Read Banana Midrib Extract as Antiseptic Solution text version

2004 #1 Banana Midrib Extract as Antiseptic Solution

Juan Paolo B. Abellar, Fria Jadulang, Jonathan Rivera

ABSTRACT

The research is about collecting extract from the banana midrib and testing it for antiseptic properties. The materials are agar plates, the banana midrib, alcohol, alcogel, E Coli, diethyl, and a Soxhlet extractor. The banana plant has also been tested in the past for antiseptic properties but the part that was used was the banana fruit peelings so now we will use a different part of the plant namely the stalk. The acquisition of materials is the first step. We will retrieve the ethyl, agar plates and soxhlet extractor from the school, While the banana midrib and alcogel will be retrieved from sources outside the school. The solution will be extracted using a soxhlet extractor. It has been found out that the peelings of the banana plant contain some antiseptic properties essential for the internal parts of the body that is why the experiment is designed to determine the availability of antiseptic properties on the other part of the plant one of which is the midrib. We cooked agar and placed them in 5 petri dishes. We then obtained E.Coli bacteria and place them in the petri dishes. Using the paper Dics method we tested the extract and the control products. After incubation we then measured the zones of inhibition. After experimentation the results shall be observed then the results will be tested using ANOVA to determine how effective the extract is in cleaning the hands when compared to commercial products. #2

The effects of Increasing Levels of Carbon Dioxide on sitao and head cabbage plants.

Gerson Marvin Abesamis, Camille Samson, Christine Soliman

ABSTRACT

Nitrogen fixation is the obtaining of N2 gas from the atmosphere by symbiotic bacteria found at the roots of a certain plants that inhibit this special characteristics. This research aims to determine the effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on this plant-bacteria symbiosis. Two set­ups were created, each with different carbon-dioxide concentrations (360 ppm and 720 ppm). For experimentations, sitao (Nitrogen-fixing plant) and head cabbage (a non-nitrogen fixing plant) were subject to these two different atmospheric environments. After four weeks of observations, the plants inside the CO2enriched air tent exhibited faster growth rates than plants exposed to the ambient carbon dioxide concentrations. This is because CO2 is the main

compound needed for photosynthesis. However, because of the abundance of carbon dioxide inside the air tent, nitrogen fixing plants ­ such as sitao ­ had a tendency to rely on the carbon dioxide for nutrients; therefore, they decreased their own nitrogen intake. Another disadvantage of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere is the rise of the amount of phenolic compounds ­ a by-product of photosynthesis ­ in the plants. These substances consumed the organic nitrogen supply in the soil, and as a result, it decreased the available nitrogen for the nitrogen-fixing bacteria to utilize. Therefore, by increasing the carbon dioxide concentrations in the air, plants will exhibit faster growth, but will tend to lose their symbiosis with the nitrogen-fixing bacteria as a result of change in the plant's preferences and the decrease of nitrogen supply in the soil. #3

Radioprotective Potential of Radiolysed carrageenan and Structure-Function Analysis

Laurice Abueg, Allen Manaid, Danlen Masangya, Monica Senga

ABSTRACT

This research was conducted to determine if radiolysed carrageenan hinders the proliferation of micronucleated erythrocytes due to radiation exposure, in organisms. Treatment A signifies the dosage of kappacarrageenan, B of iota carrageenan; Carrageenan labeled 2 was subjected to 50 kGy of gamma-radiation, while carrageenan labeled 3 was subjected to 100 kGy of gamma-radiation; A 0.3mL dosage of the respective radiolysed carrageenan is represented by a, a0.6mL dosage by b and 0.9 mL dosage by c. All these, such that treatment A2a = 0.3mL dosage of kappa-carrageenan subjected to 50kGy radiation, A2b = 0.6 mL dosage of kappa-carrageenan subjected to 50kGy radiation, and so forth. The mice population used in experimentation were later subjected to radiation to induce the proliferation of abnormal cells. To assess the treatments, the number of micronucleated erythrocytes out of 100 erythrocytes were counted. Radiolysing the carrageenan proved to have depolymerized it. The dosage of carageenan decreased the amount of micronucleated erythrocytes significantly. Among the given treatments, a 0.6 mL dosage of kappacarrageenan subjected to 100 kGy radiation (A3b) was the most effective in hindering the growth of abnormal erythrocytes.

#4

Barks of Pterocarpus indicus as an Alternative Chelating Agent

Aprille Tess C Adis, Ma Clarice C Cadorna, George Marcel P Simon

ABSTRACT

Water pollution is one of the major hazards in our environment caused by many factors, such as high concentrations of toxic heavy metal ions. In a previous research, barks were used to treat the wastewater to lessen the concentration of heavy metals. The ability of barks to bind with ions is attributed to tannins. Excess barks of narra (Pterocarpus indicus) trees were collected, ground, and used as chelating agents in wastewater. Synthetic wastewater was first prepared with specific concetration of a heavy metal such as cadium, copper, and manganese, were first prepared. The barks were applied to the sample wastewater and were then filtered. The excess water after filtering the barks was tested using the atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), in order to determine the new concentration of the sample wastewater. Results show that the amount of metal ions, cadium, copper, and manganese, in the treated water lowered. The barks of Pterocarpus indicus could bind with metal ions with percent efficiency of 97.12, 57.08, and 89.25, for cadium, copper, and manganese, respectively. The results were tested using t-test for correlated groups. It is confirmed that the pterocarpus indicus bark is an effective chelating agent for cadium, copper and manganese. #5

Garlic, onion, and chili as alternative control for anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporodes) in mango fruits

Mark Timothy Agarrado, Aliya Mari Adefuin, Sabrina Laya Gacad, Jacob Fidel Oliva

ABSTRACT

Three (3) common household species namely Garlic (allium sativum), Red Onion (Allium cepa) and chili or "siling labuyo" (capsicum frutescens), were tested in controlling the anthracnose fungi disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) ripe carabao mangoes (mangifera indica). The spore-agar suspension and the forty-two mangoes were treated with different concentrations of the spices, under observation for eight days and were replicated three times. Pure garlic showed the greatest inhibition in the in-vtiro assay. Pure onion showed slight inhibition on the first few days. Chili extracts on the other hand showed almost no signs of inhibition on the 2nd day, and no

inhibition on the following observation days. It was clear that in the in vitro tests, garlic showed the greatest signs of fungus inhibition. The results however of the in-vivo assay was inconsistent and inconclusive, and therefore a general trend from the results cannot be made. But the results of the tests showed promise since there are mangoes that showed inhibition. This inconsistency might have been caused by the lack of homogeneity among the mangoes treated, since the mangoes were just bought from fruit stalls. Inherent infections might be present in some. If further test are to be conducted related to the in-vivo assay, a shorter observation period than 8 days observation could be done because on the eight day, most of the mangoes will be infected. The active ingredients of the extracts may have lost their effect on the fungi. #6

Chitosan beads in heavy metal remediation of wastewater from mining industries

Ana Cristina Monica dG Alidio, Mikka Francesca G Hipol, Joana Marie Cecilia S Pajarillo, Nell Rico Rufo

ABSTRACT

The mining industry poses threats to the environment with its byproducts, particularly heavy metals. This study was done to test the effectiveness of chitosan beads in remediating such heavy metals. Five solutions were prepared: 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% (w/w). Beads were allowed to form in NaOH solutions. The most spherical among the five were chosen and used: the 3% and 4% beads. Mining wastewater samples were treated with these beads still in three time frames: 6, 12 and 18 hours. The samples were then analyzed for copper concentration using Flame atomic absorption Spectrometry (Flame AAS). Negative results were obtained. The increase copper concentrations of the treated wastewater samples can be accounted for by two possible reasons. First, different laboratories were employed to analyze the control samples and the treated samples. Second, the study may have been to small scale. It only used less chitosan, less wastewater samples and limited replicates, as compared to the previous researches on heavy metal remediation. A second run should be done using more concentrations, samples and different sources of wastewater.

