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Introduction - Using the DION Chemical Resistance Guide - Corrosion-Resistant Resin Chemistries - Markets - Applications - Material Safety Data Sheets - Ordering DION Resins - Changes - Disclaimer Resin Descriptions Bisphenol Epoxy vinyl Ester Resins Urethane-Modified vinyl Ester Resins Novolac Vinyl Ester Resins Elastomer-Modified vinyl Ester Resins Bisphenol-A Fumarate Polyester Resins Isophthalic and Terephthalic Polyester Resins Chlorendic Polyester Resins Specifying Composites Performance Factors Affecting Resin Performance - Shelf Life Policy - Elevated Temperatures Laminate Construction - Surfacing Veil - Chopped Strand Mat - Woven Roving - Continuous Filament Roving - Resin Curing Systems - Post-Curing - Secondary Bonding - Resin Top Coating - Dual Laminate Systems - Maintenance and Inspection Selected Application Recommendations - Abrasive Materials - Biomass and Biochemical Conversion - Bleaching Solutions - Sodium Hypochlorite - Chlorine Dioxide - Chlor-Alkali Industry - Ozone - Concentrated Acids

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- Sulfuric Acid - Hydrochloric Acid - Nitric and Chromic Acid - Hydrofluoric Acid - Acetic Acid - Perchloric Acid - Phosphoric Acid - Deionized and Distilled Water - Desalination Applications - Electroplating and other Electrochemical Processes - Fumes, Vapors, Hood & Duct Service - Flue Gas Desulfurization - Gasoline, Gasohol and Underground Storage Tanks - Methanol and Other Gasoline-Alcohol Blends - Ore Extraction & Hydrometallurgy - Potable Water - Radioactive Materials - Sodium Hydroxide and Alkaline Solutions - Solvents - Static Electricity - FDA Compliance - USDA Applications Common Types of Metal Corrosion - Oxygen Cell-Galvanic Corrosion - Passive Alloys and Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion - Sulfide Stress-Cracking - CO2 Corrosion - Other Types of Stress Corrosion - Hydrogen Embrittlement - Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Microbially Induced Corrosion (MIC) Alternate Materials - Thermoplastics Other Thermosetting Polymers - Epoxy - Phenolic Resins - Rubber and Elastomers - Acid Resistant Brick and Refractories - Concrete Additional Reference Sources ASTM Reinforced Plastic Related Standards

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Introduction

DION® resins are among the most established and best-recognized products in the corrosion-resistant resin market. DION® resins were originally developed for some extremely demanding applications in the chlor-alkali industry and their success has led to diverse and highly regarded applications. Reichhold is a dedicated thermosetting polymer company offering a complete line of corrosion-resistant resin products and actively developing new resins to serve changing needs of the industry. Over many years DION® resins have shown good long term performance when used in composite tanks and pipes as well as other structural parts made for the corrosion industry. DION® resins are known for their excellent chemical resistance and high mechanical properties in corrosive environments. More specifically, these resins have shown excellent durability within the chemically and oil/ gas industries, as well as the pulp and paper sectors. The high resilience and water resistance of DION® resins also makes them particularly suitable for marine applications such as boat hulls and swimming pools, as well as for use in building and construction where resistance to high static and dynamic loads is required. In applications requiring fatigue resistance and toughness, DION® resins have also proven themselves to be well suited. This includes use in the wind energy, aviation and transportation sectors. Help to Optimize Design and Performance Composite material systems exhibit design freedom relating to shape, size, and weight to provide technical solutions for proven long-term performance. In developing structural parts exposed in industrial environments, it is important for designers to make the correct material selection based on the required service life. This guide will help in selecting the most suitable material 80 Plus Years of Experience As a company with a long history of technology development, Reichhold is well positioned to support with novel material systems and technical expertise. With a network of technology centers and manufacturing plants around the world, Reichhold provides the required backup and security of supply to deliver performance to end customers.

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Using the DION® Chemical Resistance Guide The chemical resistance and performance of DION® resins has been demonstrated over the past 50+ years through the successful use of a variety of composite products in hundreds of different chemical environments. Practical experience has been supplemented by the systematic evaluation of the composites exposed to a large number of corrosive environments under controlled laboratory conditions. This corrosion guide is subject to change without notice in an effort to provide the current data. Changes may affect suggested temperature or concentration limitations. Laboratory evaluation of corrosion resistance is performed according to ASTM C-581, using standard laminate test coupons that are subjected to a double-sided, fully immersed exposure to temperature-controlled corrosive medium. Coupons are retrieved at internals of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, then tested for retained flexural strength and modulus, Barcol hardness, changes in weight, and swelling/ shrinkage relative to an unexposed control. The data and a visual evaluation of the laminate's appearance and surface condition are used to establish the suitability of resins in specific environments at suggested maximum temperatures. All of the listed maximum service temperatures assume that laminates and corrosion barriers are fully cured and fabricated to industry quality standards. In many service conditions, occasional temperature excursions above the listed maximum temperatures may be acceptable, depending on the nature of the corrosive environment. Consultation with a Reichhold Technical Representative is then advised. When designing for exposures to hot, relatively non-aggressive vapors, such as in ducting, hoods or stack linings, temperature extremes above those suggested may be feasible; however, extensive testing is strongly urged whenever suggested temperatures are exceeded. Factors such as laminate thickness, thermal conductivity, structural design performance and the effects of condensation must be taken into account when designing composite products for extreme temperature performance. A Reichhold Technical Representative may be reached via the Reichhold Corrosion Hotline at (800) 752-0060, via email at [email protected], or at www.reichhold.com/corrosion. All inquiries will be answered within 24 hours.

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Corrosion-Resistant Resin Chemistries The diverse corrosive properties of industrial chemicals require that a number of resin chemistries be employed to optimize the performance of composite materials. Basic resin chemistries include isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, vinyl ester, chlorendic, and bisphenol fumarate resins. Each has unique advantages and disadvantages, and consequently it is important to consider when creating resin specifications. Reichhold can supply all the corrosion-resistant resin types in common usage and will assist in evaluating specific requirements. Markets DION® vinyl ester and corrosion-resistant polyester resins serve the needs of a wide range of chemical process industries. Pulp and paper Chlor-Alkali Power generation Waste treatment Petroleum Ore processing Plating Electronics Water service Agriculture Pharmaceutical Food Processing Automotive Aircraft Marine Polymer concrete Alcohols and synthetic fuels

Applications DION® resins have over 50 years of field service in the most severe corrosive environments. Chemical storage tanks Underground fuel storage tanks Pickling and plating tanks Chemical piping systems Large diameter sewer pipes Fume ducts and scrubbers Chimney stacks and stack liners Fans, blowers, and hoods Chlorine cell covers, collectors Pulp washer drums, up flow tubes Secondary containment systems Wall and roofing systems Grating and structural profile Cooling tower elements Floor coatings and mortars Gasoline containment

