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Understanding the Disorganized/Organized Typology

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SERIAL KILLER TYPOLOGY II: THE DISORGANIZED/ORGANIZED DICHOTOMY: A GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING ITS COMPONENTS

"There's no such thing as a born investigator." (Anonymous) This page is intended to help students better understand some of the theoretical underpinnings of the FBI disorganized/organized dichotomy. The words "organized non-social" and "disorganized asocial" first appeared in an article entitled The Lust Murderer in 1980 (Hazelwood & Douglas 1980), found their way into numerous textbooks on profiling (e.g. Holmes & Holmes 2002), and frankly have been a source of great confusion ever since. As explained in Part I, the typology enjoys no validation by rigorous empirical testing. This does not mean, however, that it is any less theoretically interesting. The explanations provided here are not intended to bear on judgments about the usefulness of the typology or enter into any debate over the disorganized/organized dichotomy. They are intended only to illustrate the criminological thinking, interdisciplinary origins, and examples of inductive and deductive reasoning that go into the construction and interpretation of such a typology. We will go over each component of the Typology one-by-one, starting with the headings: DISORGANIZED, ASOCIAL OFFENDERS ORGANIZED, NONSOCIAL OFFENDERS

With the words "disorganized" and "organized" and "asocial" and "nonsocial", the latter set of words, "asocial" and "nonsocial" refer primarily to a set of ideas closely related to the history of prisoner classification systems. These ideas include the notions of Rehabilitative Potential, Interpersonal Maturity, I-levels, Social Competence, and others. Of these, Quay's IM concept is most relevant because it specifically predicted institutional adjustment on the basis of being unsocial, asocial, antisocial, or prosocial. The Morgantown, WV model later cut these down to unsocialized, undersocialized, and oversocialized. Modern classification systems still maintain a remnant of these ideas in aggressive, general population, and nonaggressive (protective custody). The reasoning is primarily inductive. Offenders who are observed to be alone because they are inexperienced and lack basic social skills (weirdness) are regarded as "asocial" in other ways (note that asocial is not the same as antisocial). Offenders who are observed to be alone out of choice and preference for solitary confinement are regarded as "nonsocial" in other ways. If we connect these terms with inadequate socialization -- the most frequently cited variable in criminology -- i.e., "asocial" with undersocialized and "nonsocial" with unsocialized, then we can also make inferences about the abnormality of the offender's upbringing via the usual broken home literature (Wells & Rankin 1991). Now, let's consider the words "disorganized" and "organized" which are considered a false dichotomy by many. It's also true that these terms were oversimplifications made for the benefit of law enforcement by FBI profilers. Specifically, they oversimplify the psychiatric terms "psychotic" and "psychopathic" which were intended to be psychiatric diagnoses. There are important differences between a psychotic individual with a diagnosable mental illness and a psychopathic individual (aka psychopath, sociopath, antisocial personality disorder) with only a character disorder. These differences are inferred via inductive reasoning from crime scene characteristics. A "disorganized" (psychotic, mentally ill) individual is inferred from a chaotic, lots of evidence left behind, disorganized crime scene. An "organized" (psychopathic, knows right from wrong but shows no remorse) individual is inferred from a controlled, planned, premeditated, little evidence left behind, organized crime scene. There's more to it than that, of course, as Owen (2004) and Petherick (2005) make clear: Owen (2004) on the Dichotomy between Disorganized/Organized DISORGANIZED: Victims of disorganized killers are often battered about the face or sometimes blindfolded, reflecting a need to depersonalize the victim, or because the victim might resemble someone in the killer's life for whom he feels fear or anger. Any sexually sadistic acts committed will usually be done after the victim is dead, and if the body is left at the crime scene, it will usually be in

