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By Dr. Abel Scribe PhD The APA Style Sheet is a concise guide to using the style of the American Psychological Association in writing research papers. It is based on the current fifth edition of the APA Publication Manual. The latest version is at The Style Sheet is routinely updated; it is the product of many contributors. This version was revised in Fall 2004 by Dr. Abel Scribe PhD. Doc Scribe is not affiliated in any way with the APA--this style sheet is free! Freeware Copyright 2004 by Dr. Abel Scribe PhD.

Style Sheet Contents

General Style Notes · Abbreviations · Biased Language · Capitalization · Compound Words · Emphasis (Italics-Quotes) · Numbers · Punctuation & Lists · Quotations · Terminology Page Formats · Text Details · Title & Text pages (graphic) · Headings & Subheadings · References & Tables (graphic) · Tables (notes) Research Documentation · Text Citations · Reference Lists Sample References · Anonymous Works · Books & Chapters · Conference Papers · Journal Articles · Newspapers & Magazines · Reference Works · Reports & Papers · Web Pages


APA style is the style of writing used by journals published by the American Psychological Association (APA). The style is documented in the APA Publication Manual (5th ed., 2001). APA style is the widely recognized standard for research writing in psychology and education. Some of the more commonly used rules and reference formats from the manual are listed here. However, this style sheet is no substitute for the 440 page APA Manual, which should be purchased by any serious student of psychology or education. The APA Manual can be found in almost any college bookstore, as well as in many large general-purpose bookstores. The spiral bound edition is especially handy when formatting research papers. The APA Manual draws a distinction between final manuscripts such as class papers, theses, and dissertations, and copy manuscripts to be submitted for review and publication. The APA Style Sheet follows the instructions given in chapter six for "Material Other Than Journal Articles" (APA, 2001, pp. 321-330). Final manuscripts differ from copy manuscripts in these ways: · Spacing. "Double-spacing is required throughout most of the manuscript. When single-spacing would improve readability, however, it is usually encouraged. Single spacing can be used for table titles and headings, figure captions, references (but double-spacing is required between references), footnotes, and long quotations" (APA, 2001, p. 326). · Figures, tables, and footnotes. "In a manuscript submitted for publication, figures, tables, and footnotes are placed at the end of the manuscript; in theses and dissertations, such material is frequently incorporated at the appropriate point in text as a convenience to readers" (APA, 2001, p. 325). The most notable additions and changes to fifth edition of the APA Manual (2001) include: · Electronic sources require new formats in references. The formats previously featured on the APA Web site have been superseded. Several formats are included in the Style Sheet. · Italics or underline? "Use the functions of your word-processing program to create italic, bold, or other special fonts or styles following the style guidelines specified in this Publication Manual" (APA, 2001, p. 286). · Hanging indents. "APA publishes references in a hanging indent format. . . . If a hanging indent is difficult to accomplish with your word-processing program, it is permissible to indent your references with paragraph indents" (APA, 2001, p. 299). Acknowledgements are noted at the end of the Style Sheet. The APA Style Sheet can be freely distributed, but not sold! A good faith effort has been made to assure the accuracy of this document, both by the author and by the many people who have offered suggestions. The APA Style Sheet has benefited greatly from their insight and expertise. The more comprehensive Student Guide to APA Psychology is avialable free at Dr. Abel Scribe PhD - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004



These Style Notes cover details commonly encountered when drafting a research paper. These are also the details that knowledgeable readers are likely to note when you get them wrong. You may elect to apply your own best judgment on the more esoteric features, as long as you remember to be slavishly consistent throughout your paper.


· · · · · · · · · · · · · Avoid abbreviations (acronyms) except for long, familiar terms (MMPI). Explain what an abbreviation means the first time it occurs: American Psychological Association (APA). If an abbreviation is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, REM, ESP). Do not use the old abbreviations for subject, experimenter, and observer (S, E, O). The following abbreviations should NOT be used outside parenthetical comments: cf. [use compare] etc. [use and so forth] viz. [use namely] e.g. [use for example] i.e. [use that is] vs. [use versus] Use periods when making an abbreviation within a reference (Vol. 3, p. 6, 2nd ed.) Do not use periods within degree titles and organization titles (PhD, APA). Do not use periods within measurements (lb, ft, s) except inches (in.). Use s for second, m for meter. To form plurals of abbreviations, add s alone, without apostrophe (PhDs, IQs, vols., Eds). In using standard abbreviations for measurements, like m for meter, do not add an s to make it plural (100 seconds is 100 s); when referring to several pages in a reference or citation, use the abbreviation pp. (with a period after it and a space after the period). Do not use the abbreviation "pp." for magazine or journal citations; just give the numbers themselves. Do use "pp." for citations of encyclopedia entries, multi-page newspaper articles, chapters or articles in edited books. Use two-letter postal codes for U.S. state names (GA).

