Read Visualization: The Missing Link Between Reading and Writing text version

Visualization: The Missing Link Between Reading and Writing

Georgia World Congress Center - C206 5/7/2008 2:00 PM - 4:45 PM

IRA Engaging Learners in Literacy

Atlanta, Georgia Presenters & their roles:

Linda Zeigler (reader) ­ Quinter Elementary Principal ­ Quinter, KS Virginia Beesley (writer) ­ Quinter High School English ­ Quinter, KS Emily Finger Maxwell (early learner, ELL) ­ Welborn Elementary ­ KC, KS

[email protected] [email protected]

"Thinking calls for images and images contain thought." Arnheim. (1969). Visual Thinking. London Faber and Faber. p. 12. "The soul never thinks without an image." Aristotle

Why Visualization?

According to Zwiers (2004) visualization is the process of creating mental images and associations using prior knowledge. This process enhances learning; Booth (1985) states, "students need to interact with both the author's thoughts and their own thoughts in order to bring about true learning." Onofrey and Thurer (2007) explain that visualization "is a tool used to make sense of events shared orally and in text." According to Gambrell and Koskinen (2002) visualization is a strategy for "the written language expression for young children. Wilhelm (1997) believes readers who visualize enter a "secondary world" This world, reached by proficient readers and writers, can be rich in detail, sensory images, and emotionally charged (Gambrell and Koskinen 2002). To become skillful in visualization, many students need explicit instruction. As Block and Pressley (2002) note, "Many students require repeated instruction using a wide variety of genres and handson manipulatives exercises before they can visualize..." Teaching visualization intentionally is an example of a strategy/skill connection. Instruction is designed with clear steps to realize, understand, and apply this strategy while providing practice so that visualization may be transformed into an automatic skill.

How does this look in a classroom?

Presentation Overview:

Stages of Visualization

___________________________________________________________

Realizing

Understanding

Applying

1. Realize that visualization helps a writer use prior knowledge to link to a reader. 2. Realize that a writer uses his/her imagination to visualize and then makes an effort to communicate these images to readers. _______________________________ Understanding Applying

3. Understand that throughout the writing process, a great deal of thinking by a writer considers how readers will visualize. 4. Understand that words connect the emotion, senses, and experiences of a writer to a reader. ___________ Applying

5. Applying visualization promotes using text (reader) as a catalyst to build new thinking and ideas (writer). 6. Applying visualization brings together a writer's purpose with the intended audience (readers).

Several lessons adapted from Zeigler, L. L., Johns, J. L., & Beesley, V. R. (2007). Enhancing Writing through Visualization. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt.

1. Realize that visualization helps a writer use prior knowledge to link to a reader.

Lesson: Who's Making Pictures for Whom?

(adapted from the lesson Making Pictures p.2)

· Read The dog ran away. · What did you visualize? ­ Turn and talk · Were the images the same? · Write a sentence to describe the imagery you made so that a reader will have a similar mental image. Read Trade pages with a different person to take turns reading each other's sentence. One at a time, each reader should tell the author of the sentence the mental images that were made when their sentence was read. Writers ­ Did these images match the ones you made when writing? Why or why not?

· ·

· ·

2. Realize that a writer uses his/her imagination to visualize and then makes an effort to communicate these images to readers. Lesson: Imagination Unleashed (adapted from the lesson What If p.21)

· Writer brainstorms ­ What if___________________________? The writer's imagination is triggered and mental images are created. · Writer must decide which of these images fit with the text they want to produce. Which idea will produce the desired effect in the readers? · Writer must choose words to convey the desired images to the reader. · Readers use the words to imagine new images. Book ­ · Readers can sort these images into two categories.

Images using real prior knowledge Images using imagination

3. Understand that throughout the writing process, a great deal of thinking by a writer considers how readers will visualize. Lesson: Consider the Reader

(Graphic from Enhancing Writing through Visualization, Envisioning the Writing Process p. 34)

Looking at each section of the graphic below, discuss the author's thinking.