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plain view, but some disorganized killers take the victim's remains with them as trophies. Footprints, fingerprints, and sometimes even the weapon are found at the crime scene or discarded nearby. Often the crime scene itself will be chaotic and in total disarray. FBI research shows such killers are often below average in intelligence and socially inadequate. Within a family, they are usually among the youngerchildren, with a father who combines harsh discipline with an unstable employment history. The disorganized killer will himself have a poor employment record in an unskilled job, after possibly dropping out of school, and will tend to live on his own, or with an older family member, with minimal contact with people outside the family, and often tend to go out only after dark. They will have poor hygiene and low self-esteem, showing little to no interest in the news media, and will tend to live or work near the crime scene. They will either have no personal transport, or the vehicle they have will be old and badly maintained. Because they commit crime under stress, this can trigger changes in behavior, such as increased use of drugs, alcohol, or a turn to religion. They often return to the scene of the crime and sometimes turn up at the victim's funeral or memorial service even occasionally placing "In Memoriam" messages in the local paper. Some keep a diary. ORGANIZED: There will be signs of planning and care to avoid detection and identification, and the location will be carefully chosen, by organized killers, as the site(s) the victim is seized and taken. Organized killers usually personify their victims, selecting them according to a preference by type, age, gender, appearance, occupation, lifestyle, and very well other details which would seem trivial to anyone else. They will usually be socially confident enough to strike up a conversation, present themselves as non-threatening, and not appear odd or supicious. He is usually above average height and weight, with impressive appearance and clothing. He uses his own vehicle or the victim's vehicle for transport. In many cases, the victim will be raped before, or even instead, of being killed. Any weapon used will usually be taken away afterwards, as will any restraints such as chains, ropes, belts, gags, or blindfolds. The body too will often be taken away, to be disposed of carefully, making discovery less likely. SIMILARITIES & DIFFERENCES: Both types may return to the scene of the crime. Both types tend to have few genuine friends, but the organized type is a loner by choice, because he feels superior to others, has a stable employment history in skilled or specialist work, also being sexually competent, usually living with a partner in a long-term relationship, being among the older children with a father in stable and well-paid work, with an inconsistent style of discipline. Organized killers usually have an earlier background history with drugs and alcohol, usually have their own transport, in good condition and well-maintained, and also tend to keep in touch with the local newspaper and broadcast coverage of the crime, to enable monitoring of police efforts and keep in close touch with the level of threat to themselves. After commission of the crime, an organized killer may well decide to change jobs or move as a precaution against being caught. His better education and greater confidence allows him to transplant himself. It should be noted that many have pointed out the following weaknesses of the disorganized and organized approach: (1) most crime scenes have mixed characteristics displaying both disorganized and organized characteristics, although the FBI admits that "mixed" ought to be reserved for cases of interrupted offenses; (2) the focus on amount of evidence left behind ignores the context of the situation; (3) the typology has an inherent bias in favor of disorganized for crimes motivated by hate, anger, or domestic strife as well as those committed while heavily under the influence of alcohol and drugs; (4) psychotic is not the polar opposite of psychopathy; (5) the mental condition of a serial offender can deteriorate (Bundy) as well as improve (sadism) over a criminal career, thus the typology ignores this evolution; (6) signature (why) characteristics are overlooked in favor of M.O. (how) characteristics; and (7) the typology presumes the ability to diagnose mental illness without the benefit of clinical interviews. In defense of the disorganized and organized approach, the following points can be made: (1) there is a long line of sociology and criminology, starting with pre-Shaw & McKay social disorganization ideas, continuing through the work of the so-called social pathologists, and most recently in the broken windows (decay, disorder, and incivilities) thesis of community policing that supports the making of inferences between disorganization of the scene (macro) and that of individuals (micro), so it's all about context; (2)

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the more important part of the typology is to point to the degree of personality aberration, not the ability to "read" crime scenes and make medical diagnoses, thus whether the typology points to M.O. or signature is irrelevant; (3) there is sufficient evidence (Waldo & Dinitz 1967) that criminologists have been making medical diagnoses for many years, Yablonsky (1966) for example, characterizing the leaders of gangs as psychopaths without actually having met a gang leader, Sutherland (1937) for example, drawing careful generalizations about the psychology of all criminals from a sample size of one (Chic Conwell), and modern psychometry, aptitude and academic testing all presuming the ability to make diagnoses without the benefit of clinical interviews; and (4) the whole thrust of criminological usage of terms like "psychopath" (McCord 1983) and related concepts of personality aberration is all about evolution (deterioration and improvement) of mental state, as is clearly evident in the Cambridge-Somerville and other cohort studies (McCord & McCord 1959), thus they are not immutable labels being slapped on unsuspecting vulnerables by laymen who have usurped the privilege of diagnosis away from some irreproachable profession of forensic medical specialists. SPECIFIC COMPONENTS OF THE DICHOTOMY IQ below average, 80-95 range IQ above average, 105-120 range

