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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Plant Sciences Feed 2011 - 1 (7): 93-100

PLANT SCIENCES FEED

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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND ETHNOBOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS ON ENDANGERED SPECIES - IPHIGENIA MAGNIFICA ANSARI & ROLLA RAO

BHOGAONKAR P. Y. AND DEVARKAR* V. D.

A UT HOR A F F I LIAT ION S Department of Botany, Govt. Vidarbha institute of Science & Humanities, Amravati, Maharashtra (India) *Department of Botany, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga, Maharashtra (India) Email- [email protected] KEYWORDS

Iphigenia magnifica Ansari & Rolla Rao, Pharmacognosy, Ethnobotany, Melghat

ABSTRACT

Iphigenia magnifica Ansari & Rolla Rao is one of the rare and endangered ethnomedicinal plant used by the Korku of Melghat. Oil extracted from bulbs is uniquely used against Migraine and Snake bite by Korku tribe but elsewhere it is used for other health elements by few researchers. The present paper deals with detailed morphological, anatomical and phytochemical screening of Iphigenia magnifica Ansari & Rolla Rao with pharmacognostical approach. In this paper, macro- & micro- morphological and anatomical studies are presented along with illustrations which give better picture of anatomical peculiarities of Iphigenia magnifica Ansari & Rolla Rao.

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INTRODUCTION

In India, different classical medicinal systems such as Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani are being practiced in the country and in addition to these innumerable local folk medicinal traditions exist. In all over 8000 plant species are in medicinal use. Across the country, which constitutes 45% of 17,500 known flowering plant species of India [1] India is a mega-biodiversity country with high level of endemism of its flora and fauna. The Western Ghats comprises ca. 1600 endemic plant species of which North Western Ghats together [2] where, Iphigenia magnifica Ansari and Rolla Rao is one of them. It is also noted by few as ethnomedicinally important plant and used in Painful Ear perforation problem [3] and Oil extracted from bulbs against Migraine and Snake bite [4].

Medicinal plants are gaining wider recognition in recent initiatives for conservation and development at the global level. This is evident in the vision and mission statement of World Health Organization [WHO] on health improvement and in community-based conservation initiatives by international organizations, including the World Bank, the International Development Research Centre [IDRC] and UNDP, for example. The effort by the WHO to recognize and promote the use of local medicinal plant knowledge systems in the health sector, particularly in developing countries, is prominent [5]. Thus, detailed studies of RET plant species those are used for their ethnomedicinal / medicinal properties should be thoroughly done for their morphological, anatomical and phytochemical Characteristics before their disappearance from the globe. `Mishra and Singh have assessed the status of Iphigenia magnifica Ansari and Rolla Rao to be vulnerable'. A severe decline of at

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least 50% is suspected in near future (10 years) based on the potential levels of exploitation [6]. These studies also reveal the importance and need of the conservation and propagation. Herbarium specimens were deposited in the Govt. Institute of Science and Humanities, Amravati [Maharashtra] in Department of Botany. Botanical Survey of India, Pune was also consulted for identification and confirmation of identification of the specimens. Micomorphological and anatomical studies were carried out by taking hand sections of fresh material collected from the field and/ or preserved in 4% Formalin. Macromorphological sketches were drawn with visual observations and micro morphological and anatomical sketches with the help of camera lucida. Preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds, amino acid composition by twodimensional paper chromatography, and qualitative ash analysis for the presence of inorganic compounds was done by standard methods given in reference books by Gangulee et. al. [14], Evans [15], Gibbs [16], Harborne [17], Johansen [18], Peach & Tracey [19] and Rastogi & Mehrotra [20]. The Melghat area is situated on the branch of Satpuda range to the south of Tapti River. The prominent feature is the main ridge of Gawilgarh hills. Reserve forest of Melghat division is divided into East Melghat and West Melghat division. The striking feature of Melghat ridge is its almost flat-topped plateau descending in a series of precipitous scarps on either side, one below the other, separated by narrow steps of lesser gradients and finally sloping down to the narrow step valleys known as Khoras [4]. Dhakna-Kolkaz wildlife Sanctuary was established in 1963 covering 381.58 sq. km. of forest area situated in the heart of Melghat. About 80% populations are of tribals [8].