#7

The effectiveness of malunggay bark extract against specific microorganisms

Jan Jerric Aliermo, Jushua Suico, Karl Rivera

ABSTRACT

Malunggay is known as a multipurpose tree, for its numerous uses. It was mentioned in a past research that malunggay root extract was effective in inhibiting the growth of several microorganisms. The aim of our project was to test if malunggay extract taken from the bark is effective against Salmonella typhimurium and E coli. After obtaining malunggay branches, we scraped off the bark. Using a Soxhlet apparatus, we made an extract from the bark scraping. Then we tested the obtained extract at the Natural Sciences Research Institute. The results that we recovered were negative. This indicated that the extract obtained from the branch bark was not effective. We concluded that since it was effective in the past research, the different parts of the malunggay tree have different inherent antimicrobial properties. #8

The Determination of Soil properties in the PSHS Diliman Campus for the Assessment of proper plant Habitation and land use

Viviene Marvic Q. Amistad, Maan G. Capulong, Jardine Sher C. Villarruz

ABSTRACT

The study aims to investigate on the biophysical characteristics of soil samples from a chosen 1.5 x 1.5 meter in the PSHS Diliman Campus, particularly that area in front of the wet lab. It also aims to come up with a framework of the determined soil characteristics and the plants that suit the properties identified. The study could help in the people's reorientation of their land use decisions through the knowledge and understanding of soil characteristics and capability. The chosen land area was divided into 42 subareas-6columns, 7 rows. Each column consists of 7 sub-areas each representing a replicate for each test that was conducted. There were 7 tests conducted: soil pH, texture, compaction, moisture, phosphorous content, potassium content and nitrogen content. Other characteristics were also determined for the whole area such as soil type, color and compaction. The soil properties for the chosen area were based on the frequently of the occurrence of each reading. The reading for the tests that occurred most frequently was stated to be the property for that test. It was found out that the soil has a soil type of clay loam, suggesting that the soil has a high water capacity although maintenance and proper weather conditions are required to be able to utilize the soil well. The soil is reddish brown in color, signifying that the soil erosion factor, aeration, available nitrogen, fertility and organic

matter are present at medium levels. The soil compaction is clay, therefore it can be said that its nutrient capacity is high. The soil structure is mostly granular. The soil pH is roughly 6.5 ­slightly acidic-which is considered as a tolerable range for the plant growth. It has a phosphorus content of approximately 25-79 mg/L (medium) and potassium content of around 200600mg/L. It is recommended that if a test that could give the exact (quantitative) amount of compounds present in the soil exists, such tests present that will further the determination of the soil properties, it is suggested that these tests be carried out. Finally, if time permits, a larger region should be taken into consideration so that a more general condition of the area could be acquired. #9

The investigation of carotenoids as a Delaying Mechanism of the onset of Diabetes Mellitus in Alloxan-treated Mice

Leslie Ann S. Ang, Angeli Mae B. Borbe, Mayumi P. Fukushima, Joshua Anton O. Yabut.

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have shown that oxidative stress induced by free radicals contributes to the development of diabetes by damaging the pancreatic cells. The objective of this study is to observe and analyze the effects of carotenoids, a group of antioxidants, on the prevention of the onset of diabetes mellitus. Carotenoids were extracted from tomato sauce using vacuum filtration, liquid-liquid extraction and rotary evaporation. The extraction protocol was optimized by several experimentations of various techniques and of different organic solvents. The pure carotenoids extract was then dissolved in olive oil for easier ingestion. The effect of carotenoids was tested on diabetic mice (induced with alloxan) while a semi-control group was treated with alloxan only. The protocol for the induction of diabetes, treatment of carotenoids and the mixture of carotenoids and olive oil were refined and perfect by performing several trials. The blood glucose levels of the 2 groups of mice were measured and compared every other day with the blood glucose levels of the mice in the control group. This data was used to determine the condition of the pancreas which then reflects the action of carotenoids on the prevention of damaging effects of free radicals. The results of the experiments show that the carotenoid extract was helpful in preventing the blood glucose levels of the mice from reaching the diabetic blood glucose level.

#10

Monetary Manager (Mon Man) ABSTRACT

Marc Angco, Carlos Cruz, Jonathan Conanan, Janmark Garcia

In today's world, with our falling economy and rising inflation rates, people are inclined to save money in as many ways as possible. Organizing one's expenses seems to be a very difficult task. What seem to be little expenses, when tallied, make up a substantial amount. Though that fact is known, it is really hard to keep record of all expenses incurred. The monetary Manager (MonMan) is a computer designed to assist people, whether for business or personal use, in tallying and listing their financial transactions. With this data, the program can make a financial statement summarizing everything with the indi8vidual's net income for the year. This net income is broken down into several categories, and tax deduction is also shown. The program works by accessing the database and presenting the data in the program interface and doing related operations. For example, there is a database that contains a tax table. With the values in this table, compared with the user's income, the tax amount can be determined and automatically deducted in the financial statement. The program, though designed for home and personal use, was optimized for regular homeowners, mainly because there are not many products for this task. The program interface and menus were made with Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while the database, which was used to store the data gathered, was created with Microsoft access. #11

The effectiveness of squash seed extract against Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

Jericho Art S Antonio, Karla Mia G Villena

ABSTRACT

Fungal pathogens are responsible for the increase of diseases. They account for a proportion of the hospital-acquired infections, particularly among organ transplant recipients ands other patients receiving immunosuppressive treatments. The project aims to test the effectiveness of squash seeds extract as antifungal remedy which can be compared to commercial medicine. Squash seeds were chosen as potential antifungal herb because of its comparable contents to antifungal products. It underwent three main processes. First was the nutrient extraction from seeds. The next process was culture medium preparation. It started from the collection of agar and trichophyton mentagrophytes, followed by making the medium. The last

process was the inoculation and data gathering. Five tests were done with three replicates each. The area of inhibition were checked daily for three weeks. The group used analysis of variance (ANOVA) computation, t-test and appearance testing to validate the results. It was determined that the growth of fungus on different treatments had different rates of change. The best concentration, 1:1 ratio of water to extract, was chosen to compete with the antifungal cream. The ANOVA test concluded that there's no significant difference with the means of 1:1 ratio and cream. In the T-test, it was proven that there's a significant change before and after applying the extract. The research showed that squash seed extract can really inhibit fungi as effectively as commercial antifungal creams.

#12 Optimizing Lyophilization Formulations of Microbial Rennet Using Dextran

Angeline Monica A Arcenas, Angelo Nino B Batoon, Jennifer Carla T Catahan, Blessie Angelie N Cavas

ABSTRACT

Microbial rennet, an acid proteinase enzyme, is currently being used in the production of cheese. While dry powder enzymes are available, liquid forms are less expensive. However, they also have shorter shelf lives. To maintain the structure of liquid enzymes, they are lyophilized, or freeze-dried. This study aimed to compare the activity recovery of freeze-dried rennet and how different concentrations of dextran aid in preserving their conformations. The enzymatic activity of microbial rennet was checked, and the optimal concentration of the enzymes was determined. The different amounts of enzyme concentration used were as follows: 0.50mL, 0.30mL, 0.10mL, 0.05mL, 0.03mL and 0.01 mL. Each set-up have two replicates. From these concentrations, 0.03 mL of rennet showed the most effective clotting activity. Thus, different concentrations of dextrans were added in the following ratios: 1/3, 1:2/3, 1:1, 1:4/3, 1:5/3 and 1:2. Two types of dextran were used, and three replicates were made for each ratio. These samples were freeze-dried, and their enzymatic activity was measured. Although, statistical tests show that the difference in the measured values were not as significant between different concentrations, the mean time for milk without using dextran is 80 minutes as compared to range of 66-77 when was used, suggesting that the dextrans helped retain enzyme structure.

#13

Styrofoam, Mattress Foam and Polyester Fiber as Soundproofing Materials.

John Mark T. Arcilla, Alain P. Bernardo, Gerald Vincent R. Teo

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of Styrofoam, mattress foam and polyester fiber in soundproofing a room as compared to that of cork, a standard soundproofing material. Five small-scale houses were constructed for each treatment. The dimensions of each house were 60.9 cm x 45.72cm x 45.72 cm. One room was not treated with any soundproofing material, one was treated with cork (standard soundproofing material), one was treated with styrofoam, one was treated with mattress foam, and one was treated with polyester fiber. The rooms' walls ceiling and doors were treated with the materials. The ambient sounds coming into each of the rooms were recorded into one second wave files. A third-octave C note (256 Hz) was made to play in each of the rooms and the sounds that come out of each room were also recorded as wave files. The Root Mean Square Powers (loudness) of the files were obtained and compared using Single-Factor Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and t-test for two independent samples. Polyester fiber proved to be the most effective alternative material in soundproofing. #14

Partial Purification of Antimicrobial compounds from allium sativum (garlic) and Averrhoa balimbi (kamias)

Maria Lynette L Arreola, Kathleen B Corpuz, Madelle Anne D Dumlao

ABSTRACT

Previous researches have shown the antimicrobial properties of the crude extracts of garlic and balimbing. However, they were not able to isolate the compounds exhibiting this property. This research aims to find the anti-microbial components of Garlic and Kamias through chromatography. The discoveries of this research could serve as alternatives in making wound disinfectants. The choice of choice of garlic was based on a previous research but the choice of using kamias was based on a research about balimbing, which is of the same genus as kamias. On the research experiment, the group first tested the crude extracts of the two plants and compared them with betadine, the known wound disinfectant. The results were positive but they were not as effective as betadine. Then the soxhlet extracts of the plants using two different solvents, water and diethyl ether, were tested to give an idea of the polarity of the extracts. The extracts of both garlic and kamias using diethyl ether were found to be more effective, which means that the anti-microbial components

of these plants may be non-polar or slightly polar. After that, the paper chromatography was done to determine the solvents to be used for the column chromatography, but the test is still on going so there are no results yet. Column chromatography and the microbiological assay after that are still to be conducted to be able to know the most effective partially purified antimicrobial components of garlic and kamias. #15

Cigarette Smoke and Sperm Development in Mice

Fernando Aspi, Oyayi C Atienza-Arellano, Jimah Mae A Bantog

ABSTRACT

Nicotine is a highly addictive, toxic substance found in cigarettes. Aside from its effects on the nervous system, it has also been found to affect the reproductive system, particularly sperm development. Also contained in cigarettes is tar, which consists of numerous carcinogenic substances. And as cigarettes burn, carbon monoxide, a substance associated with heart disease, is produced. This research aimed to compare the effects of different cigarettes and their variations (lights and regular) on sperm development. Three different brands of cigarettes were used for this research: Marlboro (lights and regulars), Winston (lights and regulars) Lucky Strike (lights and regulars). Fifty five (55) male mice were divided into six groups. Each group had ten mice except for the sixth group, which was the control group, which had only five mice. Thirty (30) ml of smoke was collected from each cigarette using a modified syringe. Each group was exposed to the smoke of one brand of cigarette (lights and regular were treated as separate brands) while the control group was not exposed. After the exposure, the mice were dissected and their semen and testicles were collected. A histopathology was performed to analyze the testicles. A sperm count was done on the semen collected. Results indicated that there were few to many tabular necrosis in the Marlboro lights, Winston lights, and Winston regular groups. There was marked tubular necrosis in the Lucky Strike groups and none noted in Marlboro regular group. Based on the histopathology report conducted, it can be concluded that cigarette smoke can tubular necrosis, which hinders sperm development in mice, and that the effects of lucky strike on the reproductive system in mice is more severe as compared to the effects of the other brands of cigarette.