The study of IQ is controversial. It's calculated by dividing the score on a paper and pencil test by someone's chronological age and multiplying the quotient by 100. What it measures is of questionable validity, and some would say it's skill, competence, brightness, or cultural literacy, but these debates are about as insightful as discovering that age really measures experience. In psychology, there are two approaches to the study of intelligence: the g-factor approach (followers of Spearman) which posits a horizontal intelligence that cuts across all abilities (this is the approach taken in works like The Bell Curve); and the multiple intelligence approach (followers of Thurstone, like Howard Gardner) which posits at least 7 different types of intelligence (linguistic, logico-math, spatial, kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal). Students of intelligence should also be familiar with the following chart: 0-20 21-35 36-50 51-70 70-90 90-110 110-120 120-140 140-180 180Profoundly Retarded Severely Retarded Moderately Retarded Mildly Retarded Slow Learner Average Superior Very Superior Gifted Genius

Criminologists who have studied intelligence in serial offenders have long been fascinated with its relationship to the "psychopath" concept. In the standard (Hare Psychopathy Checklist) conception, the callousness and lack of empathy of the psychopath (or sociopath) are indicators of a cold, contemptuous, and inconsiderate attitude along with a cunning, manipulative, and calculating style, implying that those best skilled at being least empathic might be the most intelligent, able offenders. It is further generally assumed that the least "impulsive" psychopath would be the most intelligent. However, as Fox & Levin (2005) point out, the cardinal feature of high IQ psychopaths is HI EMPATHY, not low empathy, toward their victims. For sadistic serial killers, the presence of empathy -- even intensely heightened empathy -may be essential in two ways. First, their crimes require highly tuned powers of cognitive empathy in order to trap their victims; and second, a well-honed sense of empathy is essential for a sadistic killer's enjoyment of the suffering of his victims. In fact, often the most empathic group of criminals are high IQ rapists (Fox

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& Levin 2005). On the other end of the intelligence spectrum, there's an old area of criminology that can be called the "Mental Deficiency" school of thought. In it would be included the old "pedigree" studies of The Jukes and The Kallikaks by Dugdale and Goddard as well as the modern Learning Disabilities literature (the LD-JD connection). There's also some fairly well known averages of IQs in the incarcerated offender population (about 75 over the years) as opposed to the more successful, ABLE offenders (about 115 according to some studies). Let's start with the study of "feeblemindedness" (anything under 75), a term created by Goddard and the basis for the American Eugenics movement of 1907-1937. Literally, thousands of immigrants to Ellis Island (mostly Irish) were taken aside by "spotters" (looking for things like glassy receded eyes) and sterilized (under the Johnson-Lodge Act) or registered (under Sexual Psychopath laws). America's use of feeblemindedness was closely related to the Italian positivist studies of Lombroso. As abhorrent as all this sounds, it resulted in some very fine baseline data (along with the Army beta tests) where we can safely say that nobody with an IQ below 80 ever becomes a serial offender (other than being duped by others into repeat offending). The upper limit of 95 for disorganized offenders can safely be said to include a 1.5 or 2.0 standard deviation range. This range represents individuals who have had a more "institutionalized" history and may or may not have been steered into certain occupational trades. The organized offenders have higher IQs not simply because they are psychopaths, of course, and are usually able to escape apprehension easily, but because of the nature of their psychopathology. Along with paranoia, most (not all) of the character disorders have the positive characteristic of higher IQ, mostly due to the benefits of self-importance, concern for competence, and intensity of concentration (Turner 1984). The numbers (105-120) can possibly be derived from a series of studies beginning with the Thorazine revolution of 1954, Ritalin studies for hyperkinesis, and the learning disabilities link with criminal behavior. Let's look more closely at learning disabilities which are essentially discrepancies between ability and achievement (underachievers and overachievers). LD occurs in 7-10% of the normal population and 26-73% of the criminal offender population (so there's obviously an LD-JD connection). One hypothesis is School Failure, that LD causes classroom embarrassments which lead to dropout which leads to crime. This hypothesis has been the basis for much of American crime control policy, and is known as "vulnerability" in some circles because it puts responsibility on teachers, assuming pliable students. Another hypothesis is Susceptibility, also called "insulation" in some circles. The causal chain in this model is that LD causes a personality disorder which leads to crime. It places responsibility on the students. Either way, the below average and above average distinction holds. If we cannot make inferences about brightness from the typology, we can at least safely make inferences about school history, occupational history, the processing of information, and perhaps even pedigree, if we want to use a term with genetic implications. socially inadequate lives alone, usually does not date socially adequate lives with partner, dates frequently