Chemical attack can alter the structural performance of composites and must be considered in the selection of an appropriate resin. Reichhold provides direct technical assistance for specific applications and for conditions that may not be covered in the guide. Test coupons prepared according to ASTM C-581 are available for in-plant testing. When calling, please have the following information ready for discussion: 1. Precise composition of the chemical environment 2. Chemical concentration(s) 3. Operation temperature (including any potential temperature fluctuations, upsets, or cycling conditions) 4. Trace materials 5. Potential need for flame-retardant material 6. Type and size of equipment 7. Fabrication process

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Material Safety Data Sheets Material safety data sheets are available for all DION® and Atprime® products listed in this brochure. Please request the appropriate data sheets before handling, storing or using any product. Ordering DION® Resins To order DION® resins and Atprime® 2, call Reichhold customer service at 1-800-448-3482 or contact your local authorized Reichhold distributor. Changes This corrosion guide is subject to change without notice in an effort to provide the current data changes may affect suggested temperature or concentration limitations. Disclaimer The following are general guidelines intended to assist customers in determining whether Reichhold resins are suitable for their applications. Reichhold products are intended for sale to sophisticated industrial and commercial customers. Reichhold requires customers to inspect and test our products before use and satisfy themselves as to content and suitability for their specific end-use applications. These general guidelines are not intended to be a substitute for customer testing. Reichhold warrants that its products will meet its standard written specifications. Nothing contained in these guidelines shall constitute any other warranty, express or implied, including any warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, nor is any protection from any law or patent to be inferred. All patent rights are reserved. The exclusive remedy for all proven claims is limited to replacement of our materials and in no event shall Reichhold be liable for any incidental or consequential damages.

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Resin Descriptions

Bisphenol Epoxy Vinyl Ester Resins Bisphenol epoxy based vinyl ester resins offer excellent structural properties and very good resistance to many corrosive environments. The resins are styrenated and involve the extension of an epoxy with bisphenol-A to increase molecular weight and feature the characteristic vinyl ester incorporation of methacrylate end groups. The inherent toughness and resilience of epoxy vinyl esters provides enhanced impact resistance as well as improved stress properties, which is advantageous in applications involving thermal and cyclic stress. Nonpromoted bisphenol-A based vinyl esters display a minimum six-month shelf life, and the pre-promoted versions feature a three-month shelf life. DION® 9100 Series are non-promoted bisphenol-A epoxy vinyl esters use a wide range of acidic, alkaline and assorted chemicals, including many solvents. The pre-promoted versions of DION® 9100 are available. DION® 9102* Series are lower viscosity, reduced molecular weight versions of DION® 9100, with similar corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and storage stability. The DION® 9102 series also features improved curing at lower promoter levels for enhanced performance in filament-winding applications.

*DION 9102 comply with FDA Title 21 CFR 177 2420 and can be used for food contact applications when properly formulated and cured by the composite fabricator.

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DION® IMPACT 9160 is a low styrene content (<35%) version of DION® 9100. DION® IMPACT 9102-70 (US) is a special version and offers lower color, reduced viscosity and improved curing at lower promoter levels. The resin is particularly suited for filament-winding applications which require fast and efficient wet-out of reinforcement. It is certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 61 for potable water tank and piping at ambient temperature. DION® FR 9300 Series are non-promoted, flame retardant vinyl esters with corrosion resistance similar to DION® 9100 and DION® 9102. Resin laminates display a Class 1 flame spread with the addition of 1.5% antimony trioxide or 3.0% antimony pentoxide. DION® FR 9300 is frequently used in flame retardant ducting which conforms to the requirements of the International Congress of Building Officials (ICBO). DION® IMPACT FR 9310 & 9315 Series are nonpromoted, premium flame retardant resins designed to meet ASTM E 84 Class 1 flame spread properties without the addition of antimony based synergists. DION® FR 9310 & 9315 series resins also have a low VOC content (<35%) and provide corrosion resistance equal to, or in some cases superior to well-recognized DION® FR 9300 resin. Urethane-Modified Vinyl Ester Resins DION® 9800 Series (formerly ATLAC® 580-05 & 58005A) are premium highly regarded special urethane modified vinyl esters with distinguishing features. The vinyl ester does not foam when catalyzed with ordinary methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) and displays excellent glass wet-out characteristics. It may also be thixed with conventional (non-hydrophobic) grades of silica carbide. DION® 9800 is well-suited for hand layup, filament-winding, and pultrusion applications and displays many user-friendly features. DION® 9800 displays exceptional wet-out characteristics with carbon fiber, aramid, and conventional glass fibers. The resin has superior acid, alkaline, bleach and other corrosionresistant properties.

DION® 9102-00 is unique since it is certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 61 for use in domestic and commercial potable water applications involving both piping and tanks at ambient temperature.It has also been used in the field fabrication of large diameter Chiyoda-type Jet Bubbling Reactors (JBRs) associated with gypsum by-product flue gas desulfurization projects by major utility companies. Chimney and stack liners have been other major applications.

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Resin Descriptions

Novolac Vinyl Ester Resins Novolac vinyl esters are based on use of multifunctional novolac epoxy versus a standard and more commonly used bisphenol-A epoxy. This increases the crosslink density and corresponding temperature and solvent resistance. DION® IMPACT 9400 Series provides good corrosion resistance, including solvents. Due to reactivity, shelf life is limited to three-months. Elastomer-Modified Vinyl Ester Resins Inclusion of high performance and special functional elastomers into the polymer backbone on a vinyl ester allows exceptional toughness. DION® 9500 Series are non-accelerated rubber modified vinyl esters that possess high tensile elongation, good toughness, low shrinkage, and low peak exotherm. They are well-suited for dynamic loads and demonstrate excellent adhesion properties. Corrosion resistance is good, but limitations occur with solvents or other chemicals which display swelling with rubber. DION® 9500 is well-suited for hand and spray lay-up applications and other fabrication techniques. It may also be considered for use as a primer with high density PVC foam or for bonding FRP to steel or other dissimilar substrates. Bisphenol-A Fumarate Polyester Resins Bisphenol fumarate polyester resins were among the earliest and most successful premium thermosetting resins to be used in corrosion-resistant composites. They have an extensive history in challenging environments since the 1950's. Thousands of tanks, pipes, chlorine cell covers, bleach towers, and scrubbers are still in service throughout the world. Bisphenol fumarate resins typically yield rigid, high crosslink density composites with high glass transition temperatures and heat distortion properties. These attributes enable excellent physical property retention at temperatures of 300°F and higher. Bisphenol fumarate resins also have good acid resistance which is typical for unsaturated polyesters, but unlike other polyesters they also display excellent caustic and alkaline resistance as well as suitability for bleach environments. All of the bisphenol fumarate resins have excellent stability with a minimum shelf life of six-months. DION® 382* Series (Formally ATLAC® 382) are bisphenol fumarate resins with a long, world-wide success history. They are normally supplied in prepromoted and pre-accelerated versions.