STUDY AREA

The study area Melghat stretches from south to north between latitudes 21 -11' and 21 - 46' north and from west to east between longitude 78 - 38' and 77 34' east. It turns to southwest and widens into Chikhaldara and Vairat plateau with. Vairat is highest point being 1,177.75 meters above sea level [7].

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OBSERVATIONS

Family : Liliaceae Iphigenia magnifica Ansari & Rolla Rao in Bull.Bot. Surv. India 20:162,t.1.[1978]1979; Sharma, Karthikeyan & Singh Fl. Mah. State-Monocot. 139.1996. [Kor.- Jangli lasan, Lasani] Macromorphology Erect herbs, 7 - 20 cm tall; underground tuber subglobose, 1-2 cm in diam. Leaves few, sessile, linear, grasslike, 8-15 cm long, 0.5-0.6 cm wide, sheathing at base, acute or acuminate. Flowers few in terminal erect racemes; bracts linear, the lower leafy; pedicels 1-2.5 cm long. Perianth segments distinct, narrow, acute, spreading. Segments 3-4 mm long; filaments flattened. Ovary oblong; style 3, recurved capsules oblongellipsoid, 10-15 x 6-7 mm, 3- grooved, obtuse. Seeds many, ellipsoid or subglobose, 2 mm in diam; brown Flrs. & Frts. - September ­ October [PLATE- I]. Occurrence - Not common. On moist hill slopes and plateau among grasses. Micromorphology Root - Polyarch; pith small. Epiblema followed by parenchymatous cortex; cells thin ­ walled, enclosing

MATERIALS AND METHODS

During ethnobotanical survey of the Melghat data on ethnobotanical uses of the plants by tribal people, the diversity of wild food plants available for use was documented. Informal discussions, interviews and village walk with informants, medicine men were held to enhance understanding and gather information. Field visits were made with the informants for collection of specimens. Identification of the collected specimens was made with the help of Flora of Melghat [9] and other Standard Floras [10,11,12&13].

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large air chambers. Endodermis and pericycle thin walled [PLATE- II, Fig 1]. Tuber - Small, ellipsoidal. Epidermis single layered, non cutinized. Hypodermal layer with dark brownish cell contents. Ground tissue parenchymatous, cells thin walled, isodiametric, compactly placed, full with starch. Vascular bundles scattered; conjoint, collateral; larger ones amphiphloic [PLATE- II, Figs. 2 & 3]. Stem - Cylindrical. Just above the node, nearly for 1/3 of the internodal part, ochreate leaf base is inseparably fused with the stem. Higher above in the internode, leaf base tube separates from the stem. Epidermis thickwalled; followed by 3-4 layered parenchymatous hypodermis. Hypodermis with vascular bundles following a ring. Following the hypodermis is 3-4 layered zone of thick walled cells. Vascular bundles present in a ring abutting thick-walled zone. Medullary parenchyma without vascular strands. Vascular bundles amphiphloic, outer hypodermal region with vascular bundles higher above at next node gradually forms large air chambers. The region is in fact the leaf base sheath of next node [PLATE- II, Figs. 4 ­ 5 & PLATE- III, Fig. 6]. Leaf - Base tubular. Outer epidermis thickly cutinized and cuticularized. Ground tissue with few layered hypodermal chlorenchymatous zone and large air chambers, limited by thin-walled, single layered inner epidermis. Vascular bundles amphiphloic, embedded in Chlorenchymatous hypodermis. Vascular bundles with associated parenchyma form partition walls of air chambers. Lamina amphistomatous. Epidemal cells elongated, cylinder like, parallel to the surface of lamina. Stomata without subsidiany cells. In v. s. guard cells with cuticular ledge forming a stomatal cavity. Mesophyll homogenous, consisting of all isodiametric cells near the midrib, away from it becomes differentiated into two layers of cells appearing palisade like; however, these cells are short and not columnar. Spongy tissue with large air space. Midvein with chlorenchymatous ground tissue and single vascular bundle embedded in it. In midrib region, cells of upper epidermis are too large than the cells of lower epidermis. Lateral veins embedded in mesophyll with a parenchymatous bundle sheath [PLATE- III, Figs. 7 - 13]. Chemistry - Total amino acids present eight. They are Glutamic acid, Tyrosine, DL- Alanine, Histidine, DMethionine and Valine, unp 2 & unp 4. Alkaloids, Flavonoids [Flavonols], Phenolics [Catechol] and Steroids present. Ash contains Sulphur, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron Chlorine and Phosphorus [Table 1]. TABLE 1. Phytochemical tests & Observations

