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Chapter 5: Causes of the American Revolution

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Paying for Photocopies: Like Taxation without Representation Classroom Experience Principal decided to charge students 10 cents per page for photocopied materials to help relieve school financial problems. Students were not consulted about the new policy. Historical Event British government passed various laws, such as the Stamp Act, to help pay debts from the French and Indian War. Colonists had no representation in Parliament.

Students were outraged by the new policy; some refused to pay the fee.

Many colonists thought "taxation without representation" was unfair and displayed their anger by organizing boycotts and protests. Many colonists obeyed the laws because they feared being punished.

Some students paid the 10 cent fee so they could take the quiz and not lose credit.

A student volunteer collected the money.

Officials were appointed by the British to collect taxes and enforce trade laws.

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Key Terms for Chapter 5

Would it help you to make flashcards to remember these important people, places, things, & ideas?

Patriots Loyalists Neutralists Sons of Liberty Taxation without Representation

John Adams Sam Adams Paul Revere John Hancock Non-Importation

Boston Philadelphia mercantilism taxes boycott

If you can answer these questions, you know your stuff!

Why did the British government feel that taxing the American colonies was reasonable, particularly at the end of the French and Indian War? Why did Britain's increasing control over the colonies seem to the colonists like a dramatic change in policy? Why were colonial merchants particularly angered by the taxes and restrictions imposed by the British? How might the economic policy of mercantilism contribute to the frustration of the colonists? What was the cause of the "Boston Tea Party" and what was the result? Upon what historical basis did the colonists claim that they were subject to "taxation without representation?" How did Sam Adams and other leaders justify rebellion against the English monarch? Was there any precedent for rebellion against a monarch who violated "natural rights?" Was the outbreak of hostilities between the American colonists and the British authorities truly a question of "natural rights" or was it based on economic self interest? What was/were the cause(s) of the American Revolution?

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1) What was life like in colonial America prior to the French & Indian War? peaceful & quiet because the colonists were left along by the crown colonists were looked down upon as 2nd class citizens though, as if they weren't really British

2) What caused the French & Indian War?

What was the effect of the French & Indian War?

French & English were competing over territory & furs in the Ohio & Mississippi River Valleys

Established English control over the colonies Increased anger & frustration from the Native American people High amount of debt accrued by the British in defending the colonies

French sided with the Huron & English sided with the Iroquois Fought over future control over the continent of North America

3) What were the conditions of the Treaty of Paris in 1763? How did they impact life in the colonies? Britain claimed all of the continent of North America east of the Mississippi River Britain traded control of Cuba & the Philippines to Spain in exchange for Florida Americans had new territories to move to & claim for themselves, but Native Americans attacked colonists on the frontier constantly

4) What was the Proclamation of 1763? formal statement from the king that drew an imaginary line down the Appalachian Mountains; colonists were forbidden to move west of the line

What caused the Proclamation of 1763? constant attack by Native Americans on colonists on the frontier

What was the effect of the Proclamation of 1763? Did colonists follow the Proclamation? colonists ignored it (frustration over gaining land through war, but not being able to claim it or use it)

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5) What were the Sugar & Currency Acts? What impact did they have on colonists? Sugar Act taxed sugar & molasses & Currency Act eliminated paper money & forced colonists to use silver or gold, which wasn't available in the colonies Colonists call for "No Taxation Without Representation," which meant they were willing to pay taxes but only ones created by the local assemblies so they had a voice in government.

6) What was the Stamp Act? Why was it created? It taxed all legal documents & paper products & affected ALL colonists. It was created to pay off debts from the French & Indian War.

How did colonists respond to the Stamp Act? Colonists tarred & feathered stamp collectors, boycotted British goods, & the Sons of Liberty were born.

What was the effect of the Stamp Act? Eventually it was repealed, but colonists believe the crown will begin to exert power over them & begin unfair taxation policies.

7) What were the Quartering & Declaratory Acts? What impact did they have on colonists? Quartering Act required colonists to pay for the British soldiers living in the colonies (including their room & board) Declaratory Act stated that Parliament & the King had the right to create any laws they wanted to Colonists ignored both laws but tension continued to grow with each new act.

8) What were the Townshend Duties? Why were they created? They taxed everyday goods, such as paint, paper, glass, & tea. They were created to pay for the British army in the colonies.

