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Volume 8, Number 6

November/December 2003

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Front Cover

THE WORLD'S LARGEST CONTRACT HEATUP The simultaneous heatup of a sixty seven (67) Oven Coke Battery undertaken by Hotwork in 1998. Four (4) Non-Recovery Coke Oven Batteries each consisting of sixty-seven (67) Ovens were heated by Hotwork to 2400°F over a fifteen (15) day firing cycle. Hotwork performed the successful heatup of each Battery in sequential firings over a time period approaching three (3) months on the project site. These Batteries were constructed primarily of silica brick and resulted in the largest single requirement for such products anywhere in the world in recent times. Hotwork provided the engineering, procedures, equipment and supervision of the local crafts for this heatup and worked closely with the General Contractor and Owner to ensure an efficient and trouble free heatup and takeover of each battery as they went directly into operation at completion of the heatup process. Beginning in the mid 1960's Hotwork pioneered the use of portable high velocity burner equipment for use in the refractory consuming industries as a means to provide a more effective and efficient dryout / heatup of refractory lined furnaces and vessels and in so doing to enhance the performance of the refractory products being utilized in various industrial applications. The Coke Battery Project shown here is indicative of Hotworks ability to successfully engineer and execute a heatup project of this magnitude and is what continues to position Hotwork as the World Leader in refractory dryout / furnace heatup services. To contact Hotwork-USA for your refractory dryout / furnace heatup requirements: Phone: 859-276-1570 Fax : 859-276-1583 e.mail: [email protected] web:



Refractories Applications

and News

From the Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Guest Business Review --- Musings of a Retired Steel Plant Ceramic Engineer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 by M.P. Fedock Company Profile --- HOTWORK-USA Portable Combustion Services for the Controlled Heatup/Dryout of Refractory Linings in High Temperature Process Furnaces and Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 by HOTWORK-USA Marketing Department The Refractories Institute News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Industry News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Institution Profile --- CETMIC (Technology Center of Mineral Resources and Ceramics) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 by E. F. Aglietti Feature Article --- Thermomechanical Simulations of Refractory Linings . . . An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 by J. Poirier Mechanisms of Hydration / Carbonation of Magnesia Sinters ­ Part III. . . . . . . . 23 by P.R.G. Brandao, G.E. Goncalves, and A.G. Morato Buyer's Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Directory of Products, Services and Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34


Hotwork-USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . front cover Tel: (606) 276-1570 Fax: (606) 276-1583 Heidelberger Calcium Aluminate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inside front cover Tel: (800) 348-7070 Fax: (610) 336-7853 J.W. Lemmens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Tel: (314) 770-2200 or (800) 437-3884 Fax: (314) 770-2262 Unimin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .inside back cover Tel: North America (800) 243-9004 Fax: (800) 243-9005 Tel: Worldwide: (203) 966-8880 Fax: (203) 972-1378 Vesuvius USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Tel: (217) 351-5000 Fax: (217) 351-5031

Important Notice! Please return the postcard on the back cover to continue receiving this magazine. Remove the cover, cut off the back page, fold it so our return address shows and drop it in the mail.

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6 November/December 2003 1

Refractories Applications

and News Technology Bimonthly for the Global Refractories Industries


Robert E. Moore, Founding Editor Editorial offices at University of Missouri-Rolla Department of Ceramic Engineering, 222 McNutt Hall, 1870 Miner Circle Drive, Rolla, MO 65409-0330 Phone: (573) 341-6561 Fax: (573) 341-6934 Website: Associate Editor, Mariano Velez E-mail: [email protected] Assistant Editor, Mary Lee E-mail: [email protected] Technical Editor, William Headrick E-mail: [email protected] Technical Editor, Jeffrey D. Smith E-mial: [email protected] Review Editor, Musa Karakus E-mail: [email protected] Contributing Editor, Laurel M. Sheppard E-mail: [email protected] Advertising Sales/Webmaster, Stephanie Headrick E-mail: [email protected] Advertising Sales, Dwight Whittemore E-mail: [email protected] Advertising Sales, Mike Nelson E-mail: [email protected] Lou Trostel - Councilor, Refractories Ceramics Division, ACerS Rob Crolius - President, TRI Phone: (573) 341-6112 Phone: (573) 341-6561 Phone: (573) 341-6561 Phone: (574) 341-4447 Phone: (573) 341-4120 Phone: (614) 527-1398 Phone: (573) 729-7628 Phone: (724) 969-0588 Phone: (812) 282-1682

Corresponding Editors:

Esteban Aglietti, (CETMIC, Buenos Aires, Argentina) E-mail: [email protected] Carmen Baudin, (Institute for Ceramic and Glass, Madrid, Spain) E-mail: cbaudin[email protected] Richard C. Bradt, (University of Alabama) E-mail: [email protected] Elena Brandaleze, (Instituto Argentino de Siderurgia) E-mail: [email protected] Geraldo Eduardo Gonçalves, (Magnesita, Brazil) E-mail: [email protected] Bill Lee, (University of Sheffield, England) E-mail: [email protected] Jose Luis Mendoza-Bedolla, (Technical Consultant, Saltillo, Mexico) E-mail: [email protected] Li Nan, (Wuhan University, P.R. China) E-mail: [email protected] George Oprea, (University of British Columbia, Canada) E-mail: [email protected] Victor C. Pandolfelli, (UFSCar, Brazil) E-mail: [email protected] Michel A. Rigaud, (Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Canada) E-mail: [email protected] Raul Topolevsky, (Siderar, Buenos Aires, Argentina) E-mail: [email protected]

Subscription is free upon request in the U.S. only. Please send address changes to Refractories Applications and News, University of Missouri-Rolla, 222 McNutt Hall, 1870 Miner Circle Dr., Rolla, MO 65409-0330. Allow six weeks for address change. Foreign readers may receive a hard copy by sending $40.00/yr. in U.S. currency or view the current issue (free) on our website: Foreign institutes, research centers and libraries will continue to receive a free printed copy upon request. Refractories Applications and News, the premier technology journal for the global refractories industries, covers the latest advances in raw materials, finished products, installation and research. Refractories Applications and News is published six times a year. Printed in the United States of America. © The Refractory Ceramics Division and the University of Missouri-Rolla, Dept. of Ceramic Engineering assumes no responsibility for the statements and opinions advanced by contributors to its publication.

Refractories Applications and News (ISSN 1537-6443) is published bi-monthly. It is a non-profit publication and free to U.S. subscribers. Refractories Applications and News is not responsible for opinions stated by contributors to the publication. No part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Permission is not, however, required to copy abstracts or articles on the condition that a full reference to the source is given. This consent does not extend to copying items for general distribution or for advertising or promotional purposes or to republishing items in whole or in part in any work in any format. Orders for copies of articles published in this magazine may be placed through the Refractories Applications and News office by contacting Mary Lee, [email protected], (573)341-6561. Instructions for the preparation of articles to be submitted for possible publication in this magazine are available from the Assistant Editor, Mary Lee, [email protected], (573)341-6561, University of Missouri-Rolla, 222 McNutt Hall, Rolla, MO 65409. Refractories Applications and News is being indexed by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts in Ceramic Abstracts/World Ceramics Abstracts, and by Chemical Abstracts Service, CODEN RACECN.

Refractories Applications and News on the web:

2 November/December 2003 Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6


November 9-12, MS&T 2003 Materials Science & Technology, Hyatt Regency Chicago, Chicago, IL; Iron & Steel Society/The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society; Phone: 724/776-1535, ext. 1; November 10-13, 14th IAS Steelmaking Conference, 4th IAS Ironmaking Conference and 5th ISS Argentina Section Meeting, at the Hotel Colonial, San Nicolas, Argentina. Contact Cristian Genzano; Phone: 54 3461 460803; Fax: 54 3461 462989; E-mail: [email protected]; November 12-13, 46th International Colloquium on Refractories EUROGRESS Aachen, Refractories for Non-Metallurgical Applications. DIFK Deutsches Institut für Feuerfest und Keramik GmbH; Phone: 49-228-91508-23; Fax: 49-228-91508-55;; E-mail: [email protected] November 16-21, Combustion/Fire sessions at the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Washington, D.C.; USA; November 19-22, Refractories Section of the XLIII CONGRESO ANUAL DE LA SOCIEDAD ESPAÑOLA DE CERÁMICA Y VIDRIO, Valencia, Spain. Contact Dr. Antonio H. De Aza; Telf: +34-91-735-5840 Ext: 1237 Fax: +34-91-735-5843; E-mail: [email protected]; December 01- 05, MRS 2003 Fall Meeting & Exhibit, Boston, MA; Phone: (724) 779-8312; Fax: (724) 779-4397; E-mail: [email protected];


January 26- 29, Thermal Solutions, Clearwater Beach, FL, Phone: (800) 636-9820; E-mail: [email protected]; March 14-18, Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking-A Practical Training Seminar, Dallas, TX; April 18-21, 106th Annual Meeting & Exposition to The American Ceramic Society, Indianapolis, IN; March 14-18, Annual Meeting & Exhibition of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), Charlotte, NC; Phone: (724) 776-9000; Fax: (724) 776-3770; E-mail: [email protected]; March 17-19, Inverse Problems, Design and Optimization Symposium, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;; Email: [email protected] March 31-April 1, 40th Symposium on Refractories, REFRACTORIES FOR FOUNDRIES, The American Ceramic Society, at the Hilton St. Louis Airport Hotel at St. Louis, MO May 4-6, AISI General Meeting, in conjunction with Metals Service Center Institute, San Francisco, CA; May 4-6, 1st Tehran International Conference on Refractories, Tehran, Iran; Fax: 98-21-7491034;; E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected]; Telfax: +98-21-7491034 or +98-21-7451518 September 19-22, The 8th International Congress of Applied Mineralogy (ICAM 2004), organized by the International Council for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) - Commission on Applied Mineralogy of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA-CAM), Aguas de Lindoia, São Paulo, Brazil:


September 12-15, 2004, 5th International Conference on High Temperature Ceramic Matrix Composites, Abstract Deadline November 30, 2003, Westcoast Grand Hotel, Seattle, WA;

Please send meeting announcements along with complete information on who to contact to Mary Lee at: [email protected]

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6 November/December 2003 3

From the Editor. . .

People to Learn From, People to Teach To...

On September 6th, I attended the memorial service of Prof. Robert E. Moore. Some 200 people attended the event, representing industry, academia, relatives, and friends. The occasion was a tribute to his life and accomplishments; a life that was dedicated to his university, his students and his research. Prof. Moore certainly could say that he lived a life of achievements. As Chair of the UMR Ceramic Engineering Department, he created an internationallyknown research program on refractories, collaborating with researchers around the world, and training generations of ceramic engineers who are now industrial leaders. In the last decade he directed a program on refractories for the handling on molten steel with the American Iron & Steel Institute. He served as Site Director of the Refractories Satellite of the Center for Glass Research, a National Science Foundation (NSF) coordinated center for industryuniversity cooperation located at Alfred University. He also envisioned and started the NSF Digital Library of Ceramic Microstructures program, now a project coordinated by the University of Dayton Research Institute, and of which UMR is developing and maintaining a database on refractories. I met Bob Moore the summer of 1972 when I arrived at UMR as an undergraduate student and maintained communication through the years. I knew him as professor, then as friend, colleague and supervisor. I owe him much of my career, as he was someone to learn from. He supported my interest in engineering and academics. I can mention the advice developing a ceramic engineering program at Universidad Simon Bolivar in Caracas, Venezuela, involvement in high-tech research programs at UMR, and the editorial collaboration to RA&N since its conception, in 1996. Refractories Applications & News was one of Bob Moore's last endeavors, and we are trying now to carry on in the way he would have done. For instance, he had personal and industrial contacts that helped in catapulting RA&N from a tabloid to a magazine publication, as well as obtaining the financial support from The Refractories Institute (TRI) and the Refractories Division of the American Ceramic Society. At this time we are sketching the 2004 editorial program of RA&N. Although there are many unresolved issues, we are willing to continue at this time as a bi-monthly publication. We plan to increase RA&N's exposure to the industry and educational institutions. I would like to hear comments and ideas for improving the quality of the issues, increasing circulation, sources for advertising, and from potential authors. Authors are needed for technical and research articles, company profiles, educational institute summaries, and news of value to the global refractory community. We need your help to continue Bob Moore's legacy. RA&N will continue in print and in electronic format. It will continue to be sent free of cost to U.S. readers and to libraries around the world. Readers outside of the U.S. may subscribe to cover the mailing costs. Printing and mailing 4 November/December 2003 are the major expenses involved, which are being compensated by TRI, the American Ceramic Society, and industrial advertising. We believe RA&N is important to the industry especially with the expected demand for refractories as the steel industry continues to recover. However, for this demand to remain over the long term, the refractories industry needs to remain competitive by investing in research and people. A new generation of engineers will have to be taught both the technology and importance of refractories. It has been said may times lately that the US economy, and the global economy for that matter, is still in bad shape. A new report, however, indicates that the demand for refractories in the US is expected to increase 2.2% annually, reaching $2.4 billion in 2007 (Freedonia report, see page 10). This is a direct consequence of the recovery of the steel industry. Other issues are at hand, we need to increase the advantage given by research, in industries and at universities, preparing the new generations of engineers; that is, people to teach to. This all takes determination and the proper investment in the right direction. This issue commences with the reflections of Mike P. Fedock, a retired ceramic engineer who dedicated his working years to the steel industry. It is an enlightening discussion putting into perspective key issues of the work of a ceramic engineer in a steel plant. Hotwork, a major player in refractories dry-out, presents the company profile article in this issue. The article summarizes the history of the company, services provided, and comments about the future. One of our corresponding editors, Dr. Esteban F. Agglieti, has provided the institution profile article. It summarizes the activities of CETMIC (Technology Center of Mineral Resources and Ceramics), an Argentinean Government research institution. We have included two technical articles in this issue, one by Prof. Jacques Poirier of the Institute Polytechnique d'Orleans, France. He presents a comprehensive summary of thermomechanical simulations of refractory linings. The final article is by Paulo Brandao, of Universidade Federal Minas Gerais, Brazil, Geraldo Goncalves (RA&N corresponding editor) and Amilcar Morato, both of Magnesita, Brazil. The article treats the mechanisms of hydration and carbonation of magnesia sinters and is a continuation of articles published in Refractories Applications in 1998. We welcome again the contribution of Dr. Jeff Smith as technical Editor of RA&N. He was on the editorial board since the first issue of RA (Refractories Applications) to 1998. Dr. Smith's interests are in the area of refractories for steelmaking, development and characterization of nozzles that resists clogging, development of monolithic formulations, and thermal spray coatings of refractories.