*DION 382 comply with FDA Title 21 CFR 177 2420 and can be used for food contact applications when properly formulated and cured by the composite fabricator.

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Laminates at Temperature Resin Tensile Strength, psi 77° F 25° C DION® 9100/9102 DION FR 9300 DION® 9800 DION IMPACT 9400 DION® 6694 DION® 6631 DION® 382 DION 797 DION® 490

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Tensile Modulus, x 106 psi 200° F 93° C 22700 30100 19500 27700 24800 24000 21500 19400 16600 250° F 121° C 14600 21200 13000 26700 27700 14700 20000 20200 15300 300° F 149° C 9900 13700 9000 20900 25000 4300 --10900 11700 77° F 25° C 1.70 2.16 --2.13 1.95 1.38 1.45 1.39 1.15 150° F 66° C 1.70 1.94 --2.23 2.14 1.20 1.40 1.36 0.90 200° F 93° C 1.39 1.82 --2.00 1.86 0.85 1.35 1.21 0.76 250° F 121° C 0.80 1.62 --1.61 1.86 0.50 1.20 0.98 0.58 300° F 149° C 0.80 1.18 --1.47 1.62 0.31 --0.59 0.47

150° F 66° C 22100 28100 19500 25000 22400 28600 21500 17800 16200

19200 22600 19500 23900 22000 3100 18000 16800 14300

Laminate Constuction V/M/M/WR/M/WR/M/WR/M V = 10 mil C-glass veil M = 1.5 oz/ sq ft chopped glass mat

WR = 24 oz woven roving Glass content = 45%

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Resin Descriptions

DION® 6694* Series are bisphenol fumarate resins modified to optimize the unique properties of bisphenol fumarate polyesters. These resins offer excellent chemical resistance. They are well suited to hot alkaline environments, like those found in caustic/chlorine production, and to oxidizing environments, like those used in pulp bleaching.

*DION 6694 comply with FDA Title 21 CFR 177 2420 and can be used for food contact applications when properly formulated and cured by the composite fabricator.

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DION® 6631* Series are rigid, thixotropic, pre-promoted isophthalic resins developed for hand lay-up, spray-up, and filament-winding. A version which complies with SCAQMD Rule 1162 is also available.

*DION 6631 comply with FDA Title 21 CFR 177 2420 and can be used for food contact applications when properly formulated and cured by the composite fabricator.

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Isophthalic and Terephthalic Unsaturated Polyester Resins Isophthalic and terephthalic resins are formulated for corrosion applications and higher in molecular weight than those often used in marine and other laminated composites. These polyesters display excellent structural properties and are resistant to acids, salts, and many dilute chemicals at moderate temperature. Resins are rigid, and some terephthalic resins offer improved resiliency. They perform well in acidic environments, however they are not recommended for caustic or alkaline environments, and the pH should be kept below 10.5. Oxidizing environments usually present limitations. These resins have good stability, with a minimum threemonth shelf life. DION® 6334* Series are resilient non-promoted nonthixotropic resins. Their use is typically restricted to non-aggressive ambient temperature applications, such as seawater.

*DION 6334 comply with FDA Title 21 CFR 177 2420 and can be used for food contact applications when properly formulated and cured by the composite fabricator.

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DION® 490 Series (Formally ATLAC® 490) are thixotropic, pre-promoted resins formulated for high temperature corrosion service that requires good organic solvent resistance. A key feature is the high crosslink density, which yields good heat distortion and chemical resistance properties. The most notable commercial application relates to gasoline resistance, including gasoline/ alcohol mixtures, where it is an economical choice. Approval has been obtained under the UL 1316 standard. In some applications DION® 490 offers performance comparable with that of Novolac epoxy based vinyl esters, but at a much lower cost. DION® 495 Series are lower molecular weight and lower VOC versions of DION® 490.

Laminates at Temperature Resin Flexural Strength, psi 77° F 25° C DION® 9100/9102 DION FR 9300 DION® 9800 DION® IMPACT 9400 DION® 6694 DION® 6631 DION® 382 DION 797 DION® 490

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Flexural Modulus, x 106 psi 200° F 93° C 25700 30500 23100 33500 30700 24000 23500 29600 25500 250° F 121° C 3000 5100 19200 26000 29600 14700 17500 25200 22600 300° F 149° C --2800 7400 7900 20900 4300 --15400 17100 77° F 25° C 1.17 1.53 1.01 1.50 1.50 1.38 1.21 1.50 1.08 150° F 66° C 1.12 1.35 0.87 1.38 1.39 1.20 1.10 1.35 0.99 200° F 93° C 0.83 1.22 0.74 1.25 1.25 0.85 1.00 1.16 0.85 250° F 121° C 0.37 0.23 0.58 0.93 1.08 0.50 0.88 0.91 0.60 300° F 149° C --0.19 0.32 0.46 0.87 0.31 --0.48 0.41

150° F 66° C 33100 30600 25600 31800 30400 28600 27000 30000 25800

32800 31700 26300 30000 28700 31000 25500 30100 23600

Laminate Construction V/M/M/WR/M/WR/M/WR/M V = 10 mil C-glass veil M = 1.5 oz/ sq ft chopped glass mat

WR = 24 oz woven roving Glass content = 45%

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Resin Descriptions

Chlorendic Polyester Resins Chlorendic polyester resins are based on the incorporation of chlorendic anhydride or chlorendic acid (also called HET acid) into the polymer backbone. Their most notable advantage is superior resistance to mixed acid and oxidizing environments, which makes them widely used for bleaching and chromic acid or nitric acid containing environments, such as in electroplating applications. The cross linked structure is quite dense, which results in high heat distortion and good elevated temperature properties. This is a dense structure that can display reduced ductility and reduced tensile elongation. Despite good acid resistance, chlorendic resins should not be used in alkaline environments. Due to the halogen content, chlorendic resins display flame retardant and smoke reduction properties. DION® 797 Series are chlorendic anhydride based resins with good corrosion resistance and thermal properties up to 350° F/ 177° C. DION® 797 is supplied as a pre-promoted and thixotropic version. An ASTM E84 flame spread rating of 30 (Class II) is obtained with the use of 5% antimony trioxide. Many thermal and corrosion-resistant properties are superior to those of competitive chlorendic resins. Atprime® 2 Bonding & Primer Atprime® 2 is a two-component, moisture-activated primer that provides enhanced bonding of composite materials to a variety of substrates, such as FRP, concrete, steel, or thermoplastics. It is especially suited for bonding to non-air-inhibited surfaces associated with contact molding or aged FRP composites. This ability is achieved due to the formation of a chemical bond to the FRP surface. Atprime® 2 is free of methylene chloride and features good storage stability. Atprime® 2 can be used for repairs of FRP structures. Many FRP structures have been known to fail due to the failure of secondary bonds, which can serve as the weakest link in an otherwise sound structure. Thus Atprime® 2 merits important consideration in FRP fabrication. The curing mechanism relies on ambient humidity and does not employ peroxide chemistry.

