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Tænh giaùc veà caùi cheát

His Holiness Dalai Lama giaûng

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...Baïn caàn phaûi chaáp nhaän raèng söï cheát laø ñieàu taát yeáu trong cuoäc ñôøi naøy. Ñöùc Phaät ñaõ khaúng ñònh raèng"moät nôi khoâng coù söï cheát laø nôi khoâng coù thaät, khoâng coù treân hö khoâng, khoâng coù trong bieån caû, cuõng khoâng coù caû trong nuùi röøng". Neáu chaáp nhaän raèng söï cheát laø moät phaàn cuûa ñôøi soáng thì khi caùi cheát ñeán gaàn, baïn seõ coù theå ñoái dieän noù deã daøng hôn...

You need to accept that death comes in the normal course of life. As Buddha said: A place to stay untouched by death - Does not exist. It does not exist in space, it does not exist in the ocean. Nor if you stay in the middle of a mountain. If you accept that death is part of life, then when it actually does come, you may face it more easily. - His Holiness Dalai Lama ­

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Just as when weaving One reaches the end With fine threads woven throughout, So is the life of humans. -BUDDHA It is crucial to be mindful of death, to contemplate that you will not remain long in this life. If you are not aware of death, you will fail to take advantage of this special human life that you have already attained. It is meaningful since, based on it, important effects can be accomplished. Analysis of death is not for the sake of becoming fearful but to appreciate this precious lifetime during which you can

Ngay trong khi ñang deät vaûi Ngöôøi ta ñi ñeán choã keát thuùc Vôùi nhöõng sôïi chæ maûnh ñaõ ñöôïc deät xong Cuoäc ñôøi cuûa con ngöôøi cuõng nhö vaäy. -Lôøi Phaät Thích Ca. Moïi ngöôøi caàn phaûi tænh giaùc veà caùi cheát, ñoù laø vieäc suy ngaãm raèng mình seõ khoâng soáng laâu treân coõi ñôøi naøy. Neáu khoâng coù yù thöùc veà söï cheát, ngöôøi ta seõ khoâng bieát lôïi duïng kieáp ngöôøi ñaëc bieät naøy maø mình ñang coù ñöôïc. "Nhaát thaát nhôn thaân, vaïn kieáp baát phuïc", coù nghóa laø moät khi thaân naøy maát roài thì vaïn kieáp khoù maø coù laïi ñöôïc. Neân kieáp laøm ngöôøi naøy laø coù yù nghóa vì do soáng trong ñôøi naøy con ngöôøi coù theå thaønh töïu ñöôïc keát quaû quan troïng

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perform many important practices. Rather than being frightened, you need to reflect that when death comes, you will lose this good opportunity for practice. In this way contemplation of death will bring more energy to your practice. You need to accept that death comes in the normal course of life. As Buddha said: A place to stay untouched by death Does not exist. It does not exist in space, it does not exist in the ocean. Nor if you stay in the middle of a mountain. If you accept that death is part of life, then when it actually does come, you may face it more easily. When people know deep inside that death will come but deliberately avoid thinking about it, that does not fit the situation and is counterproductive. The same is true when old age is not accepted as part of life but taken to be unwanted and deliberately avoided in thought. This leads to being mentally unprepared; then when old age inevitably occurs, it is very difficult. Many people are physically old but pretend they are young. Sometimes when I meet with longtime friends, such as certain senators in countries like the United States, I greet them with, "My old friend," meaning that we have known one another for a long period, not necessarily physically old. But when I say this, some of them emphatically correct me. "We are not old! We are longtime friends." Actually, they are old- with hairy ears, a sign of old age, but they are uncomfortable with being old. That is foolish.

maø mình mong muoán. Phaân tích söï cheát khoâng coù nghóa laø ñeå mình sôï cheát, maø laø ñeå bieát giaù trò cuûa ñôøi ngöôøi quyù baùu naøy, trong khi soáng ngöôøi ta coù theå thöïc haønh nhieàu phaùp moân quan troïng. Thay vì sôï cheát, baïn caàn phaûi suy ngaãm raèng khi caùi cheát ñeán gaàn, mình seõ maát cô hoäi toát ñeå tu taäp. Nhö vaäy suy ngaãm veà söï cheát seõ mang laïi theâm naêng löïc cho vieäc tu taäp cuûa baïn. Baïn caàn phaûi chaáp nhaän raèng söï cheát laø ñieàu taát yeáu trong cuoäc ñôøi naøy. Ñöùc Phaät ñaõ khaúng ñònh raèng "moät nôi khoâng coù söï cheát, laø nôi khoâng coù thaät, khoâng coù treân hö khoâng, khoâng coù trong bieån caû, cuõng khoâng coù caû trong nuùi röøng". Neáu chaáp nhaän raèng söï cheát laø moät phaàn cuûa ñôøi soáng thì khi caùi cheát ñeán gaàn, baïn seõ coù theå ñoái dieän noù deã daøng hôn. Khi moïi ngöôøi bieát moät caùch saâu xa ngay trong taâm mình raèng söï cheát seõ ñeán nhöng traùnh suy nghó ñeán noù, roõ raøng laø khoâng hieåu bieát vaø khoâng coù lôïi ích. Ñieàu naøy cuõng ñuùng khi moïi ngöôøi chaáp nhaän raèng tuoåi giaø laø moät phaàn cuûa cuoäc ñôøi, khoâng muoán coù tuoåi giaø vaø traùnh nghó veà noù. Thaùi ñoä nhö vaäy ñöa ñeán söï khoâng chuaån bò veà taâm trí vaø khi tuoåi giaø ñeán, moïi thöù seõ raát khoù khaên. Nhieàu ngöôøi ñaõ giaø roài nhöng vaãn laøm nhö laø mình coøn treû laém. Nhieàu laàn khi gaëp laïi nhöõng ngöôøi baïn laâu naêm, thí duï nhö moät soá nghò só ôû nhöõng nöôùc nhö Hoa Kyø, toâi noùi "chaøo oâng baïn giaø". YÙ cuûa toâi laø chuùng ta ñaõ bieát nhau töø laâu chöù toâi khoâng noùi tôùi chuyeän `giaø nua'. Nhöng khi toâi chaøo nhö vaäy, moät soá ngöôøi ñaõ chænh laïi