Mariano Velez Interim Editor

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

Guest Business Review


Mike P. Fedock, Retired Assistant Division Head of Iron and Steelmaking, Republic Steel

I spent forty continuous years with the same steel company as a ceramic engineer. When I hired on, the company had every means and facilities for the making, shaping and treatment of steel; i.e., coke and sinter plants, blast furnaces, Bessemer, open hearth, electric arc and induction furnaces, soaking pits, reheat, forge and annealing furnaces. I was privileged to see processes abandoned and the progression of steelmaking to the BOF, modern large electric arc furnaces, AOD, Mike P. Fedock VOD and ladle metallurgical processing, slide gate pouring, continuous casting and the refractories which made such progress possible. Prior to the U.S. entry into World War II and as early as 1939, the Central Alloy District of Republic Steel at Canton and Massillon, Ohio was involved in the production of artillery and armor plate steel. In late 1941, ordinance generals from the allied anti-Nazi country armies assembled at Canton, Ohio to observe the production of a very special composition of armament steel. They spent over ten hours watching the melting and refining of the heat in a 50ton electric arc furnace. The steel was tapped into a ladle but didn't stop there. It went past the stopper rod, through the nozzle and into the casting pit. The generals were told that this was unfortunate and unusual and the heat would be repeated. They reassembled the next day to see the heat tapped. They followed it to the pouring stand. The stopper rod was raised and the first ingot was filled but then the steel pourer could not effect a shutoff. The one who related this to me several months later said, "they watered the ground with the heat." He also said the district chief metallurgist was so angry he instructed his laboratory supervisor (a Penn State graduate) to go to Penn State and hire someone who knew something about refractories. That is how and why I got hired by the Central Alloy District of Republic Steel in May, 1942. When two of my classmates learned I had accepted the job offer at $170/month (20 to 35 dollars more than the going rate for engineers at that time), they immediately applied and were hired. We were obliged to learn fast about steel plant refractories. To this end, we established a laboratory for testing and evaluating incoming refractory shipments. The tests were simple: porosity, density, specific gravity determinations, fusion PCE (pyrometric cone equivalent) testing and crushing and rupture testing. We did petrographic work and had chemistries performed by wet and spectroscopic methods by the steel plant chemical laboratories. By the time we had this program organized, my two ceramic engineer coworkers were drafted into the service. To continue the testing program I was assigned two technicians. At that time, the district consumed in excess of 200 lbs. of refracRefractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6 tories (shaped and granular) per ton of steel shipped, so we were faced with a large amount of testing of incoming refractories shipments. This was a time before shipments were palletized and virtually all shipments were by rail. The mason department labor gang did the unloading and stocking of the shipments and the masonry superintendent agreed to have his labor gang select at random six pieces of shaped and a gallon of granular refractories and deliver such samples to our testing laboratory. Samples were identified as to shipper, railroad car number and date unloaded. We thus were rapidly accumulating a pile of test data. To handle such data we used statistical quality control methods and correlated the data with refractory performance. This revealed some interesting observations. Our charting showed that the specific gravity for silica brick from one supplier was consistently at 2.31 to 2.32 g/cc. On five successive shipments this jumped to 2.34 to 2.36 g/cc. When shown our charts the supplier was surprised to learn that we identified the first shipments after they began washing their silica rock. They did not change their firing schedule, which resulted in a lesser conversion of the cristobalite to tridymite and a greater expansion for the brick. The masonry superintendent attested to this in that he had increased the number of tar papers used for expansion allowance in electric furnace roofs. Fireclay refractories constituted the major consumptions of all the refractory compositions. As a group, whether ladle, nozzle, stopper rod, sleeve, hot top, checker or furnace brick, they varied widely in quality and properties. The popular fireclay brick for lining ladles was known as "bloating" ladle brick. These were dry pressed low Al2O3 brick that became pyroplastic at about 2000°F and would bloat and distort when overfired. It was soon learned that the denser the ladle bricks the higher the ladle life. Our charts, however, showed the only significantly denser brick was produced at only one of our suppliers' plants. Because of our request for denser brick the competition delivered many semi-bloated and distorted brick. To increase the density they tried overfiring. It took time but eventually they learned that increased density had to be imparted at the brick forming press and not the firing kiln. Our charts also showed one supplier consistently supplied a denser fireclay brick for open hearth and blast furnace stove checker bricks. I called this to the attention of our non-technically trained masonry supervisor. I explained to him how density in a checker brick represented a "bigger bucket" to accept, store and release heat. He accepted this and favored that supplier with orders. When a supplier who lost our orders complained, we showed him our charts and explained why we preferred denser checker brick. Within a few months this supplier began marketing a brand of brick named OHC (open hearth checker). It was significantly denser than the competition. Their sales people referred to OHC as a "bigger bucket" for heat. Eventually catering to the idea of a "bigger bucket" for heat to attain higher preheat air temperature and furnace efficiency, fireclay brick were replaced with even denser basic brick for open-hearth checkers. November/December 2003 5

While on the subject of air preheat and furnace efficiency, the open hearths in the district were old and "down cold" many, many times for roof, walls and even bottom replacement. Because of this, checker chamber and flue walls and checker chamber roofs developed many cracks that did not seal up when the furnace was at temperature. This resulted in significant cold air infiltration during furnace operation. Our combustion engineer reported air infiltration numbers at and in excess of 60% and cited this as the reason for high fuel consumption for the furnaces. Prior attempts at sealing the outer surface of the structure were generally ineffective. With masonry department permission and help, we took time during furnace rebuilding to seal the inside surfaces of checker and flue walls and roofs. We used slurry and granular gunning. Both were effective and the results were remarkable. The combustion department reported 10% and less air infiltration and an attendant decrease in fuel consumption. At Massillon, Ohio the air infiltration was such they bypassed channeling through the waste heat boilers to maintain furnace draft. After sealing they resumed channeling through the waste heat boilers. Such sealing was adopted as a necessary and standard practice for all-open hearth rebuilding throughout Republic Steel plants. With the onset of World War II, a number of local brick, tile and whiteware companies moved into production of more critical refractory materials such as ladle brick, stopper rod sleeves, nozzles, Bessemer tuyeres and insulating brick. None had laboratory facilities to test their refractory products; so we were often asked to do so. We learned and gained much from working with a local stopper rod and nozzle brick producer who stamped each piece with the day and month of forming. This fell in nicely with our statistical approach to testing and performance records. Their initial composition of stopper rod sleeve brick was maintained at a consistent high quality level and performed very well in service. Not so with their nozzles. Their original nozzles had the same composition as their sleeve brick and Bessemer tuyeres and a refractoriness of PCE 28 to 30 (2960° to 3000°F). Our metallurgical observers evaluated performance as "clean, drips, leaks or runs". These refractory nozzles were rarely without leaks or runs. Also, they often formed skulls (frozen metal) in the bore of the nozzle or "shankers" (iciclelike formations) at the exit end of the nozzle. A skulled nozzle bore was often lanced with an oxygen torch in an attempt at maintaining a reasonable pouring rate. That only exaggerated the problem. After numerous changes in the kind and source of clays it became obvious that a PCE cone 17 to 19 proved most reliable for our primary needs. Very interestingly, such nozzles softened (had a fusion point) that corresponded closely to the desired pouring temperature for the bulk of the steels made in the melt shops, namely 2750° to 2800°F. Their pyroplasticity in this temperature range assured clean shutoffs during the pour. Another feature of such nozzles' performance was that during the pour the bore erosion matched the decreasing ferrostatic head of steel in the ladle. Thus it was not unusual that the filling time for the second and penultimate twenty-second ingot on a drag varied by only a second or two. The most-used nozzle had an initial bore diameter of 1.75". At the end of the pour the bore diameter eroded to about 2.5". This observation was put to good use later when the Canton, Ohio began a vacuum ladle degassing process. The higher tap temperatures and prolonged holding times involved proved too much for the conventional stopper rod-nozzle pouring system. Accordingly we went 6 November/December 2003

to a slide gate pouring system which controlled pouring external of the ladle. The supplier originally supplied a 1.75" bore diameter system. Because of the non-eroding (high A12O3) refractories used in the system, skulling, shankering and prolonged pours were common with the 1.75" bore system. We solved the problem by ordering a unit that had a 2.5" diameter bore in the ladle nozzle and slide gate plates, but we substituted a 1.75" bore erodable PCE cone 18 collector nozzle. Pouring success now was the same as with the conventional stopper rod/nozzle system. One result of our statistical quality control activity was that I developed a reputation amongst our vendors. They claimed the only time they heard from me was when they had a shipment rejected. In time, I assured them that quite often I protected their product by telling our operating people the failure or poor performance they experienced was often with the same quality of refractory that performed well a week, a month, or months ago. Failures of structures involving silica or firebrick invariably were related to combustion practices, namely, too rapid heating and/or incomplete combustion (a reducing atmosphere). In time we convinced our operators and combustion people that refractories will crack and spall due to thermal shock and that refractories, like people, thrive better in an oxidizing atmosphere. My interest in petrography and things mineralic not only gave me a better appreciation of refractories but got me involved in all steel plant mineralic materials - ores, sinter, fluxes, slags, furnace fumes and even non-metallic inclusions in steel. An early experience in this regard was a complaint by open-hearth melters that a new source of limestone did not "shape up" the slag, as did the former. The chemistry of both was almost identical. The texture of the original stone was microcrystalline; that of the new stone was more coarsely crystalline. Slags using the new stone usually contained areas of lime encapsulated by a layer of refractory dicalcium silicate. This was not often observed for slags using the original limestone. The reason for this was revealed when we ran calcining spalling tests on cubes of each stone. The original microcrystalline stone spalled, producing flakes much like rose petals. The coarser crystalline stone produced coarse, roughly cubic particles. These particles in service became coated with the refractory dicalcium silicate that slowed complete solution of the lime in the slag. This difference in texture of limestones (and also dolomites) was later recognized as a factor in the production of super fluxed iron ore sinter for blast furnace use. Coincidentally our electric furnace shop superintendent reported that his counterpart at the Timken melt shop in Canton, Ohio had told him that they changed their source of burnt lime and noted an increase in roof and sidewall life for their electric furnaces. I checked this out with their director of research and he confirmed the observation. When I asked he confirmed that yes, they spent more time developing and shaping up their carbide finishing slag. And he noted the former lime appeared to be harder than the new softer, dustier lime. Some pieces even had a core of uncalcined limestone. In effect, he described a more reactive lime. With that information we at Republic paid close attention to burnt lime reactivity and indeed saw its benefit in shaping up basic oxygen furnace slags. From petrographic examination of various granular materials (cements, mortars, gunning, ramables and castables) I told the masonry superintendent these could be produced from wasted steel Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

plant refractories. He was a progressive mason and used plastics and castables wherever he could to replace brickwork. So the first material we produced was a castable. To evaluate it versus his favorite proprietary castable, we cast his and ours in side-by-side forge furnace doors. Unfortunately we lost their identity when they were placed over the forge furnace for drying. After several weeks in service the masonry superintendent and I inspected the doors. When asked which was which, I had to confess that I didn't know. However, when I asked if he could see any difference, he said "no." I did not plan it this way but that convinced him that we could produce competitive material. With his backing and cooperation we established a refractories salvage plant. When fully operational, we realized savings from substitution of our products for purchased products in excess of $20,000/month. I used this to petition my boss for what I believed was a long overdue raise. His response was, "That's why you're on my research and development payroll." Dr. McCaughey, Professor of Mineralogy at Ohio State University for many years, was retained as consultant by Republic Steel. I was privileged to be exposed to his vast knowledge of things mineralic, particularly those involved in the thermal processing industries. I was exposed to his course, "thermochemical mineralogy," which was a very basic and fundamental approach to understanding such industrial processing. He introduced me to a very uncomplicated method that he developed (but never published) for calculating the equilibrium mineral phase composition from chemical analysis of a wide range of materials. It was based on the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 phase equilibrium diagram. However, with appropriate inclusion of S, P2O5, TiO2, MnO, FeO, Fe2O3 and Cr2O3 he taught me how other than blast furnace slags, Portland and aluminous cements, fireclay and high alumina refractories, the method could be extended to include dolomite, magnesite, magnesite chrome refractories, chrome ores, open hearth and electric furnace slags and iron ore sinters. Such calculations bolstered with petrographic examination helped immensely in the study of steel plant mineralic materials. My first successful use of this approach involved blast furnace slag. Working with blast furnace personnel we defined slag compositions which were metallurgically effective and produced a slag aggregate acceptable by state standards for highway construction. My original supervisor, before I was transferred to research and development, was a metallurgist who earned his degree with a thesis on inclusions in steel. Because of my interest in petrography, he recruited me to get involved in steel cleanliness. Together we developed several means of separating inclusions from the steel mechanically and/or chemically. We had no problem identifying the inclusions resulting from normal deoxidation practices. These were of an amount and shape that metallurgists did not consider critical toward the ultimate steel application. The ones they considered most critical were what they described as "stringers." These were just not allowed for ball and roller bearing applications. The fact that the stringers were elongated (in the direction of rolling) indicated they had a composition which would be pyroplastic at rolling temperatures. Our study showed these invariably had a MnOAl2O3SiO2 composition and their source was the bloating type fireclay ladle brick. Such brick were essentially composed of fireclay (A12O3SiO2) and quartz (SiO2). In service, at molten steel temperatures, the quartz was far above its temperature range Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

of stability, hence was easily reduced by manganese in the steel; i.e., Mn + SiO2 (as quartz) MnO + Si. The MnO so formed was a potent flux for the Al2O3SiO2 fireclay portion of the brick, and indeed formed the MnOA12O3SiO2 stringers we found in the cold steel. We realized a significant improvement when we substituted quartz-free fireclay (40+% A12O3) in the critical areas of the ladle. An interesting observation from our steel cleanliness studies was that we never found furnace bottom or furnace slag inclusions. From this study and others, I came to the conclusion and still maintain that the ideal containers for molten steel processing and handling are dolomitic (CaOMgO) refractories. The Canton, Ohio plant of Republic Steel was the largest electric furnace steel plant in the country with 17 furnaces contained in three melt shops. Furnace sizes ranged from 1-6 ton, 3-15 ton, 2-35 ton, 6-50 ton and 5-90 ton nominal capacity. Certain furnaces were scheduled strictly for stainless steel production, others for alloy steel using carbide finishing slags and others for alloy or plain carbon using a single slag practice. Masonry department records showed a wide range in roof and sidewall performance even for the same size furnaces. From study of the working surfaces of the refractories, and of furnace slags, fumes and atmosphere) we managed to distinguish the severity of the melting practice on roof and sidewall performance. The composition and amount of fumes and the composition of the furnace atmosphere determined this severity which I termed "fumidity." Depending on fumidity, roof life ranged from an average of 18 heats to 80 heats and sidewall life from 115 to 480 heats in the 15ton furnaces. Similar, but not so dramatic differences, were noted for the larger furnaces. In time we managed to set "bogies" for refractory performance based on melting practice. The Central Alloy District was a major producer of stainless steel. From its production they amassed a sizeable amount of fine material from the grinding and polishing operation. Recycling these metallic pieces with their valuable content of nickel and chromium but intermixed with the corundum (Al2O3) abrasive was suggested. One such suggestion was to incorporate it into the mix at the sinter plant. I was asked by the blast furnace superintendent how much coke breeze is added to effect such sintering. I told him none - in fact, it would create more than enough heat to sinter itself. I also questioned the logic of burning (oxidizing) metallic material at the sinter plant for subsequent reduction back to metallic at the blast furnace. He ignored me. I later learned that his one and only trial resulted in the welding of three adjacent sinter strand pallets. This experience got me involved with him in sinter plant studies. From my original chemical and petrographic examination of sinters produced in American plants, it was obvious the emphasis was on the mechanical; i.e., "making big ones out of little ones." There appeared to be no attempt at chemical beneficiation. The sinters usually consisted of magnetite (Fe3O4) encapsulated within fayalite (2FeOSiO2) or fayalitic glass. As such, they were brittle and had poor reducibility in the blast furnaces. Republic Steel's sinter plants were originally designed to sinter blast furnace dust exclusively. In time some were equipped with additional facilities to sinter ores, roll scale and limestone, along with dusts and sludges, but because of size were never a major source of iron or stone units for the blast furnace burden. Our aim was to continue using the sinter plants for recycling iron unit materials but also to produce high lime (CaO) content sinter (35+% November/December 2003 7

CaO), which we referred to as dicalcium ferrite (2CaOFe2O3) sinter. Our initial trials showed such ferrite-bonded sinters were more reducible and twice as strong as normal silicate bonded sinters. Trials at the blast furnace showed the significant economies of recycling cheap iron unit materials but also a lowered coke rate when burned lime in the sinter replaced limestone in the furnace burden. Unfortunately, Republic could not capitalize on this. They were obliged to spend large sums of money for installing and maintaining the facilities and equipment to meet EPA regulations on air and water quality. One area in which I spent hours on the petrographic microscope involved study of open hearth (OH) and electric furnace (EF) bottoms. Dr. McCaughey's course on thermochemical mineralogy and his method of calculating mineral phases from chemical analyses were very helpful in those studies. After examining the cross section (from working surface to unaltered original material) of several OH and EF bottoms, I came to the conclusion that steel was made on the slag coating from the previous heat which was stiffened by dolomite fettling material. For OH bottoms, the working surface invariably had diand/or tricalcium silicates (2CaOSiO2, 3CaOSiO2) and dicalcium and magnesium ferrites (2CaOFe2O3, MgOFe2O3) and magnesio wustite (Fe,Mg)O. The ferrites along with the low melting brownmillerite (4CaOAl2O3Fe2O3) were found to penetrate deeply into the bottom. For EF bottoms, lime silicates, lime and (Mg,Fe)O, but no ferrites, were found at the working surface, and it was found that the material penetrating beyond the working surface consisted of lime ferrites, aluminates and alumino ferrites. The opinions on bottom metal breakouts were many and diverse. A popular belief was that lead (Pb) was the cause. We often found lead in bottoms but it accumulated so far from the working surface that it couldn't be a cause. Instead, the accumulation of low melting calcium ferrites, aluminates and alumino ferrites relatively close to the working surface we decided gave rise to bottom "boils" and breakouts. This belief was strengthened when one of our burnt dolomite suppliers began using Adirondack magnetite (Fe3O4) concentrates instead of mill scale to "dead-burn" their dolomite bottom fettling material. These concentrates contained feldspar which raised the alumina content of the dolomite. Shortly after receipt and use of such material, we experienced an increased frequency of bottom boils. Eventually we did find that the "high" (up to 3.5%) alumina in our bottom fettling material was the cause of our bottom problems. To explain why, in terms of thermochemical mineralogy, the 3.5% Al2O3 combines with CaO and Fe2O3 to form 17% of a low melting mineral phase; brownmillerite (4CaOAl2O3Fe2O3) and this, in combination with dicalcium ferrite (2CaOFe2O3), penetrates the bottom to the depth of the 2325° to 2350°F isotherm where they crystallize and accumulate. Eventually, if there is an increase in the molten steel temperature, this zone will melt, create a "bottom boil" and at times develop into a bottom breakout. Finally, I can't help but be amused at reports that BOF linings now last for months and service campaigns exceed thousands of heats. To accomplish this, a practice of washing the lining with molten slag and dolomite was "developed." They reinvented

the wheel! Ha! That's why in the past open-hearth bottoms lasted months, even years. These musings should prove that work at a steel plant provided an interesting and challenging career for a ceramic engineer. R AN

46th International Colloquium on Refractories Eurogress-Aachen, Germany


November/December 2003

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

Company Profile . . .

