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Queens University of Belfast School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy National and Ethnic Conflict Management 210PAI913 Second Semester 2007-2008 MODULE AIMS AND LEARNING OUTCOMES MODULE DESCRIPTION Students will be provided with a detailed and critical analysis of the political and constitutional options in societies beset by ethnic conflict, with particular emphasis being given to mechanisms directed at the achievement of political accommodation. This course is the second of two core modules of the MA degree in Comparative Ethnic Conflict. Having analysed the nature of ethnic and national conflicts in the first semester module - Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict - the focus of the course now switches to conflict resolution, or at least conflict management. MODULE AIMS: The specific aims of the module are the following: To examine and evaluate the principal responses to protracted ethnic and national conflicts. To provide students with basic understandings of National and Ethnic Conflict Management To introduce students to current debates on substantive topics covered on the module To give students the opportunity to develop communication skills through classroom discussion as well as chairing debates and presentation of briefing paper points to class. To further encourage intellectual skills through independent research, development of critical analysis and comparative reasoning. LEARNING OUTCOMES: Upon completion of this module, students should be able to develop a sufficient understanding of different methods of conflict regulation in ethnically divided societies. The module examines the principal strategies and techniques of conflict regulation, including: the context and practicalities of negotiations; usefulness (and problems) of mediation and third-party interventions, territorial management of divisions, whether by means of federalism, re-scaling`, or partition; consociationalism as a means of conflict-management mediation and negotiation civil society and transitional justice post-conflict reconstruction and peace-building.

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SKILLS: Upon completion of this module, students should be able to: Understand the dynamic and changing nature of conflict resolution and management. Understand a range of conceptual components associated with conflict management, including intervention, peace-building and reconstruction. To process, summarize and present facts/information including critical reflection, in oral and written format. Pursue intellectual questions in a rigorous and academic manner, employing analytical skills and critical thinking. MODULE ORGANISATION

Module Convenor

Module Lecturers

Name: Neophytos Loizides Room no. UG. 18.21 , School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy Email address: [email protected] Consultation Hours: Tuesday at 11 and Wednesday at 3:30 (except 19/2 & 20/2) or by appointment. Phone: (0) 2890973231 Beverley Milton-Edwards (BME), [email protected]; Adrian Guelke (AG), [email protected] Neophytos Loizides (NL), [email protected]

Lecture This is two hour seminar every Tuesday 7:00-9:00PM held at UNIVERSITY information SQUARE 20.103 (please contact office if you need a door code) Consultation Hours Students, individually or in groups, are encouraged to raise issues concerning

the requirements and substantive content of the module with, where appropriate, a module lecturer, a module tutor or the module convenor. Such issues should be raised during published consultation hours or by arrangement. Consultation hours are listed on the notice board outside the School Office in 21 University Square. Staff within the School determine individually the material that they are willing to make available to students via Queen`s Online. It is School policy to include module outlines on Queen`s Online. It is NOT the School`s policy, however, that all lecture overheads and handouts are posted. This is the decision of individual module convenors and individual lecturers.

Queen's Online

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT ATTENDANCE For Master`s level modules, students are generally expected to attend one two-hour seminar per week.

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This module is worth 10 credits on the ECTS scale (equivalent to 20 Queen`s University CATS points, Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme). This is calculated by the University as the equivalent of 200 hours` academic study over the course of the semester (12 teaching` weeks plus the three week examination period). Students should therefore expect to spend on average at least 13 hours each week undertaking academic study associated with this module. ASSIGNMENTS Coursework: 50% An essay should be submitted by 12 noon on Monday April 28th at PISP main office. Students will be penalized 5% per day after 12pm. The essay should be 2500-3000 words in length. (including bibliography and references and 250 word abstract). When you submit the essay, be sure to collect a receipt for your coursework. Only one copy of assessed work needs to be submitted, but this will not be returned because of university regulations that involve external review. Students will however be able to collect a Report Sheet on Assessed Work upon request to the module convenor. The word length must be printed on the essay. Examination: 50% The examination component will be of two hours duration and involve the student answering two questions from six. The exam period is scheduled between Thurs 15 May - Sat 31 May 2008. ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. Consociationalism is dysfunctional and undemocratic because it empowers minorities with veto rights. Discuss with references to at least one country case studies. 2. Discuss a successful case of refugee or displaced population repatriation and its implications for conflict management 3. What legal, humanitarian and other factors should be taken into consideration when addressing colonization and settler issues in conflict-ridden societies? 4. Option of your choice on a topic CENTRAL to the theme of ethnic and national conflict management to be decided and approved by the module convenor during the week 25-29th of February. In our first session I would circulate an appointment sheet to make mutual arrangements for an individual meeting with each of you for the week 25-29 of February to discuss everyone`s essay plans. CONCEPTUAL EQUIVALENT MARKING SCALE For information on the University`s conceptual equivalent marking scheme that is used by the School at MA level, see School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy Postgraduate Handbook or http://www.qub.ac.uk/pisp/Education/Postgraduates/TheDissertationThesis

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SCHOOL POLICY STATEMENTS: STUDENT HANDBOOK Students should ensure that they are fully familiar with School policies as set out in the Postgraduate Handbook. You should note in particular the following: SUBMISSION OF COURSEWORK A single copy of each assessed assignment must be submitted to the School Office (21 University Square) on or before the due date as set out in the module guide. When submitting an assessed assignment, you must complete and sign an Essay Cover Sheet` available from the School Office. All assignments are retained by the School for scrutiny by internal and external examiners. All essays should be submitted by 12 noon on Monday April 28th. Students will be penalized 5% per day after 12pm. ANONYMOUS MARKING From 2007-08 the School will be operating a system of anonymous marking for coursework as well as examinations. Students should therefore indicate only their student number on assignments and not their name. LATE SUBMISSION OF COURSEWORK QUB regulations state that late coursework is penalised at five percentage points per each working day (Mon-Fri), for up to 5 days after the due date, after which the coursework will receive an automatic 0. For example, an assignment that is three working days late will have 15 percentage points deducted. The School has implemented this policy. Students requiring extensions for medical or other reasons MUST fill out an extension form in the School Office. MEDICAL CERTIFICATES COVERING ABSENCE, LATE SUBMISSION OF COURSEWORK AND FAILURE TO SIT AN EXAMINATION Self-certification of illness is permitted for an absence of up to five working days. Selfcertification forms are available in the School Office. Fully completed self-certification forms or medical certificates must be submitted within THREE working days of returning to studies to the School Office in the School in which you are enrolled. Absences of longer than five working days OR failure to meet coursework assignment deadlines or absence from any examination or class test counting toward a module mark must be covered by a medical certificate signed by a registered medical practitioner. Medical certificates must be submitted to the relevant School Office within THREE working days of returning to studies. Medical certificates submitted after this period are not acceptable. During illness, and especially if you know you are going to miss an assignment deadline or an examination because of illness, you should inform the relevant School Office in advance by telephone or letter, either personally or, if too ill, via someone on your behalf. RE-SITS AND RESUBMISSIONS:

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Where students fail a module at first attempt, QUB regulations allow them to re-sit exams and/or re-submit coursework. The maximum mark that may be awarded in such instances will be 50% and will be recorded as a PH (i.e. capped) mark. The following norms apply: On a module assessed by examination only, the student will have to re-sit the examination. On a module with mixed assessment, the student will have to re-submit the failed element. On a module assessed by two submitted essays, the student will have to submit a new essay (or new essays) on a different topic on any failed elements. The deadline for submission of coursework will, unless otherwise agreed, be the first day of the Supplementary (Resit) Examination Period, August 12, 2008 (by 12 noon). It is the student's responsibility to find out about re-sits and resubmissions. NON-ADHERENCE TO ASSESSMENT INSTRUCTIONS If you contravene instructions concerning the content or coverage of an assignment -- for example, that it may not be on the same topic as a previous piece of assessment -- the assignment will be awarded a mark of zero. This only applies to assignments (including examinations) within a module. PLAGIARISM The School takes a very severe line on students who plagiarise work. Students who attempt to pass off another`s work as their own will receive a mark of ZERO. In some cases, acts of plagiarism can result in the student failing the entire degree. Remember, plagiarism includes information from books, newspapers, journals AND the Internet. All suspected cases of plagiarism will be investigated in line with University procedures. For details of University Regulations on Academic Offences, see: www.qub.ac.uk/pisp/Education/. This page also provides a link to guidance on how to identify and so avoid plagiarism (www.qub.ac.uk/pisp/Education/Plagiarism). Please also refer to the School`s General Study Guide for more information about referencing and plagiarism, as well as general advice on essay-writing: www.qub.ac.uk/pisp/FileStore/PDFfiles/Filetoupload,38127,en.pdf GOOD PRACTICE IN THE USE OF THE INTERNET FOR ACADEMIC ASSIGNMENTS AND RESEARCH Students are increasingly turning to the internet as a resource for research and study. The School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy encourages selective, informed and accurate use of the many resources that the internet has to offer. Selective internet use means using the internet as one resource among others (the library, books, journals, lectures, and tutorial discussions, and so on) rather than writing assignments based solely on web-based sources. Selective internet use also means knowing which websites are reliable. In general, you are recommended to stick to official websites of institutions, organizations and respected media, rather than opinion or commentary sites. This is because, unlike journal articles or books, there are far fewer peer review processes to weed out false or dubious claims and arguments.

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Internet usage should be informed by these considerations (i.e., wikipedia is RARELY an acceptable source for an academic essay). References to internet sources should be accurate. Familiarize yourself with academic conventions for citing internet sources (you must include the author, the title of the article, the date, the EXACT web address -- URL -- of the page you accessed, and also give the DATE on which you accessed the information, because websites are frequently updated).

