Read BiophysicsMED text version

DEPARTMENT OF MEDICAL PHYSICS COURSE IN BIOPHYSICS FOR STUDENTS OF FACULTY OF MEDICINE

The name of Unit in which the subject is realized Department of Medical Physics Head Dr n. med. Wojciech Podraza Total hours: 60 hours include: 30 h seminars 30 h classes ECTS: 8

Aims of teaching Biophysics The aims of teaching biophysics are to present biophysical aspects of physiology as well as physical phenomenon applications in medical equipment. The mainstream of students' activity is based on the methods and theories applied in contemporary medicine.

FORMS OF ACTIVITIES Subject of Biophysics is carried out in II terms in forms classes, seminars, and examination. There are no lectures. 1. Seminars are conducted during 30 h in II term. 2. Classes include 30 h in II term and are devoted to present biophysical aspects of physiology as well as physical phenomenon applications in medical equipment. Students are obliged to study all topics included in the program of biophysics. 3. The classes are carried out in 10-12 students (half of the Dean's group) per tutor. Students work in 3-4 person's team. Classes last 2 h. 4. Knowledge of the students is controlled by the tutor during the classes in the oral form. After finishing the practical exercises students have to prepare a written report. 5. The exam is carried out as a test of 50 single-choice questions.

PROGRAM OF BIOPHYSICS

1. Measurements. Elements of statistics, 2. Light in medical investigation, diagnostics and therapy, 3. Lasers in medicine, 4. Electric signals from the body, 5. Skeleton, muscle and forces, 6. Radiation and radioactivity, 7. Magnetic resonance imaging (IMR) and NMR spectroscopy, 8. Free radicals in biological system, 9. Application of the bioimpedance measurement in medicine, 10. Physics of the ear and hearing, 11. Circulatory system - biophysical aspects, 12. Lungs and breathing - biophysical aspects, 13. Diagnostic and therapeutic application of ultrasound in medicine, 14. Thermodynamics and thermoregulation, 15. Microscopy in medicine and biology.

2

1. MEASUREMENTS. ELEMENTS OF STATISTICS 1. Units a) · · b) c) SI units Base units Derived units Powers of ten notation. Changing the units.

2. Errors of measurement a) b) systematic errors accidental errors

3. Analysis of experimental data a) · · b) · · · · The measures of central tendency the arithmetic mean the median The measures of variability Gaussian distribution curve the sample variance the standard deviation the standard deviation of the mean

4. Errors of combined quantities. 5. The linear correlation analysis.

Exercise

·

Measurements of a red blood cell diameters. Measurements of the body temperature. Graphical representation of experimental data.

· ·

References

1. Tuliszka M.: Biophysics, Laboratory Textbook, Pozna 1997, pp. 7-29 2. Cameron J., Skofronic J.G., Grant R.M.: Physics of the Body, Medical Physics Publishing 1992, Chapter 1, pp. 5-12

3

2. LIGHT IN MEDICAL INVESTIGATION, DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY 1. Nature of light ­ electromagnetic waves (ranges). Energy of photons. 2. Source of electromagnetic waves. 3. Atomic and molecular energy. 4. Interaction of light with matter a) absorption and emission of radiation,

b) spectrophotometry, c) spectrofluorimetry.

5. Lasers in Medicine a) fundamentals of lasers physics,

b) application of lasers in diagnosis and therapy.

Exercises

1. Measurement of absorption spectra of biological compounds in visible and ultraviolet range (apparatus UNICAM UV2, SPECORD UV VIS, SPECOL) a) quality and quantity measurements of different solutions

2. Demonstration of biostimulation laser, Model CTL 1106 MX.

References

1. Tuliszka M.: Biophysics, Laboratory Textbook, Pozna 1997, pp. 30-39. 2. Beer's Law - article from internet (www.shu.ac.uk/schools/sci/chem/tutorials/molspec/beers1.htm) 3. Kohen E et al.: Photobiology, San Diego New York, AP 1995, pp. 3-69. 4. Katzir A.: Lasers and optical fibers in medicine, San Diego New York, AP 1993, pp.15104.

4

3. LASER IN MEDICINE. 1. Fundamentals of laser physics. 2. Medical lasers: · · · · · · · · Carbon Dioxide Laser Nd:YAG Laser Argon Ion Laser

3. Applications of Lasers in therapy and diagnosis optical properties of tissue tissue luminescence photothermal effects photochemical effects photomechanical and photoablative effects

4. Clinical applications of laser systems.

Exercises

·

Demonstration of different types of lasers.

