kevis ReWvas -- SimSils gadagaviwyebso: `keviT sasas visvelebdiT da Cumad veyareniT~-o, ambobs igi. baRdasara sofels SeeCvia, jer qal-rZali daiaxlova moqnili eniT, soflelTa TvalismomWreli iaffasiani WrelaWrula saqonliT, zogs aCuqa, zogs anisiava, zogsac Svili mounaTla, an fuli asesxa gaWirvebis dros. Semdeg soflidan sofelSi wowials Tavi daaneba, duqani wamoWima, irgvliv ambrebi da qvevrebi Semoiwyo da qveynis dovlaTi Sig miuSva. misma Svilma geurq baRduiCma sasamarTlosa da policiis daxmarebiT mamis datovebuli qoneba gazarda. geurqam fesvi Rrmad gaidga sofelSi, wvrilmaniT vaWroba gauSva da biTumad vaWrobis gziT wavida, ufro didi savaWro operaciebi wamoiwyo, `fodraCikad~ iqca. axla misi movale erTi ki ara, ramdenime sofelia, yvelas ufrosobs, yvelas xelfexs ukravs. geurqam sofelSi uzneobac Seitana, ramdenime ojaxs saxeli gautexa, zneobrivad dasca da mowamla. aseTi warmodgena hqonda mwerals maTze. moTxrobaTa erTi wyeba mweralma miuZRvna savaWro burJuaziisagan Zveleburi siwmindis darRvevasa da mospobas. detalurad xatavda igi sofelSi mcxovreb vaWrebis TareSs. mis SemoqmedebaSi SedarebiT naklebi adgili uWiravs glexisa da Tavadis urTierTdamokidebulebis asaxvas. igi metad aris dainteresebuli Tavadaznaurobis ekonomiur-moraluri daqveiTebiT da vaWarTa udieri damokidebulebiT mosaxleobis yvela fenis, gansakuTrebiT ki, glexTa mimarT. glexi vaWris msxverplia, igi uswavleli, gaunaTlebeli, advilad uvardeba mtarvals xelSi. mwerlis SegnebiT saukeTeso saSualebad glexobis am mdgomareobidan gamosaxsnelad aris skola, swavla-ganaTleba. Tavisi pirveli nabeWdi Txzuleba e. gabaSvilma am sakiTxs miuZRvna. `glexkacis azri sasoflo skolaze~ iyo mxaris daWera swavla-ganaTlebis gavrcelebisa. mwerlis SexedulebiT, namdvili da marTali sityviT glexobaSi agitacia swavla-ganaTlebis sasargeblod sakmarisia, rom ganaTleba gavrceldes da glexoba eziaros mis cxovelmyofel gavlenas. magram Zveli wes-Cveulebani Zvalsa da rbilSi aqvs gamjdari glexs, eZneleba siaxlis Setana ojaxur wyobaSi, meurneobaSi, radgan es ukanaskneli mas ar ekuTvnis. mis axlos da gverdiT aravin aris iseTi, romelic Seagnebinebdes ganaTlebis mniSvnelobas. sofels unda maswavlebeli, adamiani, romelic daarwmunebs glexobas ganaTlebis sargeblobaSi, TvalsaCinod uCvenebs gansxvavebas swavlasa da uswavlelobas Soris. mwerali amisTana agitatoris rolSi gvevlineba, igi glexisaTvis martivi, gasagebi Sedareba-magaliTebiT (ise, rogorc i. WavWavaZe `glaxis naambobSi~) avrcelebs azrebs swavla-ganaTlebis mniSvnelobaze. e. gabaSvili cxovrebis praqtikuli damkvirvebeli iyo, iqidan krefda igi cocxal movlenebsa da saxeebs. glexis yofa mwerals Zalas matebs protestis gamosaTqmelad. moTxrobaSi `Rvinia gadaiCexa~ mwerali glexi ninikas cxovrebis erT momen233

tze aCerebs mkiTxvelis yuradRebas. ninika sacodavi glexia, cxovrebis da mTavrobisagan daSinebuli. igi mxolod maSin amoiRebs xmas, roca fexs daaWeren. uRonoa igi, uflebaayrili. mTeli misi patara ojaxis arseboba erT uRel davardnil xarzea dafuZnebuli. isea masSi CaxSobili yvelaferi adamianuri, rom survilisa da natvris moxerxebac ki ara aqvs. Tavisi gamxdari xarebis msgavsad igi pataraobidanve cxovrebis uRelSia Sebmuli. kalmis ramdenime mosmiT mwerali cocxal suraTsa xatavs. igi ninikas xasiaTsa da garegnobas ki ar aRwers, aramed glexis ojaxis wevrTa urTierTobas gviCvenebs. mwerali am patara moTxrobaSi dapirispirebis xerxs mimarTavs, iZleva qalaqisa da soflis, vaWarTa samyarosa da ekonomiurad ganadgurebuli glexobis Sedarebas. arc ninika, arc Tedo (`meurmis fiqrebi~) da arc sxva romelime cxovrebisagan gaTelili glexi protestis sityviT ar gamodis arsebulis winaaRmdeg, isini gulSi itrialeben uRonobis boRmas, emorCilebian xvedrs, ufrosis brZanebas, policielis mujluguns, vaWarTa qalaqis karnaxs. mwerali mkiTxvelis emociebs iwvevs martivi da namdvili mxatvruli saxeebiTa da maTi ganzogadebiT. igi mkiTxvelis yuradRebas ipyrobs da ganacdevinebs kidec mas Tavisi moTxrobis gmiris saSinel Tavgadasavals. gigolas, ninikas moxuci mamis sizmari buxris piras namdvili TuTunis mowevis Sesaxeb didi uSualobiT aris gadmocemuli, adamianTa sruliad ubralo, martivi survilebi da maTi Seusrulebloba, saTanado gancdebs aRZravs mkiTxvelSi. glexis aseTive gawvalebuli yofa aqvs aRwerili mwerals moTxrobaSi `Tinas lekuri~, romelSic, agreTve, ori urTierTdapirispirebuli samyaroa aRwerili. erT mxares qeifi da uzrunveli cxovreba maRali wrisa, meore mxares avadmyofoba, sititvle, siRaribe, rac adamianTa mospobis mizezi xdeba. mwerals bevri SemaZrwunebeli mdgomareoba aqvs gadmocemuli Tavis moTxrobebSi, TiTqmis yovel nabijzea simware da sikvdilis saSineleba. glexis cxovrebis yoveli dRe ubedurebiT aris aRsavse. mSvenieri bunebis wiaRSi glexs ufleba ara aqvs Tavisi Sromis SedegiT datkbobisa, misi moxmarebisa. yoveli mxridan Semortymian mas movale-modaveebi. moTxrobaSi `suraTi~ e. gabaSvilma glexis -- pavlika kvinikaZis mdgomareoba aRwera. igi yurZens Tavis venaxSi SuaRamisas krefda, rom rogorme mevales damaloda, magram `kintua~ vaWarma nikua galustovma mainc miuswro da lanZRva-cema-tyepiT valis asanazRaureblad Tavisi waiRo. galustovi araadamianur eqspluatacias uwevs glexobas, sofels, yvelas ukanasknel lukmas aclis piridan. ekonomikuri da iuridiuli uflebis SezRudva glexSi azrovnebisa da survilis unars axSobs. gaWirveba, sxvis karad mojamagireoba spobs glexSi adamianobas, mas ekargeba imedi mdgomareobis Secvlisa. Tedo ocdarva wlis kacia da colis SerTva ver gaubedia (`meurmis fiqrebi~), wlis sarCo ver mougrovebia. mas sakuTari muSa saqonelic ara hyavs, erTi mozvriT ki fons ver gasula, meoris SeZenas ormoci kodi qeri mainc unda. Tedos Rala aqvs gadasaxdeli, agreTve vali mRvdlisa, dalaqisa, mevelisa, kidev fostis fuli, mamis wirvisa... Tedos kurdRelaanT peloze uWiravs Tvali, magram colis SerTvis simZime Zneli asawevia: `or adls boselSi vtenivarT Cvenca da Cveni xarica, rac Tvali amixelia wuTisofelSi... ai, daiqces da daiRupos Cveni gaCenis dRe da saaTi...~ igi uimedod cremls Rvris, sasowarkveTili momavalze xels Caiqnevs. niko lomourisa da sofrom mgalobliSvilis msgavsad, e. gabaSvilic aRwers soflis mosaxleobis CamorCenilobas, dabeCavebul glexTa sxvadasxva ubedurebas, gadamdeb sneulebebs, musrs rom avleben glexebs. glexobas ara aqvs saSualeba sisufTavis dacvisa, adamianebi da pirutyvebi erT sadgomSi cxovroben. glexobis cxovrebis aRweriT e. gabaSvili TiTqos ayenebs sakiTxs, -- vin unda

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iyos glexobis sulieri da xorcieli avadmyofobis mkurnali, vis evaleba glexobaSi Segnebis, codnis Setana, misi gamofxizleba? glexTa winamZRolobas ver SeZleben socialurad da ekonomiurad maRal safexurze mdgomi fenebis warmomadgenelni, isini arc arian dainteresebulni amiT. glexs daexmareba mxolod is, visac esmis misi gulistkivili, yofa, romelsac TviT ganucdia glexuri, damcirebuli arseboba, glexobaSi dabadebula da gazrdila. igi Tavisi SegnebiT maRla unda idges glexze, yvelaferi unda icodes. mwerali aseT adamians siyvaruliT aRwers, mas ajildoebs gonebiT, moTminebis didi unariT. xalxisaTvis Tavdadebuli, misi saqmisaTvis Sewiruli adamianis saxe mwerals mocemuli aqvs moTxrobaSi `gamarjvebuli niko~. mwerali mihyveba moTxrobis mTavari gmiris, niko beriSvilis cxovrebis gzas da siZneliTa da winaaRmdegobebiT aRsavse mis yovel nabijs TandaTan aRwers: xalxis mSvelelsa da moWirnaxules mravali mteri hyavs, upirveles yovlisa, memamule, mTavroba, romelic mis TiToeul nabijs Tvals adevnebs, xalxisaTvis Tavdadebulma angariSi unda gauwios glexobis konservatulobas, radgan glexi mamapapur adaT-Cveulebebs advilad ar anebebs Tavs. niko beriSvili arafers ar zogavs glexobis sakeTildReod, igi, maswavlebeli, Tavisi saqmis erTgulia da glexTa cxovrebis gaumjobesebisaTvis mebrZoli. niko beriSvili saswavleblis damTavrebis Semdeg sixaruliT miemgzavreba sofelSi xalxis samsaxurad gamzadebuli. igi xalxis Svilia da mSobels unda gauwios daxmareba, magram mas sofelSi mravali dabrkoleba gadaeRobeba. igi iZulebuli xdeba Seicvalos pozicia. niko beriSvilma winaaRmdegoba unda gauwios misi saqmianobis xelis SemSlels da piradi cxovrebis damabrkolebelsac. aseTia adgilobrivi Tavadi luarsab jambadrukiani, romelsac ganuzraxavs xelSi Caigdos nikos mier mowonebuli liza koSkaZe. gavlenian TavadebTan SetakebaSi da dapirispirebaSi niko damarcxda, igi gaaZeves soflidan, man dakarga xalxTan urTierTobis saSualeba, magram mas ar SeuZlia daTmos Tavisi xalxi. maswavleblobas ZaliT Camocilebulma nikom mRvdloba miiRo da ise dabrunda sofelSi dawyebuli saqmis dasamTavreblad. niko da liza soflis cxovrebis gardaqmnas Seudgnen. samwuxarod, mwerali aras laparakobs nikosa da lizas mier gamoyenebul xerx-saSualebebze, riTac maT moaxerxes soflis yofis Secvla. samagierod, nawarmoebSi didi adgili aqvs daTmobili jambadrukianebis ojaxis wevrTa gancdebis aRweras, lizas romans da sxv. mwerali aseve dawvrilebiT saubrobs nikos sasiyvarulo gancdaTa Sesaxeb, xolo niko beriSvilisa da liza koSkaZis moRvaweoba sofel lilifarianSi gadmocemuli aqvs iasonis weriliT, romelic Txzulebis epilogad aris gamoyenebuli. es epilogi warmoadgens e. gabaSvilis xalxosnuri ideebiT gatacebis damadasturebel sabuTs. aq daxatulia utopiuri socializmis mimdevris mier warmosaxuli sofeli, udabnoSi oazisis msgavsi myudro samyofeli. niko da liza soflis sulier da xorciel mkurnalad gadaqceulan, soflisaTvis swavla-ganaTleba moufeniaT. nikoloz mRvdlis mcdelobiT, yvelaferi Zveli da CamorCenili, sofelSi aRmofxvrilia da aRar arsebobs. sofels axali saxe miuRia. swavla-ganaTlebis meSveobiT soflis ekonomikuri mdgomareobac sruliad gardaqmnila: saerToa meurneoba, Semosavalic, romelic momxmarebelTa raodenobis mixedviT nawildeba. sofelSi yvelaferi racionalurad aris mowyobili da yvelafers niko da misi meuRle marTaven da ganageben. momavlisaTvis ki isini Tavis Semcvlelebs amzadeben TviT sofelTagan, soflidan qalaqSi gagzavnili axalgazrdebisagan. isini yovelwliurad, soflis skolis damTavrebis Semdeg qalaqSi saswavleblad igzavnebian, dabrundebian da Caudgebian saTaveSi sofelsa da saqmianobas da ase ganmtkicdeba sofelSi TandaTan axali yofa da axali cxovreba.

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moTxrobis finalSi mwerali iason jambadrukians aiZulebs qedi moidrikos xalxis Svilisa da xalxis msaxuris winaSe. iasonma Tavis dedas werili miswera, romelSic dawvrilebiT aRwera nikos mcdelobiT gardaqmnili da mowyobili sofeli. es aRwera aris xalxosnuri iluziebis gamoxatva, masSi CerniSevskis romanis -- `ra vakeToT?~ -- tendenciebi moCans. niko beriSvilis TaosnobiT, sofels yvelaferi aqvs -- saerTo saxnav-saTesi, saerTo marani, beReli, maRazia, sameurneo iaraRi. sofelSi patara saavadmyofoa, hyavT eqimi. soflelebi koxta saxlSi dabinavebulan, gadasaxads saerTo Tanxidan ixdian, saerTo SemosavliT iZenen manqana-iaraRebs da imeds gamoTqvamen, rom male mezobel TavadTagan mamulebs SeiZenen. rasakvirvelia, aseTi idealuri sofeli mxolod utopiaSi SeiZleboda yofiliyo, rac, etyoba, rusuli socialisturi ideebis Sedegia. niko beriSvilma politikuri brZolis gareSe moaxerxa soflis gardaqmna, misma Tavdadebulma Sromam Tvali auxila Tavadebs, daafiqra da uniaTi yofa SeaZulebina. mwerlis SexedulebiT, niko beriSvilis saqmianobas aRmzrdelobiTi mniSvneloba aqvs. nikos moRvaweobam iason jambadrukiani daafiqra, man sindisis qenjna igrZno da, erT dros brwyinvale cxovrebiT gatacebuls, SeZulda warsuli, Tavisi warmoSoba, mamis saqcieli da saqmianoba. iasonisaTvis nikosagan mowyobili sofeli idealad iqca, igi elodeba mamis sikvdils, memkvidreobis miRebas, rom lilifarianis msgavsad moawyos sofeli nacixuralic da amiT Tavisi da Tavisi mSoblebisagan glexobis mimarT Cadenili codvani moinanios. iasonma qedi moixara nikos Sromisa da xalxis siyvarulis winaSe, nikos magaliTiT Seigno, rom Sroma aris saukeTeso wamali da mkurnali dasneulebuli gonebisa da gulisa. xalxisaTvis Tavdadebul adamianebad mweralma maRali wris adamianebic gamoiyvana. maT, winaprebTan da mSoblebTan SedarebiT, axali gza aqvT arCeuli, isini analizs ukeTeben xalxis cxovrebis ukuRmarTobas da gadawyveten -- energia moaxmaron misi gonebis wvrTnasa da masSi ganaTlebis gavrcelebis saqmes. aseTi adamianebi e. gabaSvils daxatuli hyavs moTxrobebSi `soflis maswavlebeli~ da `soflis megobari~. maT, am soflis maswavleblebsa da megobrebs, ganaTlebulT da ganviTarebulT, gauTvaliswinebiaT mSobelTa danaSauli iason jambadrukianis msgavsad da Tavisi uangaro SromiT surT gamoisyidon igi. Tavis TxzulebebiT mwerali qarTvel inteligencias mimarTavda, gansakuTrebiT, maRali wris warmomadgenlebs da uCvenebda samoRvaweo gzas. es iyo soflis maswavlebloba, rasac unda gadaerCina glexoba uvicobisa da sibnelisagan. kargi suraTia daxatuli nino nakvTiaSvilis moRvaweobisa moTxrobaSi `soflis maswavlebeli~. xalxosnuri ideebiT gatacebuli axalgazrdobis gavleniT ninom ar Seismina Tavisi didedis darigeba da wuwuni da qalaqidan erT miyruebul sofelSi gaemgzavra glexobisaTvis yovelmxrivi daxmarebis aRmosaCenad. igi maswavlebelicaa da eqimic, glexobis ganmanaTlebelic da misi Wir-varamis gamziarebelic. magram, Cveulebriv, e. gabaSvilma am ganaTlebul adamianebs ar daakisra glexobaSi protestis ganwyobilebis Seqmna da gaRviveba, arc erTi maTgani glexobis klasobrivi Segnebis gamomuSavebaze ar zrunavs. iason jambadrukiani, nino nakvTiaSvili da maTi msgavsni `monanie aznaurebi~ arian. maT gadaafases Tavisi wodebis cxovrebis azri da xalxs miepatronnen Tavisi codniTa da gamocdilebiT. e. gabaSvilma am mowinave ganaTlebuli axalgazrdobis azrebi umTavresad tiradebiTa da saagitacio sityvebiT warmoadgina. misi azriT, adamianis umaRlesi ideali da amqveyniuri cxovrebis mizani xalxisaTvis samsaxuria. e. gabaSvilis SegnebiT, glexobas gulmtkivneuli damxmare esaWiroeba. Tu glexs ZmasaviT moepyrobian da tkivils dauameben, es gamoamrTelebs mis socialur da ekonomiur avadmyofobas. mwerali sxva saSualebebs, romelnic glexobas

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ekonomikur da iuridiul uflebebs moupovebda, ver xedavda. e. gabaSvilis Txzulebani aRsavseni arian gulSematkivruli humanizmiT, glexis adamianobis qadagebiT, magram maTSi ar gamosWvivis glexobis sabrZolo Zalebis mobilizaciis survili. mwerali xedavda, rom soflad socialuri da ekonomikuri winaaRmdegoba izrdeboda da mosaxleobis diferencirebis safuZvelze erTmaneTis sawinaaRmdego fenebi yalibdeboda. axalma ekonomikurma wyobam axali Sexedulebani warmoSva, Tumca Zveli wesebi kvlav ganagrZobdnen arsebobas. igi glexis cxovrebas yoveli mxridan akvirdeboda da daskvnebic gamohqonda: sofeli gansakuTrebiT daimona fulma, daarRvia soflis mTlianoba da mosaxleobis didi nawili emsxverpla udierobasa da eqspluatacias. e. gabaSvili amxels amas, igi TavgamodebiT icavs da qadagebs adamianis Tavisuflebas. aseTi survili mas gamoxatuli aqvs moTxrobebSi `romani didxevaSi~, `kona~ da `orena da quCe~. am TxzulebebSi soflis ekonomikuri da socialuri diferencirebis tragikuli Sedegebi sisruliTaa daxatuli, maTSi mwerali laparakobs im mizezTa Sesaxeb, romelnic glexobas cxovrebasa da arsebobas uSlian. aseT tragikul momentebSi mwerals ufro qalis mdgomareoba awuxebs, radgan igi mona iyo rogorc ojaxisa, ise yovelgvari sazogadoebrivi Zalisa. moTxrobaSi `romani didxevaSi~ e. gabaSvili tasias Svilis, pavles meSveobiT mkiTxvels acnobs axalgazrda Tavads, ganaTlebulsa da kacTmoyvare giorgis, romelsac sofelSi ar ucxovria, igi mouravisaTvis miunebebia da arc kiTxulobs, Tu ra damokidebulebaSia mouravi glexobasTan. pavles giorgisTan ucxovria qalaqSi mosamsaxured, magram namdvili amxanagi yofila memamule Tavadisa. mwerali giorgis moqmedebasa da saqmianobas ar asaxavs. pavles igi glexobis mosarCeled miaCnia. roca pavle sofelSi dabrunda da ivanika mouravTan mouxda Setakeba, mas daemuqra -- batons mivwer Seni saqcielis Sesaxebo. glexoba mouravisaTvis miutovebia memamules, ivanikac sargeblobs batonis uyuradRebobiTa da Tavisi mdgomareobiT, Tavis nebaze adidebs Ralas, mTeli sofeli daSinebuli hyavs. ivanikas sofelSi duqani aqvs gamarTuli, Rvinos, arays, marilsa da dampal Tevzs hyidis mamasisxlad. `erTi sityviT, -- daaskvnis mwerali, -- ivanika sruli batonia didxevelebisa da batonobasac ise xmarobs, rogorc sisxlis mwovel focxvers Sehferis~. sofels unda gaWirvebis Taobaze mamulis patrons acnobos, auxsnas, ganumartos da sTxovos -- an ivanika moaSoros Tavidan, an sofeli aiyreba. sofelsa da mouravs Soris winaaRmdegoba izrdeba. ivanikas, maTraxiTa da revolveriT SeiaraRebuls, xmas veravin scems, roca glexebSi gamoCndeba, yvelas xma uwydeba SiSisagan. vinc mis duqanSi ar ivaWrebs, Sav dRes ayenebs. aseT mdgomareobaSi myof sofels damcvelad da mSvelelad pavle moevlineba. igi aRudgeba win ivanikas gadaWarbebul survilebs da soflis saxeliT protests acxadebs. gamdidrebis gzaze Semdgari mouravi ivanika ver itans raime winaaRmdegobas da gaCndeba Tu ara aseTi ram, mis mosaspobad maSinve xerxs gamoiyenebs. soflelTa simpaTia male pavlesaken gadaixreba, ivanikasTan Sebmis Semdeg igi soflis gmirad iqceva. swored amas mohyva pavlesa da SeZlebuli glexis, sosika mgelaZis, asul maros Soris siyvarulis ambavi, romelic tragediiT mTavrdeba. am tragediis ganviTarebas ki xels uwyobs uadgilo da Zveli Sexedulebani, romelnic sakmaod Rrmadaa gamjdari xalxis SegnebaSi. moTxrobaSi naCvenebia maRali wreebis gulcivi damokidebuleba adamianTa bedis mimarT, maTi uazro da uadamiano saqcieli, am SemTxvevaSi, saeklesio biurokratiisa. meore moTxrobaSi `kona~ isev sofeli da glexobaa daxatuli, oRond sxva mxridan. siRaribiTa da SimSil-mousavlobiT ilajgawyvetili sofeli lukma puris saSovnelad awowialebula, glexebi boSebs damsgavsebian da soflidan so237

felSi samaTxovrod dadian. mTeli soflis mdgomareobis daxasiaTebas e. gabaSvili petre axalkacis ojaxis aRweriT iZleva. am ojaxma bevri itanja SimSilisagan, tiriliTa da vaiT datova saxl-kari da qiziyidan qarTlis erT sofels Seafara Tavi. axal samosaxloSi petrem ufrosi Svili, aTi wlis gogona -- kona, Tavadis ojaxSi xelze mosamsaxured daayena, meore Svilic ase iqna gabarebuli. mwerali saSinel suraTebs xatavs axalgazrda glexi qalis cxovrebisa. socialuri uTanasworoba siRaribesTan erTad did xarks iRebs glexisagan, spobs mis pirovnebas da miwasTan asworebs. kona uRelSi Sebmuli pirutyviviT muSaobda pataraobidanve. Tavadis saxlSi mas yoveli grZnoba Tavmoyvareobisa Seugines, grZnoba SeubRales da udanaSaulo adamiani sisxlamde miiyvanes. `romani didxevaSi~ da `kona~ e. gabaSvilma zedized dawera 1881 wels. sul male, 1883 wels man Seqmna `orena da quCe~. am moTxrobaSic axalgazrda, RoniT savse wyvilis sasiyvarulo kavSiria aRwerili, xolo mis paralelurad glexTa ekonomiuri mdgomareobis sxvadasxvaobis ulmobeli Sedegebia aRnusxuli. mwerali aqac arafers ar zogavs, rom mkiTxvels Seacnobinos sazogadoebaSi fexmokidebuli wesebis, uadamiano Cveulebebis, sasamarTlosa da CinovnikTa moRvaweobis veluri arsi. es moTxrobebi erTi Tematikuri rkaliTaa gaerTianebuli, maTSi siyvarulis sakiTxia mTavari. mwerali siyvaruliT dakavSirebul adamianebs sxvadasxva ekonomiur doneze ayenebs, rac gansazRvravs siyvarulis tragikul dasasruls. mTavari Temis paralelurad mwerali Zveli Cvevebis ulmobel kritikasac iZleva. yvelaferi glexis fizikur da zneobriv arsebobas emuqreba, spobs da angrevs, yvelaferi glexze moqmedebs da mSromeli, janmrTeli, axalgazrda adamianebis sicocxles udrood spobs. ase exateba e. gabaSvils socialuri da ekonomikuri winaaRmdegobani soflad. igi mxatvrulad gamarTul TxzulebebSi sinamdviles xatavs, magram, miuxedavad mwerlis mier gamoTqmuli protestisa, darazmuli brZolis qadageba mainc ara Cans. glexTa cxovreba aRsavsea tragikuli momentebiT, magram klasobrivi brZola mainc araa dawyebuli. e. gabaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi didi adgili eTmoba qalTa uflebebis dacvas. mwerali cdilobs maTac moupovos moqalaqeobrivi ufleba, gamoiyvanos sazogadoebriv asparezze. qals sruli SesaZlebloba aqvs sazogadoebis sasargeblo saqmianobisa, igic unda sargeblobdes sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela monapovariT. glexis qali uufleboa imisaTvis, rom misi garemoa CamorCenili. mwerals ainteresebs qali inteligentur wreSi, Segnebul da ganaTlebul sazogadoebaSic. iqneb iqa aqvs qals saWiro uflebebi? am kiTxvis pasuxad mwerals araerTi Txzuleba aqvs dawerili. daskvna mas aseTi gamoaqvs -- qals arc erT sazogadoebriv fenaSi ar gaaCnia raime ufleba! mwerlis idealia qali meojaxe da sazogadoebrivi muSaki. im moTxrobebSi, sadac mwerali aseT sakiTxs ayenebs, mwerali amtyunebs sazogadoebas, tradicias, zogjer ganaTlebul adamianTa uprincipobas. am TvalsazrisiT sainteresoa Semdegi Txzulebebi: `frTebdaglejili~, `monastris kideTa Soris~, `gatexili puri~, `sxvadasxvagvari qorwili~, `pirveli nabiji cxovrebaSi~, `qalebis portretebi~, `gurgenaulis babo~, `luarsabma coli SeirTo~ da sxvani. aq e. gabaSvili qalis rolisa, sazogadoebaSi misi adgilis, ojaxuri yofisa da fiziologiuri cxovrebis momentebs exeba. mweralma kargad icis qalis fsiqologia da misi cxovrebis tragikul yofas xSirad acnobs mkiTxvels. im moTxrobebSi, romlebSic mwerali xalxosani moRvawis saxes xatavs, qalebic arian gamoyvanilni, rogorc soflis maswavleblebi, glexTa mdgomareobis Semamsubuqebelni, magram es qalebi ojaxur garemoSi ar arian mocemulni. moTxrobaSi `gamarjvebuli niko~ liza koSkaZe niko beriSvilTan cxovrebisas gaxda

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Tavdadebuli moRvawe, magram mwerali lizas moRvaweobas ar aRwers, sqematurad amis Sesaxeb gadmogvcems iason jambadrukianis mier dedasTan miweril werilSi, romelic nikosa da lizas SeTanxmebuli muSaobis mSral aRweras warmoadgens, mxatvrul xerxTa gamoyenebis gareSe. dramatul scenaSi `frTebdaglejili~ aRwerilia sazogadoebrivi muSakis, mwerali qalis bedi. qeTos magida wignebiTa da qaRaldebiT aqvs savse, bevri Jurnali da gazeTi mosdis, igi dainteresebulia qalTa politikur saqmianobaSi monawileobis sakiTxiT. mas awuxebs qalTa gaunaTlebloba da uufleboba. igi eswreba sajaro leqciebs, urTierToba aqvs redaqtorebTan. masTan midian sazogadoebis wevrebi, saubroben, msjeloben. qeTo qmar-Svilis patronia, hyavs dedamTilic. ojaxSi imdeni adamiani trialebs, rom qeTos saSualeba aqvs sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis, magram ojaxSi arsebuli cocxali tradiciebi colis movaleobisa da adgilis Sesaxeb, Zlieria. es tradicia qeTos zRudavs, uxSobs moqmedebis survils. mas ver mouxerxebia ojaxsac saTaveSi Caudges da sazogadoebriv muSaobasac dro dauTmos, ufro sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobiT aris gatacebuli, rac qmrisa da dedamTilis ukmayofilebas iwvevs. mwerali ilaSqrebs qalis uflebis Seborkvis winaaRmdeg, magram igi qals ar aTavisuflebs ojaxisa da Svilis patronobisagan. e. gabaSvilis ideali iyo srulyofili qali -- sazogadoebrivi muSaki da mzrunveli deda. e. gabaSvilis moTxrobebSi gamoxatul qalebs perspeqtiva ar gaaCniaT, isini uRononi da uilajoni arian, mweralma maT ver dausaxa aqtiuri moqmedebis gza. igi sakmaod detalurad aRwers qalis beds, mis gancdebs, wuxilsa da tkivilebs. e. gabaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi mniSvnelovan adgils iWers siyvarulisa da bunebis silamazis Tema. siyvaruls, mwerlis gagebiT, didi adgili uWiravs adamianis zneobisa da Segnebis CamoyalibebaSi. adamianis siyvaruls TiTqos bunebac Taneziareba da isic adamianis darad ganicdis sixaruls. siyvaruli da bunebis silamaze erTmaneTs avseben TiTqos. mwerali moiTxovda siyvarulis Tavisufal aRiarebas. misgan gamoxatuli siyvaruli wmindaa da ankara, mocilebuli yovelgvar angarebasa da angariSianobas. siyvarulis diad grZnobas ar unda abrkolebdes adamianTagan gamogonili adaTebi da Cveulebebi, kanoni (`romani didxevaSi~, `orena da quCe~). e. gabaSvilis ramdenime TxzulebaSi damuSavebulia Tema siyvarulis yovlad SemZleblobisa (`mtarvalis cixe~, `eolosis Cangi~, `fantazia~), romlebSic gamomJRavnebulia mwerlis esTetikuri ganwyobileba da Sexedulebani. maTSi laparakia siyvarulis Zlierebasa, bunebisa da wminda sulis urTierTobaze. umaRlesi grZnobebis gamomuSaveba SesaZlebelia lamaz, zRaprul bunebaSi. mSvenier bunebisagan Seqmnili ritmi, musikaloba da galoba, mimarTuli sidiadisadmi, drodadro Cndeba mwerlis TxzulebebSi, amiT igi TiTqos iviwyebs im mware yofas, romlis cocxali suraTebi aqvs daxatuli sxva TxzulebebSi. esTetikuri tkbobiT gataceba metad emCneva am Txzulebebs, esTetikuroba Cans mwerlis mier bunebis suraTebis aRweraSic. buneba xSirad samoTxes aris Sedarebuli, igi adamianTa Tvalsa da gonebas atyvevebs, mas Seswevs Zala yvela moxiblos. bunebis silamaze xels uwyobs adamianis grZnobaTa ganviTarebas. buneba, amasTanave, mravali senis ganmkurnavia, adamianis aforiaqebuli azrebis damamSvidebeli. bunebis sidiadis himnia e. gabaSvilis `ocneba~, leqsi prozad, romelSic aRwerilia mSvidi da saTno buneba, romlis sidiades adamianis Tvali ver Seswvdeba. buneba TavisTvis arsebobs. aqvea gaSmagebuli qariSxali, bunebis zviadobis gamoxatuleba, igi angrevs da lewavs yvelafers. aseTi suraTi ilia WavWavaZis `gandegilis~ zogierT Tavs gvagonebs. ekaterine gabaSvils didi Rvawli miuZRvis qarTuli sabavSvo literaturis safuZvlebis Cayrasa da ganviTarebaSi. iakob gogebaSvilsaviT man bevri Txzule239

ba dawera mcirewlovanTaTvis, romelnic saskolo saxelmZRvaneloebSic ibeWdeboda. mis sabavSvo moTxrobaTa krebuli ramdenjermea gamocemuli. bavSvebisaTvis daweril TxzulebebSi e. gabaSvili, ZiriTadad, Raribi adamianebis yofacxovrebas aSuqebs. `magdanas lurja~, `mSieraZis ojaxi~, `RvTis Svili~, `Cveni didi kaklis xe~ da sxvani mwerlis sxva moTxrobebisagan TemiT ar gansxvavdeba. misi `Rvinia gadaiCexa~ da `Tinas lekuri~ xSirad ibeWdeboda bavSvebisTvis. e. gabaSvili didi pedagogiuri taqtiT umuSavebda bavSvs sxvadasxva Tvisebebs, igi did yuradRebas aqcevda mozardSi Sromismoyvareobis Cvevis gamomuSavebas, radgan swamda, rom adamianis upirvelesi daniSnuleba aris Sroma. mozardi unda kacTmoyvare grZnobebiT iyos aRsavse, unda uyvardes adamiani, pativsa scemdes ufross, maswavlebels, damrigebels. bavSvma unda icodes sxvisi mdgomareobis Sefaseba, xedavdes da grZnobdes sxvis sixarulsa da mwuxarebas. erTurTis gatana, daxmareba, Svela, megobruli xelis gawvdena unda bunebriv moTxovnilebad gadaeqces mozards. mwerali saintereso masalas awvdida bavSvebs xalxTa megobrobaze da koloniuri Cagvris raobaze. e. gabaSvilis sabavSvo moTxrobebSi didi adgili uWiravT sadResaswaulod daweril moTxrobebs. maTSi erT mxares bediT kmayofilni da mdidarni dganan, meore mxares -- Raribni, romelnic xSirad uxvad sargebloben mdidarTa keTili da uxvi guliT. mwerali TiTqos ar cdilobs bavSvebSi gaaRvivos klasobrivi da ekonomikuri sxvaobis Segneba. mas sjera, rom sikeTis Tesva mospobs uTanasworobas da norC mkiTxvels swored aseTi sikeTis qmnisaken mouwodebs. e. gabaSvilis moTxrobebSi gamoxatuli mdidris bavSvebi RaribTa mimarT TanagrZnobiT arian aRsavseni, dResaswaulebze mdidrebi Raribebs saCuqrebs urigeben da yvela kmayofilia -- mdidarica da Raribic. ilia WavWavaZis mxatvruli Semoqmedebis gavlena didia e. gabaSvilis mxatvrul azrovnebaze. zogierTi personaJi misi Txzulebebisa garkveulad iliaseuli personaJis saxecvlilebas warmoadgens. iliaseburadaa dasmuli sakiTxi moTxrobaSi `saxrCobelazed~. garda saerTo saTaurisa, TxzulebaSi dayenebuli sakiTxi da misi gadaWra gameoreba aris i. WavWavaZis cnobili Txzulebis Temisa. luarsab TaTqariZis saxl-karis aRweris msgavs momentebs vxvdebiT e. gabaSvilis moTxrobaSi `kona~ ise, rogorc aivnidan gadmomdgari Cagorglebuli kneina barbare aris asli kneina darejanisa. e. gabaSvilis TxzulebaTa enac ilia WavWavaZisagan SemuSavebuli qarTuli saliteraturo enis normebs emorCileba, rogorc avtoris, ise personaJTa ena sufTaa da daxvewili, mxolod gmirTa xasiaTis gamosakveTad mimarTavs mwerali provincializmsa Tu qalaqur Jargons, an barbarizm-rusicizmebiT aRsavse metyvelebas. es gmirebi an glexebi arian, an vaWrebi, anac aristokratiuli wris nervebaSlili warmomadgenelni. axali qarTuli saliteraturo enis marTebuli gamoyenebiT e. gabaSvilma advilad gadaSala Tavisi gmirebis Rrma gancdebi, fsiqologiuri pasaJebi, adamianTa rTuli urTierTobani. msubuqi eniT aRwerili ambebi mdidaria emociurobiT, mimzidveli feradebiTa da StrixebiT. am mxrivac kargi Sefaseba daimsaxura e. gabaSvilma didi qarTveli mwerlebisagan, kerZod, iakob gogebaSvilisagan, romelic mas uwonebda rogorc leqsikas, ise winadadebaTa wyobas. ekaterine gabaSvilma mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi didi adgili dauTmo mcire zomis Txzulebebs. man, am SemTxvevaSic, ilia WavWavaZis SemoqmedebiTi praqtikiT isargebla. yvelazed uxvad man isargebla im formiT, rac Sio aragvispirelis SemoqmedebaSi maRal safexurze idga. aRsaniSnavia, rom e. gabaSvilma Tavisi epoqis didmniSvnelovani sakiTxebi SemoqmedebiTad sainteresod moaqcia mcireformian TxzulebebSi ise, rom JReradoba da mniSvneloba Temasa da problemas ar Semcirebia.

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e. gabaSvilis moTxrobebSi ar aris daxatuli masiuri scenebi, moqmedi pirebis raodenoba mas metad Semcirebuli aqvs da yovelgvari paraleluri siuJetebis gareSe axerxebs mkiTxvelis yuradRebis SeCerebas ZiriTad azrze. mwerali zogjer garkveuli xasiaTis eqspozicias mimarTavs ambis xveulebSi gasarkvevad. qarTul literaturaSi e. gabaSvilma pirvelma mimarTa galeqsil prozas, rac Semdeg uxvad gamoiyena Tavis SemoqmedebaSi vasil barnovma. e. gabaSvilma am xerxs uwoda `leqsi prozad~, rac man, marTalia, oriode nawarmoebSi, magram mainc novatoruli saxiT gamoiyena. aseTebia misi Txzulebebi `mtarvalis cixe~ da lirikuli prozauli nawarmoebebi `ocneba~ da `fantazia~. `mtarvalis cixeSi~ aRwerilia romantikuli ambavi didi feodalis asul Tamarisa da mSvenieri vaJis, Sevardenis siyvarulisa da zviadi Tavad zaalis saSineli ganaCenisa, roca man stumrebiT savse did darbazSi Tavisi qaliSvilis satrfo gagmira, ris gamoc Tavadis sasaxles `mtarvalis cixe~ Searqves. mwerali qalis leqsi prozad -- `ocneba~ weliwadis droTa suraTebia, ai, erTi nawili: `riJraJi aris. nisliT Seburul mTis wverzed vsdgevar, guli dawynarebiT scems, garemoculi haeri filtvebs alaRebs, afarToebs, sisxls aelvebs da aCuxCuxebs. nislSi odnav sCans ca da qveyana... magram, ager pirdapir bumberaz mTisken ca SeiReba, mkrTal vardisfrad Seimosa da garemocul bunebas raRac momxiblavi, saidumloebiT savse elferi misca. nisli gahfanta sinaTlem da Cem Tvalwin gadaiSalnen Tvaluwvdeneli mindorni, velni, tyeni, mdinareni, kldidan kldezeda mxtunavni. mindorT aWrelebs namuSevari, naxnav-naTesi, damwifebul yviTel purisa da mwvaned mobibine simindis yanebs gverds umSvenebs Savad gaSlili vrceli xnulebi. irgvliv Semortymul mTis kalTebs amkoben zurmuxtovanni venaxni, baRni, Wandarni, romelTa Soris aqa-iq mosCans, rogorc yvavilni mdelosi, xalxis nagebni sadgurni~ da a. S. aRsaniSnavia is mxarec mwerali qalis Semoqmedebisa, rac gamoixata Taviseburi Janris -- novelis SemotanaSi. axali qarTuli literatura davalebulia e. gabaSvilisagan novelis gamoyenebiT. Semdeg es forma amaRlebuli saxiT gamoiyena Sio aragvispirelma. mwerlobis es Janri rTulia imdenad, ramdenadac mcire zomis nawarmoebSi unda gamoixatos xasiaTi, saxe, ganwyobileba, romelTa srulyofas xSirad mozrdili Txzuleba emsaxureba. es forma ZiriTadia e. gabaSvilis literaturul memkvidreobaSi. man novelebSi aRwera rogorc sxvadasxva socialur fenaTa yofacxovrebiTi suraTebi, aseve fsiqologia, maTi xasiaTebi, moqmed pirTa socialuri da zneobrivi arsebobis mxareebi da niSnebi. ekaterine gabaSvilis SinaarsiT mravalferovani da Sesrulebis TvalsazrisiT maRali literaturuli memkvidreoba qarTuli mwerlobis mniSvnelovani monakveTia.

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ioseb daviTaSvili (1850-1887)

ioseb daviTaSvili `iyo kaci, romelsac cotad Tu bevrad ganwmendili hqonda Tvalni glexTa gulis saidumloTa mnaxvelad, yurni -- glexTa gulis ucnaurTa xmaTa msmenelad, xelni glexTa majiscemis Sematyobrad da ena yovelive amis aRmomTqmelad da mTargmnelad~. es sityvebi ekuTvnis pirovnebas, romlis ganuzomel avtoritetTan didad aris dakavSirebuli is garemoeba, rom i. daviTaSvilis saxeli daviwyebas ar mieca. es avtoriteti ki ilia WavWavaZe iyo. Cveni saxelovani samocianelebis -- ilia WavWavaZisa da akaki wereTlis mier i. daviTaSvilis Sefaseba faqtobrivad misi SemoqmedebiT farTo sazogadoebis dainteresebisaken xsnida gzas. ilia WavWavaZem i. daviTaSvilis gardacvalebisas warmoTqmul sityvaSi sagangebod gaxaza misi mniSvneloba Cveni literaturisaTvis, rogorc dabali socialuri fenebis warmomadgenlisa. manve i. daviTaSvili im qarTvelTa gunds miakuTvna, romelTac samSoblos winaSe garkveuli Rvawli miuZRviT sityviT Tu saqmiT. glexi poetis Semoqmedebis daxasiaTebisas ilia gansakuTrebiT gamoyofda mis didsulovnebas, gauboroteblobas, codnis dauflebis wyurvils. im pirovnul niSnebs, romlebsac ilia WavWavaZe ioseb daviTaSvilis leqsebSi xedavda, faseulad mometebulad swored imitom miiCnevda, rom igi, i. daviTaSvili, TviTon iyo im fenis warmomadgeneli, uSualo ganmcdeli im fenis yofisa, romlis interesebis gamoxatvasac cdilobda, romelTan daaxloeba, romlis fsiqikuri Sinaarsis wvdoma da gadmoSlac samocianelTa umTavresi amocana gaxda. akaki wereTelic arsebiTad amave poziciidan afasebda i. daviTaSvils. akaki ufro metad im azriT Tvlida i. daviTaSvilis pirovnebas pativiscemis Rirsad, erTgvar nimuSad sxvaTaTvis, rom es ukanaskneli, miuxedavad cxovrebis pirquSi, mware pirobebisa, Rirseul moqalaqed darCa. akakis TqmiT, i. daviTaSvili `ar yofila arc gamoCenili mecnieri, arc samagaliTod SesaniSnavi mwerali. Semcdaria is, visac hgonia, rom marto moleqseobisaTvis vscemdiT mas pativs. dabal wodebaSi niWi iSviaTi ar aris da arc moSairobaa gansakuTrebiTi movlineba. gansvenebuli imiTi iyo SesaniSnavi ufro, rom Tavis piradobaze imdenad ara hfiqrobda, ramodenadac sazogadoebaze~.1 samocianelTa amgvari Sefaseba, rogorc iTqva, iyo safuZveli da imisi pirobac, rom i. daviTaSvils mokrZalebuli adgili daTmoboda mecxramete saukunis qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi.

biografia

i. daviTaSvilis pirveli mokle biografia ilia WavWavaZem Seadgina da interesic misi cxovrebis amsaxveli masalebis Tavmoyrisa manve gaaRviZa. ioseb simonis Ze daviTaSvili daibada 1850 wels sofel gardatenSi, romelic qarTlSi, atenis xeobaSi mdebareobs.