Biased and Pejorative Language

DO NOT use . . . ethnic labels (e.g., Hispanic) "men" (referring to all adults) "homosexuals" "depressives"

In general, avoid anything that causes offense. The style manual makes the following suggestions: When you can use . . . geographical labels (e.g., Mexican Americans if from Mexico) "men and women" "gay men and lesbians" "people with depression"

Correct Use of the Terms "Gender" and "Sex"

The term "gender" refers should be used when referring to men and women as social groups, as in this example from the APA Manual: "sexual orientation rather than gender accounted for most of the variance in the results; most gay men and lesbians were for it, most heterosexual men and women were against it" (APA, 2001, p. 63). The term "sex" refers to biology and should be used when biological distinctions are emphasized, for example, "sex differences in hormone production." Avoid gender stereotypes. For example, the manual suggests replacing "An American boy's infatuation with football" with "An American child's infatuation with football" (see APA, 2001, p. 66).

Sensitivity to Labels

Be sensitive to labels. A person in a clinical study should be called a "patient," not a "case." Avoid equating people with their conditions, for example, do not say "schizophrenics," say "people diagnosed with schizophrenia." Use the term "sexual orientation," not "sexual preference" (which imputes a willful choice). The phrase "gay men and lesbians" is currently preferred to the term "homosexuals." To refer to all people who are not heterosexual, the manual suggests "lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women and men" (APA, 2001, p. 67). In general, call people what they want to be called, and do not contrast one group of people with another group called "normal" people. Write "we compared people with autism to people without autism" not "we contrasted autistics to normals." Do not use pejorative terms like "stroke victim" or "stroke sufferers." Use a more neutral terminology such as "people who have had a stroke." Avoid the terms "challenged" and "special" unless the population referred to prefers this terminology (for example, Special Olympics). As a rule, use the phrase "people with _______" (for example, "people with AIDS," not "AIDS sufferers"). Dr. Abel Scribe PhD - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004


Race/Ethnicity. In racial references, the manual simply recommends that we respect current usage. Currently both the terms "Black" and "African American" are widely accepted, while "Negro" and "Afro-American" are not. These things change, so use common sense. · Capitalize Black and White when the words are used as proper nouns to refer to social groups. Do not use color words for other ethnic groups. The manual specifies that hyphens should not be used in multiword names such as Asian American or African American. · The terms Hispanic, Latino, and Chicano are preferred by different groups. The safest procedure is use geographical references. Just say "Cuban American" if referring to people from Cuba. Age. In referring to age, be specific about age ranges; avoid open-ended definitions like "under 16" or "over 65." Avoid the term elderly. Older person is preferred. Boy and Girl are acceptable referring to high school and younger. For persons 18 and older use men and women.


· · · · · · · · · Capitalize formal names of tests (Stroop Color-Word Interference Test). Capitalize major words and all other words of four letters or more, in headings, titles, and subtitles outside reference lists, for example, "A Study of No-Win Strategies." Capitalize names of conditions, groups, effects, and variables only when definite and specific. (Group A was the control group; an Age x Weight interaction showed lower weight with age.) Capitalize the first word after a comma or colon if, and only if, it begins a complete sentence. For example, "This is a complete sentence, so it is capitalized." As a counter example, "no capitalization here." Capitalize specific course and department titles (CU Department of Anthropology, Anthro 101). Do not capitalize generic names of tests (Stroop color test). "Stroop" is a name, so it remains capitalized. Capitalize nouns before numbers, but not before variables (Trial 2, trial x). Do not capitalize names of laws, theories, and hypotheses (the law of effect). Do not capitalize when referring to generalities (any department, any introductory course).

Compound Words

Compound words are two or more words that work together in a specified order. This order cannot be reversed or rearranged without destroying the compound word's meaning. A dictionary is the best guide to spelling and usage. If it is not in the dictionary it is not likely a hyphenated compound, but check the following rules for possible exceptions. If it is in the dictionary, use the first spelling given. "With frequent use, open or hyphenated compounds tend to become closed (on line to on-line to online). Chicago's general adherence to Webster does not preclude occasional exceptions when the closed spellings have become widely accepted, pronunciation and readability are not at stake, and keystrokes can be saved" (CMS 2003, p. 300).