These components are fairly straightforward extensions of the ideas associated with "asocial" and "nonsocial". In the case of the organized offender, there are some additional assumptions relating to relationship patterns, serial monogamy, and infidelity. These are derived from Cleckley's 1950 sixteen characteristic symptoms of sociopathy, particularly the notion of "superficial charm". Such offenders are more likely to have needs for a regular sex life and partner, but such relationships are impersonal, trivial, poorly planned, and characterized by unfaithfulness, untruthfulness, and insincerity. Disorganized offenders may also have impersonal and repetitive aspects to their relationships, but given their increased tendency to display mental illness instead of character disorder, they are more likely to live under solitary conditions and not have an ongoing partner abuse and makeup cycle going on. Disorganized offenders are more likely to manifest characteristics from Joel Norris' twenty-one item checklist of episodic aggressive pattern. The episodic aggression scale and sociopathy checklist are reproduced here on a separate page, along with a note on antisocial personality.

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absent or unstable father family emotional abuse, inconsistent

stable father figure family physical abuse, harsh

To understand these components, it's necessary to go into Freudian and Neo-Freudian psychology. The major difference between orthodox Freudian and Neo-Freudian is that the former position holds that criminals always want to get caught (so called Freudian slips or guilt complexes) while Neo-Freudians (like Aichorn, Redl & Wineman, and Healy) have always denied the idea of guilt as motivator, explaining that Freud only said transference (unresolved trauma) had a tendency to replay itself in the future. This neo-Freudian position is more consistent with the generally accepted rejection of guilt and wanting to get caught in the profiling community (Ressler). Both kinds of Freudian psychology are, of course, extremely concerned with love-hate relationships involving parents and siblings, and it makes little difference whether you start with mother or father as we will see in a moment. Additional sources for these components come from the fields of criminology and victimology, especially the notions of victimization cycles, abuse reactions, and effects of inconsistent parenting. There's a further assumption that the disorganized type is more likely to be an active abuser (of perhaps other siblings) in the dynamics of family abuse than the organized type, who is more likely (like the rest of the family members) to be rather passive recipients of the abuse. This is sometimes taken as saying that sibling history is more important than parental history for the disorganized offender, but that may be an overgeneralization. The father (absence of) and siblings play important roles in the disorganized type's family history because of the presumed effects of the "Oedipus complex" (attraction to the opposite sex parent). While girls can have an equivalent "Electra complex", the Oedipus complex in boys is associated with emotional and mental disturbances, not of a psychopathic variety, but having psychotic or escapist overtones. Healy, in The Individual Delinquent, estimated that besides avoidance, displacement was the most commonly used defense mechanism in 91% of his 105-person sample, 49% came from a broken home, and 40% experienced too much or too little (inconsistent) discipline. Aichorn, in Wayward Youth, also developed a line of thought connecting father absence with mental illness, crime, emotional abuse, and "love deprivation". The mother (with father figure as a given) plays an important role in the organized type's family history because the Oedipus complex is less pronounced (child only develops to anal stage of psychosexual development due to consistent and harsh discipline). Redl & Wineman, in Children Who Hate, discovered that hatred of mother was an important, if not more important, factor in delinquents who were less psychologically disturbed and tended to use defense mechanisms, like sublimation, which were closer to patterns found in the nondelinquent population. Students of personality disorders should be familiar with the following defense mechanisms: sublimation repression reaction-formation projection fixation regression displacement normal, healthy conversion of bad news into silver lining outlook stuffing unwelcome info. into unconscious, withdrawal doing opposite of what really want, ambivalence, acting-out seeing worst of self in others, making enemies, externalizing irrational fear that blocks development, anxiety retreat into childhood-like state of wish fulfillment, acting on impulse settling for second best, something better than nothing, sabotaging