HOTWORK-USA Portable Combustion Services for the Controlled Heatup/Dryout of Refractory Linings in High Temperature Process Furnaces and Vessels

Hotwork-USA Marketing Department

Figure 1. Controlled Glass Furnace Draining.

Figure 2. Checker Sulfate Removal. Hotwork name worldwide), the original UK HOTWORK Company, and its original USA HOTWORK licensee, continues to work together providing services to the refractory consuming Industries worldwide. In early 1998 HOTWORK CORP., Lexington, KY, USA and HOTWORK LEYLAND, Southport, England were acquired by FOSBEL, a much-respected name in providing ceramic welding services to the Glass and Coke Producing Industries On May 31, 2003 a group of investors comprised of the existing management team at the HOTWORK Div. of Fosbel Inc. purchased the worldwide HOTWORK business from Fosbel Inc. and now operate as HOTWORK-USA. In conjunction with this purchase HOTWORK EUROPE LTD., in Lathom UK was effectively shut down as a business and ExºCelsius International was established as a Licensee of HOTWORK-USA handling the European, Middle Eastern and African markets.


Hotwork heat up techniques and innovations have changed the way industries dry out refractories. More than 35 years ago, Hotwork developed the convective heating process, simplifying furnace and process vessel refractory dryouts and heatups, and supplying the highest quality prompt professional service attainable in the industry. System innovations, experienced technicians, engineering, planning and customer service allow Hotwork to maintain its leadership role in refractory dryout / furnace heatup services. The majority of the existing management team has in excess of 25 years experience and involvement. Hotwork is ready to respond quickly with superior combustion services to fulfill the requirements of refractory users worldwide with more than 350 sets of portable equipment, in excess of 50 fully trained and highly experienced field service technicians with an average of 18 years of experience, full coverage insurance, an unprecedented safety record and more than 20,000 projects completed worldwide. Hotwork's technical expertise and innovation in portable combustion services has offered proven solutions to refractory dryout and furnace heatup requirements in the Aluminum / Nonferrous Metals, Boilers, Power Generation & Waste Incineration, Cement & Mineral Processing, Coke, Foundry, Glass, Hydrocarbon (HPI) & Chemical Processing, Iron & Steel and Pulp & Paper Industries.


In 1963, Hotwork originally developed the glass furnace heatup technology termed "Forced Convective Heating," and since that time has brought on-line well over 10,000 glass furnaces worldwide. The service expanded to include dust-free Cullet Filling, Expansion Control Supervision, Furnace Draining, Crown Rise Monitoring and Recording, Sulfate Removal, "Hold Hots" and a variety of other services to reduce downtime and enhance furnace campaign life and efficiency. Hotwork pioneered and patented the process of utilizing high velocity burners for heating rebuilt coke oven walls. This technique Continued on Page 30


HOTWORK was founded in Dewsbury, England in 1962. In spite of undergoing several ownership changes since that time (many of which have only served to add to the confusion regarding the Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

November/December 2003


News from The Refractories Institute

The Refractories Institute, 650 Smithfield St., Ste. 1160, Pittsburgh, PA 15222

Acquisition of Unifrax

American Securities Capital Partners, L.P. (ASCP), the New York private-equity investment firm, announced it has completed the acquisition of Unifrax Holding Co., a global manufacturer of ceramic fiber insulation products used in many high-temperature industrial applications. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed. ASCP said Unifrax management would continue to have a significant ownership interest in the company. Through its operating subsidiary, Unifrax Corporation, the company has 12 manufacturing facilities in the United States, Europe, Asia and Latin America and employs approximately 1,100 people worldwide. Unifrax, based in Niagara Falls, had sales of more than $153 million last year. ASCP acquired Unifrax from Kirtland Capital Partners, a private-equity firm in Willoughby Hills, Ohio, which had owned the company since 1996. Bill Kelly, President and CEO of Unifrax, commented "Kirtland Capital has been a great partner the past seven years. We look forward to a similar relationship with ASCP. They are very enthusiastic about the future prospects of our business. We look forward to working with them." American Securities Capital Partners is the private-equity investment arm of American Securities, a family office founded in 1947 by the last William Rosenwald to manage his share of his family's Sears Roebuck fortune. ASCP is currently investing its third private-equity investment fund with outside investors, and manages more than $1 billion of equity capital on a discretionary basis.

ings, composites, compounds, honing stones, kiln furniture, lapping, polishing, refractories, sawing silicon and quartz, vitrified and resinoid grinding wheels. A graduate of Alfred University in 1993, Ms. Ramming majored in Marketing and Business Administration. Also, Daniel J. Meldrum has been appointed Vice President of Sales at Electro Abrasives. Meldrum is responsible for sales and marketing silicon carbide and boron carbide grains and powders. From 1992-2001, Meldrum worked at Saint-Gobain Corporation focusing on industrial ceramic products. Additionally, he worked in the Ceramic Materials Division as the North American Sales Manager from 1996-2001, marketing Zirconias and Aluminas. Mr. Meldrum is a 1999 MBA graduate of the University of Texas and a 1991 BSME graduate from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA. For more information, contact Kristine Ramming, Electro Abrasives Corporation, 701 Willet Road, Buffalo, NY 14218, or visit the company website at:

Refractories Company and Global Industrial Technologies Company Chapter 11 proceedings with the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. ANH Chief Executive Officer, Guenter Karhut stated, "With the filing of the Plans of Reorganization and Disclosure Statement, the ANH Refractories family of companies, including A. P. Green, NARCO, and Harbison-Walker is closer to concluding the reorganization process and emerging from Chapter 11. We will continue to pursue our vision to be the most profitable U.S. based refractory company driven by our customer focus and our energized and motivated workforce." Under the proposed plan, ANH would be owned by two asbestos trusts to be established. More details on the proposed ANH reorganization are available on the ANH website at:

Freedonia Group Report on Refractories

Demand for refractories in the U.S. is projected to increase 2.2 percent per year to $2.4 billion in 2007, a dramatic turnabout from the 1997 to 2002 period, which saw declines of nearly three percent per year. The improved outlook for refractories is based on improved fundamentals for many of the major end-use markets, particularly iron and steel following that industry's collapse starting in late 1997. Since the iron and steel market represents nearly half of all refractory demand, the turnaround will benefit refractory producers. These and other trends are presented in "Refractories," a new study from The Freedonia Group, Inc., a Cleveland-based industrial research firm. Among the refractory forms, preformed shapes and castables are expected to see the best growth, while from a materials perspective, nonclay materials will outperform clay refractories. More specifically, the switch to better performing refractories will lead to the best opportunities for silicon carbide and zircon and zirconia refractories. However, similar to the industry as a whole, many individual refractory materi-

Timcal Acquires Carbon Black Activities of Erachem

The Timcal's Management (a member of IMERYS) announced that it completed the acquisition of the Carbon Black unit of Erachem Comilog (a subsidiary of the ERAMET Group) with an effective date of September 1, 2003. This unit, with its production plant located in Willebroeck (Belgium) and its commercial and administrative offices located in Brussels, has an annual turnover of approximately 15M euros, possesses an innovative special carbon black manufacturing process, employs approximately 30 persons and services mainly the mobile energy (carbon-zinc and Li-ion batteries) and the conductive polymers (plastics, rubbers, cables) markets.

Electro Abrasives Appoints Two

Kristine Ramming has been appointed General Manager at Electro Abrasives Corporation. She is responsible for national and international sales, marketing, and promotion of all the abrasives grains and powders manufactured at Electro Abrasives. Since 1998, Ramming was a product manager for the silicon carbide and boron carbide product line. Her focus was on abrasive use in aerospace, blasting, coat10

ANH Files Reorganization Plans

ANH Refractories Company announced that it has filed proposed Plans of Reorganization and related Disclosure Statement for both the North American

November/December 2003

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

News from The Refractories Institute

The Refractories Institute, 650 Smithfield St., Ste. 1160, Pittsburgh, PA 15222

als will not recover to 1997 levels until after 2007. "Refractories" (published 08/2003, 261 pages) is available for $3,900 from The Freedonia Group, Inc., 767 Beta Drive, Cleveland, OH 44143-2326. For further details, please contact Corinne Gangloff by phone (440) 684-9600, fax (440) 646-0484, or E-mail: [email protected] Information may also be obtained through:

John P. Willi Receives ASTM Award of Merit

John P. ("Jay") Willi, director of quality assurance and engineering at Riverside Refractories, in Pell City, Alabama, has received a 2003 ASTM Award of Merit and the accompanying title of Fellow, the highest society recognition for individual contributions to standards activities. The award has been given to Willi for his outstanding authorship, service, and leadership to Committee CO8 on Refractories, particularly in the areas of terminology and editorship and for the overall operation of the committee. During a time when many people and companies have been reducing their participation in voluntary organizations, he has made the extra effort to promote Committee CO8, raising the awareness of the entire committee to meeting the Blue Book guidelines and helping revamp CO8 standards to current refractory terminology.

Chairman John Turner and Rob Crolius participated in an early September planning session for UNITECR 2005 to be held in Orlando. Present at the Cleveland meeting were: Roy Bottjer, Mark Stett, Tom Vert, Jeff Smith, Michel Rigaud, Lou Trostel, Chris Schnitzer and Glenn Harvey. Planning is well underway for what promises to be a very worthwhile event. Also, Rob Crolius attended a meeting of the Executive Committee Refractory Ceramic Division in St. Louis in late September. This group of equally dedicated volunteers included: Adam Holterhoff, Jim Stendera, Tom Vert, Dana Goski, and Jeff Smith. We greatly appreciate the work that all these folks and many others do on behalf of the refractories industry.

ernments. For example, the Chinese government holds the yuan artificially low against the dollar, making U.S. goods in China too expensive to compete while making Chinese goods cheap in world markets. Second, the Coalition will support public policies which will contribute to the reduction of production costs in the U.S. Examples are: containing health care costs, ensuring plentiful and affordable energy supplies, legal reform, tax credits for R&D, and real cost/benefit analysis for proposed regulations.

8-Hour Ozone Standard

The Environmental Protection Agency issued its first regulation for ground level ozone in the late seventies, publishing a 1hour, 0.12 ppm standard. In 1997, the agency proposed a revised eight-hour, 0.08 ppm standard which faced legal challenges. On June 2, 2003, EPA issued a new proposed rule to implement the 8-hour ozone standard. The new standard focuses on three primary areas: (1) establishing a transition from the 1-hour to the 8-hour standard that will include a process for states to re-designate attainment and nonattainment areas; (2) working with individual State Implementation Plans (SIP) to allow flexibility for achieving emission reductions in a way that best fits the state's existing rules and individual state programs, and (3) establishing national rules, such as those imposed on motor vehicles and power plants. For more information on the eight-hour ozone standard, go to: roprule.html.

LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY NAM Launches Manufacturing Initiative

The National Association of Manufacturers is sponsoring the "Coalition for the Future of Manufacturing." At the urging of The Refractories Institute and other members of NAM's Council of Manufacturing Associations, the initiative is intended to compliment NAM's Campaign for Growth and Manufacturing Renewal. Over 2.5 million manufacturing jobs have been lost in the United States over the past two to three years. The goal of the Coalition is two-fold. First, it promotes a level playing field in international commerce with trade rules which do not support protectionism and seeks currency exchange rates that are set by market forces and not arbitrarily by gov-

File MSHA Reports Electronically

The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has issued Program Information Bulletin No. PO3-17 which provides for electronic filing of eight reports required from the metal and nonmetal mining communicty. For a copy of the document go to: IB2003.HTM and look for Electronic Filing of Certain Submissions. R AN

UNITECR 2005 and RCD Executive Committee Planning Meetings

We have a number of dedicated individuals working for the benefit of the refractories industry, and we want to recognize them here as well as elsewhere. First, TRI

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

November/December 2003


Industry News



Resbond 904 cures at room temperature or in 5 minutes at 200ºF to provide high bond strength and excellent electrical, moisture, chemical and solvent resistance. Applications include production bonding of thermocouples, heat sensors, and critical electronic components for use to 4000ºF. Resbond 904 is the Ideal Choice For Any Ultra High Temperature Application Requiring Excellent Electrical, Chemical, Moisture and Corrosion Resistance. For more information contact: Cotronics Corporation 3379 Shore Parkway Brooklyn New York, 11235 Tel: (718) 646-7996 Fax: (718) 646-3028 process burners, duct burners, thermal oxidizers and vapor control systems; Kaldair flares; TODD® boiler burners; and Gordon-PiattTM boiler burners. John Zink Company is a member of the Koch Chemical Technology Group, LLC. For more information about the Thermbond refractory CD call 918.234.1800 or visit John Zink on the Web at Contact: Michelle Platis Communicating Arts, Inc. (918) 493-5700 [email protected]


Hauck Manufacturing Company, Lebanon, PA has developed a new ultra low NOx gas burner, the TriOx. The TriOx utilizes a three-staged air injection design for maximum production efficiency while minimizing NOx emissions - as low as 20 ppm or less - even with high temperature preheated air. The burner is capable of low excess air operation (5%) throughout its entire operating range, resulting in outstanding fuel efficiency. The TriOx is ideally suited for industrial heat processes in excess of 1600oF (870oC) including aluminium furnaces, steel reheat furnaces, thermal fluid heaters and other high temperature heat processes requiring ultra low NOx emmissions. The burner is capable of efficient operation with a 10:1 on ratio turndown. In addition to its operating efficiency, the TriOx offerrs excellent flame safety. The burner produces a visible, scannable pilot flame throughout its entire operating range, even when operating in the Invisiflame mode. The TriOx is available in four sizes with capacities ranging from 5 to 20 million Btu/hour (1,300 to 5,900 kW). Contact Hauck for additional information on this outstanding new addition to the Company's line of burner products. For additional information: Sherri Stom Hauck Manufacturing Company PO Box 90 Lebanon, PA 17042-0090 Tel: (717) 272-3051 Email: [email protected]


Separation technology leader Sweco recently introduced the "Screen Energizer", a pneumatically powered device that can significantly improve processing performance in the separation of both light- density and heavy-density powders. The Screen Energizer distributes high frequency, lowamplitude secondary vibrations over the entire surface of the screen, even on large diameter machines. Vibrations introduced by the Screen Energizer break up "pancaking" in light powder separation and "wedging" typically found in high-density powder separation. The Screen Energizer's simple, rugged design is engineered to outlast other technologies. The Screen Energizer utilizes readily available compressed air for power. No electrical hookups or wiring are required. The unit is simple to install and can be retrofitted to most separators that use disposable screens of virtually any type mesh, including synthetics. With more than 50 years of separation technology experience, Sweco offers a complete line of separation, sizing and milling equipment for the pharmaceutical chemical, paper and other industries. Headquartered in Florence, Kentucky, Sweco maintains a worldwide sales and customer-service network. Contact: Jeff Dierig Manager of Marketing Services, Sweco 859-727-5116 [email protected]


TULSA, Okla., Aug., 26, 2003 - John Zink Company, LLC, a worldwide distributor of Thermbond® refractory products, has produced a comprehensive product CD detailing its complete line of engineered refractory materials. The CD contains product data sheets, MSDS, installation instructions, industry case studies, technical reports, and application sheets. Much of the information is provided in multiple languages for international clients. Thermbond is a complete line of refractory products that utilizes dry aggregate and liquid activator components to form a uniquely bonded heat-resistant material. Once these elements are combined, Thermbond products completely mix in less than one minute, and once placed, cure in one to four hours. When fully cured, Thermbond can be immediately fired in at linear rates up to 500°F per hour with no holds. John Zink Company, LLC is a leading provider of advanced combustion systems and breakthrough technologies worldwide, servicing a wide range of global markets. In addition to Thermbond, other John Zink branded products include JZ® flares, 12



EOM (formerly East Ohio Machine) is a full service EPCM (Engineering, Procurement, Construction Management) firm with extensive background in furnace engineering and design related to the metals and glass industry. EOM has added consulting capabilities on refractory use for these industries as part of their on-going strategic growth pattern. With over 50 years of providing a total project deliverable to