General Rules

Full-time compound words are hyphenated whatever their role in a sentence--as an adjective or a noun. "The courtmartial hearing is set for 1000 hours. The hearing will determine whether a court-martial is warranted." Courtmartial is a full-time compound word (as is "full-time"). This information is given in a dictionary. Conditional compounds are hyphenated as adjectives, but not when used as nouns. 1. Adjectival compound. "The counselor suggested a role-playing technique to reduce the stress of encounters, but cautioned that role playing alone would not solve the problem." Role-playing is a compound adjective, but not a compound noun. 2. Add a hyphen to any prefix attached to a proper noun, capitalized abbreviation, or number. For example, the post-Freudian era, the pre-1960s civil rights movement, the many non-ASA journals in sociology. 3. Fractions. "When . . . a fraction is considered a single quantity, it is hyphenated [whether it is used as a noun or as an adjective]" (CMS 2003, p. 383). One-fourth the audience was comprised of former refugees. A twothirds majority was required to pass the initiative. 4. Made-up compound. A compound may be of the made-up-for-the-occasion variety: "The up-to-date figures were unadjusted." But when these terms are used in the predicate they are not hyphenated: The compound word was made up for the occasion. "The unadjusted figures were up to date." 5. Serial compounds. When two or more compound modifiers have a common base, this base is sometimes omitted in all but the last modifier, but the hyphens are retained. Long- and short-term memory, 2-, 3-, and 10min trials. 6. Do not hyphenate a compound term using an adverb ending in -ly. "The widely used term was not yet in the dictionary. Such clearly understood terms are eventually documented if they endure." Avoid confusion! A re-creation is not the same as recreation. Does "the fast sailing ship" refer to a ship that was designed for speed, or one that is making an unusually fast passage? If the former, then it is a fast sailing ship. If it is the latter, then it is a fast-sailing ship (CMS 1993, p. 203). Dr. Abel Scribe PhD - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004 Prefixes


Through long usage most common prefixes do not require a hyphen: aftereffect, antifreeze, cofounder, Internet, microwave, oversight, preempt, reexamine, supermarket, unbiased, underground. There are many exceptions. When in doubt check a dictionary. Note the following exceptions: 1. Same two letters. If the prefix puts the same two letters together, a hyphen is sometimes inserted. For example, write: anti-industrial, co-op, non-native, post-trial. But also write: cooperative, coordinate, nonnegotiable, overrate, overreach, overrule, reelect, unnamed. 2. Superlatives-diminutives. Some prefixes, best-, better-, ill-, lesser-, little-, well-, are hyphenated when they precede the noun they modify, but are not hyphenated when preceded by a modifier, or when used as a predicate adjective. The ill-advised attack failed, the strategy was ill advised. 3. Weird terms. If the prefix creates an unfamiliar or weird term, a hyphen may improve clarity. The Turabian Guide offers these examples: pro-ally, anti-college instead of proally, anticollege (1976, p. 101). The following prefixes always require a hyphen. Prefix alleverexExample all-powerful leader ever-faithful friend ex-president Prefix greathalfmuchExample great-grandfather half-baked plan much-loved pastor Prefix selfstillExample self-reliant person still-active volcano

Emphasis: Italics or Quotation Marks?

Italicize or underline the titles of books, species names, novel or technical terms and labels (the first time only), words and phrases used as linguistic examples, letters used as statistical symbols, and the volume numbers in references to journal articles. · Add emphasis to a word or short phrase by putting it intalics (the first time only). Use this sparingly! · Add emphasis to a word or phrase in a quotation with italics, followed by the note [italics added] in brackets. · Note a word used as a word, or a foreign term, with italics, for example, hutte means hut in German. · Introduce a keyword or technical term (the neoquasipsychoanalytic theory), or identify endpoints on a scale (poor to excellent) with italics. · Do not italicize foreign words that have entered common usage (et al., a priori, laissez-faire, arroyo). Use quotation marks for: · odd or ironic usage the first time--the "outrageous" use of social security funds to finance the deficit. · article and chapter titles cited in the text but not in the reference list. (In Smith's (1992) article, "APA Style and Personal Computers," computers were described as "here to stay" (p. 311). Do not use quotes to hedge, cast doubt, or apologize (e.g., he was "cured"). Leave off the quotes.

Punctuation & Lists

· · · · ·

Do not use a colon or other punctuation after an introduction which is not a complete sentence such as this one, or any other sentence in the body of text which flows into an extended quote. The quote "picks up where the sentence leaves off" and provides the punctuation. Use a dash (an em dash or double hyphen) when there is a sudden interruption like this one--zoiks!--in the flow of a sentence. Overuse "weakens the flow of the writing" (APA, 2001, p. 81). Use parentheses to introduce an abbreviation, for example, the galvanic skin response (GSR). When enumerating a series of topis or subjects: (a) introduce each topic with a letter in parenthese, (b) following a colon, to (c) emphasize their distinctiveness. This is called enumeration or seriation. When listing separate paragraphs in a series, use a number and a period, not parentheses and letters. 1. The first paragraph goes here. 2. The second paragraph goes here.

Space once after all punctuation, including: · after commas, colons, and semicolons; · after punctuation marks at the ends of sentences; · after periods that separate parts of a reference citation · after periods of the initials in personal names (e.g., J. R. Zhang). Do not space after internal periods in abbreviations (e.g., a.m., i.e., U.S.) or around colons in ratios (APA 2001, 291). No bullets? The APA Publication Manual makes no mention of using bullets in research papers. There are no examples of the use of bullets in recent publications. "Bullets (heavy dots . . .) make good visual signposts in unnumbered lists but can lose their force if used too frequently" (CMS, 2003, p. 272). Dr. Abel Scribe PhD - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004