#16

Burkholderia sp., Lactobacillus sp., and serratia sp., as microbial Inoculants in bioorganic fertilizer.

Maria Teresita B. Aspi, Fae Angela R. Palabrica, Toni Lei C. Uy

ABSTRACT

Bioorganic fertilizers are produced by inoculating compost with microorganisms that hasten degradation and increase the nutrient content of the product. It is cheap and environment-friendly. In a study by Espiritu, BM et al., Burkholderia sp., Serratia sp. and Lactobacillus sp. were among the dominant populations present in the composing of chicken manure and coconut- coir dust. Studies in potential inoculants would encourage the development and application of this technology. Five heaps of chicken manure and coconut coir dust in a 2;1 (v/v) ratio were setup. The heaps were each inoculated with Burkholderia sp., Lactobacillus sp., Serratia sp. and a mixture of all three strains. The fifth was uninoculated to serve as control. Moisture content, pH and temperature of samples were taken. The samples were tested for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. The bacterial populations were also determined. All heaps had a final pH between 6.9 and 7.2. Inoculated heaps reached their peak temperature on day 6, while the control reached its peak on day 3. Moisture content of all heaps ranged between 32% and 68% throughout. Total potassium of all inoculated heaps is greater than the control. Total phosphorus of all inoculated heaps except burkholderia sp. I is lower than the control. Both phosphorus and potassium content are within optimal range. The C:N (Carbon: Nitrogen) ratio of all heaps are within the C:N ratio of mature compost. Based on Degradation profile and nutrient content, among all the heaps, the heap inoculated with Lactobacillus sp. showed the best quality for a bioorganic fertilizer. #17

Water Hyacinth Fiber As Paper And Cardboard Constituents

Winifredo L Austria Jr, Rupert S Cabrera, Jaime Paulo S Dumaliang, Rene Christian P. Mendoza

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine if water hyacinth fibers would be effective in the production of acceptable paper. Water hyacinth poses an environmental problem because of its uncontrollable growth. After extracting the fibers from the water hyacinth, the group pulped the fibers using NaOH. The fibers were then bleached to make it white.

Treatment production was done after bleaching. The group did four treatments namely : Treatment A-25% recycled paper and 75% water hyacinth fibers, treatment B ­50% recycled paper and 50% water hyacinth fibers. Treatment C ­ 100% water hyacinth fibers and Treatments D-100% waste papers. Treatment D served as the control and the basis for comparison of the other papers. Lastly, binding solutions were added to each treatment. The group performed non-standard and standard test on the three batches of paper that were made to determine if the quality of the produced paper is comparable to the virgin and recycled papers in the market. ANOVA and friedman's Tests were used to determine if the paper produced will have any difference with virgin or recycled papers. Lots of used paper were shredded and pulped. Statistical analyses show that there was no significant difference among the four batches in terms of folding endurance. Overall rating of paper by the fiber Industry Development Authority indicates that the paper with any amount of water hyacinth fiber content is better than a paper with no water hyacinth fiber content. #18

Honey from Giant Honeybees (Apis dorsata) as an Escherichia coli inhibitor.

Juancho Gabriel Dulay Baretto, Lamar Laurence Crucillo Loh, Wilson Cruz Zuniga

ABSTRACT

Escherichia coli is a bacteria that is behind many gastrointestinal diseases and often has to be inhibited to eliminate its negative effects. Known inhibitors, such as hydrogen peroxide, are not edible and contain chemicals which are harmful to the health of human beings. Honey has significant osmotic properties which may inhibit smaller cells such as those of E. coli. Paper dics dipped separately in pure honey, water, and a 10% concentration of hydrogen peroxide were each placed in Petri dishes containing E. coli growing on a nutrient agar surface. Water and hydrogen peroxide served as the experiment's negative and positive control, respectively. After incubation for 1 to 2 days, the zones of inhibition around the paper dics were measured and the results were analyzed using the t-test for two independent variables. It was found that between the efficacies of honey and hydrogen peroxide as E. coli inhibitor, there exists no significant difference, while there exists a significant difference between the inhibiting power of honey as compared to that of water. Honey's inhibiting effect is therefore statistically at par with that of hydrogen peroxide, and it is significantly greater than that of water.

#19 The Feasibility of Masculinization of Guppies Using Androgen Feed Diet Ma Giselle Carla D. Battad, Dianne Geraldine R. Gullas, Ma Criselda P. Sarmiento ABSTRACT

Fish breeders prefer male guppies to female ones because of the colorful body patterns that are exclusive to the male species. This project was designed to produce a larger percentage of male guppies than natural breeding through the use of androgen feed diet, particularly using testosterone hormone. The research has just one procedure, the determination of the optimal dosage of the methyltestosterone. In this process, there were three groups, having 3 replicates each. The first group is for control, the second group is treated with 0.06 mg methyltestosterone, and the third group is treated with 0.08 mg of the same hormone. The results for the process showed that the sex-reversal method, using methyltestosterone on guppies increased the precent of males. It was observed that in the control, 24.14 were males, while those given 0.06mg and 0.08mg of methytestosterone, 89.66%, and 86.21%, respectively, were males. It is recommended to test other amounts of hormones to precisely determine the optimum dosage, and to apply the process to other species of livebearers. Also, it is recommended to test what the best duration to treat different species of livebearers including the guppies. #20

Viability of insect extract as a substitute for beef extract in general Purpose Nutrient agar

Manolo Basingan Jr., Jason Arboleda, John Carl Benedict Leleng

ABSTRACT

Insects comprise a major protein source for many organisms. They remain a chief protein source for the human populace in some countries. This research aims to utilize their potential nutritive value on to other applications like microbiology, where they are to be used as nutrient providers in agar solutions. Crickets were used as the sample insect, and extracts of the sample insects were prepared. Peptone and agar were mixed with the extract, as to not compromise standard nutrient agar protocols. Part of the created nutrient agar was transferred into six petri dishes. The petri dishes were then halved into two groups based on method of inoculation of E coli bacteria. One group

was inoculated using a modified, similarly symmetric streak plate method and the group by serial dilution. The cultures were then observed in 6 hours intervals for 48 hours and compared with the control set up that used a beef extract instead of cricket. The cricket agar cultures that were inoculated using the modified streak plate method exhibited faster growth than their beef counterparts. On the other hand, the cricket agar cultures that were inoculated by serially diluted broth produced considerably more colonies than their beef counterparts. Results were suggestive of possible applications of insects agar as a suitable alternative to beef, as well as cheap sources of nutrition for ingredients in products involving human consumption. #21

Bioactivity of crude Prodigiosin Extract from Serratia marcescens

Anna Kristina B Bautista

ABSTRACT

caused by the presence of a non-polar pigment called prodigiosin. Prodigiosin has been found to have cytotoxic, antimicrobial and immunosuppresant activity. In this project, a crude extract of a local culture of S. marcescens, strain 1357, was obtained using methanol, hexane and chloroform. The solvents were evaporated and the resulting extracts were partially characterized using thin-layer chromatography. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity using TLC overlay assay with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600. Hexane extract had greater activity while chloroform extract had slight activity. All extracts were also tested using an antimicrobial activity assay with S Aureus. The hexane extract was confirmed to have antimicrobial activity, but only slight activity was observed. The extracts were submitted for cytotoxic screening. Hexane extract was found to be active against the MCF7 cancer cell line, which is a breast cancer cell line, and was more toxic than doxorubicin while chloroform and methanol extracts were not active. The hexane extract has more potential to be developed into anticancer drug. Carbon utilization tests were also performed to provide additional carbon sources for further optimization of culture and prodigiosin production in succeeding studies.

