Read REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHY AND PETROLEUM SYSTEMS OF THE APPALACHIAN BASIN, NORTH AMERICA text version

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

GEOLOGIC INVESTIGATIONS SERIES

MAP I­2768

SOUTHWEST

Periods Epochs North American Series North American Stages Age (million years ago)

NORTHEAST 3

Northwest Ga.

85° W

80° W

75° W

1

Eastcentral Ala.

2

Northeast Ala.

4

Central Tenn.

5

6

7

8

Southwest W.Va.

9

Southeast W.Va.

10

Central W.Va.

11

Northwest W.Va.

12

13

14

Southeast Ohio

15

Eastcentral Ohio

16

Southwest Pa.

17

Southeast Pa.

18

Northeast Ohio

19

Northwest Pa.

20

Northcentral Pa.

21

22

23

24

Eastcentral N.Y. Sequences

INTRODUCTION

45° N

Eastern Western Eastern Ky. Tenn. Va.

Northern Western Md. W.Va.

Southern Western WestN.Y. central Ontario N.Y.

Age General Features (million Sequence Periods (Interpreted years Boundaries ago) Events)

45° N

WISCONSIN

Lake Huron

ONTARIO

VT.

Zechstein Leonardian

260 260

Lake Michigan

MICHIGAN

21

rie

Lake Ontario

22

Lak eE

23 20

NEW YORK

24

PERMIAN

19

270

270

18

40° N

Rotliegendes Wolfcampian

280 280

ILLINOIS

INDIANA

OHIO

15

PENNSYLVANIA

16

17

NEW JERSEY

40° N

14

ABSAROKA

13 11WEST 12

VIRGINIA

MD. DEL.

Gzelian

Westphalian Stephanian

290

Siliciclastic strata (Alleghanian orogeny)

10

290

KENTUCKY

7 6

8

9

VIRGINIA

Virgilian Missourian Desmoinesian Atokan Morrowan

320

Pps Mmc Pps Mmc Mmc

PENNSYLVANIAN

1

1

1

1

1

1 2 3 4 2

1

1 2 Paf 3 Pps 4

1 2 Paf 3

1

Kasimovian Moscovian

300

2

2 Paf 3

2 Paf 3

2 Paf 3 Pps 4

2 Paf 3 Pps 4

2 Paf 3 Pps 4

2 3 4 3 3 4 4 4 4

300

TENNESSEE

35° N

4

Although more than 100 years of research have gone into deciphering the Paleozoic stratigraphy of the Appalachian Basin of North America, it remains a challenge to visualize the basin stratigraphy on a regional scale and to describe stratigraphic relations within the basin. Similar difficulties exist for visualizing and describing the regional distribution of petroleum source rocks and reservoir rocks. This publication addresses these difficulties by combining existing data on stratigraphy and petroleum geology of the Appalachian Basin, and presenting these data in a succinct, schematic format. Such a regional synthesis of the basin will be particularly useful for persons only generally acquainted with Appalachian geology. In addition, many of the broad relations that emerge from this compilation may be of interest to specialists of Appalachian Basin stratigraphy and petroleum geology. In order to facilitate comparisons of strata across the basin and to observe broad patterns in stratigraphy, 24 schematic chronostratigraphic sections were arranged from southwest to northeast, with time denoted in equal increments along the sections (figs. 1 and 2). The stratigraphic data were modified from American Association of Petroleum Geologists, AAPG (1985a,b) and Sanford (1993), and the time scale was taken from Harland and others (1990); informal North American chronostratigraphic terms from AAPG (1985a,b) are shown in parentheses. Stratigraphic sequences as defined by Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963) also were included, as well as brief descriptions of general features and interpreted events. In addition, figure 1 shows the locations of postulated petroleum source rocks (compiled from Roen and Walker, 1996) and also the locations of petroleum plays (compiled from Epsman, 1987; Roen and Walker, 1996). All of the stratigraphic units shown on figure 1 have been colored according to predominant lithology, although many of the stratigraphic names have been deliberately removed so as to emphasize general lithologic patterns and to provide a broad overview of the basin.

