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The Oracle Database: Past, Present, and Future

Lex de Haan

Oracle ST, curriculum development Aalborg, 27 November 2003

Copyright © 2003, Oracle. All rights reserved.

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Overview

Ted Codd 1970

2003 Oracle 10g 2001 Oracle9i 1999 Oracle8i

1980 version 3 1979 version 2 1978 version 1

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1984 version 4

1997

Oracle8

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Oracle7

1989 version 6

1986 version 5

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Oracle History

1978: Oracle version 1 · Ran on PDP-11 under RSX, in 128 KB memory · Written in assembly language · Separated Oracle code (OPI) and user code (UPI) 1979: Oracle version 2 · Written in PDP-11 assembly language · Ran on VAX/VMS in compatibility mode

1978 1979 1980 1984 1986 1989 1993 1997 1999 2001 2003

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Oracle History

1980: Oracle version 3 1981 · Written in C: portable source code IAF · Retained split architecture · Introduced the concept of atomic SQL execution and transactions (commit, rollback) 1984: Oracle version 4 · Introduced read consistency · Ported to many platforms · Interoperability between PC and server

1978 1979 1980 1984 1986 1989 1993 1997 1999 2001 2003

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Oracle History

1986: Oracle version 5 · True client-server (distributed processing) · VAX-cluster support · Version 5.1: Distributed queries 1989: Oracle version 6 (major kernel rewrite) · OLTP performance enhancements, savepoints · Online backup and recovery · Row-level locking, PL/SQL in the database · Parallel Server (VAX clusters, nCube)

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Oracle History

1993: Oracle7 · Declarative referential integrity · Stored procedures and triggers · Shared SQL, parallel execution · Advanced replication 1997: Oracle8 · Object-relational extensions in the database · From client/server to three-tier architecture · Partitioning option

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Media server

1995

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Oracle History

1999: Oracle8i · Java in the database (JVM and SQLJ) · Partitioning enhancements · Data warehousing enhancements · XML support · Summary management · Oracle Internet Directory (LDAP) · Ported to Linux

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Oracle History

2001: Oracle9i · Real Application Clusters, with cache fusion

­ Scalability on inexpensive clustered hardware

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· · · · · ·

Automatic segment-space management Internet security enhancements Integrated business intelligence functionality Data Guard (standby databases) Oracle managed files Globalization support (Unicode, time zones, locales)

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Oracle Database 10g

Primary goal: Build a self-managing database that requires minimal human intervention. · Reduction in administration cost without compromising high availability, scalability, and security. · Minimal performance impact · Effective for all configurations and workloads

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Manageability: Key Concepts

1. Bring the management of all database components into the database itself

­ SQL tuning, resource management, space and storage management, backup and recovery

2. Integrate the management of these components with a central management engine

­ Enables holistic rather than independent or conflicting decisions

3. Provide an intelligent infrastructure to enable these components to be self-managing

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Automatic Workload Repository (AWR)

The most critical infrastructure component; the data warehouse of the database. · Storage of all the important system statistics and workload information. · The database kernel is instrumented to capture an essential set of time-based statistics (Time Model)

­ Captured and computed in memory (ASH) ­ Periodically flushed to disk as snapshots & baselines

Using AWR's information, the database is able to intelligently tune, accurately advise and proactively alert according to the workload and environment that are unique for every system.

Copyright © 2003, Oracle. All rights reserved.

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Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM)

· The central management engine that integrates all AWR components · A database performance expert "in the box" · ADDM uses the data captured in the AWR · ADDM uses a time-based classification tree to pinpoint root causes of performance problems · The Time Model enables ADDM to make performance-tuning recommendations between seemingly incomparable trade-offs

A self-diagnostic engine like ADDM built inside the database is essential to good system performance

Copyright © 2003, Oracle. All rights reserved.

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Tasks Alerts AWR Adv

Automatic Workload Repository

External clients EM SQL*Plus ...

SGA

Efficient in-memory statistics collection

Internal clients

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MMON

AWR snapshots

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Self-tuning component

...

Tasks Alerts AWR Adv

Server Alert Models

EM console

EM alerts

Server alerts

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Poll metrics

Automatic notification

Server alerts queue

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Data dictionary

Oracle Oracle Database 10g Database 10g (SGA) (SGA) MMON

Server polls itself

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AWR metrics

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Tasks Alerts AWR Adv

DBMS_SCHEDULER Package

Prioritization

Job class

Job metadata

Program

Arguments

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Change prioritization

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Schedule

When? How many times?

Tasks Alerts AWR Adv

Advisory Framework

SQL Tuning Advisor Memory ADDM

SQL Access Advisor

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Space Undo Advisor

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PGA Advisor Buffer Cache Advisor Library Cache Advisor

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SGA

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Segment Advisor

ADDM: Reactive versus Proactive Performance Monitoring

In-memory statistics MMON Snapshots

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Alerts ADDM

DBA

Reactive monitoring

Proactive monitoring

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ADDM results AWR

Other Important Enhancement Areas

· · · · Automatic Storage Management (ASM) Automatic shared memory management Human error correction High availability

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­ ­ ­ ­

Backup and recovery optimization Data Guard (logical and physical standby databases) Online redefinition LogMiner

· Performance (wait interface, end-to-end tracing) · BI and data warehousing

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Automatic Storage Management (ASM)

ASM is a database service that provides: · Load balancing in parallel across disk drives · Prevention of disk space fragmentation · Online disk space reorganization · Data redundancy to provide fault tolerance

­ ASM can be built on top of vendor-supplied storage mechanisms

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Human Error Correction

· Flashback Query

­ Query data at some point-in-time in the past

· Flashback Versions Query

­ View changes made over time at the row level

· Flashback Transaction Query

­ View changes made at the transaction level

· Flashback Database · Flashback Table · Flashback Drop

­ New strategy for doing point-in-time recovery ­ Recover tables to a specified point in time ­ Undrop a table (recycle bin)

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The Future ?

Databases are vital, and getting more so every day. · Life sciences, content management, ... · Real-time business intelligence · Security and availability · Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) · Databases versus operating systems · Taking advantage of new types of hardware

The big challenge for companies like Oracle: Taking academic research results and applying it in practical terms.

Copyright © 2003, Oracle. All rights reserved.

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ANSI/ISO SQL Language

· SQL-86 and SQL-87 · SQL-89 added referential integrity · SQL-92

­ One standard with multiple conformance levels

· CLI-95 and PSM-96 · SQL:1999

­ Introduced multiple parts and named features ­ Some parts were backported to SQL-92

· OLB:2000 and JRT:2002 · SQL:2003 bug fixing release

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ANSI/ISO SQL Conformance

· SQL-86/87/89 · SQL-92

­ Levels 1 and 2

­ Entry/Transitional/Intermediate/Full levels

· SQL:1999 and SQL:2003 · Conformance testing

­ Core SQL, plus named features and packages ­ FIPS 127: SQL-92 only ­ NIST (formerly NBS) did conformance testing until 1996; political changes eliminated NIST testing

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SQL:1999 and SQL:2003 Parts

1. Framework 2. Foundation 3. Call Level Interface (CLI) 4. Persistent Stored Modules (PSM) 5. Host Language Bindings (gone in SQL:2003) 9. Management of External Data (MED) 10. Object Language Bindings (OLB) 11. Information and Definition Schemata 13. Java Routines and Types (JRT) 14. XML Related Specifications (XML)

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The Future of ANSI/ISO SQL

· The current expectation is that the SQL language will go into "maintenance mode" after SQL:2003 · Main area of further development: SQL/XML

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Questions and Answers

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Information

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