Iphigenia magnifica Ansari and Rolla Rao Protein Amino Acidal Profile Argenine Aspartic Acid Citruline DL-Alanine DL-2Amino-nButyric acid DL-Dopa DL-Methionine + DL- Valine Glutamic Acid + Glycine Histidine + Iso-Leucine L-Cystine L-Tyrosine + Lycine monohydrochloride Methionine Nor-Leucine Ornithine monohydrochloride Proline Serine Threonine Ttryptophan Valine + Alkaloids + Steroid Nucleus +++ Unsaturated Steroid +++ Iridoids [acubins] Flavonoids Shinoda + Flavonols + Flavanones Flavanonols Phenolics Catechol +++ Hydroquinone Napthol Pyrogallol Anthraquinones Acid Soluble Ash Fraction Calcium [Ca] +++ Iron [Fe] +++ Magnesium [Mg] +++ Name of Test

1.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6. 7.

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Sulphur [S] Chlorine [Cl] Phosphorus [P] Sodium [Na] +++ +++ ++ +

Concentration of Compound is denoted by [+++] Strong, [++] Moderate, [+] Weak and [-] Absent Korku uses - Oil extracted from bulbs is used as pain reliever especially in migraine. Oil given to smell after snake bite to avoid sleep and applied over snake bite. Recorded uses- Bulbs are used for colic and headache in parts of Bihar [21]. Plant decoction prepared in coconut oil is dropped in ear for perforation of eardrum [3].

by Pawra tribe of Nandurbar District, Maharashtra. Ind Journ Trad Know 2008; 7 [Pt 2]: 311-315. [4] Devarkar V.D. Ethnobotanical studies of Korkus of Melghat dist. Amravati with Special Reference to Ethnomedicine. Ph. D. Thesis submitted to Amravati University, Amravati. 2001. [5] Shukla S. & Gardner J. Local knowledge in Community based approaches to Medicinal plant Conservation: Lessons from India. Journ Ethnobio Ethnomed 2006;2[Pt 20]:1-9 [http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/2/1/2 0] [6] Mishra D. K. and N. P. Singh. Endemic & threatened flowering plants of Maharashtra. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta. 2001. [7] Anonymous. Maharashtra State Gazetteers [Govt. of Maharashtra] Amravati District [Revsd. Edn.] Directorate of Government Printing, Stationery and Publications, Maharashtra State. 1968; 138-152. [8] Indurkar R. N. Settlement of the Erstwhile Forest Villages in Melghat. Two Decades of Project Tiger, Melghat. [1973-1992]. Publicity & Information Officer. Pune. 1992. [9] Hooker J. D. The Flora of British India. Vol. I VII. London. 1872-1897. [10] Patel R. I. Forest Flora of Melghat. Prabhat Press, Meerat. 1968. [11] Dhore M. A. & P. A. Joshi. Flora of Melghat Tiger Reserve. Directorate, Project Tiger Melghate, Paratwada, Distt. Amravati, Maharashtra. 1998. [12] Naik V. N. Flora of Marathwada. Vol. I & II Amrut Prakashan, Aurangabad, India. 1998. [13] Bhogaonkar & Devarkar. Additions to the Flora of Melghat [Some rare and Uncommon Plants]. Technical Bulletin No. VII. The Directorate Project Tiger Melghat, Amravati. [Maharashtra, India.] 1999. [14] Gangulee, H. C., K. S. Das and C. Datta. College Botany Vol. I. New Central Book Agency, Calcutta ­ 9 [India]. 1959. [15] Evans, W.C. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. Saunders Publications, India. 1996. [16] Gibbs, R. D. Chemotaxonomy of Flowering Plants. Vol. I. Mc Gill ­ Queens University Press, London. 1974.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Both the anatomy and chemistry of Liliaceae are little known. Foliar epidermal pattern of Iphigenia spp. is studied by Rama [22] and Rama et al [23]. Steroidal saponins are reported from several genera. Iphigenia indica is studies as alterantive source of Colchicine by Mukhopadhyay et al [24]. Iphigenia magnifica Ansari & Rolla Rao also shows presence of alkaloids. As per literature survey there is very scanty information about phytochemical present in Iphigenia spp. There is still great scope for further chemical characterization. There is also scope for study the antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral activity.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Author thank to Mr. Anil Rode, CAFO, Zilla Parishad, Amravati for providing financial assistance for field under Madhughat Project and Ramakant Surpatne, local vaidu for his help during field trips and collection.