Module convenors will recommend reliable websites for specific modules. See the Student Handbook (Referencing the Internet in your research) for further information. NOTE ON SPELLING, GRAMMAR, AND PRESENTATION Spelling, grammar, and presentation of assessed work is very important. It is one component of the assessment criteria used by the School on all assessed work, and so can affect the grade you are awarded. Use a dictionary and thesaurus to help you when writing essays. Always spell-check your assessed work before submission, but do not rely solely on your spell-checker: proofreading your work is essential. Good grammar (accurate usage of all aspects of punctuation, from full stops, commas, apostrophes, semi-colons, and colons, to good sentence structure) considerably improves the presentation of your argument. Some very common errors include the confusion of: its and it's: it's is a contraction of it is (and should generally not be used in academic work); its is a possessive pronoun (socialism, in its political rather than economic form, denotes...). - whose and who's: who's is a contraction of who is (again, you should generally avoid contractions in academic work); whose is a possessive (liberalism is a political philosophy whose characteristics include...) - your and you're: you're is (again!) a contraction of you are; your is a possessive (your right to free speech could be endangered by...) - they're, their, and there: they're is a contraction of they are; their is a possessive (their rights to self-determination...); there is an adverb (There are five good reasons why...; when they got there...) If in doubt, consult a dictionary or one of the many guides to essay writing available in the library. Try the following: Peck, John and Martin Coyle (1999): The Students Guide to Writing: Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling (Basingstoke, Macmillan). Truss, Lynne (2005): Eats, Shoots and Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation (Profile Books Ltd). LANGUAGE The attention of students is drawn to the Guidelines on the Use of Gender-Free Language Code issued by the Equal Opportunities Unit at Queen's. Students are encouraged to follow these guidelines when taking modules offered by the School of Politics, International Studies and Philosophy. The Guidelines can be accessed via www.qub.ac.uk/eou/policies&procedures/genderfreelang.html. STUDENTS REGISTERED WITH DISABILITY SERVICES Students registered with disability services should contact each of their module convenors to discuss what arrangements can be made, in line with the recommendations from Disability Services, to facilitate their studies. 6

Where these are available, module convenors will arrange for lecture overheads to be provided (e.g., on Queen`s Online). These may be in addition to any handouts provided at lectures. Staff may, at their own discretion, provide copies of lecture notes to students. Students in need of extensions to the deadlines for submitting assignments must discuss the matter with the relevant module convenors in advance of the deadline published in the module outline. They must also complete in full the form requesting an extension. The form is available from the School Office. Students wishing to discuss any academic issues arising from their disabilities are encouraged to contact the School`s Disability and Welfare Officer, Dr. Sydney Elliot ([email protected]; ext. 3659). SCHOOL OF POLITICS, INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND PHILOSOPHY: STUDENT RESOURCE CENTRE The Student Resource Centre is situated on the ground floor of 63 University Rd. The centre is for the exclusive use of PISP postgraduate taught students, and offers a quiet place for study, areas for collaborative work, and a suite of 15 pcs with a networked printer and photocopier. Please feel free to call into the Resource Centre at any time. PISP postgraduate students have 24 hour access ­ with a unique personal access code available from the Postgraduate Secretary, Mrs Mary Emmerson ([email protected]).

SEMINAR SCHEDULE (PG) The standard structure is one two-hour seminar per week with a balance of lecturing in-put in the first hour and class discussion in the second hour. WEEK One (28 Jan-01 Feb) Two (04-08 Feb) Three (11-15 Feb) Four (18-22 Feb) Five (25-29 Feb) Six (03-07 Mar) Seven (10-14 Mar) Easter Break ( 17 Mar-4 April) Eight (7- 11 Apr) Nine (14- 18 Apr) DAY, TIME & PLACE Tuesday 29 Jan 7:009:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 05 Feb 7:009:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 12 Feb 7:009:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 19 Feb 7:009:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 26 Feb 7:009:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 04 Mar 7:009:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 11 Mar 7:009:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 08 Apr. 7:009:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 15 Apr. 7:00TOPIC Introduction and Administration (NL) Consociation and power-sharing (BME) Transitional justice, reconciliation and civil society (BME) Post-conflict reconstruction I (BME) Post-conflict reconstruction II (BME) Approaches to peace-building (BME) Mediation and negotiations (AG) No Lectures Partition and secession (NL) Ethnic expulsions and internally displaced 7

Ten (21-25 Apr) Eleven ( 28 Apr- 02 May) Twelve (05-09May)

9:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 22 Apr 7:009:00PM UG20.103 Tuesday 29 Apr 7:009:00PM UG20.103 No lectures

persons (NL) Settlers, indigenous people and non-territorial minorities (NL) Summary and Conclusions (NL) Revision Week (No lectures)

Public Holidays: Rag Day ­ Friday 7 March 2008 Assessment: Thurs 15 May - Sat 31 May 2008 PRELIMINARY READINGS Roland Paris, At Wars End: Building Peace After Civil Conflict, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004 Ho-Won Jeong, Peacebuilding in Post-Conflict Societies: Strategy and Process, Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner, 2005. McGarry, John and Brendan O`Leary (1993). The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation. London: Routledge (Ch. 1: The macro-political regulation of ethnic conflict`). Coakley, John (1992), The Resolution of Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Typology,` International Political Science Review 13:4. (offprint). Horowitz, Donald (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Chpt 6-10, chpt 14-16). Diamond, Larry and Marc Plattner (1996, eds.). The Global Resurgence of Democracy, Second Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press. Other useful textbooks are: Tom Keating and W. Andy Knight, eds., Building Sustainable Peace, Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2004. John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith (eds.), Ethnicity, (OUP, 1996). Donald Horowitz, Ethnic Groups in Conflict, (University of California Press, 1985) Louis Kriesberg, Constructive Conflicts: from Escalation to Resolution, (1998)

Managed Seminar Tuesday 8-9 pm The first part of the session includes the lecture while the second part is designed to facilitate student participation. Two students each week will write short presentations in advance introducing the topic (s). These are not graded therefore students should assume that the major goal is to facilitate fellow students` understanding of the course material. Note that since these papers will have been distributed to everyone in advance, the papers themselves will not be verbally presented at the seminar for which they are intended. The presentations should aim to stimulate informed discussion. These typed papers (hand-written papers are not acceptable) must be posted at QOL by Monday noon each week. These papers should be a maximum 4 typed pages double-space. The purpose of these briefing papers is to answer the given question by summarising the most important theoretical and practical issues and then indicating the author`s point of view.

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All participants must have read these papers before the seminar. In addition assigned reading will take place from the list provided here. The seminar will be chaired by postgraduates The seminar should work on the principles of promoting intellectual debate and discussion of concept and comparative examples SEMINAR TOPICS AND READINGS: WEEK 1: Introduction and Administration (NL) Registration for presentations & appointment with module convenor. WEEK 2: Consociation and power-sharing (BME) Question for briefing papers: A. An advantage of a consociational approach is that it argues that it is necessary for communally divided societies to live with their ethnic cleavages rather than to wish them away`. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of consociationalism as a practical tool for policy makers. B. Can a consociational settlement contribute to democratic stability and eventual depolarization? Learning outcomes: To understand the basic theory of consociational democracy and its application as a means of conflict management in ethnically divided societies. To critically reflect on the debates about the approach as a means of conflict resolution. Cases of Consociationalism: Austria, Belgium and the Netherlands; Lebanon; Malaysia (1955-69); Cyprus (1960-63); South Africa (Dec. 1993-1996); Northern Ireland (1974; 1998-?); Bosnia (1996-present). Reading *Ian Lustick, (1979), Stability in Deeply Divided Societies: Consociationalism versus Control, World Politics, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 325-344. *Roberto Belloni, (2004), Peacebuilding and Consociational Electoral Engineering in Bosnia and Herzegovina, International Peacekeeping, Volume 11, Number 2, pp. 334 ­ 353 * John McGarry and Brendan O'Leary , (2003), Consociational Theory and Northern Ireland, Introduction, in John McGarry and Brendan O'Leary The Northern Ireland Conflict : Consociational engagements, Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2003 Lijphart, Arend (1977). Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press. Lijphart, Arendt (1985), Consociational theory and its Critics` offprint 38974-5.

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Lijphart, Arendt (1977) Consociational Democracy` offprint 4541-42 Further Reading Donald L Horowitz, (2000) Constitutional Design: An Oxymoron? In Designing Democratic Institutions, NOMOS XLII, edited by I. Shapiro and S. Macedo. New York: NY University Press. Philippe Van Parijs, (2000), Power-Sharing versus Border-Crossing in Ethnically Divided Societies. In Designing Democratic Institutions; NOMOS XLII, edited by I. Shapiro and S. Macedo New York University Press. William Safran, (1994), Non-Separatist Policies Regarding Ethnic Minorities: Positive Approaches and Ambiguous Consequences International Political Science Review 15 (1):621-20 l Arend Lijphart, Constitutional Design for Divided Societies,` Journal of Democracy 15 (2): April 2004, pp. 96-109. Andrew Reynolds, The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy, Oxford University Press, 2002 (particularly chapters by Lijphart and Horowitz). Benjamin Reilly, Democracy in Divided Societies, Cambridge University Press, 2001. Sven Gunman Simonsen, Addressing Ethnic Dilemmas in Post-Conflict Institution Building,` Security Dialogue, vol. 36, no. 3, 2005, pp. 297-318. I. Lustick, D. Miodownik, R. Eidelson, Secession in Multi-Ethnic States: Does Power-Sharing Prevent or Encourage it?` American Politics Science Review, vol. 98, no. 2, 2004, pp. 209-229. Matthijs Bogaards, 2001, The Uneasy Relationship Between Empirical and Normative Types in Consociational Theory,` Journal of Theoretical Politics 12 (4). Arendt Lijphart, 2001, Definitions, Evidence, and Policy,` A Response to Matthijs Bogaards` Critique,` Journal of Theoretical Politics 12 (4): 425-431. Rudy B. Andeweg, 2000. Consociational Democracy,` American Review of Political Science, 3 (509-36). Butenschon, Nils (1985). Conflict Management in Plural Societies: The Consociational Democracy Formula`, Scandinavian Political Studies 8. Pappalardo, Adriano (1981). The Conditions for Consociational Democracy: A Logical and Empirical Critique, European Journal of Political Research 9. Lijphart, Arend (1984). Time Politics of Accommodation: Reflections - Fifteen Years Later`, Acta Politica 19, pp. 9-17. Lijphart, Arend (1985). Power-Sharing in South Africa. Policy Papers in International Affairs No 24. Berkeley: University of California Press. (especially ch 4 Consociational Theory and the Scientific Method` in which he replies to critics).