Castings Resin DION® 9100/9102 DION® FR 9300 DION 9800 DION® IMPACT 9400 DION® 6694 DION® 6631 DION 382 DION® 797 DION® 490

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Tensile Strength psi 11600 10900 13100 9000 8200 9300 10000 7800 8700

Tensile Modulus x 106 psi 4.6 5.1 4.6 5.0 3.4 5.9 4.3 0.5 4.8

Elongation at Break % 5.2 4.0 4.2 3.0 2.4 2.4 2.5 1.6 2.1

Flexural Strength psi 23000 21900 22600 20500 14600 16600 17000 21700 16700

Flexural Modulus x 106 psi 5.0 5.2 4.9 5.1 4.9 5.2 4.3 1.0 5.2

Barcol Hardness 35 40 38 38 38 40 38 45 40

HDT° F/° C 220/ 104 230/ 110 244/ 118 290/ 143 270/ 132 225/ 107 270/ 132 280/ 138 260/ 127

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Specifying Composites Performance

The design and manufacture of composite equipment for corrosion service is a highly customized process. To produce a product that successfully meets the unique needs of each customer, it is essential for fabricators and material suppliers to understand the applications for which composite equipment is intended. One of the most common causes of equipment failure is exposure to service conditions that are more severe than anticipated. This issue has been addressed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in their RTP-1 specification for corrosion-grade composite tanks. RTP-1 includes a section called the User's Basic Requirement Specifications (UBRS). The UBRS is a standardized document provided to tank manufacturers before vessels are constructed. It identifies, among other factors, the function and configuration of the tank, internal and external operating conditions, and mechanical loads on the vessel, installation requirements and applicable state and federal codes at the installation site. Reichhold strongly recommends that the information required by the UBRS is reviewed before any composite equipment is manufactured. See the individual product bulletins, available at www.reichhold.com, for specific information for each resin. Shelf stability minimums apply to resins stored in their original, unopened containers at temperatures not exceeding 75° F/ 24° C, away from sunlight and other sources of heat or extreme cold. Resins that have exceeded their shelf life should be tested before use. Elevated Temperatures Composites manufactured with vinyl ester or bisphenol fumarate resins have been used extensively in applications requiring long-term structural integrity at elevated temperatures. Good physical properties are generally retained at temperatures up to 200° F/ 93° C. The selection of resin becomes crucial beyond 200° F/ 93° C because excessive temperatures will cause resins to soften and lose physical strength. Rigid resins such as ultra-high crosslink density vinyl esters, bisphenol fumarate polyesters, epoxy novolac vinyl esters, and high-crosslink density terephthalics typically provide the best high-temperature physical properties. Appropriate DION® resin systems may be considered for use in relatively non-aggressive gas phase environments at temperatures of 350° F/ 177° C or higher in suitably designed structures. When designing composite equipment for high temperature service, it is important to consider how heat will be distributed throughout the unit. Polymer composites have a low thermal conductivity (approximately 0.15 btu-ft/ hr-sq. ft. ° F) which provides an insulating effect. This may allow equipment having high cross-sectional thickness to sustain very high operating temperatures at the surface, since the structural portion of the laminate maintains a lower temperature.

Factors Affecting Resin Performance

Shelf Life Policy Most polyester resins have a minimum three-month shelf life from the date of shipment from Reichhold. Some corrosion-resistant resins have a longer shelf life, notably un-promoted bisphenol epoxy vinyl ester resins, un-promoted and accelerated bisphenol fumarate resins, and DION® 6694 modified bisphenol fumarate resin.

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Laminate Construction

Composite products designed for corrosion resistance typically utilize a structural laminate and a corrosion barrier. This type of construction is necessary since the overall properties of a composite are derived from the widely differing properties of the constituent materials. Glass fibers contribute strength but have little or no corrosion resistance in many environments. Resins provide corrosion resistance and channel stress into the glass fibers and have reduced strength when nonreinforced. Consequently, a resin-rich corrosion barrier is used to protect a glass-rich structural laminate. In accordance with general industry practice, corrosion barriers are typically 100 ­ 125 mils thick. They typically consist of a surfacing veil saturated to a 90% resin content, followed by the equivalent of a minimum of two piles of 1.5-oz/ ft to 2-oz/ ft chopped strand mat impregnated with about 70% resin. The structural portion of the laminate can be build with chopped strand mat, chopped roving, chopped strand mat alternating with woven roving, or by filament-winding. An additional ply of mat is sometimes used as a bonding layer between a filament-wound structural over-wrap and the corrosion barrier. Filament-wound structures have a glass content of approximately 70% and provide high strength combined with light weight. Because resin provides corrosion resistance, a resinrich topcoat is often used as an exterior finish coat, particularly where occasional contact or spillage with aggressive chemicals might occur. UV stabilizers or pigments may be incorporated into topcoats (to minimized weathering effects) or used in tanks designed to contain light sensitive products. A topcoat is especially useful for filament-wound structures due to their high glass content. Surfacing Veil A well-constructed corrosion barrier utilizing surface veil is required for any polymer composite intended for corrosion service. Veils based on C-glass, synthetic polyester fiber and carbon are available. C-glass veils are widely used because they readily conform to complex shapes, are easy to wet-out with resin and provide excellent overall corrosion resistance. Synthetic veils require more handling to set in place and wet-out, but can provide a thicker, more resin-rich corrosion barrier. The bulking effect of synthetic veil allows the outer corrosion barrier to have a very high resin content, which has both benefits and drawbacks. Higher resin concentration can extend resistance to chemical and abrasive attack, but also yields a corrosion barrier that may be more prone to cracking in stressed areas. This can be an issue in corrosion barriers where multiple plies of veil are used, and in areas where veil layers overlap. Should the resin-rich veil portion of a corrosion barrier crack, the barrier is breached and all of the benefits of using multiple veils are lost. Furthermore, multiple plies of synthetic veil can be more difficult to apply and often lead to an increase in the number of air voids trapped in the corrosion barrier. Many composite specifications, including ASME RTP-1, impose a maximum allowable amount of air void entrapment in the corrosion barrier. Attempts to repair air voids are time-consuming and can reduce the corrosion resistance of the composite. Fabricators utilizing two plies of synthetic veil should carefully follow the veil manufacture's instructions and also take special caution to ensure that no excessively resin-rich areas are formed. Where a two-ply corrosion barrier is desired, C-glass veil can be used for one or both plies. This provides a degree of reinforcement to the corrosion barrier, reduces resin drainage, and creates a corrosion barrier that is less prone to interlaminar shear cracking.