"Use figures to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10" as long as the numbers below 10 do not express precise measurements and are not grouped with numbers above 10 (APA, 2001, p. 122). · Spell out common fractions and common expressions (one-half, Fourth of July). · Spell out numbers beginning sentences (Thirty days hath September . . .). · Spell out numbers which are inexact, or below 10 and not grouped with numbers over 10 (one-tailed t test, eight items, nine pages, three-way interaction, five trials). · To make plurals out of numbers, add s only, with no apostrophe (the 1950s). · When numbers below 10 must be mixed with numbers above 10 in the same sentence they should be written as numerals. For example, write "the students trying out for the soccer team included 5 girls and 16 boys." · Use words and numerals with two numbers in series (five 4-point scales). · Use combinations of numerals and written numbers for large sums (over 3 million people). · Use numerals for exact statistical references, scores, sample sizes, and sums (multiplied by 3, or 5% of the sample). "We used 30 subjects, all two year olds, and they spent an average of 1 hr 20 min per day crying. · Use metric abbreviations with figures (4 km) but not when written out (many meters distant). · Use the percent symbol (%) only with figures (5%) not with written numbers (five percent). · Put a leadin zero before decimal fractions less than one (e.g., 0.25 km), unless the fraction can never be greater than one as in probabilities (e.g., p < .01). · Ordinal numbers follow the same rules as other numbers. Spell out ordinals below 10: first, second, . . . ninth. Use numerals for ordinals 10 and above: 10th, 43rd, 99th, and so on. Exception--spell out ordinals when referring to centuries, the twentieth century. APA style has a special set of numbers that are always written as numerals. These are "numbers that represent time; dates; ages; sample, subsample, or population size; specific numbers of subjects or participants in an experiment; scores and points on a scale; exact sums of money; and numerals as numerals" (APA, 2001, p. 124).


Quotations must be placed in quotes or indented as a block quote. All quotations must include a citation referring the reader to the source document. As a matter of form quotations should be integrated into the flow of your text, and may be edited to do so. · Reproduce a quote exactly. If there are errors, introduce the word sic italicized and bracketed--for example, "the speaker stttutured [ sic] terribly"--immediately after the error to indicate it was in the original. · When the author is introduced in the text the page number follows the quotation, but the date follows the author's name. Smith (1999) reported that "the creature walked like a duck and quacked like a duck" (p. 23). The abbreviation "p." for page ("pp." for pages) is lower cased. · Without an introductory phrase, the author, date, and page are placed together. For example, It was reported that "the creature walked like a duck and quacked like a duck" (Smith, 1999, p. 23). · If a quote begins in what is mid-sentence in the original, the first word may be uppercased to open a sentence. "Quotations should be integrated into the flow of your text." Do not write "[Q]uotations should be. . . ." Conversely, a uppercased word should be lowercased "as a matter of form" without indicating the change. · Expand or clarify words or meanings in a quotation by placing the added material in quotes. For example, "They [the Irish Republican Army] initiated a cease-fire." · Use three dots with a space before, between, and after each (ellipsis points) when omitting material, four if the omitted material includes the end of a sentence (with no space before the first). Do not use dots at the beginning or end of a quotation unless it is important to indicate the quotation begins or ends in midsentence. · "The punctuation mark at the end of a sentence [in a quotation] may be changed to fit the syntax [without indicating the change in the text]" (APA, 2001, p. 119). · Double quotation marks may be changed to single quotes, and the reverse, without indicating the change. · Add emphasis in a quotation with italics, followed by the note [italics added] in brackets.

Block Quotes

For quotations over 40 words in length, indent and single space the whole block (double space in papers for review or publication). Indent the first line five spaces (one-half inch, 1.25 cm) if there are paragraphs within the long quotation after the first. Add the citation after the final punctuation in a block quote. Block quotes may be single spaced in research papers, but must be double spaced in copy manuscripts submitted for publication or review (see APA, 2001, p. 326).

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APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004



Despite dictionary advice to the contrary, APA style insists that data is the plural form of datum. Preferred forms of words are (see APA, 2001, p. 89): appendix (appendixes not appendices) phenomenon (phenomena is plural) datum (data is plural only!) schema (schemas is plural) matrix (matrices not matrixes) Internet terms are in a state of transition. Whatever form you use, be consistent! · · · · · · · · · · disc This usage is reserved for optical storage media, as in Compact Disc or CD; digital versatile disc or DVD. disk This usage is reserved for rewritable storage media--hard disks and floppy disks. e-mail The hyphenated form is found in the AMA, APA, CMS, and MLA style manuals! The e is never uppercased except at the beginning of a sentence. Internet [Net] Internet is a proper noun. electronic mailing list [listserv] The APA manual notes that Listserv is a trademarked name for an electronic mailing list (the term it prefers instead). Web This is a proper noun. When Web is used in an open compound term (or with a hyphen when used as an adjective), as in Web page, Web is uppercased. When the compound term is closed, Web is spelled lowercased, as in webmaster. Web based [Web-based] This term was found in the APA manual, spelled open as a noun. It was found in Wired Style spelled with a hyphen used as an adjective (1999, p. 173). Web page [Web page] This term is spelled open. When a compound term is spelled open (without a hyphen), or as a compound adjective (with a hyphen), as in Web page, Web-page design, then Web is uppercased. Web site [Web site] This term is spelled open. webmaster, web. . . Most Web terms (except Web ring) are spelled lowercased and closed (without a hyphen): webcam, webcast, webhead, webmail, webzine, etc. (then again, there's also WebTV). But some of these terms should probably be spelled open in formal writing-- Web cam, Web cast, Web mail, Web TV.