Serratia marcescens is a common pathogenic microbe with a red color

#22

Fiber Glass-Reinforced Cement Tiles ABSTRACT

Jane Reignet Bautista, Madelyne Hazel Reyes, Jamie Katherine Sio

Fiberglass has shown high quality of properties such as strength and durability. However, fiberglass has the inability to homogenize with cement due to the unavailability of grinding the fiber glass. This study aims to find the effect of adding fiberglass as a raw material for outdoor cement tiles. Tiles with three, four and five layers of fiberglass with five replicates each were initially done. Four more designs were made, each with three replicates, with the tiles reinforced with strips of fiberglass into two different orientations. The tiles were tested for physical properties such as insulation, shrinkage and strength. The tests show that fiberglass reinforcement did not show any significant difference in terms of strength. The orientation of the reinforcement, however, prevented total breakage of tiles. The research proves to provide an economical use to fiberglassreinforced tiles. It has failed, though, to meet the objectives for the innovation of cement tiles. It shows that total breakage could be prevented. This is practical for renovation and safety purposes.

#23 Micronuclues Assay of Irradiated and Pranic-Healed Mice Erythrocytes

Reinzi Luz S. Bautista, Anne Theresa B Gaba, Andrew James A Solidum

ABSTRACT

Pranic healing is a system of energy-based healing techniques. This reseach aimed to provide a scientific basis for the effectiveness of pranic healing as a supplement for other widely known medical techniques. The effect of pranic healing on mice erythrocytes was decided to be focused on based on a study conducted in the university of Irvine, California on pranic healing's effects on HeLa cells. The micronucleus (MN) assay was used to measure the efficiency of the cellular repair system of mice. If a significantly less number of micronuclei (damaged chromosomal fragments) were seen in pranic-healed mice than inthose that were not pranic-healed, pranic healing would be proven effective. The research involved three groups of five mice each. The first group was exposed to 6 grays of radiation, with one session of pranic healing after exposure. The second group was exposed to the same level of radiation, but without pranic healing. The last group served as the control, without exposure to either radiation or pranic healing. Bone marrow extracts from each mouse's femurs were placed in the centrifuge. Each pellet was spread on slides, stained, and examined under a compound microscope.

The pranic-healed mice erythrocytes showed a small number of micronucleated cells, an average of 20 per 500 cells, compared to erythrocytes that did not undergo pranic healing, which had an average of 108 out 500 cells. The results of both statistical tests also showed that pranic healing had a positive effect on the healing process. Pranic healing has a significant positive effect on irradiated mice erythrocytes and this finding also supports the idea that pranic healing is an effective healing techniques. #24

Feasibility of Brassica rapa, Asparagus officinalis, and corianfrum sativum extracts as insecticides.

James Nathan Paul Binalla, Frederick Ivan Sarmeinto

ABSTRACT

Insect and other pest infestations have been a serious problem in our communities; from rural to urban places; this problem led to the invention of the insecticide. The objective of the research project is to formulate an insecticide from common vegetables that is effective and yet safe to the environment. The vegetables were washed before they were put in a blender to begin the extraction process. These extracts were then combined into different ratios and tested on fruit flies. The ratios among turnip, asparagus, and coriander were 1:0:0, 0:1:0, 0:0:1, 1:1:0, 1:0:1, 0:1:1, and 1:1:1. The flies were sprayed with the mixtures and observed for 15 minutes with 5minute intervals and the numbers of flies killed in 5 minutes were recorded. Two control group were present. The first control group was exposed to a commercially available insecticide (Baygon), while in the second one thing was done. The results showed that the turnip extract was the most effective among the different experimental groups. Its toxicity level was half of that of the commercially available insecticide. By comparing the turnip extract to the other experimental groups, it can be seen that it is really effective among flies. The formulated sprays are safe to humans because the experiment was conducted in enclosed room and the people exposed to the sprays didn't feel any side effects after the experiment. Further testing still need to be done in order to clarify the obtained results.

#25

The Effects of varying concentrations of growth regulators Benzyladenine and Naphthalene acetis acid and gamma Irradiation on the gross plantlet morphology of garcinia mangostana L.

Ma Fatima Nona M. Bonsol, Jade Marie Edenvirg F. Lasiste, Ma Franchesca S. Quinio

ABSTRACT

Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana L.) is regarded as one of the best flavored fruits in the world. Though this fruit yields high income and has great potential as an export, productivity in the Philippines is still limited due to its slow and difficult conventional propagation. To increase the plants' productivity, growth regulators can be added, the seeds can be exposed to irradiation to cause genetic mutations, and micropropagation techniques can be used. This study seeks to determine the effects of these three variables on the general morphological characteristics of the plantlets grown both in vitro and in vivo. The first set of mangosteen seeds was inoculated and grown in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal culture medium with different treatment combinations of growth regulators, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA). Treatment concentrations ranged from 0 parts per million (ppm) to 6 ppm. The treatment that best induced stem, leaf and root formation, and produced plantlets with long stems and roots, was MS with 6ppm NAA combined with 6 ppm BA. A second set of seeds was then exposed to varying levels of gamma radiation and propagated in vivo and in vitro. For in vivo, it was observed that the length of stem of the plantlet decreases with increasing radiation dose; length of leaves of the mangosteen plantlets was best noted in seeds exposed to 10 Gy gamma rays. In vitro, the two treatment concentrations that best helped seeds to develop callus, which were 0ppm BA with 4 ppm NAA and 4 ppm BA with 6 ppm NAA, were added to MS basal medium. Seeds exposed to 5 Gy and grown in MS basal medium with 0 ppm BA and NAA were observed to have developed the most callus. #26

Kamote-pHI indicator

Clarissa Buenaventura, Noah Mangahas, Sabrina Par, Reggie Santos

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to be able to determine if the kamote extract, a proven pH indicator, could be absorbed and dried on paper without the extract losing its ability to change in color upon exposure to different levels of pH. It proposes an improved way of using and storing the Kamote extract. The group, after proving the feasibility of kamote pH papers, formulated different laboratory protocols and classroom activities regarding acids and bases that would help teachers in introducing that lesson without wasting expensive commercially available pH papers.

Kamote leaf extract was obtained through boiling the kamote tops. This extract was absorbed by filter paper. After drying the filter papers, testing was conducted. The kamote pH papers were cut into strips and submerged into different acids and bases. The results for color alteration were positive. The kamote pH paper turns to neon pink when exposed to acids and it turns to a bright green when submerged in basic solutions. The intensity of the color is decreased as acidity decrease as it also does with bases. Furthermore, the usefulness of the paper is not compromised with the time unlike the short shelf-life of liquid extract. Kamote pHI paper is very versatile. It is readily reusable for indicating pH of different chemicals and it even has sensitivity to fumes. It should not be disregarded that other plant extracts could be used as a base extract for this pH indicator. This study has, however, been able to prove the ability of the extract to retain its effectivity as a pH indicator even if it is dried in paper.

#27 Feasibility of Using Allium cepa L., Allium sativum, and Durio zibethinus as sources of odor for malodorants.

James Emil Bulatao, Joseph Steven Estebn, Dan Emmanuel Sison.

ABSTRACT

The study is about using extracts from Allium cepa L., Allium sativum and durio zibethinus as cheap alternative sources of odor for malodor ants. The odor was extracted by submerging 100 grams each of onion, garlic and durian in 400 ml of distilled, lukewarm water. A chamber with five separate compartment was constructed and its inner surface was layered with a plastic sheet, and then rags, so that the smell will not stick to the box and the rags would absorb the treatments once they are sprayed. A mouse was placed at the entry point near the treatment compartment and observations were made, after both the control and treatment were sprayed; this was repeated for all 30 mice. This process was repeated, except that the mice were put at the entry point near the control compartment. Results prove that the onion and durian treatments were more effective than the onion treatment. The extracts were also tested on humans. Thirty individuals of the PSHS freshmen population were randomly selected to do an evaluation of the odor of the extracts and rank their odor in a scale from 1 to 10. The freshmen were selected because they have spent the least time in PSHS, therefore, having the least amount of time to develop any bias towards the group. The results prove that the strength of pungency of the extracts in increasing order is garlic: onion: durian. The conclusion for the study is that among the 3, the onion would be the best source of odor for a malodorant.

#28 Parasiticide Property of Annona Squamosa

John Kenneth Cabasis, Larissa Bianca Gador

ABSTRACT

Fleas and ticks are the most common ectoparasites found on dogs. They are responsible for more skin diseases than any other cause. Ticks transmit the widest variety of pathogens of any blood-sucking arthropods. Some human diseases of current interest caused by tick-borne pathogens include Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, babeosis, rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and tick-borne relapsing fever. Annona squamosa linnae (atis) do not require special conditions of soil and water, but thrive best in places where there is a clear division between the rainy and dry season, and generally prefer dry sites in which to grow. Natives of the country and the southeastern Asian countries had used crushed seeds of atis mixed with coconut oil to remove head lice. About one hundred and fifty atis seeds were procured in cainta. The seeds were ground and underwent the process of seed extraction. The crude extract was place din an eppen tube to be centrifuged. The pellet the pellet or the protein will be the one used to act as the pesticide. The eppen tube was then placed in the refrigerator for about two nights before used for the testing. Ticks were obtained in Batangas and in neighborhood in front of the school. The ticks were divided into four groups for the treatment. The first group, which is the control, was used to determine how long the ticks would survive. For the second group was the protein solution. For the third group was a mixture of oil; and protein solution. For the fourth group was the oil solution only.