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I usually think of the maximum duration of a human life as one hundred years, which, compared to the life of the planet, is very short. This brief existence should be used in such a way that it does not create pain for others. It should be committed not to destructive work but to more constructive activities, at least not to harm others, or create trouble for them. In this way our brief span as a tourist on this planet will be meaningful. If a tourist visits a certain place for a short period and creates more trouble, that is silly. But if, as a tourist, you make others happy during this short period, that is wise When you yourself move on to your next place, you feel happy. If you create problems, even though you yourself do not encounter any difficulty during your stay, you will wonder what the use of your visit was. Of life's one hundred years, the early portion is spent as a child and the final portion is spent in old age, often just like an animal feeding and sleeping. In between, there might be sixty or seventy years to be used meaningfully. As Buddha said: Half of the life is taken up with sleep. Ten years are spent in childhood. Twenty years are lost in old age. Out of the remaining twenty years, sorrow, complaining, pain, and agitation eliminate much time, and hundreds of physical illnesses destroy much more. To make life meaningful, acceptance of old age and death as parts of our life is crucial. Feeling that death is almost impossible just creates more greediness and more trouble, sometimes even deliberate harm to others. When we take a good look at how supposedly great personages, emperors, monarchs, and so forth, built huge dwelling places toâi moät caùch maïnh meõ: "chuùng ta khoâng coù giaø, chuùng ta laø baïn laâu naêm". Thöïc söï hoï ñaõ giaø, vôùi nhöõng sôïi loâng ñang moïc ra ôû hai loã tai, moät daáu hieäu cuûa tuoåi giaø, nhöng hoï khoù chòu vôùi tuoåi giaø. Nhö vaäy laø thieáu suy nghó veà söï ñôøi. Toâi thöôøng nghó veà cuoäc ñôøi toái ña laø moät traêm naêm cuûa moät ñôøi ngöôøi, maø so vôùi tuoåi thoï cuûa traùi ñaát naøy thì ñôøi soáng cuûa con ngöôøi coù laø bao. Trong moät ñôøi ngaén nguûi naøy, con ngöôøi neân coá gaéng soáng caån thaän khoâng gaây ra khoå ñau cho mình vaø ngöôøi khaùc. Ñôøi soáng naøy raát quyù baùu khoâng neân taïo ra söï huûy dieät maø neân ñöôïc daønh cho nhöõng hoaït ñoäng coù tính caùch xaây döïng, hay ít nhaát cuõng khoâng laøm toån haïi ñeán ngöôøi khaùc hoaëc gaây khoå ñau raéc roái cho hoï. Nhö vaäy nhöõng thaùng naêm ngaén nguûi cuûa chuùng ta nhö moät du khaùch treân haønh tinh naøy seõ coù yù nghóa. Neáu moät du khaùch ñeán thaêm moät nôi naøo ñoù trong moät thôøi gian ngaén maø gaây ra nhieàu raéc roái, nhö vaäy laø sai laàm. Nhöng neáu nhö moät du khaùch, baïn laøm cho ngöôøi khaùc haïnh phuùc trong khoaûng thôøi gian haïn heïp naøy, nhö vaäy laø khoân ngoan, vaø baïn rôøi khoûi nôi naøy ñeå ñeán nôi khaùc baïn seõ caûm thaáy haïnh phuùc. Neáu baïn quaäy phaù, duø chính baïn khoâng gaëp khoù khaên naøo trong thôøi gian ôû nôi naøy, nhöng baïn seõ töï hoûi chính mình trong thôøi gian ôû nôi ñaây mình ñaõ laøm ñöôïc caùi gì. Cuoäc ñôøi moät traêm naêm, phaàn ñaàu laø treû thô, phaàn cuoái laø tuoåi giaø, thöôøng gioáng nhö moät con vaät, chæ coù aên vaø laên ra nguû. Khoaûng giöõa keùo daøi vaøi chuïc naêm coù theå soáng moät caùch coù yù nghóa. Ñöùc Phaät noùi: "Nöûa cuoäc ñôøi ngöôøi ta nguû. Möôøi naêm soáng trong tuoåi thô. Hai möôi naêm soáng trong tuoåi giaø. Trong möôi naêm coøn laïi, ñau buoàn, than thôû vaø lo nghó, chieám nhieàu

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and walls, we see that deep inside their minds was an idea that they would stay in this life forever. This self-deception results in more pain and more trouble for many people. Even for those who do not believe in future lifetimes, contemplation of reality is productive, helpful, scientific. Because persons, minds, and all other caused phenomena change moment by moment, this opens up the possibility for positive development. If situations did not change, they would forever retain the nature of suffering. Once you know things are always changing, even if you are passing through a very difficult period, you can find comfort in knowing that the situation will not remain that way forever. So, there is no need for frustration. Good fortune also is not permanent; consequently, there is no use for too much attachment when things are going well. An outlook of performance ruins us: Even is you accept that there are future lives, the present becomes your preoccupation,

thôøi gian, vaø haøng traêm thöù beänh taät laáy ñi nhieàu thôøi gian hôn nöõa". Ñeå laøm cho cuoäc ñôøi coù yù nghóa, haõy vui veû chaáp nhaän tuoåi giaø vaø caùi cheát nhö moät phaàn cuûa cuoäc ñôøi mình. Moïi ngöôøi gaëp khoù khaên nghó ñeán caùi cheát nhöng laïi deã daøng trong tham lam, gaây theâm raéc roái, vaø coù yù laøm toån haïi ngöôøi khaùc. Chuùng ta thaáy nhöõng con ngöôøi ñöôïc xem laø nhöõng nhaân vaät lôùn, nhö caùc baäc vua chuùa, xaây nhöõng laâu ñaøi vaø nhöõng toøa nhaø cao oác, chuùng ta thaáy roõ raøng trong taâm trí cuûa hoï cho raèng hoï seõ soáng maõi trong cuoäc ñôøi naøy. Haäu quaû cuûa söï töï löøa doái naøy laø coù theâm ñau khoå vaø theâm raéc roái cho nhieàu ngöôøi khaùc. Ñoái vôùi nhöõng ngöôøi khoâng tin coù ñôøi soáng töông lai, vieäc suy ngaãm veà thöïc taïi cuõng coù ích lôïi vaø coù tính khoa hoïc. Vì con ngöôøi, taâm trí cuõng nhö taát caû nhöõng hieän töôïng ñeàu coù nhaân duyeân khaùc cuøng thay ñoåi trong töøng phuùt giaây, ñieàu suy