The APA Manual notes that "the size of the type should be one of the standard typewriter sizes (pica or elite) or, if produced from a word processing program, 12 points" (2001, p. 285). The body of the paper should be in a serif typeface (like Courier or Times Roman) with lettering on figures in a sans serif typeface (such as Helvetica or Arial).

Text Details

· · · · · · · · · ·

Abstracts are limited to 120 words (APA, 2001, p. 13). Double space the text, but single space within block quotes, references, and the abstract. This is suggested in chapter 6 of the APA Manual, "Material Other then Journal Articles" (see "Read Me" at the beginning of the Style Sheet. Footnotes are rarely used in APA papers, except for author affiliation and contact information--the author note. If you need to add an explanatory note make it an endnote. Hyphenation should not occur at the end of lines, only between words when necessary. Right justifying a paper can introduce ambiguities with uncertain hyphenation, a ragged right margin is preferred in research writing. Indent paragraphs, block quotes, and hanging indents one-half inch (1.25 cm or five to seven spaces). Keyword emphasis requires the use of italics, but only the first time a term is used. If the intent is to indicate odd or ironic usage, use quotation marks. Margins should be at least 1" all around (about 2.5 cm). Page numbers are required on every page: Number pages consecutively. The page header summarizes the title in a few words. The header and page number go inside the margin space, double spaced above the text, next to the right margin, except on the title page. Word processor features--such as bold and italic fonts and hanging indents--should be used as appropriate.

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APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004


Title and Text Pages

Title/Abstract Page. The APA Manual offers no instructions for formatting the title page of a research paper for

class use (a final manuscript). The format shown has been favorably reviewed by faculty from several universities. Numerous other requirements must be met when preparing a paper for publication (a copy manuscript).

Short Title Header 2 Centered Title in the Style of the American Psychologist Abstract An abstract is not too common a feature in a student paper, but required when submitting any paper for publication in an APA journal. This is a good feature for students, especially for graduate students, to emulate in their work. An abstract is a brief concise description of the research--what you were looking for, why, how you went about it, and what you found. It is limited to 120 words in APA style. Absent an abstract, proportion the title and author block on the page. Note the use of italics. Centered Title in the Style of the American Psychologist Psychology papers should not begin with the heading Introduction. All papers begin with an "introduction." Level A Heading Double space the text. Credit the works of others, as well as direct quotes, to their authors. Multiple citations go alphabetically (Alt, 2001; Baca, 1999; Car 2004).1 Level B Heading: Block Quotes Quotes longer than 40 words are indented and single spaced as block quotes. The quote is usually introduced with a colon. For example, Henry David Thoreau noted: To be a philosopher is not merely to have subtle thoughts, nor even to found a school, but to so love wisdom as to live according to its dictates, a life of simplicity, independence, magnanimity, and trust. (1965, p. 18) Run-in paragraph heading. Use sentence caps, in 1 italics, ending with a period or other punctuation. ---------1 Footnotes go inside the margins!

Author M. Lastname University Affiliation Professor/Class Date


APA headings follow a complex hierarchy, with provision for up to five levels. These come, in descending order, as levels 5, 1, 2, 3, 4. But if up to three levels of headings are required, use levels 1, 3, and 4, in that order. If four levels are required, insert level 2 between levels 1 and 3. If five levels are required, start with level five and work down in order (5, 1, 2, 3, 4). Confused? Most papers will need no more than three levels. To avoid confusion these are labeled A, B, and C (APA levels 1, 3, and 4 respectively) (see APA, 2001, pp. 114­115). Level A Heading Centered and Set in Heading Caps Level B Heading: At Left Margin, Italicized, in Heading Caps Level C heading: Indented, italicized, sentence caps. These paragraph or run-in headings end with a period (or other punctuation); are not complete sentences. Use headings in the order presented. Level A and B headings do not end with punctuation except to add emphasis with an exclamation point or question mark. Do not begin a paper with the heading Introduction, this is understood.

Line Spacing?

"Double-spacing is required throughout most of the manuscript. When single-spacing would improve readability, however, it is usually encouraged. Single spacing can be used for table titles and headings, figure captions, references (but double-spacing is required between references), footnotes, and long quotations" (APA, 2001, p. 326). This directive applies only to research papers presented as final manuscripts. See "Read Me."