5

NORTH CAROLINA

35° N

GENERAL STRATIGRAPHY

Figure 1 shows only the predominant lithologies for given areas within the Appalachian Basin. The oldest of these rocks is designated as Precambrian basement, overlain by Lower Cambrian siliciclastic strata. The Lower Cambrian siliciclastic strata, in turn, are overlain by Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks. Note that there is a distinct interval of siliciclastic rocks (St. Peter Sandstone) representing a relatively short duration (480­475 million years ago) within the overall package of Ordovician carbonate rocks. The Cambrian-Ordovician carbonate rocks are overlain by Upper Ordovician-Upper Silurian siliciclastic strata. The lower half of these siliciclastic strata (450­435 million years ago) exhibits a general basinwide pattern of finer grained rocks overlain by coarser grained rocks. The upper half of the Upper OrdovicanUpper Silurian siliciclastic strata (435­428 million years ago), however, does not show such a trend. The Upper Ordovician-Upper Silurian siliciclastic strata are overlain by Upper Silurian-Middle Devonian carbonate rocks (428­382 million years ago), and there is a widespread interval of Upper Silurian evaporites (Salina Formation) within this overall carbonate package. Also, there is a distinct interval of siliciclastic rocks (Oriskany Sandstone) representing a relatively short duration (389­387 million years ago) within the upper part of the Upper Silurian-Middle Devonian carbonate package. The Upper Silurian-Middle Devonian carbonate rocks are overlain by Middle Devonian-Lower Mississippian siliciclastic strata. A laterally extensive carbonate (379­377 million years ago) is present within the lower part of these strata, and the siliciclastic strata above this carbonate exhibit a general coarsening-upwards trend. The Middle Devonian-Lower Mississippian strata, in turn, are overlain by Mississippian carbonate rocks, which are more extensive and span a longer interval of time in the southern half of the basin. Finally, the Mississippian carbonate rocks are overlain by Upper Mississippian-Permian siliciclastic strata. The lower part (Upper Mississippian-Lower Pennsylvanian) of these siliciclastic strata has a general pattern of finer grained rocks overlain by coarser grained rocks, but the upper half (Upper Pennsylvanian-Permian) of these siliciclastic strata does not show this characteristic. As for correlations with the sequences of Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963), the Appalachian Basin contains the following four major sequences: Sauk, Tippecanoe, Kaskaskia, and Absaroka. These four sequences are bounded by unconformities that have been identified across most of North America. Additional unconformities of more local extent are present within the Appalachian Basin (for example, Brett and others, 1990; Ettensohn, 1994), but figure 1 shows only the major unconformities identified by Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963). The Sauk Sequence is bounded at the base by the unconformity between Cambrian siliciclastic strata and Precambrian basement, and the sequence is bounded at the top by the Owl Creek unconformity (which lies at the base of the St. Peter Sandstone and equivalent units). The Owl Creek unconformity is sometimes referred to as the "postKnox unconformity" or the "Knox unconformity" (for example, Read, 1989; Brett and others, 1990) because in many places it is an unconformity at the top of the Knox Group (fig. 1). Sloss (1963, 1988) divided the Sauk Sequence into three units (Sauk I, Sauk II, and Sauk III), but the exact Sauk I­Sauk II and Sauk II­Sauk III lithostratigraphic boundaries are not well documented in the Appalachian Basin (Palmer, 1981). The Tippecanoe Sequence is bounded at the base by the Owl Creek unconformity (described above) and at the top by the Wallbridge unconformity (which lies at the base of the Oriskany Sandstone and equivalent units). The Tippecanoe Sequence was divided by Sloss (1988) into a lower unit (Tippecanoe I) and an upper unit (Tippecanoe II). Wheeler (1963) referred to the lower unit as the Creek Holostrome, and he referred to the upper unit as the Tutelo Holostrome. The boundary between these two Tippecanoe units is an unconformity among a variety of strata associated with the Ordovician-Silurian boundary. Wheeler (1963) named this unconformity the "Taconic discontinuity," and he indicated that it is found at the base of the Tuscarora Sandstone (in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and northern West Virginia), at the base of the Clinch Sandstone (in southern West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee), and at the base of the Red Mountain Formation (in Alabama). Dennison and Head (1975) later proposed that the name "Taconic disconformity" be replaced by "Cherokee unconformity," which is an American Indian name (similar to the names of the Sloss and Wheeler sequences) and does not imply an association with the Taconic orogeny. The "Taconic discontinuity" has also been referred to as the "Tuscarora unconformity" (for example, Dorsch and others, 1994). The Kaskaskia Sequence, which lies above the Tippecanoe Sequence, is bounded at the base by the Wallbridge unconformity and at the top by the Sub-Absaroka unconformity, which is associated with the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary. More recent work, however, suggests that the Sub-Absaroka unconformity is actually of Early Pennsylvanian age (Ettensohn, 1994). The Kaskaskia Sequence was divided by Sloss (1988) into a lower unit (Kaskaskia I) and an upper unit (Kaskaskia II), with the boundary between the two units being "near the close of Devonian time" (Sloss, 1988, p. 35). Wheeler (1963) also divided the strata between the Wallbridge unconformity and the Sub-Absaroka unconformity into two units, and he referred to the lower unit as the Piankasha Holostrome and the upper unit as the Tamaroa Holostrome. However, the boundary between these two units designated by Wheeler is not the same as the Kaskaskia I­Kaskaskia II boundary of Sloss. Wheeler (1963) indicated that the boundary between the Piankasha Holostrome and the Tamaroa Holostrome is the Acadian unconformity, which is found at the base of the Ohio, Huron, and Chattanooga Shales. The Absaroka Sequence, which lies above the Kaskaskia Sequence, is bounded at the base by the "Sub-Absaroka unconformity" (described above) and at the top by an unconformity associated with the Lower Jurassic-Middle Jurassic boundary. Triassic and Jurassic strata are not preserved in the Appalachian Basin, however, and thus the top of the Absaroka Sequence in the Appalachian Basin is essentially the erosional surface at the top of the Paleozoic strata throughout the basin. Petroleum Source Rocks The names of postulated petroleum source rocks (rocks from which petroleum is derived), as presented in figure 1, have been compiled from Roen and Walker (1996). These source rocks fall into four distinct groups according to stratigraphic occurrence. Group 1 consists of Pennsylvanian strata. Group 2 consists of Lower DevonianMississippian shales. Group 3 consists of shales within Middle Ordovician-Upper Silurian siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Group 4 consists of various strata of Cambrian and possibly Late Precambrian age. Group 4 also includes a petroleum source of "deep basement origin" that is postuated for low British Thermal Unit (BTU) gas (in other words, gas that has a high concentration of nitrogen or helium or both) in a few wells in eastern Kentucky and southern Ohio. Petroleum Plays A petroleum play is defined as a group of drilling prospects having similar geologic characteristics that control production (Magoon and Dow, 1994; Patchen, 1996). Plays are commonly designated in terms of stratigraphy, although play names can also be modified by reference to petroleum trap type. In figure 1, the names of petroleum plays are from Roen and Walker (1996), with some additional information on Alabama petroleum plays from Epsman (1987, fig. 2). These Appalachian Basin plays are more widely distributed throughout the stratigraphic sections than the source rocks, but most of the plays do show some stratigraphic proximity to the source rocks.

