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Qatar University College of Arts & Sciences

Dept. of Humanities Geog/Urban Plan. Prog.

1- Course Basic Facts Course Title: Introduction to Remote Sensing-Theory Course number: GEOG 243 Credit Hours: 3 CHs. Course Meeting Time and Venue: Sun & Tue 9:00-10:00 Room 249 Instructor's Name: Dr. Nadeem Hashem Contacts of Course Instructor: · Office: 135 (women's building) · Office Tel: (485) 2358 · E-mail Address: [email protected] · Office Hours: Sun & Tue: 13:00-14:00 (office 135 women build.) · Mon 10:00-11:00 (dept common room, men build.) Textbook: Lillesand, Thomas M. Kiefer, Ralph W. 2004. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. Wiley, New York.

2- Course Description Remote sensing is a recent discipline which has civil and military applications. It enabled scientists to collect vast amount of data about Earth an ocean surface, the atmosphere, the biological diversity, and the state of vegetation cover. The digital revolution further expanded the use of remote sensing through the use of the techniques of digital image analysis, storage, and sharing. The course introduces the concept of remote sensing, its history, and the principles of remote sensing (its components, electromagnetic energy, the interaction of energy with the atmosphere). The course describes the mediums of remote sensing which include photographic and nonphotographic medium. The principles of aerial photography are explained. The students will learn about various operational remote sensing satellites which include multi-spectral scanners (MSS), thermal scanners, and microwaves sensors. The course will also highlight different applications of sensors ranging from environment and urban planning, to weather, and to natural resources. The course will cover basic digital image processing techniques of image enhancement, transformation and classification. 3- General Instructional Objectives The Introduction to Remote Sensing course will help students to:

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Understand the significance of remote sensing as an effective data collection system about the Earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere. Understand the concept of electromagnetic radiation, its interaction with the atmosphere and ground objects. Become familiar with various types of Earth-orbiting satellites, also with their similarities, differences and applications. Be able to interpret aerial photography and analyse remotelysensed imagery (visible, Infrared, thermal, and microwave), according to the field of application.

4- Student Learning Outcomes Upon completion of this course, students should be able to: 1. Explain the elements of remote sensing (energy source, interaction with atmosphere, interaction with ground target, reflected-energy recording, data transferring and depositing, and data analysis and interpretation). 2. Understand the characteristics of electromagnetic spectrum and its interaction with the atmosphere and ground objects 3. Differentiate between the two remoter sensing methods: passive and active sensing. 4. Understand the characteristics of satellites in terms of their orbit height, orbit direction, and their motion relative to Earth. 5. Understand sensor's resolutions: spatial, spectral, radiometric and temporal resolutions. 6. Interpret aerial photography using the visual interpretation techniques. 7. Perform techniques digital image analysis such as image enhancement, image transformation, and image classification.

5- Content distribution Week 1 · · · · Content Overview of the course syllabus Definitions of remote sensing The history of aerial photography and remote sensing The elements of remote sensing: energy source, electromagnetic spectrum interaction with atmosphere, interaction with ground objects, data transmission and storage, data analysis, and data applications. The concept of electromagnetic radiation and its relations to the magnetic and electric fields. The wave theory. The concept of bands in the electromagnetic spectrum The characteristics of visible, infrared, thermal and microwave regions. Atmospheric scattering and absorption of radiation The principles of atmospheric windows in remote sensing Methods of interaction of the electromagnetic radiation

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with different ground objects: the phenomena of absorption, reflectance and transmission. Examples of radiation interaction with green leaves and water surfaces. The principles of active and passive sensing The characteristics of aerial photographs and remote sensing imagery Analogue Vs digital forms The principle of colour and its relationship with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum Satellite Characteristics: the orbit altitude and inclination, geostationary satellites, and sun-synchronous orbits. Swath, orbit cycle and revisit period Spatial resolution of sensors The relationship between spatial resolution and the Instantaneous Field of View Spectral resolution of sensors The relationship between spectral resolutions and the wavelength range. Spectral responses of ground objects Radiometric resolution of sensors Temporal resolution of sensors Multi-spectral scanning: two methods o Along-track scanning: method and operation o Across-track scanning: method and operation Thermal imaging and its relation to reflected and emitted energy Instantaneous Field of View and spatial resolution of thermal scanners Weather Satellites & Sensors: Their characteristics: very coarse spatial resolution, coverage of very large areas, very high temporal resolution Most important weather satellites & sensors o GOES satellite: characteristics, sensors on board (Imager & Sounder), applications. o NOAA satellite and its AVHRR sensor: characteristics and applications. Land Observation Satellites and Sensors and their characteristics Description of most-widely used sensors and their applications Landsat satellite: its history, advantages, reasons for extreme success, types of its sensors, spectral bands of these sensors An array of applications for this satellite based on specific spectral bands The French satellite SPOT: its history, advantages, types of its sensors, spectral bands of these sensors, differences from Landsat. Twin imaging of SPOT

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Panchromatic imaging and three bands spectral imaging of SPOT Principles of image interpretation and analysis in remote sensing The elements of visual interpretation: tone, shape, size, pattern, texture, shadow, and association. Practical example on a dataset about Qatar: students will learn how to visually interpret the image. Introducing of digital image processing Image preparation: radiometric and geometric corrections Image enhancement: why it is performed, its relation to the range, pattern and distribution of brightness values. Statistical methods of image enhancement Spatial filtering: o Low-pass filtering o High-pass filtering Image transformation: most widely used methods (e.g. NDVI) Image classification: supervised method o Training sites and signature development Image classification: unsupervised methods.

