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7 Biomass Asia Workshop, November 29 ­December 01, 2010, Jakarta, Indonesia

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Life Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil and Jatropha Oil in Indonesia

Novizar Nazir1, Dwi Setyaningsih2 Faculty of Agricultural Technology. Andalas University-Padang, Indonesia1) Surfactant and Bioenergy Research Centre ­ SBRC, Bogor Agricultural University-Indonesia2) E-mail: [email protected]

ABSTRACT

Biodiesel production has been considered as one of the most promising renewable resources for transportation fuel in Indonesia. Oil palm and Jatropha curcas are expected as high potential of energy crop in Indonesia. However, from the life cycle aspect, the growth of energy crops has raised concerns due to their high consumption of conventional fuels, fertilizers and pesticides, the materials and energy for processing, and the emissions and wastes which have been released to the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify and verify the energy efficiency and the environmental impacts of biodiesel production from the life cycle point of views. Thus, the objectives of this paper are to develop the life cycle inventory database of palm oil and jatropha biodiesel and analyze the environmental impacts by using the concept of life cycle thinking. As the results, the life cycle environmental impacts of palm oil and jatropha biodiesel production are compared and discussed. It is obviously found that the cultivation process contribute to the highest environmental impacts compared with other stages in the life cycle. The results showed that biodiesel production from palm oil consume much higher fossil-based energy than jatropha oil. The highest fossil-based energy consumption was in the transesterification process, followed by the plantation and oil extraction. Keyword: jatropha curcas, palm oil, biodiesel, life cycle assessment 1. Introduction Biodiesel is currently considered as a feasible alternative diesel fuel. It is made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, biodegradable, nontoxic, renewable, environmentally benign (Vicente et al 2004; Encinar et al 2005), and its use in diesel engines also shows a decrease in the emission of CO, SOx, unburned hydrocarbons and particulate matter during the combustion process (Antolin et al 2002; Murayama et al 2000). However, the production and use of biofuels also have impacts on the environment, and it is important that biofuels are evaluated for their environmental impact throughout their whole life cycle in order to identify fuels with the potential to be more sustainable in this respect. There are few oil-bearing species that could be used as source for oil production. Jatropha curcas and oil palm are expected as high potential of energy crop in Indonesia. These plants are selected to be developed in Indonesia to support government programs on bioenergy. However, from the life cycle aspect, the growth of energy crops has raised concerns due to their high consumption of conventional fuels, fertilizers and pesticides, the materials and energy for processing, and the emissions and wastes which have been released to the environment. One of the tools that can be employed to help answer this environmental issue is life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA is used to evaluate the environmental impact and other potential factors that a product (or service) has on the environment over the entire period of its life ­ from the extraction of the raw materials from which it is made, through the manufacturing, packaging and marketing processes, and the use, re-use and maintenance of the product, on to its eventual recycling or disposal as waste at the end of its useful life (Angarita et al 2009; Kiwjaroun et al 2009). This paper aims to develop the well-to-tank (WTT) life cycle inventory database of palm oil and jatropha biodiesel and analyze the environmental impacts by using the concept of life cycle thinking. The life cycle environmental impacts of palm oil

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and jatropha biodiesel are compared and discussed. A well-to-tank (WTT) life cycle analysis of biodiesel pathway includes all steps from plantation for feedstock production, oil extraction and transesterification for biodiesel production (Tripp 2008). 2. Methodology LCA methodology used in this study was based on ISO 14040 framework, which consists of four steps; goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation (Papong and Malakul 2009). 2.1. Goal and scope definition The goal of this study is to assess the environmental performance of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas and palm oil based on a life-cycle approach. The functional unit (FU) of this study is 1 kg of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas and palm oil. The system boundary is shown in Fig. 1.

Energy, fertilizer, water, pesticide, seed, etc

CULTIVATION & HARVESTING

Waste, emission

Energy, Steam, electricity Energy, methanol, catalyst

OIL EXTRACTION

Waste, emission

BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

Waste, emission glycerol

BIODIESEL

Fig.1. Product system boundary of this study 2.3. Life-cycle inventory analysis The life-cycle inventory analysis was performed on the material and energy inputs, air emission, waterborne emission, and solid wastes involved in the life cycle of biodiesel production based on 1 kg biodiesel. Data for oil palm plantation, harvesting and oil extraction were collected from oil palm plantation in the northern part of West Sumatra. While, data for jatropha curcas plantation, harvesting and oil extraction were collected from small holding jatropha plantation in South Sumatra (Lampung Province). In this study, most of input­output data for biodiesel production were collected as primary data from laboratory experiment (Nazir 2010). The data on energy consumption, utilities, and wastes generated within the system boundary mostly obtained by estimating their value with the commercial process simulator, Hysys Version 3.2. Other secondary data used in this study were collected from literatures, calculation, and ecoinvent database. Table 1 shows the information related to materials and energy uses for producing 1 liter biodiesel from palm oil and jatropha curcas oil.