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lives and/or works near crime scene

geographically/occupationally mobile

It's a known fact of investigative science that, as criminals become more experienced, they gradually expand the territory they operate in. With serial killers, along with experience also comes the tendency to dump bodies farther away from the abduction site. This is why if police have a series of unsolved murders all with the same MO, the best thing to do is look at the first crime, because that's usually close to where the offender lives and/or works. "Adaptability and mobility are signs of the organized killer" (Ressler 1992: 132). minimal interest in news media follows the news media

Both criminology and investigative science tell us that some offenses are crimes of opportunity and others are crimes of planning, although a mix may be possible in many cases. Usually, those who plan their offenses also crave publicity in the media (Douglas 1998). Those who seek victims of opportunity have minimal interests in media, and alternatively, have strong "comfort zones" where they stay when they get the urge to kill. Organized offenders will not only follow the news media but will taunt the police thru it. The Son of Sam case and many others involved new media manipulation. The organized type may also be a heavy Internet user. usually a high school dropout may be college educated

This component is another expression of the School Failure hypothesis discussed earlier under the Learning Disabilities - Juvenile Delinquency connection. For the organized type, it's important to note that "some college", not necessarily graduation, may be the norm. poor hygiene/housekeeping skills keeps a secret hiding place good hygiene/housekeeping skills does not usually keep a hiding place

The origins of these components have been arrived at inductively from the experiences of investigators who have conducted residential searches. There's also a tie-in to oral and anal stage development of psychosexuality. Both types of serial killers will take trophies and souvenirs (more so with the organized type) as part of the postcrime fantasy (reenactment) cycle. The difference is in what they do with these items, the different uses they make of them, and the difference in items taken (Ressler 1992). The disorganized type may remove a body part, lock of hair, or article of clothing, and have no discernible purpose other than experimentation and masturbation. The case of Jeffrey Dahmer illustrates a disorganized type offender who tried to keep large items in small boxes, the refrigerator, and elsewhere around the house. The organized type will take wallets, jewelry, class rings, photos, or drivers licenses primarily as acknowledgements of his accomplishments. These items will be given to the killer's relatives or friends, instead of being kept at home, because the purpose is when the relative or friend wears the item, only the killer will know the significance. The case of John Wayne Gacy illustrates an organized type who would dispose of trophies as he saw fit. Gerard Schaefer, another organized type, donated his trophies to Goodwill. drives a clunky car or pickup truck drives a flashy car

Both types of offenders are likely to drive their victims' cars for a short while after the murder, but this component derives from notions about the phallic significance of the type of vehicle. Disorganized offenders will not care about the visibility of evidence in their vehicle because their state of sexual and mental confusion precludes a image of their vehicle as a sex symbol. They are more likely to drive something useful for a variety of hauling purposes, like a pickup. Organized offenders, by contrast, will prefer flashy cars for

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self-image reasons, but vans, especially customized vans, are also extremely popular with this type. There's some investigative experience that relates the type of vehicle to how well the offender has perfected his methods. In this regard, a flashy car would be needed for the seductive or "con" approach typical of the organized offender. nocturnal (nighttime) habits diurnal (daytime) habits