6. Delivery Methods The delivery of this course depends, to a larger extent, on the use of technology in the classroom and on the effective contribution of students to the content and discussion within the class. Special emphasis will be placed on students working together in small groups (or in pairs) which will help them to exchange ideas and experience and to build their tolerance to the different opinions of the others. The delivery methods can be summarised in the following: · The use of PowerPoint presentation and multimedia in the classroom. · The use of computers in the practical sessions using real-world remote sensing data from the surrounding environment, and presenting the findings in the forms of reports, graphics, and maps. · Discussion between students (in pairs or in small groups) to some scenarios and proposing multiple solutions/interpretations. · There will be practical sessions running parallel to these theory sessions. This will ensure that students will gain skills and hands-on experience and it will aid students to apply what they learn in the theory lectures. 7. Assessment Policy and Tools The assessment policy of this course is related to the course learning outcomes. A variety of assessment tools will be used to measure how well these learning outcomes are attained by students. Thus, the course won't focus only on traditional theoretical methods, rather, the course will place a special emphasis on technology skills (related to the use of computer applications and professional software) and field training skills.

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Assessment Behavioral observation and classroom contribution Quizzes: students will take two quizzes Research paper Mid-term Final Exam Practical sessions with Dr Balakrishnan SUM

Mark 5 10 10 15 20 40 100

8. Learning Activities and tasks · Students must read analytically and understand critically all the course material which will be distributed electronically over the Blackboard (a printed copy can be provided to students who have problem accessing Blackboard). Students are also expected to search for extra material from various electronic sources and incorporate such material in their class and group activities. Students will be trained on effective note taking which will help them to maximise benefit from their classes. Special emphasis will be placed on building team spirit so that students can work effectively in small-size groups where students are encouraged to discover their strength and contribution in their respective group.

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9. Regulations · · Class attendance at a regular basis is a must according to the rules and regulations of Qatar University. Student will receive first warning when his/her class absence exceeds 10% of the number of total classes in the semester. A second warning will be given to a student when absence exceeds 15%. Student will Be barred from the final exam should his/her absence exceeds 25% and an "F" grade will be awarded. Students, and professor alike, must be punctual and professor reserves the right not to admit any late student into the class. Students are not allowed to re-sit the mid-term exam, should they miss this exam. In certain circumstances (illness, accidents, ...), professor may allow a student to re-sit the mid-term exam if such a student provides a convincing evidence (certified documents). In all cases, when a student misses a quiz, then this quiz CANNOT be retaken. All cases of plagiarism will be dealt with according to the rules and regulations of Qatar University. Thus, students must always mention the source of their information and reference all their citations.

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10. References and Additional Resources

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Books: English books · · · · · Lillesand, Thomas M., Kiefer, Ralph W. Remote sensing and image interpretation. John Wiley & Sons, c2004. Rees, W. G. Physical principles of remote sensing. Cambridge University Press. 1990. Schultz, Gert A., Engman, E. T. Remote sensing in hydrology and water management. Springer, c2000. Drury, S. A. Images of the earth : a guide to remote sensing. Oxford University Press, 1998. Barrett, E. C. (Eric Charles), Curtis, L. F. (Leonard Frank). Introduction to environmental remote sensing. Stanley Thornes Publishers, 1999.

Arabic books

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Internet resources · · · · · · · · · http://www.gisqatar.org.qa/ http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/teachersite/RSresources.htm http://bubl.ac.uk/link/r/remotesensing.htm http://www.ccrs.nrcan.gc.ca/ http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/ http://noaasis.noaa.gov/NOAASIS/ml/education.html http://www.geoeye.com/CorpSite/ http://www.spaceimagingme.com/ http://www.spotimage.com

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Evaluation criteria for the research project

CATEGORY

Exemplary 3 points

Proficient 2 points Wrote well-worded, specific questions that were relevant to the assigned topic.

Partially Proficient 1 point Wrote questions which lacked focus, were poorly stated, and were not entirely relevant to the assigned topic. Identified a few appropriate sources but made little attempt to balance format types. Presented content which failed to maintain a consistent focus, showed minimal organization and effort, and lacked an adequate amount of supporting evidence. Needed to select a more effective format to structure and communicate research findings. Cited most sources of information improperly and provided little or no supporting documentation to check accuracy. Failed to use information ethically some of the time.

Incomplete 0 points Wrote questions which lacked a specific focus, were poorly stated, and not relevant to the assigned topic. Identified no appropriate sources in any format.

Research Questions

Wrote thoughtful, creative, wellworded specific questions that were relevant to the assigned topic. Identified highly appropriate sources in a variety of formats (books, journals, electronic sources). Presented content clearly and concisely with a logical progression of ideas and effective supporting evidence. Selected an appropriate and effective format to creatively communicate research findings.

Selection of Sources

Identified mostly appropriate sources in a variety of formats (books, journals, electronic sources). Presented most of the content with a logical progression of ideas and supporting evidence. Selected an appropriate format to structure and communicate research findings.

Organization and Synthesis

Presented content which was unfocused, poorly organized, showed little thought or effort and lacked supporting evidence. Failed to select an appropriate format to communicate research findings.

Citations/ Cited all sources of information Documentation accurately to demonstrate the credibility and authority of the information presented. Used information ethically all of the time.

Cited most sources of information in proper format and documented sources to enable accuracy checking. Used information ethically most of the time.

Created citations which were incomplete or inaccurate, and provided no way to check the validity of the information gathered. Failed to use information ethically.

Adapted from "Discovery Education" http://school.discoveryeducation.com/schrockguide/assess.html

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