2

3

SOUTH CAROLINA GEORGIA

310

Pps

Pps Pps 4 Pps 4 Pps

4

310

Pps 4

1

CARBONIFEROUS

Bashkirian

Namurian

KASKASKIA II (Sloss, 1988)

Serpukhovian

Sub-Absaroka unconformity

Mmc Mmc Mmc Mmc

320

ALABAMA

Chesterian

Mmc

330

Mgn

330

85° W

80° W

75° W

MISSISSIPPIAN

Mgn Mgn Mgn

Mgn Mgn

Mmc

Mgn

Mgn

Visean

Meramecian

Mgn

Mgn

5 6 6 Mfp 6

Mfp 6 5, 6 Mbi, Mws Mbi 7 MDe Dvs 8 Dbs Des 10, 11, 12 14, 15 16 Dho Doc, Dos 16 13 14, 15 Dho Dos Doc, Dop Dbs Dbg, 8 Dbg, UDs UDs Mbi 7 MDe MDe Dvs Dbg Dbs Des 10, 11, 12 14, 15 Dol, Dho 16 Doc, Dop 16 Dos Dho, Doc, Dos Doc, Dop Dbs Dbs 13 14, 15 Dbg, UDs 8 7 MDe Dvs Dbs 9 Dbg, UDs 8 Dvs Dbs Dbs Des 13 15 Dvs, Dbs, Des, Dbg 10, 11, 12 14 Dvs Mbi Mbi

Tamaroa Holostrome (Wheeler, 1963)

340

Mgn

Carbonate strata

Figure 2.--Extent of the Appalachian Basin is shown in red. The basin is subdivided into 24 regions, and the generalized stratigraphy of each region is depicted in figure 1. Column numbers in figure 1 correspond to region numbers in figure 2. Figure modified from AAPG (1985a) and from Sanford (1993).