November/December 2003

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

Industry News

our customers. For additional information, please contact John Bornes @ 330-8217198 ext. 112 or Bob Banner @330-8217198 ext.139 pleted in 2004, Nanchuan Minerals will have a yearly production output of 500,000 mt of coal, 600,000 mt of coke, 130,000 mt of brown fused alumina and 85,000 mt of ferro-silicon. In 2002, Nanchuan Minerals was the highest tonnage exporter of calcined bauxite from China and was 151st of the top privately owned companies in China, as well as 28th of the top 50 companies in Chongqing Municipality. During this year 2003, the tonnage exports for brown fused alumina are expected to be the highest of all producers. For next year 2004, ferro-silicon tonnage exports are targeted to be number one. In recent years, the Nanchuan Minerals Group was awarded certification under the ISO 9002 international quality system, was listed as one of the top ten exporting companies in Chongqing Municipality, awarded `triple A' credit by the Bank of China and chosen as an "advanced exporting privately-owned company in China" by Agriculture Department and Foreign Trading Department. Nanchuan Minerals is very grateful for the continued support of our many customers and agents and we look forward to continuing our tradition of supplying quality materials and service to the worldwide market. Group-owned plants Chongqing Municipality Nanchuan Jingshan Brown Fused Alumina Factory Nanchuan Refractory Co. Ltd. Nanchuan Bauxite Mine Nanchuan Metallurgical Alumina Factory Nanchuan Coke Factory Yongchuan Yongli Coke Co., Ltd. Wansheng Coke Factory Guizhou Province Zunyi Jingshan Brown Fused Alumina Factory Guizhou Qingzhen Hongyun Ferro-alloy Co., Ltd. Guangxi Province Fangcheng Minerals Processing Factory Fangcheng Barite Washing Factory Pingguo Jingshan Brown Fused Alumina Factory Shandong Province Shandong Yantai Minerals Processing Factory Duisburg, Germany e-Mill Gmbh (joint-venture) For further information regarding the Nanchuan Minerals Group, please view our website at or contact: Mr. Yuan Zhilun, Managing Director, Chongqing cell: +86-138-0833-6602 fax: + 8 6 - 2 3 - 6 3 6 2 - 0 3 4 3 [email protected] Mr. Bill Holroyd Americas: cell: +1-203253-1699 fax: +1-203-547-6008 Sales Director Europe: cell: +49-173937-8152 fax: +49-201-426-0044 [email protected]


Nanchuan Minerals is pleased to advise that as a result of the continuing growth of its business trading activities and with the expansion into new plant operations throughout China, the Chongqing Industry and Business Bureau has approved a change to the Chinese name of Nanchuan Minerals to:

The English name " Nanchuan Minerals Group Co., Ltd" will remain unchanged. The Nanchuan Mineral Group Co., Ltd is an export-oriented and privately owned enterprise concentrating on mineral mining, fusion manufacturing and trading. It was registered as a `group company' in 1997 and now has more than 2,200 employees and assets of about RMB 600 million (approx US$ 75 million). Export turnover reached US$ 30 million in 2002 and for 2003 export sales are expected to be around US$ 45 million. Nanchuan Minerals owns and operates a total of 13 plants in north and southwest China, having as their main product line calcined bauxite, brown fused alumina (corundum), metallurgical alumina, coal, coke and ferro-silicon. Sales are to the domestic Chinese market and to the principal international markets of North America, Europe, Japan and India. This September will see the start-up of a new operation ­ a 70,000 mt/year metallurgical alumina plant, built at a cost of RMB 250 million (US$ 31 million). This is the first-phase of the plant and further expansion is planned in stages to 500,000 mt/year. Nanchuan Minerals has also been expanding their product ranges into other new business areas and the majority of these products will also target the domestic market in China. These include the purchase of three metallurgical coke plants, a coal mine, a brown fused alumina plant and a ferro-silicon alloy plant. When all of these plant expansions will have been com-


Agreement provides access to energysaving programs that will benefit all industry segments David Garman, Asst. Secretary of the Department of Energy for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and Michael Greenman, Executive Director of the Glass Manufacturing Industry Council (GMIC), today signed an Allied Partnership Agreement formalizing a relationship that will lead to the implementation of numerous energy improvement technologies and techniques across the glass industry. Allied Partners are manufacturers, trade associations, industrial service and equipment providers, utilities, and other organizations that agree to help promote increased energy efficiency and productivity for those industries that participate in the Industries of the Future (IOF) Program. The GMIC has been working with EERE's Industries of the Future program since 1998, and has been instrumental in providing two-way communications between the industry and the DOE. Periodic solicitations to fund cost-shared research projects to reduce the industry's energy intensity have been based on technical priorities identified by the Vision and Continued on Page 28 13

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November/December 2003

Institution Profile . . .


Esteban F. Aglietti, Director, CETMIC (CONICET- CIC- UNLP) Buenes Aires, Argentina What is the CETMIC?

It is a research and development center whose aims are to study and develop techniques and processes for the use of raw materials in general and particularly for ceramics. It also performs control tests on refractory materials and ceramics. Its technical staff is highly qualified in the design of refractory materials and ceramics. CETMIC has an infrastructure, equipment of its own and is shared with other institutes, and a staff made up of researchers, university professionals and technicians. These features allow us to carry: · Scientific works · Technological studies · Tests of materials · Industrial counseling · Expert's studies · Courses Tests are performed under standardized conditions (IRAM, ASTM, DIN, ISO, etc.) or with their modification according to the requirement of the interested party.

View of the CETMIC Institute. On September 20, 1977 an agreement was established between the LEMIT and the other mentioned institutions about the functioning of the Technology Center of Mineral Resources and Ceramics (CETMIC). Other subsequent agreements determined that the CETMIC would depend only on CIC (1985) with the corresponding cooperation agreements with the National University of La Plata and the CONICET (Governmental Office Managing Scientific and Applied Research) (1991). · Mineral uses in the industrial processes, synthesis of by-products having previously designed properties. This area focuses on: 1. Clay activation by means of physicochemical methods using inorganic and organic substances. Adsorption tests of organic and inorganic materials 2. Electric charge of the soil crystalline compounds. Pollutants adsorption. 3. Water movement by spreading the surfactants in various clay colloids. 4. Recovery of pure or combined metallic elements from minerals and industrial liquid effluents. 5. Assessment of the environmental impact.

Historical Information

In 1994 the Laboratory of Materials Testing and Technological Research (LEMIT) was created in La Plata. At the same time, the activities of the Ceramic Section started studying the characterization of raw materials and ceramic tiles for Argentinean clays. Ten years later, different activities were developed in the Pilot Plant of Manuel B. Gonnet Campus such as testing of refractory products and scientific research on several aspects of raw materials and ceramic and refractory materials. Several studies were carried out about the use of mineral resources of Buenos Aires Province through agreements with the Department of Chemical Technology of the Exact Sciences Faculty (National University of La Plata) and with the Bureau of Scientific Research of Buenos Aires Province (CIC). 14

Research, Development and Technology areas of CETMIC PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY OF MINERALS

This area embraces: · The study of minerals, their properties, their potential use in industry. Their behavior when treating them with acid and thermal processing, grinding, ionic intercalation, rheology of suspensions, surface charges, etc.


This area includes the study of non metalliferous mineral deposits and ornamental rocks (specially clays and zeolitic rocks) from the geological, stratigraphic, sediment, mineral and technological point of

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Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

Refractory materials: abrasives and refractory rings for the glass industry. view, considering their industrial application.

Raw materials and some silicon carbide and alumina probes. 6. Preparation and synthesis of ceramic powders. Synthesis of submicronic particles. 7. Development of refractory concrete with hydraulic and chemical bonding. 8. Development and characterization of adsorbent compound materials.

X- Ray Difractometer. · Compression Strength. · Flexural Strength (MOR). · Hot MOR up to 1400ºC. 3. Operations and processes on solid materials. · Grinding and screening · Drying (spray, others). · Upgrading of ore. · Pelletizing · Firing · Chemical attack (cryolite, sulphuric acid, glass, slag, etc.) Sometimes the relationship with third parties is established through the agreements made with industries as well as when counseling is given by the Research Staff belonging to different groups. Public or private technical reports are then produced. This Center deals with the application of ISO 25 Standard which is used for some tests, particularly for those mentioned above. This Center is also part of a self-evaluation international group by doing interlab tests on Thermal Analysis. The team members working on refractory materials are: Dr. Esteban F. Aglietti (CETMIC Director), Dr. Alberto N. Scian, Dr. Alfredo D. Mazzoni, Tech. Daniel Arcelus and Juan C. Scordino. There are two students and two graduate students. R AN

This area deals with:

1. Geological, estratigraphical and sedimentological studies. 2. Mineralogical studies by X-ray diffraction, DTA-TGA, optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy and EPMA. 3. Mineral genesis studies, post-deposition processes (weathering, diagenesis). 4. Studies of the zeolite and clays application in environmental recovery.


This center provides counseling and testing services to private enterprises and government bodies. In this sense, it can perform works under standardized conditions (IRAM, DIN, ASTM, etc.), special studies and /or technological developments on: 1. Clay and ceramic raw materials · Chemical analysis · Mineralogical analysis (XRD, Microscopy, etc.) · Thermal analysis · Textural and microstructural analysis. 2. Ceramics and refractory materials. · Thermal behavior · Dilatometry, DTA-TGA. · Refractoriness under load ­ Creep · Volumetric stability up to 1600ºC. · Thermal conductivity from 20 to 1000ºC. · Refractoriness up to 1800ºC. · Mechanical behavior


It covers: · The study and the development of the techniques, operations and processes to obtain ceramics and refractory materials. · The assessment of their final properties. · The designs of these materials, their physicochemical and thermal properties that make them suitable for certain use or function. This area deals with: 1. Rheological behavior of concentrated suspensions of clay, oxides, etc. 2. High-temperature ceramics, resistant to corrosion and to thermal shock. 3. Ceramic processing. Shaping of ceramics by casting, pressure casting and pressing, etc. 4. Sintering of ceramic and refractory materials. 5. Development and assessment of shaped and monolithic refractory materials, with different designs of granulometric curves.

CHECK OUT THE CETMIC WEBSITE: and POSTAL ADDRESS: Centenario and 506 ­ PO BOX 49 (B1897ZCA) M.B. Gonnet ­ Bs.As. Argentina E-mail: [email protected]

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November/December 2003


Feature Article. . .


Jacques Poirier, Centre de Recherche sur les Matériaux à Haute Température - CNRS, ESEM, Institute Polytechnique d'Orléans, 8, rue L. de Vinci, 45072 Orléans Cedex France 1. INTRODUCTION

Refractories deteriorate and wear due to chemical and mechanical constraints of various intensities which can occur together or separately. These mechanical constraints may lead to frequent failures due to degradation of refractories, through cracking, spalling of materials, by creep rupture, by joint failure of the brick mortar systems [1]. The thermomechanical behavior of refractories is complex on different scales: · micro-cracking pattern and damage on the material; · cracks on the brick or shaped part; · fractures and movements on the structure. An example of cracks and microscopic damage in the refractory lining of industrial vessels (steel degasser) is shown in Figure 1. Because of increasing competitiveness in industry, different means of extending refractory life and increasing reliability of industrial tools are being pursued and investigations regarding the structural/mechanical behavior of refractory systems are becoming essential. Up to now, the design of refractory linings for high temperature vessels has been conducted in conventional ways. This approach has permitted considerable progress; however, it considerably increases the time and cost due to the on trial-and-error method used. In a lining design process steps to prevent substantial failure and damage of a refractory lining under thermal load may involve [2,3]: · selection of compatible lining refractory materials; · rational thermomechanical analysis and design toward developing acceptable stress and strain distributions; · determination of optimal operating conditions (specially heating scheme) The objectives of this paper is to provide an understanding of the thermomechanical behavior of refractory linings. It is divided into two parts: · the thermomechanical behavior of refractory materials; · the modeling of refractory lined vessels.

2. THERMOMECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS 2.1. Phase constitution of refractory materials

Refractories are porous, multi-components and heterogeneous materials [4, 5] composed of thermally stable mineral aggregates, a binder phase and additives. Figure 2 shows the composition and the microstructure of a magnesia graphite refractory. Refractory materials are quasi brittle at low temperature and have a viscous behavior at high temperature. They are subject to considerable variability in strength, resulting from local variations in their microstructure and their lack of ductility [6]. They are characterized by high-temperature creep or plastic deformation. Their brittleness and their high elastic modulus make them sensible to failure under thermal stresses and shocks.

2.2. Thermomechanical properties required for structural analysis

Modeling the behavior of refractory lined vessels requires a knowledge of the thermomechanical properties of the refractories which are highly atmosphere and temperature dependent. The required parameter sets are: thermal properties (conductivity , density , specific heat Cp), thermo-elastic and thermomechanical properties (Young's modulus E, Poisson's ratio , expansion , high temperature creep behavior and high temperature flexural, compressive and tensile stress-strain curves: -). Techniques for measuring such properties are described elsewhere [4, 7, 8, 9]. In Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

Figure 1. Cracks and microscopic damage in the refractory lining of industrial vessels (steel degasser). 16 November/December 2003

Figure 2. Composition and microstructures of a magnesia graphite refractory. order to compute stresses, it seems necessary to take into account the major characteristics of refractory materials: · non-linear and inelastic behavior · non-symmetry in tension and compression behavior · a scale effect

2.2.1. Non linear and inelastic behavior

Two major types of mechanical phenomena, damage and viscoplasticity occur. These two phenomena make the behavior of refractories dependent on time and temperature with irreversible effects. Damage Damage is responsible for the initial deviations from linearity and for some irreversible deformations. It mainly occurs at low temperature.

For example, Figure 3 shows a typical experimental curve for monotonic loading (compression test at room temperature) of resin bonded magnesia graphite refractory [10]. The behavior of the MgO-C refractory appears similar to that of a quasi brittle material (concrete or rock). The elastic domain is limited to very small strains. The non linear regime is due to a progressive degradation. For each unloading to zero stresses, anelastic strains remain and, for higher loads, a reduction in stiffness occurs. The degradation mechanisms can be deduced by analysis of the microstructure of the material: · the micro-cracks created during loading are essentially located in the carbon binder and propagate inside the binder and around the magnesia grains. They are responsible for the loss of strength and stiffness; · the sliding and crumpling of graphite flakes may be one of the causes of irreversible effects. The stress-strain curves, for three different temperatures, are shown in Figure 4. The lowest stresses are observed at a temperature that corresponds to the change in the binder. Up to 1100°C, after the binder has transformed to a semi-coke residue, quasi brittle behavior is also observed. At still higher temperatures, greater ductility develops due to the fact that both the aggregates and the binder become more visco-plastic. Viscosity and plasticity These generic terms cover all the relaxation phenomena which can be observed, particularly at high temperatures. For example, clay-bonded bauxite refractories are typical viscous materials at high temperature. This viscosity is due to the growth of mullite crystals around bauxite aggregates and the flow of complex silicate glasses in the clay binder. The uniaxial compressive behavior of these bauxite products is correctly described by a Newtonian viscosity parameter (Figure 5) calculated by strain speed of materials. The viscosity decreases with temperature. The values of strain speeds are determined by constant load tests at pre-selected temperature levels.

Figure 3. Stress - Longitudinal strain curve during loadunload paths compression test (MgO-C material). Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

Figure 4. Stress - Longitudinal strain curve for different temperatures compression test (MgO-C material). November/December 2003 17

Figure 7. Volume effect on the compressive strength of bauxite and magnesia materials. Figure 5. Evolution of viscosity (h = s/e ) with temperature [bauxite product: A].

Figure 8. Experimental and numerical results for a MgO-C refractory material. · a volumetric effect linked to the number of defects and its associated distribution of local resistances (i.e. the materials microstructure). An average behavior, representative of the material, can be observed only by loading a volume of material which is sufficiently large in terms of microstructure. In the case of refractories, the minimum volume required, known as the representative elementary volume, is about one cubic decimeter.

2.3. Refractory constitutive equations

Figure 6. Stress - strain curves in tension and compression at room temperature (Al2O3-C refractory material). A representative formulation of material behavior is necessary in thermomechanical analysis of refractory linings. Material constitutive equations should be defined in order to describe physical phenomena [8]. They should be as simple as possible and should require very few mechanical trials. However, they should take into account the mechanisms that cause non linear effects: damage, plasticity, creep. Oversimplifying refractory constitutive equations may cause miscalculations. Figure 8 compares experimental calculationed results for a MgO-C refractory subjected to suppressed thermal expansion tests. The constitutive equation describing the MgO-C refractory, based on isotropic linear thermoelasticity, led to overestimation of the thermal stresses above 200°C. Table 1 presents the advantages and limitations of various material constitutive equations depending on their level of complexity. To conclude this first part, the refractory thermomechanical characteristics must be considered when modeling the behavior of structures. Considering the wide range of products and the wide range of temperatures, there are presently not enough experimental data. The building-up of a data base (however costly and time-consuming) must be pursued in order to identify refractory behavior Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

2.2.2. Non-symmetry in tension and compression behavior

Figure 6 reveals the existence of a non-symmetrical compression­tensile refractory behavior. The presence of a non linear domain even for extremely low strains perturbs the determination of elastic properties such as Young 's modulus [9, 10]. These non symmetrical behavior in tension and compression is fundamental for the computation of stresses in structures, i.e., it should be accounted by Mohr Coulomb or Drucker Prager-based criteria classically used for concrete or rocks.

2.2.3. A scale effect

The apparent behavior of the refractory varies according to the scale considered (Figure 7). This effect has two aspects: · a structural effect linked to the field stresses. Experiments show that the level of mechanical resistance of a refractory material depends on the shape of the sample (i.e. the height/diameter ratio) and the boundary conditions; 18 November/December 2003

laws that could take into account the main causes inducing non linearity, while being simple enough for industrial users to apply. Taking into consideration complex interactions (mineralogical phase transformations) between chemical and mechanical phenomena would also made modeling more accurate.