#29 Shelf-life Extension and Preservation of Lanzones through Packaging with gelatin

Michael Joseph A Cabrera, Richard Labrador, Carlos Miguel Hizon

ABSTRACT

Packaging is the form of preparing the goods gathered for its proper distributing to its customers and sale in different forms of containers such as bottles, cardboard boxes etc. The study of packaging has great importance in today's economy for it functions to protect its content and commodities while they are being shipped or transferred from its spot to its destination. The factor of keeping the good intact and fresh is always essential. This study aims to improve the setup and solve come of the problems encountered by a previous batch that researched the moisture retention and preservation of gelatin as a packaging material but it was only intended for electronic devices.

Our objectives include the feasibility of gel as packaging material and extend the shelf life of its contents, namely fruits. It is recognized that the extra effect of Allicin in the gelatin as a preservative will be an effective preservative. Gelatin will surround its package and will or won't contain the preservative depending on each setup. The preservative could seep through the fruits contaminating the core of the fruit or change the freshness of it. But the preservative will not seep through the first 5-6days, which is past the normal shelf life of a lanzones.

#30 The Study Of Factors Affecting The Reaction Rates Of The Formaldehyde Clock Reaction.

Marion D. Castaneda, Vernon F Palermo, Franco N Sapigao

ABSTRACT

Different chemical reactions proceed at different rates. Manipulating these rates is valuable know-how to those in the chemical industry. Reactions that occur too slowly use up too much time and may prove uneconomical in the long run. Reactions that occur too fast, however, may get out of control because of its extremely quick rate. Chemists must be able to control the reaction rates, either slowing it or quickening it, to a rate that suits them. Our study aims to determine the effects of varying temperature, volume, and concentration to the formaldehyde clock reaction. The chemicals to be used are formaldehyde (HCHO), sodium sulfite (Na2SO3), and sodium bisulfite (NaHSO3). Equal parts of 20.8 grams of sodium bisulfite in a liter of distilled water and 6.3 grams of sodium sulfite in a liter of distilled water are mixed. One gram of phenolphthalein is also dissolved in a solution consisting of 50 ml 75% ethyl alcohol and 50 ml distilled water. 10 ml of both the "sodium sulfite-sodium bisulfite" and" phenolphthalein in ethyl alcohol and water" are then prepared and poured at the same time in a separate container. We will start measuring the time from when the two solutions were poured into the larger container. We will then record how long it took for the color from the indicator to form. This set up would be our median, this would be our basis; we are planning to vary concentrations by changing the solute-solvent ratios, and we are planning to vary the volume of solutions to be mixed. We will then record and compare the time delays.

#31 A comparison of two access Modes for two Websites on Philippine Science High School Research Papers.

Jereny Giorgio Chua, Jensen Josevien de Lara, Jan Aldrin Ramos

ABSTRACT

A need arises for an electronic database of the research papers. In an attempt to solve this problem, a website was created by a group of students about the Philippine Science High School Research Papers, but was not completed. This time, two websites are proposed. The websites were produced using two access modes with Microsoft Frontpage and Macromedia Dreamweaver. A search algorithm, which is vital for the website's function, was installed. The first website was created with goals of making it userfriendly and accessible while the second website was created with dynamic effects as it is made to be more appealing to the eye. A survey regarding other people's opinions about the website was given out which was the basis for testing. According to the results, people see the simplicity and userfriendliness of the first website yet as expected, visual appeal is sacrificed while the second website was chosen as the more appealing one. Accuracy of the search algorithm was rated at 60% which could be improved by adjustments to the site. If the user is familiar with the research and knows its category, it is advised to access the abstract through the categories for it is faster and passes through the same number of steps. But if one only has an idea of a research in his/her mind, one was to use the search algorithm and type a keyword. It is recommended that frames be used in making websites to make it more user-friendly.

#32 Molecuar Imprinted Quercetin in Radiation Synthesized Polymers

Myriel Jona R Cordova, Cecilia G Tangco, Joan Veronica P Uy

ABSTRACT

Molecular Imprinting is used for medicinal and research purposes. The most widely used method for molecular imprinting is chemical crosslinking. This method uses chemical reagents that are harmful to humans, time consuming, and prone to human errors. This research aims to provide a safer, faster, and more accurate method of molecular imprinting. The method that was tested in molecular imprinting is radiation crosslinking using -radiation, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 kGy. These samples and the sample that did not undergo irradiation were diluted in methanol and scanned in a UV-vis spectrophotometer to compare the absorption at different wavelengths. The dosage that least affected the molecular structure of quercetin was 5 kGy. The second phase, the actual imprinting of quercetin on acrylamide, was done

by making three samples of acrylamide with quercetin. These samples and a control, plain acrylamide, were irradiated in 5 kGy. The resulting polymers were ground and sieved. The samples were mixed with methanol, centrifuged and decanted to remove excess quercetin, leaving the acrylamide with imprinted quercetin. The three samples and the control were mixed in a quercetin solution. These solutions showed that the three samples containing the acrylamide with quercetin increased in concentration, as expected. This proves that quercetin binded with acrylamide thus showing there can be imprinting.

#33 Desalinated Seawater as a substitute Nutrient Solution for Hydroponics

Carlo Cristobal, Tim Valerio, Rob Bernardino

ABSTRACT

Hydroponics is the method of growing plants in a water-enriched water solution. The solution used is composed of different fertilizer-grade chemical compounds containing varying amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other various traces elements such as sulfur, magnesium and calcium. Seawater is also abundant with these trace elements trace elements. However, seawater contains large amount of sodium and chlorine. In other places in our country, agricultural lands experience drastic changes of the climate and sudden drop or rise in the temperature. Plants are grown in places wherein there are a lot of changing environmental factors. Still in some places, the crops are affected by growth conditions such as seawater seepage. The research aims to help and ease the troubles of crop production in our country. Seawater contains some chemical compounds and trace elements that an ordinary hydroponics solutions has, and can therefore be use as a substitute for growth medium for hydroponics. The method used for desalinating the seawater to lessen the sodium and chlorine content was freeze and thaw. This technique was done bye by continuous freezing and thawing of the seawater. The final product that was produced contains same chemical compounds and trace elements and lesser sodium and chlorine content. The experiment was done in two set-ups. The first set-up contains the original solutions used in hydroponics and the second set-up contains the desalinated seawater. The results were negative. It is because the sodium and chlorine content are still in high concentration. The percentage of sodium and chlorine content should have been lowered to tolerable amount. It is recommended, therefore, that the method used for desalination should be changed or at least be prolonged

#34 The development of an Inter Hospital Network for the procurement of Donated Blood.

Mark Aurelio Dantes, Ron Edward Joson, Marvin Talingdan

ABSTRACT

The project aimed to develop a more efficient system that could replace the tedious and time-consuming phone-relay process currently used in present blood product procurement transactions. A web-ready, search engine type program was written using the database friendly web language PHP and a database creator mySQL. This program serves as the base of the network to which the different hospital blood banks refer to when in need of blood products. The program, which the group named Bloogle, consists of an input page, a delete page and a search engine type page. The first two are for editing the blood bank databases within the program and the search engine is for locating where and how much of a specific blood product searched is located. The program was launched using a Linux Apache Server and is presently hosted by international clinical epidemiology network (INCLEN) website. Testing was done using the actual blood bank databases from National Kidney Transplant Institute (NKTI) and Philippine Children's Medical Center (PCMC). Time trials show that transactions made using Bloogle are a lot faster than procurement by phone relays proving the research was a success and with further program updates could be applied to the actual hospital system. #35

The protective action of neem (Azadirachta indica A.juss) seed extract on wood.

Rodnir Ian L Dapitan, Julius Noah H Sempio

ABSTRACT

This research aims to produce an extract from neem berries to be used as a protecting agent for wood. Two process were followed in extracting the crude extract, and both have almost similar procedures. Fresh berries were obtained and dried for five hours in a drying oven. The product is milled through a regular corn mill and then pulverized using a Wiley mill. The powder was then mixed with methanol in a 1:1 weight ratio, homogenized using a magnetic stirrer, and left overnight in a cool place. The solution was filtered and the methanol distilled, leaving the dark crude extract. The crude extract was then divided equally into two Erlenmeyer flasks and diluted with methanol and water, in a 1:9 ratio to produce 10% solutions. Each solution was first tested for insecticidal potency by exposing ten termites in Petri dishes. Four untreated wood samples were

then obtained and two of them were treated with one of the solutions through direct application using a brush (the same treatment procedure was done the other two solutions only that they were treated with the other solution). For qualitative analysis, the substrates were buried in a termiteinfested area in Bulacan, Bulacan. Results on the initial tests showed that both neem berry extracts pose usefulness as a termiticide, but the results of the protection tests weren't as good as expected. This suggest a more extensive research on improving the extraction process and minimizing errors to be able to produce finished products of satisfactory performance.