1

a. we r e T e l i , Txzulebani TxuTmet tomad, t. XII, gv. 333-334.

mamamisi, simon daviTaSvili, glexi iyo, adre dafqviaSvilis, xolo Semdeg ki ciciSvilis yma. iosebis deda mariami (maia) goreli qali iyo. did gaWirvebaSi, usixarulod warimarTa iosebis bavSvoba da Wabukoba. mravali tanjva-wameba, abuCad agdeba, damcireba gamoscada man Tavis Tavze. daviTaSvilebis mravalricxovani ojaxi1 Zalian xelmokled cxovrobda. TerTmet-Tormeti wlisa igi ukve daoblda -- jer mama, xolo male, erTi wlis Tavze dedac gardaecvala. mSoblebis mzrunvelobas da meTvalyureobas moklebuli bavSvi erTxans TbilisSi iyo Tavis ufros ZmasTan, mere gorSi gaiqca da iq moewyo Segirdad viRac durgalTan; iavadmyofa da isev TbilisSi daabrunes. cota xans batonTanac mouwia Sinamosamsaxured yofna, sanam ufros Zmas gamoisyidda. Zmis ojaxSi iosebs, etyoba, aklda siTbo da mzrunveloba. Cans, rom mas kargi TvaliT ar uyurebda rZali.2 mere rus durgals uyeneben Segirdad garkveuli vadiT. Tumca didis vaivaglaxiT pirobiT gaTvaliswinebul dros dayofs durgalTan, magram qarglobis mowmobas ver Rebulobs da es imitom, rom mas ar SeuZlia amisaTvis gankuTvnili gadasaxadis Setana. bnelia misi yoveldRiuroba. yvelgan uxeSobas da usamarTlobas, simdables da Zalmomreobas xedavs. Cveulebriv, sxva bavSvi, SeiZleba ase umeTvalyureod, Tavis nebazed miSvebuli aseTs viTarebaSi mTlad gauxeSebuliyo, gzas acdenoda da sazogadod daRupuliyo. magram, etyoba, iosebi gansxvavebuli bunebisa iyo; yoveldRiurobis WuWyis, warmavalisa da macduneblis iqiT, etyoba, bunebis jansaR da myar movlenebs grZnobda, eltvoda da xarbad aRbeWdavda misi goneba. Cans, swored bunebis amgvari mxareebiT ixibleboda igi. amis Tqmis uflebas iZleva, sxvaTa Soris mis leqsebze dakvirveba, romelTa umravlesoba sakuTar STabeWdilebebze da gancdilzea dafuZnebuli da amdenad avtobiografiuli xasiaTisaa. am garemoebaze poeti pirdapirac miuTiTebs, roca erT Tavis leqsSi wers:

`garyvnili kacis qceva axlos ar mivikare, sadac cud saqmes Sevxvdi, avdeq da gavipare; davjeq, wigni vikiTxe, miT guli gavixare~. (`samSoblos siyvaruli~)

yofila erTi adamiani iosebis maxlobelTa Soris, kerZod misi da keke, romelsac mohqonda bavSvisaTvis sixaruli, roca ki mis gverdiT aRmoCndeboda. wera-kiTxva iosebisaTvis swored mas uswavlebia:

`qvabis muris monalesiT momimzada melania, xaris beWi dafad mqonda, maswavlida melania~--

ase agviwers poeti wera-kiTxvis Seswavlis process leqsSi `glexis maswavlebeli~. Cveulebriv, iseT mZime pirobebSi, rogorSic iosebs uxdeboda cxovreba, ar iyo mosalodneli raime gansakuTrebuli swrafvis gamomJRavneba swavlisadmi, magram aRsaniSnavia, rom iosebi udidesi interesiT Sedgomia am saqmes. miuxedavad misi aqtiurobisa da gulmodginebisa, misi swavleba wera-kiTxvis dauflebaze SeCerebula. garemo pirobebi bavSvis miswrafebaTa borkilad gamodioda. arc damoukidebeli cxovrebis gzaze gamosuls eloda uzrunveli yofa. mudam samuSaos ZiebaSi iyo. ekonomiurad Tavs yovelTvis xelmokled grZnobda. rad da sad ar umuSavia mas; eZebda ara marto Tavis xelobis Sesafer saqmes, sxva

1 2

simon daviTaSvils iosebis garda kidev xuTi qal-vaJi hyavda, iosebi yvelaze umcrosi iyo. amis Sesaxeb i. daviTaSvili mogviTxrobs Tavis daumTavrebel moTxrobaSi `nato~.

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saxis samuSaozec ar ambobda uars. erTxans zeiceris qarxanaSi moewyo. gazeT `iveriis~ damtarebladac yofila da scenis muSadac. samuSaos ZiebaSi man Semoiara Tbilisi da gori. dasavleT saqarTveloSic iyo oTxmocian wlebSi. bolo dros TelavSi vxedavT. bedi ekonomiuri TvalsazrisiT arsad ar uRimoda, samagierod bevri naxa da ganicada. cxovrebis simZimem, araadamianurma jafam adre gatexes. yovelive amas Tan erTvoda xSiri avadmyofobac. Tavis asakTan SedarebiT, TanamedroveTa gadmocemiT, moberebulad gamoiyureboda. ioseb daviTaSvili gardaicvala 1887 wels. dasaflavebulia TelavSi. ra SeiZleba iTqvas i. daviTaSvilis pirovnebis Sesaxeb? `sakvirveli Tavdabali, uwyinari, uboroto kaci iyo... imisagan wyena, avi sityva, avi saqme aravis axsovs. didi moyvaruli iyo Tavis qveynisa, qarTulis literaturisa da sityvierebisa~, -- wers ilia.1 sazogadod erTi interesi iCens Tavs mis cxovrebaSi, erTi mudmivi wyurvili -- ganaTleba miiRos, codna SeiZinos. es interesi misi cxovrebis adreul safexurze Cndeba da arasodes ar tovebs mas. yvelaferi mis irgvliv -- garemo, romelSic is cxovrobs, misi yofa am survilis sawinaaRmdegodaa momarTuli, magram mis Cakvlas mainc ver axerxebs. i. daviTaSvils ar SeeZlo Tavis yofas gaqceoda. udides winaaRmdegobebTan WidilSi mas ar ZaluZda sabolood gamarjvebuli gamosuliyo, magram mainc ibrZoda bolomde, mainc cdilobda da am brZolis gzaze bevri ram SeiZina. arsebobis namdvil formad sulieri interesebiT cxovreba miaCnda. Tumca yofa mudam ajaWvavda yoveldRiur sazrunavebs, wvrilmanebs, magram sulieri moTxovnilebebiT cxovrebis wyurvils araTu ver uqrobda, aramed uZlierebda kidec. mudam gaWirvebuli, ufulo oriod groSs moigdebda Tu ara xelT, Jurnal-gazeTebs, wignebs da qaRalds yidulobda. iosebis maxloblebisaTvis gaugebari iyo misi amgvari qceva da arc waxalisebas da mowonebas imsaxurebda am mxriv maTgan. yovel SemTxvevaSi, faqti mainc isaa, rom iosebs zogjer, gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca fuli uWirda da sesxeba uwevda, amgvari ganmartebebis micema uxdeboda naTesavebisaTvis: `exlac gTxovT, Tu rom didad ar SewuxdebiT da SesaZlo iqneba, xeli gamimarToT... amaze ki darwmunebuli var da Tqvenc kargad iciT, rom Tqvengan nasesxeb fuls cud saqmezed ar movixmar. Tqven dajerebuli xarT, viTom wignebzed da gazeTebzed vxarjavde, magram damerwmuneT, rom bevrjer kapeiki ara maqvs, rom qaRaldi viyido da imazed gadavitano Cemi gulis dardebi an Tqven mogweroT rame~ (werili Tavisi dis -- elisabedisadmi).2 ioseb daviTaSvili pirovnuli mdgomareobis gaumjobesebaze ki ara, mometebulad saerTod dabali fenebis ekonomiuri mdgomareobis gaukeTesebaze fiqrobda bevrs, maT ganaTlebaze ocnebobda. ase magaliTad, roca igi zeiceris qarxanaSi muSaobda, aq sul male gaficuli muSebis Tavkacebs Soris aRmoCnda. marTalia, es gaficva muSebis erTgvari warmatebiT aRiniSna, magram misi moTaveebi da maT Soris i. daviTaSvilic, qarxnis mepatroneebma samuSaodan daiTxoves. xelosanTa sakeTildReod igi mudam ocnebobda maT gaerTianebaze da am ocnebas erTgvarad xorcic Seasxa TelavSi yofnis dros xuTi kacisagan Semdgari xelosanTa amxanagoba Seqmna, romlis oficialur cnobaze da wesdebis damtkicebaze bevrs zrunavda. i. daviTaSvili didi gatacebiT Seudga qarTuli xalxuri sityvierebis masalebis Segrovebis saqmes. aq igi xelmZRvanelobda akakis uSualo davalebiT da misive instruqciiT.

i l i a W a v W a v a Z e, Txzulebani aT tomad, t. III, gv. 165. i o s e b d a v i T a S v i l i , TzulebaTa sruli krebuli, sol. yubaneiSvilis redaqciiT, winasityvaobiTa da SeniSvnebiT, 1951, gv. 241.

2 1

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`aqeT-iqiT bevrs dadioda... monastrebsa da Zvels naSTebsa sinjavda. saca-ki raime SesamCnevs an CuqurTmas, an warwerils naxavda, gadmoiRebda xolme. ara erTi da ori korespondencia mouweria gagonilisa da TvaliT naxulis Taobazed~.1 yovelive es ki imaze metyvelebs, rom i. daviTaSvili ara marto Tavisi leqsebiT, aramed praqtikul-sazogadoebrivi TvalsazrisiTac Tavisi drois Rirseuli moqalaqe iyo.

Semoqmedeba

ioseb daviTaSvilis poeturi Semoqmedeba sul aT wels grZeldeboda (18771887). am drois manZilze man ramdenime aTeuli leqsi dawera, romelTagan garkveuli nawili mowonebas imsaxurebda, xolo zog maTgans mRerodnen kidec. i. daviTaSvilis leqsebi pirvel yovlisa simartiviT gamoirCevian, yvelasaTvis advilad misawvdomobiT. martivia da naTeli misi poezia im azriT, rom aq ara gvaqvs saqme gabundovanebul gancdebTan, gancdebTan, romelTa an safuZveli da wyaro iqneba gaurkveveli, an maTi mimdinareoba. i. daviTaSvilis Semoqmedebis Sinaarsad Zalian Cveulebrivi da yoveldRiuri sagnebi da movlenebi gamodian. misi yoveli calkeuli leqsis mixedviT advili gamosacnobia, Tu ra awuxebs an ra axarebs mas yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi. misi sawuxari Tu sasixarulo ki Zalian gansazRvrulia. amdenad, i. daviTaSvilis Semoqmedeba ar gamoirCeva mravalferovnebiTa da grZnobaTa gamoxatvis sirTuliTa da siRrmiT, magram aRbeWdili kia gulwrfelobiTa da uSualobiT. ioseb daviTaSvilis leqsebis erTi nawili moqalaqeobrivi xasiaTisaa da patriotuli grZnobebis gadmoSlas warmoadgens. misi leqsebis umTavresi sagani glexia misi yoveldRiurobiT, survilebiT da miswrafebebiT. poeti wvril-xelosanTa yofiTac interesdeba da esecaa gamoxatuli mis leqsebSi. i. daviTaSvilis leqsebis TemaTa ubralo CamoTvliTac sruliad cxadi xdeba maTi uaRresad socialuri Sinaarsi. es leqsebi arsebiTad garkveul drosTan da socialur viTarebasTan arian dakavSirebuli da erTgvarad mijaWvulic. amdenad, misi Semoqmedeba axla ZiriTadad literaturis istoriis kuTvnilebas warmoadgens. rogorc aRiniSna, i. daviTaSvilis Semoqmedeba moqalaqeobrivi Sinaarsis gamomxatvelia da es Cans mis bevr leqsSi. poeti pirdapirac araerTgzis aRniSnavs, rom sazogadoebrivi saqmis samsaxurSi pirovnuli interesebi msxverplad unda iqnes mitanili. magaliTad, poeti erTgan wers:

`me~ movspoT, `Cvena~ vixmaroT, miT moZmes mivceT nugeSi~ (`axal moleqses~)

xolo sxvagan am azrs igi ufro Semtevi toniT acxadebs:

`rad aris kaci cocxali, romelic qveynis bargia, vinc rom moqmedebs TavisTvis sxvas ki arafers argia?~ (`wuTisofelSi cxovreba~)

moqalaqeobrivi poziciidan afasebs igi sxvebis saqmianobasac. kargi da mosawoni, samagaliTo misTvis isaa, vinc didi mamuliSvilia, didi moqalaqe. i. davi1

i . W a v W a v a Z e , dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 165.

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TaSvilis miZRvniTi xasiaTis leqsebi (`mari broses~, `mariams~, `axal moleqses~ da a. S.), milocvebi, saaxalwloebi am azris dasabuTebas warmoadgenen. poeti ar asxvavebs imas, Tu ra wodebas ekuTvnis kaci, misTvis mTavari mamuliSvilobaa. leqsSi `stviri~, romelsac miwis muSebs uZRvnis da romelSiac erTgvar Suamavlobas kisrulobs dabal fenebsa da cnobil mamuliSvilebs Soris, igi ambobs:

`visac CamovTvli, gaxsovdeT, imas ugdeviT yurio; ecadeT yvelas icnobdeT, maTzed ar gqondeT Surio. bevria maTSi Tavadi da zogi aznaurio, Cveni sawyali glexisTvis didad SestkivaT gulio~.

moqalaqeobrivi grZnobis arseboba poetis leqsebs didaqtikur iers aZlevs. i. daviTaSvili yvelgan, an TiTqmis yvelgan amJRavnebs mzaobas Wkuis dasarigeblad. es darigeba gulubryvilo formiTaa warmodgenili im azriT, rom poeti am mxriv upretenzioa, ar iZabeba, ar cdilobs argumentirebas, raime niadagis Seqmnas damoZRvrisaTvis. Tavis simarTleSi sruliad darwmunebuli arc moelis sawinaaRmdego azris arsebobas, pirdapir, sagangebo xerxTa momarjvebis gareSe gamoTqvams Tavis rCevas. gulubryvilobis niSniTaa, magaliTad, warmodgenili Semdegi striqonebi:

`dRes gvatyueben vaWrebi, ucxo da Sinaurio; naxevar fasad rom miaqvT, qeri gvaqvs Tunda purio! aRar movstyuvdeT imaTgan, swavlas davugdoT yurio; vinc rom swavlisTvis gagvkicxos, cxvirze wausvaT murio!~ (`stviri~)

gulubryviloa es striqonebi imitomac, rom aq dasjis saSualebad poetis mier rekomendebulia iseTi forma, rogoricaa muris wasma. es striqonebi gulubryvilo komizmis gamovlenadac SeiZleba miviCnioT. moqalaqeobrivi poziciidan i. daviTaSvili kicxavs, dascinis qarTvels, romelsac aRar axsovs patiosneba da mamuli; qals, romelic modas gadahyolia da Tavisi namdvili movaleoba daviwyebia. am rigis leqsebi akakis satiruli xasiaTis leqsebis gavleniTaa Seqmnili; poeti aq akakiseburi dacinvis ganxorcielebas cdilobs. i. daviTaSvili zogierT leqsSi saqarTvelos istorias mimarTavs. Tumca, unda iTqvas, rom es leqsebi TqmulebaTa, gagonilis niadagze arian Seqmnili. garkveulad zogierTi maTganis gaxalxurebis mizezi esec unda yofiliyo. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia, magaliTad, `Tamar dedoflis leqsi~. sazogadod, unda aRiniSnos, rom i. daviTaSvilis zemoT ganxiluli leqsebi ZiriTadad im rkalSi arian moqceuli, romelic Cvenma samocianelebma moxazes. poeti maT did gavlenas ganicdis. Tuki maTSi, am leqsebSi, Cans swrafva garkveuli poziciisaken, es samocianelTa poziciaa. am leqsebSi patriotuli gancdebi pirdapir da Seuferxebladaa gadmocemuli. esaa imdroindeli mowinave qarTveli mwerlebis moqalaqeobrivi gancdebis gadmoSlis tradiciuli formis gavlenis kvali. magram i. daviTaSvils aqvs sxvagvari leqsebic. leqsebi, romlebSic gamoxatvis aseTi pirdapiri gza ar aris arCeuli, romlebsac Tematikuri simyare ar axa246

siaTebT da Tavisi gulubryvilobiT xalxur leqsebs uaxlovdebian. leqsSi `mestviruli~ pirveli strofebi, romlebSic imdroindeli yofaa daxasiaTebuli, maincadamainc ar amzadeben niadags Tematikuri TvalsazrisiT aSkarad patriotuli grZnobis Semcveli striqonebisaTvis:

`qarTvelni SromiT ganTqmulan, ibrZodnen Cveni Zvelebi; mtris wina Seupovrebsa, sisxliT mourwyavT velebi~.

amgvar ganwyobilebaSi sruliad moulodnelad Semodis vedreba mosavlis gadarCenaze, rasac isev patriotuli Sinaarsis strofi enacvleba:

`RvTisa dedao, Senca gTxovT -- ar agvarido piria: iversa mteri aSoro, igi xom Seni wilia~,

romelsac dasasrul isev ekonomiur uzrunvelyofaze vedreba cvlis. `mestvirulTan~ siaxloves amJRavnebs am TvalsazrisiT leqsi `suraTi mwyemsis cxovrebidan~. aq Tavidan bunebis suraTia warmodgenili, romelic male patriotuli SinaarsiT itvirTeba Semdeg strofSi:

`vici, mkiTxavT: `ra mxarea agre turfa, lamazio?~ me mogigebT: `iveria, Cveni cixe-darbazio~.

magram, rogorc mere irkveva, mTavari am leqsSi ubedureba iqneba, rac erTi Raribi mwyemsis Tavze unda datrialdes. amgvarive tendencia vlindeba leqsebSi `me qarTveli var, qarTveli~, `nino~ da sxva. es leqsebi meti uSualobiT xasiaTdebian im azriTac, rom literaturulad ganmtkicebul formaSi gadmoSlis tendencias nakleb amJRavneben da xalxurs uaxlovdebian. i. daviTaSvilis Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi Tema, rogorc aRiniSna, dabali fenebis yofa-cxovrebaa. poeti gvixasiaTebs soflelTa tkivils Tu sixaruls, maTs fiqrsa da ocnebas. am rigis leqsebi ZiriTadad sakuTar STabeWdilebebze, nanaxze da gancdilzea dafuZnebuli. vin ar arian aq warmodgenili -- patara fexSiSvela soflis gogo-biWebi, Zilgatexili mexreebi da guTnis dedebi, begaraze momuSave ojaxis mama da oblebis momakvdavi deda. glexis survilebi TiTqmis yovelTvis gansazRvrulia da erT sagans dastrialebs -- unda ekonomiurad uzrunvelyofili iyos, mevale ar awuxebdes da vaWari, janmrTeli iyos da Sroma SeiZlos:

`qveynisa gamCens SesTxoven: `dagvicv, Sen mogve janio~ (`weliwadis oTxi dro~) `gvqondes samyofi mamuli, saxlebi gvqondes Tbilia~ (`sisawyle~)

glexi gangebas imas evedreba, rom

`... mogvec Zal-Rone, ar mogverios Zilia, ar dagvisetyvo yanebi~ (`mestviruli~)

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magram yoveldRiuroba winaaRmdegobaSi modis glexis survilebTan. gauxarelia misi yofa:

`ram dagaSro, Se oxero, Raribebis bedis wyaro, amoduRdi, rom qveyana erTianad gaaxaro~ --

ambobs erTgan poeti aRSfoTebuli toniT. vin ar monawileobs glexis ZarcvaSi da damcirebaSi: Tavadi da aznauri, mamasaxlisi, mRvdeli da vaWari; gaunaTlebloba, crumorwmuneoba glexis borkilebad qceula. mkiTxavi dapatronebia mis rwmenas da usindisod wews mas. aseTi suraTebia daxatuli leqsebSi `weliwadis oTxi dro~, `mkiTxavi~ da mravali sxva. TiTqos bunebac aRar indobs adamianTagan daundobels:

`gvalvis zafxuli dagvidga, fermixdilxar, mTa da baro, tyeebi sul gadagvewva, Senca Srebi, mTisa wyaro~. (`gvalvis weliwads~)

poetisaTvis naTelia, rom usamarTloba da Zalmomreoba gabatonebula qveynad, rom iTeleba mSromelis adamianuri Rirseba. es viTareba mas bevr leqsSi aqvs daxasiaTebuli, iqneba es `muSis simRera~, `glexi da Tavadi~, `glexis wunias~ Tu sxva. poeti kargad xedavs, rom:

`muSis ofliTa irwyveba mindori, mTa da qedia, is Sromobs, sxvebi ZRebian, dakarguli aqvs bedia, Cascqeris dedamiwasa, maRla ver auxedia~.

igi Sewuxebulia amgvari mdgomareobiT:

`me gulsa mwvavs es sofeli, ornairad gayofili, bediT Cagruls uRvTod Cagravs Tavis bediT kmayofili~. (`bedis wyaro~)

i. daviTaSvils miT ufro aocebs es viTareba, ramdenadac mis cnobierebaSi damkvidrebuli aris Segneba jer kidev samocianelebidan momdinare azrisa, rom Cveni qveynis cxovrebaSi wamyvani roli ekuTvnis miwis muSas. i. daviTaSvilis sityvebiT:

`mTeli eris marCenali glexkacia, miwis muSa~.

i. daviTaSvilis es leqsebi sxvaTagan mometebulad imiT gamoirCevian, rom maTSi sibralulis grZnoba ki ar aris gamomJRavnebuli da mkiTxvelSic Sesaferisi grZnobis aRmoceneba da gaRviveba ki ar aris navaraudevi, aramed aq aSkarad igrZnoba siamaye da erTgvari Tavmowoneba; poeti amayobs, rom dabali fenebis warmomadgenelia TviTonac:

`muSa rom var, kidec vici muSis gulis pasuxebi, RmerTma muSas gaumarjos~

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-- acxadebs igi da swored am poziciidan moiTxovs mSromelis pirovnuli Rirsebis dacvas, misTvis angariSis gawevas uxeSi, magram xalxurisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli formiT:

`muSa var da muSis mklavi vici da mwams nakurTxia, da vinc muSas kacad ar cnobs safurTxia, safurTxia~ (`muSis wunias~)

i. daviTaSvilis leqsebSi pirovnuli ganviTarebis garkveuli safexuria warmodgenili, roca jer kidev ar aris gamovlenili mkafiod protestis grZnoba usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg. mis mier daxatuli glexebi religiur miswrafebebs amJRavneben, Svebas locvaSi pouloben. i. daviTaSvilis guli didi siyvaruliTaa savse da SurisZiebas aravis mimarT ar grZnobs, aseTive arian umravles SemTxvevaSi misi leqsebis personaJebic. ZiriTadi da damaxasiaTebeli misTvis amgvari midgomaa da amitomac mTeli misi Semoqmedebis fonze maincadamainc ara Cans gaazrebuli, am Semoqmedebis Sinaarsad ar aris qceuli gamoTqma, romliTac yma mimarTavs batons:

`dro mova rom dagamtvrio me uZlurma rogorc SuSa~1 -- (`glexi da Tavadi~)

an am rigis zogierTi sxva fraza. ioseb daviTaSvilisaTvis ufro niSandoblivia striqonebi:

`Sromobs muSa, Tan RiRinebs, agondeba macxovari, agondeba da mxnevdeba, pirjvris weriT Sromas agrZobs da vinc uSromlada hylapavs, imis mtrobas mainc ar grZnobs~.

i. daviTaSvili momavlis imediT avsebuli poetia. momavlis rwmena STaagonebs mas keTili saqmis samsaxurs:

`Tund vkvdebode SimSiliTa, ara mqondes lukma-puri, mainc kidev Tvalwin midga keTil saqmis samsaxuri. ............................................................... Wirsa da lxins erTad viTmenT me da Cemi Wreli stviri, me vmReri da is bans maZlevs `sikeTisken vqnaTo piri~ (`Tund vkvdebode~)

man icis, mas Sinaganad amoZravebs imis rwmena, rom

`axla Tu wyvdiadSi varT, Semdgom gvinaTdes mTvaria, dagvidges kai zafxuli, amwvandes mTa da baria. aRara darCes svav-yorans mSromlisa monagaria;

1

poetis azriT, ase uwin daobdnen batoni da yma, axla ki Tavadi da glexi urTierTdaaxloebaze fiqroben.

249

agvSordes uswavleloba, gagveRos sibrZnis karia~ (`qarTvel qalebs~)

i. daviTaSvilis leqsebis personaJebic, miuxedavad maTi mZime da autaneli yofisa, ar arian sasowarkveTilni, maT imedis sxivi udgaT gulSi. magram unda aRiniSnos, rom momavlis, rogorc aseTis, naTeli suraTi i. daviTaSvilis leqsebSi warmodgenili araa. misTvis gaurkvevelia, gaucnobierebelia momavali. bundovania; mSromelTa daxsnisa da maTi Rirsebis dacvis konkretuli gzebi. aseTi programa i. daviTaSvils, rasakvirvelia, ar gaaCnia. rogorc aRiniSna, poetis mTeli cxovrebis satkivari uswavlelobaa. codnis miRebis survili TiTqmis yvela mis leqsSi iCens Tavs; igi mJRavndeba TiTqmis yvela mis personaJSi. misi patara Ramis mexreebi, `uqudo, qalaman gacveTili~ sofleli gogo-biWebi daJinebiT iTxoven:

`gevedrebiT, swavla momceT mcirea, romelic rom glexisaTvis Zviria, swavla minda, me ara gTxovT fulebsa~ (`mexreTa var~)

i. daviTaSvili icnobda qarTuli soflis bunebas da cdilobda kidec mis gadmocemas Tavis leqsebSi, Tumca am mxriv mravalferovnebasTan saqme ara gvaqvs. bunebis gancdis TvalsazrisiT mis leqsebSi garkveuli safexuria warmodgenili, romlis drosac buneba fasdeba sargeblianobis principiT, praqtikuli adamianis praqtikul moTxovnilebaTa Sesabamisad da masTan mimarTebaSi. es mSromelis poziciaa, pozicia, romlis drosac wamyvani ekonomiuri interesebia. bunebis suraTebs aq TavisTavadi Rirebuleba ar gaaCnia. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia leqsebi: `weliwadis oTxi dro~, `gazafxuli~, `suraTi mwyemsis cxovrebidan~, `mkaTaTve~, `gvalvis weliwads~ da a. S. gazafxulis mosvla did sixaruls iwvevs poetSi:

`ayvavdebian xe-vardni, zamTrisgan daCagrulio, WikWiks iwyeben mercxlebi stumrad aq Camosulio ................................................. mTa da mindori irTveba viT koxta patarZalio~,

xolo es sixaruli imiTaa dapirobebuli, rom

`glexebsa, Sromis Svilebsa, axla WirdebaT janio~.

zafxuli imitomaa mosawoni, rom igi imedia glexisa:

`zafxulo, Sromis gvirgvino, Senzed vin ityvis avsao, glexis imedi Sena xar, Sen uReb sazrdos karsao~.

zamTari SeCvenebulia, rogorc

`xelis mamcreli glexisa, xan Tovs da xanac gahyinavs, momZvreli SiSvel fexisa~ (`weliwadis oTxi dro~)

leqsSi `gazafxuli~ poeti weliwadis am monakveTis vrcel daxasiaTebas iZleva:

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`Tebervali gavida, marti dadga mziani, dRes mofrinda mercxali, moWikWike xmiani. amwvanda mTa da veli, yvavili hyo iama, saamurad dahbera gazafxulis niavma~ da a. S.

iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom poeti aq TavisTavad bunebis simSvenieres gautacnia, TiTqos TviT bunebam SeiZina TavisTavadi fasi mis TvalSi, magram leqsis dasasruls naTeli xdeba, rom es ase araa, rom yuradRebis centrSi aq sofleli kacia, romelmac

`gamarTa guTneuli, ....................................... aprilsa elodeba, Tu ar umtyuna darma, Tu ar mouwva kukuri CrdiloeTisa qarma~.

i. daviTaSvilis mier daxatuli buneba -- es qarTuli soflis yoveldRiuri suraTebia. rogorc iTqva, bunebis grZnoba gamoxatvis TvalsazrisiT ar gamoirCeva masTan gansakuTrebuli simdidriTa da mravalferovnebiT. aq ufro zogadi Sinaarsia warmodgenili bunebis gancdis garkveuli safexurisa da araa igi datvirTuli konkretuli emociebiT. ioseb daviTaSvilma Tavis leqsebSi, garda soflelTa cxovrebisa, qalaqis wvril xelosanTa mdgomareobac daaxasiaTa. leqsebSi `simRera CuqurTmis mWrelisa~, `xelosnoba ar gadis~, `qarglis bedi~, `vuZRvni durglebs da kankelis xelosnebs~ avtori gvacnobs xelosanTa mZime yofas. rogorc miTiTebulia samecniero literaturaSi, i. daviTaSvili im leqsebiT, romlebSiac igi mSromelTa cxovrebas, maT tkivilebsa da sazrunavs gamoxatavs, sadac maT mCagvrelebze msjelobs, Tematikuris TvalsazrisiT siaxloves xalxosan mwerlebTan amJRavnebs.1 i. daviTaSvils aqvs ramdenime leqsi, romlebic sabavSvodaa navaraudevi. am leqsebis personaJebi sofleli bavSvebi arian, maTi gancdebis gadmoSlaa aq nacadi. am leqsebidan mowonebiT sargeblobda da sargeblobs leqsi `jejili~. aq gamoxatuli sofleli biWis gancdebi damajereblobas araa moklebuli im azriTac, rom masSi bavSvuri miamitobiT aris warmodgenili samyaro. Tavisufali asociaciebis gziT mowodebulia bavSvuri STabeWdilebebi. ocnebas da sixaruls aq bavSvuri tkivili da sevda enacvleba qalaqze, iq yofnaze:

`netavi, aq ar mamyofa, qalaqSi Camiyvanao: maswavla rame xeloba, maswavla ana-banao~.

magram es sevda male ifanteba da natvriT icvleba; bavSvs xom ar SeuZlia didxans SeaCeros Tavisi fiqri erT saganze:

`namglebiT garsa gexvivnen biWebi CemisTanao... ............................................ jers umzadebdes Tinia, a im ber kaklebTanao;

1

m . z a n d u k e l i , Txzulebani, III, 1978, gv. 239.

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sosos xelada mohqondes, civ-civi wyarodanao~.

unda iTqvas, rom am leqsSi i. daviTaSvilma moaxerxa bavSvis samyarosTan miaxloeba. ioseb daviTaSvilis leqsebze sagangebo daZabvis gareSe dakvirvebac cxads xdis, rom bevri maTgani gavleniTaa Seqmnili, rom am mxriv maTi saTaveebis daZebna did siZneles ar warmoadgens. i. daviTaSvilis biografiidan isic kia cnobili, rom mas zogjer ar ubeWdavdnen leqsebs sxva poetTan msgavsebis motiviT.1 ioseb daviTaSvilis Semoqmedebis mkvlevrebi miuTiTeben kidec misi zogi leqsis literaturul wyaros.2 marTlac, roca vkiTxulobT i. daviTaSvilis striqonebs:

`Zeglo Cvenis didebisav, samlocvelo qarTlisao, dRes rada xar agre uqmad winamZRolo qarTlisao?~

vgrZnobT, rom es akakis cnobili striqonebis mibaZvaa; anda, roca i. daviTaSvili leqsSi `moxucis sinanuli~ gvamcnobs:

`sibere momiaxlovda, ver malxens dafi, naRara, davdivar unugeSoda, javrma gul-RviZli daRara~ --

ar SeiZleba akakis `WaRara~ ar mogvagondes. ilias cnobili poemis dasawyisiT aris davalebuli leqsi `uwindeli ambavi~ da gansakuTrebiT misi Semdegi strofi:

`modiT, glexno, aq mogrovdiT, getyviT uwindels ambavsa, Tu rogora ucxovriaT maSin Cvens mama-papasa~.

im garemoebas, rom ilias da akakis baZavda, poeti arc TviTon faravda. akakis Tavis ostats uwodebda:

`kargi poeti brZandeba akaki wereTelio, ....................................... is aris Cemi ostati, mas unda vuZRvna salami, misi leqsebis kiTxviTa xelSi aviRe kalami~ (`Teatris moTamaSeebs~)

daviT guramiSvilis mibaZviT mas araerTi leqsi dauweria da aRuniSnavs kidec. yovelive amis SemCneva, rogorc iTqva, Zneli araa. magram sagangebod aq is unda iTqvas, rom i. daviTaSvili aris nimuSi Cveulebrivi TviTnaswavli qarTveli glexisa Seumcdari alRoTi, romlis uSualo karnaxiTac igi agnebs namdvilsa da WeSmarits, rom mas ar Ralatobs bunebrivi da ara sagangebod gawaful-gafaqizebuli gemovneba. igi sulier kavSirs d. guramiSvilTan grZnobs da ara sxva vinmesix. mag., i. daviTaSvilis werili zaqaria WiWinaZisadmi; i. d a v i T a S v i l i, dasaxelebuli wigni, gv. 247. 2 ix. mag., m. z a n d u k e l i, dasax. wigni, gv. 249; S. r a d i a n i, axali qarTuli literatura, 1954, gv. 487.

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Tan; mas akakis uaRresad saxalxo leqsebi xiblavs, akakis baZavs, iliaa misTvis azris meufe da ara sxva vinme. i. daviTaSvilis leqsebis saerTo daxasiaTebis mizniT kidev Semdegi unda aRiniSnos: es leqsebi, pirvel yovlisa, Tavisi upretenziobiT gamoirCevian. sazogadod uSualobaa damaxasiaTebeli Cveni poetisaTvis. zemoT, i. daviTaSvilis leqsebis Tematikuri daxasiaTebisas, iTqva da axlac sagangebod unda aRiniSnos, rom gulubryvilobaa (am sityvis kargi gagebiT) damaxasiaTebeli maTTvis. am niSniT es leqsebi xalxuri poeziis nimuSebs uaxlovdebian. i. daviTaSvili poeti movlenebTan pirdapir dgas da Seuferxeblad iZleva Tavis reaqcias miRebul STabeWdilebebze, misTvis ucxoa yovelgvari pirobiToba. i. daviTaSvilis gulubryviloba mis miukibav gamoTqmebSic iCens Tavs. mag., leqsSi `simRera~ poeti Tavis survils ase gvamcnobs:

`RamiT vnaxe Cemi nina, mTvares Suqi moefina, netavi imas Semyara, imis gulTan momca bina. .............................................. ver maamebs da arc minda gazafxulis vardis kona, netamc momkla da me erTxel ninas TeTr mkerds Camakona~ --

`aq adamianis ocnebas dasamatebeli TiTqos aRaraferi aqvs~,1 sagnebs pirdapir aqvs Serqmeuli Tav-Tavisi saxeli. leqsis Sinaarsi iseTi gulRia saxiTaa warmodgenili, rom es gulRiaoba mogvwons Tavisi uSualobiT da erotikuli gagebisaTvis adgils aRar tovebs. gulubryviloba aq sagnebis erTgvar Tavisufal, anu nebismier dakavSirebaSic mJRavndeba. maincadamainc ar Cans aucilebeli kavSiri im faqtisa, rom poets `vardis kona~ `ver aamebs~ im natvrasTan, rac Semdeg striqonebSia gadmocemuli. es azrebi aq faqtobrivad imiTia gaerTianebuli, rom gasariTmavad saWiro sityvebia SerCeuli -- `kona~-~Camakona~. es mxarec aaxloebs i. daviTaSvilis am da amgvar leqsebs xalxur poeziasTan.2 gulubryvilo xasiaTi i. daviTaSvilis leqsebisa Tavs iCens enobrivadac. aq ar igrZnoba, rom poets ara aqvs raime sagangebo kontroli dawesebuli metyvelebisadmi. igi laparakobs ubralod, dauZabavad Tavis sasaubro enaze. yovel SemTxvevaSi aseTia misi leqsebis kiTxviT, magaliTad am striqonebis kiTxviT, miRebuli STabeWdileba:

`mkaTaTve dadga, Camocxa, xmelia yana samkali, sicxisa luli trialebs muSis mtanjveli, tiali. muSebi mkian yanasa, namglebs gaudis JRriali, haeri aRar moZraobs da ismis foTolT Sriali. samklisa pirsa, pantis qveS, darbian gogo-biWebi, Ror-xbo dayrila Walis pirs, sicxiT SehkvriaT kriWebi~.

1 2

gamoTqma ekuTvnis gr. k i k n a Z e s ; ix. misi -- vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedeba, 1957, gv. 160-161. xalxuri poeziis am niSanze msjelobs gr. k i k n a Z e wignSi -- qarTuli satirisa da iumoris ganviTarebis istoriisaTvis, 1953, gv. 156.

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i. daviTaSvilis ena ZiriTadad xalxis cocxali sametyvelo enaa. literaturuli formebis moWarbeba igrZnoba ufro iseT leqsebSi, romlebic mibaZviT Tu gavleniT Cans dawerili. mag., roca vkiTxulobT:

`droTa brunvisgan ars sneuli Cveni iveri! magram moelis dro kacuri, dro mSvenieri. ................................................................................. monaT namyofsa, keTil nayofsa eZleva feri, Sen, macxovaro, Cven macxovaro, gTxovT, daumarcxo aw misi mteri~...

vgrZnobT, rom es i. daviTaSvilis bunebrivi metyveleba araa, rom is aq sagangebodaa daZabuli da sxvas baZavs. enobrivi daxasiaTebis mizniT isic unda iTqvas, rom i. daviTaSvilTan iSviaTad gvxvdeba moulodnelobis, gaucveTelis, erTi sityviT, originalobis niSniT aRbeWdili poeturi xati, fraza. aseTi erTeulebis mopovebisaken swrafva ar igrZnoba maincadamainc Cvens poetTan. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom i. daviTaSvils sagangebod ara aqvs gafaqizebuli sityvis mxatvruli Zalis grZnoba. imis aRniSvnac saWiro unda iyos, rom, i. daviTaSvils dawerili aqvs moTxroba `nato~ (ambavi namdvilidan), romelic dasrulebuli araa. moTxroba avtobiografiuli xasiaTisaa. aq i. daviTaSvilis cxovrebis is periodia asaxuli, roca igi Tavis ufros ZmasTan iyo TbilisSi. natoSi mwerali rZals gulisxmobs. moTxrobis Sesaxeb saerTod is SeiZleba iTqvas, rom i. daviTaSvili masSi ver amaRlda yofiTi masalidan, ver moaxerxa misi mxatvruli ganzogadeba. masala aq nedl masaladvea darCenili. aq maincadamainc ver aris gamokveTili mTavari da ufro Rirebuli meorexarisxovanisagan; detalebi gauazrebelia da maincadamainc arc isaa naTeli, Tu ra aris mwerlis mTavari mizani.

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aleqsandre yazbegi (1848-1893)

al. yazbegis cxovreba da moRvaweoba

aleqsandre mixeilis Ze yazbegi daibada 1848 wlis 8 (20) ianvars sofel stefanwmindaSi, romelsac amJamad yazbegi ewodeba. patara aleqsandres fufunebaSi zrdidnen. es fufuneba imdenad gadaWarbebuli iyo, rom Semdgom Cveni avtori TviTonve sayvedurobda amgvari aRzrdis gamo. aRsaniSnavia, rom momaval mweralze gansakuTrebuli gavlena mouxdenia erT glexis qals, romelic misi ojaxis mravalricxovan mosamsaxureTa Soris iyo. mecxramete saukunis oTxmocian wlebSi, rodesac al. yazbegi ukve cnobili mwerali iyo, Tavis gamzrdel glexis qals pirad werilSi mimarTavda: `Seni sityvebi ar daikarga muqTaT da aq daimarxa Cems gulSi... da exla, amTveni xnis ganmavlobis Semdeg, rodesac SemiZlian angariSi mivce Cems moZraobas, SemiZlian siamayiT giTxra, Sens gazrdilSi Tu ipoveba rame rigiani bavSvobidanve Canergili, amis mizezi Sena xar~.1 aleqsandre yazbegs jer kidev skolaSi Sesvlamde miuCines Sinamaswavleblebi, romlebic mas rusul da frangul enebs aswavlidnen. 1859 wels al. yazbegi erT-erT kerZo pansionSi Seiyvanes, xolo 1863 wels igi Tbilisis gimnaziis mesame klasSi Cairicxa. aleqsandre yazbegis moswavleobis periodidan sayuradReboa momavali mwerlis pirveli literaturuli cdebi. 1861 wels Jurnal `ciskarSi~ daibeWda misi leqsi `nana~, romelic miZRvnilia axaldabadebuli naTesavi bavSvisadmi. leqsi imdenad poeturad aris Sesrulebuli, rom `ciskris~ redaqcias misi dabeWdva SesaZleblad daunaxavs.2 1865 wels al. yazbegi gimnaziis mexuTe klasidan gamovida. amis mizezi is iyo, rom misi mSoblebi xevidan TbilisSi Camosvlas ver axerxebdnen da masac marto ar gzavnidnen. 1866 wlis ivlisSi al. yazbegis mama gardaicvala. am SemTxvevas TiTqosda unda gadaewyvita misi swavla-ganaTlebis sakiTxi; SesaZlebeli iyo, rom mas ganaTlebaze sabolood xeli aeRo. es miT ufro mosalodneli iyo, rom Wabuki mwerlis dedas ganzraxuli hqonda Tavisi erTaderTi vaJiSvili daeqorwinebina da sabolood ojaxSi daebinavebina. miuxedavad yovelive amisa, 1867 wels yazbegi moskovs gaemgzavra da iq sasoflo-sameurneo akademiaSi Cairicxa. moskovSi yofnis dros al. yazbegi daewafa rusul literaturas da mowinave sazogadoebriv azrs. igulisxmeba, rom am faqts mniSvneloba hqonda axalgazrda mwerlis ideuri Camoyalibebis TvalsazrisiT. 1870 wlis Semodgomaze al. yazbegi saqarTveloSi dabrunda. 1871 wlis gazafxulze al. yazbegma naTesavebsa da nacnob-megobrebs molodini gaucrua da ramdenime moxevesTan erTad mecxvareoba daiwyo.

1 2

al. ya z b e g i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli xuT tomad, t. V, Tb., 1950, gv. 209-210. Jurnali `ciskari~, 1861, N 12.

`rasakvirvelia, -- mogviTxrobs mwerali, -- pirveli Cemi nabiji yvelam, ganurCevlad, yvelam masxrad aigdo, radganac ambobdnen, rom mebatones da masTan saxelian kacis Svils ubralo mecxvareoba ar ekadrebao, magram me Cemi mizani mqonda, Cemi survili da es iqamdis Zlieri iyo, rom araviTar rCevas yuri ar vugde; me mindoda menaxa xalxi, msurda gamego imaTi survili, mecxovra imaTi cxovrebiT, Cem Tavzed gamomecada is moTxovnileba da gaWirveba, romelic ukan sdevs muSa xalxs, da raRa damayenebda Sin, mivaRwie Cems mizans, davuaxlovdi, gavican isini, visic gacnoba da daaxloeba ase guliT msurda~.1 al. yazbegma mecxvareobaSi Svidi weli gaatara. am xnis ganmavlobaSi igi zedmiwevniT gaecno xalxis yofas, mis yoveldRiur Wir-varams. mwyemsur cxovrebaSi, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia mudmivi mogzauroba, Ria cis qveS yofna da brZola bunebis stiqiasTan, mweralma SeiZina bunebis Rrma gancda, romelic ase momxibvlelad warmogvidgina Tavis moTxrobebsa da romanebSi. mecxvareTa Soris yofniT man uSualod SeiTvisa mdidari xalxuri zepirsityviereba, romelic agreTve moxdenilad gamoiyena Tavis mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi. 1879 wels al. yazbegi mudmiv sacxovreblad TbilisSi Camodis. am droidan iwyeba misi farTo sazogadoebrivi moRvaweoba da nayofieri literaturuli saqmianoba. 1880-1885 wlebSi zedized iqmneba misi Txzulebebi: `elguja~, `mamis mkvleli~, `cicia~, `gankicxuli~, `eliso~, `xevisberi goCa~, `moZRvari~, `arsena~, `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~ da sxvebi. sazogadoebrivi moRvaweobis TvalsazrisiT al. yazbegis cxovrebaSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania misi saqmianoba ociani wlebis qarTul Jurnal-gazeTebsa da TeatrSi. *** aleqsandre yazbegs TbilisSi gadmosvlisTanave ganuzraxavs stambis mowyoba, romelic xels gaumarTavda qarTuli wignebis beWdvasa da gavrcelebas. TanamedroveTa gadmocemiT, mwerals Seudgenia amxanagoba da stambisaTvis saWiro mowyobilobaTa SeZenac dauwyia, magram sabolood ganzraxva ver ganuxorcielebia. oTxmocian wlebSi al. yazbegi dauaxlovda cnobil Jurnalistsa da publicist sergei mesxs da misi miwveviT muSaoba daiwyo gazeT `droebis~ redaqciaSi. am gazeTis muSakTa mcirericxovan jgufSi mwerali sapatio adgils ikavebs. igi `droebis~ ZiriTadi TanamSromeli, misi erT-erTi sulisCamdgmeli iyo. `droebis~ redaqciaSi al. yazbegis moRvaweobaze saintereso cnobebia Semonaxuli TanamedroveTa mogonebebSi. am masalebSi saxelovani beletristi daxasiaTebulia rogorc gazeTisaTvis uangarod Tavdadebuli da dauRalavi muSaki. interess moklebuli araa vicodeT, rom mas `droebis~ TanamSromlebma metsaxelad `gaWirvebis talkvesi~ Searqves. aleqsandre yazbegi, romelic wlebis manZilze `droebis~ ZiriTadi moRvawe iyo, Tavisdroindel sxva qarTul Jurnal-gazeTebSic aqtiurad TanamSromlobda. ilia WavWavaZis `iveriaSi~ igi aqveynebda moTxrobebsa da romanebs, xolo gazeT `TeatrSi~ Tavis mier Sekrebil xalxur leqsebs beWdavda. *** al. yazbegis sazogadoebriv moRvaweobaSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania misi damsaxureba oTxmocian wlebSi ganaxlebuli qarTuli Teatris winaSe.

1

a l . y a z b e g i , `namwyemsaris mogonebani~, Tavi 1.