To understand this component, we need to delve into biocriminology (Fishbein 1990), particularly the areas of metabolism (endocrinology) and brain chemistry (neurotransmitters). It has long been suspected that glandular and/or hormonal disorders are a cause of crime, and the primary glands are the: (1) hypothalamus, (2) pituitary, (3) thyroid, and (4) adrenal. How these four glands operate together controls desire for sleep and sex. The hypothalamus resides in the limbic system (the crocodile brain), an area suspected of having a linkage to criminality. It regulates the organism's survival mechanisms as well as the receptor sites for sensitivity and empathy. The pituitary communicates with the thryoid and adrenal glands via the same chemicals (TSH & ACTH) that control follicle stimulation and public hair. The thyroid helps to balance sex hormones but essentially has a feminizing effect. The adrenal also helps balance sex hormones but essentially has a masculinizing effect. Hyperthyroidism, nervousness, hypersexuality, and gender confusion tend to be associated with glandular configurations consistent with nocturnal habits. Anger, hostility, and heterosexual sex drive tend to be associated with estrogen/adrogen balances controlled by adrenal gland function which is also associated with diurnal (daytime) habits. At least one implication of all this is that disorganized types should be interviewed by police at night (perhaps by using a counseling strategy) while organized types should be interviewed during the day (perhaps by using a direct, confrontational strategy). Neurotransmitters control the neural pathways in the brain, the "reward" centers, the abilities to feel pleasure and pain. Studies of skin conductance among convicted criminals show that it takes longer for an electrical charge to travel down their arms, indicating a "serotonic uptake disorder". Serotonin is the neurotransmitter that allows for the ability to reduce pain. If it's too low, the organism gets violent. If it's too high, the organism seeks stimulation. Other important brain chemicals are acetylcholine (which plays a role in alcoholism and other attempt to self-medicate) and dopamine, which allows for the ability to experience pleasure. It plays a role in schizophrenia and has also been linked to crack addiction. returns to scene for memories no interest in police work may contact victim's family returns to scene to see police a police groupie or wannabe may contact police

The organized offender is what Douglas (1998) calls a "police buff" who is a cop wannabe that enjoys getting chummy with authorities to (ideally) talk about cases which have been created by the offender. They may go so far as to become an ambulance driver so that after the kill, they can dump the body, call the police, and participate in the crime scene pickup. Other organized types will try to find and frequent the bars that police go to when off duty. Disorganized types will typically have none of the interests underlying these kind of behaviors. There's also a difference in whom the offender chooses to "taunt" (play games with). A disorganized cannibal killer, for example, may call the victim's family to tell them how delicious their child was while being eaten. An organized killer might also involve the victim's family (both may show up at the victim's funeral, for example), but they much prefer taunting the police, news media, or justice system. In fact, the organized type is usually pretty well read on police investigatory procedures, and may even be a criminal justice major at a nearby college. experiments with self-help programs doesn't experiment with self-help

The disorganized offender will be fascinated by self-help programs, particularly those of the Alcoholics Anonymous variety which mix religious elements with the group dynamics of self-improvement. This type experiments with a lot of changes - in personality, residence, career, and religious beliefs. They are likely to

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keep a diary. It is possible for a disorganized offender to improve their mental state enough that they become an organized offender, but that is not their primary reason. They experiment out of confusion and a dire need for treating some of the more severe symptoms of psychosis and schizophrenia. The organized type doesn't have time to experiment. They need something to help them keep their "edge" so they don't get "sloppy". They either invent their own program or modify an existing belief system so that it doesn't require group participation. kills at one site, considers mission over kills at one site, disposes at another

One of the trademarks of the planning characteristics of the organized offender is that the "drop zone" is rarely ever the "kill zone" which is also rarely ever the "abduct zone". The disorganized offender is so characteristic of such little planning that all they have is a "comfort zone". While both types of offenders are likely to have a script they want their victims to play, the organized offender has rehearsed (and more likely perfected) the script down to the smallest detail. The body is typically moved in whole or in pieces in order to conceal or advertise, depending upon the organized offender's assessment of what is needed at that given time in the sequence. It's amazing that, once apprehended, these types of killers can remember almost every exact spot where they dumped some part of their victims. usually leaves body intact may dismember body

