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Identification of Figurative Networks in Multimodal Discourse Tutor: Anita Naciscione, Latvian Academy of Culture, Latvia Other participants: Anna Kalve, Latvian Academy of Culture, Latvia; Elina Krasovska, Latvian Academy of Culture, Latvia Figurative networks reveal an intricate web of cohesive stylistic and semantic ties and interrelationships in discourse. The workshop will explore the sustainability of figurative thought, involving a number of stylistic patterns: extended metaphor, metonymy, pun and allusion, which frequently do not occur alone but concurrently with one or several other patterns in one instantiation. The pattern is seen as a mental stylistic technique that is characterised by a certain meaning, structure and a set of realisation rules. It is a pattern of both thought and language. The workshop is concerned with the visual aspects of figurative thought representation and the creative use of stylistic patterns in verbal and visual discourse. It discloses the importance of the sense of sight in verbal and visual processing and the natural perceptive link between sight and thought. A visual representation is a special type of discourse, used by the media and advertising, exploring semantic, stylistic, semiotic and psychological elements to reach economic, political or social ends. The increasing need for new ways of expression has sought new creative media and sophisticated ways of representation, opening up new pathways of conveying a message. The textual and the visual representation of a thinking process is profoundly influenced by political, social and cultural processes that lie behind the specific context. A cognitive approach promotes the identification of the figurative links between the visual and the verbal, which is a cognitive act, involving the perception, recognition, comprehension and interpretation of the new stylistic instantiation. Sustained figurative networks contribute to the creation of a visual narrative. Visual literacy is a cognitive skill, which advances sociolinguistic competence: the ability to perceive, comprehend and interpret the stylistic, social and cultural message of a visualised figurative thought. These skills become increasingly important, as the nature of pictures has changed. They do not merely illustrate the text or emerge as an afterthought; the visual frequently provides a further development of the thought. Training in stylistic awareness enhances cognitive abilities for both mental representation and processing, hence it is important for teaching and learning. The workshop will be conducted in the cognitive linguistic framework: against the theoretical background of cognitive linguistics (Lakoff, Gibbs, Steen, Kövecses, Trim) and the methodology of metaphor identification (Steen, Gibbs, Naciscione). The illustrations will feature sustained networks of figurative thought in applied areas: multimodal texts in the mass media and advertising. The workshop will consist of three parts: 1. The main presentation: Sustainability of Figurative Thought in Verbal and Visual Discourse (Anita Naciscione, Latvian Academy of Culture, Latvia; 40 min.) 2. Two co-presentations: 1) Conceptual Metaphor and Its Reflection in Social-cultural Practice (Anna Kalve, Latvian Academy of Culture, Latvia; 10 min.) 2) Metaphor and Metonymy in Advertising (Elina Krasovska, Latvian Academy of Culture, Latvia; 10 min.)

3. Case Studies: Identification of Networks of Figurative Thought in Multimodal Representations. This part will be a joint interactive effort with the participation of the audience and PowerPoint illustrations, and handouts with the key theoretical tenets and examples. The question-answer approach will be applied throughout the workshop. References Aristotle (1991). On Rhetoric: A Theory of Civil Discourse, translated by G.A. Kennedy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Arnheim R. ([1969] 1997). Visual Thinking. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. Barcelona A. (2007). The Role of Metonymy in Meaning Construction at Discourse Level. In G. Radden, K.-M. Kpke, T. Berg & P. Siemund (eds.) Aspects of Meaning Construal, 51­ 75. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Beasley R. & Danesi M. (2002). The Semiotics of Advertising. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. Forceville C. (2008). Metaphor in Pictures and Multimodal Representations. In R. W. Gibbs (ed.) Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 462-482. Gavins J. & Steen G. (eds.) (2003). Cognitive Poetics in Practice. London & New York: Routledge. Gibbs R. W. Jr. ([1994] 1999). The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language and Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gibbs R.W. Jr. (2002). Psycholinguistic Comments on Metaphor Identification. Language and Literature, 11 (1), 78-84. Gibbs R.W. Jr. (2005). Embodiment and Cognitive Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gibbs R.W. Jr. (2008). Metaphor and Thought: The State of the Art. In R. W. Gibbs (ed.) Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 3-13. Harrington M. (2002). Cognitive Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition. In R. Kaplan (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 124-140. Katz A.N. (1998). Figurative Language and Figurative Thought: A Review. In Katz A.N., C. Cacciari, R.W. Gibbs & M. Turner (eds.) Figurative Language and Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3-43. Kövecses Z. (2005). Metaphor in Culture: Universality and Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University of Press. Lakoff G. (2008). The Neural Theory of Metaphor. In R. W. Gibbs (ed.) Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 17-38. Lakoff G. & M. Johnson ([1980] 2003). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lakoff G. & Turner M. (1989). More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Naciscione A. (2001). Phraseological Units in Discourse: Towards Applied Stylistics. Riga: Latvian Academy of Culture. Naciscione A. (2005). Visual Representation of Phraseological Metaphor in Discourse: A Cognitive Approach. In Caldas-Coulthard C.R. & M. Toolan (eds.) The Writer's Craft, the Culture's Technology, PALA 2002. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi, 71-83. Pope R. (2005). Creativity: Theory, History, Practice. London & New York: Routledge.

Popova Y. (2003). `The Fool Sees with His Nose': Metaphoric Mappings in the Sense of Smell in Patrick Süskind's Perfume. Language and Literature, 12 (2), 135-151. Semino E. & Culpeper J. (eds.) (2002). Cognitive Stylistics: Language and Cognition in Text Analysis. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Spiegel A. (1976). Fiction and the Camera Eye: Visual Consciousness in Film and the Modern Novel. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Steen G. (1999). From Linguistic to Conceptual Metaphor in Five Steps. In R.W. Gibbs, Jr. & G.J. Steen (eds.) Metaphor in Cognitive Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 5577. Steen G. (2002) Identifying Metaphor in Language: A Cognitive Approach. Style, 36 (3), 386407. Trim R. (2007). Metaphor Networks: The Comparative Evolution of Figurative Language. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

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