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aleqsandre yazbegi Teatrs uyurebda rogorc didi sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis dawesebulebas. misi msjeloba Teatris daniSnulebaze dResac ar kargavs cxovelmyofelobas da rCeba, rogorc erTi didebuli gamonaTqvami Teatris kulturul-aRmzrdelobiT mniSvnelobaze sazogadod: `Teatri aris sarke Cvenis cxovrebisa, Teatri aris saSualeba kacis gonebis moZraobaSi mosayvani. Teatri aris sajaro gamofena mTeli qveynis geniosTa Wkuis moZraobisa da cis jildoTi dasaCuqrebulTa moqmedebiT gamoxatva xalxis winaSe. Teatri aris mkacri gamkicxi borotebisa, Teatri aris damyvavebeli mSobeli keTili da qveynis gamdidrebulis Svilisa. Teatri aris msajuli yovlad Zlieri da wminda, man icis grZnoba da kvnesa guliT mkvnesavTan, icis gankicxva, Zmazed uRmrToT gazviadebulis daTrgunva~.1 es msjeloba Teatris mniSvnelobaze ganuyrel kavSirSia mwerlis saerTo msoflmxedvelobasTan, mis realistur SexedulebebTan literaturisa da xelovnebis daniSnulebaze. aleqsandre yazbegis Rvawli qarTuli Teatris winaSe ormagi xasiaTisaa: jer erTi, igi iyo praqtikuli moRvawe qarTuli scenisa da meore -- mis kalams ekuTvnis ramdenime dramatuli Txzuleba. misi ramdenime piesa didi warmatebiT sargeblobda im dros da zogierT maTgans mimzidveloba dRemde ar daukargavs. *** aleqsandre yazbegis, rogorc mwerlisa da sazogado moRvawis, mTeli saqmianoba arsebiTad mecxramete saukunis oTxmocian wlebSi daiwyo da damTavrda. 1880-1885 wlebSi Seiqmna is didi literaturuli memkvidreoba, romelic gavlenas axdenda da axdens mkiTxvelTa farTo masebze. 1886 wlidan moyolebuli, aleqsandre yazbegis cxovreba ZiriTadad praqtikuli saqmianobiT, gansakuTrebiT sasceno moRvaweobiT xasiaTdeba. am dros mwerali xSirad moCans quTaisSi, baTumSi, Telavsa da sxva qalaqebSi, sadac igi monawileobs dramatul wreebSi. saliteraturo saRamoebze imave xanebSi al. yazbegi mZimed daavadda saSineli seniT. igi suliT avadmyofi gaxda. 1890 wels mwerali saavadmyofoSi moaTavses. iq gaatara saxelovanma beletristma sicocxlis ukanaskneli wlebi. mxatvruli sityvis didi ostati suliT avadmyofTa TavSesafarSi itanjeboda im dros, rodesac misi ukvdavi nawerebi, ukve tomebad gamocemuli, qveyanas efineboda da mkiTxvelebi maT avtors adidebdnen. aleqsandre yazbegi 1893 wlis 10 dekembers gardaicvala. sayvareli mwerlis dakargva mSobliurma erma mwvaved ganicada. Jurnal-gazeTebSi ramdenime dRis ganmavlobaSi qveyndeboda literaturul-kritikuli werilebi, mogonebebi da sxva masalebi. swored am samgloviaro dReebSi ilias `iveriam~ al. yazbegs orjer dabadebuli uwoda. `iveria~ werda: `gardaicvala! magram vin moigona es sityva? ukvdavTan sikvdils ra xeli aqvs? orjer dabadebuls, RvTiuris madliT cxebuls, erTi sikvdili veras uzams. yazbegi -- ki meored maSin daibada, rodesac Tavisi niWieri kalami uZRvna qveyanas, daibada ise, rom misi akvani yovelis qarTvelis gulSi irweoda da aseTs akvanSi gamozrdils adamians ki sikvdili xels ver Seaxebs~.2 1893 wlis 19 dekembers al. yazbegis cxedari mSobliur xevSi waasvenes. im dRes dilaadrianad saavadmyofos maxlobeli quCebi mozRvavebul xalxs ver itevda. saavadmyofodan gamosvenebis Semdeg mwerlis neSti veris jvarTan SeaCeres. aq gamo-

1

2

al. y a z b e g i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli xuT tomad, t. V, Tb., 1950, gv. 164. gazeTi `iveria~, 1893, N 269.

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saTxovari sityvebi da leqsebi warmosTqves: akaki wereTelma, giorgi wereTelma, grigol abaSiZem, valerian guniam, k.TavarTqilaZem, el. WiWinaZem da sxvebma. aleqsandre yazbegis gardacvalebas gansakuTrebuli paTosiT gamoexmaura misi uaxloesi megobari da Tanamoazre vaJa-fSavelac. sayvareli beletristis cxedari misma pativismcemlebma Tbilisidan gaaciles. sami dRis Semdeg, 1893 wlis 22 dekembers, Tavis sofelSi, sakuTar ezoSi, aleqsandre yazbegi samudamod miabares mSobliur miwas. aleqsandre yazbegi, rogorc mwerali da moazrovne, saqarTvelos erovnulganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis moRvawea. am politikuri moZraobis ideebis gamomxatveli iyo qarTvel samocianelTa literaturuli Taoba, romelsac ilia WavWavaZe da akaki wereTeli meTaurobdnen. Tergdaleulebma qarTul mwerlobaSi daamkvidres kritikuli realizmi, romelic samociani wlebidan gabatonebul mimarTulebad iqca. oTxmocian wlebSi, rodesac sazogadoebriv asparezze al. yazbegi da vaJafSavela gamovidnen, kritikuli realizmis damkvidrebisaTvis brZola ukve ganvlil etaps warmoadgenda. yazbegsa da vaJas qarTul literaturaSi araviTari gansxvavebuli mimarTuleba ar SeuqmniaT. isini asparezze gamovidnen rogorc mxatvruli sityvis niWieri ostatebi, romelTac moRvaweoba mouxdaT kritikuli realizmis epoqaSi. maT, rogorc xalxis wiaRidan gamosulma mwerlebma, mxatvruli Semoqmedebis sagnad eris Wir-varami, misi awmyo da momavali gaixades. al. yazbegis memkvidreobaSi Semonaxulia rigi saintereso gamonaTqvamebi literaturis Teoriul sakiTxebze. es gamonaTqvamebi didad gvexmareba rogorc literaturuli meTodis, ise sazogadod Cveni avtoris mxatvruli Semoqmedebis kvleva-ZiebaSi. al. yazbegi qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi Sedis rogorc kritikuli realizmis warmomadgeneli. SeuZlebelia sxvagvarad vilaparakoT im mweralze, romelic Tavis Tavze ambobda: `me ara maqvs dasaxuli miznad saxeli ukvdavad gavixado, da ar mivibrZvi ukvdavi Seqspiris gamokvlevas mivyo xeli. me ar vxatav lirebs da hamletebs, Cems moZmeTaTvis gaugebars pirebs, me veltvi Cems qveyanas, keklucs da Semkobils, veltvi mis bunebas, romelmac aRzarda da Seifara Cemi moZmeni, Sevxari imaT da vtiri im tiriliT, romelic gvaswavla misma moqmedebam~.1 imave werilSi Cveni beletristi erTxel kidev migviTiTebs mkviTxvelTa farTo masebTan Tavis pirad mimarTebaze, maTTan xmaSewyobilad kvnesasa da sixarulze. igi STambeWdavad ambobs: `me myavs Cemi sazogadoeba da Cven mivxvdiT erTmaneTis grZnobas, erTmaneTis gulis Zgeras, Cven gavigoneT erTmaneTis kvnesa da xmebi didi xania rac SevawyveT, erTi gvaqvs sixaruli da erTive samgloviaro~.2 bunebrivia, rom xalxis cxovrebasTan esoden dakavSirebuli mwerlis SemoqmedebiTi meTodi mxolod kritikuli realizmi SeiZleboda yofiliyo. mkiTxvelisaTvis savsebiT naTelia, rom mwerali masalas iRebs cxovrebis sinamdvilidan, romelic erTsa da imave dros rogorc sasixarulos, ise samgloviaros Seicavs. yazbegis nawerebSi swored es saWirboroto urTierTobaa mxatvrulad ganzogadebuli. al. yazbegis TxzulebebSi praqtikulad ganxorcielebuli realizmis meTodi miT ufro sarwmunoa, rom igi dasabuTebulia misive Teoriuli xasiaTis nawerebSi. kritikos i. meunargiasadmi sapasuxo statiis erT nawilSi mwerali sagangebod msjelobda mxatvruli nawarmoebis tendenciurobaze sazogadod. aq mowodebu1

2

al. y a z b e g i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli xuT tomad, t. V, Tb., 1950, gv. 139-40. iqve, gv. 151-152.

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lia avtoris savsebiT naTeli azri imaze, Tu ra mniSvnelobas aniWebda igi tendencias da rogor wyvetda mxatvrul nawarmoebebSi Sinaarsisa da formis urTierTobis sakiTxs: `rodesac sazogadoT moTxroba iwereba, Sig tendencia, azri ram ueWvelad unda iyos Careuli da me ara mwams imaTi nawerebi, vinc azris gautareblad usulo suraTebs xataven. azri ueWvelad unda iyves yovel ubralo aRweraSiac, mxolod azriT gadamlaSeba moTxrobisa, agreTve rogorc sxva mxareebiT gadamlaSeba, marTalia ar varga. rodesac azrovnoba da suraTovnoba erTmaneTs wesierad Sezavdebian, maSin moTxrobis RirsebisaTvis ukeTesi sanatreli aRara rCeba ra~.1 aleqsandre yazbegis azriT, mxatvrul literaturas erTaderTi daniSnuleba aqvs. es aris adamianis, sazogadoebis sasicocxlo interesebi. mwerals ara aqvs-ra imaze ufro sapatio amocana, rom sagnebsa da movlenebs adamianur cxovrebasTan kavSirSi xatavdes. Cveni avtori acxadebs, rom igi usulo da usicocxlo sagnebis mlocveli ar aris da misi kalami aseT sagnebs ver Seexeba. `me, -- ambobs mwerali, -- ara var mlocveli usulo, usicocxlo sagnebisa. verc Cemi ocneba, verc Cemi goneba, verc Cemi kalami ver miubrundeba mkvdars, moqmedebamoklebuls sagans~.2 aleqsandre yazbegis, rogorc realisti mxatvris, sasargeblod metyvelebs is garemoebac, rom mis TxzulebebSi TiTqmis yovelTvis icnoba konkretuli istoriuli epoqa. misi nawerebis kiTxvisas yovelTvis SegviZlia warmovidginoT monakveTi droisa, zogjer meti, zogjer naklebi konkretulobiT. vkiTxulobT `xevisber goCas~ da Cvens mexsierebaSi aRdgeba saqarTvelos istoriuli viTareba meTeqvsmete saukunis miwurulis da meCvidmete saukunis pirveli wlebisa. vkiTxulobT `elgujas~ da Cven Tvalwin cocxldeba saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi da politikuri mdgomareoba meTvramete saukunis miwurulis da mecxramete saukunis damdegisa. vkiTxulobT `mamis mkvlels~ da bunebrivad warmogvidgeba mecxramete saukunis ormocdaaTiani wlebis saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi viTareba da ase Semdeg. aleqsandre yazbegi Tavis moTxrobebsa da romanebSi bunebis SesaniSnav suraTebs xatavs. mis nawerebSi bunebis suraTebi yovelTvis Sexamebulia Txzulebis gmirTa mdgomareobasTan da saqmeebTan. bunebis sanaxaobaTa amgvari warmodgena Cveni avtoris saerTo Segnebidan, misi esTetikuri Sexedulebebidan bunebrivad gamomdinareobs. imave werilSi al. yazbegi sagangebod Cerdeba mxatvrul nawarmoebSi bunebis suraTebis mniSvnelobaze da am SemTxvevaSic misi msjeloba epoqis mowinave azrovnebis simaRleze dgas. `buneba kargia mxolod maSin, rodesac Sig sicocxle trialebs da brunavs, brunavs im sitkbo-simware Sereulis ZaliT, romelic adamianis TviT cxovrebas Seadgens. ra aris mTvare mokaSkaSe, romelic aSuqebs aTas yvavils, Tu iqav gverds ar udgas suldgmuli, romelzedac ase Tu ise gavlena aqvs, axarebs, Tu Cawyvdiadebul guls nugeSs aZlevs~.3 aleqsandre yazbegis mxatvrul TxzulebebSi mTavari da ganmsazRvrelia situacia, romelSic gmirebi moqmedeben, xolo buneba adamianis mdgomareobis Sesaferisad warmogvidgeba xolme. mwerlis mier daxatuli bunebis suraTebi, sulerTia iqneba es mokaSkaSe mTvaris Suqze gabrwyinebuli mTis yvavilebi Tu pirquS RameSi Semzaravi Weqa-quxili, bolos da bolos mainc erT mizans emsaxureba; igi adamianis mdgomareobidan da saqmeebidan momdinare emocias aZlierebs.

1 2

al. y a z b e g i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli xuT tomad, t. V, Tb., 1950, gv. 150. iqve, gv. 142. 3 iqve.

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*** samocdaaTidan oTxmocian wlebamde aris erTgvari mosamzadebeli periodi aleqsandre yazbegis, rogorc mwerlis, sabolood gaformebisaTvis. es aris, erTi mxriv, literaturuli Ziebisa, xolo, meore mxriv, xalxis cxovrebis gacnobisa da masalis dagrovebis xana. gansakuTrebiT mecxvareobis dros, xalxTan uSualod cxovrebiT, mweralma daagrova didZali masala, romelic Semdeg Tavis mxatvrul TxzulebebSi gamoiyena. erT pirad werilSi megobari moxevisadmi al. yazbegi wers: `Tu Cems nawerebs kiTxulobs vinme, Tu hpoulobs imaSi gulis gasarTobs, Tu ara swyindeba da bolomdis Cadis, yvela amis mizezi Cemi warsulia, Cemi mecxvareoba da TqvenTan cxovreba Svidi wlis ganmavlobaSi, romelmac erTi da igive gvagrZnobina, erTi da igive kvnesiT daakvnesa Cveni guli, erTi da igive mizani dagvanaxa~.1 mwyemsobaSi xalxTan gatarebuli periodi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania masalis dagrovebis TvalsazrisiT. yazbegma sul raRac eqvsiode wlis ganmavlobaSi (1880-1885) didi literaturuli memkvidreoba Seqmna. amgvari nayofierebis erTi piroba albaT isic iyo, rom mwerals muSaoba uxdeboda erTgvarad mza masalaze, piradad naxulsa da gancdilze. al. yazbegis kalams ekuTvnis bevri leqsi. isini yuradRebas imsaxureben ufro ideur-Sinaarsobrivad, naklebad poeturi RirsebiT. `mamis mkvlelis~ avtorma ukanaskneli anderZic leqsad gaaforma, Tavisi gulis saidumlo poetur striqonebSi Caaqsova:

`rveulo! me Tu movkvdebi, Sen xom darCebi amier, me miwis miwad viqcevi Sen ivli dRe da Ramier. gemudarebi, CasZaxo erobas yovel-wamier, rom mxolod Zmuris erTobiT icocxlebs mravalJamier~.

aleqsandre yazbegi nayofier moRvaweobas eweoda agreTve dramaturgiis dargSi. mis kalams ekuTvnis mTeli rigi dramatuli Txzulebani, magram mTavari mainc, ramac al. yazbegs ukvdavebis gvirgvini daadga, aris misi mxatvruli proza. qarTuli literaturis istoriaSi prozas saTanado tradicia aqvs. jer kidev meaTe-meTormete saukuneebSi Seiqmna iseTi maRali Rirsebis prozauli nawarmoebebi, rogoricaa: giorgi merCules `grigol xanZTelis cxovreba~, mose xonelis `amirandarejaniani~ da sargis Tmogvelis `visramiani~. es tradicia Semdegac ar Sewyvetila. amis saukeTeso dadasturebas warmoadgens sulxan-saba orbelianis maRalmxatvruli da Rrma Sinaarsis Semcveli proza. mecxramete saukunis qarTul literaturaSi am formas iyenebdnen gamoCenili mwerlebi: ilia WavWavaZe, akaki wereTeli, lavrenti ardaziani, iakob gogebaSvili, giorgi wereTeli da sxvebi. am avtorebs TavianTi epoqis mtkivneuli sakiTxebi mzis sinaTleze gamohqondaT metwilad swored mxatvruli prozis saSualebiT. aleqsandre yazbegma qarTuli mxatvruli prozis tradicia ganviTarebis umaRles safexurze aiyvana.

1

a l . y a z b e g i , TxzulebaTa sruli krebuli xuT tomad, t. V, Tb., 1950, gv. 212.

260

al. yazbegis Semoqmedebis motivebi

mecxramete saukunis samocian wlebSi ilia WavWavaZem `mgzavris werilebSi~ pirvelad aalaparaka qarTveli mTieli glexi. oTxmocian wlebSi al. yazbegma da vaJafSavelam samarTlianobisa da adamianis Rirsebis dasacavad mebrZol gmirTa wyeba Semoiyvanes aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTiani raionebidan. es gmirebi arian moxeveebi, mTiulebi, gudamayrelebi, TuSebi, fSavlebi da xevsurebi. aleqsandre yazbegis mxatvruli SemoqmedebisaTvis ZiriTadi da damaxasiaTebelia socialuri motivi. misi Txzulebebidan sayovelTaod cnobili gmirebis brZola sakuTari adamianuri uflebis dasacavad umTavresad swored am niSnis matarebelia. elguja, iago, koba da maT bedSi myofi gmirebi, arsebiTad dapirispirebulni arian axal sazogadoebriv viTarebaSi gaZlierebul adamianebTan. yazbegis moTxrobebsa da romanebSi warmodgenilia mTeli wyeba adamianebisa, romelnic aSkara borotebisa da upatiosnobis gziT axali cxovrebis pirobebSi gamdidrebulan, gaZlierebulan da xalxis mCagvrelebad qceulan. aseTebi arian yazbegis nawerebidan cnobili gagi CofikaSvili, girgola, gorjasp RuduSauri, gela goderZiSvili da sxvebi. aleqsandre yazbegis nawarmoebebSi warmoCenil adamianTa Soris Tavidanve mkafiod yalibdeba ori mowinaaRmdege banaki: erTi mxriv, dadebiTi gmirebi da xalxi, xolo, meore mxriv -- axali cxovrebis pirobebSi warmoSobili mCagvrelebi, romelTac saxelmwifoebrivi marTva-gamgeoba icavs. yazbegis moTxrobebsa da romanebSi xalxisa da gmirebis brZola saxelmwifoebrivi aparatis winaaRmdeg aris mimarTuli. es bunebrivicaa imdenad, ramdenadac girgolasa da gorjasp RuduSauris msgavsi mCagvrelebi am wyobilebaSi warmoSobilni arian da amave sistemis wyalobiT batonoben xalxis masebze. aqedanve bunebrivad gamomdinareobs, rom Tavisuflebismoyvare mTielisaTvis erTnairad sazizRaria saxelmwifo aparatis yoveli moxele, rusi iqneba igi Tu qarTveli. aleqsandre yazbegis SemoqmedebaSi socialur motivTan uSualod dakavSirebulia erovnuli Tavisuflebis motivi. mefis TviTmpyrobelobis saxelmwifo mmarTveloba, romelic gagi CofikaSvilsa da gela goderZiSvils icavs, xalxis farTo masebis sasicocxlo interesebs upirispirdeba. saxelmwifo aparatis moxeleebi araviTar pativs ar scemen qarTveli xalxis erovnul Tavmoyvareobas, uxeSad arRveven saukuneebis manZilze gamomuSavebul adgilobriv mkvidrTa yofacxovrebiT normebs. mwerali mkiTxvelis yuradRebas sagangebod miaqcevs im garemoebas, rom rus moxeleebs qarTveli xalxisadmi mkacrad mopyrobas ukarnaxebdnen TavianTi ufrosebi. Cveni avtori ambobs: `axladmosulebs Cagonebuli hqondaT, rom qarTvelebi uzrdelni, briyvni, gareganni da barbarosebi ariano; rom maTzed gavlena mxolod ZaldatanebiT da simkacriT SeiZlebao; amisaTvis yoveli rusi moxele saqarTveloSi, pirvelsave fexis Semodgmazed, Tavis movaleobad xdida adgilobriv mcxovreblebs am azris Tanaxmad moqceoda, ramdenadac SeiZleboda simkacre da Seubralebloba gamoeCina~.1 aseTi STagonebiT moqmedeben saxelmwifo aparatis moxeleebi da amitomacaa, rom isini yovel nabijze xalxis mxriv sastik winaaRmdegobas awydebian. swored am winaaRmdegobisa da brZolis suraTebs gvixatavs aleqsandre yazbegi. igi Tavisi TxzulebebisaTvis masalas iRebs qarTvel mTielTa cxovrebidan, magram imave nawerebidan sruliad naTlad igrZnoba, rom maTSi asaxuli socialuri usamarTloba saqarTvelos yvela kuTxisaTvis saerTo da damaxasiaTebelia.

1

al. y a z b e g i , `elguja~, Tavi XX.

261

al. yazbegis moTxrobebi da romanebi mkiTxvelSi bunebrivad iwveven zizRsa da undoblobas mTeli saxelmwifoebrivi sistemis mimarT, romelSic elgujas, iagos, kobas, onofres, nunus, mayvalas da maT bedSi myofi adamianebisaTvis cxovreba jojoxeTad gadaqceula. imave siZulvilisa da undoblobis grZnobas aRvivebs yazbegis nawerebidan cnobil uaryofiT personaJTa mdgomareoba da saqmeebi. bunebrivia, rom mkiTxvels ezizReba saxelmwifo mmarTveloba, romelic gela goderZiSvils, girgolas da `aprakunes~ mfarvelobs, icavs da exmareba. aleqsandre yazbegis mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi socialur motivTan organulad aris gadajaWvuli erovnuli Cagvris winaaRmdeg brZolis motivi. es motivi, uwinares yovlisa, Tavs iCens xalxisa da saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis urTierTobaSi. saxelmwifo aparatis moxeleebi, garda imisa, rom icaven axal viTarebaSi damyarebul socialur uTanasworobas, upativcemulod epyrobian qarTvel mTielTa yofisaTvis damaxasiaTebel Taviseburebebs, saukuneebiT ganmtkicebul wesebsa da adaTebs. al. yazbegis nawerebSi erovnuli Tavisuflebis idea sazogadod keTilSobiluri patriotizmis donemde maRldeba. aseTia misi `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~, `xevisberi goCa~, `moZRvari~ da sxvebi. aRsaniSnavia xevisberi goCas mimarTva onisesadmi im momentSi, rodesac mgrZnobiare mama erTaderT Svils brZolis velisaken istumrebs: `ar daiviwyo, rom sadac Seni mama-papa gaCenila da damarxula, sadac maTi Zvlebia Cafluli, imas gedavebian da ar daanebo... maTac cota Wiri ar unaxavT TavianT miwa-wyalis dacvis dros, maTis sisxlis nakaduls miwa qvesknelamdis gauJRenTavs... axla Tqven iciT, rasac iqT~.1 analogiur mdgomareobasTan gvaqvs saqme `moZRvarSi~. Temidan mimaval onise arabuls xalxis saxeliT moxuci fareSa eTxoveba da Tanac mimarTavs: `nu daiviwyeb ZuZus, romelmac gagzarda, nu daiviwyeb guls, romelic Senma moSorebam aaRelva!.. gaxede mTebsa! -- gauSvira moxucma xeli da TvalebSi cremlebi gaubrwyinda: -- aq ucxovriaT Sens mamapapaT, aq moukliaT sevda, aq aRgZgerebiaT guli... aq ucocxliaT da aq daxocilan... Sexede da nu daiviwyeb!.. Senia, Seni!~.2 goCasa da fareSas sityvebSi garkveviT ismis xma im adamianebisa, romelTaTvisac patriotizmis grZnoba yvela sxva grZnobaze diadi da amaRlebulia. *** aleqsandre yazbegis mxatvruli SemoqmedebisaTvis, rogorc vnaxeT, ZiriTadi da ganmsazRvrelia socialuri da erovnuli Tavisuflebis motivebi. magram es ZiriTadi motivebi Rrmavdebian da srulyofil saxes iReben sxva motivebis daxmarebiT. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania siyvarulis, megobrobisa da gmirobis motivebi. aleqsandre yazbegis, rogorc mwerlis, Zala mkafiod moCans siyvarulis grZnobis gamoxatvaSi. igi am SemTxvevaSi marTlac araCveulebriv gulTamxilaobas iCens. bunebrivoba da uSualoba aris damaxasiaTebeli niSani Cveni mwerlisa siyvarulis grZnobis gamoxatvis dros. vakvirdebiT mzaRos, nunus, mayvalas, maris, cicias, iagos, onise arabulis, levanis, beJias siyvaruls da isini Cvens TanagrZnobas iwveven imiT, rom am grZnobaSi yovelTvis bunebrivi, uSualoni da pirdapirni arian. al. yazbegis gmirebSi siyvarulis grZnoba Zalian swrafad da martivad warmoiSoba, magram mkiTxvels eWvi ar epareba, rom es siyvaruli sruliad kanonzo1 2

a l . y a z b e g i , `xevisberi goCa~, Tavi XX. a l . y a z b e g i , `moZRvari~, Tavi X.

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mieria. am rwmenas ganamtkicebs is faqti, rom maTi siyvaruli patiosani SromiTi ojaxebis Seqmnis azriT aris gapirobebuli. swrafad iwyeba mzaRosa da elgujas, nunusa da iagos, mayvalasa da onise arabulis, ciciasa da beJias, cikosa da guguas romani cal-calke. miuxedavad imisa, rom am wyvilTa siyvaruli Zalze martivad da swrafad warmoiSoba, maTi es grZnoba mkiTxvelisaTvis sruliad bunebrivi da damajerebelia. al. yazbegis TxzulebaTa gmirebi siyvarulis grZnobas mTeli arsebiT eZlevian. maTi siyvaruli wminda da uangaroa. isini sakuTar Tavze metad Seyvarebulis sicocxles ufrTxildebian. es Tviseba erTnairad damaxasiaTebelia mis nawarmoebebSi gamoxatuli gmirebisaTvis -- rogorc qalebisaTvis, ise vaJebisaTvis. aleqsandre yazbegis mxatvruli SemoqmedebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia megobrobisa da gmirobis motivebi. am mxriv igi gamoirCeva Tavisi epoqis sxva qarTveli mwerlebisagan. mis nawarmoebebSi Cveulebrivad gxvdeba Zmadgaficvisa da diadi megobrobis warmtaci suraTebi. mwerali misTvis sazogadod damaxasiaTebel bunebriobasa da uSualobas am grZnobaTa gamoxatvis drosac inarCunebs. megobrobis diadi nimuSebia mocemuli al. yazbegis `elgujaSi~, `mamis mkvlelSi~ da sxva nawarmoebebSi. avtoris mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi siyvarulisa da megobrobis motivTan uSualod aris dakavSirebuli gmirobis motivi. mis moTxrobebsa da romanebSi mdgomareoba daxatulia ise, rom adamianisaTvis, Tu mas swadia darCes srulyofil adamianad, gmiroba da vaJkacoba aucilebelia. yazbegis nawarmoebebSi mxolod erTi gza arsebobs, es aris sakuTari adamianuri Rirsebis dasacavad brZolisa da Seupovrobis gza. marTalia, es adamianebi usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi iRupebian, magram iRupebian rogorc uTanasworo brZolaSi Zleuli gmirebi. maTTvis ucxoa boroti Zalebis winaSe qedis moxra, SiSi da Zrwola. *** aleqsandre yazbegis mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi gamoxatulebas poulobs Zveli Temuri wyobilebidan momdinare wesebi. aseTia Temis yrilobis, stumar-maspinZlobis, ufros-umcrosobis CvevebTan dakavSirebuli suraTebi, rac mis moTxrobebsa da romanebSi araerTgzis gvxvdeba. yazbegis dadebiTi gmirebi mTeli arsebiT Temis erTgulni arian. isini Temis gadawyvetilebebs uyoymanod emorCilebian iseT SemTxvevaSic ki, rodesac SesaZlebelia es gadawyvetilebani maTTvis xelsayreli ar iyos. gadaWriT unda iTqvas, rom Zveli adaT-wesebis yazbegiseuli gadmocema araviTar SemTxvevaSi warsulis idealizacias ar gulisxmobs. mwerals mxolod is mizani amoqmedebs, rom aCvenos mefis TviTmpyrobelobis uxeSi Zaladoba qarTvel mTielTa tradiciuli cxovrebis mimarT. mis nawarmoebebSi erT mxareze dgas xalxi, romelic ZvelTagan momdinare cxovrebis wesebs icavs, xolo meore mxareze arian mefis moxeleebi da gadagvarebuli qarTveli mTielebi, romelnic xalxis mravalsaukunovan adaT-wesebs abuCad igdeben, dascinian da anadgureben. al. yazbegis mxatvrul TxzulebebSi mdgomareoba daxatulia imgvarad, rom Temuri wyobilebis gadmonaSTebs arRvevs mefis TviTmpyrobelobis saxelmwifoebrivi mmarTvelobis mTeli sistema. mwerlis mier gansakuTrebuli siZulviliT arian daxatuli is qarTveli mTielebi, romelnic angarebis mizniT mmarTvelobis samsaxurSi Sesulan da TavianTi ufrosebis saameblad sakuTar mamapapur adaTebs gadadgomian. aseTebi arian al. yazbegis Txzulebidan sayovelTaod cnobili gadagvarebuli qarTvelebi: gagi CofikaSvili, gela goderZiSvili, girgola da sxvebi. swored es znedacemu263

li adamianebi arRveven tradiciul wesebsa da adaTebs, isini TavianTi piradi interesebisaTvis, xalxuri wesebis sawinaaRmdegod, iyeneben saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis mier SemoRebul kanonebs da am kanonebs amofarebulni sakuTar saqmeebs iwesrigeben. damaxasiaTebelia girgolas saqcieli im momentSi, rodesac igi nunus biZis ojaxSi molaparakebas awarmoebs. darbaisel moxuc papas mimarTavs imis Taobaze, rom qalis ZaliT SerTva wesi araa da rom aseTi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi Tems ufleba aqvs jvardawerili col-qmaric gahyaros, girgola damcinavad upasuxebs: `eg iqneba uwin iyo, iqneba uwin Temobas hqonda magisTana Zala, magram exla TaTroba xom aRaraa? exla suyvela zakonis kanonzed aris... ara, papau, urvadi auRiaT, qali unda mamcen, me rad minda an Temi da an sxva? me winandels Cveulebas ki ar mivyvebi, waval, erTs sityvas vetyvi diambegs, naCalniksa da qalsac waviyvan da onisesac davRupav! RvTis madlma, colSviliT davaRupineb!~.1 analogiur mdgomareobasTan gvaqvs saqme `moZRvarSi~, sadac aSkarad dapirispirebulia Temis yrilobis gadawyvetileba erTi mxriv da oficialuri xelisuflebis kanoni -- meore mxriv. gelasagan ukiduresad Seviwroebulma mayvalam daxmarebisaTvis Tems mimarTa. igi qmris saxlidan gaiqca, samSobloSi gadavida da iqidan moaxerxa wminda samebis sabWoSi Temis yriloba moexdina. yrilobam saqme ganixila da isini, rogorc ZaliT, qalis uneburad SeuRlebuli col-qmari, erTmaneTs gaaSora. Temis gadawyvetilebas gela ar daemorCila. rogorc avtori ambobs, im xanSi Temoba irRveoda, mis gadawyvetilebas is saSualeba aRara hqonda, rom Tavisi wevrebisaTvis Zala daetanebina -- gadawyvetileba aResrulebinaT. im xanebSi naCalnikdiambegoba Camovardniliyo da kanoni ki iZaxda: col-qmris ganSoreba SeuZlebeliao! gela Temis yrilobidan muqariT gamovida. mwerali gveubneba, rom man icoda `mSvelelebi sadac da rogor epovna~. Temis adaT-wesebis uarmyofelma mTielma, xelmwifis kanonis ZaliT coli Sin daibruna da amis Semdeg mas kidev ufro sastikad epyroba. Temis adaT-wesebisadmi aseve upativcemulo damokidebulebas iCens `elgujaSi~ gagi CofikaSvili. arsebiTad gansxvavebul mdgomareobasTan gvaqvs saqme al. yazbegis dadebiT gmirTa saqmianobaSi. isini Temis usazRvrod erTgulni arian mudam da yovelTvis. iseT SemTxvevebSic ki, rodesac Temis yriloba raime valdebulebas akisrebs (sasjels adebs), TiToeuli maTgani uyoymanod emorCileba da asrulebs xalxis gadawyvetilebas. aseTia al. yazbegis mxatvruli Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi Tematika da motivebi.

al. yazbegis proza

aleqsandre yazbegi farTo mkiTxvelma sazogadoebam 1880 wels gaicno. am wels gazeT `droebis~ furclebze gamoqveynda misi vrceli eTnografiuli narkvevi `moxeveebi da imaTi cxovreba~. narkvevSi mocemulia mTeli rigi saintereso eTnografiuli cnobebi saqarTvelos erTi kuTxis garSemo, rac Txzulebas garkveul mecnierul Rirebulebas aniWebs. igive narkvevi sainteresoa avtoris mxatvruli memkvidreobis TvalsazrisiTac. am Txzulebis kiTxvisas bunebrivad gvagondeba al. yazbegis mxatvrul nawarmoebebSi mocemuli suraTebi da mTielTa yofis calkeuli epizodebi.

1

a l . y a z b e g i , `mamis mkvleli~, nawili I, Tavi X.

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es garemoeba imiT aixsneba, rom Tavis mxriv es eTnografiuli Txzulebac dawerilia imave sazogadoebrivi interesiT da misdroindeli cxovrebis movlenebisadmi kritikuli damokidebulebiT, rasac mwerali Tavis mxatvrul nawerebSi esoden mkafiod amJRavnebs. al. yazbegis eTnografiul narkvevSi gadmocemulia rigi faqtebi moxeveTa mZime cxovrebisa; maTi araadamianuri Cagvrisa mefis moxeleebis, CarC-vaWrebisa da eklesiis msaxurTa mier. mwerali axasiaTebs misdroindeli mTieli glexobis mZime mdgomareobas da iqve pirdapir asaxelebs mCagvrelTa im wres, romelic xalxs normaluri Sromisa da cxovrebis saSualebas ar aZlevs. yazbegma Tavis mxatvrul TxzulebebSi mzis sinaTleze gamoitana Tavisdroindeli aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTiani raionebis mSromelTa cxovreba, maTi yoveldRiuri tanjva, fiqri da konkretuli faqtebi mxatvrulad ganazogada, qarTveli xalxis saerTo miswrafebaTa prizmaSi gadatexa da amiT kuTxur movlenebs farTo erovnuli xasiaTi mianiWa. imave 1880 wels gamoqveynda al. yazbegis moTxroba `cicka~. am mcire moculobis nawarmoebidan mkiTxvels warmodgena eZleva mwerlisdroindel socialur usamarTlobaze. oblobasa da siRaribeSi gamozrdili cicka xevSi yvelasaTvis sayvareli axalgazrdaa. igi patiosani SromiT ojaxis Sesaqmnelad emzadeba, magram cxovrebis ukuRmarTi pirobebis gamo amas ver axerxebs. es patiosani da saqmiani axalgazrda gaqnili vaWris, geo minasaSvilisa da mefis moxeleTa veragobis msxverpli xdeba. *** saxelmwifo mmarTvelobisagan xalxis Seviwroebis mZime suraTebia gadmocemuli al. yazbegis moTxrobaSi `eliso~. nawarmoebSi pirveli striqonebidanve gamoCndebian samSoblodan gandevnili, Soreul gadasaxlebaSi gamgzavrebuli CeCnebi. gadasaxlebulia mTeli sofeli. aq arian kacebi, qalebi da bavSvebi. mkiTxvelze mZime STabeWdilebas axdens vladikavkazis maxloblad mindorze SesvenebisaTvis dabanakebul mgzavrTa mdgomareoba. jariskacebiT garSemortymuli banakidan drodadro ismis usamarTlod gatanjulTa gminva da oxvra. iqve, nawarmoebis pirvelsave TavSi, mkiTxvelisaTvis am xalxis gadasaxlebis mizezic cnobili xdeba. mwerali gveubneba, maTi amgvarad dasjis mizezi mxolod is iyo, rom `CeCnis mmarTvelebma isurves erTbaSad gamdidreba, isurves gaumaZRari Tvalebis gaZRoma da moiwadines CeCnelT mdidari miwebis xelSi Cayra~. amisaTvis maT saWirod dainaxes adgilobriv mkvidrTa Tavidan moSoreba da kidec moiSores. gadasaxlebulTa banakis saerTo gminvasa da oxvras gamoTiSuli moCans Teqvsmeti wlis qaliSvili `warmouTqmelis silamazisa~. es aris Samilis saxelganTqmuli naibis, anzora CerbiJis qaliSvili eliso. igi xalxisagan ganmartoebula imisaTvis, `raTa mometebulad dahkvirveboda Tavis mdgomareobas da mometebulad egrZno Tavisi mwuxareba, Tavisi ubedureba~. elisos mdgomareoba gansakuTrebiT mZimea imdenad, ramdenadac igi samSoblosTan erTad Seyvarebulsac tovebs. CeCen qaliSvils guliT uyvars moxeve vaJia. eliso vaJiasTan SeuRlebaze ocnebobda da axla ki, Seqmnili viTarebis gamo, masze samudamod unda aiRos xeli. elisos pirovnebis, misi Rrma adamianuri gancdebis warmoCenis Semdeg moTxrobaSi gadmocemulia mama-Svilis, anzorasa da elisos, saubari. aq ukve mkiTxvels warmodgena eZleva anzora CerbiJis rogorc warsul cxovrebaze, ise awindel mdgomareobaze.

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anzora CerbiJi, axalgazrdobaSi Samilis sanaqebo naibi, mTels CeCenSi saxelganTqmuli vaJkaci iyo. anzoras gmirobaze Tanamemamuleebi `leqss leqszed gamosTqvamdnen, qebas qebaze Seasxamdnen xolme~. anzora CerbiJs cxovrebis umetesi nawili samSoblos Tavisuflebisa da damoukideblobisaTvis brZolebSi gautarebia da Tavisi sami vaJiSvilic imave brZolebisaTvis Seuwiravs. adre vaJkacobiT ganTqmuli anzora CerbiJi, axla ukve moxucebuli, TanasoflelebTan erTad Soreul gadasaxlebaSi igzavneba. gadasaxlebaSi miemgzavreba agreTve misi erTaderTi qaliSvili eliso. anzora xalxisagan ganmartoebul qaliSvils gverdiT moujdeba da mamaSvils Soris guliTadi saubari imarTeba. moxuci mama, romelsac mze da mTvare elisoze amosdis, qaliSvilis tanjvas grZnobs da mTeli arsebiT mondomebulia, rom naRveli Seumsubuqos. mama-Svilis saubari arsebiTad elisosa da vaJias romans Seexeba. anzoram elisosa da vaJias siyvarulze raRac ukve icis: `marTalia, zedmiwevniT ar icoda es, magram eWvi ki didi hqonda~. es eWvi anzora CerbiJs karga xnis ganmavlobaSi gulsa RrRnis da awvalebs. mas ar unda misi qaliSvili qristian qarTvels miTxovdes. am SemTxvevaSi anzora CerbiJi mahmadian mTielTa saerTo suliskveTebis gamomxatvelia. moTxrobaSi jer kidev manam, sanam anzoras azrs gavigebdeT, naTqvamia, rom `elisos aramc Tu vaJiazed gaTxovebis nebas miscemdnen, aramed laparaksac ki veravisTan hbedavda am saganzed... darwmunebuli iyo, rom TanamgrZnobels ver ipovida Tavis moZmeTa Soris~. qarTvel da mahmadian mTielTa Soris ukanasknelad warmoSobili ganxeTqilebisa da undoblobis gamo avtors saWirod daunaxavs Tavisi ganmarteba moewodebina: `uwindels droSi rom momxdariyo amgvari SemTxveva da mahmadians `mTieli~ qristiani Sehyvareboda, maSindels iqauris CveulebiT, sarwmunoeba damabrkolebel mizezad ver Seiqmneboda imaT SeerTebisTvis; magram exla, rodesac qarTvelebi, e. i. qristianebi `giuarebs~ anu rusebs win miuZRvodnen da gzebs uCvenebdnen, rodesac isini giuarebTan erTad ebrZodnen damoyvrebuls mezoblebs, -- exla sul sxva iyo. qristianebis SemweobiT daimorCiles `mSiSara giuarebma~ isini da amis Semdeg raRa erToba SeiZleboda amaT Soris~. mwerali iqve daaskvnis, rom `ase hfiqrobda, ase ambobda yoveli CeCneli~.1 TanamemamuleTa saerTo azrisagan erTgvarad gansxvavebulia anzora CerbiJis Sexeduleba imave sakiTxebze. misi azriT, dapyrobil `giuarebs~ qarTvelebi zogi motyuebiT, sxvadasxva dapirebiT, xolo zogi ZaliT gamohyavdaT mezobeli mahmadiani mTielebis winaaRmdeg. anzora CerbiJis Sexeduleba qarTvelTa da mahmadian mTielTa axlandel urTierTobaze mwerlis Tvalsazrisis gamomxatvelia. igive Tvalsazrisi Tavs iCens `mamis mkvlelSi~, roca iago da misi Zmadnaficebi Samils inaxuleben da xangrZlivi guliTadi saubris Semdeg imamis laSqarTan erTad ibrZvian. anzora CerbiJis Sexeduleba qarTvelTa da mahmadian mTielTa urTierTobaze sagrZnoblad gansxvavdeba TanamemamuleTa saerTo azrisagan, magram igi `ase iyo Tu ise, `giuarebis~ gamarjvebas mainc qarTvelebs miawerda da nebaunebliv guliT undoda daSoreboda maT~. anzorasa da elisos guliTadi mamaSviluri saubari im niSniT mimdinareobs, rom anzoras guliT swadia misma qaliSvilma moxeve vaJias siyvaruli gulidan amoiRos. diax, igi amas cdilobs, Tumca Sinaganad am ganzraxvis sisworeSi dar1

a l . y a z b e g i , `eliso~, Tavi II.

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wmunebuli araa. man kargad icis, rom `CeCneli Znelad Seiyvarebs, magram Tu erTxel Seiyvara, iman ar icis naxevrad siyvaruli -- is am grZnobas eZleva suliT da guliT~. im dros, rodesac mama-Svilis saubari arsebiTad jer kidev damTavrebuli araa, moqmedebaSi gamoCndeba vaJia. igi anzorasa da elisos miagnebs gadasaxlebul mgzavrTa banakSi. axla ukve elisosa da vaJias SeuRlebis sakiTxi sabolood unda gadawydes. am Sexvedris dros anzora CerbiJi TviTonve darwmunda, rom maTi daSoreba SeuZlebeli iyo da `raodenime xnis Semdeg mama locavda imaT da masukan pirobasa sdebdnen, rom xval ZaugSi gamoecxadebinaT, rom anzora Tavis qaliT aRar midis stambols. amis magivrad isini wavidodnen vaJias saxlSi, sadac vaJia iqorwinebda elisosTan da moxuci mama iq gaatarebda danarCens sicocxles~. rogorc nawarmoebidan Cans, samSoblodan gandevnilebs ufleba eZleodaT gadasaxlebis adgilebi TviTonve aerCiaT. mTavari iyo, rom TavianTi samkvidro daetovebinaT, radgan mmarTvelebma `moiwadines CeCnelT mdidari miwebis xelSi Cayra~. samSoblodan gaZevebulni sad, romel qveyanaSi dabinavdebodnen, CeCnelTa mmarTvelobisaTvis amas ukve mniSvneloba aRar hqonda. nawarmoebSi moqmedebis ganviTarebis axal safexurs qmnis vaJias misvla saxelmwifo mmarTvelebis erT-erT warmomadgenelTan, romelsac anzora CerbiJis Txovna unda gaagebinos. moTxrobaSi vkiTxulobT, rom vaJias `karga lodinis Semdeg `didma batonma~ naCalnikma Zlivs aRirsa Tavisi xilva~. `didi batonis~ moqmedebaSi gamoCenisTanave cnobili xdeba, rom man adgilobriv mkvidrTa ena ar icis. mmarTveli, romelic masze mindobili raionis cxovrebis kursSi unda iyos da mis yoveldRiur Wir-varams icnobdes, xalxTan kavSirs Tarjimanis saSualebiT amyarebs. konkretul SemTxvevaSi mTavari es araa, ase iyo Tu ise, vaJiam ufross yvelaferi gaagebina, magram mmarTvelma Txovna ar Seiwynara da Tavmoyvare axalgazrda moxevec sastikad gakicxa, daamcira. gulqva mmarTvelma vaJia aseTi gesliani pasuxiT gamoistumra: `me rom SemeZlos, suyvelas, gesmis, suyvelas gadagasaxlebdiT, Tavidgan mogiSorebdiT da Sen ki mTxov, vinc Cawerilia isic gavaTavisuflo?.. wadi, wadi, momSordi Tavidgan~. mkiTxvelisaTvis savsebiT gasagebia, rom mmarTvelis am pasuxSi anzora CerbiJisa da misi qaliSvilis bedi sabolood gadawyvetilia. isini maincdamainc osmaleTSi unda gaemgzavron; sxva arCevanis ufleba maT ukve aRar aqvT, radgan mmarTvelma sabolood ase mousurva. es mkacri ganaCeni rom mmarTvelis erTpirovnuli gadawyvetilebaa, garkveviT Cans moTxrobis momdevno nawilidan, rodesac igive moxele, ramdenime saaTis Semdeg, Zaugis boloSi dabanakebul CeCnebs mkacrad mimarTavs: `Tqven Tqveni surviliT moiwadineT osmaleTSi gadasaxleba da Cvenc neba mogveciT. exla Cems yuramdis moaRwia xmam, rom zogierTs isev darCena mouwadinia... gicxadebT rom, vinc erTxel Caewera gadasaxlebulT siaSi, imisi aq darCena yovlad SeuZlebelia. rom gaqceva ver gabedoT, Tqveni mcvelebi erTiorad gavamravle da... icodeT, vinc gaqcevas moiwadinebs, imas Seubraleblad mohklamen, agre aqvsT nabrZanebi~.1 mmarTvelis imave pasuxma cxovrebis gzas aacdina axalgazrda moxeve vaJia. swored mmarTvelis araadamianuri mopyrobis Sedegad, Tavisi kacobis Rirsebis dasacavad yazaxebTan brZolaSi, oci wlis axalgazrda ukve kacnaklavi gaxda. vaJias yazaxebTan Setakebis Semdeg nawarmoebSi Txroba metwilad kvlav gadasaxlebaSi mimavalTa mdgomareobazea gadatanili. vladikavkazis quCebSi xal1

a l . y a z b e g i , `eliso~, Tavi IV.

