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The Roles of Professional Associations in Academic Programmes: The Case of the Faculty of the Built Environment, University of Malaya

PROFESOR DR. HAMZAH ABDUL RAHMAN & Sr DR. ZULKIFLEE A. SAMAD

University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

"YESTERDAY" ­ THE BEATLES

YESTERDAY, all my troubles seemed so far away Now it looks as thought they're here to stay Oh I believe in YESTERDAY ...

Believe in YESTERDAY to see What's in TODAY for TOMORROW?

Introduction Link between PB & HE Contradiction Roles of PB in academic programme Case study of the Faculty of the Built Environment, UM Discussion Conclusion

Introduction

Professional body (PB) - a group of a profession 1 Trade union organizations - enterprise bargaining, workplace agreements and working conditions 2 networks of professionals or guilds - social contact at professional level 2 This type of PB - focus of this paper

Introduction (cont'd)

PROFESSIONAL BODY (PB) scholarly organization spreads knowledge improve professional practice 1 professional links among members 3 scope of professional practice establishes norms and values recognition to achieve social, political and economic advantages 4

Introduction (cont'd)

protect members and self regulate 4 interaction with the wider social structure Education, training, professional skills and competence2

Introduction (cont'd)

interest in professional education in HE 2 In the workplace, rapid changes occur 2 initial education and learning inadequate for professional competence

Introduction (cont'd)

continuing professional education - job tasks change and evolve 2 more widely focused on professional interests

Introduction (cont'd)

university degree is min qualification for professional membership 5 PB's involvement in academic programmes5 PB as important agents ­ societal values, knowledge and lifelong learning processes 3

Introduction (cont'd)

PB more focused in HE, broad policy and profession

6

PB play vital roles - education, research and training - curriculum development - Continuing education 6

Professional bodies and higher education

Accreditation - overt mechanism influencing HE2 PB develop - core of knowledge: criteria - min requirements for assessment - suitability of universities' programmes 2 challenge to academic freedom? Yes or No??? - accreditation for promoting academic programmes 2

Professional bodies and higher education (cont'd)

PB set requirements for accreditations advisory board or panel as outlined by PBs7 active members of professions and PBs

Professional bodies and higher education (cont'd)

PBs exert indirect influence on programmes 7 PBs own national education committees - expert panels of academics and practitioners advise national education matters

Contradiction

The main debate about accreditation - some academics capable of maintaining standard of programmes - PBs interfer academic freedom 2 Should universities too accommodating to PBs' demands/views - economic rationalist motives???

Contradiction (cont'd)

The type of demands - restrict or expand student numbers - suggestions to curriculum content - pressure to lengthen or change structures 2 internationalisation of education programmes: - potential tools for PBs to demand 2

Contradiction (cont'd)

But, literature suggests PBs influence programmes and positive 3, 8, 9, 10 PBs' influence maintained relevancy but narrowed the focus or increase specialization 11 Graduates need lifelong learning skills - critical evaluation, flexibility and communication 11

Contradiction (cont'd)

cooperation with PBs is necessary for HE: - maintain relevance and coherence - academics less contact with employers However, precaution measures: - when considering PBs' inputs - Students' benefits a priority

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme

1. Conduct conferences and meetings

2

PBs conduct conferences and meetings - national or international focus A session on education - part of conference programme conference - platform for the academics and professionals

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

1.

Conduct conferences and meetings 2 (cont'd) The sharing and exchanging of ideas and views PBs' presence in academic sphere of influence

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

2. Quality of profession extends from quality

of graduates Employers concern about ability of graduates in organisation integration and speed of new graduates into organisation Undergraduate education develops students' knowledge 12 Employers' view: principles, technical ability, potential, willingness to learn and update knowledge VS stock of knowledge and problem solving skill 12

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

2.

Quality of profession extends from quality of graduates 2 (cont'd)

Employers only moderately satisfied with technical ability of graduates Indeed, graduates: not good at applying knowledge or practical work unable to improvise, lack commercial awareness and appreciation of human or cultural context PBs see the congruence between them

-

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

2. Quality of profession extends from quality of

graduates (cont'd)

Academics to be active members in PBs dominant focus of PBs is on professional education quality of graduates has direct effect on quality of the profession But further narrowing of subject may happen

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

2. Quality of profession extends from quality of

graduates 2 (cont'd)

PBs have different views/directions from Employers Accreditation- a balance among professional requirements, employer perceptions and academic realities

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (Cont'd)

EMPLOYABILITY ISSUE

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

3. Enhanced employability

cultural shift in HE towards employability Students, HE and career opportunities more diverse universities develop ways for students' employability

14

Diverse student population challenges traditional notion of employment 15

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

3. Enhance employability (cont'd)

`Employability' in HE - ability to be employed in a `graduate job Employability - closer links between education and the work. Tendency to measure employability - obtains a specific job within a given period after graduating

14

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

3. Enhance employability 14 (cont'd)

relates to employability of new (full-time) graduates employability potential (a matter of selfdevelopment) VS actual employment (a matter mediated by external factors)

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

3.