#36 Fractal Analysis of the Karyotypes of members of the order of Primates

John Cezar De Guzman, Alfonso Luis Maputol, Aceyork Unsay

ABSTRACT

The study deals with the use of quantitative analysis to compare and contrast the various chromosomes of the different members of the order of primates. The lack of effective quantitative analysis methods for chromosomes has been a problem of geneticists for many years. The research makes use of the mathematical models known as fractals, figures of chaos, to determine an index for the irregular shapes of chromosomes. By utilizing the fractal index of a certain figure, one can determine a chromosome's relative density and therefore observe chromosome rearrangements and density changes throughout evolution. The research aims to test and verify the use of fractal analysis as a quantitative means of chromosome analysis. The study in limited to the members of the order of primates, which include the humans, the great apes, the new world monkeys, the old world monkeys and other primates. The study involved the acquisition, image-processing, and fractal analysis of the various karyotypes of different primates. The image-processing step involved the cropping and conversion to monochrome of the different karyotypes to yield the necessary chromosomes. The study resulted in a determination of the fractal indexes of the various primate chromosomes, which included those from chromosome one until the X-chromosome. The conclusion derived from the study was that fractal analysis is a reliable means of quantitative chromosome analysis if only more effective algorithms and means of determining fractal analysis could be developed. Also, the study can be improved if studies of other orders and different species were to be undertaken to be able to verify the validity of the method used.

#37 In Vitro Lymphocyte Proliferation by Lactobacillus casei Shirota Strain

Abigail S Delos Reyes, Eunice Katrina B Esguerra, Jayson R Paragas, Jose Faustino R Sala.

ABSTRACT

Probiotics are generally defined as microorganisms that may benefit the human body in some way. One major field of study in probiotics is the immunomodulation, or immune system stimulation, they cause. This study tests if L. casei Shirota strain is a viable in vitro immunomodulator that may increase mouse lymphocyte cell concentration. A lymphocyte solution, with a concentration of 3 x 106 cells/mL, was prepared from the spleen of a BALB/c mouse. One hundred L of the said solution was added to each of 21 microwells. Another solution, L. casei Shirota strain solution having different cell densities (2 x 106 , 5 x 196 , 8 x 10 6 and 1 x107 cells/mL), was also prepared. The said solutions of L. casei were applied to the lymphocyte solutions. Positive and null controls were also prepared. Alamar Blue dye was added 24 hours post culture. Qualitative color analysis and absorbance value reading of the samples were done. The lower the absorbance value reading, the more occurrence of cell proliferation. The sample which contained the lowest absorbance values were 6 that of 10x10 cells/mL, with an average raeding of 0.515. The samples with conc_A and 2x106 cells/mL have no significant differences between their readings. Therefore, inoculation by L. casei is a comparable immunomodular to conc_A. In other words, L. casei can cause lymphocyte proliferation thus creating a healthier immune system

#38 The Synthesis of an Electro-Thermal carrageenan Hydrogel Actuator

Roma Franz Iris F Diaz, Maria Leanna S Enecio, Anne Bernadette B Suansing

ABSTRACT

Into a glass tube three millimeters in diameter and then centimeters in length. One side was initially covered with parafilm where two pieces of wires were inserted and sealed. The mixtures were injected up to one centimeter from the side with the wires and an arbituary zero was set. The setups were irradiated and the mixtures became hydrogels. Distilled water was injected into the side without the sealant. Contraction and expansion of all replicates after subjecting to hot and cold water baths and after the application of 5 volts and 10 volts through a regulated power supply were recorded.

The data obtained from the tests showed that the carrageenan hydrogels have different responses to heat and electric stimuli. The data were inconsistent in terms The use of actuators in industrial automation and robotics continue to grow; hence, the need for more sencitive substitutes arises. Carrageenan, a polymer extracted from red seaweed, forms hydrogels by cross-linking with other polymers when exposed to radiation. Hydrogels react to certain stimuli, such as heat and electricity, by swelling or shrinking through the absorption of water. This study aims to develop effective actuator material made from carrageenan and PolyEthylene Oxide (PEO) hydrogels that are responsive to temperature and electricity which will serve as an alternative that might solve the problem of limited performance of the actuators available today. One hundred eight setups composed of the three kinds of carrageenan namely iota, kappa, lambda as well as agar, were treated by exposing the setups to three radiation levels, namely 15, 25, and 35 kGy, three concentrations of carrageenan (1%, 2% and 5%) and mixed with PEO. Each mixture was injected using disposable syringes of their deformation and no trends were found from the data recorded.

#39 The addition of copper to earthenware ceramics

Joyce Anne Dimaano, Muriel Espana, Margie Nel Fantilagan

ABSTRACT

Earthenware ceramics are defined as refractory, inorganic, nonmetallic material fired at low temperature and are porous and relatively soft. They include product such as bricks and potteries. They have high mechanical strength, temperature stability, chemical resistance, corrosion resistance and low electrical conductivity. Copper fillings were added to earthenware ceramics in 1.5%, 3.0% 7.5% by mass o enhance its electrical capacitance and firing shrinkage resistance. The main goal of this research was to test the effectiveness of the addition of copper to earthenware ceramics and to determine as to which among the three different concentrations of metal is most effective in the tests on strength, electrical capacitance and firing shrinkage designed for all samples. With potter's clay, soda ash and water, the earthenware mixture was made. Copper fillings in varied concentration of 1.5%, 3.0% and 7.5% by mass, were added to the earthenware mixture. Every sample was subjected to the following test: Strength test, firing shrinkage test and electrical capacitance test. Results showed that the control set, having no copper, had the greatest shrinkage and zero electrical capacitance. Samples added with copper contributed significant decrease in shrinkage. Also, samples having 7.5% concentration showed the highest level of capacitance. The electrical capacitance possessed by copper contributed to such significant increase in

the electrical capacitance of earthenware ceramics. On the other hand, addition of copper was found to have no effect on its relative strength.

#40 Timed Phone-Line Shutter ABSTRACT

Mark Anthony Dizon, Roy Virgil Caducio

People tend to kill precious time by spending long periods of time just talking non sense through the phone. Consequently, households allocate a substantial part of their budget on telephone bills instead of using it for much more important things. The device's objective is to shorten telephone usage, thus, forcing the user to use the allocated time wisely. It can also help by making telephone lines open to important calls. Also, this lessens telephone bills. The shutter is composed of an LM555 timer and a bunch of switches. The LM555 was connected to a combination of resistors and capacitors that will determine the time elapse of the countdown timer. In the circuit, the LM555 works as a monostable multivibrator. Thus, a switch is needed to activate the countdown. The switch that would trigger the countdown was selected to be the pound (#) key. The pound key was also used as the switch for the activation of the dial tone that would signal the user to start dialing. The LM555 timer circuit was connected to a relay that would switch the line off when the timer cuts off the current. The device was designed to fit inside the telephone unit. This posed a problem because the device is bulky and difficulty was encountered in terms of repair of the device. However, this could be solved by building an add-on shutter circuit. Making the shutter circuit as an add-on component could make it portable, transferable, and easier to repair.

#41 Comparative Analysis of the Different Physical Properties of Nata de Coco, Nata de Piña and Nata de Kalabasa

Enrico Carlo Empleo, Gabriel Garcia, John Paul Garcia, Jan Derrick Nidar

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine whether the physical properties of nata de coco, nata de piña and nata de kalabasa accounted for their difference in popularity. The natas mentioned were made by the researchers themselves and were put to a taste test. The researchers asked randomly selected students to rate the natas according to taste, firmness, toughness and color. Moreover, to avoid bias, the researchers employed blinding during the taste tests.

The physical properties of the natas investigated by the group were of no significant difference. In other words, the properties of the natas were quite similar to each other. The group found out that the physical properties of the natas investigated do not account for their difference in popularity. However, the group believed that their findings were quite unreliable because the sample population involved in their research project was negligible in comparison to the actual population.

#42 Cryogenic Preservation of Brine Shrimp

Ricardo Escanlar, Eric Dona, David Yap

#43 Banana Peelings as a Substitute for Potatoes in Potato Dextrose Agar

Herbert Joseph R Esling, Jason Mark Cruz

ABSTRACT

The study aims to determine whether a banana-dextrose based agar will be a feasible substitute for potato dextrose agar. The outcome of this experiment will provide an alternative growth medium whose ingredients are more readily available. The study will determine if Aspergillus oryzae will grow on the new medium as well as it does on potato dextrose. It will not determine, however, if other species of aspergillus or other fungi families will grow well on this medium. Potato dextrose agar is prepared by boiling 100 g of potatoes in mL of water for 30 minutes. 1 g of dextrose and 10 g of plain agar in then added to the solution. This was done for the control. The experimental medium was prepared in the same manner with the banana peelings replacing the potato in the following ratios: 75% potao-25% banana, 50% potato-50%banana, 75% banana-25% and the 100% banana. The readied preparations were poured into a total of 15 petri dishes and then inoculated using the stab method. The agar was incubated and growth observed for five days, twice a day. Results in terms of covered area were varying but the t-test assessed the differences to be non-significant. The new media is not better than the potato dextrose agar but the no-significance implies that the banana-dextrose agar is a capable competitor of the potato dextrose agar. The availability of its raw materials, however, gives it the advantage. It can therefore be concluded that the banana-dextrose agar is a feasible substitute for the potato dextrose agar in for the growth of aspergillus oryzae. It is recommended that more studies be done on the new medium using other fungi. Comparisons between the new medium and other mediums are also in order. A more accurate area measuring method can be

employed. Finer squares could be used to increase the level of accuracy. Finally, the 50-50 ratio seemed to yield the greatest area among all. Although this high growth was not according to tests, studies should be made to determine the factors contributing to this growth.