3. MODELING OF REFRACTORY-LINED VESSELS 3.1. The components of the refractory linings

Refractory-lined vessels are composed of an outside steel shell and layers of refractory linings. The linings may be made of monolithic castables, blocks or bricks jointed together using (or not) some mortar material. In most cases, the lining consists of several layers refractories of varying qualities: · the interior layer of the refractory lining that is exposed to the process (molten metal, slag, corrosive gases ) · the linings between the shell and working lining are often referred to as the "safety or insulating linings." Insulating linings are used to limit heat loss and to maintain the vessel shell temperatures at reasonable levels. Refractories show significant expansion upon heating. In service, under given thermal and mechanical boundary conditions, the Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

refractory linings are exposed primarily to through-thickness temperature gradients and to thermal expansion loading [7]. The free thermal expansion of linings is controlled by the external structural steel shell. In most cases, the thermal stresses due to the restraint are considerably greater than the gravity weight stresses (gravity load stresses typically are in the range of 0.2 to 1 MPa, while the thermal expansion stresses can be in the range of 15 to 100 MPa). Of all the various shapes of industrial vessels, the cylindrical and the flat refractory structures appear to be the most predominant geometries. Refractory-lined vessels are generally composed of two parts: a cylindrical lining and a flat lining [7]: · the cylindrical lining remains in full contact with the outside steel shell due to the lining thermal expansion and the hydrostatic pressure (due to molten steel). Therefore, both loads develop a uniform pressure loading around the cylindrical shell, with irreversibly damaging the shell. · the behavior of the refractory flat lining differs considerably from that of the cylindrical lining. The refractory flat linings are subjected to unstable and undesirable inward and outward displacements (with a risk of buckling) when subjected to cyclic pressure and expansion loadings.

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At room temperature, compressibility of the joints are around 20%. At 1200°C, the mortar becomes more and more plastic and its compressibility approaches 50%. In all cases, the stress/strain curves obtained are non-linear and typical of the behavior of plastic materials: a very low stress is required at the beginning for a large displacement, and then the level of stress required increases suddenly and the displacement approaches close to zero. In practice, we have to consider that the compressibility of the mortar joint is greater than 50% and so its role of expansion absorber is real. To simulate refractory linings, the joint-brick assembly should be considered as an homogeneous material with equivalent thermal and mechanical properties.


The object of a lining simulation is to provide insight into the design of refractory materials to better resist the stress environments developed in the refractory lining components under various operating conditions. Information is also provided on the mechanisms of the origin of the stress states and displacements and how they relate to the component fracture. An accurate thermomechanical analysis method, on which a rational design approach for the refractory linings can be based, is complicated by many factors. These factors include: loading conditions, material modeling, behavioral knowledge for the refractory linings, complex non-linear mechanics, numerical analysis [7]. Controlling the stresses requires the formulation of an optimum combination of structure and properties, enabling the system to fulfill its function whilst deteriorating at the slowest possible rate. Its structure is defined by: · the geometry of the vessel; · the shape and the size of the refractory bricks; · the technique used to assemble the various parts of the lining (brick joints, expansion joint allowances). This assembly method governs the interactions between the bricks, on the one hand, and between refractories and the steel shell on the other hand. Its properties are determined by the characteristics (which are non linear) and the thermomechanical laws of the refractory materials. The finite element method (FEM) is a necessary tool for conducting a reliable refractory investigation. A lining investigation is usually conducted in two steps: · the first is an evaluation of the thermal response of the lining system, which may be either steady-state or transient; · the second step of the lining analysis consists in evaluating the thermal stresses and strain fields within the lining system. The general procedure of the engineering design of refractory linings is shown in Figure 10. The methodology is intended to describe the refractory lined vessels through the use of models which are as simple as possible [13, 14]. The advantages are: · reasonable calculation times; ·considerable ease of analysis and interpretation of the results; · great flexibility in modifying and developing the models.

Figure 9. Mechanical behavior of an assembly joint/MgO-C brick/joint.


The joints form a small part of the lining of the vessels but they have two important functions [7, 11]. · to assemble the pieces (bricks or blocks) together; · to absorb thermal expansion and to limit the stresses generated in the masonry [12]. The joints may be either mortared joints (i.e. granular ­ material with matrix and voids) or dry (without mortar) joints. In either case, the stress/strain behavior of the joint interface differs considerably. The joints constitute the weak part of the wear lining. Figure 9 shows the stress/strain curves at 20°C and 1200°C of: · a magnesia carbon material; · a mortar joint alone (with a very fine granulometry). · an assembly (two pieces of MgO-C refractory and 0.55 mm mortar ) 20 November/December 2003

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

Figure 10. General procedure of an engineering analysis using FEM. Thus, the calculations are systematically started using an axisymmetrical model. The following geometrical simplifications were introduced: · the wall layers are considered as monolithic cylinders; · the horizontal layers are considered as monolithic discs, with joints at the periphery. An example of a refractory structure simulation is shown in Figure 11. The main restriction on this type of model is clear: simplifying the description of the network of joints makes it impossible to discriminate the individual refractory brick and to calculate correctly the stresses to which they are subjected. However, this negative aspect can be countered by two observations: · if the simplifications are made correctly, the model will provide a realistic description of the interactions between the main elements of the brickwork and the interaction between the brickwork and the steel shell. The results obtained can be used as boundary conditions for more precise three-dimensional calculations, restricted to particular zones of the brickwork. · the shapes of the fields of stress most frequently encountered in refractory bricks, whether or not joints are used - subjected to free or partially restrained expansion - are theoretically known. Numerical calculations are used to quantify the stresses and takes into account the effect of the specific properties of the materials in the form of fields of stresses. Three-dimensional calculations are carried out afterwards, if necessary.

Figure 11. Von Mises stresses (steel shell of a ladle).


A global approach for the thermomechanical analysis of refractory- lined vessels used in the steel industry has been proposed. The methodology, presently applied to industrial structures gives realistic results. The models used first allow to characterize thermomechanical solicitations and secondly to provide better solutions to improve refractory linings. However, some limitations were identified: · the lack of knowledge about the thermomechanical properties of refractory products specially at high temperature. Few material models, which allow all inelastic phenomena such as viscosity, plasticity and damage to be taken into account, have been tested to see if they can reliably predict the behavior of the structure; · the unsuitability of the finite element models for taking into account certain movements in the structure (sliding between refractory bricks, friction between the different layers, interaction between the refractory lining and steel shell); · the incomplete knowledge of the thermomechanical behavior of the joints; · the lack of validation data (industrial measurements and laboratory trials) to confirm the relevance of the models; These limitations should, to a large extent, be overcome in the future, particularly as a result of introducing non-linear and more complete constitutive equations of materials and joints into the finite element models of refractory structures.


The author is thankful to SOLLAC CRDM research center, Cachan LMT laboratory and LMSP laboratory for their technical support.

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1. G. Bisson and D. Themines, Etude par elements finis du comportement de pieces refractaires sollicitees thermiquemenconference Refractaires et Sollicitation Thermomecaniques, SFC, Paris, France, 14-15 Mai 1990 (in French). 2. E. S. Chen and O. Buyukozturk, "Evaluation of an Integrated Design Process for Refractory Systems;" pp. 1328-1339 in Proceeding of the Unified International Technical Conference on Refractories, UNITECR'89, Edited by L. J. Trostel, Jr., The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH, 1989. 3. R. Rathner, J. Knauder, and H. Weissensteiner, "Thermomechanical Behavior of Refractory Lining with Special Emphasis on BOF-Vessels;" pp. 12-18, in Proceeding of the Unified International Technical Conference on Refractories, UNITECR'91, Edited by The German Refractories Association, Stahl & Eisen, Aachen, Germany, 1991. 4. G. Aliprandi, Materiaux Refractaires et Ceramiques Techniques: Elements de Ceramurgie et de Technologie, chez Editions SEPTIMA, Paris, 1979.

5. J. H. Chester, Refractories: Production and Properties, The Metal Society, London, 1983. 6. W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen, and D. R. Uhlman, Introduction to Ceramics, 2nd Edition, Wiley, New York, USA, 1976. 7. C. A. Schacht, Refractory Linings: Thermomechanical Design and Applications, Marcel Dekker, New York, USA, 1995. 8. J. M. Robin, Comportoment Thermomecanique des Ceramiques Refractaires, Ph.D. thesis (in French), University of Paris, 1995. 9. N. Schmitt, Y. Berthaud, and J. Poirier, "Tensile Behavior of Magnesia Carbon Refractories," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 20[12] 2239-2248 (2000). 10. J. M. Robin, Y. Berthaud, N. Schmitt, J. Poirier, and D. Themines, "Thermomechanical Behavior of MagnesiaCarbon Refractories," Brit. Ceram. Trans., 97[1] 1-10 (1998). 11. C. A. Schacht, "The Effect of Mortar Joints on the Thermomechanical Behavior of Refractory Brick Lining Systems in Cylindral Vessels," AISE Spring Conference, Birmingham, AL, March, 1985. 12. M. Miyamoto, T. Onoye, and K. Narita, "Deformation and Failure of Blast Furnace Refractories with Joints at Elevated Temperature," Interceram (Special Issue) 32, 107-110 (1983). 13. F. Bradley, A. C. D. Chaklader, and A. Mitchell, "Thermal Stress Fracture of Refractory Lining Components: Part I. Thermoelstic Analysis; Part II. Safe Heating and Cooling Rates; Part III. Analysis of Fracture," Metallurgical Transactions B-Process Metallurgy, 18B[2] 355-380 (1987). 14. P. Boisse, A. Gasser, J. Poirier, and J. Rousseau, "Simulation of Thermomechanical Behavior of Composite Refractory Lining," Composites Part B: Engineering, 32[5] 461-474 (2001). R AN

2003 ASME International Mechanical and Engineering Congress and RD&D Expo Washington, D.C. USA November 15-21, 2003

Advanced Energy Systems Applied Mechanics Design Engineering Dynamic Systems and Control Energy Fuels and Combustion Technology Heat Transfer Management Manufacturing Engineering Materials Materials Handling Nanotechnology Noise Control and Acoustics Non-Destructive Evaluation Engineering Nuclear Engineering Pressure Vessels and Piping Process Industries Safety Engineering and Risk Analysis Technology and Society Tribology

Website: 22 November/December 2003 Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6


Paulo R.G. Brandao, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil Geraldo E. Goncalves, Research and Development Center ­ Magnesita S.A, Brazil Amílcar G. Morato, Research and Development Center ­ Magnesita S.A, Brazil ABSTRACT

The hydration resistance of three magnesia sinters produced from natural magnesite through single and double burning processes was evaluated by a standard procedure. Also, several samples of magnesia sinters, stored and exposed to air during different periods of time were studied. In fresh magnesia sinter samples exposed to the air under normal conditions, or to relative humidity next to 100%, there was the formation of a thin layer of a hydroxilized-hydrated magnesium carbonate, similar to hydromagnesite, onto the periclase crystal surfaces. This film inhibited further hydration/carbonation, behaving as a passivation layer, which protected the magnesia sinters against degradation during periods of storage of several months. If this hydromagnesite-like film were hindered to form or intentionally destroyed, then the hydration/carbonation resistance diminished drastically. Infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and LOI have been the important analyses in the identification and evaluation of this film, while X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry were ineffective. Keywords: magnesia sinter; hydration resistance; hydration/carbonation; infrared spectrometry. magnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)24H2O] or a similar amorphous phase. If the hydration is only superficial, the material can be ground, sized and used in the production of monolithics or fired products, since these hydrates/carbonates will be eliminated during use or thermal treatment (firing). · The most common hydration problems generally occur with packaged products. It is important that the products be packaged with a low residual humidity; otherwise they will be prone to hydration. If possible, a hygroscopic material should be put inside the pallet during the packing, in order to absorb the residual moisture present. It is also necessary to eliminate the residual humidity during the wrapping with plastic and use strong plastics in order to prevent tearing and punching during transport and storage. · It is important to choose the best magnesia to be used, in the case of basic spinel bricks, because if magnesia had a high lime content, this will favor the formation of calcium aluminates (C3A and C12A7), after the thermal treatment, which have a faster hydration kinetics than the refractories' periclase primary phase. The conclusions of Part II were [2]: This work proved that brucite was the phase formed when the hydration experiment was carried out on fired basic refractories, in a closed environment, where the contact with air was prevented. The tests were run from room temperature up to 85ºC and the exposure times reached up to 768 hours. It was also observed that hydration occurs more easily at high temperatures and follows the hydration model where the reaction occurs by diffusion of water vapor through the brucite crust already formed, reaching and consuming the remaining core of periclase. The kinetic equation that describes this type of model is: 1 ­ (1 ­ )1/3 = kt where: is the relative hydration, k is the kinetic constant and t is the time in hours. The value of Ha (heat of activation) found in this work was 17.8 Kcal/mol or 74.4 Kjoules/mol, which is 15% superior in relation to Kitamura et al. result, under similar conditions [3]. For several applications, it is very important to know the hydration resistance of the magnesia sinters. In the present work, a quality control routine standard hydration test [4] was used to evaluate the hydration resistance of several samples of magnesia sinters produced by single and double firing. These sinter samples were kept in a moist room and subjected to free exposure to the air. In general, magnesia sinters are stored in covered warehouses at the sintering plants, sea port terminals and consumers plants, protected against rain but exposed to winds and to air moisture.


This work on the mechanisms of hydration/carbonation of magnesia sinters is the follow up of Parts I and II which were published earlier about the research on the same subject but applied to basic shaped refractories. The conclusions of Part I were [1]: Mechanisms of hydration / carbonation: · Natural exposure to air, under normal relative humidity: formation of magnesium carbonates, which were hydrated to a greater or lesser degree, amorphous, with little or no hydroxylation; · Exposure to air, but with simultaneous contact with water (liquid or vapor): formation of intensively amorphous hydrated carbonates, plus crystalline brucite; · Contact with water only, as vapor and/or liquid, without initial contact with air: formation of crystalline brucite only; after the formation of considerable quantity of brucite, even if the refractory were exposed to air for several days, there was no further formation of carbonates. An example of this case is the magnesia refractory with highly hydratable accessory phases (calcium aluminates): formation of brucite plus calcium aluminate hydrates. Recommendations to avoid hydration/carbonation of basic refractories: · Raw materials should be stored in a dry place. In general, if bulk magnesia sinters are stored in humid place, in contact with air, they show a white film which is composed of hydroRefractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

November/December 2003


The hydration resistances of magnesia sinters samples from several sources were also evaluated, after storage during long periods and the results were compared with the ones obtained during this investigation.


Run of kiln (fresh) samples, representative of three types of natural magnesia sinter, were used in this work, as shown in Table 1. The experimental part was divided in three stages. In the first stage, a storage simulation was carried out during a certain period of time. Run of kiln bulk magnesia samples were crushed to minus 2.36 mm (8 mesh), in order to accelerate the hydration, and each one of them was dispersed over a metallic tray and left in a moist room with relative humidity next to 100%, which is used to determine the setting time of cements and castables, during 52 days at room temperature (25°C). Afterwards, the samples were dried at 110°C for 24 hours to remove the residual moisture and then they were ground to 96% below 45µm (325 mesh) for evaluation of the degree of hydration and other properties, in comparison to fresh samples (run of kiln) that were not submitted to the aging process. In the second stage, a portion of each of the samples which were submitted to the first stage, were ground to the size distribution required for the hydration test and then heated up to 600°C and 800°C, during 5 hours for each temperature; then they were evaluated for the degree of hydration and other properties. The hydration test procedure adopted was adjusted after the ASTM C 544-92 test [4], where during each assay, 10 grams of each sample was placed in a porcelain crucible, protected with an aluminum lid to prevent water vapor infiltration. The test was carried out at 98°C for 2 hours under a pressure of 690 mm Hg; then the sample was dried at 110°C for 5 hours, followed by the loss of ignition (LOI) determination, which is considered as to the amount of hydration. Two assays were run for each sample. Run of kiln magnesia samples and those thermal treated by the procedures above, were submitted to the following analyses: LOI, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectrometry (IR). X-ray diffraction was always carried out by the powder method, in a Philips model PW 1730/10 diffractometer. Infrared spectrometry was performed in a Perkin-Elmer model 1760-X Fourier transform instrument; the sample preparation technique was always the KBr pellet and transmission spectra were recorded. 24 November/December 2003 Figure 1. Infrared spectra (transmission) of fresh magnesia sinters.

The particle size distributions of the samples submitted to the hydration test were determined using a laser diffraction analyzer, Malvern Instruments, model Mastersizer-S-DIF 2002 and the results were reported as D50 and D90 values. When necessary, thermogravimetry was performed using the Netzsch model STA-409 instrument.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 3.1. Fresh and exposed to humid air samples

The results of hydration and other tests and also infrared spectrometry (IR) of fresh magnesia sinter samples are shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. The IR spectrum of sinter B is not shown, because it is almost identical to that of sinter A. As shown in Table 2 fresh magnesia sinter samples presented much higher hydration results (13.6 to 18.1%) and much lower LOI results (0.36 to 0.45%). Regarding the XRD and IR results (Figure 1) for all the three samples, no new phases were found in addition to the normal ones, except for the presence of traces of hydroxide in sample A, by IR.