267

xi xedavs samSoblodan gandevnilTa urmebs, romelTa sanaxaoba adamians guls uwvrilebs. urmebs misdeven `fexSiSvela bavSvebi, romelTaTvisac sicxes da wvril qvas, qviSaSi areuls, yavar-yavar daexeTqaT titvela xorci, Sig CakvdomodaT mtveri da waRma-ukuRma lurjad daexazaT~. iqve naTqvamia, rom xalxi am mZime sanaxaobas gulSi jojoxeTis cecxlanTebuli Sescqeroda, `magram ra iyo imaT xels? riTi Seumsubuqebdnen varams?~. vaJia erTxel kidev Sedis gadasaxlebulTa banakSi, romelsac gars artyia jariskacTa erTiorad gaZlierebuli razmi. igi anzorasa da elisos gamoyvanasac axerxebs, magram gzaSi, sofel larsTan gamagrebul yazaxebTan uTanasworo brZolaSi isini iRupebian. *** socialuri Sinaarsis Semcvelia al. yazbegis moTxroba `ciko~. cikosa da guguas siyvarulis fonze mwerals gadmocemuli aqvs misdroindeli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis mtkivneuli movlenebi. cikos ojaxis TavgadasavalSi gamoxatulebas poulobs mSromeli glexobis mZime mdgomareoba sazogadod. mama qalis cxovrebaSi arsebuli pirobebis gamo abragobis gzas dadgomia da yazaxebTan brZolaSi momkvdara, ori Zma osmalebTan omSi daRupula, xolo mesame, begaraze gawveuli, TovlSi damarxula. ukacod darCenili ojaxi (ciko Tavisi dediTa da bebiiT) metad mZime yofaSia. es adamianebi qeris puriTa da marilwyaliT ikvebebian. nawarmoebidan naTlad igrZnoba, rom es mZime mdgomareoba mxolod am ojaxis xvedri ki araa, aramed igi saerToa mosaxleobis didi umravlesobisaTvis. saxelmwifo mmarTveloba isedac dabeCavebul glexobas kvlav axal-axali begariTa da gadasaxadebiT aviwroebs. xalxisaTvis gansakuTrebiT autanelia egzekuciebi, romelsac, rogorc Txzulebidan Cans, mTis soflebSi xSirad ayenebdnen. soflad arsebuli Cagvrisa da usamarTlobis STabeWdilebas aZlierebs moTxrobaSi gamoyvanili gorjasp RuduSauris saxe. mwerals mokled, magram damajereblad aqvs gadmocemuli RuduSauris cxovrebis gza da misi awindeli mdgomareoba. igi axlo warsulSi erTi moxelis meZaRle yofila, magram Tavisi moxerxebulobiT, cbierebiTa da veragobiT imdenad gamdidrebula da gaZlierebula, rom axla mezobeli moxeveebi TvalSi buzadac aRar uCans. mwerali gveubneba, rom `gorjasp Seiqmna xevis batoni da TiTon isic ki, romelsac gorjasp meZaRleTa hyavda, Seiqmna am bazieris qveSevrdomi da sxvebisamebr daedo misi yalani~. gorjasp RuduSaurma ukanasknelad glexebisaTvis saTibi miwebis warTmevac moindoma. man, mmarvelTa daxmarebiT, saqmis `mowesrigebac~ SeZlo, magram glexobam miwa ar daTmo. amis Sedegad moxda yazaxebisa da glexebis samkvdro-sasicocxlo Setakeba, romelmac ramdenime adamiani imsxverpla. mkiTxveli nawarmoebis pirveli striqonebidanve aSkara siZulvilisa da undoblobis grZnobiT imsWvaleba saxelmwifoebrivi sistemis mimarT, romelic RuduSauris veragobas ase farTo gasaqans aZlevs. igive grZnoba kidev ufro Zlierdeba, rodesac vigebT, rom am saqmis gamo dapatimrebuli cxrameti udanaSaulo glexidan ori ukve CamouxrCviaT, xolo danarCenebi Soreul gadasaxlebaSi gaugzavniaT. aleqsandre yazbegs, rogorc mwerals, gansakuTrebuli popularoba romanebma mouxveWes. misi `elguja~, `mamis mkvleli~, `cicia~, `xevisberi goCa~, `moZRvari~ da `gankicxuli~ sayovelTaod cnobili Txzulebebia. am farTo tiloebze mxatvrulad asaxulia qarTveli xalxis cxovreba, misi sazogadoebrivi mdgomareoba, misi Wir-varami arsebuli usamarTlobis pirobebSi.

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`elguja~ . 1881 wels daiwera da imave wels pirvelad daibeWda al. yazbegis romani `elguja~. am Txzulebam adreve miiqcia farTo sazogadoebrivi yuradReba. 1884 wels `elguja~ calke wignad daibeWda, magram mefis cenzuram misi gavrcelebis nebarTva ar gasca da mTeli tiraJi gaanadgura. `elguja~ meTvramete saukunis miwurulisa da mecxramete saukunis damdegi wlebis istoriul fonze iSleba. romanSi aSkaraa siZneleebi, romelnic saqarTveloSi rusuli mmarTvelobis damkvidrebas Tan axlda. aleqsandre yazbegi sazogadoebriv-politikuri movlenebis mxatvrulad ganzogadebisas istoriul simarTles yovelTvis icavs da amdenad mis TxzulebebSi gamosaxuli epoqis saerTo xasiaTis aRdgenac xerxdeba. am TvalsazrisiT `elgujaSi~ gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa 1804 wlis mTiuleTis cnobili ajanyebis rigi epizodebi. nawarmoebSi dapirispirebuli arian erTi mxriv elguja, romlis mxareze dgas xalxi, xolo meore mxriv -- gagi CofikaSvili, romelsac mxars uWeren oficialuri dawesebulebebis usulgulo moxeleebi. elgujam gagi CofikaSvilis ojaxidan nayidi qali gaitaca. mTaSi arsebuli wesis mixedviT elgujas mdgomareobaSi myofi pirovneba valdebulia pasuxi agos imis winaSe, visi ojaxidanac qali wamoiyvana. elgujam gagi CofikaSvils winadadeba SesTavaza, rom xalxis saSualebiT mSvidobianad, usisxlod morigebuliyvnen, magram gadagvarebulma moxevem es winadadeba ar miiRo da elgujas mkacrad dasja ganizraxa. elgujasa da gagis pirveli dapirispirebisTanave mkiTxveli xedavs CofikaSvilis gadagvarebasa da znedacemulobas. CofikaSvilis aSkara gadagvarebis maCvenebelia misi saubari martiasTan. martiam icis, rom elgujam gagi CofikaSvilis winaSe pasuxi unda agos. elgujasaTvis samagieros gadaxdevinebis survili martias gagisTan akavSirebs, magram isini arsebiTad gansxvavdebian erTimeorisagan imaSi, Tu rogor da ra gziT azRvevinon mowinaaRmdeges. martia moiTxovs, rom isini vaJkacurad SeebrZolon elgujas, gagis ki gadawyvetili aqvs elguja wamebiT moakvlevinos da amitomac unda, rom igi yazaxebs Caugdos xelSi. martia bevrs exvewa gagis, magram verafers gaxda, bolos, roca darwmunda, rom CofikaSvils mamapapur Cveulebaze samudamod xeli auRia, gadawyvita elgujas SeerTeboda da masTan erTad ebrZola gadagvarebuli moxevis winaaRmdeg. martiam gadawyvita elgujas daxmareboda da asec moiqca. masTan mivida, Zmoba Sehfica da daxmareba aRuTqva. Zmadnaficebma gagi CofikaSvili Tavisive unamusobas waakles, mas murdlad sikvdili argunes. gagis araadamianuri saqcielis Sedegad moxda cnobili Setakeba naRvarevTan, romelmac imsxverpla elgujas Zmadnaficebi giorgi da martia. aqedan iwyeba is mZime Tavgadasavali, romelic elgujam da mzaRom gadaitanes. romanis mTel manZilze elgujas mxarezea yvela patiosani mTieli -- moxeve, mTiuli Tu sxvebi. isini yovelTvis mzad arian daxmarebis xeli gauwodon mas. elgujas mxares iWers iseTi adamianic ki, romelsac oficialurad misgan, rogorc gagi CofikaSvilis mkvlelisagan, samagierod sisxlis Zieba evaleba. es adamiani aris svimon CofikaSvili. svimon CofikaSvili erTi metad saintereso saxea Cveni mwerlis SemoqmedebaSi. svimonis pirovnebaSi gaerTianebulia znemaRali qarTveli mTieli adamiani da xalxis gonieri mmarTveli. am keTilSobili qarTvelis pirovnebaSi gamoxatulebas poulobs TviTon mwerlis ideur-politikuri Sexedulebani. am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa svimon CofikaSvilis damokidebuleba aleqsandre batoniSvilTan. aleqsandre batoniSvilma, romelic saTaveSi edga ruseTis sawinaaRmdego moZraobas, svimon CofikaSvilis mimxrobac ganizraxa. man CofikaSvils mociqulebi gaugzavna, mxardaWera da daxmareba mosTxova, xolo winaaRmdeg SemTxveva269

Si batoniSvili sastikad imuqreboda. CofikaSvilma batoniSvils daxmarebaze uariT upasuxa da Tanac Tavis mxriv sayuradRebo rCevac SeuTvala. mociquli svimon CofikaSvils ekiTxeba: `-- maS batoniSvils ra pasuxs uTvli? `-- batoniSvilsa? Cemgan xvewna da mudara moaxsene: mefes nu ewinaaRmdegeba da saqarTvelos Zalas Suaze nu hyofs... Tu erTad viqnebiT, rusebi kidev veras gvizamen, magram Tu Sua gaviyaviT, maSin Cveni saqme wasulia!.. Cavides mefesTan, moudges gverdsa da raica rusebTan pirobebi gvaqvs, isini aasrulebinos! Torem Tu egre moviqeciT, Cven erTmaneTTan brZolaSi daviqancebiT, davsustdebiT, da rusebi ki TavianT wadils aasruleben... Cavides mefesTan, Ca! mefe RvTisagan aris daniSnuli, imis gulis pasuxs kaci ver miswvdebis~.1 svimon CofikaSvilis am sityvebiT gadmocemulia romanis avtoris politikuri mrwamsi. aleqsandre yazbegi tipuri warmomadgenelia mecxramete saukunis im qarTveli inteligenciisa, romelic rus xalxTan kavSiris aucileblobas aRiarebda, magram imave dros mefis ruseTis saxelmwifoebriv-politikur reJims ki ebrZoda. svimon CofikaSvili nawarmoebSi daxasiaTebulia rogorc WeSmariti qarTveli, romlisTvisac `Tavisufleba yvelaze umaRlesi jildo aris~. ase icnobs mas yvela mTieli da amitomacaa, rom mas xalxi usmens, ujerebs. svimoni zedmiwevniT icnobs Tavis xalxs, icnobs da Tayvans scems mis maRal Tvisebebs. igi xalxuri adaT-wesebis erTgulia im drosac, roca ukve mmarTvelia da didi ZalauflebiT sargeblobs. maSin, rodesac ajanyebam ifeTqa da mosalodneli iyo uazro sisxlis Rvra, svimoni xalxTan TviTon mivida, saqmis namdvili viTareba ganumarta da axaldamyarebuli mmarTvelobisadmi morCilebisaken mouwoda. svimonis rCeva-darigebam keTili nayofi gamoiRo: xalxi uazro xocva-Jletas gadaarCina. svimon CofikaSvili momxrea rusuli marTva-gamgeobisa, magram igi winaaRmdegia im araadamianuri damokidebulebisa, romelsac TviTmpyrobelobis moxeleebi Tavisuflebismoyvare mTielebis mimarT iCenen. aseTia, magaliTad, misi Setakeba, erT-erT oficerTan, romelmac nacemi da nawamebi moxeveebi uremze dakrulebi miiyvana mmarTvelis karze. svimon CofikaSvilis amaRlebuli pirovneba kidev ufro mkveTrad gamoCndeba elgujasadmi damokidebulebis fonze. mas ormagi safuZveli aqvs imisaTvis, rom elgujas sicocxle ar dazogos. erTi is, rom igi mmarTvelia da meore is, rom man gagi CofikaSvilis sisxli unda iZios. miuxedavad yovelive amisa, svimoni elgujas sicocxles ufrTxildeba da icavs. svimon CofikaSvili didi Tanamdebobis piria, magram es garemoeba mas xels ar uSlis, rom iyos gulisxmieri adamiani, mezoblisa da Tavisianis gamtani. igi arsad, arc erT SemTxvevaSi Tanamdebobrivi mdgomareobiT ar sargeblobs. svimon CofikaSvilma elgujasTan Tavisi sadavo saqmec Tems gaarCevina. igi sityvis Seubruneblad daemorCila Temis gadawyvetilebas. imave Temis, xalxis TxovniT man elguja Seiriga da SeiTvisa kidec. svimonis pirovnebas erTxel kidev Suqs hfens misi mimarTva xalxisadmi im momentSi, roca igi elgujas Seirigebs: Cemi saqme Tqven mogandeviT, Tqven gadaswyviteT da mec dagmorCildebiT... gaxsovdeT, rom Temis survili, -- uflis survilia... me momxedeT da xalxis survils Tqvenc ase aRasrulebdeT... amasve anderZad daugdebdeT Tqvens Svilebsao. svimon CofikaSvilis pirovnebaSi gansaxierebulia Temis erTguli da xalxisaTvis Tavdadebuli adamiani. im dros, rodesac svimoni avadmyofis sarecels aris mikruli, mas Tavs daadgeba xevis axali mmarTveli. svimons bralad sdeben,

1

a l . y a z b e g i , `elguja~, Tavi IX.

270

rom igi xalxs metismetad mfarvelobda. axali mmarTveli imuqreba, rom sastikad dasjis xalxs. ufrosis es muqara svimon CofikaSvils sakuTar tkivilebs aviwyebs. momakvdavi kaci ukanasknel Zalas ikrebs da gulqva mmarTvels xalxis gadarCenas SesTxovs. svimon CofikaSvilis kacuri kacobiT aris gapirobebuli is faqti, rom igi xalxis siyvaruliT aris garemoculi mTels cxovrebaSi, xolo misi gardacvaleba sayovelTao glovis xasiaTs iRebs. CofikaSvilis adamianuri damokidebuleba Tanamemamuleebisadmi bunebrivad iwvevs undoblobisa da zizRis grZnobas erTeuli, gulnamceca qarTvelebisadmi, romelnic samsaxurSi Sesvlis Semdeg TavianTi guSindeli mezoblisa da megobris mCagvrelebad qceulan. `elgujas~ gmirTa Soris sainteresoa maTia nadibaiZe. maTia tragikuli pirovnebaa, xolo es tragedia misive maRali adamianuri TvisebebiT aris gapirobebuli. igi elgujas gasaWirSi myofs dauZmobilda da bolomde misTvis Tavdadebuli megobaria. imave dros mas mzaRoc uyvars imdenad Zlierad, rom am grZnobisagan Tavis daRweva ver mouxerxebia. maTias pirovnebaSi erTmaneTs ebrZvis mzaRosadmi uangaro siyvarulis grZnoba da elgujas mimarT Zmadnaficis movaleobis maRali grZnoba: `imasa stanjavda grZnoba, romelic cecxlsaviT uvlida gulSi da romlis moSorebac undoda, magram Zala aRar swvdeboda. yoveli imis sxeuli, yoveli aso, yoveli niWi mzaRos Seepyro, daemorCilebina da Tavis daxsnis mxolod mometebuli wvaleba-Ra iyo. erTi azri-Ra umagrebda guls da es azri iyo Zmadnaficis winaSe movaleoba, magram, vin icis, didxans SeiZlebda amiT brZolas?~.1 maTia aseTi tanjva-wvalebiT cxovrobs nawarmoebis pirveli nawilebidan vidre ukanasknel striqonebamde. mis TavgadasavalSi mTeli rigi momentebia, roca igi siyvarulis grZnobisagan Tavis daRwevas cdilobs, magram vera da ver mouxerxebia. maTias wadili siyvarulis grZnobisgan ganTavisuflebisaTvis bunebrivad gvagonebs xevisberi goCas onises. sazogadod, am or gmirs Soris bevri ram aris saerTo, magram maTias mdgomareoba kidev ufro mZimea. onises erTi TanamgrZnobi mainc hyavs ZiZias saxiT, maTia amasac moklebulia. mis mimarT mzaRoc gulgrilia. marTalia, qalis qceva TavisTavad sruliad normaluria, magram Seyvarebul vaJkacs amgvari qcevac tanjva-wvalebas uorkecebs. maTias tragedia umaRles safexurs aRwevs misi sicocxlis ukanasknel wuTebSi, rodesac igi `gabrazebulis xarxariT karebisaken gaqanda~, TiTqos elgujas mosaklavad, magram sinamdvileSi mefis yazaxebis winaSe aRmoCnda. mTiel vaJkacs, miuxedavad mZime Sinagani adamianuri gancdebisa, elgujasTan urTierTobaSi megobrobis idealisaTvis arasodes uRalatnia da bolos, man Tavisi sicocxlec Zmadnaficis mtrebTan brZolaSi daasrula. romanis ZiriTadi Temaa elgujas cxovrebis istoria. elguja, romelic aris fizikurad jansaRi, patiosani da mSromeli axalgazrda, mTeli arsebiT mondomebulia iyos Rirseuli wevri sazogadoebisa, koleqtivisa, romelSic igi daibada da cxovrobs. elgujas, misgan damoukidebeli mizezis gamo, win eRobebian siZneleebi, romelTa gadalaxva gansakuTrebul Zalasa da energias moiTxovs. mas upirispirdeba axal pirobebSi gaZlierebuli da gadagvarebuli gagi CofikaSvili, romelsac mxars uWers mmarTvelobis mTeli sistema. elgujas Tavgadasavali mkiTxvels warmodgenas aZlevs epoqaze, romelSic es kaci cxovrobs. Txzulebis ZiriTadi kvanZi inaskveba im momentSi, roca elguja gagi CofikaSvilis ojaxidan mzaRos itacebs. romanis mesame TavSi ukve naTqvamia, rom elgujas `gadaewyvita advilad aravisTvis daenebebina Tavisi mSvenieri mzaRo da,

1

a l . y a z b e g i , `elguja~, Tavi XIV.

271

Tu gzaSi vinme gadaeRobeboda, maSin iafad ar daesva es Tavxedoba~. meoTxe Tavis dasasrul striqonebSi, rodesac elguja da misi Zmadnaficebi Tavdacvis mizniT, sisxlismRvreli SetakebisaTvis mzad arian, romanis ZiriTadi kvanZi ukve sabolood ganaskulia. romanis mexuTe Tavidan moqmedeba uwyveti TanamimdevrobiT viTardeba da aRmavlobis gziT midis. meSvide Tavidan, naRvarevTan Setakebis Semdeg, nawarmoebSi gadmocemulia mzaRos, jajalas, svimon CofikaSvilisa da maTia nadibaiZis cxovrebis saintereso epizodebi. elguja karga xnis ganmavlobaSi uSualod moqmedebaSi ar moCans. igi daWrili Tavs afarebs jer qimbarianT-kars mTiul ninias saxlSi, xolo Semdeg TuSebSi -- xaranaulebis ojaxSi. miuxedavad amisa, elguja, rogorc mTavari gmiri, kvlav yuradRebis centrSia. nawarmoebSi Txroba imgvarad mimdinareobs, rom yvela personaJis mdgomareoba da Tavgadasavali sabolood mainc elgujas pirovnebas ukavSirdeba. romanSi moqmedebis aRmavlobis TvalsazrisiT ramdenime momentia gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani. pirveli es aris elgujasTan maTia nadibaiZis damegobreba. imis Semdeg, rac Seyvarebul moxeves giorgi da martia moukles, maTia erTaderTi adamiania, romelTanac elguja mindobilia da romelzedac mTels imedebs amyarebs. maTias saSualebiT elguja, jer erTi, kavSirs amyarebs mzaRosTan, da meore -- svimon CofikaSvilis cxovrebisa da saqmianobis kursSicaa. es ubralo cnobismoyvareoba ki araa, aramed arsebiTi mniSvnelobis faqtorebia gmiris Semdgomi saqmianobisaTvis. moqmedebis Semdgomi aRmavlobis safexuria svimon CofikaSvilisa da maTia nadibaiZis Zmadgaficvis faqti, rac nawarmoebis meTxuTmete TavSia gadmocemuli. svimonisa da maTias saubarSi, romelic win uswrebs ZmadSeficvas, mkiTxvelisaTvis cnobili xdeba, rom xev-mTiuleTis mmarTveli elgujas exmareba, usamarTlod devnil moxeves Soridan mfarvelobs. CofikaSvilis pirovnebis amgvarad Secnobam gansazRvra isic, rom maTia daTanxmda masTan iasaulad damdgariyo. iasauloba mxolod garegnuli safarvelia svimonisa da maTias urTierTobisaTvis, romelnic ukve Zmadnaficebi arian. maTia mxolod imis Semdeg dauZmobilda svimon CofikaSvils, roca darwmunda, rom mmarTveli elgujas mfarvelobda, misi bednierebisaTvis zrunavda. svimonisa da maTias Zmadgaficvis pirveli Sedegi is iyo, rom elgujam mzaRo gaitaca da ojaxi Seqmna. romanis meCvidmete TavSi vkiTxulobT, rom mzaRos motacebisaTvis svimons gansakuTrebiT yuradReba ar miuqcevia da TiTon mdevari, romelic gamouyena, xalxis Tvalad iyo gagzavnili da amisTvis mdevris moTaved maTia daeniSna. eWvi ar iyo, rom maTia elgujas ueWvelad Semweobas miscemda. dro gadis. elguja, ukve colSviliani, xaranaulebisas cxovrobs. raRa Tqma unda, elgujas ojaxis amJamindeli yofa, marTalia, mSobliur Tems mowyvetili, magram mainc mSvidobiani yofa svimonisa da maTias mzrunvelobis Sedegia. dasasrul, romanSi moqmedebis ganviTareba umaRles safexurs aRwevs ocdamesame TavSi, romelSic gadmocemulia mezoblebis mier elgujas miyvana CofikaSvilis ojaxSi da qeTevanisa da svimonisagan misi Svilad aRiareba. Tu aqamde svimoni elgujas samarTlian brZolas Soridan mxars uWerda, axla isini ukve erTiandebian, rogorc arsebuli usamarTlobiT erTnairad ukmayofilo adamianebi. imave nawilSi romanis ZiriTadi kvanZic ixsneba. svimon CofikaSvilis adgilas axali mmarTvelis mosvla da misi pirveli mkacri gankargulebani Txzulebis faqtobriv dasasruls warmoadgens. CofikaSvilis gardacvaleba, elgujas ukanaskneli gabrZoleba da misi mokvla nawarmoebis bunebrivi finalia.

`mamis mkvleli~. aleqsandre yazbegis romani `mamis mkvleli~ TviTmpyrobelobis saxelmwifo aparatisa da gadagvarebuli qarTvelebis winaaRmdeg brZo272

lis fonze iSleba. TxzulebaSi Tavidanve yalibdeba moqmed pirTa ori ZiriTadi banaki: erTia girgola, romelsac zurgs umagreben oficialuri xelisuflebis moxeleebi, xolo meore mxriv -- iago da misi Zmadnaficebi, romlebic xalxis mudmivi mxardaWeriT arian garemoculni. aleqsandre yazbegma Tavis mTel rig TxzulebebSi arsebuli usamarTlobisagan xalxis Cagvrisa da Seviwroebis farTo suraTebi gadagviSala, magram `mamis mkvleli~ mainc gamoirCeva movlenaTa siuxviT da gmirTa simravliT. nawarmoebSi, glaxa gelaSvilis Tavgadasavlidan moyolebuli, gadmocemulia xalxis farTo masebis cxovreba TviTmpyrobeluri reJimis pirobebSi. `mamis mkvleli~ gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva scenebisa da suraTebis simravliT. es scenebi da suraTebi ise bunebrivad arian dakavSirebulni, rom maTi erTmaneTisagan daSoreba SeuZlebelia. es mimzidveli Txroba mTlianad dakavSirebulia ZiriTadi ambis ganviTarebasTan, ZiriTadi ambavi ki nunus cxovrebis istoriaa. romanSi pirvelad vecnobiT glaxa gelaSvilis Tavgadasavals. glaxas saxiT daxatulia gmiri vaJkaci, romelsac usamarTlobasTan brZolaSi sakuTari adamianuri Rirseba daucavs. sakmarisia gonebis TvaliT davakvirdeT glaxas im momentSi, roca igi fandurs aiRebs, daukravs da daamRerebs, rom warmogvidges raRac gansakuTrebiT didebuli suraTi. mSobliur miwa-wyals monatrebuli adamiani xalxur savaJkaco simRerebSi poulobs sulis simSvides. simReris teqtsi ase ikiTxeba:

`rostom Tqva: miwa rbilia, sityvas miT unda rbiloba; vaJkacs rom gauWirdebis, maSinis unda cdiloba. rostom Tqva: erTi ara sjobs am Cemsa mogonebasa: erTxel sjobia sikvdili sul mudam daRonebasa!..~

glaxas Tavgadasavlis gacnobiT warmodgena gveZleva saerTod imdroindel sazogadoebriv ukuRmarTobaze. igi rogorc malviT mosula, iseve malviT Sordeba Tavis miwa-wyals. glaxas wasvlis istoriasTan uSualod aris dakavSirebuli misi erTaderTi qaliSvilis, nunus romanis dasawyisi. nunu Seyvarebulia axalgazrda moxeve iago gogobaiZeze, romelsac Tanamemamuleebi `xevis Tvals~ uwodeben. nunusa da iagos siyvaruli spetaki da uangaroa. isini gulwrfelad da mTeli gatacebiT emzadebian patiosani, SromiTi ojaxis Sesaqmnelad. qal-vaJis keTilSobilur samzadiss win gadaeRobeba diambegis iasauli, gadagvarebuli da garyvnili girgola. girgolas nunu moswons, magram oficialurad SerTva ar SeuZlia, radgan TviTon colSviliania. marTalia, igi misive mizeziT, Zalze mouwesrigebeli ojaxisa, magram mainc ojaxis patronia. amitomac mas ganzraxuli aqvs nunu rZlad miiyvanos, formalurad jvari dasweros Tavis maxinj Zmaze da faqtobrivad qali TviTon daisakuTros. `Cemi Zma me ver momSordeba da imas ki -- jvardawerili coli~, -- aseTia gadawyvetileba, romliTac girgola moqmedebs. avtoris TxzulebebSi qalebs vxvdebiT rogorc didi brZolebis gzaze, ise Cveulebriv yofa-cxovrebaSi. Cveulebrivi cxovrebis fonzea daxatuli svimon CofikaSvilis coli qeTevani. igi nawarmoebSi mxolod oriode momentSi gamoCndeba, magram mis saxeSi naTlad Seicnoba keTilSobili mandilosani -- coli da deda. STambeWdavia qeTevanis mier elgujas daSvilobileba da avadmyof svimonis sawolTan miyvana dasalocavad. aseve Cveulebrivi cxovrebis fonzea war273

modgenili znemaRali qarTveli deda jaTia, romelic mzad aris Temisagan mokveTili, uTvistomod darCenili mayvala Sin waiyvanos da Seifaros. es keTilSobili dedebi mwerlis mier metad gulTbilad arian daxatulni, magram al. yazbegis kalami aranakleb Zlieria im dros, rodesac igi avsa da angarebian qalebs xatavs. aseTia `mamis mkvlelSi~ maxia, romelmac, arsebiTad rom iTqvas, nunu girgolas mihyida. aseTivea `gankicxulSi~ gamoyvanili sofio, romelic axalgazrda rZals imisaTvis Rupavs, rom Tavisi uxasiaTo Zmis, porfiris simdidre TviTon flangos. sazogadod rom iTqvas, aleqsandre yazbegis qalTa galereaSi wina planze arian is qalebi, romelnic TavianTi adamianuri Rirsebis dasacavad ibrZvian. am qalebis mZime mdgomareoba da maTi Tavganwirva miznis misaRwevad xSir SemTxvevaSi imave romanebidan cnobil gmir mamakacTa brZolis donemde maRldeba. saqmis saerTo viTarebas ver cvlis is garemoeba, rom sabolood es qalebi iRupebian. isini TavianTi adamianuri uflebisaTvis Tanamimdevruli brZoliT mkiTxvelis mxardaWeras imsaxureben mudam da yovelTvis. al. yazbegis romanebSi gamoxatul qalTa Soris nunu yvelaze rTuli da mZime Tavgadasavlis mqone gmiria. mSobliur alerss moklebuli, angarebiani bicolas xelqveiT gatarebuli bavSvobidan im saSinel ciliswamebamde, roca mamis mkvlelad iqna gamocxadebuli. nunus cxovreba Tavidan bolomde didi siZneleebiT xasiaTdeba, magram igi mainc mtkice da gautexelia miznisaTvis brZolaSi. imave dros nunu tragikuli pirovnebacaa. igi keTilSobiluri tragikuli qalis yvelaze srulyofili saxea axal qarTul literaturaSi. nunus mZime mdgomareobaze STabeWdileba iqmneba moqmedebaSi misi gamoCenisTanave. mamis Sin ardaxvedris gamo mwvave gancdebi imis mauwyebelia, rom nunus misTvis raRac unda eTxova, misgan raRac mxardaWeras saWiroebda. glaxas naadrevad wasvlis gamo qaliSvilma saubari ver moaxerxa da, bunebrivia, igi esoden sasowarkveTili moCans. nunum ukve icis, rom iagoze gaTxovebis nebas ar aZleven da igulisxmeba, mamis daxmareba amisaTvis esaWiroeboda. biZa da bicola sxvaze gaTxovebas upireben nunus. qali upirispirdeba biZamiss, maxias da gadawyvetili aqvs misTxovdes mxolod iago gogobaiZes, romelic mas uyvars. es ukve dasawyisia im rTuli winaaRmdegobebisa, romelic nawarmoebs bolomde gasdevs. mesame Tavidan, rodesac moqmedebaSi gamoCndeba girgola, situacia kidev ufro iZabeba, xolo mexuTe TavSi, nunusa da iagos saubarSi, romanis ZiriTadi kvanZi sabolood inaskveba. qal-vaJi mtkiced SeTanxmdnen, rom siZneleebis winaSe ukan ar daixion, SeuRldnen da ojaxi Seqmnan. am gadawyvetilebiT isini erTmaneTs daSordnen. swored am gadawyvetileba-ficis Sesrulebis survili amoqmedebs nunus Tavisi cxovrebis vrcelsa da Znel gzaze, romelsac nawarmoebidan vecnobiT. girgolam ciliswamebiT daapatimrebina udanaSaulo iago, xolo angarebiani da gautaneli maxias xelSewyobiT nunu gaitaca. `imave saRamos, imis miuxedavad, rom nunu xmamaRla uars ambobda Tavis gaTxovebazed, ibrZoda da ara dgeboda, sofel x. saydarSi Rvdelma nunu da ninia Zalad SeauRla im uRliT, romlidganac daSoreba xalxis xelSi aRar iyo~.1 aqedan iwyeba nunus tanjva-wameba, romelic nawarmoebis ukanasknel striqonebSi mTavrdeba. jvrisweris dRidan moyolebuli, nunus Tavgadasavali WeSmaritad mZime STabeWdilebas axdens mkiTxvelze. sakmarisia gavixsenoT nunus wameba arSis cixeSi, sadac gatacebis pirvel dReebSi girgolas hyavs gadamaluli, an kidev is epizodi, rodesac mraval satanjvels gamovlili qali xelebgakruli, mSieri da mwyurvali imave girgolas saxlSi hyavs gamomwyvdeuli.

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a l . y a z b e g i , `mamis mkvleli~, nawili I, Tavi XI.

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nunus cxovrebis am periodSi mxolod oriode dRea, rodesac igi iagosTan erTad aris, bednieri. aseTia Sexvedra daTvias tyeSi, rodesac iago nunus aucilebeli daRupvisagan ixsnis da isini, sruliad moulodnelad, erTad aRmoCndebian. qalis es bedniereba metismetad xanmoklea da misi saerTo yofa ki mudmivi tanjviT, wvalebiTa da ubedurebiT xasiaTdeba. nunus xangrZlivi tanjva-wameba imiT mTavrdeba, rom mas sakuTari mamis mokvlas daabraleben da cimbirSi gagzavnas gadauwyveten. vladikavkazis bazarSi ficris estradaze aRmarTulia aWrelebuli boZi warweriT `samarcxvino boZi~. gamoCndeba `povoska~, romelzec ukuRma zis qali patimris tanisamosiT. qals gulze mikruli aqvs ficari, ficarze warweraa `mamis mkvleli!~, romanSi vkiTxulobT: `jalaTi, pirutyulis da moRimaris saxiT, gverds ujda da eoxunjeboda qals~. `povoska~ gaCerda estradas win da qali CamoaTries, radganac siarulis Tavi aRara hqonda, aiyvanes estradazed da ise miakres boZs, rom zezed mdgoms esmgavseboda~. boZze mikrul nunusTan midis mRvdeli, raTa gacimbirebis win aRsareba aTqmevinos. mravaltanjuli qali ukanasknel Zalas moikrebs da ambobs aRsarebas, romliTac wuTisofels eTxoveba. nunus mier am dros warmoTqmuli sityvebi aRsareba ki ara -- ficia da saficari ki ori ram misTvis yvelaze uZvirfasesi: Tavisi sakuTari namusi da iagos suli. ` -- jvari momec, -- miuSvira iman xelebi. `mRvdelma miawoda jvari da nunus raRac cecxliT Tvalebi aenTo; is miswvda jvars, miikra tuCebzed da sakmaod maRla, Tumca xmis kankaliT, warmosTqva mduRarebis frqveviT: `-- vficav gulTamxilavs zeciers mamas, vficav am wminda jvarcmas, vficav Cems namuss, vficav iagos suls, -- me damnaSave ara var!~. aseTi iyo nunus saboloo mimarTva RvTisa da kacTadmi. ukanaskneli dRis mRelvarebiT mravalgzis wamebuli qalis SesaZleblobac amoiwura da igi boZzeve mikruli gardaicvala. mRvdelma miaSvela xeli, raTa jvari Zirs ar dacemuliyo. is daacqerda sacodavs wamebuls da mTrTolare xmiT warmosTqva: `ganusvene, ufalo, mxevalsa amas Sensa!~ gadaiwera pirjvari da moSorda~.1 nunus, rogorc sakuTari adamianuri Rirsebis dasacavad mebrZol pirovnebas, pirveli maxia upirispirdeba. misi mamoZravebeli angarebaa. nunus girgolas Zmaze gaTxovebiT maxias ojaxs rCeba glaxa gelaSvilis kuTvnili qoneba da sasiZos mier motanili urvadi, romelic, rogorc Cans, sakmarisad Rirebulia. maxia erTgvari wina kacia, romelsac Semdeg nawarmoebSi Semoyavs diambegis iasauli girgola. romanis meore nawilis dasawyisSi girgolas pirovnul Tvisebebze naTqvamia: is Ronieri, Zlieri, mxarbeWgadgmuli, iyo jiuti da Seupovari. imisi gaqvavebuli guli, raki erTxel moiwadinebda rasme, saSualebas aRar daerideboda imis aRsasruleblad, veRarc xvewna, veRarc mwuxareba, veRarc cremlebi Seayenebdneno. al. yazbegis romanebis uaryofiTi personaJebidan girgola Tavisi veragobiT yvelasagan gamoirCeva. moulodneli araa, rom am garewarTan brZolaSi iRupebian cxovrebaSi jer kidev gamoucdeli, sicocxles mowyurebuli axalgazrda qal-vaJi, nunu da iago. borotebis grZel gzaze girgolas umTavresad erTi grZnoba amoqmedebs. es aris daukmayofilebeli wadili SurisZiebisa. nunusagan dawunebulma girgolam

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a l . y a z b e g i , `mamis mkvleli~, nawili III, Tavi XVI.

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uari Tqva Temze, xalxze, Tavisianze; xeli aiRo vaJkacur Tavmoyvareobaze da mucelze xoxviT emsaxureba Tanamdebobis pirebs. samagierod igi mmarTvelobisagan mxardaWeriTa da daxmarebiT sargeblobs nunusa da iagos winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. al. yazbegis dadebiT gmirebs xalxi yovelTvis gverdSi udgas. mkiTxveli siamovnebiT ecnoba `mamis mkvlelis~ im adgils, romelSic moTxrobilia kobasa da TorRas mier ananuris cixidan iagos gamoyvana. aseve kmayofilebis momgvrelia is suraTi, rodesac jRuna SimSiliT wamebul nunus jer sasmel-saWmels awvdis da Semdeg Cumad SeaWris Toks, romliTac igi girgolas boZze mikruli hyavs. xalxis Segnebis, misi pirisa da namusis gamomxatvelni arian koba, TorRa, jRuna, vefxvia, Siola, farCo da sxva. garda erTeuli adamianebisagan daxmarebisa, mwerals TxzulebaSi mocemuli aqvs mTeli rigi SemTxvevebi, roca iagos mxars uWers da icavs xalxi sazogadod. am mxriv damaxasiaTebelia sarqal Siolas damokidebuleba girgolasadmi. Siolam, romlis pirovnebaSic qarTveli glexkacis saukeTeso Tvisebebia xorcSesxmuli, iagos Sesapyrobad daxmarebaze girgolas mtkice uariT upasuxa. man diambegis iasauls `eSmakis muSa~ uwoda da Tanac daufaravad uTxra, rom igi iagos uyurebs rogorc moZmesa da megobars da mas arasodes ar uRalatebs. girgolam Siolas dapatimreba moindoma. gaimarTa xelCarTuli brZola yazaxebsa da mwyemsebs Soris. brZola mwyemsebis gamarjvebiT damTavrda. Siolasa da mwyemsebis damokidebuleba iagosadmi tipuri gamovlinebaa xalxis mxardaWerisa usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli adamianebisadmi. amgvari mxardaWeriT sargebloben yovelTvis koba, elguja, maTia, moZRvari onofre da sxva gmirebi. mefis TviTmpyrobelobis moxeleebisa da gadagvarebuli erTeuli mTielebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi mkiTxvels bunebrivad eqmneba warmodgena mTiel qarTvelTa tradiciul cxovrebaze. mweralma isini daaxasiaTa rogorc mSromeli, Tavisuflebismoyvare, megobrobaSi gamtani da sakuTari kacuri Rirsebis damcveli adamianebi. isini aseTad moCanan yoveldRiur cxovrebasa da moqmedebaSi. amis wyalobiTaa, rom mwerali xalxis tradiciuli cxovrebis gadmocemisas yvelgan da yovelTvis damajerebelia. mwerali aSkarad gveubneba, rom xalxs dakarguli aqvs yovelgvari ndoba saxelmwifo aparatisadmi. misi yoveli moxelis gamoCena sazogadoebaSi, sofelSi xalxis SeZrwunebas iwvevs. yoveli maTgani zizRisa da Suris aRmZvrelia qarTvel mTielSi. yazbegis TxzulebebSi mdgomareoba daxatulia ise, rom xalxs yvela safuZveli aqvs saxelmwifo aparatsa da mis moxeleebs undoblad uyurebdes. dawesebulebani, romelnic mowodebulni arian xalxs emsaxuron, samarTali daicvan da cxovrebis normaluri mimdinareoba uzrunvelyon, TviT arian meqrTameebis, qurdebisa da avazakebis TavSesafrad gadaqceuli. saTave yovelgvari borotmoqmedebisa, romelic xalxis normalur cxovrebas arRvevs, swored am dawesebulebebSia; borotmoqmedebaTa xelSemwyobad, garewrebis mfarvelebad TviTon mmarTvelebi gamodian. `mamis mkvlelSi~ gansakuTrebiT iCens Tavs al. yazbegis SemoqmedebisaTvis sazogadod damaxasiaTebeli megobrobis motivi. romanis gmirTa megobroba sruliad bunebrivi, gulwrfeli da uangaroa. isini TavianT megobrobaze ki ar laparakoben, aramed uSualod moqmedebaSi moCans maTi Tavdadeba da Tavganwirva urTierTisaTvis. nawarmoebSi Txroba imgvarad mimdinareobs, rom sakuTari adamianuri Rirsebis dasacavad mebrZoli gmirebisaTvis megobrobis gareSe arseboba warmoudgenelic iqneboda. SeuZlebelia kobas, TorRas, vefxias, farCos, jRunasa da elberdis gareSe warmovidginoT iagos gmiruli, SeupovrobiT aRbeWdili sabrZo276

lo gza, romelsac romanidan vicnobT. zedmeti araa gavixsenoT, rom iago kobasa da jRunas adreve megobrobda, xolo TorRa, vefxia, farCo da elberdi mis mier uSualod brZolebSi mopovebuli Zmadnaficebi arian. al. yazbegis nawerebSi araerTgzis gxvdeba ZmadSeficvis SemTxvevebi. gasagebia, rom mwerali amgvarad Seficvis gaformebisas xalxur tradicias emyareba. damaxasiaTebelia iagosa da TorRas ZmadSeficvis epizodi, romelsac koba eswreba. `-- TorRau! Sen kobas Zmadnafici hyofilxar, dReis iqiT Cemic Zma iqnebi. -- mterzed moqneuli xmali tarSimc gadutydes Sens moRalates, -- upasuxa TorRam da amoiRo masridan tyvia: -- aha, Cemi tyvia. iagomac Tavis saswrafodan, romelic kobas moetana imisTvis, amoiRo tyvia. -- aha, Cemic. orivem erTs dros gaiSvires xelebi da, sanam gascvlidnen tyviebs, warmosTqves: Cemi marjvena Sens marjvenas emsaxuros, Cemi Tvali -- Sens Tvals, Cemi muxli -- Sens muxls; moRalates risxvavdes lomisa. -- amin, -- wynarad warmosTqves samTav. iagom da TorRam tyviebi Secvales, moexvivnen erTmaneTs da samjer Caikres gulSi erTmaneTi~.1 amgvarive ficiT arian dakavSirebuli `mamis mkvlelis~ danarCeni gmirebic. maTi arsebiTi damaxasiaTebeli niSani is aris, rom isini erTmaneTisaTvis uangarod Tavdadebulni arian. Zneli araa warmovidginoT, raodeni unda yofiliyo kobasa da TorRas Tavganwirva im wuTebSi, rodesac ananuris cixidan iago gamoyavdaT. SeuZlebelia gulgrilad wavikiTxoT romanis is nawilebi, romlebSic moTxrobilia jRunas mier girgolas klanWebidan nunus gamoxsnisa da vladikavkazSi gadayvanis epizodebi. rac Seexeba iagosa da misi megobrebis erTobliv saqmianobas, aq ukve maTi Zala da sazrisianoba SeuZlebelsac SesaZleblad xdis. maTi warmatebebi mowinaaRmdege ZalebTan brZolaSi xSirad metismetad didia, magram yazbegiseuli Txrobis wyalobiT yovelTvis sarwmuno da damajerebelia. `mamis mkvlelis~ ZiriTadi kvanZi nunus gardacvalebiT ixsneba, magram amiT yvelaferi ar mTavrdeba. nawarmoebis finali, romelic sul ramdenime striqonisagan Sedgeba, erTgvarad gvirgvins adgams iagosa da misi megobrebis sabrZolo SemarTebas. SemTxveviTi araa, rom nawarmoebSi ukanaskneli vaJkacuri gasrola wilad xvda kobas. man erTi tyviiT diambegi adgilzeve gaaTava, xolo girgola imgvarad daWra, rom amazrzeni aRsareba aTqmevina da mainc uziareblad mokla.

`cicia~. al. yazbegis `ciciaSi~ ZiriTadad gadmocemulia erTi moxevis qalis Tavgadasavali, magram imdenad, ramdenadac ciciasTan erTad moqmedebaSi moCans mTeli wyeba adamianebisa, mkiTxvels warmodgena eqmneba imdroindel qarTvel mTielTa yofa-cxovrebaze sazogadod. Txzulebis dasawyisidanve cnobili xdeba ciciasa da beJias urTierTsiyvaruli, maTi samzadisi normaluri ojaxis Sesaqmnelad. marTalia, qalis mama, qorRuyo, pirvel xanebSi Tanaxma araa ciciasa da beJias SeuRlebisa, magram iqve vgrZnobT, rom axalgazrdebi sabolood mainc Tavisas gaitanen. im dros, rodesac qal-vaJsa da qorRuyos Soris jer kidev Tanxmoba araa; roca moxuci kvlav maT daSorebas cdilobs, cicias gaitacebs mTaSi saxelganTqmuli vaJkaci CeCeni sulTi jaxoti. sulTis gulwrfelad uyvars moxevis qali da fiqrobs misganac pasuxad aseTsave siyvaruls miiRebs.

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a l . y a z b e g i , `mamis mkvleli~, nawili II, Tavi IX.