Enhance employability (cont'd) Employability ­ developing existing workforce, not just recruiting employable graduates Employers see workforce as asset - develop skills and abilities Employability linked to professional accreditation through work placements 14

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

3.

Enhance employability 14 (cont'd)

Skill-development VS knowledge and understanding??? Long history of collaboration between PB and HE in producing graduates Some PBs have input into curricula and assessment

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

3.

Enhance employability 16 (cont'd) Employers need flexible and empowered employees transformative and empowering learning in HE PB - practical transformation of theory to application HE to transform students - knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities lifelong critical, reflective learners

Roles of professional bodies in academic programme (cont'd)

3. Enhance employability (cont'd)

A degree - passport into graduate employment Employers ­ added value degree due to organizational changes and numbers of graduates degree that is accredited and recognized by PBs

CASE STUDY

The Faculty of Built Environment (FBE), University of Malaya (UM)

Background of FBE, UM Background of professional bodies (National & International) Discussion

Background of FBE, UM

FBE offers four undergraduate professional programmes

All programmes are accredited national and international levels.

FBE is quite `young' compared to other established schools in the country,

nonetheless, it has managed to attract the best achievers from high schools and matriculation centres.

high entry point requirements needed for candidates to be considered for intake.

Background of FBE, UM (Cont'd)

Students' achievements and competitiveness awards and medals Some graduates are employed - UK, Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong and Indonesia. FBE - forefront of training students - international recognition, `Globalised Malaysians'.

Professional bodies that accredit FBE's programmes

National

Board of Architect Malaysia (LAM) Institute of Surveyor Malaysia (ISM) Board of Valuers, Appraisers and Estate Agents Malaysia (LPPEH) Board of Quantity Surveyors Malaysia (BQSM)

International

Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), United Kingdom Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), United Kingdom Association of British Engineers (ABE), United Kingdom

FBE Programmes accreditation dates

QS RIBA LAM RICS ABE ISM LPPEH LJUBM 2003 1999 1999 EM 2004 1999 1999 BS 2006 2001 1999 Arch I 2005 2000 Arch II 2005 2003 -

National accreditation International accreditation

Research Methodology

DISCUSSION

Authors' observations

The extent of the professional bodies' influence on the course programmes offered in the FBE Issue of graduates' employability rate Quality of FBE's graduates perceived by the organisations

document observations

interviews with FBE's lecturers.

Professional bodies' influence on the course programmes offered in the FBE

Author's observation

students opt for programmes accredited by PBs students views degree that is recognised by PBs ­ advantage

Recognition from professional bodies has an effect on the demand of the courses

Professional bodies' influence on the course programmes offered in the FBE

Interviews with FBE's lecturers

PBs influence quality of programmes quality of programme linked to quality at intake no of students depends on no of professional person in lecturing

The intervening of the professional bodies in the academic programmes benchmarks the quality of education and training

Issue of graduates' employability rate

Document observation ­ Tracer Study (2007 & 2008)

An average of 75% employed within 3 months after graduation

Author's observation

most graduates employed by companies during industrial trainings Companies have top management involved in PBs

Issue of graduates' employability rate

Interviews with FBE's lecturers

retrace past employability through visiting students in industrial training employability rates ranged from 80% to 95% depending on the programmes Employers accepting FBE's students for Industrial Training were aware with the accreditation status

Quality of FBE's graduates perceived by the organisations

Author's observation

graduates better in managerial than technical skills

Interviews with FBE's lecturers

quality of graduates depends on individuals firms testified on hardworking graduates graduates good theoretically but no practical experiences

Conclusion

PBs had a positive impact on image and competitiveness of graduates Quality of graduates enhanced by monitoring academic programmes to produce graduates that meet industry's expectations. As potential students compete to enter accredited programmes, min entry point will be raised.

References

1. Stichler, R., & Hauptman, R. (1998). Ethics, information and technology readings. North Carolina: MacFarland & Company. 2. Dow, R. B. (n.d.). Do professional bodies have too much influence in higher education? Retrieved September 1, 2009, from Our Medical Science pages: http://www.omsp.net/Papers/Profbod1.htm 3. Markkula, M. (1995). The role of professional organisations in developing system for lifelong learning. Industry and Higher Education , 227-235. 4. Jackson, J. (1970). Professions and professionalization. London: Cambridge University Press. 5. ICAA. (1997). Submission to the review of higher education financing and policy. Canberra. 6. AVA. (1997). Submission to the review of higher education financing and policy. Canberra. 7. Buchanan, W., & Bostwick, W. (1997). Effective use of industrial advisory boards. Industry and Higher Education , 236238. 8. Browell, S. (1997). Staff development in professional education- Cooperation in a competitive environment. Industry and Higher Education , 383-387. 9. Marshall, N. (1995). Policy communities, issue networks and the formulation of Australian higher education policy. Higher Education , 30, 273-293. 10. Otala, L. (1994). Implementing lifelong learning through industry- University partnership. Industry and Higher Education , 201-207. 11. Aulich, T. (1990). Priorities to reform in higher education, Report of the Senate Standing Committee on Employment, Education and Training. Canberra: AGPS. 12. Harvey, L. and Mason, S. (1996). `A quality graduate' in Tait, J. and Knight, P., (Eds.), 1996, The Management of Independent Learning, London, Kogan Page/SEDA. ISBN 0749419490 13. Watts, D. (1994) Letting industry hold the reins. BIS: an industry-driven model of cooperative education. Industry and Higher Education, June, 107-114. 14. Harvey, L., Locke, W., and Morey, A. (2002). Enhancing employability, recognising diversity: Making links between higher education and the world of work. Universities UK, Manchester. 15. Yorke, M., and Knight, P. T. (2004). Employability: Judging and communicating achievement. Learning and Employability Series 1 (2). Learning and Teaching Support Network. 16. Harvey, L. (2000). New realities: The relationship between higher education and employment. Tertiary Education and Management, vol. 6, pp. 3-17.