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Laminate Construction

Chopped Strand Mat Chopped strand mat is widely used in the fabrication of corrosion-resistant structures to obtain consistent resin/ glass lamination ratios. Many types of glass mat are available, and the importance of proper mat selection should not be overlooked. Mats are available with a variety of sizing and binders, and even the glass itself can vary between manufacturers. These differences manifest themselves in the ease of laminate wet-out, corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, and the tendency of the laminate to jackstraw. Manufactures of glass mat should be consulted in selecting the most suitable mat for specific and end-use applications. Woven Roving Woven continuous fiberglass roving at 24-oz/ sq. yd. may be used to improve the structural performance of FRP laminates. If more that one ply of woven roving is used, it should be laminated with alternating layers of glass mat separating each ply; otherwise, separation under stress can occur. Due to the wicking action of continuous glass filaments, woven roving should not be used in any surface layer directly in contact with the chemical environment. Continuous Filament Roving Continuous roving may be used for chopper-gun lamination or in filament-winding. Filament-winding is widely employed for cylindrical products used in the chemical equipment market and is the predominant manufacturing process for chemical storage tanks and reactor vessels. Glass contents of up to 70% can be achieved using filament-winding, which provides uniform, high-strength structural laminates. Because the capillary action of continuous roving can carry chemical penetration deep into the composite structure, a well constructed, intact corrosion barrier is essential for filament-wound structures. Topcoats are often used for filament-wound products intended for outdoor exposure to protect the glass fibers from UV attack. Resin Curing Systems One of the most important factors governing the corrosion resistance of composites is the degree of cure that the resin attains. For general service, it is recommended that the laminate reach a minimum of 90% of the clear cast Barcol hardness value listed by the resin manufacturer. For highly aggressive conditions, it may be necessary to use extraordinary measures to attain the highest degree of cure possible. One effective way to do this is to post-cure the laminate shortly after it has gelled and completed its exotherm. Some laboratory studies have suggested that the combination of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and dimethylaniline (DMA) may provide a more complete cure before post-curing than the standard cobalt DMA/ MEKP (methyl ethyl ketone peroxide) system. In some instances, resins have demonstrated a permanent undercure for reasons that are not fully understood. One theory is that undercure is related to initiator dispersion. Typically BPO is used in paste form, which is prepared by grinding solid BPO particles into an inert carrier. Dispersion and dissolution of BPO paste is clearly a more challenging procedure than blending in low-viscosity MEKP liquid. Another advantage of MEKP systems is a more positive response to post-curing, Vinyl ester resin promoted with cobalt/ DMA tends to foam when MEKP initiator is added. This increases the difficulty of eliminating entrapped gases from the laminate. Foaming can be reduced in a number of ways. BPO/ DMA reduces foaming, as does the use of an MEKP/ cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) blended or straight CHP. Using a resin that does not foam, such as, DION® 9800 urethane ­ modified vinyl ester resin or a bisphenol fumarate resin, is another alternative. High-quality composite products can be fabricated using either of the promoter/ initiator combinations described above. For end-users, it is suggested that the preferences of the fabricator involved be taken into account when specifying initiator systems.

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Laminate Construction

Post-curing Post-curing at elevated temperatures can enhance the performance of a composite product in most environments. Post-curing of composites provides two benefits. The curing reaction is driven to completion which maximizes the crosslink density of the resin system, thus eliminating un-reacted cross-linking sites in the resin. This improves both chemical resistance and mechanical properties. Thorough and even postcuring for an extended period of time can also relieve stresses formed within the laminate during cure, thus reducing the likelihood of warping during normal thermal cycling/ operation. It is generally concluded that the maximum exposure temperature is decreased when no post cure cycle is used. In general, one can relate the recommended postcuring temperatures to the chemistry of the matrix resin used in the construction ­ this mostly relates to the HDT of the resin. It is recommended that the construction is kept for 16 ­ 24 hours at room temperature (>77° F/ 25° C) before post-curing at elevated temperature starts. Increasing and decreasing temperature should be done stepwise to avoid possible thermal shock, and consequent possible built-in stresses. Secondary Bonding One of the most common of composite failures is at a secondary bond. To develop a successful secondary bond, the composite substrate must either have a tacky, air-inhibited surface or it must be specially prepared. Composites with a fully-cured surface may be prepared for secondary bonding by grinding the laminate to exposed reinforcement prior to applying a new laminate an ensuring elimination of containments. Secondary bond strength can be greatly enhanced by using the Atprime® 2 primer system. Atprime® 2 is specially designed to provide a direct, chemical bond between fully-cured composites and secondary laminates. Atprime® 2 can also improve the bond of FRP composites to concrete, metals, and some thermoplastics. Resin Top Coating Topcoats are often used to protect the exterior surface of composite products from weathering and from the effects of occasional exposure to corrosive agents. A topcoat may be prepared by modifying the resin used to manufacture the product with thixotrope, a UV absorber and small amount of wax. Blending 3% fumed silica, suitable UV inhibitor along with 5% of a 10% wax solution (in styrene) to a resin is a typical approach to topcoat formulation. Dual Laminate Systems When vinyl ester or bisphenol fumarate corrosion barriers are unsuitable for a particular environment, it may still be possible to design equipment that takes advantage of the benefits of composite materials by employing a thermoplastic corrosion barrier. This technology involves creating the desired structure by shaping the thermoplastic, then rigidizing it with a composite outer skin. Thermoplastics such as a polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, and a wide variety of high performance fluoropolymers are commonly used. Dual laminates may be used and can provide cost-effective performance in conditions where composites are otherwise inappropriate.

14

Laminate Construction

Maintenance and Inspection The service life that can reasonably be expected from corrosion-grade composite equipment will vary depending upon a number of factors including fabrication details, material selection, and the nature of the environment to which the equipment is exposed. For example, a tank that may be expected to provide service for 15 years or more in a non-aggressive environment may be deemed to have provided an excellent service life after less than 10 years of exposure to a more aggressive media. Other factors, such as process upsets, unanticipated changes in the chemical composition of equipment contents and unforeseen temperature fluctuations, may also reduce the service life of composite products. These are some of the reasons why a program of regularly scheduled inspection and maintenance of corrosion-grade composite equipment is vital. A secondary benefit is the reduction of downtime and minimization of repair expenses. Beyond issues of cost and equipment service life, the human, environmental and financial implications of catastrophic equipment failure cannot be understated. A regular program of maintenance and inspection is a key element in the responsible care of chemical processes.