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APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004


References & Tables

Short Title Header 10 References Allport, G. W. (1979). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley. (Original work published 1954) Berry, D. S., & Pennebaker, J. W. (1993). Nonverbal and verbal emotional expression and health. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 59, 11­19. Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (1995). The craft of research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Goleman, D. (1991, October 24). Battle of insurers vs. therapists: Cost control pitted against proper care. New York Times, pp. D1, D9. Morse, S. S. (1995). Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 1(1). Retrieved October 10, 1998, from Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599­658). New York: Random House. Wilson, E. O. (1998, March). Back from chaos. Atlantic Monthly, 281, 41­62 Short Title Header 8 Place tables and figures in your text close to where they are first discussed. In manuscripts for publication they come at the end of the paper on separate pages. Table 1 Homicides by Race of Victim: United States 1993 Race Black Other Total

d c

Populationa 29,986 199,686 19,038 248,710

Homicides 12,114 12,153 635 24,932

Rateb 40.5* 6.1 3.3** 10.0


Note: Data developed from the Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1993. a Population in 1000s. bRate per 100,000 persons in the population. cThe rate for Black males was 69.2, for White males 9.0. dAbout one-half the "Other" category was comprised of Asian Americans and Native Americans. *p < .05, two-tailed test. **p < .01, two-tailed test.

There are three kinds of notes that may be added to a table: general notes (indicated by the word Note in italics), specific notes (noted with superscript letters), and probablitiy notes. Readers rarely study tables--think small, concise, focused.

Table Notes

Number tables consecutively as they appear in your text. Use only whole numbers, no 5a, 5b, etc. See recent issues of the American Psychologist or other APA journals for more complex table layouts. "Tables are efficient, enabling the researcher to present a large amount of data in a small amount of space" (APA, 2001, p. 147). · Place tables close to where they are first mentioned in your text, but do not split a table across pages. (Tables in papers submitted for review or publication are placed on separate pages at the end of the paper.) · Label each table beginning with the table number followed by a description of the contents in italics. · Horizontal rules (lines) should be typed into tables; do not draw them in by hand. · Each row and column must have a heading. Abbreviations and symbols (e.g., "%" or "nos.") may be used in headings. · Do not change the number of decimal places or units of measurement within a column. "Use a zero before the decimal point when numbers are less than one" (APA, 2001, p. 128). Write "0.23" not ".23" unless the number is a statistic that cannot be larger than one, for example a correlation r = .55, or a probability p < .01. · Add notes to explain the table. These may be general notes, footnotes, or probability notes. · General notes follow the word Note: (in italics) and are used to expalin general information about the table, such as the source. · Footnotes are labeled "a, b, c, etc." and set in supercript. They explain specific details. · Probability notes are indicated by asterisks and other symbols to indicate statistical significance. This is explained in the probability note at the bottom of the table. "Assign a given alpha level the same number of asterisks from table to table within your paper, such as *p < .05 and **p < .01; the larger [greater] probability receives the fewest asterisks [the smaller or lessor probability gets more asterisks]" (APA, 2001, p. 170). · You may both single space and double space within a table to achieve clarity. Tables in papers submitted for review or publication (only!) must be double spaced throughout.

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APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004



Use the author-date format to cite references in text. For example: as Smith (1990) points out, a recent study (Smith, 1990) shows. . . . Every source cited in your text--and only those sources cited in your text--are referenced in the reference list. Source

No Author 1 Author 2 Authors 3/5 Authors 6 Authors+ Corporate Acronym


(Short Title, 2004) ("Short Title," 2004) (Smith, 2005) (Smith, 2005, p. 123) (Smith & Jones, 2004, pp. 123-126) (Smith, Jones, and Garcia, 2003) Next Cite: (Smith et al., 2003, p. 123) (Smith et al., 2002, pp. 123-456) (United Nations [UN], 1999) Next Cite: (UN, 1999, p. 123)


Chapter Data File In Press Message/E-Mail Multiple No Date Reprint


(APA, 2001, chap. 6) (Corporate Author, 2002 (Adams, in press) (A. B. Smith, personal communication, January 1, 2004) (Adam, 2003; Baca, 2004; Burton, 2002 ) (Smith, n.d.) (Freud, 1920/2002)

· · · · ·

· · · · ·

If the author is unknown or unspecified, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title), for example: ("Study Finds," 1992). List three to five authors names in the first citation, then just cite the lead author plus et al., e.g., Smith, Jones, Pearson and Sherwin (1990), then just (Smith et al., 2002). For six or more authors, cite the lead author et al. the first time. The first time "et al." is used in a citation the year is included. If the citation is repeated in the same paragraph, the year may be omitted. For example (Smith et al., 2002, p. 22), then (Smith et al., p. 23). Always cite page numbers after quotations. For example, the author stated, "The effect disappeared within minutes" (Lopez, 1993, p. 311). The sentence quoted is capitalized only if it follows a comma, and is a complete sentence not merged into the flow of the text. Alternatively, Lopez found that "the effect disappeared within minutes" (1993, p. 311). If there are two or more citations that shorten to the same lead author and date, give as many additional names as needed to identify them, e.g., (Smith, Jones, et al., 1991) and (Smith, Burke, et al., 1991). Join names in a multiple-author citation with and (in text) or an ampersand (&) in reference lists and parenthetical citations. For example: As Smith and Sarason (1990) point out, . . .(Smith & Sarason, 1990). When citing multiple works by the same author, arrange dates in order. In general, use letters after years to distinguish multiple publications by the same author in the same year, e.g., (Johnson, 1988, 1990a, 1990b). If a group is readily identified by its initials, spell it out only the first time. For example, "The report found mental health problems often went untreated (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1991). Depression affected a significant portion of the population (NIMH, 1991). For older works and translations cite the original and or the modern copyright dates if both are known, for example: (Aristotle, trans. 1931) or (James, 1890/1983).