Michael Jordan's Quotes about Professionalism

I have missed more than 9,000 shots in my career. I have lost almost 300 games. On 26 occasions, I have been entrusted to take the game winning shot ..... and I missed. I have failed over and over again in my life. And that's precisely why I succeed Michael Jordan (1993-, American Basketball Player, Actor)

Board of Architect (LAM)

LAM is a statutory authority responsible for the enforcement of the Architects Act 1967. Function

to regulate the Professional Architects, Architects and Building Draughtsmen practising in Malaysia.

Accreditation of educational programmes ensure that the graduates of the programmes attained adequate standard skills required for competent architectural practice.

http://www.lam.gov.my/

Institute of Surveyor Malaysia (ISM)

ISM is the professional institution representing the surveying profession in Malaysia and consists of four main divisions, namely: PCVS, GLS, QS and BS ISM mission is to set and continuously improve the standard of professional practice and ethics. ISM promotes the welfare and professional development of members, provide quality, valueadded and comprehensive services to members.

http://www.ism.org.my/

Board of Valuers, Appraisers & Estate Management (LPPEH)

LPPEH was set up in 1981 under the purview of the Ministry of Finance, Malaysia. The setup and operation of this Board is governed by the provision of Valuers, Appraisers and Estate Agents Act 1981. Function

to regulate the Valuers, Appraisers and Estate Agents practising in Malaysia..

In the exercise of the professional practice, the registered valuer/appraiser/estate agent is bound by various guidelines and practice directions issued by the Board.

http://www.lppeh.gov.my/

Board of Quantity Surveyors Malaysia (BQSM)

BQSM is a statutory body, established by Quantity Surveyors Act 1967,

responsible for the registration of Quantity Surveyors and firms and bodies corporate practising as consulting Quantity Surveyors and the regulation of the quantity surveying profession in Malaysia

Aim

safeguarding the interests of the public and the rights of registered Quantity Surveyors and Quantity Surveying practices.

Only suitably qualified persons are registered with the Board and are permitted to offer quantity surveying services. Quality service to be provided to the public by quantity surveyors in Malaysia can be met and as a result, the interests of both the public and the profession can be adequately protected.

http://www.bqsm.gov.my/

Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), UK

RIBA is the UK body for architecture and the architectural profession. RIBA validation is an internationally recognised benchmark for excellence in architecture.

Schools of architecture all over the world invite the RIBA to consider their programmes for validation because the process offers a high quality, robust and objective peer review service, the result of over 100 years at the forefront of validating architectural education.

RIBA aims

to offer a rigorous and systematic inspection of architectural courses to ensure parity on an international scale, whilst respecting the local systems within which schools operate. This is a key factor in the Institute's mission to advance architecture and promote excellence in the profession.

The RIBA has had a long-standing involvement in promoting high quality and innovative architectural education throughout the world. RIBA identifies courses and examinations which achieve the standards necessary to prepare students for the professional practice of architecture.

http://www.architecture.com/

Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS), UK

RICS provides the world's leading professional qualification in land, property, construction and the associated environmental issues. RICS set the highest standards of academic achievement, practical training and lifelong learning, accredit over 600 courses at leading universities worldwide and set and promote international best practice in professionalism. RICS' qualifications are highly prestigious and internationally recognised across the world, opening doors to networking and career opportunities globally

http://www.rics.org/

Association of British Engineers (ABE), UK

ABE is the professional body for those specialising in the technology of building. ABE provides the prime qualification Building Engineer, a title that exactly reflects the professional expertise of members and one that is readily understood in the European Union and beyond. It has a wide-ranging membership, drawn from both within the United Kingdom and overseas, and enjoys freedom from constitutional restraints.

This give it a unique independence and breadth of influence, with consequent national and international recognition of its qualifications both in the public and private sectors and in the construction industry at large where it is represented on educational, codes and standards, legislative, technical and other advisory bodies

http://www.abeuk.com/

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