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

Figure 2. Infrared spectra (transmission) of magnesia sinters after 52 days storing. On the contrary, magnesia sinter samples exposed to humid air during 52 days (see Table 2) presented much lower hydration results (4.0 to 5.3%) and much higher LOI (1.40, 1.70, 2.52%) than the fresh ones. No new phases were found by XRD, except for the presence of a small amount of brucite (magnesium hydroxide) in sample B. This was due to an accident occurred during the long exposure in the moist room; because of the intense water condensation, an amount of liquid wetted this sample, but not the others (A and C). This favored the formation of brucite in sample B, besides the carbonate-hydrate phase. However, in all three samples (see Figure 2) IR has detected the presence of a magnesium-carbonate-hydrate phase as shown by the peaks at 1432 cm-1 and 1486 cm-1 and the presence of the bands at 1640 cm-1 and 3440 cm-1, which are assigned respectively to the carbonate group and water. This carbonate is similar to the mineral hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO3)4(OH)2.4H2O], but not identical; therefore, it is probably amorphous or has a low level of crystallinity. In relation to samples A and C, only this carbonate phase was identified; while in sample B, magnesium hydroxide or brucite (sharp band at 3698 cm-1) was the abundant phase, but the carbonate phase was also present. These same phases were already identified, in a basic refractory [1]. The standard spectra of these phases are shown in Figure 4. Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6 Figure 3. Infrared spectra (transmission) of magnesia sinters ° after 52 days air exposed and heat treatment at 600°C 5 hours. The hydrated carbonate phase occurred as a thin layer, covering the exposed surfaces of the periclase crystals; then, it behaved as a passivation film, which protected the internal region of the periclase crystals against further hydration, thus increasing the hydration resistance. As shown in Table 2, the LOI results (1.40 to 1.70%) revealed that the amount of the carbonate phase is very small, therefore showing more evidence of its presence as a thin layer. However, this small amount was enough for the formation of the protective film. On the other hand, the fresh (run of kiln) samples where exposed to the atmosphere only for a short time, and then its hydration resistance was much lower, due to the absence of the protective film. The absence of the protective film is confirmed by to the much lower LOI values. The thermogravimetry (TG) results were not any more relevant than the LOI ones, since the total mass losses were approximately the same. As the temperature range where hydromagnesite and brucite have their major mass losses was very similar, between 380 and 410°C, the thermogravimetry plots, even the differential ones, November/December 2003 25

Figure 4. Standard infrared spectra (transmission) of hydromagnesite and brucite.

hydrated magnesium carbonate onto the surface of periclase crystals, after exposure to humid air only, but not in direct contact with liquid water. This thin layer is formed through reaction between carbon dioxide gas and water vapor from the moist air. Although the formation of this thin layer can normally be accelerated inside a moist room, it also forms naturally under storage conditions, in open places with air circulating, but protected against rains. The destruction of this thin layer, by heat treatment to relatively low temperature (600°C to 800°C), leads to a dramatic decrease in the resistance against hydration, thus confirming its effectiveness. Infrared spectrometry and the simple LOI determination were successfully used in the identification of the protective layer. However, due to small amount of the film mass and also to its low degree of crystallization, its identification by X-ray diffraction was not possible. The hydration tests results for samples of natural magnesia sinters which have been stored in several customers' facilities, for relatively long times, were very consistent with the hydration resistance mechanism considered in this work.


1. P.R.G. Brandao, G.E. Goncalves, and A.K. Duarte, "Mechanisms of Hydration/Carbonation of Basic Refractories," Refractories Applications, 3[2] June, 6-9 (1998). 2. P.R.G. Brandao, G.E. Goncalves, and A.K. Duarte, "Mechanisms of Hydration/Carbonation of Basic Refractories Part II ­ Investigation of the Kinetics of Formation of Brucite In fired Basic Bricks," Refractories Applications, 3[2] June, 9-11 (1998). 3. A. Kitamura, K. Onizuka, and K. Tanaka, Hydration "Characteristics of Magnesia," Taikabutsu Overseas, 16 [3] 3-11 (1996). 4. ASTM ­ American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Test Method for Hydration of Magnesite or Periclase Grain ­ C 544-92, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, vol. 15.01, 95-97 (1998). R AN

were not diagnostic for the distinction between the two phases formed.

° 3.2. Samples after heat treatment at 600°C and ° 800°C

The tests' results for the samples that were previously exposed to humid air for 52 days and followed by heat treatment are shown in Table 3 and Figure 3. The hydration results were always high and the LOI ones low. Likewise, the IR analyses have not identified any phase occurring as protective film. The IR results for the 600°C and 800°C samples were identical. Again, no new phase was identified by XRD. Therefore, it can be concluded that the thin protective layer previously formed was destroyed during the thermal treating. The periclase crystal surface became more sensitive to hydration after the removal of the carbonate layer and its protection. This finding proves once more that this mechanism is responsible for the increase of the hydration resistance of the magnesia sinters.

3.3. Samples stored during a long time

The results of sinter A samples after storage during a long time (approximately one year) are shown in Table 4. The association of good hydration resistance values and the presence of the hydrated carbonate phase are in very good agreement with the findings of this work.


From a practical point of view, magnesia sinters that have a thin layer of hydrated magnesium carbonate, after air exposure under normal storing conditions, do not present any problem to be used in the production of basic shaped and monolithic refractories, because during their heatup the thin protective layer will be eliminated.

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Fresh magnesia sinters do not present good hydration resistance. This resistance is acquired by the formation of a protective film of 26 November/December 2003 Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6


China's Refractories is the only English language journal in China refractories industry, which was approved and started by National Committee of Science and Technology in 1992, sponsored by Luoyang Institute of Refractories Research (attached to the former Ministry of Metallurgical Industry). China's Refractories is a quarterly, mainly reports the latest development of the R & D, production, application and marketing in the field. 12 volumes have been printed since its publication in 1992, which have been welcomed by experts, scholars and businessmen home and abroad. The journal has established very good exchange relationship with more than 20 overseas journals or magazines such as American Ceramic Society Bulletin, World Refractories & Ceramics (UK), International Ceramics Review (German), Silicates Industry (Belgian), Ceramics Industry (France), Taikabutsu Overseas (Japan), meanwhile the abstracts of the papers in China's Refractories have been collected by some reputed secondary documentary periodicals such as Chemical Abstracts, Ceramics Abstracts (USA) and World Ceramics Abstracts(UK). The aim of starting the journal was to let the world understand the latest development of refractories in China and to set up a bridge between domestic and overseas colleagues in refractories field to exchange information and academic views. China's Refractories has been awarded second prize in the Periodical Examination organized by the former Ministry of Metallurgical Industry in 1994 and 1996 respectively and in 2000 was awarded the title of Double Benefit Journal issued by the State Publication Bureau. At present, the annual circular numbers of the journal in overseas market has reached more than 1000 volumes. Its subscribers mainly distribute more than ten countries including the USA, UK, India, Japan, Germany, France, South Africa, Argentina, South Korea and Iran. Contents of each issue are divided into Reviews, Academic Discussion, R&D Reports, Test and Examination of Properties and Application Reports, etc.; 67 papers are published for each issue, along with some domestic and overseas industrial news, statistics, standardization etc. Contributors are mainly experts and scholars and engineers form Universities, institutions and enterprises as well as some from overseas. China is now a member of WTO, China Refractories will go on its function in promoting the exchange of technical and academic information on refractories between experts, scholars and engineers home and abroad. The Editorial Board of China's Refractories: Address: Xiyuan Rd, Luoyang, Henan 471039, Tel: +86-3794205961 Fax: +86-379-4205800, E-mail: [email protected]; Contact: Liu Jiehua, Editor of China's Refractories. R AN


Hauck Manufacturing Company, Lebanon, PA, has announced the dates for the 2003 Advanced Combustion Seminar. The annual seminar will be held on November 3 - 5, at Hauck's Customer Technical Center in Cleona. This advanced seminar is based on the latest release of Hauck's software product used to facilitate the design of combustion systems ­ the Professional Version 3.0 of e-Solutions for Combustion®. Students are expected to bring a laptop and work with our instructors to solve combustion design problems using the 3.0 version of eSolutions ­ which will be installed free of charge on each attendee's computer ­ a $295 value. Class work is supplemented by more than 3 hours of handson exercises in Hauck's Combustion Laboratory demonstrating real-world design issues. The registration fee for the seminar is $750.00 per person and includes continental breakfast and lunch on seminar days, a seminar manual, and a welcoming reception. Contact Brad Smith, 717-272-3051 (extension 3101), for registration information or visit our website at

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Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

November/December 2003

Industry News Continued from Page 13 Roadmap documents jointly produced by GMIC and the DOE. The GMIC has hosted training sessions focusing on compressed air and process heating efficiencies in their facilities in Westerville, Ohio. Other areas for cooperation include the creation of information tools, the commercialization of emerging technologies, articles in trade journals, industrial assessments and work with individual states seeking to improve the success of glass industry operations on a regional basis. Allied Partnerships are intended to support the overall development of our "process industries." Glass companies and interested parties are invited to contact the GMIC for further information and details on programs offered under the Allied Partnership Program at (614) 818-9423 or [email protected]

CEO of Thermatex/Wahl. Tom will work with Paul to provide for an orderly transition to his new assignment through the balance of the year. Paul joined Wahl almost 20 years ago as a laborer and has progressed through increasingly responsible positions in manufacturing, construction and sales. Paul was appointed General Manager of Wahl Refractories January 2003. Please wish Tom and Paul great success in their new endeavors. John P. Flanagan Chairman of Board of Directors

Abrasives Corporation, 701 Willet Road, Buffalo, NY, 14218. For complete product specifications visit our website


Daniel J. Meldrum has been appointed Vice President of Sales and Marketing at Electro Abrasives Corporation. Meldrum is responsible for sales and marketing Silicon Carbide and Boron Carbide Grains and Powders. "Dan brings Electro Abrasives years of experience in world-wide abrasives sales and marketing," stated Kris Ramming, General Manager. From 1992 - 2001, Meldrum worked at Saint-Gobain Corporation focusing on industrial ceramic products. Additionally, he worked at the Ceramic Materials Division as the North American Sales Manager from 1996 2001 marketing Zirconias and Alumninas. Dan is a 1999 MBA graduate of the University of Texas and a 1991 BSME graduate from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA. For more information contact Kristine Ramming, Electro Abrasives Corporation, 701 Willet Road, Buffalo, NY, 14218. For complete product specifications visit our website


Kristine Ramming has been named president at Electro Abrasives Corporation unanimously by the Board of Directors. She is responsible for national and international sales, marketing, and promotion of all the abrasive grains and powders manufactured at Electro Abrasives. This promotion comes after serving as general manager since January. Since 1997, Ramming was a product manager for the Silicon Carbide and Boron Carbide product line. Her focus was on abrasive use in aerospace, blasting, composites, compounds, honing stones, kiln furniture, lapping, polishing, refractories, sawing silicon and quartz, vitrified and resinoid grinding wheels. "We have been fortunate to be growing during these tough economic times through new market applications," stated Ramming. "Our strategy is to promote ourselves in these niche areas while maintaining our current customer base with high quality grains and powders and our hands-on customer service." Ramming is a 1993 graduate of the Alfred University with a degree in Marketing and Business Administration. She is a member of the American Ceramic Society, the Refractories Institute and Semiconductors Equipment and Manufacturers International. Electro Abrasives' water-classified, state-of-the-art facilities in Buffalo, New York, manufactures Green SiC to JIS, ISO and FEPA Standards. Electro Abrasives also has warehouse stock of grains and powders available in Houston and Los Angeles. For more information contact Kristine Ramming, Electro



Paul Thibodeau, President and CEO, is pleased to announce the following personnel appointment effective September 8th, 2003: · Ed Ikeler is appointed VicePresident of Sales & Marketing. Reporting to Ed in this new position will be: · All District Sales Managers · All Sales Correspondents · Field Service Personnel · Howard Hubbard Please welcome and extend your congratulations to Ed in this new position. John P. Flanagan, Chairman of the Board of Thermatex/Wahl, is pleased to announce the following changes in the top management group of Thermatex/Wahl. Tom Moore, after having spent over 52 years in the Steel and Refractory Industries, will retire effective December 31, 2003. Tom will continue to serve on the Thermatex Board of Directors and work on special projects at the discretion of the Board. Effective September 8, 2003, Paul Thibodeau is appointed President and 28


`"`I am looking forward to my new job, but I realise that in succeeding Stan Smith, I have a very difficult act to follow, so I hope you will bear with me, particularly in the early stages. I will be working together with him on a "half-time" basis during September and October, so hopefully the transition will be seamless. I began employment in the ceramics industry in 1962 with Hepworth Iron Company, Hazlehead, Sheffield, as a laboratory assistant and pursued sponsored studies in ceramics at North Staffs College

November/December 2003

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

of Technology, College of Ceramics, graduating with a first-class Diploma in Ceramics in 1967. Following appointments as research assistant and production supervisor, I moved into the abrasives industry in 1968 with The Carborundum Company R & D division, Manchester, and also with Abrafract, Sheffield. In 1972, I fulfilled a long held ambition to join the refractories industry when I was appointed refractories technologist at monolithics specialist KSR International Limited, member of the Hinckley group of companies. I subsequently became refractories development manager in 1977, and R & D director in 1981, culminating in the appointment of technical director in 1996. Following acquisition of the Hinckley group by Cookson Group in 1998, I was involved in the worldwide monolithic product line of the Vesuvius division of Cookson as technical and manufacturing specialist. Following early retirement in March 2002, I have been working as an independent consultant. I am a family man, and I and my wife Elizabeth, or Liz as she is better known, have a son and daughter, who have each produced two grandsons, who are a constant source of pleasure and delight. For relaxation, I enjoy dinghy sailing and racing, DIY, gardening, walking/keeping fit and music. Travel is also high on the agenda, even though I was fortunate to travel worldwide during my career. I have an unfulfilled ambition to visit Australia, which managed to escape my attentions during full time working but I hope to amend this situation in the not too distant future. I look forward to the challenges presented by my new position in the Institute, and I hope to renew friendships and acquaintances worldwide, as well as establishing new connections with home and overseas members of the Institute. I can be contacted at: E-mail:[email protected]'"' R AN

2004 Media rates will remain the same as 2003. Please check our website for all advertisement rates and details:

November/December 2003 29

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

Company Profile Continued from Page 9 reduced the traditional 20 to 30 day heatup schedule for coke oven walls to 5 days. More than 400 end and through-wall repair projects have been successfully completed for various coke-producing customers. Today, the emphasis placed on the elimination of potential oven to flue leaks has made the practice of replacing throughwalls a cost-effective approach for returning ovens to service. Hotwork services to the foundry industry includes controlled furnace heatup, temperature holds and melt-out of frozen iron in vertical and horizontal channel and coreless induction furnaces and cupolas. Techniques have been developed to provide heat to the upper case of the vessels and also to the induction loops in channel furnaces. The introduction of Hotwork's high velocity heating to the iron and steel industries has played a significant role in the success of the new generation of monolithic refractory products. As the primary supplier of Refractory Dryout & Heatup services to the iron and steel industries worldwide, Hotwork is able to provide important information and suggestions during the planning stages of refractory installations in all types of vessels, enabling a more efficient and effective dryout/heatup of these products, thus enhancing performance over the campaign life of the refractory. Hotwork has successfully performed dryouts on over 200 Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units along with hundreds of other refractory lined vessels and units in Oil Refineries and Petrochemical facilities worldwide. Crews of highly skilled and experienced technicians and portable combustion equipment are strategically located around the world to serve the needs of refractory consumers in the Hydrocarbon Processing Industries, with services such as Refractory Dryout, Vessel Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT), Coating Cures, Melt-out of Crude and other Viscous or Solid Materials, Process Heatups and Tube Heating for Process Steam or Steam Blows. Hotwork has successfully completed Refractory Dryouts and Heatups on a wide variety of boilers, dryers, pre-heaters and rotary kilns for the Cement, Lime and Pulp and Paper Industries. The Hotwork process utilizing closely controlled convective heating of refractory linings in these plant facilities helps prevent premature refractory failure by eliminating localized overheating and thermal shock during initial dryout and preheating. Hotwork burner portability allows for quick setup and teardown time, while the unique 100 to 1 turndown ratio provides the ability to accurately adhere to prescribed heatup / refractory dryout schedules.

Figure 3. Patented burners produce high velocity combustion, which is accurately controlled from ambient to temperatures in excess of 2500°F.