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and the future takes on little import. This ruins a good opportunity when your life is endowed with the leisure and facilities to engage in productive practices. An outlook of impermanence helps. Being aware of impermanence calls for discipline, `taming the mind', but this does not mean punishment, or control from the outside. Discipline does not mean prohibition; rather, it means that when there is a contradiction between long-term and short-term interests, you sacrifice the short-term for the sake of long-term benefit. This is self-discipline, which stems from ascertaining the cause and effect of karma. For example, for the sake of my stomach's returning to normal after my recent illness, I am avoiding sour foods and cold drinks that otherwise appear to be tasty and attractive. This type of discipline means protection. In a similar way, reflection on death calls for self-discipline and self-protection, not punishment. Human beings have all the potential to create good things, but its full utilization requires freedom, liberty. Totalitarianism stifles this growth. In a complementary

ngaãm naøy daãn ñeán khaû naêng phaùt trieån baûn thaân theo höôùng toát. Neáu ñôøi soáng naøy khoâng bao giôø ñoåi thay thì chuùng ta seõ maõi maõi chòu söï khoå ñau. Khi ta bieát raèng vaïn vaät luoân bieán ñoåi thì duø ta ñang traûi qua moät giai ñoaïn raát khoù khaên, ta vaãn coù theå tìm thaáy nieàm an uûi trong söï hieåu bieát raèng tình traïng ñoù seõ khoâng nhö vaäy maõi maõi. Vì vaäy khoâng coù vieäc gì phaûi tuyeät voïng. Vaän maïng toát cuõng khoâng tröôøng cöûu, vaø nhö vaäy khi söï vieäc toát ñeïp ñeán vôùi mình, mình khoâng neân tham muoán quaù nhieàu. YÙ töôûng cho raèng moïi thöù seõ khoâng bao giôø thay ñoåi laø moät sai laàm tai haïi.Thí duï, duø ta chaáp nhaän laø coù nhöõng kieáp sau, ta chæ nghó ñeán hieän taïi vaø xem töông lai ít quan troïng hôn. Nhö vaäy ta seõ boû lôõ moät cô hoäi toát khi cuoäc soáng cuûa ta ñang coù thôøi giôø raûnh roãi vaø nhöõng ñieàu kieän thuaän lôïi ñeå tu taäp nhöõng phaùp moân lôïi ích. Söï hieåu bieát roõ raøng veà giaùo lyù voâ thöôøng luoân laø ñieàu toát cho chuùng ta. Do nhaän thöùc ñöôïc ñôøi soáng laø voâ thöôøng, con ngöôøi coù yù thöùc veà kyû luaät vaø coù söï nhieáp phuïc taâm trí cuûa mình. Kyû luaät hay

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way, individualism means that you do not expect something from the outside or that you are waiting for orders; rather, you yourself create the initiative. Therefore, Buddha frequently called for "individual liberation," meaning self-liberation, not through an organization. Each individual must create her or his own positive future. Freedom and individualism require selfdiscipline. If these are exploited for the sake for afflictive emotions, there are negative consequences. Freedom and self-discipline must work together. BROADENING YOUR PERSPECTIVE From a Buddhist perspective, the highest of all aims is to achieve Buddhahood in order to be capable of helping a vast number of sentient beings; however, a medium level of achievement can liberate you from the painful round of birth, aging, sickness and death; a lower, but still valuable level of achievement is the improvement of your future lives. From the gradual improvement of your lives liberation can be attained. First, your perspective extends to include future lives; then by thoroughly understanding your own plight, your perspective deepens to include all of the rounds of suffering from one life to another, called cyclic existence or samsara. Finally this understanding can be extended to others, through the compassionate wish that all sentient beings be freed from suffering and the causes of suffering. This compassion drives you to aspire to Buddhahood. You have to be concerned with deeper aspects of life that affect future lives before understanding the full

tu luyeän khoâng coù nghóa laø caám kî, maø coù nghóa laø coù söï giaèng co giöõa lôïi ích daøi haïn vaø lôïi ích ngaén haïn, baïn hy sinh ích lôïi ngaén haïn vaø choïn lôïi ích daøi laâu veà sau. Ñaây laø söï töï kyû luaät phaùt xuaát töø söï coù yù thöùc veà luaät nhaân quaû nghieäp baùo. Thí duï ñeå cho bao töû cuûa toâi hoài phuïc sau côn baïo beänh môùi ñaây, toâi traùnh duøng nhöõng thöùc aên coù chaát chua vaø ñoà uoáng laïnh duø nhöõng moùn naøy coù veû ngon mieäng vaø haáp daãn. Loaïi kyû luaät naøy coù muïc ñích phoøng veä. Cuõng nhö gioáng nhö vaäy, vieäc suy ngaãm veà söï cheát ñöa ñeán söï töï kyû luaät hay töï kieàm cheá, töï phoøng veä, chöù khoâng phaûi laø söï tröøng phaït. Loaøi ngöôøi coù ñuû tieàm naêng ñeå taïo ra nhöõng ñieàu toát, nhöng ñeå coù theå söû duïng troïn veïn tieàm naêng naøy, caàn phaûi coù söï töï do. Chuû nghóa ñoäc taøi laø chöôùng ngaïi cho söï phaùt trieån naøy. Ñeå boå tuùc, töï do caù nhaân coù nghóa laø baïn khoâng troâng caäy vaøo moät caùi gì töø beân ngoaøi vaø khoâng ñôïi chôø hieäu leänh cuûa ngöôøi khaùc, maø baïn töï coù saùng kieán. Vì vaäy Ñöùc Phaät thöôøng noùi ñeán "giaûi thoaùt caù nhaân", coù nghóa laø töï giaûi thoaùt, khoâng qua moät toå chöùc naøo. Moãi caù nhaân phaûi taïo döïng töông lai toát ñeïp cho chính mình. Töï do vaø chuû nghóa caù nhaân ñoøi hoûi phaûi coù söï töï kyû luaät. Neáu nhöõng ñieàu naøy bò lôïi duïng cho nhöõng caûm xuùc phieàn naõo thì seõ coù nhöõng haäu quaû tai haïi. Töï do vaø söï töï kyû luaät phaûi ñi ñoâi vôùi nhau.