340

EXPLANATION

Although not designated as a separate lithology, many coal beds are present in Pennsylvanian strata and some coal beds are present in Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin. Evaporite Carbonate rock or chert Conglomerate Sandstone Interbedded mudstone and sandstone

Osagean Tournaisian

350

6

6

6

6

Mws

Mbi, Mws

Mbi, Mws

Mbi, Mws

Mbi, Mws

350

Kinderhookian Chautauquan Senecan

Taghanic Conewangoan (Cassadagan)

360

8 8 8 8 8

MDe

7 MDe UDs 8

7 MDe

7 Dvs

7 MDe 8 8

7 MDe Dvs

MDe

Famennian Upper

Dbg 8

Frasnian Givetian

(Chemungian) (Fingerlakesian) Tioughniogan Cazenovian Southwoodian (Esopusian) Deerparkian Helderbergian

370

KASKASKIA I (Sloss, 1988)

D3

8 Dbg, UDs 9 10, 11, 12

Piankasha Holostrome (Wheeler, 1963)

Dbg Dbs Dbg, 8 UDs 9 9 9 Des Des 10, 11, 12, 13 10, 11,12, 13 10, 11,12 Dbs 15 Dho 15 Dho Doc 15 Dho Doc, Dop

Siliciclastic strata (Acadian orogeny) Acadian unconformity

360

Dbs Des Des, Dbg 10,11, 12 14, 15 Dol Doc Des Dbg 10, 11, 12 14, 15 Dol Dos, Doc 10, 11, 12

370

Des, Dbg, UDs Des 10, 11, 12 14, 15 Dol Dop, Doc, Dos 16

Middle

DEVONIAN

D2

Erian

380

DSu

15

14, 15 Dol Dos

380

Mudstone Section not present

Eifelian Emsian

16 Dop Doc

Dol

390

Lower

Pragian

Dos

Ulsterian

Wallbridge unconformity

Carbonate strata Siliciclastic strata Carbonate strata

390

In addition to the major packages of siliciclastic rocks, there are two minor packages of siliciclastic rocks that were deposited at approximately 480 to 475 million years ago (St. Peter Sandstone) and at approximately 389 to 387 million years ago (Oriskany Sandstone). These two minor packages of siliciclastic rocks are present within predominantly carbonate strata and they are not associated with significant fining-upwards or coarsening-upwards trends. Furthermore, these siliciclastic rocks represent relatively short durations of time, and they are not associated with major orogenic events. These rocks may owe their origin primarily to changes in climate or sea level, or both. A likely scenario is that these sandstones are of eolian origin or that they were originally eolian sediments that were subsequently redeposited in a subaqueous environment (Berkey, 1906; Grabau, 1940; Dott and others, 1986; Cecil and others, 1991, 1998). Carbonate rocks are present between each of the three major siliciclastic packages associated with orogenic events. The Silurian-Devonian carbonate package is unusual, however, in that it contains extensive evaporite deposits (Salina Formation). These evaporites are thought to have formed in sabkha and shallow-water environments (Haynes and others, 1989; Tomastik, 1997), which could have developed as the result of climate change or restricted circulation or both. Each group of petroleum source rocks clusters around siliciclastic strata. The petroleum plays, on the other hand, are more widely distributed throughout the stratigraphic sections, but most of the plays show some stratigraphic proximity to the postulated source rocks. Nevertheless, the recognition of four discrete groups of petroleum source rocks provides a context for evaluating hydrocarbon resources of the Appalachian Basin in terms of four petroleum systems (in the sense of Magoon and Dow, 1994). The existence of different petroleum systems within the Appalachian Basin is supported by data from Cole and others (1987) and Drozd and Cole (1994), who showed that oils found stratigraphically below evaporites of the Silurian Salina Formation are chemically distinct from oils found stratigraphically above the evaporites. Drozd and Cole (1994) also suggested that the Salina evaporites are a regional hydrocarbon seal (although there are a variety of local hydrocarbon seals for individual reservoirs). Oils in reservoirs that occur stratigraphically below the Salina evaporites are derived from pre-Salina source rocks, whereas oils in reservoirs that occur stratigraphically above the Salina evaporites are derived from post-Salina source rocks. Obviously, in the southern part of the Appalachian Basin where the Salina evaporites are absent, this relation may not hold and hydrocarbons from older (pre-Salina) source rocks could have migrated into reservoirs higher in the section. In summary, the Appalachian Basin of North America extends from Alabama to Ontario and New York, and contains strata ranging from Precambrian to Permian in age (fig. 1). These strata comprise the Sauk, Tippecanoe, Kaskaskia, and Absaroka Sequences of Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963). Appalachian Basin strata are characterized by distinct lithologies that persisted geologically on the order of tens of millions of years. The Lower Cambrian strata are predominantly siliciclastic (570­545 million years ago). Lower Cambrian to Upper Ordovician strata are predominantly carbonate (545­445 million years ago). The Upper Ordovician to Upper Silurian strata are predominantly siliciclastic (445­428 million years ago), associated with the Taconic orogeny. The Upper Silurian to Middle Devonian strata are predominantly carbonate (428­301 million years ago). The Middle Devonian to Lower Mississippian strata are predominantly siliciclastic (381­345 million years ago), associated with the Acadian orogeny. The Mississippian strata are predominantly carbonate (345­330 million years ago). The Upper Mississippian to Permian strata are predominantly siliciclastic (330­250 million years ago), associated with the Alleghanian orogeny. Lithologic variability on the order of tens of millions of years is correlated with tectonic activity in combination with climatic changes, whereas lithologic variability of shorter duration (<10 million years) may have been caused by changes in climate or sea level or both (without necessarily a tectonic influence). Postulated petroleum source rocks fall into four groups according to stratigraphic occurrence. These four groups consist of Cambrian and older strata, Middle Ordovician-Upper Silurian strata, Lower Devonian-Mississippian strata, and Pennsylvanian strata. The petroleum plays are more widely distributed throughout the stratigraphic sections than the source rocks, but most of the plays show some stratigraphic proximity to the source rocks identified in figure 1. The Silurian Salina evaporites are thought to form a regional hydrocarbon seal across much of the basin, with two of the source rock groups occurring below the Salina evaporites and the other two source rock groups occurring above the evaporites. The recognition of four discrete groups of petroleum source rocks suggests that there are four different petroleum systems within the Appalachian Basin.