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sulTi da misi mxleblebi tyeSi uSiSar adgilas dabinavdebian. sulTis megobari murTuza saqmes gaiCens, raTa qal-vaJi martod datovos, Tavisufali saubris saSualeba misces. sulTi cicias Tavis gulisnadebs agebinebs, razedac qali mtkice uariT upasuxebs. qalisagan amgvari pasuxis erTaderTi mizezi is aris, rom mas beJiasTan ukve colqmrobis piroba aqvs. amitomacaa, rom cicia CeCen vaJkacs ase gadaWriT mimarTavs: `Seni tyve var, Zala gaqvs, raic ginda, is miyav, momkal, Tu ginda, -- magram ar Segiyvareb~. sulTi siyvarulSi iseve uangaro, faqizi da gulsrulia, rogorc elguja, iago, levani, onise arabuli. igi, yazbegis sxva gmirebis msgavsad, mzad aris Seyvarebulis sakeTildReod sakuTari sicocxle gawiros. sulTi jaxoti, romelic mTels mTaSi cnobilia rogorc gmiri vaJkaci, romelic, `aTasjer pirzed RimiliT sikvdils win Sehgebebia~, Seyvarebulis winaSe aRelvebuli, ferwasuli da SeSinebuli dgas. gasagebia, rom sulTis amgvari `dauZlurebis~ mizezi aris misive gulwrfeli siyvaruli ciciasadmi. nawarmoebSi pirdapiraa miTiTebuli, rom sulTis pirovnebiT ciciac moxiblulia, magram `ra unda eqna?... beJia agondeboda, beJia uyvarda da axalis wyobilebiT jered gauryvnels guls oris erTad siyvaruli ki ver moexerxebina~. ciciam sulTis srulad uambo sakuTar mdgomareobaze; Soridan gaacno kidec Tavisi saqmro, xolo CeCeni vaJkacisadmi pativiscema imiT gamoxata, rom mas da-Zmobis winadadeba SesTavaza. sulTisaTvis amgvari winadadebis mosmena metismetad Zneli iyo. miuxedavad yovelive amisa, sulTi jaxotma cicias winadadeba miiRo. raRa Tqma unda, vaJkacis amgvari saqcieli misive siyvaruliT aris gapirobebuli. sulTi Tavis sasicocxlo grZnobas swiravs imisaTvis, raTa cicias gabednierebas xeli ar SeuSalos. swored am gadawyvetilebis gamomxatvelia misi mimarTva ciciasadmi: `dao, miTxar, saiT wagiyvano?~ amis Semdeg sulTim TviTonve kisrad ido ciciaze mzrunveloba. misi uSualo xelSewyobiT cicia da beJia kidec SeuRldnen. sulTi jaxoti ciciasa da beJiasadmi Zmadnaficobis erTguli rCeba bolomde, Tumca am qalisadmi siyvaruli gulidan ver amouRia. STambeWdavia ciciasa da sulTis ganSorebis scena, romelic nawarmoebis ocdameeqvse TavSia gadmocemuli. igive scena erTgvari winapirobacaa imisaTvis, raTa mkiTxvelma bunebrivad miiRos romanis dasasruli, roca igive sulTi jaxoti cicias erTaderT mxsnelad mogvevlineba. al. yazbegis es Txzulebac farTo sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis fonze iSleba. romanis gmirebi dasaxuli miznisaTvis brZolaSi mTel rig winaaRmdegobebs xvdebian. am winaaRmdegobaTa mwerliseuli mxatvruli ganzogadebis wyalobiT mkiTxvels warmodgena eZleva saerTod xalxis farTo masebis cxovrebaze, mis yoveldRiur Wir-varamze. cicias gatacebam erTnairad SeaSfoTa rogorc qorRuyo, ise beJia. isini `saerTo ubedurebam~ SeaerTa, magram iseT viTarebaSi gaiyarnen, rom maT moqmedebis erTnairi programac ar dausaxavT. saqmro ambis gagebisTanave gamtacebels gamoudga, xolo mama saxelmwifo dawesebulebisken gaeSura, raTa kanonierebis gziT daecva Tavisi adamianuri Rirseba. rogorc viciT, beJiam cicia Cqara ipova. sulTi jaxotma isini SeauRla da ise gamoistumra. qorRuyo, romelsac ramdenime dRis ganmavlobaSi gatacebuli qaliSvilis mdgomareobaze araviTari cnoba ar hqonda, mazris ufrosTan Cavida, raTa `Tavisi mwuxareba SeeCivla da saWiro Semweoba eTxova~. aqedan iwyeba qorRuyos tanjva-wameba. simarTlis saZieblad Casul gulubryvilo moxeves saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi mokalaTebuli garewrebi unamu278

sod atyueben, qrTamad msxvil-msxvil Tanxebs arTmeven da saqmeSi ki arafers Svelian. mazris ufrosma qorRuyo saTxovnelad axlosac ar miikara. ar moisurva, rom misTvis piradad moesmina. mwerali gveubneba, rom mTaSi bevr mmarTvels Tavisi naziri hyavda da xalxis saqmes aseTi piris saSualebiT awesrigebda. pirveli oficialuri piri, romelsac qorRuyom Tavis mdgomareobaze SesCivla da daxmareba sTxova, swored aseTi naziria, romlisTvisac xalxs metsaxelad `aprakune~ Seurqmevia. mwerali gveubneba, rom `aprakune~, warmoSobiT aznauri, `mudam sxvaTa kars gdebas da bavSvobidangave usaqmurobas gaeryvna. SimSiliT rom momkvdariyo, Cxirs ver gadaabrunebda da, Tu vinme romelsame saqmes urCevda, is wyeniT Tavis gvariSvilobas moagonebda da daumatebda: `ra vqna aba?! me rom erTi glexi vyofiliyav yvelafers vikadrebdi, magram aznauriSvili var da meTakileba, mrcxvenian!..~ gvariSvilobiT gaamayebuli, umaqnisi `aprakune~ arc erT muqTa sadils, lxinsa da qorwils ar gamotovebda. aseTi moxelis klanWebSi aRmoCnda samarTlis maZiebeli qorRuyo. avtoriseuli Txrobis wyalobiT mkiTxvelze sruliad damajerebel STabeWdilebas tovebs is faqti, rom `aprakunem~ Semweobis mTxovneli moxeve jer gaZarcva, misi ojaxis mTeli sarCo-sabadebeli miiTvisa, xolo sabolood qorRuyo da beJiac imsxverpla. `aprakunes~ sisxli sisxlTagania romanSi gamoyvanili yvela moxele. aseve mZarcvelia `wesrigis damcveli~ policia da misi ufrosi. policielebma sruliad udanaSaulo qorRuyo jer quCaSi, xalxis Tvalwin, daamcires, scemes da awvales, xolo Semdeg sapatimroSi miyvanil moxeves jibeebidan fulebi amoacales ukanasknel groSamde. `wesrigis damcvelTa~ meufrosemac saqme imiT daagvirgvina, rom qorRuyos iaraRi, vercxlis qamari, vercxliT moWedili xanjali da vercxlisave saswrafo TviTonve miiTvisa da kancelariis mdivans ki ubrZana, rom saqmeSi Caewera: `moxuci quCazed ugrZnoblad ipoves da araviTari iaraRi zed ar hqonia~. gaqnili, gaiZvera da mZarcvelia is moxelec, romelTanac saqmis daWera uxdeba beJias. qorRuyos saZebnelad Zaugs Casulma beJiam, raki moxucis samyofeli TviTon verafriT ver gaigo, `daiyena Tolmaji~, romelic veqilobasac uwevda da, radganac beJia kargs msuqan lukmad miaCnda, moxucis Zebnis magier veqili moxevis Zarcvas da gzidan gadagdebas da saqmeebis awewvas Seudga. gaiZvera moxelis dapirebidan beJias araferi gamouvida da `fuli ki sakmaod mieflanga~. msgavs simaxinjes mTeli saxelmwifo mmarTveloba moucavs da sistemis xasiaTi miuRia. am TvalsazrisiT `ciciaSi~ saqmis viTareba imgvaradve warmogvidgeba, rogorc `elgujasa~ da `mamis mkvlelSi~. arsebuli saxelmwifoebrivi mmarTvelobis sistema xalxis masebs normaluri cxovrebis saSualebas ar aZlevs. igi ganukiTxavad awvalebs da amwarebs alalmarTal adamianebs, uxeSad Telavs adgilobriv mkvidrTa yofisaTvis damaxasiaTebel adaT-wesebs. qveyenaSi iseTi mdgomareobaa Seqmnili, rom xalxi, mZime tvirTis qveS moxrili, niadag itanjeba. gabatonebuli saerTo mdgomareobis msxverpls warmoadgenen `cicias~ konkretuli personaJebic, kerZod, sulTis Zmadnafici CeCeni murTuzac. mas erTi ZiriTadi funqcia akisria -- gza gaukafos Tavis megobar qal-vaJs erTi adgilidan meore adgilze gadasvlaSi. es ioli saqme ar gaxlavT, radgan saxelmwifo gzebze Cayenebuli jariskacebi sisastikiTa da daundoblobiT gamoirCevian, maTTvis sxvebis damcireba, wvaleba da wameba -- siamovnebaa. murTuza yovelTvis marjved aRasrulebda masze mindobil saqmes... bolos, murTuza, yazaxebTan brZolisas gamoCndeba nawarmoebSi da moqmedebidan qreba...

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dasasrul am romanSi sainteresoa Temuryos saxe. igi moqmedebaSi gamoCenisTanave warmogvidgeba rogorc sruliad arasimpaTiuri pirovneba. Temuryo aseT STabeWdilebas axdens jer kidev im momentSi, rodesac igi qorRuyos evaWreba, cdilobs rac SeiZleba didi safasuri gadaaxdevinos imaSi, rom cicias gatacebis ambavi mouTxros. es STabeWdileba moqmedebis ganviTarebaSi TandaTan Zlierdeba. Temuryos pirovneba mkiTxvelisaTvis gansakuTrebiT sazizRari xdeba imis Semdeg, roca igi beJias sasikvdilod imetebs, zurgidan dambaCas daaxlis kidec, magram bednieri SemTxvevis wyalobiT moxeve msubuqad daWrili gadarCeba. Temuryos verag pirovnebas sulTi jaxoti amxels. Temuryo damnaSaved cnes da igi saxalxod moikveTes. xalxis mier gamotanil ganaCenSi Temuryos pirovnebis sruli daxasiaTebaa mocemuli. es daxasiaTeba ki sainteresoa imdenad, ramdenadac igi am romanSi erTaderTi uaryofiTi tipia adgilobriv mkvidrTagan gamoyvanili. `-- xalxo! -- bolos win wamodga erTi moxucTagani: -- Temuryo aRmoCnda damnaSaved... is gamodis mudam mTxrobelad da fulis gulisTvis Tavis moZmed aZlevs mters xelSi... fulis gulisTvis hgmobs purmarils, kars, saxls... ar daundvia arc kaci, arc qali, oRondac Tavis gaumaZRari Tvali daakmayofilos... ifaravs imisTana qurdebs, romelnic Cvens mokeTe mezobel xalxs hqurdaven da, bolos, CvenTan stumrad mosulis moxevis motyuebiT, RalatiT da diacurad sikvdilic ki ganizraxa... iyos wyeuli Temuryo! -- daiZaxa moxucma da daaJRriala droSa, romelmac msmenelT tanSi Jruanteli gautara... -- wyeuli iyos! -- moisma saerTo xma, romelmac yvelas guli raRaca grZnobiT aavso, aaTrTola da aacaxcaxa; Temuryos mkvdris feri edo da Zlivs-Ra sunTqavda~.1 aseTia am romanSi mxatvrulad ganzogadebuli cxovrebiseuli movlenebi. ` xevisberi goCa~. aleqsandre yazbegis `xevisber goCaSi~ gadmocemulia saqarTvelos erTi kuTxis sazogadoebrivi viTareba meTeqvsmete saukunis miwurulisa da meCvidmete saukunis damdegi wlebisa. istoriulad aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTiani raionebi Temuri wyobilebidan momdinare wesebiT cxovrobdnen da batonymurma urTierTobam iq fexi ver moikida. Zlieri feodalebi dainteresebuli iyvnen, rom es raionebi daemorCilebinaT da maTze gabatonebuliyvnen. isini, raki dros ixelTebdnen, Tavs esxmodnen dasaxlebul raionebs. gansakuTrebiT cnobilia nugzar da zurab aragvis erisTavebis sisxlismRvreli Tavdasxmebi mTis raionebze. `xevisberi goCa~ erT-erTi brZolis fonze iSleba. nawarmoebSi erT-erTi moqmedi piri, nugzar aragvis erisTavi, istoriulad cnobili pirovnebaa. igi cxovrobda meTeqvsmete saukunis meore naxevarSi da meCvidmete saukunis damdegs. man ramdenjerme ilaSqra aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTian raionebze. nugzar erisTavma erT periodSi warmatebasac miaRwia. xevi Tavisi gavlenis qveS moaqcia (XVI saukunis 90-ian lebSi), magram moxeveTa saboloo damorCileba mainc ver SeZlo. nugzar da zurab erisTavebze xalxma mTeli rigi leqsebi da Tqmulebebi Semoinaxa. am leqsebSi xalxi wyevla-krulviT ixseniebs dampyrobel erisTavebs, xolo maT winaaRmdeg mebrZol gmirebs didebis SaravandediT mosavs. aleqsandre yazbegma `xevisber goCaSi~ moxeveTa brZola sakuTari adamianuri Rirsebisa da Tavisuflebis dasacavad nugzar erisTavis pirovnebas daukavSira. maSasadame, romanSi aRweril movlenebs adgili hqonda meTeqvsmete saukunis dasasruls an meCvidmete saukunis damdegs, nugzar erisTavis gardacvalebamde.

1

a l . y a z b e g i , `cicia~, Tavi XXIII.

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samecniero literaturaSi aRniSnulia, rom avtors Tavisi TxzulebisaTvis gamoyenebuli aqvs xevSi gavrcelebuli xalxuri Tqmuleba. amis Taobaze TviTon mweralic gveubneba: `es moTxroba sityviT-sityvamde miambo friad moxucma moxevem Rinja xulelmao~. 1940 da 1948 wlebSi gamoqveynda ori varianti xalxuri Tqmulebisa (`CaZinebuli~), romelic Tavis droze safuZvlad unda dasdeboda al. yazbegis nawarmoebs. xalxur Tqmulebasa da `xevisber goCas~ Soris erTgvari msgavseba udavod arsebobs, magram imav dros isini erTimeorisagan didad gansxvavdebian. xalxuri Tqmulebis arc erT variantSi konkretuli istoriuli epoqa miTiTebuli araa. udavoa, rom onises tragikuli Tavgadasavali dakavSirebulia romeliRac omTan, magram konkretulad romelia es omi, amis Tqma SeuZlebeli xdeba. Tqmulebis arc erT variantSi dasaxelebuli araa arc erTi istoriuli pirovneba, rom amis mixedviT iq aRwerili SemTxveva miaxloebiT mainc dagveTariRebina. ase rom, xalxuri Tqmuleba `CaZinebuli~ SesaZlebelia exebodes sruliad sxva epoqas da gacilebiT ufro Zveli iyos, vidre nugzar da zurab erisTavebis laSqrobani mTielTa dasapyrobad. `xevisberi goCa~ kompoziciurad mtkiced Sekruli romania. nawarmoebSi wamyvania xevisberi goCas cxovrebis istoria. xevisberi xalxis saukeTeso miswrafebaTa gamomxatvelia, goCas piriT xSirad TviTon mwerali laparakobs. am TxzulebaSi ufro metad, vidre sxva romelime nawarmoebSi, gadmocemulia Temuri wyobilebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSani -- `yvela erTisaTvis da erTi yvelasaTvis~. nugzar erisTavis Tavdasxma xevze arsebiTad socialur-klasobrivi xasiaTisa iyo. igi miznad isaxavda, rom es kuTxe Tavis safeodalosTan SeeerTebina da, amrigad, moxeveebisaTvis batonymobis uReli daedga. xalxma da, uwinares yovlisa, xevisberma erisTavis ganzraxva ufro farTo gagebiT miiRo; aSkarad socialur brZolaSi patriotizmis motivic Seitana, dampyroblis muqara TiToeuli moxevis, mTlianad xevis saerTo Rirsebaze gadaitana da amiT brZolas farTo xalxuri xasiaTi misca. moxeveebma didi msxverplis fasad moigeries gorozi feodalis Tavdasxma. erisTavis mravalricxovani laSqari moxeveebTan omSi TiTqmis mTlianad ganadgurda. romanSi, garda xalxisa, ramdenime moqmedi piria maRalmxatvrulad warmodgenili, eseni arian: ZiZia, onise, gugua fiCitauri, magram mTavari gmiri xevisberi goCaa. xevisberi Txzulebis centraluri figuraa da yvela sxva personaJis mdgomareoba da saqmeebi saboloo gadawyvetas masTan mimarTebaSi poulobs. xevisberi pirvelad gamoCndeba nawarmoebis meSvide TavSi, rodesac igi sofel yanobidan dabrunebul meqorwileebs egebeba sxva moxeveebTan erTad. misi sagangebo daxasiaTeba mocemuli araa Txzulebis erT romelime nawilSi. goCas saxe daxatulia uSualod moqmedebaSi. am gziT vecnobiT mas da Cvens mexsierebaSi didxans rCeba. goCas pirveli gamoCenisTanave mwerali gvixatavs mis portrets. igi aris warmosadegi moxuci da lazaTiani Sesaxedaobisa. goCas portreti dasrulebuli saxiT moCans romanis meToTxmete TavSi, rodesac xevisberi xalxs amwyalobebs: `kedelzed gadmoCnda qudmoxdili kaci, grZelis gaSlilis TeTri TmiT da wveriT. xamis umtvero TeTri perangi, romelzedac ubralo Toki qamrad SemoeWira, raRaca saocnebod mogaCvenebdaT moxucs. gabrwyinebuli, magram damyarebuli moxucis saxe, zrunviTa da mWvunvarebiT savse, yvelas guls igebda da misive uneburad imorCilebda~.1 xevisberma nugzar erisTavis winaaRmdeg mTeli xevi fexze daayena. rodesac vakvirdebiT xevis saerTo moZraobas pirvelsave mowodebaze, vgrZnobT, rom

1

a l . y a z b e g i , `xevisberi goCa~, Tavi XIV.

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brZen xelmZRvanels Tavisi xalxi adreve mzad hyavs yovelgvari mosalodneli SemTxvevisaTvis. xalxis gonieri xelmZRvaneli droulad iTvaliswinebs mtris SesaZleblobas da misi Zalis Semcirebaze zrunavs. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa goCas mier mTiulebTan mociqulebis saSualebiT molaparakeba, ris Sedegadac maT (mTiulebma) moxeveebTan sisxlismRvrel omze xeli aiRes. am garemoebam erTgvarad winaswar gansazRvra omis Sedegebi. al. yazbegis mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi did adgils ikavebs patriotizmis motivi. mSobliuri qveynisa da xalxisaTvis Tavdadeba, pirad miswrafebaTa damorCileba sazogadoebrivi interesebisaTvis misi gmirebis damaxasiaTebel Tvisebas Seadgens. igive patriotizmis motivi gansakuTrebuli mimzidvelobis Zalas aniWebs `xevisber goCas~. es grZnoba yvelaze metad TviTon goCas pirovnebaSia gansaxierebuli. xevisberis saerTo daxasiaTebisaTvis mwerali gveubneba, rom `goCa iyo mSobeli mama Tavisi xalxisa~ da iqve, ramdenime striqonis Semdeg, vkiTxulobT: xevisberisaTvis `ganuwyvetliv zrunvas, fiqrs, gamocdilebas da gonebriv muSaobas ufro umetesis patiosnebis, Wkuis da adamianobis beWedi daesva~.1 xevisberi goCa Tavisi xalxis meTauria rogorc mSvidobian cxovrebaSi, ise saomar mdgomareobaSi. dampyrobeli erisTavis winaaRmdeg samkvdro-sasicocxlo brZolis momentSi goCas pirovneba mkiTxvelis TvalSi kidev ufro maRldeba. igi jer gorakidan dahyurebs brZolis vels, xolo rodesac gamoCndeba nugzar erisTavi, romelic moxeveebs umowyalod Cexavs, xevisberi brZolis qarcecxlSi gadaeSveba. am dros gaismis misi gmiruli mowodeba Tanamemamuleebisadmi: `aba, biWebo!.. momyeviT, visac guli gerCiT!..~ raRa Tqma unda, uTanasworo omis mogebis erT-erTi piroba isic iyo, rom moxeveebs am mZime gansacdelis Jams xevisberi goCa winamZRolobda. rogorc viciT, xevisberis cxovreba tragikulad mTavrdeba. goCas tragediis wyarod iqceva ZiZiasa da onises sabediswero romani. ZiZiasa da onises siyvarulis istoria qal-vaJis pirveli Sexvedridanve iwyeba, xolo marxiliT mgzavrobis dros maTi romani sabolood formdeba. ZiZia im dros, rodesac gugua fiCitaurze jvars iwers, oniseze ukve Seyvarebulia. miuxedavad amisa, ZiZiasa da guguas SeuRleba sruliad kanonzomieria da arsebiTad araviTari safuZveli ar arsebobs imisaTvis, rom am qorwinebis naZaladeobaze vilaparakoT. ZaldatanebiT, qalis uneburad qorwinebis SemTxvevebi al. yazbegis romanebSi mravalgzis gxvdeba. rogorc zemoT ukve iTqva, ZaliT SeauRles nunu girgolas maxinj ZmasTan -- niniasTan. aseve ZaliT SeauRles mayvala gela goderZiSvilTan. romanSi vkiTxulobT, rom mayvalas saqmro ukve amorCeuli hyavda, `momavali tkbilad ealerseboda da sitkboebis sruli imedi hqonda. magram bedma umuxTla, imedi ar gaumarTla da erTbaSad, misave moulodnelad, ymawvilqaloba moukles da sruliad sxva pirzed gaaTxoves~.2 ZaldatanebiT gaaTxoves mari porfir gelasianze (`gankicxuli~). `rodesac saqmro vnaxe, -- ambobs mari, -- pirveli naxvidganave SemzizRda da vuTxar, rom TiTon eTqva Cems SerTvazed uari, radganac Cemi naTesaobisa da gansakuTrebiT Cemi dedinacvlis SiSiT me TiTon ver gamebedna. uaris magivrad porfirma miCivla Cem dedinacvalTan, romelmac daarwmuna, rom siymawviliT momsvlia is laparaki. me damtuqses, mibrZanes, Camacves da jvari gadamweres~.3

1 2

a l . y a z b e g i , `xevisberi goCa~, Tavi VIII. a l . y a z b e g i , `moZRvari~, Tavi IV. 3 a l . y a z b e g i , `gankicxuli~, Tavi II.

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aseTia al. yazbegis romanebSi mocemuli qalis uneburad, ZaldatanebiT jvrisweris damaxasiaTebeli SemTxvevebi. nunus, mayvalasa da maris qorwinebisagan arsebiTad gansxvavdeba ZiZias SeuRleba guguasTan. maTi SeuRlebis istoria urTierTgagebiTa da SeTanxmebiT daiwyo. romanSi sruliad garkveviTaa naTqvami, rom ZiZia Tavisi surviliT Txovdeba; rom mas guguaze fiqrSi Rameebi gauTenebia. mwerali pirdapir gveubneba, rom ZiZias `moswonda Tavisi gugua da ara erTi Rame gaeTenebina masTan Cqara SaerTebazed fiqriT, ara erTxel mozmaneboda misi lomebrivi, vaJkacis saxe~.1 ase emzadeboda ZiZia qorwinebisaTvis da amitomacaa, rom jvrisweris momentSi mas mRvdlis SekiTxvaze araviTari pasuxi ar gaucia, arc Tanxmobisa da arc uarisa. ZiZias magivrad damswre qalebma upasuxes mRvdels: `hai, hai, ro surs! raiRa kiTxva unda?.. Tu ar sdomoda, aq raRad movidoda?..~ damswreTagan amgvari gamoxmaureba safuZvels moklebuli araa. ZiZiasa da guguas jvriswerisaTvis samzadisi rogorc erTis, ise meoris sofelma icoda. arc guguas da arc qorwilis sxva romelime monawiles ar SeeZlo mimxvdariyo im cvlilebas, romelic ZiZias arsebaSi ramdenime saaTis ganmavlobaSi moxda. axla qals guguasTan SeuRlebaze uaris Tqma ar SeuZlia, amisaTvis mas araviTari safuZveli ara aqvs da imave dros onisec ukve uyvars. ZiZiasa da guguas SeuRleba sruliad normalur pirobebSi xdeba da, maSasadame, igi ar SeiZleba iyos mizezi tragediisa, romelsac nawarmoebidan vicnobT. am tragediis mizezia ZiZiasa da onises siyvaruli, romelic saqorwilo situaciaSi daiwyo, jvrisweris Semdeg ZiZias ojaxuri pirobebi sruliad sasurvelia. mas pativiscemiT epyroba ojaxis yvela wevri, xolo gugua saxlSi ise ar Semova, rom cols CurCxela an wiTeli vaSli ar moutanos da gulwrfelad ar moeferos. miuxedavad imisa, rom ZiZias garSemo sruliad normaluri atmosferoa Seqmnili, igi mainc gulCaTxrobili da gauxarelia. qalis yoveli gamoCena moqmedebaSi imis mauwyebelia, rom sabediswero siyvaruli kvlav Seunelebelia. ZiZias pirovnebasTan uSualod dakavSirebulia onises tragedia. onise, ZiZiasagan gansxvavebiT, cdilobs siyvarulis grZnobisagan gaTavisufldes. am mizniT igi fSavSi midis stumrad biZebTan. `iq nadirobaSi da mecxvareobaSi apirebda dros gatarebas da naRvelis gaqarvebas~, magram es RonisZiebac uSedego aRmoCnda. iqac `onise oxravda, qSinavda, mosveneba ver pova da daWrils lomsaviT gamedgrebuli gminviT dadioda mTa-barad~. onises fSavSi cxovrebis gaTvaliswinebiT mkiTxvelisaTvis aSkara xdeba, rom sofel yanobSi saqorwilo situaciaSi Casaxuli romani grZeldeba, onises RonisZiebani satrfos dasaviwyeblad sakuTar adamianur grZnobebze unayofo Zaldataneba iyo. samSobloSi dabrunebis Semdeg ZiZiasa da onises romani kvlav Seuneleblad grZeldeba da isini sabolood urTierTsiyvarulis msxverplni xdebian. Seyvarebulni erTmaneTs ukanasknelad xvdebian nugzar erisTavis Tavdasxmis pirvel Rames, rodesac onise gzaSi jer ZiZiasa da guguas saubars ismens da Semdeg qmrisagan mitovebul ZiZias TviTmkvlelobisagan ixsnis da ramdenime saaTis ganmavlobaSi masTan erTad aris. Txzulebis am nawilSi moqmedebis ganviTareba umaRles safexurs aRwevs. aq yvelaze metad Tavmoyrilia winaaRmdegobani, romliTac ganpirobebulia onises tragedia. erTi mxriv movaleoba, rom Cabarebuli adgilidan mteri ar Semoeparos, rasac emateba brZeni mamis darigeba da sakuTari fici, xolo meore mxriv -- SeyvarebulTan yofna da alersi. dabolos, mwerali gveubneba, rom `eseni am TavdaviwyebaSi iyvnen, rodesac erTbaSad gavarda Tofi da Seyvarebulebi fexzed

1

a l . y a z b e g i , `xevisberi goCa~, Tavi III.

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wamocvivdnen~. axla ukve SeyvarebulTa tragikuli xvedri sabolood gamorkveulia. onises pirovnebas keTilSobilebiT mosavs misive aRiareba Temis yrilobaze, sadac igi Tavisi Tavis bralmdeblad gvevlineba. am aRiarebidan icnoba znemaRali adamiani, romelic sakuTari marcxis Semdegac vaJkacobis ideals ar Ralatobs. rogorc nawarmoebidan viciT, Temma onises moqmedeba Seafasa ara rogorc Ralati, aramed rogorc ymawvilkacobiT gamowveuli Secdoma. amitom iyo, rom Temma igi ar dasaja, magram xalxisagan Sewynarebuli onise sakuTarma mamam ar daindo. onises mokvla goCasaTvis garduvalia imdenad, ramdenadac misi adamianuri tragedia swored am moqmedebaSi unda gaformdes. xalxi onises saqciels axalgazrdul Secdomad Tvlis da patiebas Suamdgomlobs, xolo goCa onises dasjas moiTxovs. Temisa da goCas gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba onises saqcielisadmi, amasTanave xevisberis gadawyvetilebis Sesrulebis garduvaloba bunebrivad saWiroebs movlenaTa Tavisebur ganviTarebas. amitomacaa, rom aq, Txzulebis am nawilSi gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobia moqmedebis swrafi tempi. mwerali gveubneba, rom onises mokvlis momentSi `es moZraoba ise swrafad moxda, ise saCqarod, rom ubedurebis Seyeneba veRaravin moaswro~. xevisberisagan sakuTari Svilis mokvlis scena imgvaradaa warmodgenili, rom goCas moqmedebaSi fiqrisa da gansjis kvali ar Cans. sxva SemTxvevebSi dinji da mosazrebuli xevisberi, axla, rodesac onises aRiareba moismina, wuTieri aRelvebis Sedegad, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli wonasworobidan gamodis. mkiTxvelze sruliad damajerebel STabeWdilebas axdens mwerlis sityvebi, rom onises aRiarebis dasasruls `zardacemuli moxuci mTlada caxcaxebda da karga xans gons ver mosuliyo~. mkvlelobis momentSi situaciis daZabulobaze, goCas gansakuTrebul mRelvarebaze mkiTxvelis STabeWdilebas aZlierebs isic, rom sakuTari gadawyvetilebis sisruleSi moyvanis dros, roca xalxma misi Seyeneba scada, `pirgamexebuli xevisberi cecxlebsa hyrida TvalTagan~. viTarebis amgvari warmodgeniT xevisberi goCas, rogorc kacuri kacis, adamianuri tragedia kidev ufro damajerebeli moCans. `xevisberi goCa~ kompoziciurad agebulia ise, rom yoveli wina Txroba Seicavs mizezs ambis Semdgomi ganviTarebisaTvis. uwyveti kavSiri Txrobisa da Seunelebeli dinamika moqmedebisa nawarmoebs gansakuTrebuli mimzidvelobis Zalas aniWebs. ZiZiasa da onises romani saqorwilo situaciaSi pirveli SexvedrisTanave iwyeba, xolo marxiliT mgzavrobis dros isini sabolood Seyvarebulni xdebian. nawarmoebis ZiriTadi kvanZi mexuTe TavSi sabolood inaskveba. qorwilis damTavrebis Semdeg ZiZiasa da onises yoveli gamoCena moqmedebaSi imis mauwyebelia, rom maTi romani Seuneleblad grZeldeba. qal-vaJis mZime momavalze mkiTxvelis winaTgrZnobas aZlierebs xevisberis SiSi erTaderTi Svilis bedze, romelic Txzulebis merve Tavidan moyolebuli araerTgzis iCens Tavs moqmedebis ganviTarebaSi. romanis ZiriTadi winaaRmdegobani Tavmoyrilia ocdameore TavSi. aq ukve moqmedebis ganviTareba umaRles safexurs aRwevs da kvanZic ixsneba. Tofis srolis xmaze Tavdaviwyebidan gamofxizlebuli qal-vaJis tragikuli xvedri sabolood gamorkveulia. ocdamesame Tavidan romanis bolo istoria iwyeba. es nawili sakmarisad vrcelia, magram mkiTxvelis interesi mainc ar neldeba TviT ukanasknel striqo284

nebamde. ZiZiasa da onises ukanaskneli Sexvedris Semdeg yuradReba arsebiTad xevisberisaken ixreba. mkiTxvelma icis, rom goCas mze da mTvare oniseze amosdis. raRa Tqma unda, man Svilis saqcieli unda gaigos da Seafasos. es ubralo cnobismoyvareoba ki ara, sruliad kanonzomieri moTxovnilebaa. nawarmoebSi Txroba Tavidanve imgvarad mimdinareobs, rom saqme damTavrebulad CaiTvleba mxolod imis Semdeg, roca mas gaigebs da Tavis msjavrs dasdebs brZeni xevisberi. mkiTxvels ainteresebs ZiZias bedic. igi Tofis srolaze gamofxizlebulma onisem gzaSi miatova da, bunebrivia, misi Semdgomi mdgomareobac gasarkvevia. dasasrul, nugzar erisTavis winaaRmdeg omi, romlisTvisac xevSi `qudze kaci~ aris gamosuli, mxolod axla iwyeba. onise pirveli Tofis srolam gamoafxizla da namdvili omi ki amis Semdeg unda moxdes. aseTia umTavresad sakiTxebi, romelsac `xevisberi goCas~ bolo istoria moicavs. aq sabolood formdeba rogorc ZiZiasa da onises, ise gugua fiCitaurisa da xevisberi goCas tragedia. ` moZRvari~. aleqsandre yazbegis `moZRvari~ 1885 wels gamoqveynda. amis Semdeg Cvens beletrists raime RirsSesaniSnavi nawarmoebi aRar Seuqmnia. romanis ZiriTadi Temaa gudamayris xeobis moZRvris, onofres cxovrebis istoria. Seyvarebuli qal-vaJis, mayvalasa da onise arabulis mZime Tavgadasavali, agreTve, maTTan dapirispirebuli gela goderZiSvilis avi saqmianoba sabolood Tavs iyris da formdeba onofre moZRvris pirovnebaSi. onofre, rogorc idealuri moZRvari, jer mayvalas, xolo Semdeg onise arabulis mimarT mzrunvelobiT obieqturad gelas mfarvel saxelmwifoebriv sistemas upirispirdeba da amis gamo udanaSaulod msjavrdadebuli Soreul gadasaxlebaSi iRupeba. `moZRvarSi~ mayvalasa da onise arabulis siyvarulis fonze urTierTdapirispirebuli arian, erTi mxriv, xalxi Tavisi tradiciuli cxovrebiT -- patiosani SromiT, maRali adamianuri TvisebebiT, xolo meore mxriv, TviTmpyrobelobis saxelmwifo aparati Tavisi gulgrili moxeleebiTa da maT erTgulebaSi Sesuli gadagvarebuli qarTvelebiT. gela goderZiSvili iseTive undo, znedacemuli da garewaria, rogorc gagi CofikaSvili da girgola. gelas saxiT mkiTxvelis winaSe dgas namusze xelaRebuli adamiani, romelic Tavis mezobels ramdenime groSad gahyidis. gela goderZiSvili, iseve rogorc girgola, Tavisi boroti saqmeebis ganxorcielebas imis wyalobiT axerxebs, rom mas mfarvelobs, mxars uWers da exmareba TviTmpyrobelobis saxelmwifo aparati. xelisuflebis daxmarebiT gela goderZiSvili Temis yrilobis mier gaSorebul mayvalas Sin ibrunebs da mas kvlav sastik tanjva-wamebaSi ayenebs. gelas veragobasTan aris dakavSirebuli mayvalasa da onise arabulis mZime Tavgadasavali, rac Txzulebis ZiriTad ambavs warmoadgens. mayvalasa da onise arabuls erTmaneTi bavSvobidan uyvardaT. siyvaruls Tan erTvoda fiqri da imedi imaze, rom isini SeuRldebodnen da normalur ojaxs Seqmnidnen. magram saqme sruliad sxvagvarad warimarTa: Tavisi neba-survilis winaaRmdeg, mayvalas jvari gadasweres gela goderZiSvilze. moulodneli araa, rom mayvalas gaTxovebam onise arabulze mZimed imoqmeda. Tavis mxriv mayvalac agreTve araa mosvenebul mdgomareobaSi. jer erTi, igi daaSores onise arabuls, romelic bavSvobidan uyvarda da meorec -- igi Cavarda iseTi gadagvarebuli kacis xelSi, rogoricaa gela goderZiSvili. gelas azriT `dedakaci da cxeni erTia -- maTraxi ki orivesaTvis gaCenili~! gadis dro. onise arabuli, romelmac ojaxis Seqmnaze ukve xeli aiRo da Tavis mZime mdgomareobas TiTqos kidec Seurigda, SemTxveviT saqmeze moxvdeba ge285

la goderZiSvilis ojaxSi. am Sexvedris dros naTeli xdeba, rom qal-vaJs kvlav erTmaneTi uyvarT da daSorebiT erTnairad itanjebian. aqedan iwyeba maTi gansakuTrebiT mZime Tavgadasavali. am Sexvedris Semdeg maTi romani grZeldeba ufro meti ZaliT, vidre aqamde yofila. isini kvlav xvdebian erTmaneTs, magram erTica da meorec grZnobs, rom maTi mdgomareoba Znelia; rom maT win eRobeba iseTi didi da boroti Zala, rogoric aris gela goderZiSvilis pirovneba. mayvala, romelsac onise arabuli Tavze metad uyvars, cdilobs es grZnoba gulSive Caiklas, oRond Seyvarebuls raime usiamovneba ar Seaxvedros da bedniers xedavdes. man adreve miiRo gadawyvetileba: `im TaviT am Tavamde ubedurs gzas vadgavar, Cems saqmeSi biWai raisTvi-Ra gavaba?.. ara, RvTis madlma!.. metad miyors da iRbals ar davukargav~! winaswar rom iTqvas, mis irgvliv Seqmnili mdgomareobis gonebis TvaliT gansja, sifrTxile da windaxeduloba mayvalas erTgvarad ganasxvavebs al. yazbegis TxzulebebSi daxatuli sxva qalebisagan. erTgvari sifrTxile da TavSekaveba onise arabulis moqmedebaSic igrZnoba. zogjer masac gonebaSi gaurbens azri, rom gelasTan brZola xumroba araa. amas emateba qalis xvewna-mudara da vaJkaci cdilobs, rom mayvalas saxe gulidan amoiRos. am mizniT igi mSobliur sofels miatovebs da mwyemsebTan gadaixveweba, magram saqmes verc es Svelis. mwerals misTvis Cveuli bunebriobiTa da damajereblobiT aqvs gadmocemuli siyvarulis grZnobis SekavebisaTvis brZolaSi vaJkacis nebisyofis gatexa. es momenti gadmocemulia Txzulebis im nawilSi, sadac erTi mwyemsi fandurze monadiris daRupvis ambavs amRerebs. mefanduris mier Tqmulma leqsma gansakuTrebuli gavlena moaxdina oniseze. mas TavdaviwyebiT uyvars mayvala da am momentSi Tqmulma simReram guli dausera, TiTqos daeWvda kidec; mas mefanduris sityvebi gonebidan ar Sordeba, xSirad TavSi gaurbens saSineli eWvi da wamoiZaxebs: `iqneb qmarsaca Ralatobs da meca~? mayvalasa da onise arabulis romanis istoriaSi aris mxolod erTi xanmokle periodi, rodesac `dReebi maTis trfialebisa warmoudgenelis siamovnebiT midioda~. es iyo im dros, rodesac gela goderZiSvili cxvarSi imyofeboda. es bedniereba mxolod ramdenime dRe grZeldeboda da maSin, roca Seyvarebulni sabolood SeTanxmdnen, rom gaparuliyvnen da mSobliuri soflidan moSorebiT daewyoT cxovreba, swored am dros gela Sin dabrunda da maTi Setakebac moxda. rogorc Txzulebidan viciT, gelas mier daWrili onise arabuli waiyvanes da mas eqimi miuCines. mayvala am SemTxvevis Semdeg daikarga ise, rom misi ambis mcodne TemSi aravin iyo, xolo gela goderZiSvili, onises gvareulobisagan sisxlis Ziebis SiSiT, soflidan miimala. moulodneli araa, rom am adamianebis saqmeSi Temi Caeria. Temis yrilobam TiToeuli maTgani cal-calke damnaSaved aRiara da samive moikveTa: `samTav CaesvaT saTemo samani, samniv Temisagan mowyvetili da SeCvenebul iqmnen~. bunebrivia, rom Temisagan mokveTis Semdeg mkiTxvels kidev ufro ainteresebs gmirebis bedi, maTi awindeli mdgomareoba. onise arabulisa da gelas Setakebis Semdeg isini mkiTxvelis TvalTagan ikargebian da Temisagan mokveTac maT dauswreblad xdeba. amis Semdeg nawarmoebis gmirTa mdgomareoba arsebiTad icvleba. amJamad es adamianebi axal, kidev ufro rTul viTarebaSi gamoCndebian, magram mwerali SesaniSnavad axerxebs maT dakavSirebas winaT moTxrobil ambebTan da gansxvavebuli situaciebis Tavmoyras erTi wamyvani xazis garSemo. Temisagan mokveTis Semdeg mkiTxvelis winaSe pirveli mayvala gamoCndeba. es garemoebac sruliad kanonzomieria da igi `moZRvris~ saerTo kompoziciidan bunebrivad gamomdinareobs. romanis dasawyisSi (pirveli sami Tavi) mwerali mog286

viTxrobs mayvalas cxovrebaze Temisagan mokveTilobis periodSi. qalis mdgomareobas mkiTxveli ecnoba im momentSi, rodesac igi uTvistomod darCenili klde-RreebSi upatronod cxovrobs da, bolos, sasikvdilod ganwiruls, moZRvari onofre Tovlidan amoiyvans da Tavis binaSi Seifarebs. bunebrivia, mkiTxvels ainteresebs is mizezebi, romelTa gamo qali ase mZime mdgomareobaSi Cavardnila. romanis IV-XII TavebSi gadmocemulia mayvalasa da onise arabulis siyvarulis istoria, maSasadame, cnobili xdeba is movlenebi, romelTac qalis Temisagan mokveTa da, sabolood, moZRvris TavSesafarSi dabinaveba ganapirobes. mayvala romanis XIII Tavidan onofres binaSi cxovrobs da amdenad mkiTxvelisaTvis saWiroa icodes, Tu ras warmoadgens misi es TavSesafari da rogori SeiZleba iyos qalis awindeli mdgomareoba. am Tavis dasawyisSi mwerali afarToebs Cvens warmodgenas onofre moZRvarze, romlis pirovnebas nawilobriv III Tavidan vicnobT. amJamad onofres idealuri pirovneba mkiTxvelisaTvis ukve imdenad aris cnobili, rom mas moZRvris qoxSi Temisagan mokveTili mayvalas cxovreba sruliad SesaZleblad miaCnia. amjerad mayvalas pirovnebaSi arsebiTi mniSvnelobis gardatexaa momxdari. axla igi ukve aRar aris is cqriala, kekluci da sicocxliT savse qali, rogoradac Cven mas adre vicnobdiT. mkiTxveli igebs, rom imis Semdeg, rac moZRvars Tavisi mZime Tavgadasavali gaagebina, mayvalam sicocxle SesaZleblad CaTvala mxolod imdenad, ramdenadac igi Tavisi sicocxliT qveynisa da xalxisaTvis sargeblobis motanas SeZlebda. mwerali gveubneba, rom `am dRidgan, am wuTebidan (e. i. im momentidan, rodesac moZRvars aRsareba uTxra -- a. m.) mayvalam sicocxle SesaZleblad CasTvala da SesaZleblad dainaxa qveynisaTvis da xalxisaTvis Tavis cxovrebiT sargebloba moetana. male SaeCvia samkurnalo balaxebis cnobas da moZRvarTan erTad hkrefavda, agrovebda da Sveloda sneulTaTvis wamlebis momzadebas~.1 mayvala, romelic erT dros sicocxlisa da siyvarulis gansaxiereba iyo, axla sulieri mamis Segirdad qceula da Tavis wuTisofels locva-vedrebaSi aRamebs. mwerlis sityvebi rom gavimeoroT, igi qveynisaTvis didi xania ukve mkvdaria, da Tu fizikurad mainc cocxlobs, es mxolod imisaTvis, rom sakuTari saSineli xvedri ufro meti simwvaviT ganicados. qalis namdvilad saSineli mdgomareoba grZeldeba manam, sanam mas zRvars daudebdes onise arabuli, romelic TavisTvis usayvarles adamians sakuTari xeliT klavs. onises amgvari moqmedebis safuZveli aris misi uzado da uangaro siyvaruli. ise rogorc al. yazbegis sxva gmirebisaTvis, onise arabulisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia bunebrioba da pirdapiroba Tavisi grZnobis gamoxatvaSi. onise arabulis moqmedeba bunebrivi da damajerebelia rogorc maSin, rodesac qal-vaJi erTnairi gegmiTa da imedebiT moqmedebs, ise im periodSi, rodesac mayvala `didi xania qveynisaTvis mkvdaria~. Txzulebis im nawilSi, romelSic Temis yrilobis Semdegdroindeli ambebia moTxrobili, onise arabuli pirvelad gamoCndeba mayvalas mokvlis Semdeg, rodesac mas moZRvari tyeSi SemTxveviT waawydeba (Tavi XVI). mxolod amis Semdeg irkveva, rom didi xnis ganmavlobaSi onise arabuls sruliad uTvistomod ucxovria. igi imdenad daSorebulia sazogadoebas, rom oficialuri xelisuflebis dawesebulebaTa saqmeebSi gaformebulia, rogorc ukve gardacvalebuli. mweralma onise arabulis cxovreba am periodSi onofre moZRvris pirovnebas daukavSira. onofre misTvis Cveuli mzrunvelobiT miudga am kacs: Wriloba Seuxvia, mSobliurad dauyvava da dauwyo gamokiTxva mizezisa, romlis gamoc mTie1

a l . y a z b e g i , `moZRvari~, Tavi XIII.

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li ase mZime mdgomareobaSi Cavardnila. xangrZlivi saubris, STagonebisa da mzrunveli damokidebulebis Sedegad moZRvarma siyvarulisaTvis wamebuli moxevis gulis mogeba SeZlo. bolos da bolos onisem moZRvars yvelaferi gaagebina da es ukanasknelic misi erTaderTi mesaidumle gaxda. rogorc nawarmoebidan viciT, oficialurma xelisuflebam, gela goderZiSvilis dabezRebiT, mayvalas mkvlelobaSi brali onofre moZRvars dasdo da mas Soreul cimbirSi gadasaxleba miusaja. onise arabuli, romelic xevsureTSi cxovrobs, gaigebs, rom misi mizeziT onofre isjeba. igi grZnobs, rom moZRvarma saidumloeba ar gacsa da sakuTari sicocxle ki gawira. marTalia, saqmis namdvili viTareba sxva aravin icis, rom axalgazrda moxeves gamoaSkaravebisa eSinodes. moZRvarsa da onise arabuls Soris arc erTi mowme ar dgas, magram znemaRal vaJkacs aseTi mowme ar esaWiroeba. amitomac aris, rom im dros, rodesac moZRvris gamoxsnis mizniT Sekrebilia ramdenime Temis saerTo yriloba, onise arabuli iq miva da mayvalas mkvlelobis namdvil viTarebas gamoamJRavnebs. misi monaTxrobidan erTxel kidev moCans namusiani vaJkaci, romelic mzad aris TviTon usastikesi sasjeli miiRos, oRond udanaSaulo moZRvari gamoixsnas. Temma onise arabuls uneblieT Cadenili danaSauli apatia da kvlav sicocxlis saSualeba misca, magram vaJkaci Tavis Tavs aseTi Sebralebis Rirsad ar Tvlis da sikvdils ixvewebs. misTvis cxovrebam ukve azri dakarga. rogorc mwerali gveubneba, `mayvala iyo onisesTvis yvelaferi da, mis sikvdilTan erTad, ubedurs mTiels aRarafrisTana aRara darCenoda-ra~. marTalia, igi fizikurad cocxlobs, magram es mxolod tanjva da vai-vaglaxia da ara namdvili cxovreba. rodesac vakvirdebiT onise arabulis mdgomareobas, vgrZnobT, rom misi cxovrebis gagrZeleba SeuZlebelia. rogorc viciT, Temma onise arabuli ar dasaja. mweralma siyvarulisTvis tanjuli adamianis mkvlelis rolSi xalxi ar gamoiyvana. marTalia, yrilobam erTxel mokveTilis xelmeored Temis mTlian organizmTan SeduReba ver dauSva, magram misi cxovrebaSi darCena mainc SesaZleblad dainaxa. onise arabuli or cecxls Sua dgas da itanjeba: igi ukve sicocxleze xelCaqneulia, sikvdils eZebs da Temi ki mas xelaxla adamianuri cxovrebisaken mouwodebs. WeSmaritad Zlieri mxatvruli ferebiT aris Sesrulebuli romanis is adgili, romelSic mocemulia jer mwerliseuli daxasiaTeba gmiris imdroindeli mdgomareobisa da Semdgom TviT onise arabulis gulwrfeli mimarTva Temisadmi. nawarmoebSi vkiTxulobT: `onise gaJrJolda da sixarulis cremlebi gadmoscvivda: metad Zvirfasi gasagoni iyo, yvelas mosxletilis gulisagan gagoneba, rom mas kidev radme afaseben, kidev raodenadme siyvaruls uCendnen. is daeca muxlis Tavebzed, mTrTolares xelebiT jmuxas Coxis kalTas daeZebda raTa daelorTxa da madlobis grZnobiT daeloSna. `ara, xalxo, ara jmuxav! ara, agremc Tqvens Wirs davlev!.. ara var Tqveni wyalobis Rirsi... es wyaloba didia, magram Zneli, metad Zneli... ara var Rirsi, arc im purisa, romelsac momawvdens... vinc lukmas momiSvers, is lukma alali iqnebis da me ki arami!.. yel veRar CauSvebs!.. jmuxaisi! Senai kvnesame... xalxo, Temo!.. agremc Tqvens Wirs davlev... ar minda, magad ar movsulvar~.1 Txzulebis am nawilis gacnobis Semdeg mkiTxvelis interesi kidev ufro izrdeba mravaltanjuli moxevis momavali xvedrisadmi. kvlav aRiZvris kiTxva: riTi damTavrdeba onise arabulis xangrZlivi tanjva-wvaleba?.. swored am dros moqmedebaSi gamoCndeba mkiTxvelisaTvis kargad cnobili, mravalgzis saxelgatexili gela goderZiSvili.