Môû roäng taàm maét

Theo Phaät Giaùo thì muïc tieâu cao nhaát cuûa moïi haønh giaû laø ñaéc thaønh Phaät quaû ñeå coù naêng löïc cöùu ñoä chuùng sanh. Tuy nhieân, moät möùc thaønh töïu trung bình coù theå giaûi thoaùt haønh giaû khoûi chu trình sinh, laõo, beänh vaø töû, ñaày ñau khoå, moät möùc thaønh

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nature of suffering and cyclic existence. This understanding of suffering, in turn, is required for the full development of compassion. Similarly, we Tibetans are seeking to achieve a measure of self-rule in Tibet in order to be of service to the beings in our homeland, but we are also striving to establish ourselves in a refugee situation in India. The accomplishment of the former, greater purpose depends upon our accomplishing the latter, temporary aim. DISADVANTAGES OF NOT BEING MINDFUL OF DEATH töïu thaáp hôn nhöng vaãn coù giaù trò ôû choã laøm cho caùc kieáp soáng töông lai cuûa haønh giaû thuaän lôïi hôn. Töø vieäc laøm thay ñoåi caùc kieáp soáng cuûa mình cho toát hôn, haønh giaû coù theå ñaït ñöôïc giaûi thoaùt ñeå roài cuoái cuøng seõ chöùng thaønh Phaät quaû. Tröôùc heát taàm maét cuûa baïn môû roäng bao goàm caùc kieáp töông lai, vaø roài, do hieåu bieát vaän maïng cuûa mình, taàm maét cuûa baïn môû roäng theâm, ñeå bao goàm theâm caùc kieáp luaân hoài. Sau cuøng söï hieåu bieát naøy coù theå môû roäng ñeán nhöõng ngöôøi khaùc, qua yù nguyeän töø bi mong cho chuùng sanh thoaùt khoå vaø loaïi tröø nguyeân nhaân ñöa ñeán khoå ñau. Loøng töø bi naøy laø neàn taûng thuùc ñaåy baïn phaùt nguyeän tu taäp ñeå thaønh Phaät.

It is beneficial to be aware that you will die. Why? If you are not aware Baïn phaûi coù söï quan taâm ñeán nhöõng of death, you will not be mindful of phöông dieän saâu hôn cuûa ñôøi soáng ñeå coù aûnh höôûng ñeán caùc kieáp töông lai, haàu coù theå hieåu troïn veïn tính chaát cuûa khoå ñau vaø kieáp luaân hoài. Tieáp theo söï hieåu bieát veà luaân hoài ñau khoå naøy laø ñieàu kieän caàn phaûi coù ñeå phaùt trieån troïn veïn loøng töø bi. Cuõng coù thöù töï gioáng nhö vaäy, ngöôøi Taây Taïng chuùng toâi ñang tìm caùch ñaït ñöôïc moät möùc ñoä töï trò ôû Taây Taïng ñeå coù theå phuïc vuï cho ngöôøi daân toát hôn, nhöng chuùng toâi cuõng ñang coá gaéng ñeå coù ñôøi soáng oån ñònh trong tình traïng soáng löu vong ôû AÁn Ñoä. Söï thaønh töïu muïc tieâu lôùn töï trò tuøy thuoäc vaøo söï thaønh töïu taïm thôøi coù ñôøi soáng löu vong oån ñònh noùi treân.

Bieát raèng mình seõ cheát, ñoù laø ñieàu lôïi ích. Taïi sao? Neáu khoâng coù yù thöùc veà söï cheát, baïn seõ

Nhöõng baát lôïi cuûa söï khoâng coù yù thöùc veà söï cheát

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your practice, but will just spend your life meaninglessly, not examining what sorts of attitudes and actions perpetuate suffering and which ones bring about happiness. If you are not mindful that you might die soon, you will fall under the sway of a false sense of permanence "I'll die later on, later on." Then, when the time comes, even if you try to accomplish something worthwhile, you will not have the energy. Many Tibetans enter a monastery at a young age and study texts about spiritual practice, but when the time comes to really practice, the capacity to do so is somehow lacking. This is because they do not have a true understanding of impermanence. If, having thought about how to practice, you make a decision that you absolutely have to do so in retreat for several months or even for many years, you have been motivated by your knowledge of impermanence. But if that urgency is not maintained by contemplating the ravages of impermanence again and again, your practice will peter out. This is why some people stay in retreat for years but experience no imprint on their lives afterward. Contemplating impermanence not only motivates your practice, but also fuels it. If you have a strong sense of the certainty of death and of the uncertainty of its arrival, you will be motivated from within. It will be as if a friend is cautioning, "Be careful, be earnest, another day is passing." You might even leave home for the monastic life. If you did, you would be given a new name and new clothing. You would also have fewer busy activities; you would have to change your attitude,

khoâng ñeå yù ñeán vieäc tu taäp maø chæ soáng moät caùch voâ nghóa, khoâng tìm hieåu nhöõng thaùi ñoä vaø haønh vi naøo gaây ra ñau khoå vaø nhöõng loaïi naøo ñöa ñeán phuùc laïc. Neáu khoâng nghó raèng mình coù theå cheát sôùm, baïn seõ rôi vaøo aûo töôûng thöôøng toàn raèng "coøn laâu mình môùi cheát" (I'll die later on, later on). Khi ñeán luùc cuoái cuøng, duø coù coá gaéng thaønh töïu moät ñieàu giaù trò naøo ñoù, baïn seõ khoâng coøn söùc löïc nöõa. Nhieàu ngöôøi Taây Taïng gia nhaäp tu vieän khi coøn treû ñeå hoïc kinh ñieån, nhöng khi ñeán luùc tu taäp thöïc söï thì khaû naêng cuûa hoï coù phaàn thieáu huït. Ñoù laø vì hoï khoâng hieåu ñuùng giaùo lyù voâ thöôøng. Neáu sau khi suy nghó veà phöông phaùp tu taäp, baïn quyeát ñònh aùp duïng phaùp tu nhaäp thaát maáy thaùng hay maáy naêm, nhö vaäy baïn ñaõ öùng duïng ñöôïc nhaän thöùc veà lyù voâ thöôøng cuûa mình. Nhöng neáu quyeát ñònh mau choùng ñoù khoâng ñöôïc duy trì bôûi vieäc quaùn nieäm tính chaát huûy dieät cuûa voâ thöôøng thì vieäc tu taäp cuûa baïn seõ nhaït phai ñi. Ñoù laø lyù do coù nhöõng ngöôøi nhaäp thaát nhieàu naêm nhöng vieäc tu taäp khoâng coù aûnh höôûng gì ñeán ñôøi soáng cuûa hoï sau ñoù. Quaùn nieäm voâ thöôøng khoâng nhöõng thuùc ñaåy vieäc tu taäp cuûa baïn maø coøn tieáp theâm naêng löôïng cho baïn nöõa. Neáu coù yù thöùc maïnh veà tính taát yeáu vaø tính baát ngôø cuûa caùi cheát thì baïn vaän ñoäng ñöôïc töø beân trong, gioáng nhö coù moät ngöôøi baïn caûnh caùo mình vaäy, "haõy caån thaän, haõy thaønh taâm, moät ngaøy nöõa ñaõ troâi qua" (Be careful, be earnest, another day is passing). Coù theå baïn xuaát gia soáng trong tu vieän. Nhö vaäy baïn ñaõ coù phaùp danh vaø y phuïc cuûa ngöôøi tu só. Baïn seõ coù nhöõng hoaït ñoäng baän roän ít hôn. Baïn seõ thay ñoåi thaùi