Selected Applications Recommendations

Abrasive Materials Composite pipe and ducting can offer significantly better fluid flow because of their smooth internal surfaces. For products designed to carry abrasive slurries and coarse particulates, the effects of abrasion should be considered during the product design process. Resistance to mild abrasion may be enhanced by using synthetic veil or, for extreme cases by using silicon carbide or ceramic beads as barrier within in the surface layer. Resilient liners based on elastomer ­ modified vinyl ester resin are also effective in some cases.

15

Selected Applications Recommendations

Biomass and Biochemical Conversion Applications have been increasing for processes which transform biomass or renewable resources into usable products. Most of the impetus has been energy related, but the technology has diverse relevance, such as various delignification processes associated with elemental chlorine-free pulp production. Raw materials include things like grain, wood, agricultural or animal wastes, and high cellulose content plants. Sometimes the processes involve pyrolysis or gasification steps to break down the complex molecules of the biomass into simpler building blocks such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, which in turn can be used as fuels or catalytically synthesized into other products, such as methanol. However, the most common biochemical conversion process is fermentation, in which simple sugars, under the mediation of yeasts or bacteria, are converted to ethanol. With lingo-cellulose or hemicellulose, the fermentation must be preceded by thermochemical treatments which digest or otherwise render the complex polymers in the biomass more accessible to enzymatic breakdown. These enzymes (often under acidic conditions) then enable hydrolysis of starches or polysaccharides into simple sugars suitable for fermentation into ethanol. Many of the conversion steps have other embodiments, such as the anaerobic digestion to produce methane for gaseous fuel. A great deal of technology and genetic engineering is evolving to enable or to improve the efficiency of these processes. It is expected that many of the process conditions can often be quite corrosive to metals, and FRP composites can offer distinct benefits. Bleaching Solutions Bleach solutions represents a variety of materials which display high oxidation potential. These include compounds or active radicals like chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, hypochlorite or peroxide. Under most storage conditions these materials are quite stable, but when activated, such as by changes in temperature, concentration, or pH, the bleaches are aggressive and begin to oxidize many metals and organic materials, including resins used in composites. Thus, resins need to display resistance to oxidation as well as to the temperature and pH conditions employed in the process. Most interest centers on bleaching operations employed in the pulp and paper industry but similar considerations apply to industrial disinfection and water treatment applications. Bleach solutions are highly electrophilic and attack organic materials by reacting with sources of electrons, of which a readily available source is the residual unsaturation associated with an incomplete cure. Consequently, the resistance of composites to bleach environments demands a complete cure, preferably followed by post-curing. Since air-inhibited surfaces are especially susceptible to attack, a good paraffinated topcoat should be applied to non-contact surfaces, including the exterior which may come into incidental contact with the bleach. BPO/ DMA curing systems are sometimes advocated for composites intended for bleach applications due to concerns over reactions with cobalt promoter involved in conventional MEKP/ DMA curing systems. While BPO/ DMA curing can offer appearance advantages, the conventional MEKP/ cobalt systems yield very dependable and predictable full extents of curing and thus have a good history success.

16

Selected Application Recommendations

Sodium Hypochlorite When activated, sodium hypochlorite generates hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions which afford oxidation. Unstable solutions can decompose to form mono-atomic or nascent chlorine compounds which are exceptionally aggressive. Decomposition can be induced by high temperature, low pH, or UV radiation. Best stability is maintained at temperature no greater then 125° F/ 52° C and a pH of > 10.5. This will often happen if over-chlorination is used in the production of sodium hypochlorite. Over-chlorination makes temperature and pH control very difficult and can result in rapid deterioration and loss of service life of the hypochlorite generator. Adding chlorine gas to the hypochlorite generator can cause mechanical stress, so attention should be given to velocity, thrust, and other forces which the generator may encounter. Composites intended outdoor service should contain a UV absorbing additive and a light colored pigment in the final exterior paraffinated topcoat to shield the hypochlorite solution from exposure. Thixotropic agents based on silica should never be used in the construction of composite equipment or in topcoats intended for hypochlorite service. Attack can be severe when these agents are used. Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine dioxide now accounts for about 70% of worldwide chemically bleached pulp production and is finding growing applications in disinfection and other bleach applications. Use is favored largely by trends toward TCF (totally chlorine free) and ECF (elemental chlorine free) bleaching technology. Composites made with high performance resins have been used with great success for bleach tower up-flow tubes, piping, and CIO2 storage tanks. Chlorine dioxide in a mixture with 6 ­ 12% brown stock can be serviced at a temperature up to 160° F/ 71° C. Higher temperature can be used, but at the expense of service life. Under bleaching conditions the resin surface may slowly oxidize to form a soft yellowish layer known as chlorine butter. In some cases the chlorine layer forms a protective barrier which shields the underlying composite from attack. However, erosion or abrasion by the pulp stock can reduce this protective effect. DION® 6694, a modified bisphenol-A fumarate resin displays some of the best chemical resistance to chlorine dioxide. Chlor-Alkali Industry Chlorine along with sodium hydroxide is co-produced from brine by electrolysis, with hydrogen as a byproduct. Modern high amperage cells separate the anode and cathode by ion exchange membranes or diaphragms. Cells can operate at 200° F/ 93° C or higher. Wet chlorine collected at the anode can be aggressive to many materials, but premium corrosionresistant composites have a long history of successful use. One of the best resins to consider is DION® 6694, which was one of the original resins designed to contend with this challenging application. A major concern with chlorine cells is to avoid traces of hypochlorite, which is extremely corrosive at the temperatures involved. Hypochlorite content is routinely monitored, but tends to form as the cell membranes age or deteriorate, which allows chlorine and caustic to co-mingle and consequently react. Ozone Ozone is increasingly used for water treatment as well as for selective delignification of pulp. Ozone is highly favored since it is not a halogen and is environmentally friendly. It is generated by an electric arc process, and in the event of leaks or malfunctions, the remedy can be simply to stop electrical power. The oxidizing potential of ozone is second only to that of fluorine, and this makes ozone one of the most powerful oxidizing agents known. Even at 5 ppm in water, ozone is highly active and can attack the surface of composites. Attack is characterized by a gradual dulling or pitting. At <5 ppm a reasonable service life is expected, but at higher concentrations (10 ­ 30 ppm) serious erosion and degradation can occur. This requires frequent inspection and eventual re-lining. Concentrated Acids Containment of acids is one of the most popular uses of corrosion grade composites. Polyesters and vinyl esters display excellent acid resistance, and almost all acids can be accommodated in dilute form. However, there are some concentrated acids which can be quite aggressive or deserve special attention. Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid below 75% concentration can be handled at elevated temperature quite easily in accordance with the material selection guide. However, because of the strong affinity of SO3 toward water, concentrated sulfuric acid (76 ­ 78%) is a powerful oxidizing agent that will spontaneously react with polymers and other organic materials to dehydrate the resin and yield a characteristic black carbonaceous char. Effectively, composites behave in an opposite manner to many metals. For very concentrated sulfuric acid, including oleum (fuming sulfuric acid) it is common to use steel or cast iron for shipment and containment, but even very dilute sulfuric acid can be extremely corrosive to steel.