PERMIAN PENNSYLVANIAN MISSISSIPPIAN

Upper Middle Lower

CARBONIFEROUS DEVONIAN

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work was improved by suggestions from U.S. Geological Survey reviewers C.B. Cecil, R.T. Ryder, C.S. Southworth, and I.L. Taylor. Thanks to K.S. Schindler and J.R. Estabrook for map editing. Thanks to C.J. Schenk and I.L. Taylor for their encouragement with this project.

D1

Lochkovian (Gedinnian) Pridolian

Postulated Petroleum Source Rocks of the Appalachian Basin (compiled from Roen and Walker, 1996)

Group 1 1 Pennsylvanian Monongahela Group 2 Pennsylvanian Conemaugh Group 3 Pennsylvanian Allegheny Group 4 Pennsylvanian Pottsville Group Group 2 5 Shales in the Mississippian Warsaw Limestone 6 Shales in the upper part of the Mississippian Fort Payne Formation 7 Mississippian Sunbury Shale 8 Upper Devonian (Famennian) shales (including Chattanooga Shale, Ohio Shale, and Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale) 9 Upper Devonian Java Formation 10 Upper Devonian (Frasnian) Rhinestreet Shale (West Falls Formation)1 11 Upper Devonian (Frasnian) Sonyea Formation (Middlesex Member)1 12 Upper Devonian (Frasnian) Genesee Formation (Renwick Member and Geneseo Member)1 13 Upper Devonian Harrell Formation (Burket Member)1 14 Middle Devonian Hamilton Group 15 Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale 16 Lower and Middle Devonian Needmore Shale Group 3 17 Upper Silurian Akron Dolomite 18 Upper Silurian Bertie Dolomite 19 Upper Silurian Camillus Formation 20 Upper Silurian Salina Formation (including black shale within Newburg sandstone) 21 Upper Silurian Lockport Dolomite 22 Lower Silurian Clinton Group (including Clinton Shale, Rose Hill Formation, and Crab Orchard Formation) 23 Lower Silurian Medina Group (including Cabot Head Shale) 24 Upper Ordovician Martinsburg Shale, Reedsville Shale, Utica (Antes) Shale, and equivalent strata 25 Upper Ordovician Point Pleasant Shale and dolomitic mudstones within the Upper Ordovician Lexington Limestone (Trenton Limestone) 26 Upper Ordovician Blockhouse Shale (Athens Shale) 27 Middle Ordovician Wells Creek Formation Group 4 28 Cambrian Rome Formation 29 Unspecified Cambrian or older source rocks (not shown in fig. 1) 30 Deep basement origin (postulated for low British Thermal Unit gas in eastern Kentucky and southern Ohio) (not shown in fig. 1)

1Equivalent to the Upper Devonian Kettle Point Formation in Ontario, Canada.