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directing your attention to deeper purposes. If, however, you continued busying yourself with the superficial affairs of the moment; delicious food, good clothing, better shelter, pleasant conversation, many friends and acquaintances, and even making an enemy, if someone does something you do not like and then quarreling and fighting, you would be no better off than you were before you entered the monastery, and perhaps even worse. Remember, it is not sufficient to withdraw from these superficial activities out of embarrassment or fear of what your friends who are also on the path might think; the change must come from within. This is true for monks and nuns as well as lay people who take up practice. Perhaps you are beset by a sense of permanence, by thinking that you will not die soon and that while you are still alive, you need especially good food, clothing, and conversation. Out of desire for the wondrous effects of the present, even is they are of little meaning in the long run, you are ready to employ all sorts of shameless exaggerations and devices to get what you want; making loans at high interest, looking down on your friends, starting court proceedings, all for the sake of more than adequate provisions. Since you have given your life over to such activities, money becomes more attractive than study, and even if you attempt practice, you do not pay much attention to it. If a page falls out of a book, you might hesitate to retrieve it, but is some money falls to the ground, there is no question. If you encountered those who have really devoted their lives to deeper pursuits, you might think well of that devotion, but that would be all; whereas if you see someone dressed ñoä vôùi ñôøi soáng, höôùng söï chuù taâm cuûa mình ñeán nhöõng muïc tieâu xa hôn. Coøn baèng ngöôïc laïi baïn tieáp tuïc baän taâm ñeán nhöõng chuyeän phuø phieám cuûa theá gian nhö aên ngon, maëc ñeïp, ôû choã sang troïng, noùi chuyeän nhaûm nhí, coù nhieàu beø baïn vaø ngöôøi thaân quen, keå caû taïo ra nhieàu keû thuø neáu coù ai ñoù laøm ñieàu gì maø baïn khoâng thích vaø ñöa ñeán xung ñoät vaø roài tranh chaáp vôùi nhau, nhö vaäy baïn khoâng coù gì toát hôn tröôùc ñaây, luùc chöa xuaát gia, vaø coù leõ coøn teä hôn tröôùc ñoù nöõa. Neân nhôù, neáu chæ traùnh nhöõng sinh hoaït phuø phieám vì sôï caùc baïn ñoàng tu ñaùnh giaù thaáp mình thì cuõng chöa ñuû, maø phaûi coù söï chuyeån hoùa töø beân trong. Ñieàu naøy ñaùng cho chö vò taêng ni cuõng nhö ngöôøi cö só taïi gia ghi nhôù vaø aùp duïng vaøo vieäc tu taäp. Coù leõ baïn ñaõ quen coù yù töôûng thöôøng toàn, nghó raèng mình coøn laâu môùi cheát vaø khi coøn soáng, caàn phaûi coù nhöõng thuù vui thoâng thöôøng nhö ngöôøi khaùc. Do muoán höôûng thuï trong ñôøi soáng hieän taïi, duø ít coù yù nghóa laâu daøi, baïn saün saøng duøng nhöõng phöông tieän thieáu ñaïo ñöùc ñeå coù ñöôïc nhöõng gì mình muoán, nhö cho vay laáy laõi caét coå, lôïi duïng baïn beø, kieän tuïng... ñeå coù nhieàu hôn nhöõng nhu caàu lôïi döôõng cho ñôøi soáng. Vì baïn ñaõ choïn loái soáng nhö vaäy neân tieàn baïc trôû neân haáp daãn hôn laø hoïc ñaïo lyù, vaø ngay caû khi baïn muoán tu taäp, baïn cuõng khoâng chuù yù nhieàu ñeán vieäc aáy. Neáu moät trang saùch rôi xuoáng ñaát, coù theå baïn ngaàn ngaïi löôïm noù leân, nhöõng neáu moät tôø giaáy baïc rôi xuoáng ñöôøng thì söï vieäc laïi khaùc ñi. Neáu gaëp nhöõng ngöôøi ñaõ coáng hieán cuoäc ñôøi mình cho nhöõng muïc tieâu saâu xa, coù theå baïn nghó toát veà söï coáng hieán ñoù, nhöng chæ coù theá thoâi. Coøn neáu baïn gaëp moät ngöôøi maëc quaàn aùo sang troïng, phoâ baøy söï giaøu coù, coù theå baïn seõ khôûi taâm theøm muoán, baïn

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in finery, displaying his or her wealth, you would wish for it, lust after it, hope for it, with more and more attachment. Ultimately, you will do anything to get it. Once you are intent on the fineries of this life, your afflictive emotions increase, which in turn necessarily bring about more bad deeds. These counterproductive emotions only lead to trouble, making yourself and those around you uncomfortable. Even if you briefly learn how to practice the stages of the path to enlightenment, you acquire more and more material things and get involved with more and more people to the point where you are, so to speak, practicing the superficialities of this life, meditatively cultivating desire for friends and hatred for enemies and trying to figure out ways to fulfill these afflictive emotions. At that point, even if you hear about real, beneficial practice, you are apt to feel, "Yes, that is so, but...". One `but' after another. Indeed, you have become accustomed to afflictive emotions throughout your initial, less cyclic existence. But now you have added on the very practice of superficiality. This makes the situation even worse, turning you away from what will really help. Driven by such lust, you will find no comfort. You are not making others happy, and certainly not yourself. As you become more self-centered- "my this, my that, my body, my wealth"- anyone who interferes immediately becomes an object of anger. Although you make much out of "my friends" and "my relatives," they cannot help you at birth or at death; you come here alone, and you have to leave alone. If on the day of your death a friend could accompany you, attachment