REFERENCES

[1] Ved, D.K., Tandan, V., Ravikumar, K., Udyan, P.S. And Utkarsh Ghate. Conservation Assessment of Medicinal Plants [CAMP] In India. [Unpublished] 2000. [2] Punekar S. A. and K. P. N. Kumaran. Aspects of Biodiversity of Konkan and North Western Ghats of India with Special Reference to Present and Past Endemics. In Challenges in Indian Palaeobiology-Curren Status, Recent Developments and Future Directions: An Abstract Book of Diamond jubilee National Conference-15.16, November 2005 at Birabal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow. 2005. [3] Jagtap S. D., S. S. Deokule and S. V. Bhosle. Ethnobotanical uses of endemic and RET plants

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[17] Harborne, J.B. Phytochemical Methods ­ A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. ­ Chapman and Hall, London. 1973. [18] Johansen, D.A. Plant Microtechniques, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Ltd., New Delhi. 1940. [19] Peach, K and Tracey, M. V. Modern Method of plant Analysis. [Rep. Edn.] Vol, I ­ VII. Narosa Publication, New Delhi. 1979. [20] Rastogi, R. P. and Mehrotra B. N. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants Vol. 2 [1970-1979]. Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow and National Institute of Science & Communication, New Delhi. 1999. [21] Chopra, R. N., D. Chopra, B. S. Varma. Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. Pull. & Information Directorate, Hill side New Delhi, [India]. 1969. [22] Rama TV. Foliar epidermal pattern in genus Iphigenia Kunth. Indian Sci Congr Assoc Proc 1981; 68: [Pt 3]: 43 [23] Rama TV, Rao RS, Rao PN. Foliar epidermal pattern in the genus Iphigenia Kunth [Liliaceae]. Indian J Bot 1983; 6 [Pt 1]: 49-54. [24] Mukhopadhyay M. J, Mukhopadhyay S., Sen S. In Vitro Propagation of Iphigenia Indica, an Alternative Source of Colchicines. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 2002; 69 [Pt 1]: 101-104.

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PLATE I ­ Macromorphological Characteristics of Iphigenia magnifica Ansari & Rolla Rao

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PLATE II ­ Figure 1: T.S. Root (Sector Magnified), Figure 2: T. S. Tuber(Diagrammatic), Figure 3: T. S. Tuber(Sector Magnified), Figure 4: T. S. Stem (Diagrammatic at internode), Figure 5: T. S. Stem (Sector Magnified)

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PLATE III ­ Figure 6: T.S. Stem (Diagrammatic at node), Figure 7: T. S. Tubular Leaf base (Diagrammatic), Figure 8: T. S. Tubular Leaf base (Sector Magnified), Figure 9: Stomata (Upper epidermis), Figure 10: Stomata (Lower epidermis), Figure 11: Stomata (Magnified), Figure 12: T.S. Leaf lamina (Sector Magnified), Figure 12: T.S. Midrib (Sector Magnified)

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