400

400

DSu

TIPPECANOE II (Tutelo Holostrome of Wheeler, 1963)

410

Upper

SILURIAN

Ludlovian

Cayugan

(Murderian) (Canastotan)

20

Sbi 17,18 20 20 20 Sns 21 Sld 22 23 Sts 24 24 24 Obc, MOf 25 24 Obc, MOf 25 24 24 Obc, MOf 25 Obc, MOf 25 Obc 25 22 Sts 22 Sts 23 24 20 20 Sns Sld 21 Sld, Scm 22 23 Sts 24 20 Sns 21 22 22 Sts 23 Sts Obe 24 24 Obe 24 Obc 25 Obc 25 Obc 25 Sld 21 Scm 22 Sld, Scm 20 20 Sld 21 Sld, Scm Scm 22 20 21 Sld 22 22 Sts Sts Obe Obe 24 24 24 Obe 24 20 20 Sld 21 Sld 22 23 Sts Scm 22 23 24 24

410

REFERENCES CITED

American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), 1985a, Northern Appalachian Region [correlation chart]: Tulsa, Okla., 1 folded sheet in jacket. (Correlation of Stratigraphic Units of North America (COSUNA) Project.) ------1985b, Southern Appalachian Region [correlation chart]: Tulsa, Okla., 1 folded sheet in jacket. (Correlation of Stratigraphic Units of North America (COSUNA) Project.) Berkey, C.P., 1906, Paleogeography of St. Peter time: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 17, p. 229­250. Brett, C.E., Goodman, W.M., and LoDuca, S.T., 1990, Sequences, cycles, and basin dynamics in the Silurian of the Appalachian Foreland Basin: Sedimentary Geology, v. 69, no. 3, p. 191­244. Cecil, C.B., Ahlbrandt, T.S., and Heald, M.T., 1991, Paleoclimate implications for the origin of Paleozoic quartz arenites in the Appalachian Basin: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 23, no. 5, p. A72. Cecil, C.B., Brezinski, D.K., and Dulong, F.T., 1998, Allocyclic controls on Paleozoic sedimentation in the central Appalachian Basin: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98­577, 75 p. Cole, G.A., Drozd, R.J., Sedivy, R.A., and Halpern, H.I., 1987, Organic geochemistry and oil-source correlations, Paleozoic of Ohio: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 71, no. 7, p. 788­809. Dennison, J.M., and Head, J.W., 1975, Sealevel variations interpreted from the Appalachian Basin Silurian and Devonian: American Journal of Science, v. 275, no. 10, p. 1089­1120. Dorsch, Joachim, Bambach, R.K., and Driese, S.G., 1994, Basin-rebound origin for the "Tuscarora unconformity" in southwestern Virginia and its bearing on the nature of the Taconic orogeny: American Journal of Science, v. 294, no. 2, p. 237­255. Dott, R.H., Jr., Byers, C.W., Fielder, G.W., Stenzel, S.R., and Winfree, K.E., 1986, Aeolian to marine transition in Cambro-Ordovician cratonic sheet sandstones of the northern Mississippi valley, U.S.A.: Sedimentology, v. 33, no. 3, p. 345­367. Drozd, R.J., and Cole, G.A., 1994, Point Pleasant-Brassfield(!) petroleum system, Appalachian Basin, U.S.A., in Magoon, L.B., and Dow, W.G., eds., The petroleum system--From source to trap: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 60, p. 387­398. Epsman, M.L., 1987, Subsurface geology of selected oil and gas fields in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama: Geological Survey of Alabama Atlas 21, 255 p. Ettensohn, F.R., 1994, Tectonic control on formation and cyclicity of major Appalachian unconformities and associated stratigraphic sequences, in Dennison, J.M., Ettensohn, F.R., and Scholle, P.A., eds., Tectonic and eustatic controls on sedimentary cycles: SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology, v. 4, p. 217­242. Grabau, A.W., 1940, The rhythm of the ages: Peking, Henri Vetch, 561 p. Harland, W.B., Armstrong, R.L., Cox, A.V., Craig, L.E., Smith, A.G., and Smith, D.G., 1990, A geologic time scale 1989: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 263 p. Hatcher, R.D., Jr., 1989, Tectonic synthesis of the U.S. Appalachians, in Hatcher, R.D., Jr., Thomas, W.A., and Viele, G.W., eds., The Appalachian-Ouachita orogen in the United States, v. F­2 of The geology of North America: Boulder, Colo., Geological Society of America, p. 511­535. Haynes, S.J., Boland, R., and Hughes-Pearl, J., 1989, Depositional setting of gypsum deposits, southwestern Ontario; The Domtar Mine: Economic Geology, v. 84, p. 857­870. Magoon, L.B., and Dow, W.G., 1994, The petroleum system, in Magoon, L.B., and Dow, W.G., eds., The petroleum system--From source to trap: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 60, p. 3­24. Palmer, A.R., 1981, Subdivision of the Sauk Sequence: U.S. Geological Survey OpenFile Report 81­743, p. 160­162. Patchen, D.G., 1996, Introduction to the atlas of major Appalachian gas plays, in Roen, J.B., and Walker, B.J., eds., The atlas of major Appalachian gas plays: West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey Publication V­25, p. 1. Read, J.F., 1989, Evolution of Cambro-Ordovician passive margin, U.S. Appalachians, in Hatcher, R.D., Jr., Thomas, W.A., and Viele, G.W., eds., The AppalachianOuachita orogen in the United States, v. F­2 of The geology of North America: Boulder, Colo., Geological Society of America, p. 42­57. Roen, J.B., and Walker, B.J., eds., 1996, The atlas of major Appalachian gas plays: West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey Publication V­25, 201 p. Sanford, B.V., 1993, St. Lawrence Platform--Geology, in Stott, D.F., and Aitkin, J.D., eds., Sedimentary cover of the craton of Canada, v. D­1 of The geology of North America: Boulder, Colo., Geological Society of America, p. 723­786. Sloss, L.L., 1963, Sequences in the cratonic interior of North America: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 74, no. 2, p. 93­114. ------1988, Tectonic evolution of the craton in Phanerozoic time, in Sloss, L.L., ed., Sedimentary cover--North American craton, v. D­2 of The geology of North America: Boulder, Colo., Geological Society of America, p. 25­51. Tomastik, T.E., 1997, The sedimentology of the Bass Islands and Salina Groups in Ohio and its effect on salt-solution mining and underground storage, USA: Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 12, no. 2, p. 236­253. Wheeler, H.E., 1963, Post-Sauk and pre-Absaroka Paleozoic stratigraphic patterns in North America: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 47, no. 8, p. 1497­1526.