caàu mong mình cuõng seõ ñöôïc nhö vaäy, vaø roát cuoäc baïn seõ laøm baát cöù ñieàu gì ñeå ñaït ñöôïc muïc ñích tham muoán aáy. Moät khi bò loâi cuoán vaøo doøng chaûy phuø hoa cuûa ñôøi soáng traàn tuïc, nhöõng caûm xuùc phieàn naõo tham lam, saân haän, si meâ, ganh tî, kieâu ngaïo cuûa baïn seõ gia taêng, vaø ñöa ñöôøng daãn loái cho baïn taïo theâm aùc nghieäp. Nhöõng caûm xuùc phieàn naõo naøy chæ gaây raéc roái, laøm cho baûn thaân vaø nhöõng ngöôøi xung quanh rôi vaøo tình traïng khoù chòu. Duø coù theå baïn ñaõ bieát chuùt ít veà vieäc tu taäp, nhöng baïn vaãn tích luõy theâm cuûa caûi vaät chaát vaø lieân can vôùi nhieàu ngöôøi hôn, roát cuoäc coù theå noùi baïn ñang thöïc haønh nhöõng chuyeän phuø phieám cuûa theá gian naøy, khôûi taâm tham aùi ñoái vôùi nhöõng ngöôøi maø baïn coù caûm tình, vaø khôûi taâm saân haän ñoái vôùi nhöõng ngöôøi maø baïn khoâng öa, vaø baïn tìm caùch ñeå theo ñuoåi nhöõng caûm xuùc naõo phieàn naøy. Khi ñaõ ñeán choã naøy, duø coù nghe noùi veà nhöõng phaùp tu chaân chaùnh, baïn cuõng seõ löôõng löï vaø boû qua. Suoát kieáp luaân hoài töø voâ thæ cho ñeán ngaøy nay, baïn ñaõ quen coù nhöõng xuùc caûm phieàn naõo, nhöng baây giôø baïn coù theâm phaùp phuø phieám. Nhö vaäy tình traïng trôû neân teä haïi hôn, laøm cho baïn xa caùch vôùi nhöõng gì thöïc söï ích lôïi hôn. Bò loâi keùo bôûi söï tham muoán, baïn seõ khoâng bao giôø tìm thaáy söï haøi loøng. Baïn khoâng laøm cho ngöôøi khaùc haïnh phuùc, vaø chaéc chaén khoâng laøm cho chính mình haïnh phuùc. Khi trôû neân vò kyû hôn vôùi nhöõng caùi `cuûa mình' thì baát cöù ngöôøi naøo can thieäp vaøo cuõng töùc khaéc trôû neân muïc tieâu giaän döõ cuûa baïn. Duø baïn xem troïng nhöõng ngöôøi baïn thaân cuûa mình vaø nhöõng ngöôøi thaân cuûa mình, nhöng hoï khoâng theå giuùp gì cho baïn luùc sinh ra vaø luùc mình qua ñôøi.

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would be worthwhile, but it cannot be so. When you are reborn in a totally unfamiliar situation, if your friend from the last lifetime could be of some help, that too would be something to consider, but it is not to be had. Yet, in between birth and death, for several decades it is "my friend," "my sister," "my brother." This misplaced emphasis does not help at all, except to create more bewilderment, lust, and hatred. When friends are overemphasized, enemies also come to be overemphasized. When you are born, you do not know anyone and no one knows you. Even though all of us equally want happiness and do not want suffering, you like the faces of some people and think, "These are my friends," and dislike the faces of others and think, "These are my enemies." You affix identities and nicknames to them and end up practicing the generation of desire for the former and the generation of hatred for the latter. What value is there in this? - None. The problem is that so much energy is being expended on concern for a level no deeper than the superficial affairs of this life. The profound loses out to the trivial. If you have not practiced and on your Baïn ra ñôøi moät mình vaø roài seõ ra ñi moät mình. Neáu vaøo ngaøy baïn qua ñôøi, moät ngöôøi baïn coù theå ñi cuøng thì söï baùm giöõ vaøo baïn beø coù giaù trò, nhöng khoâng theå coù chuyeän ñoù. Khi baïn taùi sanh trong moät hoaøn caûnh hoaøn toaøn xa laï, neáu nhöõng ngöôøi baïn trong kieáp tröôùc coù theå giuùp ñôõ moät ñieàu gì ñoù thì cuõng laø moät söï lieân heä coù giaù trò, nhöng söï kieän naøy khoâng theå xaûy ra. Vaäy maø trong khoaûng thôøi gian giöõa luùc ra ñôøi vaø luùc cheát, keùo daøi maáy chuïc naêm, nhöõng ngöôøi baïn ñoù laø `baïn cuûa mình', `anh chò em cuûa mình'. Söï chaáp thuû khoâng ñuùng choã naøy ñaõ khoâng ñöa ñeán lôïi ích gì caû, maø chæ taïo theâm tham saân si maø thoâi. Khi quaù tham aùi vôùi nhöõng ngöôøi mình öa thích vaø cuõng quaù saân haän vôùi nhöõng ngöôøi mình gheùt. Khi sinh ra ñôøi, baïn khoâng bieát ai laø ai heát. Duø taát caû chuùng ta ñeàu muoán coù haïnh phuùc vaø khoâng muoán ñau khoå, nhöng baïn vaãn thích moät soá ngöôøi vaø nghó "hoï laø baïn cuûa mình" vaø gheùt moät soá ngöôøi "nhöõng ngöôøi naøy laø keû ñòch cuûa mình". Baïn gaén nhaõn hieäu vaø bieät danh cho hoï roài khôûi taâm tham aùi hoaëc saân haän. Nhö vaäy thì coù giaù trò gì? Khoâng coù giaù trò gì caû. Vaán ñeà ôû ñaây laø mình daønh quaù nhieàu naêng löïc cho nhöõng chuyeän phuø phieám cuûa cuoäc ñôøi naøy. Nhöõng giaù trò taâm linh lôùn lao laïi bò boû queân tröôùc nhöõng ñieàu nhoû nhen nhö theá. Neáu baïn khoâng tu taäp, vaø khi saép qua ñôøi baïn ñöôïc vaây quanh vôùi nhöõng ngöôøi baïn vaø nhöõng ngöôøi ñaõ laøm vieäc cuøng vôùi baïn, thay vì coù moät ngöôøi naøo ñoù nhaéc nhôû baïn veà vieäc tu taäp taâm linh, ñaïo ñöùc, roõ raøng chính baïn ñaõ mang laïi söï raéc roái cho mình. Söï sai laàm naøy cuûa baïn laø baïn