#44 The use of Indigenous Plants as alternative pigments Sources for Highlighter Ink

Rodolfo U Fernadez III, Steven Angelo C Lim, Joshua R Tud

ABSTRACT

The research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.), mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and achuete (Bixa Orellana) as substitute pigment sources for highlighter ink production. It was aimed to find other chemicals to substitute toxic substances found in conventional highlighter ink. The study was designed to compre the performance of the test inks and that of a commercial brand ink. This study was also aimed to test if the inks will be able and ready to be introduced into the market. Papaya, mango and achuete were chosen because of their observed coloring qualities and also because of their ample availability in the Philippines. The preparation of the ink involved two processes. Ethyl acetate was used as a carier to extract the pigments from the natural plant samples. The solution was then distilled to obtain a crude form of the pigment. For the Achuete inks, the concentrations used were :49% acetone, 21% water, 30% pigment; 56% acetone, 24% water, 20% pigment; and 63% acetone, 27% water, 10% pigment. Twenty PSHS students were randomly selected to rate the inks, compared to that of the commercially sold variety of highlighter inks. The inks were rated based on consistency, color, odor and texture after being marked. The gathered data was then evaluated using Friedmann's test. Based on the conclusions derived from the analytical tests, the test inks can compete with the control ink in terms of all the characteristics being tested. However, the mango and the papaya ink, failed to compete with the control ink in terms of color and ink consistency.

#45 Microcolony and Apoptosis of Pranic Healed Irradiated Mice

Jeiel G Guarino, Dominique G Lim. Anna Maria M Santos

ABSTRACT

In the desire finding an effective treatment of the vast number of diseases, new perspectives are being investigated. Pranic healing, a developed system of energy-based no-touch healing techniques will help

formulate a standard procedure to test the efficacy of different forms of alternative medicine. Thirty male mice, IRC strain, between 5-6 weeks old were divided into 6 blocks with five mice each. The first block was the positive control while the sixth block was negative. The last five blocks were exposed to 10-gygamma irradiation for eight minutes leaving out the positive control. Blocks 2-5 were then subjected to different frequencies of pranic healing after 24 hours. The first block received neither irradiation nor healing, the sixth block received irradiation but not healing. Histopathological evaluation was based on the following parameters: villi length, extent of necrosis, inflammatory reaction, and microscopic lesions. The negative control, blocks 2 and 3 consist of blunt intestinal villi and moderate to severe necrosis of enterocytes. The positive control consists of blunt and club-shaped sometimes-fused intestinal villi and moderate necrosis of enterocytes. Blocks 4 and 5 consist of blunt, sometimes fused intestinal villi and moderate necrosis of enterocytes. All blocks show infiltration of mononuclear cells mainly lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propria. Although statistical analysis reveals that there is no significant difference between the villi lengths of mice subjected to pranic healing at different frequencies, graphical analysis and raw data show a sizeable trend in the increase of villi length as frequency of pranic healing increase. #46

Correlating air pollution with respiratory problems using data mining

Joanah April A Hermano, Genevieve E Jusi, Noreen Anne A Pereira, Rhonda Camille T Reyes

ABSTRACT

It is already established that air pollutants are responsible for some health problems. However, there is still lack of quantitative measure between them. The aim of this study is to find relationships describing how the amount of air pollutants affects certain health conditions. Discovery of such patterns may help determine imposed health hazards, and help identify pollutants that have the biggest threats on people. Limitations are nonmastery of the statistical software, and misunderstanding of complex algorithms. The data samples were the aerial concentrations of the top six pollutants measured every five minutes at the Manila Observatory from September 2001 to June 2003; and the number of discharges at the Lung Center of the Philippines from 2001-2003. The statistical package for the Social Sciences was used to calculate the Pearson product moment coefficient of correlation r, the linear regression equation, and the rough minimum/maximum number of cases of illnesses for every pair of pollutant and disease.

Results showed that correlation was strongest between SO2 and chronic bronchitis, and SO2 and empyema thoracis. Both pairs had r=0.994, which was very close to 1 (1 signifies perfect linear regression). Other pairs that showed strong correlation were NO2 and bronchial asthma (r=0.972) and benzene and pulmonary tuberculosis (r=0.958). However, this high level of correlation does not indicate causality. The only valid conclusion is that a linear trend may exist between the two. The study can be improved by gathering data with more similar time frames, and by conducting an experiment to show causality and verify the coefficients of correlations.

#47 Testing the feasibility of Ginger root (Zingiber Offinale) extract in producing an Anti-microbial edible coating ABSTRACT

Noem Christopher P Iblan, Mark Dave A Medina, Lorwin Felimar B Torrizo

Food packaging is an important industrial process by which many techniques of food preservation are applied. Plastics are superior packaging materials but they are not decomposed in the environment and they end up clogging sewage pipes and piling up landfills. Infestation of microbes in packaging materials is also a great hazard to the consumer's safety. The production of such packaging materials must take into consideration the environmental and health risk. This research aims to produce an anti-microbial edible film coating that is incorporated with ginger extract. Six replicates of edible film coating were prepared, with each containing 100% v/v, 50% v/v and 0% v/v ginger extracts for the spoilage prevention test and 50% v/v, 20% v/v and 10% v/v ginger extracts for the anti-microbial ability test. For the spoilage prevention test, the fresh sliced bananas were dipped into the prepared solutions, left in different environments and were evaluated in their ability to protect the bananas against spoilage. After one day, spoilage was observed in all of the banana samples because of the aromatic rotting of the fruits and their rotting appearance. To test the anti-microbial properties of the prepared edible coating, 12 petri dishes, containing nutrients agars, were prepared. The petri dishes were equally divided into three experimental groups, which were treated with edible coating with the said ginger concentrations, and one control group, which has no ginger extract in its edible coating. The petri dishes were inoculated with Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus sp. bacteria and were stored in room temperature, inside a dark environment for three days. The petri dishes were noted with presence of bacterial colonies and were able to count them using a colony counter. All of the lactobacillus sp. cultures grew colonies, except in the 20% v/v carrageenan ginger extract. E.coli was not observed to be growing with all of the carrageenan coated nutrient agars. The results of the test indicate that the carrageenan film failed to prevent the

spoilage of bananas. They prevented the grown of harmful E.coli bacteria, but weakened in the presence of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria. #48

The Development of an Industrial wastewater remediation system

Narissa I Juni, Hans Christian Pena

ABSTRACT

The study aims to develop a system for the remediation of industrial wastewater by integrating previously studies method such as : (a) chitosan beads, (b) dalandan fibers and (c) hydrilla verticillata. At least 80% metal absorption was observed with the chitosan beads; 75% with the dalandan fibers and at least 10 % using the hydrilla plants. By building a system where the three methods are integrated, a full absorption of the metals was expected. The research was tested on 0.8% (w/w) synthetic wastewater solutions of lead acetate, copper nitrate and zinc oxide. 3% (w/w) chitosan beads were made through an alkaline coagulation process. Dalndan fibers were obtained from peels scraped off the middle lamella or endocarp of the fruit and Hydrilla verticillaya plants were obtained from the biology unit. The wastewater was first passed through a filter lined with dalndan fibers, then soaked with the chitosan beads for 6 hours. The it was transferred to a basin with the hydrilla plants and soaked for 2-3 minutes. The samples were then collected and an AAS was used for the testing of the concentrations of Pb and 83.6% Zn and Cu. The results showed that an average of 62.2% Cu, 62.3 Pb and 83.6% Zn was removed from the initial metal content of the original solution. The percent reductions was satisfactory but much less than expected. Possible sources of this is the mixing of the three synthetic wastewater solutions together in equal parts and each one was therefore not isolated from the other metals before testing and that the second replicate was rushed and not as effective as the first replicate was, pulling the average of the results down. Further experiments should be done so that the effects of the proposed system on actual wastewater can be tested and evaluated.

#49 The Application Of Breast Cancer Probability Algorithms In The Prediction Of Breast Cancer Predisposition In The Philippines

Kent Kawashima, Hileufel Maturan, Agatha Krystie Chaves

ABSTRACT

Existing breast cancer prediction models currently accessible in the Philippines employ different methods of analysis and are based on information

obtained from studies in other countries. The Philippines does not have a definite brest cancer assessment model. We are aiming to test the software BRCAPro© on the possibility of quantifying the risk of contracting breast cancer in the Philippines. A questionnaire was formulated for gathering data from candidates for risk assessment. Breast cancer-afflicted individuals came from Veterans' Memorial Medical Center (VMMC), while normal individuals were short-listed from the Philippine Science High School (PSHS) community. Their response was evaluated using Cancergene©which incorporates all the models including BRCAPro©. A comparative analysis was made focusing on the inconsistencies between algorithms. The models revealed discrepancies on how they assess the risk and can be explained by the differences in the basis of their calculation, more specifically, the basis of the study behind each model. Suggestions were made regarding the models to suit the Philippine trend, including Philippine statistical data and prioritizing risk factor.