References

1. Beiser A.: Physics, Addison-Wesley, Massachusetts 1991, Chapter 27, pp. 803-807 2. Katzir A.: Lasers and Optical Fibers in Medicine, Academic Press, Inc. 1993

4. ELECTRIC SIGNALS FROM THE BODY.

1. Resting potential. a) concentrations of ions inside and outside a typical axon

2. Action potential. a) depolarisation

3. Summation of synaptic inputs. a) b) c) one-to-one synapse one-to-many synapse many-to-one synapse

4. Signals from muscles ­ the electromyogram.

5

5. Signals from the heart ­ the electrocardiogram. 6. Signals from the brain ­ the electroencephalogram. 7. Signals from the eye ­ the electroretinogram.

Exercise

·

ECG

References

1. Tuliszka M.: Biophysics, Laboratory Textbook, Pozna 1997, pp. 61-78 2. Cameron J., Skofronic J.G., Grant R.M.: Physics of the Body, Medical Physics Publishing 1992, Chapter 9 3. Beiser A.: Physics, Addison-Wesley, Massachusetts 1991, Chapter 17

5. SKELETON, MUSCLE AND FORCES 1. Frictional forces. 2. Muscles and their classification a) b) striated muscles smooth muscles

3. Levers in the body a) b) c) d) the lever classes lifting and squatting forces on the hip and tight the spinal column

Exercises

·

Lifting a weight with levers.

References

1.

Cameron J., Skofronic J.G., Grant R.M.: Physics of the Body, Medical Physics Publishing 1992, Chapter 2, pp. 15-48; Chapter 3, pp. 49-71 Chapter 5, pp. 98-99

2. 3.

Tuliszka M.: Biophysics, Laboratory Textbook, Pozna 1997, pp. 103-111 Beiser A.: Physics, Addison-Wesley, Massachusetts 1991, Chapter 3, 4, 5,

6

6. RADIATION AND RADIOACTIVITY 1. Radiation measurement - quantities and units. 2. Fundamentals of X-ray. a) electromagnetic radiation · · ·

b) interaction between X rays and matter photoelectric effect Compton scattering pair production

1. Generation and detection of X rays a) white radiation, b) characteristic radiation. 2. Biological effects of ionizing radiation. 3. Fundamentals of radioactivity. a) nuclear particles,

b) law of radioactive decay and half-life, c) nuclear radiation detectors.

4. Radionuclide imaging systems. 5. Radiation in medical treatment.

Exercise: 1. Image of an ,,artificial organ" obtained by model of the rectilinear scanner. 2. Determination of the linear and mass attenuation coefficient for different materials.

References: 1. K.K. Shung, M.B. Smith, B.M.W. Tsui. Principles of medical imaging. Academic Press. 1992. 2. E.L. Alpen. Radiation Biophysics. Academic Press. 1990. 3. F.D. Rollo. Nuclear medicine physics, instrumentation, and agents. The C.V. Mosby Company. 1977.

7

7. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) AND NMR SPECTROSCOPY 1. Magnetic properties of atomic nuclei (angular momentum, magnetic moment, spin). 2. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) phenomenon a) b) c) quantum model (energy diagram), classical approach (top, Larmor frequency =B), relaxation times (T1, T2).

3. Basic concepts in MR localisation. Magnetic gradients, slice selection. 4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI (frequency and phase encoding). 5. NMR spectroscopy (in vivo and in vitro). 6. Imaging safety.

Exercise

1. Demonstration of NMR spectrometer (Tesla BS 567A). 2. Observation from water and ethylen NMR signals.

References

1. Gonet B. (own elaboration): Understanding MRI. 2. Elster A. D.: Questions and Answers in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mosby, St. Louis, 1994 3. Salibi N., Brown M. A.: Clinical MR Spectroscopy. First Principles, Wiley-Liss, New York, 1998. 4. Shung K. K., Smith M. B., Tsui B.: Principles of Medical Imaging, pp. 213-267, Academic Press, Inc. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers, San Diego, 1992.

8. FREE RADICALS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS 1. Oxygen, friend or foe? 2. Activated species of dioxygen. 3. Biological source of free radicals. 4. Free radicals and antioxidant in human diseases. 5. Physical principles of electron spin resonance (ESR, EPR) spectroscopy.

Exercise

1. ESR measurements of free radicals in human hair, frog skin and coffee. 2. Apparatus: ESR spectrometer SE/X2544, Radiopan.