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dying day you are surrounded by sobbing friends and others involved in your affairs, instead of having someone who reminds you of virtuous practice, this will only bring trouble, and you will have brought it on yourself. Where does the fault lie? In not being mindful of impermanence. ADVANTAGES OF BEING MINDFUL OF IMPERMANENCE However, if you do not wait until the end for the knowledge that you die to sink in, and you realistically assess your situation now, you will not be overwhelmed by superficial, temporary purposes. You will not neglect what matters in the long run. It is better to decide from the very beginning that you will die and investigate what it worthwhile. If you keep in mind how quickly this life disappears, you will value your time and do what is valuable. With a strong sense of the imminence of death, you will feel the need to engage in spiritual practice, improving your mind, and will not waste your time in various distractions ranging from eating and drinking to endless talk about war, romance, and gossip. All beings want happiness and do not want suffering. We use many level of techniques for removing unwanted suffering in its superficial and deep forms, but it is mostly humans who engage in techniques in the earlier part of their lives to avoid suffering later on. Both those who do and do not practice religion seek over the course of their lives to lessen some sufferings and to remove others, sometimes even taking on pain as a means to overcome greater suffering

khoâng coù yù thöùc veà voâ thöôøng.

Lôïi ích cuûa tænh giaùc veà giaùo lyù voâ thöôøng

Tuy nhieân, neáu baïn phaûi ñôïi ñeán giôø phuùt cuoái môùi thaám thía söï thaät raèng mình seõ cheát, vaø baïn nhaän ñònh moät caùch thöïc teá tình traïng cuûa mình ngay baây giôø, baïn seõ khoâng bò chi phoái baèng nhöõng muïc tieâu phuø phieám nöõa. Baïn seõ khoâng lô ñeãnh vôùi nhöõng muïc tieâu quan troïng laâu daøi. Baïn neân quyeát ñònh ngay töø ñaàu laø mình seõ cheát, vaø haõy tìm hieåu nhöõng ñieàu giaù trò thöïc söï. Neáu ghi nhôù laø ñôøi soáng troâi qua raát nhanh, baïn seõ traân quyù thôøi gian vaø seõ laøm nhöõng gì coù giaù trò. Vôùi yù thöùc maïnh meõ veà söï cheát taát yeáu seõ ñeán vôùi mình, baïn seõ thaáy mình caàn phaûi tu taäp, chuyeán

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and gain a measure of happiness. Everyone tries to remove superficial pain, but there is another class of techniques concerned with removing suffering on a deeper level; aiming at a minimum to diminish suffering in future lives and, beyond that, even to remove all forms of suffering for oneself as well as for all beings. Spiritual practice is of this deeper type. These techniques involve an adjustment of attitude; thus, spiritual practice basically means to adjust your thought well. In Sanskrit it is called dharma, which means "that which holds." This means that by adjusting counterproductive attitudes, you are freed from a level of suffering and thus held back from that particular suffering. Spiritual practice protects, or holds back, yourself and others from misery. From first understanding your own situation in cyclic existence and seeking to hold yourself back from suffering, you extend your realization to other beings and develop compassion, which means to dedicate yourself to holding others back from suffering. It makes practical sense for you, just one being, to opt for taking care of many, but also, by concentrating on the welfare of others, you yourself will be happier. Compassion diminishes fright about your own pain and increases inner strength. It gives you a sense of empowerment, of being able to accomplish your task. It lends encouragement. Let me give you a small example. Recently, when I was in Bodh Gaya, I fell ill from a chronic intestinal infection. On the way to the hospital, the pain in my abdomen was severe, and I was sweating a great deal. The car was passing through the area of Vulture Peak (Buddha taught hoùa taâm trí, vaø khoâng laõng phí thôøi giôø vôùi nhöõng thuù vui töø aên uoáng ñeán chuyeän phieám veà chieán tranh, nhöõng cuoäc tình laõng maïn vaø veà ñôøi tö cuûa ngöôøi khaùc. Heát thaûy chuùng sanh ñeàu muoán mình haïnh phuùc vaø khoâng muoán khoå ñau. Chuùng ta duøng nhieàu kyõ thuaät khaùc nhau ñeå giaûi tröø nhöõng ñau khoå lôùn cuõng nhö nhoû. Loaøi ngöôøi chuùng ta bieát thöïc haønh nhöõng phöông phaùp tu taäp sôùm trong ñôøi cuûa mình ñeå traùnh ñau khoå veà sau. Trong cuoäc ñôøi, nhöõng ngöôøi coù tu vaø nhöõng ngöôøi khoâng tu ñeàu tìm caùch giaûm bôùt moät soá noãi khoå vaø giaûi tröø nhöõng noãi khoå khaùc, coù khi coøn duøng söï ñau ñôùn nhoû laøm phöông tieän vöôït qua ñau khoå lôùn vaø ñaït ñöôïc moät loaïi haïnh phuùc naøo ñoù. Moïi ngöôøi ñeàu coá gaéng loaïi tröø ñau ñôùn beân ngoaøi, nhöng coù moät phöông phaùp khaùc ñeå giaûi tröø ñau khoå ôû möùc saâu xa hôn, nhaém tôùi vieäc giaûm thieåu hay dieät tröø ñau khoå trong nhöõng kieáp töông lai, vaø hôn nöõa, giaûi tröø taát caû moïi hình thöùc ñau khoå cho chính mình cuõng nhö cho chuùng sinh. Phöông phaùp naøy goïi laø tu taäp taâm linh. Nhöõng phöông phaùp naøy bao goàm söï ñieàu chænh thaùi ñoä. Nhö vaäy, veà caên baûn, tu taäp coù nghóa laø ñieàu chænh toát yù nghó cuûa mình. Trong tieáng Sanskrit, tu taäp taâm linh ñöôïc goïi laø "Dharma", nghóa laø "caùi naém giöõ". Ñieàu naøy coù nghóa laø do ñieàu chænh nhöõng thaùi ñoä xaáu, baïn thoaùt khoûi moät möùc khoå ñau vaø nhö vaäy ñöôïc `giöõ laïi' khoûi söï ñau khoå ñoù. Vieäc tu taäp taâm linh naøy coù coâng naêng baûo veä baûn thaân mình vaø ngöôøi khaùc, khoûi rôi vaøo hoá saâu cuûa sinh töû khoå ñau. Töø vieäc ñaàu tieân hieåu tình traïng cuûa mình