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Table 1. Materials and energy used in cultivation, oil extraction and for producing 1 kg biodiesel from jatropha curcas oil and palm oil Input types Cultivation Fertilizer Input names Urea KCl DAP Boron Herbicide Pesticide Broadcaster Field sprayer Mobile chopper Tractor/Trailer Lorry >16ft Freight Diesel used Stubbled land Labour Unit Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Ha Ha Kg tkm tkm tkm kg m2 MJ tkm tkm tkm MJ MJ MJ Kg Kg Kg Kwh kg Jatropha curcas 0.135 0.0675 0.0336 0.0015 3.59175E-6 0.06708 0.0105 0.007 0.002156 0.0814 0.14 0.0217 0.00879 0.0852 0.294 Oil Palm 0.265797 0.399267 0.072647 0.074327 1.57232E-7 4.8224E-7 0.000142 0.000142 4.53299 0.053299 0.032132 0.111197 0.067579 0.004 0.00196 0.37686 0.003267 0.072 0.089 4.967 0.09892 0.00998 0.036826 0.180

Chemical Fertilising Plant protection Wood Chopping Transportation

Land Preparation Provision Harvesting Oil Extraction Transportation

Tractor/Trailer Lorry >16ft Freight Electricity Diesel Power and Steam Biodiesel Production Methanol Sulfuric acid NaOH Electricity Steam 2.4. Life cycle impact assessment

In order to evaluate the environmental impact, the impacts caused by the use of resources and the emissions of the wastes from the production processes are required. This information can be obtained from LCA software, such as Simapro, Gabi, Umberto, etc. In this work, Simapro version 7 and ECO indicator 99 were used for the evaluation. Eleven categories of environmental impacts were of interest: climate change, carcinogen, respiratory organics and inorganics, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity, acidification/ eutrophication, minerals, radiation, land use and fossil fuels. 2.5 Valuation and interpretation The results from the analysis would be used to evaluate each process to help make any decision as to which process to use. 3 3.1 Result and discussion Environmental impact generated by different source of oil

It was found that only 5 of the 11 factors: carcinogen, respiration inorganics, climate change, land use, and most dramatically, fossil fuels remained as important environmental impacts (Fig. 2).

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Fig. 2. Comparison of the environmental impacts of biodiesel production from palm oil and jatropha oil based on material and energy used in each steps of life cycle on each of the 11 environmental categories Fossil fuels was the category of most concern for both the processes followed by respiration inorganics. Likewise, reanalysis of the main damage assessment categories (Fig. 3) revealed that the main concern was ecosystem quality followed by human health and resource depletion for palm oil biodiesel. For jatropha biodiesel, ecosystem quality was not affected that much, consistent with these being principally energy demanding processes with little waste production.

Fig. 3. Comparison of the environmental impacts of biodiesel production from palm oil and jatropha oil based on material and energy used in each steps of life cycle Combining the effects on all impact categories as a single score (Fig. 4) supports the notion that the palm oil biodiesel production (320 mPt) generates 66% higher environmental load than jatropha biodiesel production (110 pt).

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Fig. 4. Comparison of the environmental impacts of biodiesel production from palm oil and jatropha oil based on material and energy used in each steps of life cycle based on a single cumulative score 3.2 Global warming potential of biodiesel produced by different source of oil The proportion of greenhouse gas (CHG) emissions from each materials and energy used shown in Fig. 5. The main contributions came from transeseterification reaction for jatropha curcas and oil extraction for oil palm.

Fig. 5. Comparison of life cycle GHG emissions of biodiesel production from palm oil and jatropha oil based on material and energy used in each steps of life cycle Biodiesel production from palm oil has bigger GHG emission than jatropha oil. 3.3 Environmental impact potential of biodiesel produced by different source of oil Figure 6 show the comparison of environmental impact of biodiesel production in each step of life cycle. Biodiesel production from palm oil has bigger total environmental impact than jatropha oil.

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Cultivation contribute to the highest environmental impacts compared with other stages in the life cycle impact.

Fig. 6. Comparison of environmental impact of biodiesel production from palm oil and jatropha oil based on material and energy used in each steps of life cycle 4 . Conclusion Biodiesel production from palm oil has bigger GHG emission and total environmental impact than jatropha oil. Palm oil biodiesel production (320 mPt) generates 66% higher environmental load than jatropha biodiesel production (110 pt). Cultivation contribute to the highest environmental impacts compared with other stages in the life cycle impact. The results showed that palm oil consume much higher fossil-based energy than jatropha. The highest fossil-based energy consumption was in the transesterification process, followed by the plantation and oil extraction. Acknowledgement The authors wish to express their gratitude to the School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, for providing the facilities and samples for this study and the help provided by Mr. Seksan Papong from MTEC, Thailand with Simapro analysis. References

Angarita EEY, EES Lora, RE Costa, EA Torres. 2009. The energy balance in the Palm Oil-Derived Methyl Ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 34: 2905­2913. Antolin G, FV Tinaut, Y Briceno, V Castano, C Perez, AI Ramrez. 2002. Optimization of biodiesel production by sunflower oil transesterification. Bioresour Technol. 83: 111­114. Encinar, J.M., Gonzalez, J.F., Rodriguez-Reinares, A., 2005. Biodiesel from used frying oil. Variables affecting the yields and characteristics of the biodiesel. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 44, 5491­5499. Kiwjaroun C, C Tubtimdee, P Piumsomboon. 2009. LCA studies comparing biodiesel synthesized by conventional and supercritical methanol methods. J Cleaner Production 17: 143­153. Nazir N. 2010. Process Development of Jatropha Biodiesel Production. [Dissertation]. Bogor: Institut Pertanian Bogor- Indonesia. Papong, S and P. Malakul. Life cycle energy efficiency and potentials of biodiesel production fom palm oil in Thailand. Energy Policy (2009) doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2009.09.009. Prueksakorn K, SH Gheewala, P Malakul, S Bonnet. 2010. Energy analysis of Jatropha plantation systems for biodiesel production in Thailand. Energy for Sustainable Development 14: 1­5 SimaPro 7.0. User's guide. Pre'Consultants; 2006. Tripp, BM. 2008. Evaluating Life Cicle of Biodiesel in North America.(Thesis). University of Toronto. Vicente, G., Martinez, M., Aracil, J., 2004. Integrated biodiesel production: A comparison of different homogeneous catalysts systems. Bioresour. Technol. 92: 297­305..

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Energy analysis of Jatropha plantation systems for biodiesel production in Thailand
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