Wound pattern analysis (Turvey 1999) reveals some distinct differences between disorganized and organized types of serial killers, and in some ways, between asocial and nonsocial offenders also. Motive and intent can be inferred from the wounds, and medical examiners are often allowed to opine in court on this matter. The disorganized offender will typically produce a victim with a lot of head and face wounds. The organized offender will typically produce a victim with a lot of body wounds, perhaps going so far as to dismember the body. It is important to realize that either of these behaviors can be considered "overkill" or "post-mortum" since it's not the location of wounds that determine these particular concepts, but behavioral reactions to victim resistance and refinement or escalation of sexual fantasies. This component is closely related to our next component: depersonalizes victim to a thing or it keeps personal, holds a conversation

Ressler's (1992) observations, Douglas' (1997) comments, and interview data support the idea that these are signature components. The signature is a more useful tool for profiling serial killers because it stays the same. It's the why in the offender's attack. The method of attack is known as the MO, but the MO is not static, it's dynamic, and changing as the offender learns from experience. It's the how in the offender's attack. A disorganized offender wants the victim to play a fairly rigid script, perhaps be or act like somebody the offender has known previously. They will accomplish this end by restraining the whole body in a cage, a pit, or by drugging or blunt force. The organized offender is interested in using the victim's real name, and allowing some victim-initiated interaction in order to further manipulate, con, and eventually gain pleasure from dashing the victim's hopes that they are having genuine human contact. They will accomplish this end by restraining only the arms and/or legs of the victim, leaving some of the body free and under personal control. attacks in a "blitz" pattern leaves a chaotic crime scene leaves physical evidence attacks using seduction leaves a controlled crime scene leaves little physical evidence

These are all components that necessarily follow from a basic distinction between unplanned and planned, and they are some of the least debated distinguishing characteristics of disorganized and organized types. They are easily inferred from crime scene characteristics and are also standard MO features of the

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two types. INTERNET RESOURCES Internet Resource Links for JUS 401 Lecture on Antisocial Personality Checklists PRINTED RESOURCES Douglas, J. & M. Olshaker. (1997). Journey Into Darkness. NY: Pocket Books. Douglas, J. & M. Olshaker. (1998). Obsession. NY: Pocket Books. Fishbein, D. (1990). "Biological Perspectives in Criminology" Criminology 28(1): 27-72. Fox, J. & Levin, J. (2005). Extreme Killing. Beverly Hills: Sage. Hazelwood, R. & Douglas, R. (1980). "The Lust Murderer." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 49: 1-5. Holmes, R. & S. Holmes. (2002). Profiling Violent Crime: An Investigative Tool, 3e. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. McCord, W. & J. McCord. (1959). Origins of Crime. NY: Columbia. McCord, W. (1983). "Psychopathy" in S. Kadish (ed.) Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice 4: 1315-1318. Owen, D. (2004). Criminal Minds: The Science and Psychology of Profiling. NY: Barnes & Noble Books. Petherick, W. (2005). The Science of Criminal Profiling. NY: Barnes & Noble Books. Ressler, R. & t. Shachtman. (1992). Whoever Fights Monsters. NY: St. Martin's. Sutherland, E. (1937). The Professional Thief. Chicago: Univ. Press. Turner, F. (1984) .Adult Psychopathology: A Social Work Perspective. NY: Free. Turvey, B. (1999). Criminal Profiling. San Diego: Academic Press. Vronsky, P. (2004). Serial Killers: The Method and Madness of Monsters. NY: Penguin. Waldo, G. & S. Dinitz. (1967). "Personality Attributes of the Criminal: An Analysis of Research Studies" Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4: 185-201. Wells, E. & J. Rankin. (1991). "Families and Delinquency: A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Broken Homes" Social Problems 38:71-93. Yablonsky, L. (1966). The Violent Gang. NY: Macmillan. Last updated: 10/25/05 Syllabus for JUS 428 MegaLinks in Criminal Justice

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