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Horowitz, Donald (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press (especially ch 14). Sisk, Timothy (1996). Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace. Lijphart, Arend (1995). Self-Determination versus Pre-Determination of Ethnic Minorities in Power-Sharing Systems`, Will Kymlicka (ed) The Rights of Minority Cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Recommended/Case Studies Paul Pennings, The Evolution of Dutch Consociationalism`, in The Netherlands Journal of Socia l Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 1, 1997, pp. 9-26. Roberto Belloni and Shelley Deane, From Belfast to Bosnia: Pieacemeal Peacemaking and the Role of Institutional Learning,` Civil Wars, vol. 7, no. 3, 2005, pp. 219-243. Sumantra Bose, Bosnia After Dayton: International Intervention and Nationalist Partition, Oxford University Press, 2002 (read chapter 5 on consociationalism). Rabushka, Alvin and Kenneth Shepsle (1972). Politics in Plural Societies: A Theory of Democratic Instability. Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill Publishing Company. Lijphart, Arend (1968). Typologies of Democratic Systems`, Comparative Political Studies, pp. 344. Lijphart, Arend (1969). Consociational Democracy`, World Politics 21:2, pp. 207-25. Daalder, Hans (1971). On Building Consociational Nations: The Cases of the Netherlands and Switzerland`, Legislative Studies Quarterly 3:2, pp. 11-25. Daalder, Hans (1974). The Consociational Democracy Theme`, World Politics 26. 3639 Daalder, Hans (1984). On the Origins of the Consociational Democracy Theme`, Acta Politica 19. Steiner, Jurg (1981). Review Article: The Consociational Theory and Beyond`, Comparative Politics 13, pp. 339-54 (see also Lijphart`s reply to Steiner in same issue, pp. 355-60). Du Toit, P. (1989b). Bargaining about Bargaining: Inducing the Self-Negating Prediction in South Africa`, Journal of Conflict Resolution 33, pp. 210-33. Horowitz, D. (1993). Democracy in Divided Societies`, Journal of Democracy 4:4. Dekmejian, Richard (1978). Consociational Democracy in Crisis: The Case of Lebanon`, Comparative Politics, pp. 251-65. Bakvis, Herman (1984). Towards a Political Economy of Consociationalism: A Commentary on Marxist Views of Pillarization`, Comparative Politics 16. Stiefbold, Rodney (1974). Segmented Pluralism and Consociational Democracy in Austria`, in Martin Heisler (ed) Politics in Europe.

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Northern Ireland John McGarry and Brendan O` Leary, The Northern Ireland Conflict: Consociational Engagement, Oxford University Press, 2004. John McGarry, ed., Northern Ireland and the Divided World: Post-Agreement Northern Ireland in Comparative Perspective, Oxford University Press, 2001 (see especially chapters 1-6). Rick Wilford, ed, Aspects of the Belfast Agreement, Oxford University Press, 2001. Sean Byrne, Consociational and Civic Society Approaches to Peacebuilding in Northern Ireland,` Journal of Peace Research, May 2001, 38 (3), pp. 327-352. Lijphart, Arend (1975). The Northern Ireland Problem: Cases, Theories and Solutions`, British Journal of Political Science 5. Mitchell, Paul (1991). Conflict Regulation and Party Competition in Northern Ireland`, European Journal of Political Research 20. Wilford, R. A. (1992). Inverting Consociationalism?: Policy, Pluralism and the Post-Modern`, in Brigid Hadfield (ed) Northern Ireland: Politics and the Constitution. Open University Press. O`Leary et al (1993). Northern Ireland: Sharing Authority. Institute of Public Policy Research. O`Leary, Brendan and John McGarry (1996). The Politics of Antagonism: Understanding Northern Ireland. London: the Athlone Press. O`Leary, Brendan and John McGarry (eds., 1995). A State of Truce: Northern Ireland After Twenty-Five Years of War. Special issue of Ethnic and Racial Studies 18:4 Todd, Jennifer (1995). Beyond the Community Conflict: Historic Compromise or Emancipatory Process?`, Irish Political Studies 10, pp. 161-78. Ruane, Joseph and Jennifer Todd (1996). The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, Conflict and Emancipation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wilford, Rick (1998). Regional Assemblies and Parliament`, in Paul Mitchell and Rick Wilford (eds) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, Co: Westview Press. Mitchell, Paul (1998). Futures`, in Paul Mitchell and Rick Wilford (eds.) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, Co: Westview Press. South Africa Timothy D. Sisk and Christoph Stefes, Power Sharing as an Interim Step in Peacebuilding: Lessons from South Africa,` in Philip Roeder and Donald Rothchild, eds., Sustainable Peace: Democracy and Power-Dividing Institutions After Civil Wars, Cornell University Press, 2005. Lijphart, Arend (1985). Power-Sharing in South Africa. Policy Papers in International Affairs No 24. Berkeley: University of California Press.

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Horowitz, Donald (1991). A Democratic South Africa? Constitutional Engineering in a Divided Society. Berkeley: University of California Press. Lijphart, Arend (1994). Prospects for Power-Sharing in the New South Africa`, in Andrew Reynolds (ed) Election 94: South Africa. London: James Currey. Steiner, Jurg (1987). Review Article. Consociational Democracy as a Policy Recommendation: The Case of South Africa`, Comparative Politics 19. McGarry, John and S. Noel (1989). The Prospects for Consociational Democracy in South Africa`, Journal of Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 27. Guelke, Adrian (1992). Ethnic Rights and Majority Rule: The Case of South Africa`, International Political Science Review 13. Taylor, Rupert (1990). South Africa: Consociation or Democracy`, Telos 85. Taylor, Rupert (1992). South Africa: A Consociational Path the Peace?`, Transformation 17, pp. 111. Taylor, Rupert (1994). A Consociational Path to Peace in Northern Ireland and South Africa`, in Adrian Guelke (ed.) New Perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict. Averbury. MacDonald, Michael (1992). The Siren`s Song: The Political Logic of Power-Sharing in South Africa`, Journal of Southern African Studies 18. Guelke, Adrian (1996). Dissecting the South African Miracle: African Parallels`, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 2:1. Sisk, Timothy (1995). Democratization in South Africa: The Elusive Social Contract. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Week 3: Transitional Justice, Reconciliation and Civil Society (BME) Question for briefing papers: A. What are the main elements of transitional justice` and to what extent can these be considered a package for peace`? ­ Discuss with two examples from different regions of the world. B. Can amnesty for human rights crimes committed during conflict processes guarantee a sustainable` peace? Learning outcomes Be able to understand transitional justice as an element of conflict resolution and to define its function in societies beset by ethnic and national conflict. Evaluate the effectiveness of such processes in transition to peace. Overview

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Harris and Reilly (1998, eds.), chapters 4.9 & 4.10, Transitional Justice`, and Reckoning for Past Wrongs: Truth Commissions and War Crimes Tribunals`, pp. 273-297 Pankhurst, D. 1999. Issues of Justice and Reconciliation in Complex Political Emergencies` in Third World Quarterly, vol. 20:1, pp. 239-256. Available to connect online through electronic journals. Essential Rama Mani, Beyond Retribution: Seeking Justice in the Shadows of War, Cambridge: Polity Press, 2002. Gary Jonathan Bass, Stay the Hand Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton University Press, 2000. Geoffrey Robertson, Crimes Against Humanity: the Struggle for Global Justice, London: Penguin, 2002, 2nd edition. Robert I. Rotberg and Dennis Thompson, eds, Truth vs. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions, Princeton University Press, 2000. Carla Hesse and Robert Post, eds, Human Rights in Political Transitions: Gettysburg to Bosnia, New York: Zone Books, 1999. Martha Minow, Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History After Genocide and Mass Violence, Boston: Beacon, 1999. David Mendeloff, Truth-Seeking, Truth-Telling, and Post-Conflict Peacenuilding: Curb the Enthusiasm? International Studies Review, 6, 2004, pp. 355-380. Adrian Guelke, Truth for Amnesty? The Truth and Reconciliation Commission and Human Rights Abuses in South Africa,` Irish Studies in International Affairs, 1999, vol. 10, pp. 21-30. Rachel Kerr, The Road from Dayton to Brussels? The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and the Politics of War Crimes in Bosnia,` European Security vol. 14, no. 3, 2005, pp. 319-337. Robert H. Hayden, Biased Justice: Humanrightsism and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia,` in Raju G. C. Thomas, ed., Yugoslavia Unraveled: Sovereignty, SelfDetermination, Intervention, Lexington Books, 2003, pp. 259-286. Jack Snyder and Leslie Vinjamuri, Trials and Errors: Principle and Pragmatism in Strategies of International Justice,` International Security 28 (3), Winter 2003-4, p. 5-44 (available though the library`s on-line catalogue). Peter Uvin and Charles Mironko, Western and Local Approaches to Justice in Rwanda,` Global Governance, 9 (2003), pp. 219-231. E. Stover, H. Megally, H. Mufti, Bremer`s Gordian Knot: Transitional Justice and the Occupation of Iraq,` Human Rights Quarterly, 27, 2005, pp. 830-857.