How did colonists respond to the Townshend Duties?

What was the effect of the Townshend Duties?

Colonists protested

Eventually they were repealed, but England sent more troops

Huge boycotts by women of the colonies

to enforce their laws. Colonists felt furious.

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9) Describe the events of the Boston Massacre. Colonists out drinking all day on March 5, 1770 because of huge amounts of snow. They went to the Common House to begin to harass British troops there. Colonists throw rocks, ice, & insults at British troops. A gun goes off & 5 colonists are killed. It WAS / WAS NOT a massacre.

What was the impact/effect of the Boston Massacre? Propaganda machine goes into effect, include Paul Revere's engraving, which is published throughout the colonies. This spread anger & resentment of British soldiers throughout Boston & the colonies.

10) What was the Tea Act? King George wanted at least ONE tax to remain, so he kept a tax on tea. Ironically, the tax lowered the cost of tea below what was being paid by most colonists, who got their tea from smugglers. British tea was cheaper, but colonists knew it supported England so they continued to buy the more expensive tea.

11) Describe the events of the Boston Tea Party. In response to the Tea Act, the Sons of Liberty dressed up as Mohawk Indians & boarded several ships, dumping chests of tea into the Harbor. British soldiers/sailors responded by watching but doing nothing. Colonists felt overjoyed & news spread quickly throughout the colonies.

What was the impact/effect of the Boston Tea Party? Britain imposed the Intolerable Acts in Boston, eliminating colonists control & publishing the people of Boston. It pushes the colonies closer to violence.

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12) What were the Intolerable Acts? Why were they created? Boston Port Act: closed Boston Harbor until all destroyed tea was repaid Massachusetts Government Act: eliminated local assemblies & MA came under the direct control of a royal governor Administration of Justice Act: British soldiers could now be tried in England Quebec Act: created a new colonial government in Quebec that the model for the other colonies Quartering Act: people of Massachusetts had to pay taxes to help pay for the soldiers they didn't want there in the first place

What were the impacts/effects of the Intolerable Acts? The First Continental Congress meets Discussions of fighting back Discussions of independence "Give me liberty or give me death"-- famous speech by Patrick Henry

13) Describe the First Continental Congress. What was its purpose? They voted for the non-importation of British goods. There was little talk of independence but it created a model for future meetings. 14) What was the essence of Patrick Henry's fiery speech? What impact did it have? Patrick Henry is predicting that the only way for this to end is in violence & that we must be willing to fight for our freedom The speech sent ripples throughout the colonies.

15) Why did British troops head to Concord? What happened at Lexington & Concord? British troops were heading to Concord to take control of an arms depot held by the colonists & local militia. Three midnight riders (Samuel Prescott, William Dawes, & Paul Revere) warned the militias that the "redcoats" were coming. They also warned Sam Adams & John Hancock to flee because they would be arrested. Around 3 a.m., the British met resistance from the colonists at Lexington Green. The British easily defeat the colonists. When they reach Concord, however, the militia is better organized & able to defeat them at the Old Concord Bridge. The British retreat back to Boston, but the entire way they were fired upon by militiamen who had come from all over New England to fight. The first shots are fired in the American Revolution.

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Use your notes to complete the five rows from the chart below (from left to right). British Action Description of the Action King George drew line down the crest of the Appalachian mountains. He told colonists to stay east of the line & Indians to stay west of the line Patriot Response to the Action

Proclamation of 1763

Colonists thought this was unjust use of power (tyranny) because the only new land was west of the mountains.

Stamp Act

Tax on paper goods

Colonists argued "no taxation without representation!" They sent messages to the king. They refused to buy stamps. They attacked tax collectors' homes.

Townshend Acts

Tax on certain goods imported from Britain, such as glass, paint, paper, & tea

Colonists boycotted of all imported British goods.

Tea Act

Act lowering the cost of British tea to encourage colonists to buy it

Colonists thought this was another way for British to tax them without their consent. They decided to empty the tea into the Boston Harbor.

Intolerable Acts

Closing of Boston Harbor Removal of Massachusetts elected assemblies British soldiers put on trial in Britain, not colonies More troops sent in to enforce laws 11 16

Many colonists closed their shops & sent money to Boston. Colonists formed the First Continental Congress.

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