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here) where the villagers are extremely poor. In general, Bihar State is poor, but that particular area is even more so. I did not even see children going to or coming from school, just poverty and sickness. I have a very clear memory of a small boy with polio, who had rusty metal braces on his legs and metal crutches up to his armpits. It was obvious that he had no

trong voøng luaân hoài vaø tìm caùch giöõ mình laïi khoûi ñau khoå, baïn truyeàn ñaït söï chöùng ngoä cuûa mình cho ngöôøi khaùc vaø phaùt khôûi loøng töø bi, töùc laø nguyeän cöùu giuùp chuùng sinh thoaùt khoå. Duø chæ laø moät sinh linh, baïn coù lyù do chính ñaùng ñeå choïn con ñöôøng giuùp ñôõ nhieàu sinh linh khaùc, nhöng cuõng coù moät ñieàu khaùc, ñoù laø do chuù taâm ñeán lôïi ích cuûa ngöôøi khaùc, chính baïn seõ caûm thaáy haïnh phuùc hôn. Coù loøng töø bi, baïn seõ bôùt söï ñau khoå cuûa chính mình vaø gia taêng söùc maïnh noäi taâm. Ñeå toâi keå cho baïn nghe veà moät thí duï nhoû, môùi ñaây toâi ôû Boà Ñeà Ñaïo Traøng (Bodhgaya), toâi bò beänh nhieãm truøng ñöôøng ruoät maõn tính. Treân ñöôøng ñeán beänh vieän toâi caûm thaáy raát ñau, vaø ñoå nhieàu moà hoâi. Xe cuûa chuùng toâi ñi qua khu vöïc nuùi Keân keân (töùc laø Linh Thöùu Sôn) vaø ôû vuøng naøy daân laøng raát ngheøo. Noùi chung thì Bihar laø moät tieåu bang ngheøo, nhöng ngheøo nhaát laø vuøng naøy. Toâi khoâng troâng thaáy moät treû em ñi hoïc. Chæ coù söï ngheøo khoå vaø beänh taät. Toâi nhôù raát roõ moät beù trai bò baïi lieät, ñeo nhöõng thanh keïp kim loaïi ræ seùt ôû hai chaân vaø hai tay choáng naïng. Roõ raøng laø khoâng coù ai troâng em beù. Toâi raát xuùc ñoäng. Moät choã khaùc, toâi thaáy coù moät oâng giaø ôû moät quaùn traø beân ñöôøng, chæ maëc moät maûnh vaûi baån, teù xuoáng ñaát, vaø naèm luoân ôû ñoù chöù khoâng coù ai giuùp ñôõ ñöùng daäy. Sau ñoù toâi ñöôïc ñöa vaøo beänh vieän, toâi cöù nghó ngôïi veà nhöõng gì mình

THÍCH NGUYEÂN TAÏNG soaïn dòch

one to look after him. I was very moved. A little later on, there was an old man at a tea stop, wearing only a dirty piece of cloth, fallen to the ground, left to lie there with no one to take care of him. Later, at the hospital, my thought kept circling on what I had seen, reflecting on how sad it was that here I had people to take care of me but those poor people

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Tænh giaùc veà caùi cheát

had no one. That is where my thoughts went, rather than to my own suffering. Though sweat was pouring out of my body, my concern was elsewhere. In this way, though my body underwent a lot of pain (a hole had opened in my intestinal wall) that prevented sleep, my mind did not suffer any fear or discomfort. It would only have made the situation worse if I had concentrated on my own problems. This is an example from my small experience of how an attitude of compassion helps even oneself, suppressing some degree of physical pain and keeping away mental distress, despite the fact that others might not be directly helped. Compassion strengthens your outlook, and with that courage you are more relaxed. When your perspective includes the suffering of limitless beings, your own suffering looks comparatively small. 1 vöøa troâng thaáy, suy ngaãm raèng thaät ñaùng buoàn khi ôû ñaây toâi ñöôïc nhieàu ngöôøi saên soùc, coøn nhöõng ngöôøi khoán khoå ngoaøi kia thì khoâng coù ai. Toâi nghó ñeán ñieàu ñoù vaø queân ñi noãi ñau cuûa mình. Duø moà hoâi ñang ñoå ra, toâi chæ nghó ñeán nhöõng ngöôøi khaùc. Nhö vaäy duø theå xaùc cuûa toâi chòu nhieàu ñau ñôùn (coù moät loã thuûng ôû ñöôøng ruoät) vaø toâi khoâng theå nguû ñöôïc, taâm trí cuûa toâi ñaõ khoâng lo sôï. Neáu toâi ñaõ chuù taâm vaøo beänh taät cuûa mình thì chæ laøm cho tình traïng teä haïi hôn maø thoâi. Ñaây laø moät ví duï töø kinh nghieäm nhoû cuûa baûn thaân toâi veà thaùi ñoä töø bi coù ích lôïi cho caû baûn thaân, laøm queân ñi phaàn naøo söï ñau ñôùn theå xaùc cuûa mình, laøm bôùt lo sôï, duø ngöôøi khaùc khoâng nhaän ñöôïc söï lôïi ích tröïc tieáp.

Loøng töø bi giuùp cho chuùng ta coù theâm söùc maïnh, vaø vôùi söï can ñaûm ñoù, chuùng ta seõ an tónh nheï nhaøng hôn. Khi taàm maét roäng môû cuûa chuùng ta bao goàm caû söï thoáng Source: His Holiness Dalai Lama, Jeffrey khoå cuûa voâ soá chuùng sanh, thì söï ñau khoå Hopkins (2002) Advice on Dying and cuûa baûn thaân mình coù veû quaù beù nhoû. 1 living a Better life, Atria Book, New York, Source: His Holiness Dalai Lama, Jeffrey USA. Hopkins (2002) Advice on Dying and living a Better life, Atria Book, New York, USA.

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SÖÙC MAÏNH CUÛA LOØNG TÖØ

Nieàm haïnh phuùc thôøi thô aáu, giaûm thieåu toái ña söï khieáp sôï vaø söï phaùt trieån maïnh meõ veà loøng töï tin cuûa ñöùa treû, ñeàu tuøy thuoäc tröïc tieáp vaøo tình yeâu thöông.

The happiness of childhood, the allaying of the child's many fears and the healthy development of its self-confidence all depend directly upon love.

- His Holiness Dalai Lama -

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