Is the writer thinking more about his/her mental images or about the mental images that the reader will make when the text is read? Look at each section one at a time. Shade the piece of each section that you believe the author is thinking about the reader's imagery. (e.g., Shade half of the "Audience and Purpose" section if you believe the writer is equally considering the reader's imagery and his/her own imagery.)

Enhancing the Writing Process Visualize the Audience and Purpose Visualize to Plan Visualize to Draft Visualize to Revise and Edit Visualize to Finalize Present for others to Visualize

4. Understand that words connect the emotion, senses, and experiences of a writer to a reader.

Lesson: Show, Don't Tell

(adapted from the lesson Words Matter p.109111)

There many different degrees of emotion. Notice the emotions below. Write as many vocabulary words that come to mind and place these where you think each fits on this continuum. fear______________________________________________________________valor

Now choose one of these words that remind you of an experience you have had or imagined. Without using the word you chose, write a few sentences below that will help the reader picture what you want them to see. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Trade this page with a peer. They should read your sentences and try to match the situation you described with a word written on your continuum. Discuss and compare your thinking. Reflect on your conversation.

5. Applying visualization promotes using text (reader) as a catalyst to build new thinking and ideas (writer).

(adapted from the lesson Making It Move p.86)

Lesson: Problem/Solution

· ·

Read a text. Find a problem and draw your mental picture.

· Picture a possible solution and draw your idea.

Problem

Solution

Write words that describe the problem. _______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________ Solve this problem by

________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

6. Applying visualization brings together a writer's purpose with the intended audience (readers).

Using the book: Zeigler, L. L. & Johns, J. L. (2005) Visualization: Using Mental Images to Strengthen Comprehension. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt.

Questions to help readers and writers connect? Writer: (Linda) Who do you picture reading your piece? Why might someone be interested in reading what you wrote? What are some main visual images your readers will create? Is my chosen text type conducive to the types of images I want to produce? When and where do I picture readers reading my text? Reader: (Ginny) Why did the author write this text? Do I concur with the author's basic principles or theme? How does the author want me to use this information or story? What might the author be visualizing as he/she wrote this text? Is there a part of this text that is hard to visualize? Why?

References

Professional Resources Afflerbach, Peter, P.David Pearson, and Scott Paris. 2008. Clarifying Differences Between Reading Skills and reading Strategies. Reading Teacher. 61(5), pp. 364373. Block, Cathy and Michael Pressley. 2002. Comprehension Instruction: ResearchBased Best Practice. New York: The Guilford Press. Gambrell, L.B., and P.S. Koskinen. 2002. Imagery: A strategy for enhancing comprehension. In . Comprehension Instruction: ResearchBased Best Practice. New York: The Guilford Press. Onofrey, K.A., and J. Theurer, J. 2007. What's a Teacher To Do: Suggestions for Comprehension Strategy Instruction. The Reading Teacher, 60(7), 681­684. Vol: 10.1598/RT.60.7.9 Keene, Ellin and Susan Zimmerman. 2007. Mosaic of Thought. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Zeigler, Linda, and Jerry Johns. 2005. Visualization: Using Mental Images to Strengthen Comprehension. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. Zeigler, Linda, Jerry Johns, and Virginia Beesley. 2007. Enhancing Writing thorugh Visualization. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt.

Zwiers, Jeff. 2004. Developing Academic Thinking Skills in Grades 612: A Handbook of Multiple Intelligence Activities. International Reading Association. Literature Curtis, Jamie Lee. 2006. Is There Really a Human Race? Ill. Laura Cornell. New York: Harper Collins. Prelutsky, Jack. 2006. What a Day It Was at School! Ill. Doug Cushman. New York: Scholastic. Rowling, J. K. 1997. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. New York: Scholastic. Schanzer, Rozalyn. 2003. How Ben Franklin Stole the Lightning. New York: Harper Collins Smith, Lane. 2006. John, Paul, George & Ben. New York: Hyperion. Truss, Lynne. 2006. Eats, Shoot's & Leaves. Ill. By Bonnie Timmons. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. Young,Ed. 2005. Beyond the Great Mountains. San Francisco: CA: Chronicle.

Visualization: The Missing Link Between Reading and Writing Key Ideas I Will Use "Aha" Moments Resources/Links How (Where/When)

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