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Communication Models

Theoretical to Applied

Common Elements

Sender encodes information as a Message which is sent via a Channel (email, letter, report, etc.) to a Receiver who decodes the information Feedback completes the loop & the process continues until understanding is achieved

2

Linear Model

Shannon & Weaver, 1949

Encodes Sender MESSAGE

Decodes

Noise

Noise

Channel(s)

Receiver

External Physiological Psychological

3

1

Interactive Model

Kellerman 1992

Intentional & unintentional

Behaves Sender / Receiver MESSAGE Channel(s) Feedback

Decodes Receiver /Sender Behaves

Noise

Noise

Decodes

S n e'E v o me t e dr n i n n s r

R ci r E v o me t ee e' n i n n v s r

4

Transactional Model

Duck 1994

Initiate Respond Decode Communicator

sends & receives

Simultaneous

Messages & Feedback Multiple Channels

Communicator

sends & receives

Noise

Noise

Decode Respond Initiate

S n e'E v o me t e dr n i n n s r

R ci r E v o me t ee e' n i n n v s r

5

CMAP Dynamic Model

Tritchew & Wiens, 1997 Objective=relationship/shared © vision

Pre-delivery analysis

Audience(s) analysis Message needs Media choice Purpose decision Context analysis Message(s) creation & design (PAC) Delivery timing

(Design/Delivery)

Core Process

Post-delivery analysis/follow-up

Process competence Overall impact: degree of purpose success Impact on relationship to audience Changes to context Opportunities for / impediments to future interaction

Transactional

Anticipating/acquiring skills: Listening, interviewing, reading, notetaking, summarizing, synthesizing, clarifying, anticipating, researching, etc.

Interactive responding skills: Listening, responding (impromptu, question/answer), receiving criticism, compromising, seeing opportunities, etc.

6

2

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