1

a l . y a z b e g i , `moZRvari~, Tavi XXIII.

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gela Temis yrilobaze mivida, xalxis wre gaarRvia da pirdapir onisesTan miiWra. man fexiT gaTela Temis neba-survili da xalxis mier Sendobili onise arabuli xalxisave Tvalwin gangmira. ase mTavrdeba mayvalasa da onise arabulis romani. am adamianTa mdgomareoba, maTi tragikuli Tavgadasavali mkiTxvelSi bunebrivad iwvevs zizRsa da undoblobas im saxelmwifoebrivi wyobilebis mimarT, romelSic isini cxovroben.

`gankicxuli~. aleqsandre yazbegis mxatvruli Semoqmedeba umTavresad soflis cxovrebis fonze iSleba. misive kalams ekuTvnis ramdenime nawarmoebi, romelSic mwerlisdroindeli qalaqis yofaa gadmocemuli. aseTebia, umTavresad, romani `gankicxuli~, moTxrobebi `faTi~ da `Cinovniki eluriZe~. al. yazbegis `gankicxulma~ adreve miiqcia farTo sazogadoebriobis yuradReba. damaxasiaTebelia erTi literaturuli faqti: 1884 wlis gazafxulze, rodesac es romani `iveriaSi~ gamoqveynda, yazbegs madlobis weriliT mimarTa gamoCenilma qarTvelma mweralma daviT kldiaSvilma. `gankicxulSi~ moqmedeba TbilisSi viTardeba. gelasianebis ojaxi TbilisSi cxovrobs. porfir gelasianze naTqvamia, rom igi aris `mdidari mebatone~. porfiri samsaxuris kacia da imave dros mamulis patronic. moqmedebis ganviTarebaSi igrZnoba, rom igi gavlenas axdens sakmarisad did moxeleebze, magram misi saqmianobis xasiaTze konkretulad miTiTebuli araa. nawarmoebSi moCanan rogorc samoqalaqo, ise samxedro moxeleebi. romanSi ixsenieba gubernatori, romelzec mxardaWeris imeds amaod amyareben usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli mari da levani. romanis centrSi dgas axalgazrda qali mari (`gankicxuli~). Txzulebis dasawyisidanve vigebT, rom mari ZaliT miuTxovebiaT sruliad Seuferebeli kacisaTvis. Cvidmet-Tvrameti wlis qals, romelic aris `gansacvifreblis mSvenieris saxisa~, qmrad hyavs ormocdaaT weliwads gadaSorebuli, `Tavgasiebuli da TmagaburZgnili~ porfir gelasiani. maris mZime mdgomareoba cxadi xdeba jer kidev imiT, rom igi colia iseTi kacisa, romelTanac saerTo enas ver poulobs. am qalis mwvave adamianuri gancdebi ufro mkafiod warmogvidgeba mas Semdeg, rodesac Cven Tvalwin gaiSleba misi ojaxuri yofa. am dros moqmedebaSi gamoCndeba porfiris da, avi da angarebiani, gauTxovrobiT gakapasebuli sofio. am aspit qals xelSi hyavs gamoWerili Tavisi uxasiaTo Zma da masze iseT gavlenas axdens, rom mTeli ojaxis baton-patronad TviTon qceula. porfirs Tavis ojaxSi yovelgvari ufleba dakarguli aqvs. igi raRac gansakuTrebuli SiSis grZnobiT emorCileba sofios survilebs. sofios unda aseTsave morCilebaSi iyolios mari da am miznis misaRwevad araviTar RonisZiebas ar erideba. rZlisa da mulis brZolaSi aSkarad igrZnoba, rom upiratesoba sofios mxarezea. romanis meore Tavis dasawyisSi naTqvamia: `mari iqamdisin Cums tanjvaSi da mwuxarebaSi iyo, rom kacs guls mouklavda~. sofiom SeZlo, rom mari, romelic ojaxis kanonieri diasaxlisia, binad erT patara oTaxSi gamoemwyvdia, xolo porfiris qonebas TviTon dapatroneboda. im dros, rodesac mari ase mZime viTarebaSia, mas dauaxlovdeba porfiris naTesavi axalgazrda levani. igi nawarmoebSi gamoCenisTanave warmogvidgeba rogorc saqmiani, Wkviani da grZnobieri axalgazrda inteligenti. levanis pirveli daaxloeba marisTan mxolod da mxolod TanagrZnobis safuZvelze daiwyo. xedavda ra marisadmi porfirisa da sofios araadamianur damokidebulebas, levanma gadawyvita daxmarebis xeli gaewodebina, raTa misTvis mdgomareoba Seemsubuqebina.

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yvelasagan damcirebulma marim ipova uangaro megobari, romelTanac gulis gaxsna SeiZleboda da mas yvelaferi gaagebina Tavis mZime mdgomareobaze. ase daiwyo qal-vaJis megobroba da igi TandaTan, sruliad bunebrivad, yovelgvari biwierebis gareSe, siyvarulSi gadaizarda. marisa da levanis daaxloebis Semdeg qalis mdgomareoba sagrZnoblad Semsubuqebulia, magram mainc saerTo situacia imdenad rTulia, Znelad savaraudoa, rom qalma am siZneleebs Tavi daaRwios. rogorc nawarmoebidan viciT, sabolood mari da levani iRupebian. isini sofios da porfiris veragobis msxverplni xdebian. nawarmoebSi Txroba imgvarad warmoebs, mkiTxveli bunebrivad grZnobs, rom axalgazrdebis daRupvis mTavari mizezi imdroindeli saxelmwifoebrivi mmarTvelobis sistemaSia. sofio da porfiri TavianTi boroti saqmeebis ganxorcielebas saxelmwifo dawesebulebebisa da maTi moxeleebis SemweobiT axerxeben. amitomac es nawarmoebi mkiTxvelSi bunebrivad aRZravda zizRisa da undoblobis grZnobas mTeli saxelmwifoebrivi wyobilebisadmi, romelSic sofiosa da porfiris veragobas ase farTo gasaqani eZleoda. `gankicxulidan~ gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa marisa da levanis saxeebi. es axalgazrdebi axali tipis mebrZoli inteligentebi arian. amgvar adamianTa tipebi qarTul literaturaSi pirvelad anton furcelaZem Semoiyvana. gasagebia, rom al. yazbegis levani da mari ufro amaRlebuli da mxatvrulobis TvalsazrisiT srulyofili tipebi arian, vidre a. furcelaZis TxzulebaTa gmirebi. mari porfirTan SeuRlebisTanave upirispirdeba gelasianebis ojaxisaTvis damaxasiaTebel adamianis Rirsebis damamcirebel atmosferos. es brZola pirvel xanebSi SedarebiT Cumia da uxmauro, maris TavdacvisaTvis `gaCumebuli moTmineba aeRo farad~, magram droTa viTarebaSi igi sakuTari adamianuri Rirsebis dasacavad TandaTan aqtiuri, Semtevi mebrZoli xdeba. marisa da levanis damegobrebis Semdeg brZola ukve aSkara xasiaTisa xdeba. mkiTxvelis Tvalwin yalibdeba ori mowinaaRmdege banaki. erTi mxriv, axalgazrda qal-vaJi, romelic maris adaminur uflebaTa dasacavad ibrZvis, xolo meore mxriv -- porfiri da sofio, romelnic araviTar saSualebas ar eridebian imisaTvis, rom axalgazrdebis samarTliani pretenziebi uaryon da, maSasadame, mari usityvo morCilebaSi iyolion. mowinaaRmdege banakebis xangrZlivi brZola bolosa da bolos erTi arsebiTi sakiTxis garSemo iyris Tavs. axalgazrdebi moiTxoven, rom mari da porfiri gaiyaron, xolo porfiri da sofio amis winaaRmdegni arian im erTaderTi sabuTiT, rom col-qmris gayra gelasianebis ojaxs raRac laqas moscxebs; rom amis gamo xalxi gelasianebze raRacas ityvis. mkiTxveli axalgazrdebis mxareze dgeba, radgan igi TviTonac rwmundeba, rom gelasianebis uwesrigo ojaxSi kulturuli da saTno maris darCena SeuZlebelia. swored imis gamo, rom marisa da levanis brZola adamianuri RirsebisaTvis mxolod TavdacviTi xasiaTisaa, igi mkiTxvelis mudmivi mxardaWeriT sargeblobs. mowinaaRmdege banakebis brZolaSi mkiTxveli sruliad garkveviT grZnobs, rom gelasianebi saxelmwifo dawesebulebaTa da moxeleebis mxardaWeriT sargebloben. yvelafridan Cans, rom isini dawesebulebebisa da moxeleTa mimxrobas TavianTi simdidris saSualebiT aRweven. gelasianebisagan gansxvavebiT, levani da mari mxolod sakuTar Zalebs emyarebian da, amdenad, brZola aSkarad uTanasworoa. miuxedavad amisa, axalgazrdebi TavianT samarTlian brZolaSi bolomde gautexelni rCebian. marTalia, es axalgazrdebi sabolood iRupebian, magram isini boroti Zalebis winaSe arasodes qeds ar ixrian, kvdebian da ki ar tydebian.

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mari da levani mkiTxvelis mexsierebaSi sabolood mkvidrdebian rogorc adamianuri Rirsebis dasacavad mebrZoli gmirebi. marisa da levanis dapirispireba gelasianebTan Txzulebis pirveli Tavebidanve iwyeba. moqmedebis ganviTarebaSi winaaRmdegoba TandaTan Rrmavdeba da aSkarad brZolis xasiaTs iRebs. maTi brZola umaRles safexurs aRwevs im momentSi, rodesac qmris ojaxidan gaqceul maris policielebi apatimreben da suliT avadmyofTa TavSesafarSi aTavseben. romanis ZiriTadi winaaRmdegobani Tavs iyrian mecamete TavSi. levani da mari mTel Rames saavadmyofos palataSi erTad saubarSi atareben. isini darwmunebulni arian, rom kanoni gelasianebs mkacrad dasjis. `Cven gadavwyviteT, -- ambobs levani, -- rom pirdapir gubernatorisaTvis unda Segvetyobina es uweso da umsgavso saqcieli da vimedovnebdiT -- saqme rigianad, Cvenda sasiamovnod gaTavdeboda~. axalgazrdebis am imedian varauds mkiTxvelic uerTdeba. igi fiqrobs, rom sofiosa da porfiris veragobas axla mainc bolo moeReba, magram sinamdvileSi sruliad sawinaaRmdego xdeba. aqac, moqmedebaSi gamoCndebian policielebi, romelnic levans apatimreben, xolo maris suliT davrdomilTa TavSesafarSi toveben. romanis am nawilSi situacia ukiduresad daZabulia, magram nawarmoebis ZiriTadi kvanZi jer kidev ar ixsneba. gelasianebisa da axalgazrdebis brZola, rac mkiTxvelis yuradRebis centrSia, jer kidev damTavrebuli araa. mecamete TavSi ambavTa Txroba mkiTxvels safuZvels aZlevs, rom am brZolis kvlav gagrZelebas moelodes. Txroba marTlac grZeldeba. momdevno nawilSi mkiTxvelisaTvis ukve cnobili xdeba rogorc dapirispirebul banakTa brZolis Sedegebi, ise TiToeuli moqmedi piris saboloo xvedri. romanis es nawili sami Tavisagan Sedgeba (XIV, XV da XVI). Txzulebis am nawilSi Txroba imgvarad warmoebs, rom igi moculobis TvalsazrisiT Zalze lakoniuria da imav dros yazbegiseburad STambeWdavi. es Sedegia mxatvruli ostatobisa, romelic mweralma konkretul SemTxvevaSi gamoiyena. man romanis XIV da XV Tavebi gaaerTiana, mravalwertilebis mwkrivi gaukeTa da iqve mravlismetyveli SeniSvnac daurTo: `am ors Tavs vstovebT, radganac maTi dabeWdva amJamad mouxerxeblad migvaCnia~. am SeniSvnidan mkiTxvelisaTvis gasagebi xdeba, rom axalgazrdebis Tavgadasavali levanis dapatimrebis Semdeg imdenad mZime yofila, mwerali mis gamomzeurebas ver bedavs. raRa Tqma unda, amis mizezi mxolod is SeiZleba iyos, rom marisa da levans TavianT samarTlian brZolaSi mosalodneli mxardaWera ver upoviaT, maSasadame, saboloo gamarjvebas gelasianebi zeimoben. sxva varaudisaTvis mkiTxvels safuZveli ar gaaCnia, radgan nawarmoebis wina TavebSi dapirispirebulTa brZola umTavresad swored am niSnis matarebelia. mwerlis mier gamoyenebuli es mxatvruli xerxi mkiTxvelis interess kidev ufro aZlierebs romanis meTeqvsmete, damamTavrebeli Tavisadmi. aq pirveli gamoCndeba levani. am Tavis dasawyisidanve vigebT, rom ukve aTi weli gasula mas Semdeg, rac Seyvarebuli qal-vaJi TbilisSi, suliT davrdomilTa saavadmyofoSi policielebma daaSores. amjerad levani Tavis mSobliur sofelSia. romanis damamTavrebeli Tavic levanis sityvebiT iwyeba: `srulma aTma weliwadma ganvlo, rac vebrZodi Cems grZnobas, sruli aTi weliwadi guli miduRda maTis gadaxdis surviliT, romelTac arc Cemi ymawvilkacoba Seibrales, arc samarTliani moTxovna miiRes mxedvelobaSi!.. gadalaxes yovelisferi, fexqveS gasrises, mxolod imisTvis, rom ar viyav Zlieri da gamocdili, cxovrebis gar291

yvnilebas ar SevCveodi. yovelis RonisZiebiT ecadnen -- SemzizReboda kacobriobac da misi debulebac da SemZulda kidec~. mkiTxvelisaTvis ukve gasagebi xdeba rogorc gamotovebuli Tavebis Sinaarsi, ise levanis awindeli mdgomareoba. ramdenime striqonis Semdeg moqmedebaSi gamoCndeba mari, romelic aqve, mkiTxvelis Tvalwin iRupeba kidec. romanis ukanaskneli striqonebidan mkiTxveli imasac igebs, rom ormocdaxuTis wlis sofiom gaTxovebiT guli daimSvida da porfiruSka ki viRac gamocdils qvrivs Cauvarda xelSi, romelic sakmaod mecadineobda misi simdidre mardad gaeflanga. mari da levani mkiTxvelis mexsierebaSi mkvidrdebian rogorc usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg adamianuri Rirsebis dasacavad mebrZoli gmirebi. aseTia nawarmoebis saerTo suliskveTeba. ukanasknel TavSic ki, rodesac levani cxovrebaze sabolood xelCaqneulia da sikvdils natrobs, am drosac xalxze mzrunvelobs: soflidan sofelSi dadis, avadmyofebs mkurnalobs, moxeleTagan Seviwroebul glexebs rCeva-darigebebs aZlevs da saCivris qaRaldebs uwers. `gankicxulSi~ naCvenebia mwerlisdroindeli Tbilisis cxovrebis rigi damaxasiaTebeli mxareebi. moqmedebaSi moCanan saxelmwifo dawesebulebani, didi da patara moxeleebi, samxedro msaxurni da policielebi. romanSi araa masobrivi scenebi, Txroba imgvarad mimdinareobs, moqmedebaSi xalxi ar Cans, rom amis mixedviT cxovrebis saerTo pirobebze gvelaparakna. qalaquri cxovrebaa naCvenebi, agreTve, al. yazbegis moTxrobebSi `faTi~ da `Cinovniki eluriZe~. am nawarmoebebSi ukve igrZnoba qalaqis yofis saerTo majiscema, aq Canan adamianebi, erTi mxriv, gancxromis Svilni, bednierni da uzrunvelni, xolo meore mxriv -- cxovrebis mier gaTelili, lukmapuris saSovnelad xelgawvdili Raribebi. garda amisa, qalaquri yofis suraTebi gvxvdeba agreTve mis daumTavrebel moTxrobebsa da dramatul TxzulebebSi.

al. yazbegis dramaturgia

aleqsandre yazbegis SemoqmedebiT memkvidreobaSi mniSvnelovan adgils iWers dramaturgia. misi piesebi XIX saukunis oTxmociani wlebis qarTul TeatrSi warmatebiT idgmeboda, xolo zogierTi maTgani dRemde inarCunebs cxovelmyofelobasa da mimzidvelobis Zalas. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania `arsena~ da `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~. drama `arsenas~ Temad aRebulia batonymobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli glexis, cnobili saxalxo gmiris -- arsena oZelaSvilis Tavgadasavali. arsena oZelaSvili mecxramete saukunis pirvel naxevarSi cxovrobda. igi yma iyo, romelic batonis veragobam aiZula yaCaRad gavardniliyo. misi, rogorc batonymobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli glexis, saxeli sayovelTaod popularuli gaxda. arsenas gmirobaze xalxuri leqsebi iqmneboda jer kidev saukunis pirvelsave naxevarSi, xolo meore naxevris damdegs sabolood Camoyalibda cnobili `arsenas leqsi~. al. yazbegis `arsena~ mkiTxvelis mexsierebaSi xSirad aRadgens xalxur `arsenas leqss~, magram misi TxzulebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia rTuli situaciebi da mTavari gmiris mkafiod gamoxatuli dramatizmi. TxzulebaSi dasawyisidanve gamoCndeba batonymuri urTierTobiT Seviwroebuli axalgazrda glexi arsena. fardis axdisTanave gaismis misi mamxilebeli sityvebi batonis veragobaze: `batonebs rom didi xarji undebodesT, Cveni ra gadasaxadia?.. imdens raTa xarjaven, rac ar SeuZlianT~. Cqara isic cnobili xdeba, rom arsena colis SerTvas apirebs, magram batonisagan saWiro nebarTva ver miuRia. erT SemTxvevaSi, ioramTan saubarSi, arsena

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pirdapir ambobs, rom mas amgvar SemTxvevaSi, saWiro yovelgvari movaleoba moxdili aqvs, magram batoni mainc jvrisweris nebas ar aZlevs. saqmes isic aZnelebs, rom arsenas sacole TvalSi mosvlia zaqara mouravs. igi arsenas aSkarad emuqreba, rom sacoles waarTmevs. batonisa da misi mouravis araadamianurma saqcielma patiosani SromisaTvis ganwyobili arsena kacis mkvlelad aqcia, normaluri cxovrebis kalapotidan amoagdo da yaCaRobis saxifaTo gzaze daayena. dramis meore da mesame moqmedebaSi arsenasa da garsevan amayaZes Soris winaaRmdegoba umaRles safexurs aRwevs. isini am dros ukve samkvdro-sasicocxlo brZolaSi arian Cabmulni. erT mxarezea batoni, romelsac icavs mefis xelisufleba, diambegisa da yazaxebis saxiT, xolo meore mxareze dgas arsena, romelic glexobis saerTo mxardaWeriT aris garemoculi. arsenas ukve sakuTari razmi hyavs, romelSic mis bedSi myofi glexebi arian gaerTianebulni. arsenasadmi glexobis saerTo mxardaWeriT mwerlis mier xazgasmulia maTi ideuri erTianoba. mkiTxvels savsebiT bunebrivad gamohyavs daskvna, rom arsena yma glexobis saerTo mZime yofis, misi adamianuri fiqrisa da miswrafebis gamomxatvelia. mweralma garsevan amayaZis pirovnebaSi SesaniSnavad ganasaxiera uxasiaTo, gulqva da veragi mebatone. arsena bolos mainc amayaZis mier mosazrebuli gegmiT iRupeba. amayaZem SeZlo, rom arsenas mkvlelad misive naTlimama petre gamoeyvana. petrec, Tavis mxriv, mebatonis msxverplia. amayaZem SeZlo, rom adre gulubryvilo da keTili glexi naTel-mironis moRalated da xalxis sayvareli gmiris mkvlelis rolSi gamoeyvana. gansakuTrebiT STambeWdavia arsenas daRupvis scena. axalgazrda col-qmari, arsena da nino, tyeSi erTad arian da erTmaneTis siaxloviT tkbebian. miuxedavad yaCaRuri cxovrebisa, isini mainc Tavs bednierad Tvlian. am netarebis wuTebSi qal-vaJs zurgidan epareba moRalate naTlimama, romelsac xelSi dambaCa uWiravs. igi aRelvebuli ucqeris Tavis samsxverplos, iaraRsac umiznebs, magram jer kidev ver imetebs, meryeobs da, amrigad, is TviTonac erTgvarad itanjeba. am dros kvlav gamoCndeba veragi amayaZe. igi usityvod emuqreba sulgayidul mouravs da es ukanasknelic arsenas ukve klavs. srolis xmaze SemTxvevis adgilas modian moxuci Tavadi iorami Tavisi glexebiT, garsevan amayaZe diambegiTa da yazaxebiT. momakvdav arsenas dakonebuli nino gulsaklavad qviTinebs, xolo megobris moRalate petre `gaSterebuli da gafiTrebuli~ dgas. moxuci ioramisa da glexebis zizRi arsenas mkvlelisadmi petres warmogvidgens rogorc iseT adamians, romelic mkacri da Tanamimdevruli egoizmis msxverpli gamxdara. arsenas saxe, rogorc batonymobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli gmirisa, cxovrebis amgvari dasasruliT kidev ufro mimzidveli da damajerebeli moCans. saxelovanma mweralma arsenas cxovrebis istoriaSi moxdenilad Caaqsova socialuri usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg brZolis motivi, rac misi mxatvruli memkvidreobisaTvis sazogadod damaxasiaTebelia. dramis mTels manZilze arsena warmogvidgeba rogorc adamianis mier adamianis Cagvris winaaRmdeg mebrZoli gmiri. igi Tavisi Seupovari brZoliT da adamianuri keTilSobiluri TvisebebiT sapatio adgils ikavebs al. yazbegis saxelovan gmirTa galereaSi. *** aleqsandre yazbegis dramatuli nawerebidan gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva misi xuTmoqmedebiani istoriuli drama `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~. es Txzuleba avtorma 1883 wlis damdegs daamTavra da imave wels gamoaqveyna kidec Jurnal `iveriaSi~.

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nawarmoebma gamoqveynebisTanave sazogadoebis mowoneba daimsaxura. maSinve iyo cdebi, rom igi dadgmuliyo, magram sacenzuro pirobebis gamo XIX saukunis oTxmocian wlebSi am dramis scenaze warmodgena ar moxerxda. `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~ sazogadoebam scenaze mxolod mecxramete saukunis miwuruls naxa. `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~ pirveli qarTuli originaluri patriotuli dramaa, romelic istoriul Temazea gaSlili. dramas safuZvlad udevs konkretuli faqti, romelsac adgili hqonda meCvidmete saukunis damdegs. istoriulad cnobilia, rom 1605 wels sparseTis Sahma saqarTveloSi gamogzavna Tavis karze aRzrdili, gamahmadianebuli konstantine batoniSvili. moRalate batoniSvils Tan axlda yizilbaSTa laSqari. konstantinem mokla sakuTari mama kaxeTis mefe aleqsandre, mokla agreTve RviZli Zma giorgi, Tavi kaxeTis mefed gamoacxada da qvrivi rZlis qeTevanis colad SerTva ganizraxa. bunebrivia, rom qarTvelebma gadagvarebuli batoniSvili mefed ar miiRes da mas omi gaumarTes. konstantine batoniSvili Tavisi yizilbaSebiT damarcxda da igi TviTonac imave omSi moikla. al. yazbegma Tavis dramaSi am istoriul movlenas SeuerTa qeTevan dedoflis wamebis faqti, rac 1624 wels moxda. konkretuli istoriuli movlenebis mxatvruli ganzogadebiT mweralama Seqmna mgznebare patriotuli Txzuleba, romelic mkiTxvelze gavlenas axdens. nawarmoebSi gamoxatul adamianTa mamuliSviluri saqmeebi mkiTxvelSi bunebrivad aRZravs samSoblos TavisuflebisaTvis Tavdadebisa da Tavganwirvis keTilSobilur grZnobas. qeTevan dedoflis pirovnebaSi mwerlis mier xorcSesxmulia qarTveli qalis maRali moraluri da patriotuli Tvisebebi. igi warmogvidgeba ara rogorc didebis maZiebeli dedofali, aramed rogorc Tavisi qveynisa da xalxisaTvis Tavdadebuli deda. qeTevani simpaTias imsaxurebs nawarmoebSi pirveli gamoCenisTanave. mSvidobian mdgomareobaSi, alaverdobaze, dedoflis yovel sityvaSi, yovel moqmedebaSi igrZnoba misi daucxromeli zrunva xalxis keTildReobaze. misi pirovneba mkiTxvelis TvalSi kidev ufro maRldeba im dros, rodesac saTno dedofals brZolis velze vxedavT, rogorc xalxis meTaurs. drama `wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~ dasawyisidanve izidavs da Tavis orbitaSi aqcevs mkiTxvelsa Tu mayurebels. am nawarmoebis yoveli scena Zlier gavlenas axdens, magram gansakuTrebiT STambeWdavia ukanaskneli moqmedeba, romelSic mamulisaTvis Tavdadebul adamianTa gmiruli saqmeebi dasrulebuli saxiT warmogvidgeba. aqac yuradRebis centrSi dgas qeTevan dedofali. moqmedeba sparseTSi mimdinareobs. qeTevani arCevanis winaSe dgas: sarwmunoeba Seicvalos da Sah abasis colobas daTanxmdes, Tu darCes qristian qarTvelad da amis gamo usastikesi wameba miiRos. qeTevanis pirovnebis STamagonebeli sidiade swored imaSi mdgomareobs, rom igi meores irCevs. qarTveli qalis umaRlesi sispetake, simtkice da gautexeloba aleqsandre yazbegis dramaSi didi mxatvruli zomierebiTa da damajereblobiT aris gadmocemuli. qeTevanis cxovrebaSi mTeli rigi movlenebia, romelTa gavleniT mosalodneli iyo misi nebisyofis gatexa, magram gulsruli dedofali bolomde uryevad rCeba Tavis gadawyvetilebaze. mkiTxvelze STamagonebel gavlenas axdens dedoflis pasuxi im momentSi, rodesac mas qaixosro da konstantine samSobloSi gamoqcevis winadadebas aZleven. TanamemamuleTagan SeTavazebuli winadadebis sapasuxod qeTevani mtkiced ambobs: `me ar gaviqcevi, SiSs ar vuCveneb... rodesac mTeli qristianobis Tvali Cvenken aris moqceuli, rodesac Cvengan moelian magaliTs, me neba ara maqvs, Sevdrke am sofliur satanjvelis winaSe da veCveno sulmokled... arc veCvenebi~! qeTevan dedoflis am pasuxs uSualod mosdevs misi wamebis aqti. scenaze moCans aguzguzebuli koconi, romelzec daCoqili dgas TeTri tansacmliT Semosili qe294

Tevani. dedofals xelebi gulze dauwyvia da mravlismetyveli Tvalebi zecisaTvis miupyria. mas ukve cecxli ekideba. aleqsandre yazbegis dramaSi qeTevanis pirovneba imdenad amaRlebulia, rom igi marTlac gansakuTrebul STabeWdilebas tovebs. Tu qarTveli mkiTxveli dramaSi gadmocemul movlenebs SedarebiT mSvidad da uSfoTvelad iRebs, es imis wyalobiTaa, rom igi qeTevan dedoflis cxovrebas icnobs; man icis, rom istoriuli sinamdvile mwerals yvela safuZvels aZlevda, raTa qeTevanis pirovneba amgvarad gamoesaxa. TxzulebaSi, garda qeTevan dedoflisa, samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebisa da Tavganwirvis SesaniSnav magaliTebs iZlevian gmiri vaJkacebi. amaTgan pirvel rigSi dasaxelebulia qaixosro omaniSvili. qaixosro Wabukobidanve qeTevanze Seyvarebuli yofila. igulisxmeba, rom qeTevanis gaTxovebis Semdeg qaixosro kvlav saTuTad inaxavda dedoflisadmi uzado Tayvaniscemis grZnobas. igi, axla ukve saxelovani sardali, erTgulad emsaxureba rogorc mSobliur qveyanas, ise Tavis saTayvanebel dedofals. damaxasiaTebelia, rom qaixosro omaniSvili samSoblos gansacdelis Jams Tavis pirad grZnobas vaJkacurad ikavebs da mTels Zalasa da energias saqveyno saqmes andomebs. konstantine batoniSvilis winaaRmdeg saomrad mzadebis momentSi qaixosro mtkiced dgas samSoblos Rirsebis dasacavad mebrZolTa mowinave rigebSi. igi sasaxleSi gamarTul pirvelsave TaTbirze STamagoneblad mouwodebs Tanamemamuleebs: `qarTvels SeuZlian iyos qarTveli da mxolod qarTveli!.. mas SiSi da Zala ver SeakrTobs, ver acvlevinebs fers... Cven es dagvimtkices CvenTa winaparT, maT gagvikvales gza da maTs nakvalevs unda mivyveT... Tu ubedurebam dagvZlia, gavwydeT pirze RimiliT, gavwydeT darwmunebulni, rom Cvenis movaleobisaTvis ar gviRalatnia!..~ qaixosros mgznebare mamuliSviluri mowodeba moqmedebis devizad iqceva TaTbirze damswre qarTveli sardlebisaTvis. am azriT ibrZvis yvela maTgani da yvelaze pirvelad TviTon qaixosro omaniSvili. qaixosro samSoblo qveynis gadasarCenad brZolaSi mowinave poziciebze moCans mudam da yvela SemTxvevaSi. amasTanave, yovelTvis igrZnoba misi amaRlebuli, kdemamosili damokidebuleba satrfo dedoflisadmi. qaixosro qeTevanTan aris sicocxlis ukanasknel wuTebSic. im dros, rodesac dedofali ukve wamebis koconzea, mis gverdiT cal muxlze daCoqili qaixosro dgas. mgrZnobiare vaJkaci, romelic qeTevanisadmi uzado siyvaruls Wabukobidanve guliT atarebda, axlac masTanaa da masTan erTad Sahis brZanebiT danTebul koconze iwvis. samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebas, sasaxelo gmirobasa da vaJkacobas amJRavneben, agreTve, dramaSi gamoyvanili Sermazan ColoyaSvili, gorjasp arabuli da sxvebi. dasasrul, saWiroa isic iTqvas, rom TxzulebaSi gansakuTrebiT sagrZnobia xalxis roli am TavdacviT omSi. dramaSi swored glexoba moCans, rogorc umTavresi Zala, romelmac am sabediswero momentSi qveyana gansacdelisagan ixsna. *** aleqsandre yazbegis TxzulebaTa ena ZiriTadad mwerlis epoqis literaturul qarTuls emyareba. aRsaniSnavia mxolod is, rom mis TxzulebebSi zogjer Tavs iCens marTlweris normaTa darRvevis iseTi SemTxvevebi, rogoric mwerlisagan moulodnelad SeiZleba gveCvenos. am garemoebaze jer kidev mwerlis Tanamedroveebi miuTiTebdnen. grigol orbelianma al. yazbegis ena aRiara rogorc

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`mSvenieri qarTuli~ da mas mxolod marTlweris wesebis calkeul darRvevebze miuTiTa. aleqsandre yazbegis moTxrobebsa da romanebSi sagrZnobia dialeqtizmebi. mis TxzulebebSi ZiriTadad moxeuri kiloa gabatonebuli, magram rodesac moqmedebaSi gamoCndebian sxva kuTxis adamianebic (mTiulebi, gudamayrelebi, xevsurebi), maT saubarSi Tavs iCens konkretuli kuTxis dialeqtisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Taviseburebani. aleqsandre yazbegis nawerebSi dialeqtizmebis gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi ZiriTadad personaJTa metyvelebaSi gvxvdeba, xolo TviTon mwerali am mxriv Tavisufalia. aqve isic unda iTqvas, rom dialeqturi sityvebisa da gamoTqmebis xmareba Cveni beletristis TxzulebaTa saerTo mimzidvelobas sruliadac ar amcirebs. misi yvela nawarmoebi Tavidan bolomde Seunelebeli interesiT ikiTxeba.

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vaJa-fSavela (1861-1915)

biografiuli cnobebi. axla duSeTisa da TianeTis raionebSi Sedis is ZvelTaganve cnobili kuTxe, romelsac fSavi ewodeba. xevsureTTan da TuSeTTan erTad, fSavi Tavidanve iqcevda yuradRebas rogorc Tavisi diadi da, amasTanave, pirquSi bunebiT, ise mosaxleobis eTnografiuli TaviseburebebiT. fSavlebs, iseve rogorc xevsurebsa da TuSebs, Zalian xSirad uxdebodaT TavdacviTi brZola sxvadasxva moTareSe tomTan; isini TavgamodebiT icavdnen mtrisagan TavianT miwa-wyals, ojaxsa da saqonels. am brZolebma mravalferovani gamoxatuleba pova maT xalxur SemoqmedebaSi. fSav-xevsurul poeziaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ukavia legendebs im zRaprulsa da saocar Zalebze, romlebic, ganmtkicebuli crurwmenis Tanaxmad, mterze gamarjvebas uzrunvelyofdnen. am poeziaSi daxasiaTebulia ama Tu im vaJkacis gmiroba da, bunebis suraTebTan erTad, gadmocemulia mravali legendaruli SemTxveva maTi piradi cxovrebidan. swored fSavis amnair bunebasa da zRaprul-legendarul garemocvaSi, patara sofel CargalSi, 1861 wlis 14 (26) ivliss daibada luka razikaSvili, romelmac Tavis poetur fsevdonimad `vaJa-fSavela~ airCia. vaJas deda barbale (gulqani) fxikleSvili, -- sofel sxlovanidan, gamoirCeoda Tavisi mgrZnobiarobiT, keTili guliT da xalxuri poeziis siyvaruliT. vaJas mama pavle razikaSvili mRvdeli iyo da sazogadod wignier kacad iTvleboda. amasTanave is kargi meurne iyo da gonieradac uZRveboda Tavis wvrilSvilian ojaxs. mas 6 Svili hyavda: giorgi, marTa, luka (vaJa-fSavela), niko (baCana), Tedo da aleqsandre. vaJa-fSavelas biografiidan gansakuTrebiT Semdegi momentebia sagulisxmo: 8 wlis vaJa Telavis sasuliero saswavlebelSi miabares. iq man 6 weli dahyo, Semdeg Tbilisis orklasian samoqalaqo saswavlebelSi gadmoiyvanes, xolo ori wlis Semdeg is Cairicxa goris sasuliero seminariaSi, sadac amzadebdnen maswavleblebs soflis saxalxo skolebisaTvis. 1882 wels vaJam daamTavra es seminaria da is daniSnes maswavleblad amtnisxevis skolaSi, sofel tolaTsofelSi. cota xanSi vaJas am skolis datoveba mouxda da man ganizraxa umaRlesi ganaTlebis miReba. am mizniT is 1883 wels peterburgs gaemgzavra, sadac misi ufrosi Zma giorgi swavlobda da Cairicxa kidec iuridiul fakultetze, magram usaxsrobis gamo mecadineoba Sewyvita da momdevno welsve dabrunda saqarTveloSi. erTxans is Sinamaswavleblad dadga sof. oTarSenSi amilaxvrianT ojaxSi: aswavlida oTar amilaxvris vaJs -- giorgis. aq Seuyvarda mas amave ojaxSi gazrdili ekaterine (keke) nebieriZe, romelic colad SeirTo 1886 wels da masTan erTad dabrunda sof. CargalSi. imave wels gadavidnen sof. did-ToneTSi, sadac is maswavleblad dainiSna. did-ToneTSi man ori weli dahyo: maswavleblobidan ganTavisuflebis Semdeg mxolod ramdenime dRe muSaobda gaz. `iveriis~ redaqciaSi, radgan aseT muSaobas ver Seegua, dabrunda CargalSi da sabolood iq dasaxlda. 1890 wels vaJas dedac gardaecvala da mamac. 1892 wels vaJas marjvena Tvali dausaxiCrda (cimbiris WiriT daavadebuli saqonlis xorcis Wamisagan). karga

xans mkurnalobda. vaJas ojaxi TandaTan izrdeboda da rodesac 1902 wels sruliad moulodnelad gardaicvala misi coli, vaJas xelze oTxi patara bavSvi darCa. vaJam 1904 wels SeirTo didebaSvilis qali -- nino (Tamari), romelTanac SeeZina vaJi da didi ojaxis rCena mas ukve mZime tvirTad daawva. mZime fizikurma, glexkacurma Sromam da daZabulma sazogadoebriv-literaturulma moRvaweobam Tavisi kvali daaCnia vaJa-fSavelas janmrTelobas. bolo xanebSi is Tavs kargad ver grZnobda da drodadro cudadac xdeboda. 1915 wels vaJa TbilisSi samkurnalod Camovida. aq mas qarTuli sityvakazmuli sazogadoebis iniciativiT iubile gaumarTes. TandaTanobiT misi janmrTeloba ise gauaresda, rom daawvines samxedro lazareTSi, romelic maSin, omianobis gamo, dRevandeli universitetis SenobaSi iyo moTavsebuli. miuxedavad gamocdil eqimTa zrunvisa, avadmyofoba ufro da ufro moekida vaJas. mTeli saqarTvelo adevnebda Tvalyurs misi janmrTelobis mdgomareobas. imdroindeli presa yoveldRiurad awvdida sazogadoebas cnobas avadmyofobis mimdinareobis Sesaxeb. 1915 wlis 27 ivliss (9 agvistos) presam auwya qveyanas, rom 54 wlis asakSi gardaicvala qarTveli sasiqadulo poeti vaJa-fSavela. ramdenime dRis Semdeg qarTvelma sazogadoebam vaJas cxedari didubis panTeonSi daasaflava, xolo gardacvalebidan 20 wlisTavze, 1935 wels, didi poetis neSti mTawmindis panTeonSi gadaasvenes. zemogadmocemuli cnobebi vaJas cxovrebis ufro garegnul mxares gvidgens da maSasadame, is sruliadac ar aris sakmarisi imisaTvis, rom erTgvari warmodgena mainc SeviqmnaT misi cxovrebis mTavar Sinaarsze, misi sicocxlis mamoZravebel motivebze, sazogadoebriv cxovrebasa da damsaxurebaze. TviT vaJa-fSavela wers, rom waruSlel STabeWdilebas tovebda masze mamis naambobi moTxrobebi da sxvadasxva gmiris Tavgadasavali. Telavis sasuliero saswavlebelSi Sesvlamde, e.i. 8 wlamde, gaecno is `vefxistyaosans~ da mraval sagmiro ambavs. Tavisi sicocxlis am periods vaJa imdenad did mniSvnelobas aniWebs, rom ambobs: `swored es xana daedva saZirkvlad, libod Cems Semoqmedebaso.~ Telavis sasuliero saswavlebelSi yofnam ki, piriqiT, `Cems gulsa da gonebas veraferi Sehmatao,~ -- gveubneba is, -- radgan bavSvebisagan `laTinuri da berZnuli frazebis dazepirebas moiTxovdnen da Tan reJimic autanlad mkacri iyoo~. rogorc Cans, vaJas pirovnebis Camoyalibebasa da gamomJRavnebaSi didi roli iTamaSa goris saostato seminariaSi yofnam. vaJas imdroindeli amxanagebis da nacnobebis mogonebebidan viciT, rom igi Zalian bevrs kiTxulobda, werda leqsebs, erT-erTi xelmZRvaneli iyo moswavleTa xelnaweri saliteraturo Jurnalisa, gaecno xalxosnuri moZraobis TvalsaCino muSakebs da aqtiurad monawileobda legalurad Tu aralegalurad gamarTul disputebSi. Semdgom, rodesac vaJa maswavleblobda, martooden Tavisi uSualo movaleobis SesrulebiT arasodes kmayofildeboda. amitom xSirad mosdioda konfliqti adgilobriv memamuleebTan, mRvdlebTan da mamasaxlisebTan. vaJa Tavmoyvare da udreki pirovneba iyo. es Cans misi cxovrebis yvela nabijidan da es iyo imis mizezi, rom vaJa saxelmwifo samsaxurs ver egueboda. samagierod is did energias axmarda sazogadoebrivad sasargeblo saqmianobas: iRvwoda imisaTvis, rom SiraqSi Caesaxlebina umiwawylo fSavelebi; mieRwiaT fSavis aragvTan gamomdinare mJave wylis keTilmowyobisaTvis; gamoekvliaT fSavis midamo, iqneb mis wiaRSi raime Zvirfasi madani aRmoeCinaT, rac materialuri arsebobis tvirTs Seumsubuqebda adgilobriv mosaxleobas. vaJa-fSavela 1905 wlis moZraobaSic aqtiurad iyo Cabmuli da policiis sagangebo zedamxedvelobis qveSac imyofeboda.

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am dros vaJa sofel CargalSia, mwirniadagian sofelSi. is TviTon xnavs, Tesavs, mkis, lewavs da wisqvilSiac TviTon fqvavs; saqonels aSenebs, uvlis. igi sanaxevrod bnel qoxSi cxovrobs da xandaxan navTis SeZenis Tavic ara aqvs, rom Wraqi aanTos. xSirad is buxarSi Seyrili fiCxis Suqze wers. araferi aqvs vaJas, rigiani Coxac ki, rom literaturul saRamoze gamovides da, miuxedavad aseTi pirobebisa, igi wers Tavis brwyinvale leqsebs, uSesaniSnaves poemebs, warmtac moTxrobebs, mecnieruli Rirebulebis eTnografiul werilebs da gonebamaxvilur publicistursa da literaturul-kritikul statiebs. vaJas 800-mde didi da mcire moculobis Txzulebebidan moismis xma da mowodeba didi moqalaqisa, gulistkivili didi patriotisa, xma samarTliani da, amasTanave, lmobieri vaJkacisa, filosofiuri interesebiT ganmsWvaluli pirovnebisa, uaRresad humanuri da Rrma moazrovne xelovanisa. yvelaferi es vaJas SemoqmedebaSi gansaxierebulia iseTi poeturi ZaliT, rom gancvifrebaSi mohyavda da mohyavs ara marto Tanamemamuleni, aramed yvela ucxoeli, vinc ki ramdenadme mainc miuaxlovda mis TxzulebebSi moqceul azrsa da mxatvruli gansaxierebis vaJaseul gzas.

I. vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi da mTavari azri

vaJa-fSavelas Sexeduleba literaturasa da xelovnebaze. vaJafSavelas literaturuli mrwamsi 80-90-ian wlebSi yalibdeba; amave xanebSi momwifda literaturul movlenaTa, misi analizis unari. ukve am periodis dasawyisSive savsebiT Segnebulad afasebs vaJa xalxuri poeziis nimuSebs da maTi analizi iseT doneze ahyavs, romelic dRemde ar aris gadalaxuli. es aris namdvili profesiuli analizis nimuSi, radgan dasabuTeba da mxolod dasabuTeba uZRvis, axlavs da amarTlebs azrisa Tu STabeWdilebis gadmocemas. aseTia eTnografiul masalaze dayrdnobili, magram azrobrivad amgvar farglebs didad gacilebuli misi werilebi -- `fSavlebi~, `fSavlebis cxovrebidam~, `gmiris ideali fSauri poeziis gamoxatulebiT~, `kopala da iaxsari-devebis mebrZolni~, `fSaveli dedakacis mdgomareoba da ideali fSauri poeziis gamoxatulebiT~ da mravali sxva. amave periodSi upretenzio, magram damarwmunebeli toniT ganmartavs vaJa rig enobrivsa da literaturul problemas. roca xelTa gvaqvs CvenTvis saintereso masala, erT sayuradRebo da zogadi mniSvnelobis daskvnamde mivdivarT -- Tuki vinme axalgazrda poetsa da kritikosze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 80-90-ian wlebSi Tavisi TvalsazrisiT, movlenaTadmi midgomiT da SemoqmedebiTi idealebiT 60-ianeli iyo, pirvel yovlisa, vaJaze iTqmis. vaJa-fSavela moucilebelia im literaturuli atmosferosgan, romelic Cvens sinamdvileSi iliasa da akakis gamoCeniT Seiqmna. vaJasa da maT Soris gansxvavebas poeturi individualuroba qmnis da ara Tvalsazrisi. es asea yovelTvis, roca msoflmxedveloba aerTianebs nairnairi poeturi individualobiT dajildoebul xelovanT. amitom vgrZnobT Cven, rom msoflmxedvelobrivad vaJa iliasa da akakis Tanamedrove ufroa, vidre momdevno Taobis warmomadgeneli. zemoTqmuls mowmobs sakiTxebis is wre, romelSiac moqceulia vaJa-fSavela da gza, romelsac igi am sakiTxebis gasaSuqeblad irCevs.