Figure 4. Ability to get the right people and right equipment to the right place at the right time is an essential part of Hotwork customer service. Further information on Hotwork-USA and its services can be obtained by contacting: Hotwork-USA 223 Gold Rush Road, Lexington, KY 40503-2904 Phone: (606) 276-1570 Fax: (606) 276-1583 E-mail: [email protected] R AN


As the use of monolithic refractory products has increased and as these products have become more technically sophisticated, the requirement for properly controlled dryout has taken higher priority and is essential to maximizing the performance of these products in the applications for which they are designed. It is well recognized by refractory manufacturers and consumers alike, that it is not only the selection of the correct product for the application, but proper installation techniques combined with a properly executed initial dryout that ultimately results in a refractory lining that will give maximum performance throughout its campaign life. Hotwork prides itself on supplying the highest quality prompt professional service attainable in the industry. 30 November/December 2003 Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

ASTM Committee C08, Refractories

April 8, 2003 ­ St. Louis Hilton, St. Louis, MO

Has it been a while since you've followed the activities of ASTM International, Committee C08 (Refractories). This committee has undergone many changes in the last few years as it seeks to keep pace with the rapidly changing landscape of the refractories industry. If you are not familiar with this organization, it is a voluntary standards organization and consists of producers and users of refractories, along with regulatory bodies, and other stakeholders from around the world who have an interest in these materials. The goal is to develop high quality, market relevant, and globally accepted standards and procedures which can be used in various laboratories to produce comparable test results. Examples of standards under C8's care include determination of pyrometric cone equivalent, tests for bulk density and porosity, specimen forming, drying and firing, and many, many others. Membership is offered and encouraged for those interested in refractories. More information can be obtained by visiting the ASTM website at, or by contacting any of the committee officers. In order to reduce response time and better reflect current industry conditions, the committee has restructured its subcommittee organization. Also, the semi-annual meeting schedule has been streamlined. Instead of spreading over parts of three days, the meetings are now generally confined to one day. Our Executive Committee now consists of the following officers and subcommittee chairmen: J.P. Willi, Chairman; Maurice Cook, Vice-Chairman; and Adam Holterhoff, Secretary. Our Staff Manager at ASTM headquarters is Diane Rehiel. Completing the Executive Committee are the Subcommittee Chairmen of the new Subcommittees: Joe Homeny, .01(Strength); Jason Street, .02 (Thermal Properties); Carl Tucker, .03 (Physical Properties); Michel Rigaud, .04 (Chemical Behavior); Chuck Alt, .09 (Monolithics); Allan Davis, .10 (Glass); Maurice Cook, .91 (International); Richard Landy, .92 (Kopanda Editorial and Terminology); and Butch McConnell, .93 (Ruggedness and Precision). This ASTM committee held its 182nd meeting on April 8, 2003, in St. Louis. Many topics were considered, including possibilities for conducting "virtual" meetings, participation in international standard-setting, and of course, reviewing and approving (or not!) new standards and revisions to old standards. Anyone with an interest in the specific standards currently under development, or in standards undergoing the review and revision process, is again invited to become involved with ASTM Committee C8 on Refractories. The next meeting of ASTM Committee C08 will be November 20, 2003 at the Tampa Marriott Waterside, Tampa FL. More information on ASTM Committee C08 can be found at: Adam Holterhoff, Secretary C08


Meeting Of Committee C08 Thursday, November 20, 2003 Tampa Marriott Waterside, Tampa FL

Meeting C08 Main C08.90 Executive Subcommittee C08.91 International C08.92 Editorial C08.01 Strength C08.02 Thermal and Properties C08.03 Physical Properties C08.04 Chemical Properties C08.09 Forming C08.10 Glass C08.93 Ruggedness & Precision Start - Stop Times 4:30 PM - 5:00 PM 8:00 AM - 9:30 AM 9:45 AM - 10:15 AM 4:15 PM - 4:30 PM 10:15 AM - 11:00 AM 11:00 AM - 11:30 AM 1:00 PM - 1:30 PM 1:30 PM - 2:30 PM 3:15 PM - 4:15 PM 2:45 PM - 3:15 PM 11:30 AM - 12:00 PM

For other refractories related meetings see page 3.

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6 November/December 2003 31

Buyer's Guide

ALUMINA - CALCINED Alcan Chemicals 3690 Orange Place, Ste. 400, Cleveland, OH 44122 Tel: 1 (800) 321-3684 Fax: 1 (216) 765-2570 Alcoa World Chemicals 501 West Park Rd., Leetsdale PA 15056 Phone: (U.S.): (800) 643-8771 Phone: (outside U.S.) (412) 630-2800 Fax (all countries): (412) 490-0527 E-mail: [email protected] AluChem, Inc. One Landy Lane. Cincinnati, OH 45215 Phone: (513) 733-8519 Fax: (513) 733-0608 E-mail: [email protected] Nabaltec GmbH Alustrasse 50-52, Schwandorf 92421 Germany Phone: ++49-9431-53 457 Fax: ++49-9431 61 551 E-mail: [email protected] ALUMINA-FUSED Alcoa World Chemicals 501 West Park Rd., Leetsdale PA 15056 Phone: (U.S.): (800) 643-8771 Phone: (outside U.S.) (412) 630-2800 Fax (all countries): (412) 490-0527 E-mail: [email protected] C-E Minerals 901 East Eight Ave., King of Prussia, PA 19406 Phone: (610) 265-6880 Fax: (610) 337-7163 E-mail: [email protected] Web: Washington Mills Electro Minerals PO Box 423, Niagara Falls, NY 14302-0423 Phone: (800) 828-1666 Fax: (716) 278-6650 E-mail: [email protected] ALUMINA- REACTIVE Alcan Chemicals 3690 Orange Place, Ste. 400, Cleveland, OH 44122 Tel: 1 (800) 321-3684 Fax: 1 (216) 765-2570 Alcoa World Chemicals 501 West Park Rd., Leetsdale PA 15056 Phone: (U.S.): (800) 643-8771 Phone: (outside U.S.) (412) 630-2800 Fax (all countries): (412) 490-0527 E-mail: [email protected] AluChem, Inc. One Landy Lane. Cincinnati, OH 45215 Phone: (513) 733-8519 Fax: (513) 733-0608 E-mail: [email protected] Nabaltec GmbH Alustrasse 50-52, Schwandorf 92421 Germany Phone: ++49-9431-53 457 Fax: ++49-9431 61 551 E-mail: [email protected] ALUMINA - TABULAR Alcoa World Chemicals 501 West Park Rd., Leetsdale PA 15056 Phone: (U.S.): (800) 643-8771 Phone: (outside U.S.) (412) 630-2800 Fax (all countries): (412) 490-0527 E-mail: [email protected] AluChem, Inc. One Landy Lane. Cincinnati, OH 45215 Phone: (513) 733-8519 Fax: (513) 733-0608 E-mail: [email protected] C-E Minerals 901 East Eight Ave., King of Prussia, PA 19406 Phone: (610) 265-6880 Fax: (610) 337-7163 E-mail: [email protected] Web: ALUMINA - TRIHYDRATE Alcan Chemicals 3690 Orange Place, Ste. 400, Cleveland, OH 44122 Tel: 1 (800) 321-3684 Fax: 1 (216) 765-2570 AluChem, Inc. One Landy Lane. Cincinnati, OH 45215 Phone: (513) 733-8519 Fax: (513) 733-0608 E-mail: [email protected] Nabaltec GmbH Alustrasse 50-52, Schwandorf 92421 Germany Phone: ++49-9431-53 457 Fax: ++49-9431 61 551 E-mail: [email protected] BASIC BRICKS Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg. 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] BAUXITE Christy Minerals 833 Booneslick, High Hill, Mo 63350 Tel: (636) 585-2214 Fax: (636) 585-2220 E-mail: [email protected] International Minerals, Inc. PO Box 1322, Coraopolis, PA 15108 Phone: (724) 857-9903 Fax 724 857-9917 E-mail: [email protected] Web: Nanchuan Minerals Group P.O. Box 3205, Stamford, CT 06905 Tel: (203) 253-1699 Fax: (203) 547-6008 E-mail: [email protected] BORON CARBIDE Electro Abrasives Corp. 701 Willet Rd., Buffalo, NY 14218 Phone: (800) 284-4748 Fax: (716) 822-2858 E-mail: [email protected] Wacker Ceramics Division of Wacker Chemical Corp. 3301 Sutton Rd., Adrian, MI 49221 Phone: (800) 833-7608 Fax: (517) 264-8846 Washington Mills Electro Minerals PO Box 423, Niagara Falls, NY 14302-0423 Phone: (800) 828-1666 Fax: (716) 278-6650 E-mail: [email protected] CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT LaFarge Calcium Aluminates 1316 Priority Lane, Chesapeake, VA 23324 Tel: (757) 543-8832 Fax: (757) 545-8933 E-mail: [email protected] CALCIUM ALUMINATES-SINTERED, FUSED International Minerals, Inc. PO Box 1322, Coraopolis, PA 15108 Phone: (724) 857-9903 Fax 724 857-9917 E-mail: [email protected] Web: CALCIUM SILICATE INSULATION BNZ Materials, Inc. 6901 S. Pierce St., Ste. 260, Littleton, CO 80128-7205 Tel: (724) 452-8650 Fax: (724) 452-1346 E-mail: [email protected] CEMENT Alcoa World Chemicals 501 West Park Rd., Leetsdale PA 15056 Phone: (U.S.): (800) 643-8771 Phone: (outside U.S.) (412) 630-2800 Fax (all countries): (412) 490-0527 E-mail: [email protected] CEMENT (AIR SETTING) Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg. 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] USEM 600 Steel St., Aliquippa, PA 15001 Tel: (800) 927-8823 Fax: (800) 729-8826 E-mail: [email protected] FIREBRICKS & FIRECLAYS Alsey Refractories Company 1600 S. Brentwood Blvd., Ste 2100, St. Louis, MO 63144 Tel: (314) 963-7900 Fax: (314) 963-7973 E-mail: [email protected] Web: FIRECLAYS Christy Minerals 833 Booneslick, High Hill, Mo 63350 Tel: (636) 585-2214 Fax: (636) 585-2220 E-mail: [email protected] Web: FURNACE PRODUCTS & SERVICES Furnace Products and Services, Inc. 610 East Butler Road, Butler, PA 16002 Tel: (724) 285-3774 Fax: (724) 285-7673 E-mail: [email protected] Web: FUSED ALUMINA International Minerals, Inc. PO Box 1322, Coraopolis, PA 15108 Phone: (724) 857-9903 Fax 724 857-9917 E-mail: [email protected] Web: Nanchuan Minerals Group P.O. Box 3205, Stamford, CT 06905 Tel: (203) 253-1699 Fax: (203) 547-6008 E-mail: [email protected] USEM 600 Steel St., Aliquippa, PA 15001 Tel: (800) 927-8823 Fax: (800) 729-8826 E-mail: [email protected] FUSED MULLITE USEM 600 Steel St., Aliquippa, PA 15001 Tel: (800) 927-8823 Fax: (800) 729-8826 E-mail: [email protected] Washington Mills Electro Minerals PO Box 423, Niagara Falls, NY 14302-0423 Phone: (800) 828-1666 Fax: (716) 278-6650 E-mail: [email protected] FUSED SILICA C-E Minerals 901 East Eight Ave., King of Prussia, PA 19406 Phone: (610) 265-6880 Fax: (610) 337-7163 E-mail: [email protected] Web: FUSED SPINEL C-E Minerals 901 East Eight Ave., King of Prussia, PA 19406 Phone: (610) 265-6880 Fax: (610) 337-7163 E-mail: [email protected] Web: USEM 600 Steel St., Aliquippa, PA 15001 Tel: (800) 927-8823 Fax: (800) 729-8826 E-mail: [email protected] Washington Mills Electro Minerals PO Box 423, Niagara Falls, NY 14302-0423 Phone: (800) 828-1666 Fax: (716) 278-6650 E-mail: [email protected] HIGH ALUMINA FIREBRICKS Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg. 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics 1 New Bond St., Worcester, MA 01615-0136 Phone: (508) 795-2963 Fax: (508) 795-5011 E-mail: [email protected] INSULATING BRICKS BNZ Materials, Inc. 6901 S. Pierce St., Ste. 260, Littleton, CO 80128-7205 Tel: (724) 452-8650 Fax: (724) 452-1346 E-mail: [email protected] IFB, Inc. 610 East Butler Rd., Butler, PA 16002 Phone: (724) 282-1012 Fax: (724) 285-7673 E-mail: [email protected] Web: Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics 1 New Bond St., Worcester, MA 01615-0136 Phone: (508) 795-2963 Fax: (508) 795-5011 E-mail: [email protected] KILN/FURNACE FURNITURE Nth Degree Products 404 Laurel Ridge Road, Hainesport, NJ 08036 Phone: (609) 518-9447 Fax: (609) 518-9445 E-mail: [email protected] Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics 1 New Bond St., Worcester, MA 01615-0136 Phone: (508) 795-2963 Fax: (508) 795-5011 E-mail: [email protected]


November/December 2003

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

MAGNESITE,-FUSED, DEADBURNED, CALCINED International Minerals, Inc. PO Box 1322, Coraopolis, PA 15108 Phone: (724) 857-9903 Fax 724 857-9917 E-mail: [email protected] Web: MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES Allied Mineral Products, Inc. 2700 Scioto Pkwy., Columbus, OH 43221 Phone: (614) 876-0244 Fax: (614) 876-0981 E-mail: [email protected] Web: Chicago Fire Brick Div. of Allied Mineral Products, Inc. 2700 Scioto Pkwy., Columbus, OH 43221 Phone: (614) 876-0244 Fax: (614) 876-0981 E-mail: [email protected] Matrix Refractories Div. of Allied Mineral Products, Inc. 2700 Scioto Pkwy., Columbus, OH 43221 Phone: (614) 876-0244 Fax: (614) 876-0981 E-mail: [email protected] Web: MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES - CASTABLE Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg. 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics 1 New Bond St., Worcester, MA 01615-0136 Phone: (508) 795-2963 Fax: (508) 795-5011 E-mail: [email protected] Stellar Materials Inc. 100 E. Linton Blvd. 500B, Delray Beach, FL 33483 Phone: (561) 330-9300 or (800) 388-7555 Fax: (561) 561-330-9355 E-mail: [email protected] [email protected] MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES GUNNING Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg. 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics 1 New Bond St., Worcester, MA 01615-0136 Phone: (508) 795-2963 Fax: (508) 795-5011 E-mail: [email protected] Stellar Materials Inc. 100 E. Linton Blvd. 500B, Delray Beach, FL 33483 Phone: (561) 330-9300 or (800) 388-7555 Fax: (561) 561-330-9355 E-mail: [email protected] [email protected] MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES MOULDABLE Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg. 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES PUMPABLE Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg. 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] PRE-CAST REFRACTORY SHAPES American Precast Refractories, Inc. 2700 Scioto Pkwy., Columbus, OH 43221 Phone: (614) 876-8416 Fax: (614) 876-0981 E-mail: [email protected] Web: PRECISION REFRACTORY SHAPES Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics 1 New Bond St., Worcester, MA 01615-0136 Phone: (508) 795-2963 Fax: (508) 795-5011 E-mail: [email protected]

PRESS TOOLING Johnson Machine Company Inc. P.O. Box 669, 290 Bigler Ave., Clearfield, PA 16830 Phone: (814) 765-9648 Fax: (814) 765-9640 E-mail: [email protected] REFRACTORY ADDITIVES Matrix Enterprises 858 Maple Lane, Waterville, OH 43566 Phone: (419) 878-0001 Fax: (419) 878-0001 E-mail: [email protected] Web: Wacker Ceramics Division of Wacker Chemical Corp. 3301 Sutton Rd., Adrian, MI 49221 Phone: (800) 833-7608 Fax: (517) 264-8846 REFRACTORY AGGREGATES Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg. 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] REFRACTORY ANCHORS Alpha Stud Weld, Inc. 5121 Steadmont, Houston, TX 77040 Phone: (800) 468-5118 Fax: (713) 460-8786 E-mail: [email protected] Resco Products, Inc. Penn Center West, Bldg. 2, Suite 430, Pittsburgh PA 15276 Phone: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-mail: [email protected] REFRACTORY GUNNING & SHOTCRETE EQUIPMENT Allentown Equipment 421 Schantz Road, Allentown, PA 18104 USA Tel: (800) 553-3414 or (610) 398-0451 Fax: (610) 391-1934 E-mail: [email protected] Blastcrete Equipment Company 2505 Alexandria Rd., PO 1964, Box Anniston, AL 36202 Phone: (256) 235-2700 or 1 (800) 235-4867 Fax: (256) 236-9824 E-mail: [email protected] or [email protected] REFRACTORY LANCES Refractory Service Corp., Inc. 4900 Cline Ave., PO Box 2276, East Chicago, IN 46312 Phone: (219) 397-7108 Fax: (219) 398-4608 E-mail: [email protected] REFRACTORY MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION AND TESTING SERVICES R. E. Moore & Associates, LLC PO Box 314, Rolla, MO 65402 Phone: (573) 368-7628 E-mail: [email protected] REFRACTORY MACHINING Refractory Machining Services 610 E. Butler Road, Butler, PA 16002 Phone: (724) 285-7674 Fax: (724) 285-7673 E-mail: [email protected] REFRACTORY MIXERS Anchor Manufacturing Company 2922 West 26th St., Chicago, IL 60623-4127 Phone: (773) 247-2530 Fax: (773)247-4907 E-mail: [email protected] Web: REFRACTORY RECYCLING A-TEN-C, Inc. P.O. Box 58184, Pittsburgh, PA 15209 Phone: (412) 821-5566 Fax: (412) 821-5577 E-mail: [email protected] SILICA BRICK Utah Refractories Corp. P.O. Box 12536, Pittsburgh, PA 15241 Tel: (412) 851-2430 Fax: (412) 851-2425 E-mail: [email protected] SILICA MATERIALS BNZ Materials, Inc. 6901 S. Pierce St., Ste. 260, Littleton, CO 80128-7205 Tel: (724) 452-8650 Fax: (724) 452-1346 E-mail: [email protected] SILICON CARBIDE Electro Abrasives Corp. 701 Willet Rd., Buffalo, NY 14218 Phone: (800) 284-4748 Fax: (716) 822-2858 E-mail: [email protected]