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Kritz, Neil. J. (1995, ed.) Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes. Washington: United States Institute of Peace (USIP), Volume 1: General Considerations. Volume 2 has the same title, but subtitled as Country Studies, also published 1995. Volume 3 is subtitled as Laws, Rulings and Reports and is 1996. Ignatieff, M. 1996. Wounded nations, broken lives: truth commissions and war tribunals` Index on Censorship Issue 5/96 www.oneworld.org/index_oc/issue596/ignatieff.html D.J. Whittaker, 1999: Conflict and reconciliation in the contemporary world. London: Routledge Wilson, R. 2001: The politics of truth and reconciliation in South Africa: legitimising the post-apartheid state, Cambridge: CUP. Lyn Graybill, Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: Miracle or Model? Rienner. Crocker, D. (1999) Reckoning with Past Wrongs: a normative framework` in Ethics and International Affairs 13. Dwyer, S. (1999) Reconciliation for realists` in Ethics and International Affairs 13. Andrew Rigby, Justice and Reconciliation: After the Violence. Boulder, Lynne Rienner. O`Neill, S. (1994) Pluralist justice and its limits: the case of Northern Ireland` in Political Studies 32:4. O`Neill, S. (1997) Chapter 7` Impartiality in Context: Grounding Justice in a Pluralist World New York: New York University Press. Roberto Belloni, Civil Society and Peacebuilding in Bosnia-Herzegovina,` Journal of Peace Research 38 (2), 2001, pp. 163-180. Ashutosh Varshney, Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond,` World Politics, April 2001, vol. 53, pp. 362-398. Recommended/Case Studies Ruti G. Teitel, Transitional Justice, Oxford University Press, 2000. William J. Long and Peter Burke, War and Reconciliation: reason and Emotion in Conflict Resolution, MIT Press, 2003. John H. Herz, (1982, ed.). From Dictatorship to Democracy: Coping with the Legacy of Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood. Nordstrom, Carolyn. 1997: A different kind of war story. Philadelphia University Press. You are strongly encouraged to consult the University of Ulster's INCORE web-site which contains country case studies, an 'Ethnic Conflict Research Digest', information and data on Peace Agreements around the world.

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The INCORE home web-page is at: http://www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/home/ The 'INCORE guide to Internet sources on Truth and Reconciliation can be accessed at: http://www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/cds/themes/truth.html Also at UU look for the relevant web-pages to the ESRC-sponsored seminar series on Transitional Justice at: www.busmgt.ulst.ac.uk/transitionaljustice/ Mark Thee, (1996). Towards a culture of peace based human rights in From a Culture of Violence to a Culture of Peace (New York: UNESCO) Human Rights Watch Reports in general, accessed at http://www.hrw.org Middle East Watch Reports ­ http://www.hrw.org/hrw/background/mena Amnesty International Reports ­ www.amnesty.org/uk and www.amnesty.org/ailib/aireport/ Guillermo O`Donnell and Philippe C. Schmitter (1986). Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Johns Hopkins University Press. Esteban Cuya, Truth Commissions in Latin America www.derechos.org/koaga/iii/1/cuya.html Priscilla Hayner, Fifteen Truth Commissions: 1974 --1994: A Comparative Study`, in Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 16, No.4. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa and the Final Report can be accessed from the following sites: www.truth.org/za and www.thruth.org.za/final/index.htm Report on the International Criminal Tribunal in the Former Yugoslavia http://www.un.org/icty/ A Visit to the Harvard Law School has a Comparative Analysis of Truth Commissions at http://law.harvard.edu/programs/HRP/Publications/truthl.html Report on the Chilean Truth and Reconciliation Commission www.derechoschile.com/english/resour.htm WEEK 4: Post-Conflict Reconstruction I (BME) Post-conflict reconstruction Question for briefing papers: A. Is post-war reconstruction and the track record of multi-lateral engagement a case of "too little too late"? B. What are the problems associated with post-conflict reconstruction and how can they be overcome? Reflect on both historical and contemporary examples. Learning Outcomes:

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To have a basic understanding of the important economic as well as political dimensions of such an activity and its impact on conflict resolution processes. To define basic approaches to post-conflict reconstruction and their impact in the latter part of the 20th century. Overview Harris and Reilly (eds.) 1998, chapt. 5 Sustaining Democratic Settlement`, pp. 345-88. Peter Uvin, Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. West Hartford: Kumarian Press, 1998. Essential Jennifer Milliken, ed., State Failure, Collapse and Reconstruction, Blackwell Publishing, 2003. ISBN: 1405105364. Sarah E. Mendelson & John K. Glenn, eds, The Power and Limits of NGOs: A Critical Look at Building Democracy in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Michael Pugh, ed., Regeneration of War-Torn Societies, Macmillan, 2000. James Boyce, Investing in Peace: Aid Conditionality After Civil War, Oxford University Press, 2002. Forman, Shepard and Patrick, Stewart. (eds.) 2000 Good Intentions: Pledges for aid for post-conflict recovery Boulder: Lynne Rienner. Vesna Bojicic Dzelilovic, From Humanitarianism to Reconstruction: Towards an Alternative Approach to Economic and Social Recovery from War,` in Mary Kaldor, ed., Global Insecurity: Restructuring the Global Military Sector, Volume III, London: Pinter, 2000 (pp. 95-119). Roland Paris, At Wars End, 2004, especially chapter 7. Ho-Won Jeong, Peacebuilding in Post-conflict Societies, 2005, chapter 5. Ardon, P. and Ardon, P. 1999: Post-War Reconstruction in Central America: Lessons from El-Salvador , Guatemala, and Nicaragua Oxford: Oxfam Working Papers Miall, H, O. Ramsbotham and T. Woodhouse. Contemporary conflict resolution, the prevention, management and transformation of deadly conflicts. Cambridge: Polity Press. (chaper on post-war reconstruction0 Larry Goodson, Afghanistan`s Long Road to Reconstruction,` Journal of Democracy, 14 (1), January 2003, pp. 82-99 (available through the library`s on-line catalogue). Carlos Santiso, promoting Democratic Governance and Preventing the Recurrence of Conflict: The Role of the United Nations Development Program in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding,` Journal of Latin-American Studies, 34 2002 (pp. 555-586). Available though the library`s on-line catalogue. Eriksson, J.R. (2000). El Salvador: post-conflict reconstruction. Washington: World Bank.

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GB House of Commons (1999). Conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction: sixth report. London: SO. Atmar, H. (1999). Institutional development of southern NGOs: what role for Northern NGOs. York: PWRDU IMF, (1999). Back to the Future: postwar reconstruction and stabilization in Lebanon. Washington: IMF. Black, R. and Koser, K. (eds.) (1999). The end of the refugee cycle? Refugee repatriation and reconstruction. New York: Berghahn. n.a. (1998). From rhetoric to reality: the role of aid in local peacebuilding in Afghanistan. York: PWRDU. n.a. (1998). Urban Triumph or urban disaster?: Dilemmas of contemporary post-war reconstruction. York: PWRDU. Cernea, M.M. (1997). The risks and reconstruction model for resettling displaced populations. Washington: World Bank. Rothstein, R. (ed.) 1999: After the peace: resistance and reconciliation. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. Eade, D. (ed.) 1998: From conflict to peace in a changing world Oxford: Oxfam. Woodward, S. 1999: Bosnia after Dayton: transforming a compromise into a state` in Rothstein, R. (ed.) After the Peace Boulder: Lynne Reinner. Hogan. M. J. 1989 The Marshall Plan: America, Britain and the Reconstruction of Western Europe 19471952 Kreimer, A. et al 1998 The World banks Experience with Post-Conflict Reconstruction Washington DC: World Bank Kreimer, A. el al, 2000: Bosnia and Herzegovina: Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Washington DC: World Bank. Eriksson, J. et al, 2000: El Salvador: post-conflict reconstruction: country case evaluation. Washington DC: World Bank Khalaf, S. and Khoury, P. (eds.) 1993 Recovering Beirut: Urban Design and Post-War Reconstruction IMF 1999 Back to the Future: post-war reconstruction and stabalization in Lebanon Washington DC: IMF Occasional Paper Boehling, R.L. 1996 A Question of Priorities: democratic reforms and economic recovery in post-war Germany. Oxford: Berghan. Ellwood, D. 1992 Rebuilding Europe: Western Europe, America and post-war reconstruction. London: Longman. Burnham, P. 1990 The political economy of post-war reconstruction London: MacMillan