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*** vaJa-fSavelas literaturul SexedulebaTa gaTvaliswineba im siZnelesTanaa dakavSirebuli, rom mas Tavidanve ar miucia Tavisi mosazrebisaTvis ramdenadme mainc Camoyalibebuli saxe. 24 wlis ilia WavWavaZem programuli mniSvnelobis `oriode sityva..~ dastamba; daaxloebiT aseTive mniSvnelobisa iyo akaki wereTlis `ramdenime sityva `Canguris~ Sesaxeb~, romelic man 25 wlis asakSi gamoaqveyna. vaJa-fSavela ki ukve saxelmoxveWili da savsebiT dasrulebuli poeti iyo, roca literaturuli sakiTxebisadmi sagangebod miZRvnili statiebis weras Seudga: 35 wlisa Sesrulda is, roca `Pro domo sua~ dawera, xolo am xasiaTis sxva werilebi vaJas sicocxlis bolo aTeul wlebs miekuTvneba. adreuli periodis vaJas Sexedulebebi ufro poeturi, leqsiTi Txzulebebis saxiT aris gadmocemuli, rac, cxadia, yovelTvis ar aris Tvalsazrisis gamoxatvisaTvis zustad da savsebiT Sesaferisi forma. amasTanave, Semdegi momenticaa gasaTvaliswinebeli: iliam da akakim paeqrobiT, SeteviTa da TavdasxmiT daiwyes literaturuli moRvaweoba. am situaciaSi aucilebeli iyo sakuTari poziciis gaTvalsaCinoeba, misi daxasiaTeba, upiratesobis Cveneba da damtkiceba. vaJa-fSavelas winaSe aseTi moTxovna ar idga, is uSualod erTvoda ukve arsebul literaturul garemos -- iliasa da akakis praqtikaSi ukve ganxorcielebul, ukve Seqmnil garemos. amitom adrindelTan Setevaze gadasvliT ar dauwyia vaJas literaturuli moRvaweoba. is im moTxovnilebis winaSe idga, rom miegno axali poeturi SesaZleblobisaTvis, e. i. mas axleburad unda eTqva is, rac sxva saxiT da sxva sityvieri samosiT arsebiTad ukve Tqves vaJas winaprebma, qarTuli sityvis gigantebma -- iliam da akakim. es ki umZimesi amocanaa xelovanis winaSe mdgar amocanaTa Soris: es aris poeturi individualobis gamocda, gamocda xelovanis niWis originalobisa da SesaZleblobebisa. zemonaTqvami, rasakvirvelia, ki ar ugulebelyofs, aramed gulisxmobs interess imis gagebisas, Tu ra da rogor SexedulebaTa rkalSi trialebs vaJa, ra asazrdoebs mis moqalaqeobriv Segnebasa da poetur ganwyobilebebs. vaJa-fSavelasaTvis ueWveli iyo, rom `yvela poets qveynis saWiroeba aRonebs da awuxebs.~ misi amosavali iyo debuleba -- `xelovneba qveynis saWiroebas Tan misdevs~. vaJas mixedviT, esaa xelovnebis Sinaarsica da mizanic. amocanad mxolod imis garkveva rCeboda, Tu konkretulad raSi mdgomareobs `qveynis saWiroeba~ da ra evaleba mwerals, poets, xelovans, anu raSi mdgomareobs literaturisa da xelovnebis sazogadoebrivi roli da mniSvneloba. vaJa-fSavela, roca `qveynis saWiroebaze~ laparakobda, arc maincdamainc materialur viTarebas gulisxmobda da arc mxolod patriotuli ganzraxviT izRudeboda. mis mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi TiTqmis ar gvxvdeba miTiTeba mZime ekonomiur pirobebze, rogorc sulieri amaRlebisaTvis gadaulaxav dabrkolebebze, rogorc gonebrivi da zneobrivi energiis damSretsa Tu borkilze. xalxosnebisagan vaJas es momenti gamohyofs da ganasxvavebs. mis mxatvrul SemoqmedebaSi aramcTu sagangebo, ramdenadme mniSvnelovani adgilic ki ara aqvs daTmobili msjelobas qveynis materialuri donis amaRlebis sakiTxebze. rogorc Cans, mas kargad hqonda gaTvaliswinebuli mxatvruli literaturis SesaZleblobaTa farglebi da sruliadac ar aWarbebda mwerlobis rolis SefasebaSi. literaturas moeTxoveba (da SeuZlia) qveynis sulier `saWiroebaTa~ dakmayofileba; mas SeuZlia inteleqtualuri da emociuri sferoebis momzadeba imisaTvis, rom adamianma upasuxos am saWiroebas. vaJa-fSavela mravalgzis imeorebs, rom am uzarmazari amocanis ganxorcieleba aris mwerlobis sapatio movaleoba.

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xelovneba, romelic aucileblobiT gulisxmobs ocnebas, sul imis qadageba da mowodebaa, rom adamiani ar aRmoCndes garemos mona, moerios mas da amaRldes masze. esaa literaturisa da xelovnebis mTavari azri da daniSnuleba. vaJas SemoqmedebaSi ver vadasturebT erTi poziciis meoreTi Secvlis niSnebs. Cveni mwerali erT mTlian, SeiZleba iTqvas, ganuxrel Tvalsazriss adgas xelovnebisa da literaturis daniSnulebis sakiTxebSi: xelovneba mowodebulia upasuxos qveynis saWiroebas da xelovans aseTi pasuxis imedic unda hqondes. sadac es imedi ar arsebobs, iq TviT xelovanic ar arsebobs. umZimesi tvirTia da umaRlesi amocana, gamoxato saWiroeba qveynisa, magram namdvili xelovani, roca am amocanis pirispir dgas, Tavs ar grZnobs umweod da brZnulad kiTxulobs: `ros mohyolia sicocxle mkvdaris mSobelis glovasa!?~ amitom WeSmariti xelovneba optimisturia Tavisi Sinagani arsiT, uimedoba `usaqmurTa da ukeTurTa saqmeao~ -- ambobs vaJa. es optimizmi, vaJa-fSavela rom gulisxmobs, sinamdvilis analizs eyrdnoba, sinamdvilisa, romelic xSirad mwarea da dasagmobi. `qveynis av-kargis gacnobas Turme Tan cremli hxleboda~, -- gveubneba vaJa da amiT gviCvenebs, rom sevdis gareSe yofna, sevdis ganucdeloba qarafSutobaa da cerceti optimizmi. `lxinic xo ar melxineba, zogjer Tu ara vstiria,~ -- leqsad wers vaJa-fSavela, e. i. amtkicebs, rom imeds maSin aqvs damarwmunebeli Rirebuleba, rodesac moZebnilia mZime dabrkolebaTa gadasasvleli gza. namdvilad faseuli optimizmis sayrdens vaJa pirovnul gamZleobaSi xedavs. aseTi gamZleobis magaliTs TviTon iZleva, roca wers: `RmerTo nu damcem iqamde, borots Sevekra zaviTa~. sxva leqsSi isev bejiTad imeorebs: `rac unda Wiri momkerZo, bilwT ar Savekvri zaviTa; mcnebas ver Semacvlevineb mozRvavebulis aviTa~. pirovnuli gamZleoba brZolis unars gulisxmobs da vaJas SemoqmedebaSi gaismis mowodeba brZolisaTvis mzadyofnisaken: `ar gveSveleba, Tu erTxel sisxlad ar iqec, melano!~ -- qadagebs is. brZolas momavali saWiroebs da misTvis warmoebs; warsulis gaxseneba awymosa da momavlis gaukeTesebas emsaxureba. kiTxvis formaSi aqvs es azri gamoxatuli vaJa-fSavelas: `ros mohyolia sicocxle mkvdaris mSobelis glovasa?~ -- ambobs is da am SesaniSnavi poeturi striqoniT xelaxla gviCvenebs im mkafio mowodebis mniSvnelobas, romelic CvenSi 60-iani wlebidan ilia WavWavaZisagan momdinareobda (`moviklaT warsul droebze dardi~ da sxva). yvelaferi es mowmobs, Tu ramdenad didi socialuri datvirTva aqvs vaJas Sexedulebas xelovnebasa da literaturaze. magram ufro konkretulad gamomJRavnda misi Tvalsazrisi im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac igi sagangebod Seexo mxatvruli kritikis Temas, enisa da, kerZod, mwerlis enis problemas da gvamcno Tavisi mimarTeba sxvadasxva mwerlis SemoqmedebasTan. vaJa-fSavelam sruliad naTlad gansazRvra kritikis mTavari daniSnuleba. literaturuli kritikis erTi amocana isaa, rom fexze daayenos gzasamcdari mwerali. man unda naTelyos, `Tu ra movlenani gauxdia mas (mwerals) Tavis mwerlobis sagnad da ra Rirebulebisaa es movlenani.. ramdenad esmis saWirboroto kiTxvebi am cxovrebisa da ramdenad Zlierad igrZno maTi mavnebloba da maTi sargebloba~. kritikosmao, -- araerTgzis ambobs vaJa-fSavela, -- unda SeZlos gansxvaveba xalxuri Semoqmedebis nimuSisa da individualuri Semoqmedebis nayofisa. es moTxovna mkafiod aqvs dasmuli vaJas `vefxistyaosnis~ Sesaxeb al. xananaSvilis sapasuxod daweril statiaSi. amazeve laparakobs is ip.varTagavas gasagonad. varTagavam, Tu mas `kargi kritikuli alRo aqvs, Cem dauxmareblad unda gaigos, raa am nawarmoebSi xalxuri da ra individualuri~, -- wers vaJa. sxva Sem301

TxvevaSi is ambobs, rom kritikoss intuicia unda gaaCndes, is `suniT unda mixvdes~ da wvdes nawarmoebis mxatvrul siRrmesa da faqiz mimdinareobas. vaJa-fSavelam gaxaza saliteraturo kritikis gzis gamkvlevi mniSvneloba. kritikis upirvelesi movaleobaa mkiTxvelTa orientireba urTules literaturul movlenaTa wyebaSi, Camoyalibeba maTi (mkiTxvelTa) Tvalsazrisisa, gamomuSaveba Sefasebis unarisa da maTi esTetikuri gemovnebis daxvewa. es sapatio, saqveyno da gadaudebeli amocanaa. `axalgazrda niWs, romelsac jer gza ver gaukvlevia, bnelSi xelebs afaTurebs, tirilze tiris, sicilze icinis, xolo ar icis, ver hxedavs tirili mglisaa Tu cxvrisa, sicili keTil adamianebisa Tu avazakTa, xSirad misdevs modas, brbos, droebis gemovnebas, hRalatobs Tavis niWs, im fesvebs, romelzedac aRmocenda misi niWi da Semoqmedeba, am SemTxvevaSi mas daxmareba kritikam unda gauwios, daayenos Sesaferis gzazeo~, -- ambobs vaJa. rogorc mosalodneli iyo, vaJasaTvis sruliad miuRebelia winaswar gamomuSavebuli azriT misvla mxatvrul TxzulebasTan. nawarmoebis ganmxilvelma istorizmis principi unda daicvas, kritikosma nawarmoebs unda `ufro istoriulis TvaliT ucqiroso~. sazogadod, -- ambobs vaJa-fSavela da am princips misdevs roca wers SesaniSnav mimoxilvas `Zveli da axali fSavlebis poezia~. SedarebiT kerZo sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT vaJa miuTiTebs -- p. mirianaSvils gansakuTrebuli sifrTxilisa da msjelobis safuZvlianobis aucileblobaze. p. mirianaSvili `ise sjis niSanSi amoRebul saganze, TiTqos safuZvlianad, mecnierulad hqondes Seswavlili sakiTxio~, -- werda vaJa jer kidev 1888 wels, roca is mxolod 27 wlis Wabuki iyo. vaJa-fSavelas araerTxel ukisria upretenzio ganmxilveli literaturis kritikosis movaleoba. mas miaCnda, rom advilad mwerlis arc xotba SeiZleba da arc gakicxva. ip. varTagavas pirdapir SeniSna vaJam, rom erTi leqsiT an moTxrobiT ar SeiZleba mivceT klasifikacia qveynisaTvis mwerlis mniSvnelobas. am kiTxvaze pasuxi unda mogvces `poetis cxovrebam, moRvaweobam, nawerebma~. kritikosma unda SeZlos imisi garkveva, Tu ra apirobebs mwerlis mier ama Tu im Temis SerCevas, man unda gaarkvios, Tu risi `bralia, rom zogi poeti sagmiro movlenaT dahmRers, meore bunebas, mesames Tavis sagnad mdabio xalxis cxovreba gauxdia da sxva~. vaJa sruliad garkveviT miuTiTebs formalisturi TvalTaxedvis uniadagobaze WeSmariti xelovnebis ganxilvisas. maRal xelovnebaSi forma Sinaarss misdevs, Sinaarsi iwvevs formas da ara piruku. `windawinve gansazRvra formisa namdvili poetisaTvis yovlad SeuZlebelia. forma unda mohyves TviT nagrZnobs da naazrevs. namdvilad nagrZnobs sagans da nawarmoebs Tan mohyveba forma. roca ki mwerali kalams xels mohkidebs da formis winaswar planis Sedgenas, Zaldatanebas TviT Seudgeba, nawarmoebis sisustis momaswavebeliao~ -- vkiTxulobT 1910 wels daweril vaJas werilSi `niWieri mwerali~. sadac formaa mTavari, iq sustia Txzuleba. is arafers gvmatebs Cven, -- sruliad garkveulad ambobs vaJa. vaJa-fSavelasaTvis saerTod ucxo iyo lamaz-lamazi sityvebis gamodevneba. mas araerTxel uaruyvia nawarmoebis viTomda gamSvenierebis cda sagangebod mopovebuli sityvebiTa da gamoTqmebiT. xelovnebis uSualoba, rac TviT vaJas SemoqmedebiTi bunebis arsebiTi niSania, ver egueboda e. w. poeturi samkaulebis Ziebas. aseT samkaulebs TavisTavadi damoukidebeli fasi da Rirebuleba ar gaaCniaT, isini `samkaulebia~, e. i. maTi daniSnulebaa moemsaxuros nawarmoebis ama Tu im mxares, anu Seasrulos is funqcia, romelic aqvs yovel saSualebas. maSasadame, poeturi samkaulebis Semotanis yoveli cda teqnikis -- am SemTxvevaSi poeturi teqnikis -- gaxazvaa. vaJas mxatvruli SemoqmedebisaTvis miuRebeli iyo es funqcionalizmi. es cxadad Cans formisa da Sinaarsis Taobaze misi zemogadmocemuli msje302

lobidanac. amave azrs poeturad gamoxatavda vaJa, roca mweralTa gasagonad ambobda: `ara mogvca ra lamazis sityvebiT amayobama~. vaJa-fSavelas literaturuli Tvalsazrisi realobis grZnobas efuZneba. marTalia, is mravaljer aRniSnavs, rom ocneba SemoqmedebiTi faqtoria, magram is laparakobs jansaR ocnebaze da iqve azustebs, rasac aseT ocnebaSi gulisxmobs: `saRi fantazia iseTs arafers Sehqmnis, sinamdviles ar eTanxmebodes, ar Seeferebodes~. vaJa ufro Sorsac midis. varTagavas sapasuxod daweril statiaSi realobidan dacilebis sawinaaRmdegod igi imasac ki ambobs, rom momavlis daxatvas mxolod maSin aqvs fasi, roca is arsebuli sinamdvilidan momdinareobs, `Torem maincdamainc win sirbili da momavali Cvenis cxovrebis suraTis daxatva ar aris saWiro, amisTana Sromis Sesruleba aravis gvirgvins geniosobisas ar daadgams~. vaJa-fSavelas literaturuli Sexedulebani, misi kritikuli alRos siRrme da analizis unari gansakuTrebiT gamomJRavnda im statiebSi, romlebic xalxuri poeziis nimuSTa ganxilvas mieZRvna. misi statiebi da is folkloristuli SeniSvnebi, romlebic CanarTis saxiTaa am statiebSi mocemuli, gviCvenebs, rom mravali sakiTxi Cvens sinamdvileSi pirvelad vaJam dasva, anda maTi axali kuTxiT gaSuqeba SeZlo. magaliTad, vaJa-fSavelam sruliad garkveulad aRniSna, rom `fSaur poeziaSi SeerTebulia ukiduresi idealizmi ukidures realizmTan~. vaJas am TqmaSi is azria gatarebuli, rom xalxur poeziaSi erTmaneTTanaa Serwymuli ideali da cxovrebiseuli sinamdvile; rom xalxuri poezia realisturi TvalsazrisiT afasebs ideals da rom xalxur Semoqmedebas Tu Tvali zecisken aqvs mipyrobili, es miwisagan mowyvetas ki ar niSnavs, aramed miswrafebas, rom zeca adamianTa samyofelTan daaaxloos. Zveli da axali poeziis Sedarebisas vaJa-fSavelam yuradReba miaqcia erT metad mniSvnelovan garemoebas, es aris gansxvaveba maT motivebSi. axal poeziaSi Warbobs Tema materialuri dovlaTisa: siRaribisa da simdidrisa; axal poeziaSi `umTavresi Zala eris gonebisa mimarTulia cxovrebis ekonomiurs mxareze.~ Zvels poeziaSi ki ekonomiuri wuxili, Tu SeiZleba ase vTqvaT, ar ismis~, --ambobs vaJa. `sazogadod Zvels leqsebSi erTaderTi wadili, RaRadisi ismis: vaJkacoba, mamacoba, guladoba~. xalxuri poeziis codna safuZvels aZlevs vaJas Tqvas, rom misi mTavari principi zneobrivi Sinaarsisaa da xalxuri poeziis am principis mniSvnelobas, mis amaRlebul xasiaTs araerTxel gviCvenebs is, brZolis procesi iqneba es, trfiali, Tu adamianT urTierTobis sxva SemTxveva. vaJa-fSavelas sagangebod ar umsjelia poetikis sakiTxebze. am mxriv mas arc ganuxilavs mxatvruli nimuSebi, magram zogi iseTi SeniSvna da mosazreba gamoTqva, romlebic ramdenadme mainc fenen Suqs mis literaturaTmodneobiT interessa da Tvalsazriss. vaJas interesTa siRrmis maCvenebelia misi dakvirveba: `Cvens xalxs ar uyvars, sazogadod rom vsTqvaT, leqsad zRaprebi da ver ipovniT qarTul erovnul zRapars galeqsils~. vaJas am dakvirvebas jer kidev ar upovia saTanado axsna-Sefaseba, Tumca sruliad ueWvelia misi Teoriuli da kritikulistoriuli mniSvneloba. zemoT ukve aRniSnuli iyo, rom vaJa-fSavela istorizmis princips miiCnevda yovelgvari literaturuli kvleva-Ziebis safuZvlad. marTalia, mis kritikul werilebsa da gamonaTqvamebSi maincdamainc ar aris asaxuli konkretuli politikuri situacia, politikuri yofa, magram igi arasodes ar cildeba saerTo socialur-ekonomikur niadags da mxedvelobidan ar uSvebs mis gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas nawarmoebis gasagebad.

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vaJa-fSavelam zogi iseTi sakiTxi ganixila, romelic literaturismcodneobis specialuri interesis sagans Seadgens. aseT sakiTxTa rigs miekuTvneba tipisa da literaturis tendenciurobis sakiTxi. tipis raobaze msjelobas vaJa imis aRniSvniT iwyebs, rom gansxvavebaa mxatvrulsa da aramxatvruls sityvas Soris. aseT gansxvavebas is emociurobis momentSi xedavs. publicisturi Tqma ise `ver aRelvebs kacis guls da grZnobas~, rogorc poetur-beletristuli. `poeti suraTebiT gvesaubreba, tipebsa hqmnis, xSirad idealurs, misabaZavs, iseT tipebs, romlis msgavsnic unda rom iyvnen poets cxovrebaSi, raTa Seavson misgan TvalSi amoRebuli nakli~. poetis erTi umTavresi movaleobaTagania `tipebis xatva, iseTi tipebisa, romelnic uvargisnia, da meore, romelnic saWiroa cxovrebis gasaukeTeseblad~. tipebi cxovrebas, mis movlenebs gamoxataven da xazgasasmelia isic, rom `sazogadoebaze nayofieri zemoqmedeba aqvs poetisagan Seqmnil tipebs~. `rani varT, ras veltviT, ra Zali da Rone gvaqvs gulisa da tvinisa. saWiroa vicodeT, unda awonili, Segnebuli gvqondes, saiT, raze mivapyroT Cveni Zal-Rone. am SemTxvevaSi xelovneba unda mogveSvelos~. mwerlobis `did naklad da did codvad~ vaJas is miaCnia, roca `axalgazrdobas sakuTar idealad sayoli tipi ara aqvs mwerlobisagan micemuli~. vaJas am msjelobidanve Cans, Tu rogori iqneba misi Sexeduleba xelovnebis tendenciurobis sakiTxze. is aratendenciuri literaturis arsebobis SesaZleblobasac ki kategoriulad uaryofs: `yoveli poeturi nawarmoebi ase Tu ise tendenciuriao~, -- ambobs vaJa. tendencia yoveli mwerlisa Tanabari sicxadiT araa mocemuli da `amitom advilad erTi eCveneba gamoucdels mkiTxvels tendenciad da meore ki ara~. vaJas TvalsazrisiT, savsebiT bunebrivia, rom xelovneba da literatura tendenciuri yofila, aris da iqneba da `poeziisaTvis saTakilo ar aris eris saWiroebas emsaxuros da amisaTvis Seqmnas tipebi realuri da idealurio~, -- askvnis vaJa-fSavela. WeSmariti mwerloba tendenciuria da es sruliad ueWvelia imitomac, rom namdvili mwerali Tavisi eris sulsa da guls unda gamoxatavdes. ase afasebda vaJa-fSavela servantess, Seqspirsa da goeTes, tolstois, puSkinsa da turgenevs... is ufro Sorsac wavida da roca tragikulma Tavdasxmam ilia WavWavaZis damsaxurebis saboloo Sefaseba moiTxova, vaJam am didi mwerlis saxeli mTeli eris sinonimad miiCnia. `sofeli vin da erTi kacio~, -- gaimeora man xalxuri Tqma. vaJam amiT gviCvena, rom ilia mTeli Cveni samSoblos mniSvnelobas itevda. qveynis sakeTildReod moRvaweoba, samSoblos sadidebeli sityva ukvdavyofs mwerals, -- ai, is Tvalsazrisi, romlis mixedviTac afasebs igi yvelas -- rafiel erisTavi iqneba is, akaki wereTeli, lev tolstoi Tu sxva. Tavis ers da mTel kacobriobas sikeTe SeiZleba man moutanos, visac adamianisadmi siyvaruli amoZravebs. tolstoi didebulia, upirveles yovlisa, imitom, rom `man siyvaruli haerad Seqmna~. literaturasa da xelovnebaze msjelobisas vaJa SemoqmedebiTi gavlenis problemasac Seexo. es sakiTxi mas ganxiluli aqvs sxvadasxva konteqstSi. kritikosTa interesis dasakmayofileblad is ambobs, rom rafiel erisTavis weris maneram (`saero kilo~) iqonia masze erTgvari wamaxalisebeli gavlena; ilia WavWavaZis `mefe dimitri Tavdadebulmac~ ubiZga `moxucis naTqvamis~ dasawerad, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT im cxovelmyofeli gavlenis Sesaxeb, rac xalxur Semoqmedebas mouxdenia mis poetur TxzulebaTa Seqmnasa da saboloo gaformebaze. amrigad, zogierTi mwerlisagan gansxvavebiT, vaJa-fSavela sruliadac ar fiqrobs, rom mwerlis TavisTavadoba da namdvili originaloba gavlenaTagan mis srul Tavisuflebas gulisxmobdes. garkveulad wers is amis Sesaxeb Tavis `Pro domo sua~-Si. `CvenSio, -- ambobs vaJa, -- Zalian saTakilod da viTom niWis damamcireblad miaCniaT mweralze sxvisi gavlena. me ki es wesier, saR, normalur da aucilebel movle304

nad micnia. didebuli poetebi, geniosad cnobilni, xSirad uniWo poetebs hbaZavdnen win -- pirvelad, magram imaT Taviseburebas es arafers uSlida. zemoqmedeba mweralze aucileblad saWiroa. uamisod mwerali carieli, uSinaarso arseba iqneboda, Tu amasTanave igi cocxlad gamomsaxavi ar iyos STabeWdilebaTa...~ rogorc ki SemTxveva amis nebas aZlevs, vaJa-fSavela gvamcnobs Tavis poetur mimarTebas Cveni mwerlobis sxvadasxva warmomadgenelTan. daviT guramiSvilTan is Rrma poetur kavSirs grZnobda da amitom uwodebda mas Tavis winamorbeds, `uZvirfases papas;~ vaJa ar erideboda imas, rom Tavis poetur samyaroSi moeqcia da TiTqmis saxeucvlelad moewodebina akakis bevri STambeWdavi emociuri da ukve sayovelTaod cnobili striqonebi, advilad SesamCnevi msgavsebiT imeorebda is ilias Semdegi striqonebis azrs: ..`Cemi Tavis arafrobisa ar ZalmiZs, Zmano, ver riT gaZleba!~, roca 1904 wels werda, rom Cemi Conguri da Cemi poeturi swrafva `Cemi sicocxle siClungis, ra vqna, ver SesZlebs ymobasa~. rogorc vxedavT, roca vaJa-fSavela exeba SemoqmedebiTi gavlenis sakiTxebs, marto advilad dasanaxi msgavsebis faqtebs ki ar arCevs, aramed gavlenis iseTi formebis arsebobasac gvaniSnebs, romelTa SemCneva advili sruliadac ar aris, anu sagangebo ganswavlulobas, dakvirvebis unarsa da alRos moiTxovs. vaJas midgomis aseT siRrmesa da sifarToves mowmobs daviT guramiSvilisadmi mimarTebis gamomxatveli leqsi da, agreTve xalxuri Semoqmedebis, SoTa rusTavelis, nikoloz baraTaSvilis, lev tolstois da sxva mwerlebis mniSvnelobis vaJaseuli daxasiaTeba. vaJa-fSavelam erTi sayuradRebo SeniSvna warumZRvara ip. varTagavas mier dasmuli sakiTxis ganmartebas. ip.varTagavas ainteresebda gaego, Tu vaJas cnobil nawarmoebebSi ra ekuTvnis xalxs da ra ekuTvnis TviT vaJas, e.i., ip.varTagavas surda mieRo pasuxi kiTxvaze, Tu ra mxriv daetyo xalxuri Semoqmedebis gavlena vaJas iseT poemebs, rogoricaa: `stumar-maspinZeli~ da `gvelis mWameli~. am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemamde vaJa wers: `varTagavam, Tu mas kargi kritikuli alRo aqvs, unda Cem dauxmareblad gaigos raa am nawarmoebSi xalxuri da ra individualuri~. maSasadame, vaJa aRniSnavs, rom mxatvruli gavlenis faqtebi zedapirze ar tivtiveben da rom isini yvelasaTvis SesamCnevi ar arian. aseTi faqtebis dadastureba xSirad nawarmoebis siRrmeSi SeWras gulisxmobs. gavlena ar unda gavigoT mxolod ise, rom es aris erTi avtoris mier meore avtorisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli azris, xatis, manerisa da gadmocemis saSualebaTa pirdapiri gameoreba. rasakvirvelia, gameoreba azrisa, xatisa da a.S. Zalian TvalsaCinod da xelSesaxebad mowmobs literaturuli gavlenis arsebobas, magram swored Tavisi TvalsaCinoebis da uSualo mocemulobis gamo, es faqtebi Semoqmedebis zedapirze Zevs da amitomac ver avlenen xelovanTa urTierTzemoqmedebis Sinagan meqanizms. amis gamo, sakuTriv literaturismcodneobis TvalsazrisiT, im faqtebs, romlebic aseT aSkara gavlenaze miuTiTeben, ar SeuZliaT gviCvenon WeSmaritad maRalmxatvruli urTierTzemoqmedebis specifikuri formebi. namdvili SemoqmedebiTi gavlenis aucilebeli pirobaa mimarTebis damyareba mxatvrul nawarmoebTan da mis avtorTan. es mimarTeba analogiuria im mimarTebisa, romelsac mwerali amyarebs yovel, ase Tu ise mniSvnelovan cxovrebiseul ambavTan. `ram unda aaJReros misi (poetis) Cangi, Tu an ambavi ar gaigona, an leqsi, an saqme, an garemoeba cxovrebisa ar naxa amaRelvebeli, an bunebis movlenebs mouyrua yuri~ -- wers vaJa. WeSmarit xelovanTa urTierTzemoqmedeba erTmaneTisadmi mimarTebis damyarebaSi mdgomareobs. am mimarTebis gamoxatulebaa is mniSvneloba,--sulerTia, dadebiTi Tu uaryofiTi --romelsac erTi mwerlis Semoqmedeba meorisaTvis iZens. SemoqmedebiTi gavlena aucilebeli da bunebrivi procesia. misi aseTi gagebis safuZvelzea SesaZlebeli gaviazroT literaturuli procesi, rogorc cocxali, ganuwyvetliv ganviTarebaSi myofi sasicocxlo procesi, anu rogorc vaJa ityoda, mim305

dinare `im kanonis ZaliTa, romelsac hqvian kanoni TandaTanobisa~. gavlenis problemis aseTi interpretacia gasagebad xdis vaJas Semoqmedebas, rogorc Cveni cxovrebis, xalxuri poeziis da mwerlobis iseT nayofs, romelic, rasakvirvelia, Tavisi warmomSobi niadagidan aris amozrdili, magram gansxvavdeba misgan da Tavisi xatovanebis usazRvrobiT kidec upirispirdeba am niadags -- misda sasikeTod, asamaRleblad da gansaviTareblad. aseTia im literaturul sakiTxTa wre, romelic gansakuTrebiT ainteresebs vaJas. CvenTvis sruliad ueWvelia, rom vaJa iyo Tavisi drois literaturul problemaTa kursSi da maTi ganxilvisas fxizelsa da mowinave poziciaze idga. is poets did rols aniWebs sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi da Tu mas xelovanTa misamarTiT raime sayveduri gamouTqvams, es im manZilis gamo, romelic urTierTisagan TiSavda amnair xelovanTa sityvasa da saqmes. `magram es aris sadardo, Tqma aris, saqme ki arao~, -- uTqvams vaJas da amiT poetTagan yvela moqalaqeobriv valdebulebaTa Sesruleba mouTxovnia. zemoganxilul zogad sakiTxebTan erTad Tavis literaturul kritikul statiebSi vaJa-fSavela iseT sakiTxebsac Seexo, romelTac garkveuli mniSvneloba aqvT misi mxatvruli xedvis dasaxasiaTeblad. aseTia, magaliTad, poetis enis sakiTxi. es sakiTxi man ganixila p. mirianaSvilTan polemikis dros. 1888 wels p. mirianaSvilma `iveriaSi~ gamoaqveyna werili: `saero ena da saTemo kilo~. aq man Semdegnairad gakenwla vaJa-fSavela: `vaJa-fSavelas fSaurma poeziam dRevandels qarTulTan SedarebiT ukan CamorCenili gramatikebri formebi Semoitana da amasTanave zogierTi met-xorci sityvebi, qarTul literaturaSi, Turme, `fSauris poeziis movlinebam...mTlad aria enis taZari, hlamis dahbados mwvalebloba, metad sazari~.1 p. mirianaSvilis am werils jer erTi is mniSvneloba hqonda, rom vaJa-fSavela iZulebuli gaxda epasuxa da, garda amisa, ufro mogvianebiT akaki wereTelmac arsebiTad igive azri gamoTqva, rodesac vaJas enas Seexo Tavis `bibliografiul SeniSvnebsa da 1913 wels gamoqveynebul leqsSi `vaJa-fSavelas~. vaJa-fSavelam sul male dabeWda `mcire SeniSvna (pasuxad b-n p. mirianaSvilsa)~, romelSic cxadyo mirianaSvilis sayveduris usafuZvloba, misi Secdoma da Semdeg gaarCia kardinaluri sakiTxi, Tu rogoria da rogori unda iyos enobrivi monacemebisadmi mwerlis mimarTeba. vaJa sxva drosac Seexo mwerlis enis sakiTxebs, magram gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa misi azri gamoTqmul statiaSi `niWieri mwerali~. aq vaJa ambobs, rom `poetisaTvis deda ena, misi sityvebis akinZva, misi mimoxvra erTnairi amamoZravebeli Zalaa, STabervaa~. magram, amasTanave, vaJa win aRudga mxatvruli enis unifikaciisaken mimarTul tendencias. `mwerals, upirvelesad yovlisa, sakuTari ena unda hqondes, vinaidan ena saxea mwerlisa, misi fizionomiaa da, ukeTesad rom vTqvaT, mwerlis sulia; enaSi imaleba mwerlis individualoba, misi `me~. `mwerals unda hqondes sakuTari frazeologia, sakuTari winadadebani, sakuTari suraTebi, Tundac isini sxvis suraTebs hgavdes, maincdamainc Taviseburad unda iyos gamoTqmuli, maSasadame, originaloba unda etyobodes, beWedi Taviseburebisa unda esvas~. aseTi mwerlis `nawarmoebi, Tu erTi ori ram wagikiTxavT winad, Semdeg xelmouwerladac rom SevxvdeT, advilad icnobT, vis kalamsac ekuTvnis~, -- wers vaJa. marto am sityvebidan Cans, Tu raoden did moTxovnas uyenebda vaJa-fSavela poetis enas da movlenaTa mxatvrul-enobriv gansaxierebas. vaJa xelovnadac mxolod mas Tvlida, vinc Taviseburebas amJRavnebda da Rirseul originalobas aRwevda TemasTan erTad. swored es miiCnia man nawarmoebTa Sefasebis kriteriumad.

`iveria~, 1888, 166. gadmobeWdilia i. bocvaZis mier Sedgenil qrestomaTiaSi: `vaJa-fSavela qarTul literaturul kritikaSi~, 1955, gv. 95. sazogadod am saWiro qrestomaTiaSi Tavmoyrilia revoluciamdel presaSi dabeWdili statiebi vaJas Sesaxeb.

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II. vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi Tematika

60-iani wlebidan moyolebuli, Cvens qveyanaSi yoveli socialur-yofiTi sakiTxi ise mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli sakuTriv erovnuli rigis sakiTxebTan, rom calcalke arc erTi maTgani aRar Suqdeboda: yvela sakiTxi patriotuli TvalsazrisiT ganixileboda da gaiazreboda. swored es socialur da patriotul midgomaTa ganuyofeloba iyo Cveni samocianelebis TxzulebaTa erT-erTi Tavisebureba. arsebul sazogadoebaSi Sinagani diferenciaciis, Sinagani dapirispirebis Cvenebas ufro da ufro meti yuradReba 80-iani wlebidan daeTmo. am xanebSi gaixaza, rom TviT e.w. dabal wodebaSive gaCnda da gamoiyo axali socialuri fena. patriotizmis TvalTaxedviT socialuri sakiTxebis ganxilva erTgvarad Senelda, radgan awmyoSi mimdinare sazogadoebrivi urTierToba saWiroebda mowesrigebas. es niSnavs, rom Cvens mwerlobaSi socialurma sakiTxma ufro meti damoukidebeli mniSvneloba moipova. amgvari gamiznulobis mkafio niSnebs vxedavT Cvens xalxosnebad miCneul mweralTa SemoqmedebaSi. ase, magaliTad, ise CavikiTxavT niko lomouris `als~, `qajanasa~ da `gigo RrubelaSvils~, sofrom mgalobliSvilis `jor-zaqaras~, `Ramis mexre cecos~ da `wiTel sarCuls~, ekaterine gabaSvilis `magdanas lurjas~, `Tinas lekurs~, Tu `romans didxevaSi~, rom win arc erTi saxiT ar wamoiwevs patriotuli grZnoba. es Seexeba zemoT dasaxelebul mweralTa mraval Txzulebas. rasakvirvelia, es imas ki ar niSnavs, rom isini Tavisufali iyvnen am grZnobisagan, aramed imas, rom socialuri problemebi iyo wamyvani maT SemoqmedebaSi, romelTa SigniT daqvemdebarebuli saxiT Canda patriotuli gulistkivili. vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedeba avsebulia patriotuli grZnobiT. mis nawarmoebebSi Cans erovnuli Segnebis maRal doneze mdgomi poeti. magram amasTanave is aris iseTi moqalaqe, romelic dRevandeli dRiTac cxovrobs da patriotul grZnobamde dayvanis gareSec cdilobs gviCvenos es uswormasworo sazogadoebrivi urTierToba. vaJas socialuri Tematikidan amitomac unda gamovyoT da calke ganvixiloT misi patriotuli grZnobis Sinaarsi. rasakvirvelia, socialuri Sinaarsi aqvs vaJas mier ganxilul sakiTxs, Tu rogoria adamianTa urTierToba sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis pirobebSi. gansakuTrebuli gulisyuriT axasiaTebs igi adamianTa qcevasa da sulier mdgomareobas Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi. magram am sakiTxisadmi, sazogadoebaSi adamianTa urTierTobis sakiTxisadmi vaJas interesi imdenad Rrmaa, rom mis Tanamedrove sazogadoebriv urTierTobis farglebs scildeba da pirovnebisa da sazogadoebis urTierTobis zogadi problemis saxiT dgas. amitom vaJas Semoqmedebis es Temac sagangebo ganxilvas saWiroebs. vaJa-fSavelas yvela mkiTxvelma icis, rom mis SemoqmedebaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia bunebasa da mis movlenebs. is yuradReba, romelsac mwerali iCens bunebis warmonaqmnTa daxasiaTebisadmi, TavisTavad mowmobs, rom mas ainteresebs bunebis mravalsaxianobis azri da formebi. es interesi Cans vaJas mTel SemoqmedebaSi da mitomac misi mxatvruli nawarmoebebis gaTvaliswinebisas calke unda iqnes gamoyofili Tema bunebisa da misdami adamianis mimarTebisa. vaJa-fSavelas interesma pirovnebisa da, kerZod, bunebasTan misi mimarTebisadmi, aucileblobiT gamoiwvia sakiTxi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra saSualebebi moepoveba adamians, raTa igi wvdes mravalferovan da CvenTvis utyvi saxiT mocemul bunebas. am sibrtyeze dasmulma sakiTxma vaJasTan sabolood Semdegi saxe miiRo: buneba TviTon laparakobs Tu ara Tavisi Tavis Sesaxeb? umJRavnebs Tu ara igi adamians Tavis raobas? da ranairi Zalebi SeiZleba amoZravdes adamianSi bunebis ganuzomel siRrmeebSi SesaRwevad?

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aseTia vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebis ZiriTadi Temebi, rac ki ar gamoricxavs, aramed gulisxmobs mraval sxva TemaTa arsebobas. 1) s o c i a l u r i T e m a t i k a . vaJa-fSavela Cvens literaturaSi gamoCnda 1879 wels, rodesac gazeT `droebaSi~ pirvelad daibeWda misi korespondenciebi xevsurTa da fSavelTa yofis Sesaxeb. am xanebSi qarTvel moRvaweTa ideuri cxovreba, iseve rogorc rusi moazrovneebis mizandasaxuloba, gadanacvlebuli iyo batonymobis winaaRmdeg galaSqrebidan daZabuli brZolisaken axali ekonomikuri urTierTobisa da ramdenadme Secvlili politikuri reJimis winaaRmdeg. vaJa-fSavelam Tavis upirveles movaleobad xevsurTa da fSavelTa yofis daxasiaTeba miiCnia da misi Semoqmedebis TvalnaTlivi Sedegi imaSi mdgomareobda, rom maTi yofa da xasiaTi mtkiced daukavSirda Cveni qveynis warsuls, mis awmyo viTarebas da qarTveli xalxis sanukvar idealebs. vaJa-fSavelam ise gaiazra da asaxa mTielTa cxovreba, rom aSkara gaxda maTi ganuwyveteli kavSiri mTeli qveynis saarsebo interesebTan. vaJam gviCvena, rom qarTveli mTielebis suliskveTeba Serwymulia saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebis mcxovrebTa sabrZolo idealebTan. man dagvanaxa, rom mTielebi arsebiTad imave mdgomareobaSi arian, romelSic baris muSa xalxi imyofeba. es TvalnaTliv aqvs vaJas naCvenebi Tavis eTnografiuli xasiaTis mxatvrul moTxroba-narkvevebSi (`suraTi fSavelis cxovrebidam~, `mTielis ubedureba~, `STabeWdilebani~, `suraTebi~, `Cveni sofeli~, `bagrat zaxariCis sikvdili~ da sxv.). soflad siRatake sufevs; patiosani SromiT glexi aucilebelze aucilebel saarsebo moTxovnilebebs ver ikmayofilebs; mis cxovrebaSi didi adgili ukavia crumorwmuneobas; glexobas Sesevia kancelariis moxele, `uriadniki~, meduqne... yoveli maTgani mas aviwroebs da hyvlefs. soflis mcxovrebTa aseTi mZime viTarebaa daxatuli am narkvevebSi. igive iTqmis am Temaze dawerili vaJas leqsebis Sesaxebac. misi leqsebis: `guTnis dedis Civili~, `mwyemsis simRera~ (`erTi Zroxa gvyavs, niSas veZaxiT~...), `papas col-Svilis glova~ da sxva mravali glexur duxWir cxovrebas exeba. yvelaferi es miuTiTebs, rom vaJa-fSavela didad iyo dainteresebuli glexobis socialur-ekonomiuri mdgomareobiT. am TvalsazrisiT, vaJas Semoqmedeba erTvis Cveni mwerlobis im nakads, romelic dabali socialuri fenebis cxovrebas asaxavda. vaJa-fSavelas SemoqmedebaSi Cven ara erTi da ori leqsi gvxvdeba, romlidanac Cans, Tu ramdenad did imeds amyarebda poeti 1905 wlis revoluciis periodSi gaSlil saxalxo moZraobaze. 1905 wlis revoluciis wina wlebSi vaJa-fSavela Seudrekeli brZolis survils gamoxatavda. am xanebSi (1905 wels) aris dawerili misi `simRera~, romelic dasawyisSive Seicavs simtkicisaken mowodebas da imediT aris avsebuli:

`gulo, ar gatyde, gamagrdi, kldeo, klded iqec salada! ra vqnaT, rom janRi gvexveva, meca gyevivar avada. cda gavuqarwyloT sawuTros, nu davberdebiT Savada ....................... gulo, gakldevdi, gamagrdi, nisli nu gadagefara: Tu aqamomde gavZeliT, dRes mteri gagvtexs veRara~.

aseTi imediani ganwyobileba aris damaxasiaTebeli 1905 wlis revoluciis periodSi dawerili vaJas mravali leqsisaTvis. ase, magaliTad, erT `simReraSi~ vaJa-fSavela TiTqos bunebis momaval suraTs xatavs, magram sazogadoebrivi SinaarsiT avsebs mas da Tavis optimistur Tvalsazriss araCveulebrivi gatacebiT gvawvdis:

`kidevac vnaxav ca sWeqdes, Tovlis wil wvima cviodes, aravin itanjebodes da aRarc visa hSiodes;

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anoyivrebdes miwasa, mdinareebi xviodes,

simarTlis gamarjvebasa mTaze arwivi hyiodes; mec mas bans veubnebode, guli aRara mtkiodes~.

ufro mogvianebiT, reaqciis xanaSi, vaJa-fSavelam ramdenime leqsi dawera, romlebSic igi revoluciur moZraobasTan mitmasnebul elementebs Seexo. aseTia, magaliTad, misi `boqauli~ da `qebaTa qeba~ (`mavne azrebzed damdgara~). aq poeti isev imediania, gamarjvebis erT-erT pirobad sazogadoebrivi sifxizle miaCnia da iZleva rCevas, rom nu vendobiT Seumowmebel adamianebs:

`nurc imaT fics, nurc saZmoda~ `mamapapas sagZlad yuris: Semowiruls or Saurebs. `ZaRli imis erTgulia, swored uTqvamT cxonebulebs vinac swurTnis, vinc purs uyris~.

es oriode magaliTic sakmaod gviCvenebs, rom vaJa-fSavela poeturi sityviT exmaureboda Tavisi drois mwvave sazogadoebriv-politikur viTarebas. aqtualuri sazogadoebrivi da politikuri sakiTxebiT vaJa-fSavelas dainteresebaze miuTiTebs agreTve is literaturul-publicisturi statiebi, romelTac igi drodadro Cvens Jurnal-gazeTebSi aqveynebda. am statiebSi vaJa-fSavela met-naklebi sisruliT ganixilavs iseT sakiTxebs, rogoricaa: mefis administraciasTan brZolis, ruseTTan damokidebulebis, ama Tu im eris `daberebis~ da namdvili patriotobis sakiTxebi. am sakiTxebs xSirad exeba vaJa-fSavela, magram ufro gamokveTilad msjelobs statiebSi -- `fiqrebi~, `Sav-bneli ambebi~, `kosmopolitizmi da patriotizmi~ da werilSi `mcire SeniSvna~. Tavis `mcire SeniSvnaSi~ vaJa-fSavela moiTxovs qarTuli beWdviTi sityvis gafarToebas da sagangebod aRniSnavs, rom am moTxovnas araferi ara aqvs saerTo nacionalizmTan; piriqiT, am werilSi vaJa-fSavela dabejiTebiT acxadebs, rom saqarTvelo ruseTs unda `edges gverdiT, rogorc cocxali, saRi arseba, ruseTTan erTad mosiarule progresis gzaze, TavisTavis mcnobeli, Tavis Tavisa da kargis mgrZnobelio~. ufro adre gamoqveynebul erT werilSi vaJa-fSavela arCevs kontis mier gamoTqmul da im dros fexmokidebul azrs, rom yoveli eri Tavis ganviTarebaSi gaivlis gzas bavSvobidan moxucebulobamde, raTa bolos mokvdes da aRigavos. vaJafSavela kategoriulad uaryofs aseT Sexedulebas, rogorc istoriulad gaumarTlebels, faqtobrivad mcdarsa da sazogadoebrivad mavnes. 1905 wlis oqtomberSi vaJa-fSavelam dastamba werili, romliTac xma aimaRla politikuri motivebiT ubralo adamianTa Sepyrobis winaaRmdeg. am werilSi vaJa aRniSnavs, rom apatimreben menaxSireebs, `Camowewil-Camoglejil xalxs~, apatimreben maT, romlebsac `odesme sadme uTqvamT `gvSiano~..~ es adamianebi `am TqmisaTvis dRes pasuxisgebaSi arian micemulni, rogorc `buntovCikebi~, rogorc sazogadoebis mavne pirebio,~ -- wers vaJa. am statiis dasasruls vaJa-fSavela ndobiT epyroba xalxis Segnebas da, xalxis saboloo gamarjvebaSi darwmunebuli, ambobs: `ara, tyuilad vinme moelis ndobis mopovebas im dromde, vidre sityvasa da saqmes Soris ar damyardeba sruli Tanxmoba, -- vidre administraciis moqmedeba ar iqneba mimarTuli qveynis, xalxis sakeTildReod. xalxi marTla brma da yru xom ar aris, ver icnos Tavis keTilismyofeli, Tavis moyvare da mteri erTmaneTSi aurios... ara, nu hgoniaT, rom amoiZron Tavidan eg fiqri, rom xalxis motyuileba advili mosaxerxebeli iyos -- SeiZleba, xalxi droebiT daimorCilon, magram es ar iqneba samudamod...~