International Minerals, Inc. PO Box 1322, Coraopolis, PA 15108 Phone: (724) 857-9903 Fax 724 857-9917 E-mail: [email protected] Web: Washington Mills Electro Minerals PO Box 423, Niagara Falls, NY 14302-0423 Phone: (800) 828-1666 Fax: (716) 278-6650 E-mail: [email protected] SILICON CARBIDE REFRACTORY SHAPES Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics 1 New Bond St., Worcester, MA 01615-0136 Phone: (508) 795-2963 Fax: (508) 795-5011 E-mail: [email protected] SPINEL-FUSED AND SINTERED Alcoa World Chemicals 501 West Park Rd., Leetsdale PA 15056 Phone: (U.S.): (800) 643-8771 Phone: (outside U.S.) (412) 630-2800 Fax (all countries): (412) 490-0527 E-mail: [email protected] STEEL FIBERS D & C Supply Company, Inc. 335 Washington Ave., Bridgeville, PA 15017 Phone: (412) 221-1191 Fax: (412) 221-9206 Fibercon International Inc. 100 S. Third St, Evans City, PA 16033 Phone: (724) 538-5006 Fax: (724) 538-9118 E-mail: [email protected] SYNTHETIC SINTERED MULLITE Nabaltec GmbH Alustrasse 50-52, Schwandorf 92421 Germany Phone: ++49-9431-53 457 Fax: ++49-9431 61 551 E-mail: [email protected] THERMAL PROPERTIES ANALYZERS AND TESTING SERVICES ANTER CORPORATION 1700 Universal Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15235-3998 Phone: (412) 795-6410 Fax: (412) 795-8225 E-mail: [email protected] Web: TOLL CRUSHING & GRINDING AluChem, Inc. One Landy Lane. Cincinnati, OH 45215 Phone: (513) 733-8519 Fax: (513) 733-0608 E-mail: [email protected] Christy Minerals 833 Booneslick, High Hill, Mo 63350 Tel: (636) 585-2214 Fax: (636) 585-2220 E-mail: [email protected] Web: TOLL PROCESSING, WAREHOUSING International Minerals, Inc. PO Box 1322, Coraopolis, PA 15108 Phone: (724) 857-9903 Fax 724 857-9917 E-mail: [email protected] Web: ZIRCON SAND & FLOUR AluChem, Inc. One Landy Lane. Cincinnati, OH 45215 Phone: (513) 733-8519 Fax: (513) 733-0608 E-mail: [email protected] ZIRCONIA Alcoa World Chemicals 501 West Park Rd., Leetsdale PA 15056 Phone: (U.S.): (800) 643-8771 Phone: (outside U.S.) (412) 630-2800 Fax (all countries): (412) 490-0527 E-mail: [email protected] Washington Mills Electro Minerals PO Box 423, Niagara Falls, NY 14302-0423 Phone: (800) 828-1666 Fax: (716) 278-6650 E-Mail: [email protected] Z-Tech 8 Dow Road, Bow NH 03304 Phone: (603) 228-1305 Fax: (603) 228-5234 E-mail: [email protected]

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

November/December 2003



PRODUCTS PRODUCTS MISSOURI REFRACTORIES CO. INC. 1198 Mason Circle Pevely, MO 63070 Tel: (636) 479-7770 Fax: (636) 479-7773 E-mail: [email protected] The Refractory Specialty Specialist · Customized mix design and manufacturing


Aarón Saenz 1918 Pte Monterrey N.L. 64650 Mexico Tel: 52 81 83784343 Fax: 52 81 83783434 E-mail: [email protected] Website:

NUTEC FIBRATEC is a major producer of ceramic fiber products. · Ceramic fiber blanket, modules and engineered parts boards and vacuum formed shapes · Moldables and pumpables · Paper, felts and textiles · ISO9001 certified

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· Central USA location · ISO-9002 certified · Quick response to emergency situa· Consistent products made fresh for

your order

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Christy Minerals Company 833 Booneslick High Hill, Mo 63350 Tel: (636) 585-2214 Fax: (636) 585-2220 E-mail: [email protected] Website: Christy Minerals mines, processes and markets a variety of clays and minerals for the refractories industry. Products include calcined MO flint clays, raw clays (including Hawthorn Bond), bauxite, burley and diaspore. Custom calcining, grinding and packaging also available.

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Penn Center West Building 2, Suite 430 Pittsburgh PA 15276 Tel: (412) 494-4491 or (800) 354-1211 Fax: (412) 494-4571 E-Mail: [email protected] Website: Resco Products, Inc., is a leading global manufacturer and supplier of advanced high quality monolithic, formed and brick refractories for the metals producing, hydro-carbon, power, cement and lime, ceramics, mineral and general manufacturing industries.

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United States Refractories A Division of Hitchins Refractories LLC P.O. Box 9229, Louisville, KY 40209 Tel: (502) 368-7787 Fax: (502) 363-3331 Manufacturer of: · High, Super Duty & 70% Alumina Brick · Mortars & Plastics · Ramming & Gunning Mixes · Low Cement & Conventional Castables · Special Shapes, Burner Blocks, Anchors · Private Labeling Available For all your refractory needs call Greg or Kurt today.

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ALLIED MINERAL PRODUCTS, INC. 2700 Scioto Parkway Columbus, OH 43221 Tel: (614) 876-0244 Fax: (614) 876-0981 E-Mail: [email protected] Website:

Allied Mineral Products and its affiliate companies supply top quality: · Monolithic refractory linings for induction melting equipment · Refractory systems for blast furnace casthouse operations · Refractories for aluminum melting · Precast refractory shapes

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Vesuvius USA

C-E Minerals 901 East Eight Avenue King of Prussia, PA 19406 Tel: 610-265-6880 Fax: 610-337-7163 E-Mail: [email protected] Website:

A major world supplier of quality raw materials and services to the refractory and related industries. · Mulcoa 47, 60, 70 · Teco-Sil · Alpha Star · Andalusite · Spinel · Bauxite · Fused White Alumina · Brown Fused Alumina

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1404 Newton Dr. Champaign, IL 61822 Tel: (217) 351-5000 Fax: (217) 351-5031 Website:

A strong company working to serve all your refractory needs. Vesuvius has been in business since 1916 adapting to an ever-changing industry. Contact us at the following locations with your questions:

Steel Division: Industrial Products: Foundry Division: Glass Division:

Sherrie Plummer Dave Hutzayluk Pat Kuzemsky Lisa McGreevey

217-351-5000 610-705-0555 716-825-7900 724-843-8300


November/December 2003

Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6



The Edward Orton Jr. Ceramic Foundation Refractories Testing and Research Center 6991 Old 3C Highway Westerville, OH 43082 Tel: (614) 895-2663 ext. 23 Fax: (614) 895-5610 E-mail: [email protected] Website: Orton provides a full service independent, research and testing laboratory specializing in the behavior of refractory ceramic materials. Over 70 tests are available to support product development, quality control and failure analysis. Consulting services are also available.

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Utah Refractories Corp. 2200 North 1100 West Lehi, UT 84043 Tel: (412) 851-2430 Fax: (412) 851-2425 E-mail: [email protected] Serving the primary glass industry, Utah Refratories Manufacturers Gen-Sil A.S.T.M. type "A" silica brick.

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Larkin Furnace Construction, Co. 2621 Keys Pointe Conyers, GA 30013 Tel: (770) 760-7090 Fax: (770) 760-0074 E-Mail: [email protected] Website:

Refractory resources for solutions since 1976. LFC offers a complete selection of refractory products and state-of-the art construction and refractory engineering services world wide to all refractory consuming industries. 24/7 service capability.

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AluChem, Inc. One Landy Lane Cincinnati, OH 45215 Tel: (513) 733-8519 Fax: (513) 733-0608 E-mail: [email protected] Website:

AluChem focuses on production and marketing of calcined, reactive, tabular, and hydrated alumina, zircon sand and flour, high purity magnesite, ground refractory grade bauxite, and toll processing are also available.

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Ads must be received by Dec. 1st for publication in the Jan/Feb 2004 issue. Ads received after the 1st will be placed in the next issue.

Buyer's Guide Rates:

Suppliers please state which category you wish to be listed under or submit your own heading. Contact: Mary Lee, University of Missouri-Rolla, 222 McNutt Hall, Rolla, MO 65409, Tel: (573) 341-6561 Fax: (573) 341-6934, or E-mail: [email protected] Rates for insertion: $90 per listing in any category for 6 issues, one year. U.S. currency, Payable in advance to: Refractories Applications and News. Your company will also be listed on our website buyer's guide at no additional cost.

November/December 2003 35

Lock 3 Company

· Raw Material Processing · Custom Blending/Private Branding · Packaging 1469 Delberts Drive Monongahela, PA 15063 Phone: (724) 258-7773 Fax: (724) 259-8171 E-mail: [email protected] Website:

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Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6

The Bookshelf

CERAMOGRAPHY, PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF CERAMIC MICROSTRUCTURES By Richard E. Chinn, ISBN 0-87170-770-5, published by ASM International,, 2002. Ceramography provides detailed instructions on how to saw, mount, grind, polish, etch, examine, interpret and measure ceramic microstructures. It is a reference guide for technicians in quality control and R&D, process engineers in ceramic manufacturing, and counterparts in engineering firms, national laboratories, research institutes, and universities. The book includes an atlas of ceramic microstructures, quantitative microstructural example problems with solutions, properties and data tables specific to ceramic microstructures, more than 100 original photographs and illustrations, and numerous practical tips and tricks of the trade. The chapters cover sawing and mounting, grinding and polishing, etching, petrographic thin section preparation, optics and microscopy, quantitative ceramography, qualitative ceramography, image analysis, ASTM procedures applicable to ceramography, ceramographic equipment manufacturers, and abrasive size equivalents. PLENARY PRESENTATIONS OF THE 31ST ALAFAR CONGRESS Held in Brazil during 27-31October 2002. More information can be found at: The complete program was listed in RA&N September/October 2002, page 36. MONOLITHIC REFRACTORIES: A COMPREHENSIVE HANDBOOK By Subrata Banerjee, ISBN 9810231202, issued by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 1998. This book details the various monolithic refractories currently in use, with particular attention to their chemical and physical behavior during manufacturing, installation, and the duty cycle. It addresses the critical aspects of reactions involved with the refractory body as it approaches the operation temperature in the processing environment. It also describes the application, installation, and design of refractory components. The book includes suitable tables and figures, and provides an historical perspective on the evolution of the refractory industry. The topics include: raw materials, castable refractories, pumpable castables, plastic refractories, ramming mixes, gunning mixes, mortars, coatings, dry vibratables, wear mechanisms, manufacturing, application designs, and evaluation and tests. DIRECTORY OF PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS InterDok Corporation,, advertises to locate events and procure published proceedings from thousands of conferences, congresses, meetings and symposia. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2001 UNIFIED INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL CONFERENCE ON REFRACTORIES 7th Biennial Worldwide Congress, held in Mexico on November 47, 2001; Published by The Latin American Association of Refractories Manufacturers (ALAFAR),

Selected contents: iron and steel, cement, lime, and non-ferrous materials, raw materials, new industrial developments and refractories applications, refractories basic science, and production quality assurance and laboratory testing. FUSION: A CENTENNIAL HISTORY OF THE NEW YORK STATE COLLEGE OF CERAMICS, 1900-2000 This book illustrates seldom-seen historical images of the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University. For general inquiries or for more information about this publication, call 607-871-2494, or contact [email protected] CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENTS Proceedings of a conference held at Heriot-Watt University, Scotland, 16-19 July 2001. Edited by R.J. Magabhai and F. Glasser. Research into the fundamental properties and behavior of calcium aluminate cements is presented in the book and on a CDROM, which forms the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Calcium Aluminate Cements 2001 held at HeriotWatt University, Edinburgh, Scotland, 16-19 July 2001. The main topics covered are CAC production and uses, CAC clinker, mineralogy of CAC, microstructure and hydration, environmental aspects, CAC in refractory applications, and special applications, 698 pages ISBN 1 86125 142 4, 2001. THERMAL MEASUREMENTS: THE FOUNDATION OF FIRE STANDARDS ISBN: 08031-3451-7 Editors Louis A Gritzo and Norman J. Alvares Eleven peer-reviewed papers address the significant challenges associated with performing thermal measurements as part of fire standards development, testing, and analysis. Measurements of importance include temperature heat flux, calorimetry, and gas species concentrations. These measurements are also of primary importance to the experimental validation of computer models of fire growth and material response. Topics covered: Temperature-addresses temperature measurement of conditions ranging from thermal fields in furnace environments to thermal response of engulfed objects in large pool fires and thermal protection effectiveness of firefighters clothing. Thermocouples, while straightforward in use and operation, are illustrated as deserving consideration of the uncertainty in measurements for each specific application. Heat Flux-measurements of heat flux are useful to define the fire thermal field for purposes of evaluating material thermal response. Several established gauges have been used extensively in fire standards. As with temperature measurements, the resulting uncertainty varies with the gauge design and the environment. The magnitude of this uncertainty, and the need to perform cost-effective experiments and fests, has yielded some new designs and application techniques. Significant progress associated with existing methods address calibration, angular sensitivity, and uncertainty quantification under large fire conditions. Calorimetry and Ignition Energy-although not as common as heat flux and temperature measurements these parameters often play the key role in fire standards for the role they play Refractories Applications and News, Volume 8, Number 6


November/December 2003

in the initiation, growth, and spread of fire environments. Heat release rate measurements and the evaluation of oxygen are also discussed In addition uncertainty the measurement of ignition energy is also explored Modern diagnostics and tools allow a closer look at legacy methods and techniques for performing these measurements. HANDBOOK OF INDUCTION HEATING This new Handbook of Induction Heating is the most complete source of information on induction heating technology ever published. This 800 page book, published in 2003 by Marcell Dekker Inc., NY, took eight years to write and is authored by four pros from the Inductoheat Group: Dr. Valery Rudnev, Don Loveless, Ray Cook and Micah Black. Often, technical books on induction heating deal with separate subjects without explaining the relationships and interactions required to tie them together in one all encompassing design. This book is different. It successfullyincorporates all important facets of induction heating technology together. The Handbook of Induction Heating is an invaluable reference, embarking on the next step in theory and practice for modern induction heating. It features case studies, ready-to-use tables, diagrams, simplified formulas and graphs. Plots of electromagnetic fields, temperature profiles, and photographs of a variety of production installations show how the tasks have been actually accomplished. Many materials presented here have never been published before.

Free Openings, as Easy as Popping a Cork

32251 N. Avis Dr., Madison Heights, MI 48071 Tel: 248-585-9393 · Fax: 248-589-1062 E-mail: [email protected] R AN


Back Cover

The back cover illustrates a pair (same field of view) of Reflected Light (RL) and Cathodoluminescence (CL) microstructure of an aluminosilicate castable used in a petrochemical refining plant. Photomicrographs are taken from the hot face of the refractory lining. Original castable refractory appears to be high-cement, kyanite-mullite containing castable. The calcium aluminate cement particles (Arrow #1) in the castable matrix have reacted with sulphur from refining process to form calcium aluminate-sulphate phase (Arrow #2) visible only in CL micrograph. SEM study of partially reacted and unreacted cement particles (Arrow #1) revealed that they were highly impure and low alumina (Al2O3 <50 %) cement particles. Development of calcium aluminate-sulphate phase is considered to be beneficial such that it results in a dense surface layer formation and prevent further sulfur penetration. This pair of photomicrographs demonstrates that CL technique can be utilized to study phase development in refractory lining as well as refractory failure in petrochemical refining industries. R AN

When your EBT refractory must hold without sintering, then flow freely upon release, make sure the "cork" is VANGUARDTM. The optimal combination of size distribution and packing density, VANGUARD olivine delivers refractory values well in excess of tapping temperatures and a basic chemistry which minimizes chemical attack for a longer tap hole life.

Unimin Corporation

North America: 800-243-9004 Fax: 800-243-9005 E-mail: [email protected] Worldwide:

TM VANGUARD is a trademark. All rights reserved. ©2003

University of Missouri-Rolla Dept. of Ceramic Engineering 222 McNutt Hall 1870 Miner Circle Drive Rolla, MO 65409-0330



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