#50 A comparative analysis of soybean and peanut protein isolates as substitute components for sensitizers.

Victoria Nastassa M Leomo, Goldie Anne M Templonuevo, Jeric Tugaff.

ABSTRACT

LPG sensitizers are used as an important additive ink component to make the ink adhere to the surface that it will be printed on. There are no local producers of sensitizers so they have to be imported from other countries. It is said from a previous study that proteins extracted from plants with a high concentration may be used as substitute components in sensitizers and would come out more affordable (Catalla et al, 1986). In our study w experimented on soybean and peanut, plant products known for their high protein concentration, to know if they can be used for this purpose. The isolates were extracted by grinding the legumes and then HC1 and NaOH were added to the solution. The base and the acid were added until the solution has reached the isoelectronic point of pH 4.5. the solution coagulated, and the solid component, which is the protein, was isolated. The protein isolates were then added to ammonium Dichromate. This Ammonium Dichromateprotein solution was then applied to the printing plates. An image imprinted on paper. Several prints were made using different Ammonium Dichromate to protein ratios. The ratios used for peanuts were 1:6, 1:8, 1:10 and 1:12. Prints using the 1:6 and 1:8 produced blurred images because massive oxidation occurred. Using the ratios 1:10 and 1:12 produced very faint images. The RATIOS USED FOR SOYBEAN WERE 2:1, 1:1,1:2,1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10 AND 1:12. Prints produced using 1:10 and 1:12 produced were extremely faint. The ratios 2:1, 1:4 and 1:6 produced clearer images. Although the prints produced images, these images were very faint and were not so visible.

#51

Calamansi juice as solvent for plastics ABSTRACT

Sheryl Mae J Lopez, Eugene I G Odono, Cecille Anne V Soriente

Nonbiodegradables dominate the continuing garbage problem. People persistently seek new solutions on how to reuse, reduce, and recycle nonbiodegradables, notably plastics. Two examples are polyurethane and foam polystyrene (commonly known as Styrofoam®). These plastics have lots of uses, but are difficult to recycle and not practical to reuse. New ways on recycling polyurethane and foam polystyrene must be sought. Calamansi (citrus microcarpa var. mitis I citrofortunella microcarpa) is a common relatively cheap fruit in the Philippines. Its juice contains limonene, a substance that can be used to dissolve some polymers. In the light of this, the proponents decided to use calamansi juice as plastic solvent. Calamansi was squeezed and the juice strained to remove most solids and seeds. Two concentrations were tested: 100% calamansi juice, and 50% calamansi juice-50% water. Distilled water was used as control. "Elastics" for the hair, made of polyurethane, and foam polystyrene pieces that were cut into the same dimensions were put into the solutions. Five replicates for each material and concentration were made. After sixty hours, the remaining of the foam polystyrene and polyurethane samples were recovered and weighed. Results show that the unexpected considerable increase in the weights of the samples accounts for the absorption by the plastics was observed. In effect, along with the decrease in volume comes an increase in weight, which indicates sensitivity to the active ingredient and therefore, the ability of calamansi juice to dissolve plastics is probable. The entirely of the project's feasibility will be left open for testing by future researchers. A completely different approach or much larger surface to volume ratio might be used. Other sources of juices can also be used, as does limonene it self. Only then can we decide the true viability of calamansi juice as a plastic solvent.

#52 The use of Animal Manure as a New Growing Medium of White-rot Fungi

Daniel R Malabanan

ABSTRACT

The project aimed to use animal manure as a new growing medium of white-rot fungi. Lignin, which provides strength rigidity to the cell of higher plants, is degraded mainly by white-rot fungi using their specialized ligninolytic extracellular enzymes.

Preliminary experiments were conducted using dog waste applied with phanerochaete chrysosporium and without P. chrysosporium. This project further led to a new experiment, which involved the use of composted animal manure as a new growing medium of edible white-rot-fungi, Pleurotus sajorcaju and Pleurotus florida. These two fungi are useful, and have special features, which play an important role in ecological balance. The project aimed to use a cheaper and easy to obtain growing medium. The process of composting animal manure also involved the mixtures of other organic wastes like dried leaves, sawdust, straw, and vegetable peels. The growth of the fungi was observed and was measured by obtaining the area covered by the fungi through the grid system. The initial area covered by the fungal mycelia was compared to the final area covered by the mycelia within a week. The results showed that there was a significant increase in the area covered by the fungal mycelia, on both media. This means that both fungi successfully grew on both growing media used in the experiment.

#53 The effectivity of Kakawate Leaf Extracts in Decreasing the golden Apple Snail Population.

Rock Merjudio, Mark Sia, Eugene Symaco

ABSTRACT

The golden apple snail is considered one of the leading rice crops pests in the Philippines. The kakawate is a common tree in the countryside and some of the natives in Mindoro have already used it for protection of their crops from certain pests. This study focused on the effectiveness of the different methods of applying the kakawate to reduce the golden apple snail population. The experiment consisted of four groups from A-E with each having ten replicates of snails wherein each container will go different methods of applying the kakawate. Group A was treated with the extracted form or the diluted form of the extract. Group B was treated with the powdered form of the kakawate leaves. Group c was the tried method of putting the two forms together. Group D was treated with a common inorganic pesticide used to kill this kind of pest while the last, Group E. was the control group. Preliminary results showed that the kakawate extracts were effective in killings the golden apple snails that were put in an aquarium where the control and experimental snails were given equal amounts of food, the same level of water, and other factors like the lighting and air.

54 The design and construction of a Portable Multi-input FM broadcasting device

Nilo C Samaniego

ABSTRACT

This project aims to create a portable transmitter that has input options and uses the FM (Frequency Modulation) band as transmission medium. Conventional wired public addressing systems may have faults during power failures. Common FM receivers today have an alternate power source which is the battery, therefore it remains functional during these kinds of events. People usually tune to radio stations during emergencies for general announcements, so for the welfare of a local community, the radio frequencies may be used as a medium to make local announcements for safety measures or other matters. Research was done in order to accumulate knowledge on all aspects needed to complete this project. Fields of study such as physics and communications electronics were the foundations of this project. Upon research, a theoretical model was made according to the principles of electronics and communications. Application of the theoretical model was done to construct the experimental prototype. The circuit design was created from the concepts of radio transmission. The circuit was implemented by gathering all the components needed and soldering them into their respective locations in the circuit. A body was separately made to enclose the circuit and has access to all interactions such as switches, knobs, and jacks. Tests were done to compare the specifications of the theoretical and experimental models. The results gathered showed that the prototype's specifications were different by a minimal value than that of the idealized specifications of the theoretical model, making the prototype still functional.

#55 Phytoremediation of Nickel using Ipomoea Aquatica Joanna Margarita S Santos, Diocel Harold M Aquino, Jan Derick D Dichoso ABSTRACT

Industrial wastewater usually contains metal pollutants in the elemental and cation forms. Of the two types of metal pollutants, those existing as ion form or cations impose a greater danger as these might enter the food web. The project aims to develop an alternative method of removing nickel ions in water using the plant Ipomoea aquatica commonly known as kangkong, in the process as the existing methods of wastewater treatment. Another aim is to quantify the

absorption capacity of I aquatica so as to measure the number of plants needed to clear a certain area with nickel pollutants. The research covered two experiments ­ the Lethal Dose 50 and the Nickel ­ ion Absorption tests. The Lethal Dose-50 Test was done to define the concentration in the main experiment. The nickel-ion absorption test, which is the main experiment, was done to test the effectiveness of kangkong in the phytoremediation of nickel. The results were quantified using the process of flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (Flame AAS). In 72 hours of exposure to I. Aquatica, the connection of nickel in the solution decreased from 0.05195 M to an average of 0.0170 M. The results shows I. Aquatica absorbs and significantly decreases the nickel concentration in a solution. Further research is recommended to test the factors that increase the production of phytochelatin, the enzyme in I. Aquatica that binds nickel. Another recommendation is to design a protocol for the extraction of nickel contained in the plant.

#56 Visual Modeling of the SARS Epidemic Using OneDimensional Cellular Automata

Rafael Gerardo S Tensuan

ABSTRACT

Mathematical modeling is a process of representation of real life objects and phenomena using quantitative data subject to mathematical manipulation. It has been proven time and again to be useful in various fields including finance, electronics, computer science, and epidemiology among other biological sciences. This project aims to create a mathematical model of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which recently created overwhelming concern and damage throughout the world, most popularly in China. The project aims to produce a program that would easily be able to create a customizable cellular diagram representing the incidence of the virus in a given population over time. It also aims to show an accurate model of the progression of the SARS virus in mainland China by using data based on recorded statistics over three months. This might be able to enhance our understanding of the virus itself and would be used to predict how a certain virus would spread throughout a certain population over time given a small amount of reliable data in a hassle-free manner. The program was successful in making the SARS representation in that it produced accurate results as compared with statistical data gathered by the WHO. This shows that programs like these could indeed be utilized to predict epidemic behavior, to determine the effectiveness of certain solutions that are being applied, and to determine characteristics of the epidemic as well.

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