17

Selected Application Recommendations

Hydrochloric Acid Although resins employed with hydrochloric acid are by themselves resistive, HCI is sterically a relatively small molecule which can diffuse into the structural reinforcement by mechanisms which depend in some part on the glass and sizing chemistry. This osmosis can induce a gradual green color to the composite, although this does not necessarily denote a problem or failure. Wicking or blistering is also sometimes observed. While elevated temperature and increased concentration accelerates the attack by HCI, tanks made from premium resins have provided service life of 20 years or more with concentrated (37%) acid at ambient temperature. Muriatic acid and other dilute forms can be handled up to 200° F/ 93° C. with no blistering or wicking. The osmosis or diffusion effects can result in localized formation of water soluble salts, which in turn form salt solutions. This creates a concentration gradient, and the salt solutions effectively try to dilute themselves with water diffusing from a salt solution of lower concentration. The diffusing water thus creates osmotic pressure with effects such as blistering. Since osmotic effects are based on concentration differences it is advisable to always use the tank with the same concentration of acid and the tank should not be cleaned unless necessary. The cleaning should never be done with water. If cleaning is necessary, some owners will employ a slightly alkaline salt solution, typically 1% caustic and 10% NaCl. Low grades of hydrochloric acid are often produced via a byproduct recovery process and may contain traces of chlorinated hydrocarbons. These high density organic compounds are immiscible and may settle to the bottom of the tank and gradually induce swelling of the composite. For example this is a common problem with rubber-lined railcars transporting low grade HCI. Purity should thus be carefully evaluated in specifying the equipment. Nitric and Chromic Acid Nitric and chromic acid (HNO3 and H2CrO4) are strong oxidizing agents that will gradually attack the composite surface to form a yellow crust which eventually can develop microcracks and lead to structural deterioration. Diluted nitric and chromic acids (5% or less) can be handled at moderate temperatures in accordance with the selection guide. These dilute acids are commonly encountered in metal plating, pickling, or electrowinning processes, where composites often outperform competitive materials such as rubber-lined steel. When dealing with nitric acid, care should always be given to safe venting of NOX fumes as well as dealing with heat of dilution effects. It is also important to avoid contamination and avoid mixed service of the tank with organic materials, which can react (sometimes explosively) with nitric acid. Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrofluoric acid is a strong oxidizing agent and can attack resin as well as glass reinforcements. This can occur with concentrated as well as diluted acid (to 5%). Synthetic surfacing veil is commonly used. Fluoride salts, as well as fluoride derivatives (such as hydrofluosilicic acid) used in fluoridation of drinking water, can be accommodated with use of vinyl esters or other premium resins as indicated in the material selection guide. HF vapors associated with chemical etching in the electronics industry can be accommodated by resins appropriate for hood and duct service. Acetic Acid Glacial acetic acid causes rapid composite deterioration due to blister formation in the corrosion barrier. This is usually accompanied by swelling and softening. Acetic acid becomes less aggressive when diluted below 75% concentration, and at lower concentrations can be handled by a variety of resins. Perchloric Acid While perchloric acid can be an aggressive chemical, a main issue from a composite standpoint is safety. Dry perchloric acid is ignitable and presents a safety hazard. When a tank used for perchloric acid storage is emptied and allowed to dry out, residual acid may remain on the surface. Subsequent exposure to an ignition source, such as heat or sparks from a grinding wheel may result in spontaneous combustion. Phosphoric Acid Corrosion-resistant composites are generally quite resistant to phosphoric and superphosphoric acid. Some technical grades may contain traces of fluorides since fluoride minerals often occur in nature within phosphorous deposits. This is ordinarily not a problem, but is worth checking.

18

Selected Application Recommendations

Deionized and Distilled Water High purity deionized water, often to the surprise of many, can be a very aggressive environment. The high purity water can effectively act as a solvent to cause wicking and blistering especially at temperatures >150° F/ 66° C. Purified water can also extract trace components from the resin or glass reinforcement to thereby compromise purity, conductivity, or other attributes. Good curing, including post-curing, preferably in conjunction with a high temperature coinitiator, such a tertiary butyl perbenzoate (TBPB), is suggested to maximize resistance and to prevent hydrophilic attack of the resin. It is best to avoid using thixotropic agents which can supply soluble constituents, and where possible any catalyst carriers or plasticizers should be avoided. Desalination Applications Droughts, demographic changes, and ever-increasing need for fresh water are spurring needs to desalinate brackish water and sea water to meet demand. There is already on major project in progress in the City of Tampa, and others are being considered on the east coast as well as developing countries. Reverse osmosis (RO) is a mature process, yet has become more cost effective and energy efficient in recent years due primarily to advances in membrane technology. Although RO is regarded as the baseline technology, there are other desalination processes under development, many of which are a tribute to ingenuity. These include processes such as vapor recompression, electrodialysis, and gas hydrate processes which entail crystalline aggregation of hydrogen-bonded water around a central gas molecule (for example propane), such that the hydrate can be physically separated upon freezing, which takes less energy than evaporation. Very often, most of the expense in these processes is associated with water pretreatment, but nevertheless there is overall a great deal of equipment involved, such as storage tanks, piping, and reaction vessels. Upon desalination, some saline solutions must be disposed. Chlorides and other constituents can greatly limit the use of stainless steel, and often it is necessary to consider titanium or high nickel content alloys, all of which are expensive. Hence corrosion-resistant composites can offer significant cost and technical advantages. Electroplating and other Electrochemical Processes Electroplating is used to electrolytically deposit specific metals onto conductive substrates for anodizing or other functional or decorative purposes. Most plating solutions are acidic and thus reinforced composites as well as polymer concrete vessels that have been used extensively. Some plating solutions, such as those associated with chrome, are aggressive due to the oxidation potential as well as the presence of fluorides. Synthetic surfacing veils are commonly used. Good curing is also necessary, especially if there are concerns about solution contamination. Apart from plating there can be growing applications in electrolysis processes which might be practical for hydrogen fuel production. The same applies to accommodation of electrolytes (such as phosphoric acid or potassium carbonate) associated with fuel cells. Vinyl esters are already being used in fuel cell plate and electrode applications.