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Krishna, K. (ed.) 1998 Post-conflict elections, democratisation and international assistance Boulder: Lynne Rienner. Marais, H. 2001: South Africa, limits to change: the political economy of transition. Cape Town: CUP. Solimano, A. (ed.) 2000 Essays on peace and development in the case of Colombia and the international experience Washington DC: World Bank. Wood, A. (eds.) 2001: Evaluating humanitarian aid: reflections from practioners London: Zed. Castles, F. 1998 Comparative Public Policy: patterns of post-war transformation Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Recommended/Case Studies Please consult available web-sources on post-conflict reconstruction in Afghanistan World Bank n.d. Group Response to post-conflict reconstruction in Kosovo At http://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/kosovo_st.htm Cahill, K. (ed) 1999: A framework for survival: health, human rights and humanitarian assistance in conflicts and disasters. New York: Routledge. J. Macrae, 2001 Aiding Recovery? The crisis of aid in chronic political emergencies, London: Zed Press. James, K. Boyce (ed.) Economic Policy for Building Peace: The Lessons of El Salvador, Rienner. M. Morrisey. (2000) Northern Ireland: developing a post-conflict economy` in M. Cox, A. Guelke and F. Stephens (eds.) Farewell to Arms Manchester: MUP Teague, Paul. (ed.), (1987). Beyond the rhetoric : politics, the economy and social policy in Northern Ireland. London : Lawrence and Wishart. NI Special Support Programme for Peace and Reconciliation details of this EU funded programme at http://www.nics.gov.uk/eu/eussppr/progsumm/index.htm Tomlinson, Mike, 1951-. - 25 years on: the costs of war and the dividends of peace. Belfast : West Belfast Economic Forum, 1994. - (Annual Frank Cahill lecture ; 2nd). Bradley, John. An Island economy : exploring long-term economic and social consequences of. - Dublin : Stationery Office, 1996. Coopers and Lybrand, (1991), The Northern Ireland economy : review and prospects Belfast : Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte, 1991. Northern Ireland Economic Council, (1995), The economic implications of peace and political stability for Northern Ireland. - Belfast : Northern Ireland Economic Development Office, 1995. - (Occasional paper ; 4). - 1897614225 Michael Pugh, Transformation in the Political Economy of Bosnia Since Dayton, International Peacekeeping, vol. 12, no. 3, 2005, pp. 448-462. 19

R. Brynen, A very political economy: peacebuilding and foreign aid in the West Bank and Gaza Strip (review) Middle East Journal, Spring 2001, vol. 55, pp. 334-335.

WEEK 5: Post-Conflict Reconstruction II: The Iraq case (BME) Project-oriented learning Two Teams (to be agreed in advance) will work on the management of post-conflict reconstruction activities for Iraq. Objective is to convince the funder of the priority and efficacy of your project over that of the other team. Prizes for success. Project areas that you may bid for are: Infrastructure Natural Resources development Democracy building Security Health Education Refugees and IDPs You have to choose whether your team works on one or many project areas and whether you will work in the whole of Iraq or a particular province or region. It is the duty of the project manager to organise their team and task them ahead of the project presentation event. Project spend available is: USD 1 million 2008-09. The two teams will work to compile a project portfolio outlining their case, viability, costing and other relevant data on a maximum of 4 pages. Each team will offer a separate presentation of their case (not simply reading out the project portfolio) and there will be an opportunity to make the case for support on the evening of the presentation and to counter the case made by the other team. Learning outcomes To have basic understanding of the post-conflict reconstruction effort as both a theoretical and empirical project To critically assess current reconstruction efforts and priorities post-conflict. Overview BBC documentary, A history of Iraq, written and presented by B. Milton-Edwards Milton-Edwards, B. Mission impossible: post-conflict reconstruction in Iraq. See: QOL under module resources. 20

Essential Anderson, Liam and Gareth Stansfield (2004) The Future of Iraq: Dictatorship, Democracy or Division? New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Dodge, Toby and Steven Simon (eds.) (2003) Iraq at the Crossroads: State and Society in the Shadow of Regime Change. International Institute of Strategic Studies, Adelphi Paper 354. London: IISS/OUP. Irani-King, L. Iraq: a look back, Orbis, vol. 51:1, 2007, pp. 91-106. Milton-Edwards, Iraq; past, present and future: a thoroughly modern mandate?, History and Policy, 2003, http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-13.html Marr, Phebe (2004) The Modern History of Iraq (2nd edition). Boulder CO: Westview. Niblock, Tim (2001) Pariah states & Sanctions in the Middle East Iraq, Libya, Sudan. Boulder, CO: Westview. Tripp, Charles (2000) A History of Iraq. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Recommended Ibrahim Akoum, Imad Zbib, Zafar U. Ahmed, Iraq: A new country in the making (p 475-506), Thunderbird International Business Review, Volume 49 Issue 4 , Pages 399 - 541 (July/August 2007), available QCAT Ahmed, S. No size fits all ­ lessons in making peace and rebuilding states, Foreign Affairs, vol. 84:1, 2005, p. 162Le Billon, Phillipe. Corruption, Reconstruction and Oil Governance in Iraq Third World Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 4 & 5 June 2005 , pages 685 ­ 703, available QCAT Eric Herring; Glen Rangwala , Iraq, Imperialism and Global Governance Third World Quarterly, Volume 26, Issue 4 & 5 June 2005 , pages 667 ­ 683, available QCAT Fettweiss, CJ, On the consequences of failure in Iraq` Survival, vol. 49:4, Dec 2007, pp. 83-98. Sultan Barakat, Post-Saddam Iraq: deconstructing a regime, reconstructing a nation, Third World Quarterly, vol. 26, June 2005, pp. 571-591. Toby Dodge, The causes of US failure in Iraq, Survival, vol. 49:1, pp. 85-106. Julian Schofield; Micah Zenko , Designing a secure Iraq: a US policy prescription , Third World Quarterly, Volume 25, Issue 4 2004 , pages 677 - 687 Alex Jeffrey, The politics of democratization: Lessons from Bosnia and Iraq, Review of International Political Economy, vol. 14:3, August 2007, pp. 444-466.

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Athena Vongalis-Macrow, Rebuilding regimes or rebuilding community?, Journal of peace education, 2006, 3-1-, p. 99Christopher Spearin, American hegemony incorporated: the importance and implications of military contractors in Iraq, Contemporary Security Policy, vol. 24, 2003, pp. 26-47. Andrew Rathmell, Planning post-conflict reconstruction in Iraq: what can we learn?, International Affairs, 81 (5), pp. 1013-1038. Charles Tripp, The United states and state-building in Iraq, Review of International Studies, 2004, p. 545. Adeed Dawisha, Iraq: Setbacks, Advances, Prospects, Journal of Democracy 15.1 (2004) 5-20 Roger MacGinty, The pre-war reconstruction of post-war Iraq, Third World Quarterly, vol. 24, 4, August 2003, pp. 601-61. Graham Day, Christopher Freeman (2003) Policekeeping is the Key: Rebuilding the Internal Security Architecture of Postwar Iraq International Affairs 79 (2), 299­313.

Kang, S. and Meernik, J. Determinants of post-conflict economic assistance`, Journal of peace research, vol. 41:2, p. 149. Freedman, L. Iraq: Liberal wars and illiberal containment, Survival, vol. 48:4, pp. 51-66.

WEEK 6: Approaches to Peace-building (BME) Peace-building and conflict management Question for briefing papers: A. Is there a cultural specificity to theories of theories of peace-building? B. In what ways have approaches to peace-building made an effective contribution to conflict resolution. Discuss with reference to comparative examples. Learning outcomes: To have a basic understanding of peace-building theory and its practical impact on societies which have experienced ethno-national conflict. To critically assess the saliency of the approach and its appeal to the international community. Overview Cousens, E. (ed.) 2001: Peacebuilding as politics: cultivating peace in fragile societies. London: Lynne Reinner. Lederach, J.P. 1997 Building Peace: sustainable reconciliation in divided societies Washington DC: USIP.

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Essential Tom Keating and W. Andy Knight, eds., Building Sustainable Peace, Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2004. Roland Paris, At Wars End: Building Peace After Civil Conflict, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Ho-Wan Jeong, ed., Approaches to Peacebuilding, Houndmills: Palgrave, 2002. Simon Chesterman, You, the People: The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building, Oxford University Press, 2002. Richrad Caplan, International Governance of War-Torn Societies: Rule and Reconstruction, Oxford University Press, 2005. Michael Ignatieff, Empire Light: Nation-Building in Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan, Penguin, 2003. Reychler, L. and Duffenholz, T. (eds.) 2000 Peacebuilding Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. Bollens, S.A. 1999 Urban Peace-Building in divided societies Boulder: Westview Press Pugh, M. 1995 The Challenge of Peace-building Plymouth: University of Plymouth Press. Atlas, P. and Licklider, R. (1999), Conflict among former allies after civil war settlement: Sudan, Zimbabwe, Chad and Lebanon`, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 36, pp. 35-54. Betram, E. (1995), Reinventing government: the promise and perils of peacebuilding`, Journal of Conflict resolution, vol. 39:3, September, pp. 387-418. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Preventing Deadly Conflicts: Final Report, New York, 1997. Chopra, J. (ed.) (1998), The Politics of Peace Maintenance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. Coker, C. (1997), How wars end`, Millennium, (26) 3, pp. 615-30. Cortwright, D. (ed.) (1997). The Price of Peace: Incentives and International Conflict Prevention. Washington: Carnegie Commission. De Soto, A. and Castillo, G. (1994). Obstacle to Peacebuilding`, Foreign Policy, vol. 94, Spring, pp. 69-83. Sisk, Timothy D., (1996), Power sharing and international mediation in ethnic conflicts, Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press. Rotberg, R. (1996), Vigilance and vengeance: NGOs preventing ethnic conflict in divided societies. Washington: Brooking Institution Press. Paris, R. (1997), Peacebuilding and limits of liberal internationalism,` International Security, vol. 22:2 (fall), pp. 54-89.