Sbi 18 19 20

18 19

18 19 20 20

Upper

420

21

Sns 20

20 Sld 21 Scm 22

20 Sld 21 Scm 22 23 Sts

Evaporitic strata Carbonate strata

SILURIAN

420

Wenlockian Lower Llandoverian Ashgillian

Lockportian

Sns

21 Sld

Niagaran Alexandrian Cincinnatian

Sld 21 Scm 22

Sld 21 Scm 22

21 22

Tonawandan Ontarian Gamachian Richmondian Maysvillian Edenian Shermanian

430

22

22

22

Sld 22 Scm

430

Lower

440

Obe 24

Cherokee unconformity

24 24 24

Siliciclastic strata (Taconic orogeny)

440

Upper

Upper

Caradocian

Kirkfieldian Rocklandian 460

26 26 27 MOf 26

Obc, MOf 25

Obc 25

MOf 25

Obc, MOf 25

Obc, MOf 25

Obc 25

Obc 25

TIPPECANOE I (Creek Holostrome of Wheeler, 1963)

450

Obc, MOf

450

Champlainian Middle

Blackriverian Chazyan 470

MOf

MOf 27

MOf 27 27 27 27 27

MOf

MOf

MOf

MOf

Carbonate strata

460

ORDOVICIAN

Llandeilian Llanvirnian

Middle

ORDOVICIAN

MOf

MOf

470

Whiterockian

Osp Osp Osp

480

Osp

Arenigian

|Ok

Owl Creek unconformity ("Knox unconformity")

Siliciclastic strata

480

Lower

490

490

|Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok |Ok

Lower

Canadian Tremadocian

500

|Ok

|Ok

|Ok

|Ok

|Ok |Ok |Ok

500

Petroleum Plays of the Appalachian Basin (modified from Roen and Walker, 1996)