8

References

1. Pincemail J.: Free radicals and antioxidant in human diseases, pp. 83-92 in "Analysis of free radicals in biological systems", edited by: A. E. Favier et al., Birkhauser Verlag, Berlin 1995. 2. Gonet B. (own elaboration): Free radicals (summary). 3. Gonet B. (own elaboration): Understanding Magnetic Resonance MR. 4. Ikeya M.: New applications of electron spin resonance, World Scientific, Singapore ­ London 1993. 9. APPLICATION OF THE BIOIMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT IN MEDICINE

1. Definitions and basic concepts (charge density D, permittivity, conductivity, capacitance C, impedance Z). 2. Electrical properties of the tissue and the effect of dielectric dispersion. 3. Electrical Schwarc's model of the tissue. 4. Impedance measurement of body system to obtain hemodynamic parameters of circulatory system and total and segmental blood flow. 5. Impedance spectra of pathological and normal tissue ­ a possible clinical application for electrical impedance tomography. 6. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) ­ new method of image processing in medicine. 7. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for the indirect assessment of body composition in nutrition. 8. Impedance measuring instruments.

Exercise

1. Measuring impedance Z of a tissue as a function of frequency f.

Reference

1. Palko T., Pawlicki G., Wglarz J.: "Impedance measurement of body segments", Polish J. Med. Phys.& Eng., Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 113-120. 2. Kenneth R. Foster, Herman P. Schwan: "Dielectric properties of tissues" in: CRC Handbook of Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields ­ Editors Charles Pok, Elliot Postow, CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida. 3. Arthur Beiser, Physics, Edison ­ Wesley, Massachusetts, 1992, Chapters 24, 29, pp. 474485, 574-589.

9

4. Ackerman E.: Biophysical Science, Chapter 11, pp 205-213, Prentice ­ Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 1962. 5. Glaser R.: Biophysics, Springer 2001, pp. 187 ­ 197. 6. Liedtke Rudolf J,.: Fundamentals of bioelectrical impedance analysis,

http://www.rljsystems.com/research/bia-fundamentals 7. Liedtke Rudolf J,.: Principles of bioelectrical impedance analysis, http://www.rljsystems.com/research/bia-principles

10. PHYSICS OF THE EAR AND HEARING 1. General physical properties of sound (definition of the velocity, the frequency, intensity, the acoustic impedance, acoustic pressure). 2. The definition of the decibel. 3. Transmitted sound and problem of so called impedance matching. 4. The body as a drum (percussion in medicine). 5. The ear as an information transducer · physics of the outer and middle ear · Bekesey theory of the inner ear function as a part of the communication system 6. The sensitivity of the ears (curves of equal loudness and the threshold of hearing and feeling). 7. The pure tone audiometry.

Exercise

Hearing thresholds determination by a pure tone audiometric hearing test.

References

1. John R. Cameron, James G. Skofronick, Roderick M. Grant: "PHYSICS of the BODY", Medical Physics Publishing 1992, Chapter 10, pp.219-256. 2. Arthur Beiser, Physics, Edison ­ Wesley, Massachusetts, 1992, Chapters 12, 15. 3. Ackerman E.: Bipohysical Science, Chapter 1, pp 3-27, Prentice ­ Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 1962. 4. Glaser R.: Biophysics, Springer 2001, pp. 243-250.

10

11. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM - BIOPHYSICAL ASPECTS

1. Viscosity a) viscosity of fluids ­ Newton's law, b) viscous properties of the blood. 2. Major components of the cardiovascular system a) the heart, b) systemic and lung circulation c) the blood. 3. O2 and CO2 exchange in the capillary system. 4. Work done by the heart. 5. Blood pressure and its measurement a) arterial pressure, b) venous pressure. 6. 7. 8. Pressure across the blood vessel wall. Bernoulli's principle applied to the cardiovascular system. Blood flow a) the velocity, b) laminar, c) turbulent. 9. Heart sounds. 10. The physics of some cardiovascular diseases.

Exercises: 1. Examination of the blood pressure in the rest and after the work. 2. Examination of the blood pressure with different width of cuffs.

References: 1. J.R. Cameron, J.G. Skofronick, R.M.Grant. Physics of the Body, Medical Physics Publishing 1992, Chapter 8, pp.153-181. 2. P. Davidovits. Physics in Biology and Medicine. 3. R. Glaser. Biophysics. Springer. 1999, pp. 208-210, 219-228.