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People Building Peace: 35 Inspiring Stories from around the world, Utrecht: ECCP (1999). Stedman, S.J. (1997), Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes`, International Security (22): 2, pp. 5-53. Belloni, R. Civil society and peacebuilding in Bosnia and Herzegovina` Journal of Peace Research, Mar 2001, vol. 38, pp. 163-180. Belloni, R., Peacebuilding at the Local Level: Return to Prijedor,` International Peacekeeping, vol. 12, no. 3, 2005, pp. 434-447. Pugh, M. and Cobble, M. Non-nationalist voting in Bosnian municipal elections: implications for democracy and peacebuilding` Journal of peace research Jan 2001, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 27-47. NICVA 1999 Towards a civil society: Report Belfast: NICVA Love, M. 1995 Peace building through reconciliation in Northern Ireland Aldershot, Avebury Recommended Wlliamson, A. 1995 Beyond Violence: the role of voluntary and community action in building a sustainable peace in Northern Ireland Belfast: Community Relations Council. Jonssan, B. 1996 Community-based http://www.oneowlrd.org/aprodev/peace.htm building of peace and democracy at

Doyle, MW and Sambanis, N. n.d. Building Peace: Challenges and Strategies After Civil War at http://www.worldbank.org/research/conflict/papers/building.htm full paper can then be accessed from this site. Paul van Tangeren, Hans van de Veen & Juliette Verhoeven (eds.), Searching for Peace in Europe and Eurasia: An overview of Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Activities. Boulder, Lynne Reinner, ISBN: 1-58826-079-8 x 1 copy Griffith, A. 1998 Conflict and resolution: peace building through the ballot box in Zimbabwe. Oxford: Cherwell Press. Chetan Kumar, Building Peace in Haiti, Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 3 copies. Moaz, I. An experiment in peace: reconciliation-aimed workshops of Jewish-Israeli and Palestinian youth` Journal of Peace research, November 2000 (37): 6, pp. 721-736. Robert Rothstein (ed.) After the Peace: Resistance and Reconciliation, Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 3 copies. Jarat Chopra (ed.) The Politics of Peace Maintenance, Boulder: Rienner, 3 copies (2 for SH) Adekeye Adebajo, Building Peace in West Africa, Boulder: Lynne Rienner. Bruce, D. Jones, Peace making in Rwanda: The Dynamics of Failure, Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 2001. Cousens, E. & Cater, C. 2001: Towards peace in Bosnia: implementing the Dayton Accord. Boulder, Col.: Lynne Rienner. 24

Heinrich, W. Building the peace: experiences of collaborative peacebuilding in Somalia 19931996 (review)` Journal of Peace Research, 1999, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 612-613. Simon Chesterman (ed.), Civilians in War. Boulder: Lynne Reinner, 2001 Week 7: Negotiations and Mediation (AG) Question for briefing papers: A. Explore what factors need to be present to make possible successful negotiations to bring an end to a protracted ethnic conflict. Use examples. B. In what circumstances can external mediation help to foster negotiation s among the protagonists in a protracted ethnic conflict? Learning Outcomes: To be able to define negotiation and its function in the management or resolution of ethnonational conflicts. To be able to identify contrasting approaches to the topic and the differences between theorists. Essential reading: Harris and Reilly (1998, eds.), chpt 3, pp. 61-113. *Guelke, Adrian (2003) Negotiation and Peace Processes,` in John Darby and Roger MacGinty (eds), Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 53-64. Recommended reading: Rubin, J.Z. (1986). Can we negotiate with terrorists? Some answers from psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Law. Breslin, J. W. and Rubin, J. Z. (eds.) (1991). Negotiation theory and practice. Cambridge,Mass.: Harvard Law. Zartman, I.W. (2005). Cowardly lions: missed opportunities to prevent deadly conflict and state collapse. Zartman, I.W. and Rubin, J.Z. (eds.) (2000). Power and Negotiation. Ann Arbor: Univ. Michigan Press. Bercovitch, J. (1996). The study of international mediation. Offprint 41900 Holbrooke, Richard. (1999). To end a war. New York: Modern Library Gould, Alberta. (1996). George Mitchell: In search of peace. Farmington: Heritage. Mitchell, George. (2000). Making Peace. Berkeley: UCP. Bercovitch, Jacob (Editor) (1995). Resolving International Conflicts: The Theory and Practice of Mediation (Studies in International Politics) Crocker, Chester A. et al (Ed) (1999). Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World Crocker, Chester A. et al. (2004). Taming intractable conflicts: mediation in the hardest cases. USIP. Fisher, Ronald J. (1997). Interactive Conflict Resolution (Syracuse Studies on Peace and Conflict Resolution) Zartman, I.W. and J. Rubin (eds.) (2000). Power and Negotiation Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Kleiboer, Marieke (1998). The Multiple Realities of International Mediation Jones, D. 1999: Cosmopolitan Mediation?: conflict resolution and the Oslo Accords Manchester: MUP. Moore, Christopher W. (1996). The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict (JosseyBass Conflict Resolution Series) 25

Slaikeu, Karl A. (1995). When Push Comes to Shove: A Practical Guide to Mediating Disputes (JosseyBass Conflict Resolution Series) Fordham International Law Journal, vol. 22, no. 4, April (1999). Special Issue Dedicated to George J Mitchell. KM31/FORD Zartman, I. William (1995, ed). Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil Wars. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. Kissinger, Henry. (1978) The White House Years, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Hoffman, M. Third Party Mediation and Conflict Resolution in the Post Cold War World` in T. Bayliss and NJ Rengger (eds.) (1992) Dilemmas in World Politics Oxford: Clarendon Press. Taba negotiations`, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol.31, No.3, 2002 (offprint). Week 8: Partition and secession (NL) Questions for briefing papers: A. As a general solution to ethnic conflict Horowitz (1985: 592) concluded that partition ought not to be the policy of choice but of desperation. What problems might partition or secession cause and which may they solve? B. Very few groups have fought successful secessionist wars. So why do they try and which ones succeed. Learning outcomes: To understand the basic features of partition and secession ­ particularly in their historical context and evaluate their present-day function as a means to resolving ethno-national conflicts. Comparative assessment of defining features across the globe. Partitions: obvious cases: Ireland, India, Israel-Palestine, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia. Secessions: Sweden (Norway); Pakistan (Bangladesh), Ethiopia (Eritrea); The Soviet Union (virtually everybody); Yugoslavia (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and possibly Kosova in the future). Of course many other potential secessions could be listed - some of the best known would be Canada (Quebec), UK (Scotland), India (Kashmir), Iran, Iraq, Syrian , Turkey (Kurdistan). Essential Reading McGarry, John and Brendan O`Leary (1993), Introduction: the Macro-Political Regulation of Ethnic Conflict`, in John McGarry and Brendan O`Leary (eds) ). The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation. London: Routledge. (pp. 11-16). *Nicholas Sambanis, (2000) Partition as a Solution to Ethnic War, An Empirical Critique of the Theoretical Literature, World Politics 52, July, 437­83 *Radha Kumar, The Troubled History of Partition, Foreign Affairs 76 ( January­February 1997). Kaufmann, Chaim. 1996. Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars`. International Security, 20(4):136-175.

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Further Reading *Stanley Waterman (1996) ,Partition, Secession and Peace in our Time, GeoJournal 39.4: 345352, 9, (August). Kaufmann, Chaim. 2007. An Assessment of the Partition of Cyprus`. International Studies Perspectives, 8(2):206-223 Horowitz, Donald (1985). Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press (ch 6 The logic of secessions and irredentas`, and pp. 588-92). Lustick, Ian (1993). Unsettled States, Disputed Lands: Britain and Ireland, France and Algeria, Israel and the West Bank-Gaza. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Howe, Stephen (2000), The politics of historical revisionism: comparing Ireland and Israel` in Past and Present, no. 168, August 2000. D1/.P21. Howe, Stephen (1999), Ireland and Empire: colonial legacies in Irish history and culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Birch, A: 1978, Minority Nationalist Movements and Theories of Political Integration`, World Politics 30:3. Carmet, D. (eds.) 2001: The international politics of Quebec secession: state making and state breaking in North America London: Praeger. Williams, Conin. H. and Eleonore Kofman (1989). Community Conflict: Partition and Nationalism. London: Routledge. Hechter, Michael (1992), The Dynamics of Secession`, Acta Sociologica 35, (267-83). Connor, Walker (1967), Self-Determination: The New Phase,` World Politics 20 (also published as chpt 1 in Walker Connor (1994). Ethnonationalism: the Quest for Understanding. Princeton , N.J.: Princeton University Press. Mansergh, N. (1978). Prelude to Partition: Concepts and Aims in Ireland and India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Wood, John (1981), Secession: A Comparative Analytic Framework,` Canadian Journal of Political Science. Premdas, R., Samarasinghe, S. W. R. and Anderson, A. (eds., 1990). Secessionist Movements in Comparative Perspective. London: Pinter. Young, Robert (1994), How do Peaceful Secessions Happen?, Canadian Journal of Political Science 27: 4 (ch. 10 The Comparative Politics of Peaceful Secessions` in Young (1995) The Secession of Quebec and the Future of Canada. Montreal: Queen`s University. Recommended/Case Studies 27

Laffan, Michael (1983). The Partition of Ireland, 1911-25. Dundalgan Press. Gallagher, F. (1957). Indivisible Island: The Story of the Partition of Ireland. London: Gollancz. O`Leary, Brendan and John McGarry (1993). The Politics of Antagonism: Understanding Northern Ireland. London: The Athlone Press (ch 2). G. Hussey, Ireland Today, anatomy of a changing state, DA967.HUS Delacy Ryan, Ireland restored, the new self-determination, DA967 RYAN M. Abraham, A comparative study of partition in Palestine and Ireland, DA967.ABRA R. Kearney (ed.), Across the Frontiers in Ireland in the 1990s, U/DA967 KEAR N. Kliot & S. Waterman, Political Geography of conflict and peace, JC 319 KLIO R. Mellor, Nation, state and territory, JC319 MELL McGarry, John and Brendan O`Leary (1995). Explaining Northern Ireland. Oxford: Blackwell (chps 1 and 3). Kennedy, Liam (1986). Two Ulsters: A Case for Repartition. Queen`s University. Mitchell, Paul (1999), Futures`, in Paul Mitchell and Rick Wilford (eds) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, CO: Westview Press (section on Separation` reviews partition schemes for NI and argues against them). Former Yugoslavia Cohen, Lenard (1995/1997). Broken Bonds: Yugoslavias Disintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Bennett, C. (1995). Yugoslavias Bloody Collapse. London: Hurst. Ramet, Sabrina Petra (1996, 2nd ed). Balkan Babel: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia from the Death of Tito to Ethnic War. Gow, James (1991), Deconstructing Yugoslavia`, Survival 33:4. (offprint). 25105 Gow, James (1994), Serbian Nationalism and the Hissing Snake in the International Order: Whose Sovereignty? Which Nation?`, Slavic and East European Review 72: July. (offprint). 25130 Rady, Martin (1996), Self Determination and the Dissolution of Yugoslavia`, Ethnic and Racial Studies 19:2. Denitch, Bogdan (1994/1996). Ethnic Nationalism: The Tragic Death of Yugoslavia. Dyker, D. and I. Vejvoda (1997). Yugoslavia and After: Study in Fragmentation and Despair. London: Longman.