Upper

Trempealeauan

510

|pk |pk |pk |pk |pk |pk |pk |Ok |pk |Ok |pk

Merioneth

Croixian

Franconian Dresbachian 520

Carbonate strata

510

Paf Pps

|pk

Middle Pennsylvanian Allegheny Formation and (or) Group sandstones Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian Pottsville, New River, and Lee Formation sandstones Upper Mississippian Mauch Chunk Group and equivalent strata Upper Mississippian Greenbrier and (or) Newman Limestones Lower Mississippian Big Injun sandstones Lower Mississippian Weir sandstones Lower Mississippian Fort Payne Formation (carbonate mounds) Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Berea Sandstone and equivalent strata Upper Devonian Venango (upper Catskill) sandstones and siltstones Upper Devonian Bradford (middle Catskill) sandstones and siltstones Upper Devonian Elk (lower Catskill) sandstones and siltstones Upper Devonian fractured black and gray shales and siltstones Upper Devonian black shales Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone (reef play) Fractured Middle Devonian Huntersville Chert and Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone structural traps Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone combination traps Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone updip permeability pinchout traps Lower Devonian-Upper Silurian unconformity traps Upper Silurian Bass Islands Dolomite Upper Silurian Newburg sandstone Silurian Lockport Dolomite-Keefer (Big Six) Sandstone Lower Silurian Tuscarora Sandstone Lower Silurian Cataract and (or) Medina Group ("Clinton") sandstones Upper Ordovician Bald Eagle Formation Upper Ordovician bioclastic carbonate ("Trenton Formation") Ordovician fractured carbonates Lower and Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Group unconformity traps Cambrian pre-Knox Group strata

Upper Middle

520

St. David's

Albertian

SAUK

530 530

Mmc Mgn Mbi Mws Mfp MDe Dvs Dbs Des Dbg UDs Dol Dho Dos Doc Dop DSu Sbi Sns Sld Sts Scm Obe Obc MOf Osp |Ok |pk

CAMBRIAN

Middle

CAMBRIAN

|pk

|pk

|pk

|pk |pk

540

28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

540

Lower

Caerfaian

550

550

28

DISCUSSION

Most of the siliciclastic strata in the Appalachian Basin are traditionally interpreted as being associated with tectonic events (for example, Hatcher, 1989), although Cecil and others (1998) suggest that climate is also important. The Upper OrdovicianUpper Silurian siliciclastic strata are associated with the Taconic orogeny. The Middle Devonian-Lower Mississippian siliciclastic strata are associated with the Acadian orogeny, and the Upper Mississippian-Permian siliciclastic strata are associated with the Alleghanian orogeny. All of the siliciclastic strata associated with orogenies exhibit a general pattern of finer grained rocks overlain by coarser grained rocks in at least the lower half of each siliciclastic package. For each package of siliciclastic strata associated with an orogenic event, there is a major unconformity (sequence boundary) within the siliciclastic package. Note, however, that these unconformities (Cherokee, Acadian, Sub-Absaroka) are not located exactly at the base of the respective siliciclastic packages. Likewise, these three unconformities are not located at the tops of major coarsening-upwards or fining-upwards trends.

Lower

Waucoban

560

Siliciclastic strata

560

PRECAMBRIAN

570

Precambrian basement

Precambrian basement

570

INTERIOR--GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, RESTON, VA--2002

PRECAMBRIAN

Figure 1.--Regional stratigraphy and petroleum systems of the Appalachian Basin, North America. Stratigraphic data are modified from AAPG (1985a,b) and Sanford (1993). The time scale is taken from Harland and others (1990); informal North American chronostratigraphic terms from AAPG (1985a,b) are shown in parentheses. Sequences and sequence boundary locations are from Sloss (1963, 1988) and Wheeler (1963). Data on petroleum source rocks are compiled from Roen and Walker (1996). Names of petroleum plays are from Roen and Walker (1996); additional information on Alabama petroleum plays is from Epsman (1987).

REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHY AND PETROLEUM SYSTEMS OF THE APPALACHIAN BASIN, NORTH AMERICA

Christopher S. Swezey

2002 By

Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government For sale by U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225; telephone 1-888-ASK-USGS

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REGIONAL STRATIGRAPHY AND PETROLEUM SYSTEMS OF THE APPALACHIAN BASIN, NORTH AMERICA