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am sityvebidan sruliad naTlad Cans, rom vaJa-fSavelas eWvi ar epareba xalxis gamarjvebaSi da igi energiul winaaRmdegobas uwevs am sferoSi gulgatexilobisa da pesimistur ganwyobilebaTa yovelgvar gamovlinebas. 2) p a t r i o t i z m i. ara erTi da ori cnoba migviTiTebs im mniSvnelobaze, romelic adamianisaTvis mis mxaresTan kavSirs aqvs. marTlac da gasagebia, rom Zvirfasad CaiTvalos is adgili, romelTanac adamianis mTeli rigi mogonebebia dakavSirebuli; bunebrivia, rom sxva kuTxeze ar gaicvalos is garemo, romlis bunebis yovel mniSvnelovan adgils adamianisaTvis mSobliuri saxelwodeba aqvs, saxelwodeba, romelic misTvis mraval sagulisxmo ambavTan aris dakavSirebuli. Tavisi mxaris aseTi gancda damaxasiaTebelia adamianisaTvis kacobriobis ganviTarebis adreul safexurze, magram es gancda srulebiTac ar kargavs Tavis cxovelmyofelobas adamianis cxovrebis Semdgom safexurzec. cnobili striqoni rafiel erisTavis leqsisa --

`ar gavcvli salsa kldeebsa ukvdavebisa xezeda, ar gavcvli Cemsa samSoblos sxva qveynis samoTxezeda~

-- am grZnobis uSualo gansaxierebaa. Tu am TvaliT SevxedavT vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebas, davinaxavT, rom igi patriotuli grZnobis siRrmeebs wvdeba. Tu davakvirdebiT vaJas joyolas an aludas, davinaxavT, imdenad mtkicea am gmirebis grZnobiTi kavSiri TavianT qveyanasTan, rom brZola qveynis sakeTildReod yovelgvar eWvsa da ukandaxevas gamoricxavs. movigonoT joyolas mzadeba xevsurTa jaris winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad, misi gancxadeba, rom `martokam unda viomo, mTelma jaregam mnaxosa~, movigonoT, rom mters --

`kldidam gaduxta uecrad qisti xmalmoRerebiTa, akvirvebs qistis laSqarsa, mtris jaris mogerebiTa~--

da cxadi gaxdeba, rom, Tumca joyola Temis, TanamoZmeebis mier gankicxulia, magram is mainc Tavisi qveynis dasacavad ibrZvis. analogiur, oRond ufro intimur masalazea gadmocemuli patriotuli gancdebi `aluda qeTelaurSi~. ufro mkveTria da faqizi aludas damokidebuleba Tavisi qveynisadmi. amas gamoxatavs misi sityvebi:

`diacno nu xarT ybedada, modiT, mamyeviT, vidinoT, RmerTm es gvarguna bedada, jvars ar awyinoT, Tems nu swyevT, nu gadiqceviT cetada!~

metad intimuri kavSiria damyarebuli `aluda qeTelaurSi~ samSoblos bunebis wiaRTan: `veRar miuvalT Cvens saxkars, gaRma Satilis xeviTa~, -- ambobs aludas deda. es patriotuli grZnoba gamkafioebulia imitom, rom adamiani scildeba Tavis samSoblo kuTxes. amas aRniSnavs aludas dedis sevdiani wamoZaxili:

`vah, mama-papis saflavno, kldeno, damdgarno mwvetada~.

rogorc vxedavT, aq Zvirfasad iqceva adamianisaTvis Tavisi kuTxis yoveli adgili, miT ufro, mTeli misi warsuli am adgilebTanaa dakavSirebuli:

`mSvidobiT sajixveebo, gamaxarelno Tvalisa! mSvidobiT, Cemo sax-karo, gulSi amSlelo bralisa! mSvidobiT, Cveno batono, ymaTad mimcemo Zalisa!~

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ase emSvidobeba aluda qeTelauri Tavis kuTxes. es sakmarisi unda iyos im Rrma grZnobiTi kavSiris warmosadgenad, rac pirovnebasa da mis qveyanas Soris arsebobs. es Rrma kavSiri dagvanaxa vaJam Tavis SemoqmedebaSi. vaJa-fSavelas patriotuli interesebi sakmaod farTo iyo. yoveli movlena, yoveli adgili da yoveli arseba mis poeziaSi am interesebis dakmayofilebasac axerxebda. Tu raoden mZafri da myari iyo vaJas patriotuli grZnoba, pirvel yovlisa, SeiZleba vixiloT mis `simRerebSi~. vaJa mReris ise momxibvlelad, rom Cven xandaxan TiTqos gvaviwydeba kidec am simReris mizezi da saboloo mizani: Cven TviT am simReriT vtkbebiT. vaJa-fSavelas TiTqmis yvela poetur qmnilebaSi sxvadasxva Tematuri nakadi iCens Tavs. es mJRavndeba `simRerebSic~. `simRera~, romlis pirveli striqonia: `isev Sen, isev, qalao~, TiTqos satrfialo leqsis nimuSad unda CaiTvalos: es motivi, marTlac, ZiriTadi motivia am leqsisa, magram iqve iseTnairi striqonebic gvxvdeba, romlebic gvaviwyebs am motivs da bunebis Sesaxeb mWevrmetyvelebs:

`em kldeebs mainc Sestire danabarebi Cemia: idgnen gulsalni amayad, ar SamauSvan mteria! su daiwyeben CamoSlas.. arwivT mozardon wiwilni, dahbrunon Cemsa samares, mal-mal maiRon bibini, mTebma ayaron yvavilni, kisriT ataron nislebi. mkvdars gulzed nami manamon,-- isev cocxali viqnebi~.

satrfialosa da bunebis motivis gverdiT, aq Cven imave uflebiT SegviZlia vilaparakoT patriotuli motivis Sesaxebac. amaze migviTiTebs ara marto aq gadmocemuli striqoni, mimarTuli mTebisadmi, rom `idgnen gul-salni amayad, ar SamauSvan mteria~, aramed is striqonebic, romlebic satrfosadmi vedrebas gamoxatavs:

`maRlisa mTisa wverzeda saflavi gamiTxarodi, Cemis samSoblos qviSani xSir-xSirad momayarodi~.

amgvarad, am leqsSi trfials cvlis bunebis grZnoba, maTSi samSoblosadmi siyvarulia gaSlili da dauZaleblad ar SeiZleba imis Tqma, Tu mTavari da gabatonebuli romelia aq: trfiali, bunebisadmi ltolva, Tu patriotuli grZnoba. aseTive suraTi gveZleva Cven sxva `simRerebSiac~, magram aSkarad patriotulia da, am mxriv, msjelobasac ki ar moiTxovs iseTi leqsebi, rogoricaa: `papiCemis anderZi~, `mwyemsis anderZi~, `omis win jaris simRera~, `Civili xmlisa~, `molodini~, `elegia~, `beberi lomi~, `xma samaridam~, `qebaTa qeba~ (`moquCdnen amrezilebi mxedarni oTxsav kidesa~), (`xelSi aviReb Congursa, minda davmRero laRada~), `danabarebi~, `zmaneba~, `mxedarTa Zveli simRera~, `giorgi saakaZis suraTze~, `kaxeTs~, `fSaveli jariskacis werili~, `didi Tamari~, `bunebis glova~ da sxva mravali. am leqsebSia warmodgenili saxe vaJkacisa, romelsac

`...ar hSvenis cremlis Rvra, qviTini diacurada, mters xmali unda safTxulad, kvalze miyola mglurada~ (`papiCemis anderZi~)

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aqvea gamxneveba, sabrZolod momzadebisaken mowodeba, raTa

`ixilos miwam mSobelma: guli gvaqvs papaTeuli, sisxli gvifuis ZarRvebSi, sisxli laSqrobas Cveuli. mklavic gvaqvs Samqors nacadi, ara varT gamorCeuli~ (`omis win jaris simRera~)

samSoblos dasacavad iaraRi mzad unda iyos. vaJkaci ar unda SeuSindes mtrebs (romlebic `das atireben Zmazeda~), vinaidan `erTxel sjobia sikvdili, Savs yofnas qveyanazeda!~ (`xma samaridam~). vaJas leqsebSi samSoblosaTvis Tavganwirvas momavlisaTvis realuri mniSvneloba eniWeba:

`mSobeli mokvdes, ra uSav, Svilebi rCeba mamasa. ........................ kargis mamis Svils, wesia, mteric ufrTxeba kvalada: xval da zeg vervin gahbedavs Sin SemogveWras Zalada. yvelas isa Zlevs, sicocxles vinac ar agdebs Calada. cocxlebi arvis davuTmobT mSobeli miwis Ralasa; sikvdils aRuTqviT sicocxle da piri -- sisxliT banasa~ (`mxedarTa Zveli simRera~)

vaJa-fSavelas patriotuli grZnoba uaRresad keTilSobilia da amitomaa, rom poeti afasebs da samagieros uzRavs sxva eris amdagvar grZnobasac. es mxolod TavdacviTi grZnobaa, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, da ara Semtevi da TavdasxmiTi:

`samSoblos arvis wavarTmevT, Cvenc nurvin Segvecileba, Torem iseT dRes davayriT, mkvdarsac ki gaecineba. ar mivcemT sxvasa samSoblos Cvenis cocxalis TaviTa, ukan ver dagvaxevinebT misTvis naZRvnevis SxamiTa~.

aseTia vaJa-fSavelas leqsebis patriotika ideuri TvalsazrisiT. rogorc vxedavT, TavisTavad axali ideebi am sferoSi vaJas ar warmouqmnia, am mxriv igi qarTul literaturaSi damkvidrebul tradicias misdevs. magram sagulisxmoa sxva mxare misi patriotuli grZnobis gamosaxvisa, saxeldobr, mxatvruli mxare. WeSmaritma poetma Taviseburi saxeebi unda Seqmnas, axalnairad xorcSesxmuli idea unda warmoadginos mkiTxvelis winaSe. ra Taviseburi saxeebi Seqmna vaJa-fSavelam patriotuli grZnobis gamosaaSkaraveblad, rogor Seasxa xorci man am ideas? upirveles yovlisa, vaJa-fSavelas SemoqmedebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia uSualo kavSiri Tavis qveynis teritoriasTan. es kavSiri, erTi avtoris gamoTqma rom vixmaroT, `sasicocxlo kavSiria~. yoveli kuTxe misi qveynisa, yoveli warmonaqmni misi bunebisa Zvirfasia vaJa-fSavelasaTvis. mometebulad amazea gaSlili mis SemoqmedebaSi patriotuli grZnoba, misTvis esaa gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebeli:1

`netavi mena, Tu miwa meRirsa Tqvenis xeliTa;

1

samare gamiTxareTa; .......................

es rom namdvilad asea, Cans vaJas werilidanac -- `kosmopolitizmi da patriotizmi~ (`iveria~, 1905, #172). aq igi bavSvobis xanaze werda, magaliTad, rom: `vidre gafarTovdeba bavSvis mxedveloba da gaizrdeba misi patriotizmi, mas mxolod gansakuTrebiT is sofeli an daba uyvars, sadac dabadebula da bavSvoba gautarebia~. magram es marto misi Sexedulebebis gamoxatuleba ki ar aris, aramed vaJas, rogorc cocxali adamianis, damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebaa. movigonoT avadmyofobis dros vaJas survili fSavSi yofnisa, imedi, rom fSavi gamoajansaRebda mas; gavixsenoT, rom sikvdilis win man yvavilebi moiTxova da ueWveli gaxdeba, rom vaJas gansakuTrebiT uyvarda Tavisi kuTxe -- fSavi.

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aq nu gamwiravT, wamiReT, Cems adgils mimabareTa; ....................... CemT mama-papaT gverdiTa

damcqerdes diyelis gori, inos mTa Wiuxiani, yinCad naRratni aqa-iq xevebi Saldayiani....~

stovebs vaJas mwyemsi anderZad (`mwyemsis anderZi~). vaJa-fSavelas romeli Txzulebac ar unda aviRoT, -- yelmoRerebuli iisa, uRrani tyeebisa, gulmkerdCamoRaruli kldeebisa da ciur mnaTobTa, iseTi siyvarulia maTSi gadmocemuli, rom mkiTxvels erTxelac ki ar Seuva eWvi bunebisa da vaJa-fSavelas mkveTr siaxloveSi. esaa damaxasiaTebeli Cveni mTis mgosnis SemoqmedebisaTvis. vaJa-fSavelas SemoqmedebaSi samSoblo warmodgenilia ara rogorc zogadi idea, aramed rogorc misi kuTxe Tavisi mdinareebiTa da mTebiT, yvavilebiT, frinvelebiT da cxovelebiT; aq samSoblo TviT am konkretul movlenebSi dainaxeba, e.i.., samSoblos idea moucilebelia qveynis konkretuli Sinaarsisagan. amdenad, vaJas SemoqmedebaSi xatovnebaa damkvidrebuli da patriotuli grZnoba sul erTianad misi kuTxis bunebis movlenebiT aris Semosili. es niSnavs, rom vaJasTan samSoblos idea xorcSesxmulia savsebiT konkretuli masaliT da amazea aRmocenebuli, amazea dafuZnebuli mTeli samSoblos mgznebare siyvaruli. amave mizniT vaJa-fSavela marto awymos ki ar mimarTavs, aramed Tavis patriotul grZnobas aRrmavebs imiT, rom acocxlebs movlenebs samSoblos warsulidan. warsuliT moxibluloba Cqefs vaJas SemoqmedebaSi. warsulisadmi aseTi damokidebuleba mTlianad vrceldeba `moxucis naTqvamze~. am nawarmoebSi gadmocemulia, rom warsulis mogonebas erTgvari simwarec axlavs. aq ase moTqvams moxuci:

`vahme, siberem wyeulma grkalad momxara welSia! ................ ...... ver movaxtebi lurjasa xmals ver Sevirtyam welzeda ...................... afsuso, Zvelo droebav!.. ar dabrundebi netara?!~

aseTive ganwyobilebiTaa dawerili vaJas mravali nawarmoebi rogorc leqsiTi, ise prozauli. vaJa-fSavela patriotul grZnobas `kargi ymis~ daxasiaTebiTac Slis. kargi yma vaJa-fSavelas leqsebSi warmodgenilia, rogorc damoukidebeli da brma gavlenisagan Tavisufali pirovneba: `ver maawonebT kargs ymasa, rac ar ujdeba WkvaSia!~-- wers poeti (`qeifi~), kargi ymis daCagvris cda amaoa (`fSavlis siyvaruli~). es saxe vaJas SemoqmedebaSi patriotuli grZnobis gamomxatveli saxecaa. magram kargi ymis gverdiT sxva gmirebic emsaxurebian imave mizans. arsebobs safuZveli, vTqvaT, rom vaJa-fSavela im masalidan, im gamocdilebidan, romlis niadagze TxzulebaTa gaformeba xdeba, gamokveTilad naRvliani tonis mqone masalas irCevs. gana mTaSi xmeli wifeli da gamxmari fesvebi ufro moiZebneba, vidre cocxali da jansaRi? ratom oboli nukri da daCagruli patara mwyemsi aqcia man Tavisi Semoqmedebis masalad da ara sxva? ratom mtirali klde warmogvidgina da sxva aseTi masala mogvawoda vaJam? cxadia, vaJas ocneba saxeSecvlili mTaa -- misi kldeebiT, wifeliT, wyaroTi, fesvebiT... es ocneba iwvevs vaJa-fSavelas naRvliani grZnobiTi tonis gamZafrebas, xolo ocnebis ganxorcielebaSi darwmunebuloba ki optimisturi ieriT Rebavs mTel mis Semoqmedebas. ratom irCevs vaJa-fSavela aseT masalas? pasuxi mxolod erTi SeiZleba iyos: aseTi masalis SerCeva gansazRvrulia im TvalsazrisiT, romelic Cveni XIX sau313

kunis literaturis korifeebs gaaCndaT -- erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli TvalsazrisiT. marTlacda, rac unda bevri vilaparakoT, Cven ar gvaqvs safuZveli, magaliTad, TviT mTis wyaroSi maSindeli saqarTvelo davinaxoT, ukeTu ar davdgebiT masalis SerCevis im Tvalsazrisze, romelsac vaJa eyrdnoboda. sakiTxisadmi sxvagvari midgoma advilad dagvayenebs im molipul gzaze, romelmac SeiZleba simbolist mwerlad vaJas gamocxadebamdec ki migviyvanos. sazogadod, vaJa-fSavelas TxzulebaTa didi nawili warsulidan iRebs masalas, misi gmirebi warsulidan metyveleben, magram sagangebod unda gaesvas xazi, rom vaJas nawerebSi Cven win dgas ara ubralod warsuli, aramed cocxali warsuli, anu iseTi, romelsac CvenTvis sadReiso mniSvneloba aqvs. raoden Soreuli warsulis gmirebi ar unda hyavdes vaJas gamoyvanili, isini yovelTvis gamodian samSoblosTan daaxloebis wyarod. swored aseTi warsuli aris gacocxlebuli `moxucis naTqvamSi~ da ganskuTrebiT ki `baxtrionSia~ igi warmomdgari mTeli mxatvruli ZaliT. es poemebic gviCvenebs, Tu raoden didia da mWidro poetis kavSiri mis qveyanasTan, mis kuTxesTan:

`mogesalmebiT, qedebo, momaqvs salami gviani, Cemsamc samares amkoben Tqveni deka da Rviani~, --

ase wers poeti `baxtrionSi~. aseTi damokidebuleba samSoblo kuTxisadmi, misi aseTi gancda Warbadaa mowodebuli `moxucis naTqvamSic~. amasTanave sagulisxmoa, rom samSoblo kuTxisadmi aseTi mimarTva damaxasiaTebelia ara marto poetisaTvis, aramed im gmirebisTvisac, romlebic nawarmoebSi moqmedeben. kviria Tavisi maxlobeli kuTxeebis xilvisas, sanaTa maxlobel adgilebTan Sexebisas gansakuTrebul kavSirs grZnoben maTTan --

`oci welia mwyemsad var,-- TuSeTs, ucxosa mxaresa,-- da fSavis xevis stumarsa marto vxedavdi mTvaresa. sabarod gadmamavalTa ambavs vkiTxavdi weroTa,-- ra werilobas gagviwevs, Tovlze ambavi vweroTa?~

samSoblo bunebis wiaRi gamodis im miznebis ganxorcielebis xelSemwyobad, romelTac misi mosaxleoba isaxavs:

`aragvo, uyaraule omSi mimdinars laSqarsa. Tu vinme gamoqceuli urcxvad moadges Sens kides, lami aWame Sercxvenils, rom saxlSi veRar mivides~ (`moxucis naTqvami~)

aqedan cxadia, rom yoveli kuTxe da adgili amtkicebs gmiris patriotul grZnobas, isini gamodian am grZnobis erT-erT gamaRrmavebel faqtorad. warsulidan metyveleben zezvas, luxumis, sumeljis da Tavgamwiravi lelakvirias saxeebi. am warsuls saocari sidiade imiTac aqvs miniWebuli, rom nisliviT xeze gawolili -- `gveli morTuli jagriTa~ mkerdze sisxlmimxmari luxumis xilvisas sibraluls grZnobs, misken miimarTeba `didronis tanis glarzvniTa~, igi aSterdeba sneul luxums `Tavisis `gveluris saxiTa~, Tavisis `gulis mzaravi TvaliTa~, mas `guli evseba braliTa~ da

`bevri codvebis moqmedsa gadaubrunda guneba: ra sibraluliT imsWvalvis misi gveluri buneba! zed gadaawva mkerdzeda wylulsa ulokda eniTa. Tan mkerds usvelebs mxedarsa cremlebis CamodeniTa ayruebs tyesa da velsa oxvriTa ramodeniTa! ........................ saWmelsac TviTon uzidavs asmevs wyals laRis mTisasa; Ram-Ram zRaparsac uambobs ori obolis Zmisasa~.

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patriotuli mizniT am ambis gamoyeneba legendisaTvis ufro meti Rirebulebis miniWebas niSnavs. borotebac ki ukan ixevs, rodesac saqme samSoblos dacvis ganmaxorcielebels exeba. keTilSobileba samSoblosaTvis Tavdadebulisa sxvaTa gakeTilSobilebasac iwvevs. ai, erTi azri am legendisa. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom vaJa-fSavelasaTvis ar aris damaxasiaTebeli sarkazmi. amas vaJa arc maSin mimarTavs, rodesac saqme exeba patriotul grZnobas. vaJam icis aRtaceba, rodesac patriotuli ganwyobilebiT savse arsebebs xedavs:

`fSavlis Svilebi moidnen, sulTqma Tan mohyva Cqaria, ra saamuri dro aris, ra saamuri wamia!~

magram, amasTanave, vaJam icis TavSekavebac, rodesac saqme adamianis msajulad gamosvlas exeba. Tuki raime qceva aris Rirsi gakicxvisa, Tqma ar unda, -- vaJas rwmeniT, -- sastiki gakicxvis Rirsia is, vinc samSoblos dacvis dros silaCres gamoiCens, magram vaJa aqac did sulgrZelobas amJRavnebs. SekiTxvaze -- `axla isa sTqviT, moymeno, vin darCa sircxviliani?~ -- brZolidan dabrunebuli fSavlebi wiwolas asaxeleben: `wiwolam lafiT gagvTxifa, gagveqca sirbiliani~, -- amboben isini; meomrebi misi qcevis ukeTurobas aRniSnaven da amboben, rom wiwolas axloblebi aRar gaikarebeno (`vinRa gaivlevs axlosa, Caaqvaveben dedani~). magram vaJa-fSavela am silaCris `axsnas~cdilobs. igi laCarsave gamoasyidvinebs Tavis danaSauls da amiT erTgvarad akeTilSobilebs mas. vaJa xedavs da gveubneba, rom wiwola imdenad dacinvis Rirsi ar aris, ramdenadac Sebralebisa (`uklosa, ukeTurs, beCavsa sad daekarga goneba?!~). sibralulis grZnobas poeti miT ufro nergavs, rom laCarma wiwolam Tavi CamoixrCo (`muxaze Camokiduli kaci sCans samklaviani, Tavi dauxrCav mxedarsa, Tu iyo guljavriani?~). wiwola Tavisi saqcielis msajulad TviTve gamovida da avtorma dedis cremlebi daadina Svils, romelic TviTon iyo `mwamlavi~ `Tavis ubedo bedisa~. aqedan mxolod im daskvnis gamotana SeiZleba, rom vaJa-fSavela mowyale guls atarebda da adamianis Rirsebis arc erTi mxaris miCqmalvas ar cdilobda; igi `gamgebi~ iyo da adamianis sulis moZraobis Rrma fenebs wvdeboda. vaJa gansakuTrebul lmobierebas misadmi iCenda, vinc ama Tu im mizezis gamo ubeduri iyo. vaJasaTvis gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia sxvisi gagebis unari, xolo es didi adamianis Tvisebaa, radgan, rasakvirvelia, Seudareblad ufro Znelia gaigo adamiani, vidre gahkicxo da xeli hkra mas. 3) s a z o g a d o e b i s a d a p i r o v n e b i s u r T i e r T o b i s p r o b l e m a. sayovelTaod gavrcelebulia azri, rom vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebis ZiriTad sakiTxs pirovnebasa da sazogadoebas Soris arsebuli urTierToba warmoadgens. am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba vaJas or poemas -- `stumar-maspinZelsa~ da `aluda qeTelaurs~. aRniSnaven, rom TviT am poemaTa fabulaSi aris mowodebuli winaaRmdegoba Temsa da pirovnebas Soris. saxeldobr, aluda qeTelauri da `stumar-maspinZlis~ mTavari personaJi -- joyola arRveven Temis adaTebsa da swored amis Sedegia rogorc joyolas ganapireba, ise aludas gaZeveba Temidan. maSasadame, Temi calkeuli adamianebisagan brma morCilebas moiTxovs adaTobrivi samarTlis niadagze. magram adaTobrivi samarTlis ZiriTadi niSani isaa, rom igi savaldebuloa Sesasruleblad, maSin, rodesac qcevis zogierTi normisagan gadaxveva SesaZlebelia da aseT SemTxvevaSi sasjeli aucilebeli ar aris. adaTs iuridiuli Zala mxolod maSin eZleva, rodesac mis dacvas daemateba misi savaldebulobis cnobiereba. gmirebis cnobierebaSi damkvidrebulia Tu ara adaTis Sesrulebis savaldebulobisa da misi Seusruleblobisas pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba? aseTi cnobie315

reba, faqtia, magaliTad, sisxlis aRebis adaTis SemTxvevaSi. am adaTisagan gadaxveva sasjels iwvevs da es savsebiT gasagebia Temis yoveli wevrisaTvis. magram vaJas `aluda qeTelaurSi~ sxvagvar mdgomareobazec aris miTiTebuli. rogorc adaTobrivi samarTlis norma, ise ar unda gavigoT mtris mklavis moWris Cveuleba. am tradiciis savaldebulobis cnobiereba ar gaaCnia aludas:

`raad swyrebian xevsurni, rada tyvrebian javriTa?! mters movklav, kidevac ar movsWri marjvenas magaT jibriTa! `wesi ar aris mtris mokvla, Tu xel ar masWer daniTa~. vai egeTas samarTals, monaTluls codva-braliTa!~

magram, rac mTavaria, aseTi cnobiereba TviT Temsac ara aqvs. saqme isaa, rom Temi mklavis moWris adaTiT ki araa maincdamainc dainteresebuli, aramed mas aludas vaJkacobaSi epareba eWvi:

`xevsurTa axal-uxlebi gadaiqcian tyemlada, avad Sahxedes aludas, SauZraxnian xmelada: `mokvdi, sikvdili girCevnav, ra xar sicruis mTqmelada; aixsen gvelispiruli, diacT gadugde cxelada; ...................... gamqcevixar qistiSvils, gaduqcevixar qalada, mahkal, marjvena ar masWer, ukven misdevdi ma rada?!~

amitom gawires aluda, amitom aqcies mas zurgi `piriTa javrianiTa~. Tems aludasadmi guli ar moubrundeboda, mklavis moWris adaTis darRveva rom idges yuradRebis centrSi. mklavis mouWreloba rom sasjels iwvevdes, maSin mindiac aludas renomes aRdgenas SeuZleblad miiCnevda da ver ityoda:

`-- axlebo, sisxli gifuisT, sWriTa da hkeravT guliTa, guls aTrevinebT gonebas, Tavs aWreinebT culiTa... marTali ari aluda, Tavs ar dameqcnen cania! Tu ara gjeraT, qistisa, ai, moWrili mklavia~.

ukve am sityvebidan Cans, rom mklavis moWra ar warmoadgens adaTobrivi samarTlis normas. TviT Temsac aluda amitom ar gauZevebia, rom man mklavi ar mosWra mucals. aludas gaZeveba am niadagze ar momxdara. saqme isaa, rom aludas qcevam, misma moqmedebam sxva sibrtyeze gadainacvla, -- sarwmunoebriv sibrtyeze. xevisberi berdia aRaSfoTa aludas survilma mucalis sulis damwyalobebisa:

`-- gaurjulebuls arjuleb, Sen eg ar Sagixdebisa, qistisad saklavis dakvla kargad ar mogixdebisa. ....................... gonT modi, qristiani xar, urjulovdebi magiTa...~

da mxolod maSin, rodesac TviT aludam daarRvia sarwmunoebrivi wesi, `xeli gaikra frangulsa~, `uqniva mozvers qedzeda~ da

`Tan Saexvewa batonsa, nu Samicodeb Svilsao, allada hqondes mucalsa, mag mounaTlav gmirsao~.

jagaraSlilma berdiam igi mokveTilad gamoacxada da xalxs mouwoda:

`wadiT, umtvrieT Sav-bnelsa saxlisa, cixis karebi. .......................... Satils col-Svili utireT, gudans SinSni da qalebi; hrisxamdes Cveni batoni, ar aris Sesabralebi~.

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amgvarad, mklavis moWra ar warmoadgens adaTobrivi samarTlis normas, misgan gadaxveva SesaZlebelia da es ar iwvevs sasjels saerTod da arc kerZod aludas mimarT gamouwvevia. metic SeiZleba iTqvas: aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac am Cveulebisagan gadaxveva pirovnebis RirsebaTa simaRlesac ki aRniSnavs. ase, magaliTad, vaJas erT poemaSi xalxi Semdegnairad axasiaTebs ivane kotoraSvils:

`RonesTan Wkuac did hqonda, guli xom edva lomisa, metad lamazad icoda wesi da rigi omisa. mas ara hqonda wesada mtrisad moeWra marjvena mters ro mokvlevdis, ityodis: `veRara vjijgni, mrcxvenia, mkvdars ro marjvena movaWra, ra WkvaSi mosaxdenia! ra biWobaa, usulos leSs kidev sisxli vadino...~ (`ivane kotoraSvilis ambavi~)

rogorc vxedavT, gmiris saxels araferi ar akldeba imis gamo, rom igi mters mklavs ara sWris, -- piriqiTac ki xdeba. aluda qeTelauris SemTxvevaSi mTavari isaa, rom igi sarwmunoebriv sferoSi SeiWra, TviTneboba aq gamoiCina, sarwmunoebrivi samarTlis norma daarRvia. magram aseTi normis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi warmoadgens Tu ara pirovnebis dasja swored Temuri wyobilebisaTvis specifikurad damaxasiaTebel Taviseburebas? rasakvirvelia, ara. aseTi moqmedeba TemSi ki ara, yovel morwmune sazogadoebaSi iqneboda sruliad sakmarisi safuZveli pirovnebis gakicxvisa da mokveTisaTvis. amrigad, maincdamainc ise ar unda gavigoT vaJas nawarmoebi, TiTqos, maTSi dasmuli sakiTxi mxolod Temuri viTarebiT iyos SemozRuduli. Cven gvaqvs safuZveli vilaparakoT, rom vaJas SemoqmedebaSi Temi sxva sazogadoebrivi formaciisagan arsebiTad gansxvavebul sferos ar warmoadgens. amitom, Cven unda gamovitanoT daskvna, rom Tems ganixilavs vaJa ara rogorc aseTs (-s), ara rogorc sxva formaciisadmi dapirispirebuls, aramed rogorc saerTod sazogadoebas; Temis ganxilvisas vaJa iseTi sakiTxebiTaa dainteresebuli, romlebic aqtualuria sxva sazogadoebrivi formaciebisaTvis. amgvarad, nacvlad Temisa da pirovnebis urTierTobis problemisa, Cven unda vilaparakoT vaJas SemoqmedebaSi sazogadoebisa da pirovnebis urTierTobis problemis Sesaxeb. sakiTxis amgvari dasma aTavisuflebs Cvens poets Temis problemiT SezRudvisagan da misi Semoqmedebisadmi nayofieri, farTo literaturuli Tvalsazrisis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobas qmnis. gansakuTrebiT sagulisxmoa isic, rom Temuri cxovrebis safexuri pirovnebis ganviTarebis maRal dones ar gulisxmobs, xolo vaJa-fSavelas gmirebi, piriqiT, Semkulni arian im unariT, rom mkafio mimarTeba daamyaron garemosTan, anu maTSi gansaxierebulia is niSnebi, romlebic sazogadoebrivi ganviTarebis ufro maRal safexurze mdgom pirovnebas axasiaTebs. aq brma morCilebasTan ki ara, garemosTan Tavisufal da kritikul damokidebulebasTan gvaqvs saqme. vaJas personaJebs gaaCniaT agreTve imis unari, rom win aRudgenen pirvel mozRvavebas TavianTi sulisas, gza Seucvalon instinqtTa mimarTulebas, Secvalon isini, moaxdinon faqtTa analizi da sakuTari TvaliT ki ara -- obieqturi TvaliTac Sexedon movlenebs. joyolas dakvirvebul Tvals `ver daemalvis im grZnobis nakvalevia~, romelsac zviadauris datirebiT gamowveuli aRazas morcxvoba faravda. magram aRazas aRsarebis sityvebs joyolam iseTi azri Seageba, romelic mas aTavisuflebs Savi eWvisagan da moraluri sidiadiT anaTebs mis maRal pirovnul saxes:

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`-- magisTvis rogor Segrisxav? tyuls sjobs simarTlis Tqmao. itire?! -- madli giqnia,

me ra gamge var magisa? diacs mudamac uxdeba glova vaJkacis kargisa~.

maRal pirovnul donesTan gvaqvs saqme agreTve poemaSi `gogoTur da afSina~ -- gogoTuris saxiT. aq aris daxasiaTebuli garkveuli damokidebuleba ojaxuri yofisadmi. am poemaSi maiZulebeli momentebisadmi morCileba ki ar aris gamoxatuli, aramed sakuTar SinasamyarosTan SeTanxmebuli moqmedeba pirovnebisa. im Seuracxyofam, romelic afSinam gogoTurs miayena, gogoTurs mxolod amaRlebuli, keTilSobilebiT savse pirovnebis Semamkobeli sityvebi aTqmevina:

`me Sen iaraRn rad mindan, simrudis gzaze navali?~

kvirias da lelas pirovneba (`baxtrioni~) xom iseTi Segnebuli Tavganwirvis gamomJRavnebaa, rom, ueWvelia, Cven Tvalwin warmodgebian naTelmosili pirovnebebis Camoyalibebuli xatebi. rogorc vxedavT, vaJas gmirebi aaSkaraveben yvela ZiriTad Tvisebas pirovnebis maRalganviTarebul safexurs rom axasiaTebs. vaJac swored im adamianebiT aris dainteresebuli, romlebic pirovnebad Camoyalibebulan da, maSasadame, garesamyarosTan garkveuli mimarTebis damyareba ZaluZT. sxvagvarad ar SeiZleba joyolas, aludas, mindias, gogoTuris da sxvaTa gageba. yvelaferi es gvikarnaxebs, rom vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebis ganxilvisas Temisa da pirovnebis urTierTobis nacvlad sazogadoebisa da pirovnebis urTierTobaze vilaparakoT. kritikosebi aRniSnaven, rom vaJas gmirebi cdiloben gadalaxon bunebrivi da aTaswlovani tradiciebiT ganmtkicebuli sazogadoebrivi sazRvrebi. tragikulia aluda qeTelauris bedi: man Temis Cveuleba daarRvia da marjvena xeli ar mosWra moklul mters; bolos tragikulia joyolasa da aRazas bedi `stumarmaspinZelSi~: maT uRalates TavianT Temsa da qistebis mosisxle mters maspinZloba da Wirisufloba gauwies. magram, rodesac adaTebisa da tradiciebis Sesaxeb vlaparakobT, ar SeiZleba vigulisxmobT, rom maTi `saxeldaxelod~ Seqmna aris SesaZlebeli. amis xazgasmiT aRniSvnas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs Cveni sakiTxisaTvis. Tems rom mtrisadmi mtruli daxvedris tradicia aqvs gamomuSavebuli, es udavoa rogorc `stumar-maspinZlis~, ise `aluda qeTelauris~ mixedviT:

`magram mters mtrulad moeqec, TviTon ufalma brZanao, is sjobs, rac male vecdebiT, gulSi CavurWoT danao --~

ambobs xalxi `stumar-maspinZelSi~. erTi sityviT, adaTi mtris gamklavebisa gasagebi, mkveTri da TavisTavad naTeli adaTia. magram TemSive arsebobs tradicia, rom vaJkacs pativi unda sce. ai, ras ambobs mindia aRtacebis, yovelgvari Selamazebis gareSe, rodesac aludas hkicxaven:

`nu ityviT vaJkacis augs eniTa qarianiTa ......................... advil nu ityviT sityvasa, advil nu ityviT vaJkacze, ara vargao, imisa!~

anda:

`advil ver icnobT vaJkacsa mis vaJkacuris rjuliTa~

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vaJkacis pativiscemas `stumar-maspinZelSi~ vaJa RvTis nabrZanebad Tvlis:

`zviadaursa glovobda SfoTva da borgvna wylisao, niavad Camonadeni oxvra maRalis mTisao. cremli nislebis jarisa nabrZanebia RvTisao~.

amis mixedviTac cxadia, rom TemSi arsebobs adaTi vaJkacis pativiscemisa. am tradiciis gverdiT ganmtkicebulia TemSi tradicia stumarTmoyvareobisa, tradicia, rom stumari unda daicva da uWirisuflo. amas mowmobs joyolas sityvebi:

`ai, stumari moggvare, RvTis wyalobaa Cvenzeda~,

anda:

`Cems stumarsa hklaven sworeda .............................. uyure unamusoTa, Cems ojaxs rogor qelaven~,

anda:

`-- ras sCadiT? -- SemouZaxa: vis stumars hboWavT TokiTa? rad stexT sauflo Cvens wessa, Tavs lafs rad masxamT kokiTa~. `dRes stumarisa eg Cemi, Tund zRva emarTos sisxlisa, miTac me ver vuRalateb! vficav RmerTs, qmnili imisa .......................... vis gauyidav stumari? qisteTs sad Tqmula ambada? ......................... Tvis rjuli dagviwyebiaT, mitom iqceviT mcdarada~.

aq, garda stumarTmoyvareobis adaTis daxasiaTebisa, sagulisxmoa, rom joyola TviT momxvdurebs miuTiTebs am adaTis ugulebelyofaze, `Tvis rjuli dagviwyebiaT,~ -- usayvedurebs maT. amave adaTis simtkiceze laparakobs `sisxlis ZiebaSi~ qiCiri, romelic aslanTan, am mosisxle mterTan, misvlas apirebs:

`diaR, wamoval, Tunda Tqvan qiCiri rasa Svrebisa?! me ki Cvens CerqezT rjulzeda saxlSi miuval Zmurada! Tu ar daircxvnis TiTona, dae, mameqces mtrulada. arc es meqneba sanaRvlod, arc Tavi dakargulada. saRmrTo wess rogor daarRvevs, isic gafuWda srulada?!~

stumar-maspinZloba araa ufro naklebi Zalis adaTi, vidre romelime sxva adaTi. jer kidev `odiseaSi~ aris dawyevlili herakle, romelic saSinlad moeqca hefestoss. qarTul xalxur poeziaSi mravalgzis gamoxatula am adaTis simtkice. amgvarad Cven aseT mdgomareobasTan gvaqvs saqme: a) TemSi arsebobs adaTi mtris mtrulad daxvedrisa da, amasTanave, moqmedebs adaTi vaJkacis pativiscemisa; b) TemSi arsebobs adaTi mtris mtrulad daxvedrisa da, amasTanave, moqmedebs adaTi stumris pativiscemisa. aqedan cal-calke romeli adaTic ar unda aviRoT, vaJas gmirebi maT dacvas sruliadac ar gaurbian. joyola sruliadac ar zrunavs zviadauris, rogorc mtris, dacvaze:

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`me gTxov gauSva, musao, nu stanjav udierada,

roca gascdeba Cems ojaxs, iq moepyarivT avada~ --

mimarTavs igi momxdurTa winamZRols, romelsac man Semdgom mwared anana `mixdoma sxvisa karzeo~. joyola am SemTxvevaSi cnobs im adaTs, romlis Tanaxmad, ojaxidan gasuli stumris mimarT isev ZalaSi Sedis sisxlis aRebis moTxovna. ase rom, joyola savsebiT Tanmimdevrulia adaTebis dacvis TvalsazrisiT. sazogadod, joyolas dasaxasiaTeblad aRsaniSnavia, rom mas azradac ki ar mosdis, uRalatos Tems. piriqiT, igi saerTo mterTan SetakebaSi iSviaT gambedaobas iCens. yvelaferi es mowmobs, rom vaJas mixedviT, personaJebi romelime adaTis darRvevisaken ar miiswrafvian, maSasadame, ar SeiZleba gaviziaroT gavrcelebuli mosazreba, rom vaJas gmirebi Temis aTaswlovani tradiciebis winaaRmdeg ibrZvian. amaSi sruliadac ar mdgomareobs maTi tragedia. saqme is aris, rom TviT Temi Seicavs erTimeorisadmi dapirispirebul, SeuTanxmebel tradicia-adaTebs; aq Cven vxedavT, rom Tems ar ukisria iseTi pozitiuri samarTlis mowodeba, romelic uzrunvelyofda mosaxleobis normalur cxovrebas. garkveul situaciaSi urTierTSeTanxmebuli dadebiTi adaTi Tems ar moepoveba da es iwvevs pirovnebis tragedias. TviT Temia gaorebuli, TviT masSivea mocemuli Sinagani winaaRmdegoba. es winaaRmdegoba im xarvezSi iCens Tavs, romelic Temis adaTobrivi samarTlis sistemaSi arsebobs. vaJas gmirebisaTvis ar aris cnobili adaTi, Tu rogor unda moiqces adamiani maSin, rodesac mteri stumradaa. am SemTxvevaSi romels misdios man -- stumarTmoyvareobis Tu sisxlis aRebis adaTs? mterze SurisZiebis, Tu vaJkacis pativiscemis adaTi unda daicvas man? am kiTxvebze pasuxi ar aris gacemuli Temis adaTebSi. aqedan gamomdinareobs, rom pirovnebis tragedias Temis romelime adaTis winaaRmdeg brZola ar iwvevs. Temis aTaswlovani tradiciis mowinaaRmdege ki ar gamodis pirovneba, aramed igi xdeba TemSive arsebuli winaaRmdegobis msxverpli. vaJa-fSavelas gansakuTrebul damsaxurebad swored is unda miviCnioT, rom man Temis es Sinagani winaaRmdegoba dagvixasiaTa. man, SeiZleba iTqvas, rogorc arc erTma mweralma qarTul literaturaSi, gviCvena, rom pirovnebis tragedia sazogadoebis SigniT arsebuli winaaRmdegobis safuZvelzea aRmocenebuli. amgvarad, vaJam ara marto dagvixata adamianis tragediis suraTi, aramed mTeli da marTebuli axsniTi TvalsazrisiT gamoiyena. swored amitomac unda gaesvas xazi imas, rom vaJa-fSavela uaRresad socialuri mweralia. 4) b u n e b i s a d m i m i m a r T e b a. bunebis xilva adamianSi sixarulis gancdas iwvevs, magram ar SeiZleba vigulisxmoT, rom amiT ukve savsebiT Seqmnilia sakmao piroba, raTa es sixaruli gadaiqces bunebis gagebisa da sxvisaTvis miwodebis unarad. am unariT mxolod zogierTia dajildoebuli. is uTqmeli gancda, romelic bunebis xilvazea aRmocenebuli, gamosaxvis sirTulesTanaa dakavSirebuli da Zalian xSirad ver xerxdeba misi Sesatyvis gamomxatvel saSualebaTa gamoZebna: bunebis saxiT gadaSlili mZafr da `saidumloebiT~ savse movlenaTa winaSe xSirad adamiani utyvia. qarTul mxatvrul literaturaSi bunebis grZnobas sxvadasxva saxe hqonda miRebuli, vidre im simaRlemde avidoda, romelic vaJa-fSavelam warmogvidgina. pirveli STabeWdileba, romelic Cven vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebis gacnobidan gvrCeba, isaa, rom igi bunebis didi mgosania; Zalian didia bunebis xvedriTi wona mis SemoqmedebaSi.

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amTaviTve aRsaniSnavia, rom vaJasTn buneba sakmaod mravalferovania: mdinareebi, wyaroebi, mTebi da kldeebi, yvavilebi, TavTavebi, quCi da wiflebi, arwivebi, Cxikvebi, svavebi da bulbulebi, meliebi, turebi, mglebi da vefxvebi; Rvari, Tovli, qari da nisli... aseTia vaJas mier warmodgenili buneba da misi mosaxleoba. cudi da kargi, warmtaci, momxiblavi da piriqiT, -- Rirsia imisa, rom ar gansxvavdes urTierTisagan rogorc obieqti vaJas poeziisa. yvelaferi imsaxurebs vaJas yuradRebas da misi interesis obieqti xdeba. da, marTlac, `mTlad me mekuTvnis qveyanao,~ -- kidec ambobs erTgan poeti. aqamde unaxavi da ucnauri simaRlea bunebis grZnobisa xorcSesxmuli vaJas `baxtrionSi~:

`gadvidnen alaznis Tavsa, mTebis wverebi Cndebodnen, saca gahxedav, yovelgan gasaSteroni dgebodnen. zogni cis gul-mkerds hkocnian, zogni ukana rCebodnen~.

yoveli movlena bunebisa, rogoric unda iyos igi, garkveul sulier Sinaarss gvidgens. mTani qviTineben, anda `fiqrs miscemian mwaresa~, kldeni pirs ibanen wyalzeda, mcenareni sixarulsa da mwuxarebas avlenen, nukri SiSisagan TrTis, mxarmotexili arwivi Tavis mdgomareobas afasebs da nisli mTis fiqrs warmoadgens. bunebis yoveli movlena, mis wiaRSi monavarde yoveli arseba mgrZnobiare da azriania.