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Donia, R. J. and J. Fine (1994). Bosnia and Herzegovina. London: Hurst. Silber, Laura and Alan little (1995). The Death of Yugoslavia. London: Penguin/BBC. Schopflin, George (1993), The Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia`, in McGarry, John and Brendan O`Leary (1993). The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation. London: Routledge. (offprint). Lederer. Ivo (1994), Nationalism and the Yugoslavs`, in Peter Sugar and Ivo Lederer (eds) Nationalism and Eastern Europe. Washington D.C. Lendvai, Paul (1991), Yugoslavia Without Yugoslavs: The Roots of the Crisis`, International Affairs 67:2. Cohen, Lenard (1998), Whose Bosnia? The Politics of Nation Building`, Current History, March. Kumas, R. (1997). Divide and Fall: Bosnia in the Annals of Partition. London: Verso. Palestine/Israel Tessler, Mark (1995). A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Cattan, Henry (1988). The Palestine Question. London: Croom Helm. Lustick, Ian (1987). Israeli state-building in the West Bank and the Gaza| Strip`, International Organization, 41:1, pp. 151-171. Lustick, Ian (1993). Unsettled States, Disputed Lands: Britain and Ireland, France and Algeria, Israel and the West Bank-Gaza. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Pappé, Ilan (1994). The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947-51. I.B. Tauris. Morris, Benny (1994). 1948 and After : Israel and the Palestinians. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Harkabi, Y. (1974). Palestinians and Israel. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House. Rodinson, M. (1973). Israel: A Colonial-Settler State? New York: Monad Press. D. Elazar. (1986) Two Peoples, One Land, federal solutions DS119.7/ELAZ N. Masalha. (1998) Expulsion of the Palestinians, DS119.7/MASA Canada Dion, Stephane (1996), Why is Secession Difficult in Well-Established Democracies? Lessons from Quebec`, British Journal of Political Science 26:2, pp. 269-83. Drache, Daniel and Roberto Perin (eds., 1992). Negotiating with a Sovereign Quebec. Toronto: James Lorimer and Company.

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Week 9: Ethnic expulsions and internally displaced persons Questions for briefing papers: A. What are the main options facing refugees and displaced persons in post conflict societies? B. What are the main principles legal, humanitarian and evaluating the rights of refugees and displaced persons Learning Outcomes: To be able to define refugees and displaced persons and assess commonalities across cases in deeply divided societies. Familiarize with cases of successful and unsuccessful repatriation around the world (Bosnians, Bulgarian Turks, etc). Essential Readings: Belloni, Roberto. 2006. Peacebuilding at the Local Level: Refugee Return to Prijedor,` in David Chandler, ed., Peace without Politics? Ten Years of International State-Building in Bosnia. London: Routledge (128-141). Zetter, Roger.1994. The Greek-Cypriot Refugees: Perceptions of Return under Conditions of Protracted Exile,` International Migration Review 28 (2): 307-22. Vasileva, Darina, Bulgarian Turkish Emigration and Return, International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, Summer, 1992, pp. 342-352. Recommended Readings: Belloni, Roberto. 2001. Civil Society and Peacebuilding in Bosnia and Herzegovina,` Journal of Peace Research 38(2): 63­80 _____. 2008. State Building and International Intervention in Bosnia, London: Routledge. Black, Richard & Khalid Koser, eds, 1999. The End of the Refugee Cycle?: Refugee Repatriation and Reconstruction. New York: Berghahn, 1999 Black, Richard. 2001. Return and Reconstruction in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Missing Link, or Mistaken Priority?` SAIS Review 21 (2): 177-199. Dahlman, Carl, and Toal, Gerard 2005 Broken Bosnia: the Localized Geopolitics of Displacement and Return in Two Bosnian Places` Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(3). Fisher, Ronald 2001. Cyprus: The Failure of Mediation and the Escalation of an Identity-Based Conflict to an Adversarial Impasse,` Journal of Peace Research 38(3): 307- 326. Harry Anastasiou. 2002. Communication Across Conflict Lines: The Case of Ethnically Divided Cyprus,` Journal of Peace Research 39(5): 581-96. Hourani, Guita. 1998. A Reading in the History of the Maronites of Cyprus from the Eight Century to the Beginning of British Rule,` Journal of Maronite Studies 2 (3): http://www.mari.org/JMS/july98/index.html accessed 2007-08-07 International Crisis Group [ICG], 1998 a. A Hollow Promise? The Return of Bosnian Serb Displaced Persons to Drvar, Bosansko Grahovo and Glamoc. ICG Bosnia Project, No 29, January 19.

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_____. 1998 b. The Konjic Conundrum: Why Minorities Have Failed to Return to Model Open City, ICG Bosnia Project, 35, June 19. _____. 1998 c, Impunity in Drvar, ICG Balkans report, 40, August 20. _____. 1999. Preventing Minority Return in Bosnia and Herzegovina: The Anatomy of Hate and Fear. ICG Report, 73, August 2. _____.2000 Bosnia' Refugee Logjam Breaks: Is the International Community ready? ` ICG Balkans 95, May 30. _____. 2002 The Continuing Challenge of Refugee Return in Bosnia & Herzegovina ICG Balkans Report 137, December 13. Joseph, Joseph. 1997. Cyprus: Ethnic Conflict and International Politics: from Independence to the Threshold of the European Union, New York: St. Martin`s. Kliot, Nurit, & Yoel Mansfeld. 1994. Resettling Displaced People in North and South Cyprus: A Comparison,` Journal of Refugee Studies 7(4): 328-59. Lake, David, & Donald Rothchild. 1996. Containing Fear: The Origins and Management of Ethnic Conflict,` International Security 21 (2): 41-75. Leckie, Scott, ed. 2003. Returning Home: Housing and Property Restitution Rights of Refugees and Displaced Persons. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers. Loescher, Gil, and Milner, James. 2005. The Significance of Protracted Refugee Situations` The Adelphi Papers, Vol 45, Num 375, July. Loizos, Peter. 1981. The Heart Grown Bitter: A Chronicle of Cypriot War Refugees. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nalepa, Monika, 2007. Why do they Return? Evaluating the Impact of ICTY Justice on Reconciliation` Working Paper, January 26. Necatigil Zaim. 1993. The Cyprus Question and the Turkish Position in International Law, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Palley, Claire. 2005. An International Relations Debacle: The UN Secretary-Generals Mission of Good Offices in Cyprus 1999-2004, Oxford: Hart. Pickering, Paula M. 2006. Generating Social Capital for Bringing Ethnic Divisions in the Balkans: Case Studies of Two Bosniak Cities, ` Ethnic and Racial Studies Vol 29, No. 1, January. Stefanovic, Djordje, 2007 The Path to Weimar Serbia? Explaining the Resurgence of the Serbian Far Right after the fall of Milosevic,` Ethnic and Racial Studies. Toal, Gerard and Dahlman, Carl 2005 Has Ethnic Cleansing Succeeded? Geographies of Minority Return and Its Meaning in Bosnia-Herzegovina. ` In Anton Gosar (ed) Dayton Ten Years After: Conflict Resolution, Co-operation Perspectives, Primorska: Slovenia. UNHCR. 2005. Update on Condition for Return to Bosnia and Herzegovina.` January. Available from http://www.unhcr.ba/publications/B&HRET0105.pdf, accessed 2007-08-07. UNHCR. 2006a. Statistical Summary as at 31 October 2006 (Total Number of Refugees and Displaced Persons who returned to/within Bosnia and Herzegovina),` October. Available from http://www.unhcr.ba/return/Summary_31102006.pdf, accessed 2007-08-09 UNHCR. 2007a. Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons.` Available from http://www.unhcr.org/gr06/index.html, accessed 2007-08-09 UNHCR. 2007b. UNHCR report says refugee population rises to almost 10 million`, June 19. Available from http://www.unhcr.org.uk/PR19June2007.htm, accessed 2007-08-0 United Nations. 2004. Report of the Secretary-General on his Mission of Good Offices in Cyprus,` S/2004/43, 28 May. Van Evera, Stephen. 1994. Hypotheses on Nationalism and War,` International Security, 18 (4): 539. Walter, Barbara. 1999. Designing Transitions from Civil War: Demobilization, Democratization, and Commitments to Peace,` International Security 24 (1): 127-55.