Reference Lists

List references alphabetically by author. When there are multiple works by the same author, list references by date, the most recent last. 1. Use prefixes if they are commonly a part commonly part of the surname (e.g., de Chardin comes before Decker, MacGill comes before McGill. But do not use von (e.g,, write: Helmholtz, H. L. F. von). 2. Disregard apostrophes, spaces, and capitals in alphabetizing; D'Arcy comes after Daagwood, Decker comes after de Chardin. Single-author citations precede multiple-author citations (Zev, 1990 then Zev et al., 1990). 3. Alphabetize corporate authors by first significant word. Do not use abbreviations in corporate names.


Use the abbreviation p. (pp.) before page numbers in encyclopedia entries, multi-page newspaper articles, chapters or articles in edited books, but not in journal or magazine article citations, where numbers alone are used. The following abbreviations are commonly used in APA references:

chap. chapter ed. edition [Rev. ed. revised] Ed. (Eds.) editor(s) No. number p. (pp.) page (pages) para. paragraph Pt. part Suppl. supplement Tech. Rep. technical report Trans. translator Vol. volume (as in Vol. X) vols. volumes (as in xx vols.)

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APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004 Basic Rules

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


Authors & editors. List up to six authors to a work, if more than six add et al. Invert all authors' names, using first & middle initials. Withe two or more authors place an ampersand> & < before the final name. Note, unless they are serving in place of authors in a reference, editors' names go in their normal order (First. M. Last). Character Spacing. Space once after all punctuation except inside abbreviations, ratios, and URLs where no space is required (APA, 2001, pp. 290­291). Space once after the periods in references and initials. City, State. Include the country or state except with the following cities: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, and Vienna (APA, 2001, p. 217). Use postal abbreviations for states, provinces. Date. Use the month-day-year format for full dates, but see the sample references for newspapers. E-documents. When quoting electronic documents without page numbers, cite paragraph numbers if given, after the paragraph symbol or abbreviation para. (e.g., Smith, 2000, ¶ 17). If there are no paragraph numbers, cite the nearest preceding section heading and count paragraphs from there (e.g., Smith, 2000, Method section, para. 4). E-mail and other "unrecoverable data" are cited as a personal communication, for example: (A. B. Carter, personal communication, April 1, 2005). These do not appear in the reference list. Titles of Works. All titles require sentence caps (all words lowercase except for the first word, first word after a colon, and proper nouns). Article titles are not placed in quotes in references (they are when mentioned in the text). Italicize titles of books, reports, working and conference papers, dissertations, and similar documents.

Sample References

Anonymous or Unknown Author:

Caffeine linked to mental illness. (1991, July 13). New York Times, pp. B13, B15. Citation: ("Caffeine Linked," 1991). Use heading caps when citing titles in text citations.

Books and Chapters:

Group author: American Psychiatric Association. (1990). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Citation: (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 1990); next citation (APA, 1990). Note: "Author" is used for the publisher above when the author and publisher are identical, an APA quirk Three to five authors: Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (1995). The craft of research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Citation: (Booth, Colomb, & Williams, 1995); next citation (Booth et al., 1995). Chapter or section in a book (online & print): Beers, M. H., & Berkow, R. (1999). Mood disorders. In The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy (17th ed., sec. 15, chap. 189). Retrieved January 17, 2003, from section15/chapter189/189a.htm Stephan, W. G. (1985). Intergroup relations. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 599­658). New York: Random House. Citations: (Beers & Berkow, 1999, chap. 189); (Stephan, 1985). Edited book: Friedman, H. S. (Ed.). (1990). Personality and disease. New York: Wiley. Edition other than the first (two authors): Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan. Citation: (Strunk & White, 1979). Reprint/translation (one author): Ebbinghaus, H. (1913). Memory (H. A. Rueger & C. E. Bussenius, Trans.). New York: Teachers College. (Original work published 1885) Citation: (Ebbinghaus, 1885/1913).

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APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004 Conference Papers:

Published (referenced as a chapter in an edited book): Christensen, S., & Oppacher, F. (2002,). An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: J. A. Foster, E. Lutton, J. Miller, C. Ryan, & A. G. Tettamanzi (Eds.), Genetic programming (pp. 182-91). EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; Kinsdale, Ireland, April 3-5, 2002. Berlin: Springer.