11

12. LUNGS AND BREATHING - BIOPHYSICAL ASPECTS 1. Structure of the respiratory system. a) the airways, b) the alveoli. 2. Physics of the alveoli. a) Surfactant, b) RDS (respiratory distress syndrome), c) CPAP (continues positive air pressure). 3. The breathing mechanism a) the breathing cycle, b) the intrapleural and intrapulmonic pressure, c) the lung compliance and the airway resistance, d) alveolar pressure. 4. Interaction between blood and lungs. a) behaviour of gases in liquids, b) diffusion of gases in the lung. 5. Measurement of the lung volumes. a) the volumes and the capacities of the lung, b) pressure-airflow-volume relationships of the lung. Exercises: 1. FEV (forced expiratory volume) examination of smoking and non-smoking students using peekflowmeter.

2

a) Examination of the surface tension of different types of fluids, b) Observation of the pressure inside a soap bubble.

References: 1. J.R. Cameron, J.G. Skofronick, R.M.Grant. Physics of the Body, Medical Physics Publishing 1992, Chapter 7, pp.119-149. 2. P. Davidovits. Physics in Biology and Medicine. 3. R. Glaser. Biophysics, Springer 2001.

12

13. DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC APPLICATION OF ULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE 1. Physical properties of ultrasound (the velocity, the frequency, intensity, acoustic impedance, reflection ratio, acoustic pressure). 2. Generation and detection of ultrasound (the piezoelectric effect and magnetostriction). 3. Ultrasound interactions with the tissues (reflection, diffraction, refraction, absorption, attenuation, scattering, stationary waves, total internal reflection). 4. The biological effects of ultrasound interaction with the tissues (thermal, mechanical, cavitation, biochemical). 5. Ultrasound application in medicine (therapy, diagnostic ­ USG ultrasonography, ultrasound flow measurement and imagine with Doppler). 6. Considerations for the safety of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound.

Exercise

1. Thermal and mechanical effect identification and measurement in the water treated by the ultrasound. 2. A-scan imagine in ultrasonography.

References 1. K. Kirk Shung, Michael B. Smith, Benjamin Tsui: Principles of Medical Imaging, Academic Press Inc. 1992, Chapter 2, pp. 78-159. 2. Katzir A., Lasers and Optical Fibers in Medicine, Academic Press Inc 1993, Chapter 6, pp 176-178. 3. Ackerman E.: Bipohysical Science, Chapter 11, pp 213-217, Chapter 12, pp 220-233, Prentice ­ Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 1962. 4. Frederick W. Kremkau: Diagnostic Ultrasound: Principles, Instrumentation, and Exercises, Grune and Stratton, Inc. 1984. 5. Glaser R.: Biophysics, Springer 2001, pp. 251-256. 14. THERMODYNAMICS AND THERMOREGULATION 1. Physics of the heat. 2. Regulation of total body energy balance. a) b) conservation of energy in the body, energy changes in the body,

13

c)

work and power.

3. Regulation of the human temperature. 4. Therapeutic heat. 5. Thermovision. Exercise: 1. Determination of the blood flow using the calorimetric method. 2. Body's heat imaging (apparatus AGA 750).

References: 1. J.R. Cameron, J.G. Skofronick, R.M.Grant. Physics of the Body, Medical Physics Publishing 1992, Chapter 4, pp. 73-86. 2. 3. P. Davidovits. Physics in Biology and Medicine. R. Glaser. Biophysics. Springer 1999, pp.105-129. 15. MICROSCOPY IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY 1. Geometrical and wave optics. 2. Light and the eye. 3. Transmission of light beams in optical microscope (magnification, resolution, and contrast). 4. Types of microscopes and methods of microscopic observation (the bright-field light, the dark-field light, ultramicroscopy, methods of increasing the contrast of images, staining: phase-, interference, -fluorescent-, polarising-contrast, ultraviolet and X-ray microscopes). 5. Videomicroscopy.

Exercise

1. Observation of biological microobjects in bright-field light. 2. Evaluation of magnification of chosen optical microscopes. 3. Determining of size and shape of microobjects with the help of projection microscopy.

References

1. Ackerman E.: "Biophysical Science". Microscopy, Prentice ­ Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J. 1962. 2. Kubisz L. et al.: "Biophysics", Measurement of the diameter of erytrocytes by microscope, pp. 148-156. 3. Arthur Beiser, Physics, Edison ­ Wesley, Massachusetts, 1992, Chapters 33, pp.649-668. 14

Information

BiophysicsMED

14 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

574425