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Zetter, Roger.1999. Reconceptualizing the Myth of Return: Continuity and Transition Amongst the Greek-Cypriot Refugees of 1974,` Journal of Refugee Studies 41(2): 1-22 Cox, Marcus & Madeline Garlick. Musical Chairs: Property Repossession and Return Strategies in Bosnia and Herzegovina.` In Leckie, Scott, ed., Returning Home: Housing and Property Restitution Rights of Refugees and Displaced Persons. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, pp. 65-83.

Week 10: Settlers, indigenous people and non-territorial minorities Question for briefing papers: A. Discuss the role of settlers in negotiations for peace in conflict-ridden societies (who counts as a settler?) B. Evaluate the arguments in favour or against granting rights to settlers C. Evaluate the case for special rights to indigenous and non-territorial minorities Learning Outcomes: Identify the dynamics involving conflicts between settlers and indigenous people Familiarize with solutions on issues involving settlers with references to Israel, the former Soviet Union, Nigeria, Tibet, Fiji, and Cyprus. Identify options for non-territorial minorities including the arguments for asymmetrical citizenship Rafael Reuveny, "Fundamentalist Colonialism: the Geopolitics of Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," Political Geography 22 (2003): 347-80. Joseph H. Carens, Democracy and Respect for Difference: the Case of Fiji, in Joseph H. Carens, Culture, Citizenship, and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice and Evenhandedness, Oxford University Press, 2000. pp. 200-258. Johannes Harnischfeger, Sharia and Control over Territory: Conflicts between Settlers` and Indigenes` in Nigeria, African Affairs 103, 412: 431-52. John Coakley, Approaches to the Resolution of Ethnic Conflict: The Strategy of Non-Territorial Autonomy, International Political Science Review, 1994, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 297-314. Also listen to: Odyssey--April 13, 2005 Settlers Ian Lustick--Professor and Bess W. Heyman Chair, Department of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania Susan Pedersen--Professor, History Department, Columbia University http://www.chicagopublicradio.org/audio_library/od_raapr05.asp http://www.sas.upenn.edu/penncip/lustick/index.html

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Recommended reading: Ian Lustick 1988, For the Land and the Lord, Council on Foreign Relations http://www.sas.upenn.edu/penncip/lustick/index.html Also listen to: http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people2/Lustick/lustick-con0.html David Laitin, Identity in Formation: The Russian-Speaking Populations in the Near Abroad, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998. Ephraim Nimni, The National Cultural Autonomy Model Revisited, and The Sovereign Predicament of Dispersed Nations in E. Nimni (ed.) National Cultural Autonomy and its Contemporary Critics, Routledge, London 2005, pp 1-14 and 237-253 Ephraim Nimni, Nationalist Multiculturalism in late Imperial Austria as a Critique of Contemporary Liberalism: the case of Bauer and Renner, Journal of Political Ideologies, 4 (3) October 1999, pp. 289-314 Carens, Joseph, 2000. Culture, Citizenship, and Community (A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Johannes Harnischfeger, Sharia and Control over Territory: Conflicts between Settlers` and Indigenes` in Nigeria, African Affairs, Oded Haklai, (2007), Religious-Nationalist Mobilization and State Penetration: Lessons from Jewish Settlers Activism in Israel and the West Bank, Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 40, No. 6, 713-739. Van Bruinessen Martin. Shifting national and ethnic identities: The Kurds in Turkey and the European Diaspora, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 18, 1 (April 1998): 39-53. Hatay, Mete. 2005. Beyond Numbers (An Inquiry into the Political Integration of the Turkish ,,Settlers in Northern Cyprus. PRIO Report 4. Kolsto, Pal and Melberg, Hans. 2002. Integration, Alienation, and Conflict in Estonia and Moldova at Societal Level: A Comparison, ` in Pal Kolsto (Ed) National Integration and Violent Conflict in post-Soviet Societies : the Cases of Estonia and Moldova Lanham, MD : Rowman & Littlefield. Kolsto, Pal. 2002. Conclusion`. in Pal Kolsto (Ed) National Integration and Violent Conflict in post-Soviet Societies : the Cases of Estonia and Moldova Lanham, MD : Rowman & Littlefield. Mann, Michael. 2005. The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Petersen, Roger D. 2002 Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in the Twentieth Century Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rothchild, Donald S., ed. 1997. Managing Ethnic Conflict in Africa: Pressures and Incentives for Cooperation, Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997

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Veugelers, John. 2005. Ex-colonials, voluntary associations, and electoral support for the contemporary far right`, Comparative European Politics, vol. 3. Cuco, Alfons, 1994, Report on the Demographic Structure of the Cypriot Communities, Press and Information Office, Republic of Cyprus.Pfirter, Didier Pfirter 2003. Transcript of Didier Pfirter Interview with Suleyman Erguclu, Kibris TV, 20/03/03 republished in Kibris newspaper 25/03/03` (http://www.cyprusaction.org/projects/loizides/pfirter.php, accessed 2007-08-0) Loizides, Neophytos and Marcos A. Antoniades, Settlers, Refugees, and Immigrants: Alternative Futures for Post-Settlement Cyprus, ISP Discussion Paper, Discussion Paper 2004-03, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, March 2004. Bieber, Florian, 2006. Post-war Bosnia: ethnicity, inequality and public sector governance, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Navaro-Yashin, Yael. De-ethnicizing the Ethnography of Cyprus: Political and Social Conflict between Turkish Cypriots and Settlers from Turkey` in Yiannis Papadakis, Yiannis, Nicos Peristianis and Gisela Welz, eds. Divided Cyprus: Modernity, History, and an Island in Conflict. Bloomington, IN, USA: Indiana University Press, 2006 (84-100). Loizides, Neophytos. 2007. Ethnic Nationalism and Adaptation in Cyprus,` International Studies Perspectives 8 (2):172-189.

WEEK 11: Summary and Conclusions (NL) FURTHER READING: Tom Keating and W. Andy knight, eds, Building Sustainable Peace, United Nations University Press, 2004 (3 Copies) Jennifer Milliken, ed., State Failure, Collapse and Reconstruction, Blackwell Publishing, 2003 (2 COPIES). James K. Boyce, Investing in Peace: Aid and Conditionality After Civil Wars. Adelphi Paper No. 351. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2002. Cynthia J. Arson, ed., Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. Peter Uvin, Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. West Hartford: Kumarian Press, 1998. Tony Addison, ed., From Conflict to Recovery in Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. Sarah E. Mendelson & John K. Glenn, eds, The Power and Limits of NGOs: A Critical Look at Building Democracy in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. Richard Caplan, International Governance of War-Torn Territories: Rule and Reconstruction. Oxford University Press, 2005. 34

Tim Donais, The Political Economy of Peacebuilding in Post-Dayton Bosnia. Frank Cass, 2004. 0415357314. Michael Pugh and Neil Cooper, with David Goodhand, eds, War Economies in Regional Context: Challenges of Transformation. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2004. Edward Newman and Joanne van Selm, eds, Refugees and forced Displacement: International Security, Human Vulnerability, and the State, United Nations University Press, 2003. Scott Leckie, ed., Returning Home: Housing and Property Restitution Rights of Refugees and Displaced Persons, Ardley, NY: Transnational Publishers, 2003. Antonia Chayes and Martha Minow, eds, Imagine Coexistence: Restoring Humanity After Violent Ethnic Conflict, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003. Sunil Bastian and Robin Luckham, eds, Can Democracy be Designed? The Politics of Institutional Choice in Conflict-Torn Societies, London: Zed Books, 2003. Ashutosh Varshney, Ethnic Conflict and Civic Life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. Robert C. Orr, ed., Winning the Peace: An American Strategy for Post-Conflict Reconstruction, Washington, Dc: CSIS Press, 2004. Richard Sobel and Eric Shiraev, eds, International Public Opinion and the Bosnia Crisis, Lanham, Md: Lexington Books, 2003. Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild, Elizabeth Cousens, eds, Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, Lynne Rienner, 2002. Andrew Reynolds, The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy, Oxford University Press, 2002. Robert I. Rotberg and Dennis Thompson, eds, Truth vs. Justice: The Morality of truth Commissions, Princeton University Press, 2000. Martha Minow, Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History After Genocide and Mass Violence, Boston: Beacon, 1999. Ruti G. Teitel, Transitional Justice, Oxford University Press, 2000. William J. Long and Peter Burke, War and Reconciliation: Reason and Emotion in Conflict Resolution, MIT Press, 2003. John McGarry and Brendan O` Leary, The Northern Ireland Conflict: Consociational Engagement, Oxford University Press, 2004. Robert Rotberg, ed, When States Fail: Causes and Consequences, Princeton University Press, 2004. Antonio Donini, Norah Niland, Karin Wermester, eds, Nation-Building Unraveled? Aid, Peace and Justice in Afghanistan, Kumarian Press, 2004. Simon Chesterman, You, the People: The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building, Oxford University Press, 2004. Stefan Wolff and Ulrich Schneckener, eds, Managing and Settling Ethnic Conflict: Perspectives on Successes and Failures from Africa, Asia, and Europe, London: Hurst, 2004. Shale Horowitz and Albrecht Schnabel, eds, Human Rights and Societies in Transition: Causes, Consequences, Responses. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2004. Jeong, H.W. 2000: Peace and conflict studies: an introduction Aldershot: Ashgate. Jeong, HW (ed.) 1999: The new agenda for peace research. Aldershot: Ashgate. Harris, Peter and Ben Reilly (1998, eds.). Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators. Stockholm: IDEA Handbook Series 3.

SUMMARY OF MODULE REVIEW 2006-2007: Students enjoyed the discussions and the overall rating of the module was favourable.

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