Unpublished (more than six authors): Shrout, P. E. (Chair), Hunter, J. E., Harris, R. J., Wilkinson, L., Strouss, M. E., Applebaum, M. I., et al. (1996, August). Significance tests--Should they be banned from APA journals? Symposium conducted at the 104th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada. Citation: (Shrout et al., 1996). APA references list up to the first six authors to a work. If there are more add et al. (and others) to the list of names. In text citations give just the lead author, et al.

Journal Articles:

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. (2002). Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 287, 1807­1814. Citation: (Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group, 2002). Cite the full name of a corporate author. Journal article, electronic facsimile: Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. (2002). Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial [Electronic version]. JAMA, 287, 1807­1814. Many documents are now available online as exact facsimile copies of the print original (usually in Adobe's PDF format). References to these facsimiles just add the note [Electronic version] to the reference. If the document is not an exact copy of a print version--"(e.g., the format differs from the print version or page numbers are not indicated)"--add the date you retrieved the document and the URL to the reference (APA, 2001, p. 271). Journal article, changed/doubtful source: Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. (2002). Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA, 287, 1807­1814. Retrieved July 7, 2002, from Online only journal (paged by issue): Kortepeter, M. G., & Parker, G. W. (1999). Potential biological weapons threats. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(4). Retrieved January 20, 2003, from Citation: (Kortepeter & Parker, 1999). When directly quoting or citing a document, a page number or other means of identifying a specific passage is required. In the absence of page numbers, if paragraph numbers appear in an electronic document, add the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para. and the paragraph number to the citation (e.g., Kortepeter & Parker, 1999, ¶ 17). If there is no paragraph number, cite the nearest preceding section heading and count paragraphs from there (e.g., Kortepeter & Parker, 1999, Method section, para. 4). Journal paged by issue: Conway, L. G., III. (2001). Number and age of citations in social-personality psychology over the lifespan of the field: Older and wiser? Dialogue, 16(2), 14-15. Add the issue in the volume (in parentheses in plain text) to these reference after the volume number.

Newspapers and Magazines:

Letter to the editor: O'Neill, G. W. (1992, January). In support of DSM-III [Letter to the editor]. APA Monitor, 4-5. Magazine article: Gardner, H. (1991, December). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today, 70-76. Newsletter/newspaper articles: Goleman, D. (1991, October 24). Battle of insurers vs. therapists: Cost control pitted against proper care. New York Times, pp. D1, D9. Markoff, J. (1996, June 5). Voluntary rules proposed to help insure privacy for Internet users. New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 1997, from

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APA Style Sheet: Fall 2004 Reference Works:


Alderson, A. S., & Corsaro, W. A. (2000). Cross-cultural analysis. In E. F. Borgatta (Editor-in-Chief) & R. J. V. Montomery (Managing Editor), Encyclopedia of sociology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 546-553). New York: Macmillan Reference USA. Croatia. (1991). In The new encyclopedia Britannica: Micropaedia. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. Merriam-Webster collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. Multivolume reference: Kotz, S., Johnson, N. L., & Read, C. B. (1982­1988). Encyclopedia of statistical sciences (10 vols.). New York: Wiley. Middleton, J., & Rassam, A. (Eds.). (1995). Encyclopedia of world cultures: Vol. IX. Africa and the Middle East. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co. Statistical abstract: Bureau of the Census. (1993). Higher education price indexes: 1965­1991. In Statistical abstract of the United States: 1993 (113th ed., Table 277). Washington, DC: US GPO.

Reports, Theses, Dissertations:

Downey, D. B. (1992). Family structure, parental resources, and educational outcomes. Ph.D dissertation, Department of Sociology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting andwriting about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author. Government report online accessed through GPO database: National Institute of Mental Health. (2002). Breaking ground, breaking through: The strategic plan for mood disorders research of the National Institute of Mental Health (Publication No. 0507-B-05). Retrieved January 19, 2003, from NIMH Web site via GPO Access: Citation: (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2002); next citation (NIMH, 2002). Technical report (print/online versions): Taylor, B. N. (1995a, April). Guide for the use of the International System of Units (SI) (NIST Special Publication 811, 1995 Edition). Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Taylor, B. N. (1995b, April). Guide for the use of the International System of Units (SI) (NIST Special Publication 811, 1995 Edition). Retrieved June 25, 2003, from National Institute of Standards and Technology Web site:

Web Pages:

Dewey, R. A. (2002). Psych Web. Retrieved January 25, 2003 from Purdue University Online Writing Lab. (2003). Using American Psychological Association (APA) format (Updated to 5th edition). Retrieved February 18, 2003 from the Purdue University Online Writing Lab at


The APA Style Sheet is built upon the venerable APA Crib Sheet (see below). The sections on compound words, quotation, terminology, page formatting, text citations, and references have been entirely revised or expanded by Doc Scribe. These enhancements may eventually find their way to the Crib Sheet, which is subject to separate editorial rules. From the APA Crib Sheet:

APA Research Style Sheet PDF - Revised & Enhanced Fall 2004 by Doc Scribe.

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