19

Selected Application Recommendations

Fumes, Vapors, Hood & Duct Service Composites are widely used in hood, ducting, and ventilation systems due to corrosion resistance, cost, weight considerations, and dampening of noise. Generally speaking, corrosion resistance is quite good, even with relatively aggressive chemicals since there is so much dilution and cooling associated with the high volume of air. When dealing with vapors it is good practice to compute the dew point associated with individual components of the vapor and to assess the chance that the ducting may pass through the relevant dew point to result in condensation and hence high localized concentration of condensate. Because of the high air volume, the dew points are reduced and there is benefit from the low thermal conductivity of the composite which has an insulating effect. If fumes are combustible, applicable fire codes should be checked especially if there is a chance that an explosive mixture could be encountered. Accidental fires are always a concern with ducting due to potential accumulation of grease or other combustibles. If a fire indeed occurs, drafts may serve to increase fire propagation. Concern is highest for indoor applications, especially in regard to smoke generation. Brominated flame retardant resins with combined corrosion resistance are normally selected due to their self-extinguishing properties as well as reduced flame spread. Unfortunately, the chemical mechanisms which serve to reduce flame spread can lead to reduce the rate of oxygen consumption, which generates smoke or soot. Many techniques have evolved to contend with smoke generation, including the use of fusible link counterweighed dampers which can shut off air supply. Dominant relevant standards are those of the National Fire Prevention Association (NFPA) and the International Congress of Building Officials (ICBO). DION® FR 9300 flame retardant vinyl ester is widely used in ducting applications and conforms to ICBO acceptance criteria. DION® flame retardant resins will meet ASTM E-84 Class 1 flame spread requirement of 25 when blended with the appropriate amount of antimony trioxide. Antimony trioxide provides no flame retardance on its own, but has a synergistic flame-retardant effect when used in conjunction with Brominated resins. It is typically incorporated into resin at a 1.5 ­ 5.0% level. Please consult the product bulletin for a specific resin to obtain its antimony trioxide requirement. Antimony trioxide typically is not included in the corrosion liner for duct systems handling concentrated wet acidic gases in order to maximize corrosion resistance. It is used in the structural over-wrap to provide good overall flame retardance. To maximize flame retardance in less aggressive vapor-phase environments, antimony trioxide may be included in the liner resin.

20

Selected Application Recommendations

Flue Gas Desulfurization Corrosion-resistant composites are extensively used for major components of FGD systems associated with coal based power generation, and many of the structures are the largest in the world. Components include chimney liners, absorbers, reaction vessels, and piping. Operating conditions of flue gas desulfurization processes are quite corrosive to metals due to the presence of sulfuric dioxide and sulfur trioxide. These serve to form sulfuric acid either within the scrubbing system itself or from condensation of SO3 as a consequence of it affinity for water and elevation of dew point. Corrosion of steel is further aggravated by the presence of free oxygen which originates from excess air used in coal combustion, or in some processes as a result of air blown into the system in order to oxidize sulfite ions to sulfate. Since there is new evaporation within the absorber, and since coal ash contains soluble salts, chloride levels can be quite high, which in turn limits the use of stainless steel or else requires high nickel content alloys, which are not only expensive, but also require close attention to welding and other installation procedures. The acid and chloride resistance of FRP makes it an excellent choice. Wet scrubbers typically operate near to saturation temperatures of about 140° F/ 60° C, but flue gas may sometimes be reheated to >200° F/ 93° C to increase chimney draft or to reduce mist or plume visibility. The worst upset conditions involve a total sustained loss of scrubbing liquor or make-up water, which may allow temperature to approach that of flue gas leaving the boiler air pre-heater or economizer, typically up to 350° F/ 177° C. Although such temperature excursions are difficult to generalize, the usual practice is to employ vinyl esters or other resins with good heat distortion or thermal cycling properties. Although there are negligible (if any) combustibles present in FGD systems, the selected resins often display flame retardant properties in the event of accidental ignition or high natural drafts. Gasoline, Gasohol, and Underground Storage Tanks Ethanol and Ethanol/ Gasoline Blends Ethanol derived from corn has increasingly been used to increase the extent of gasoline production and maintain octane requirements. Ethanol can be corrosive to steel, aluminum, and a variety of polymeric materials, due to the alcohol itself and the possible companion presence of water. Ethanol is miscible with water and azeotropic distillation and drying techniques are necessary in fuel applications. Phase separation, compatibility with gasoline, or salt contamination can influence many of the corrosion considerations. Vinyl esters as well as isophthalic and terephthalic resins (such as DION® 490) can display excellent resistance to ethanol and various blends with gasoline, of which E85 (85% gasoline/ 15% ethanol) is a popular example. The superior resins display a high crosslink density. This directly increases the solvent resistance by restricting permeability or diffusion into the resin matrix. In addition, a high degree of cross-linking reduces any extraction or contamination of the fuel by trace components in the composite matrix, such as residual catalyst plasticizer or carriers. As always, good curing and post-curing will enhance resistance.

21

Selected Application Recommendations

Methanol and Other Gasoline-Alcohol Blends Apart from ethanol, methanol is also widely considered in gasoline applications, and in contrast to fermentation of sugar or polysaccharides, methanol is ordinarily made from carbon monoxide and hydrogen containing gas associated with gasification or various synthesis processes. Methanol has good octane properties, but displays similar, if not more problematic concerns over water Longer chain alcohols, such as butanol may find increasing favor over ethanol due to butanol's lower polarity, reduced fuel compatibility problems, and closer resemblance to volatility and energy content of many gasoline components. Historically, there have been many cycles of interest in alcohol fuels and other fuel additives, such a MTBE, and this is likely to continue until energy policies become more definitive. Thus, it is always good to select resins which are resistive to all gasoline formulations which might be reasonable to expect in the future. This is especially important in regard to the octane properties offered by alcohols. Octane requirements have significant implications affecting refinery reforming capacity and in allowing higher engine compression ratios necessary to meet mileage standards mandated for newer automobiles. Methanol has many other future implications for use as a direct fuel for internal combustion engines and is in the early stage of development for direct use in fuel cells. Ore Extraction & Hydrometallurgy Apart from conventional mining, smelting, and high temperature ore reduction, extractive metallurgy based on aqueous chemistry has evolved to permit recovery of metal from ores, concentrates, or residual materials. Metals produced in this manner include gold, molybdenum, uranium, and many others. The first step involves selective leaching of the metal from the ore using a variety of acidic or basic solutions depending on mineral forms or other factors. Acids are commonly sulfuric or nitric acid and common alkaline materials include sodium carbonate or bicarbonate. The leaching can be done on pulverized or specially prepared ores, but some processes are amenable to insitu contact with the ore, which is sometimes called solution mining. Leached ores are then concentrated by a variety of solvents or ion exchange type extraction processes. The final step involves metal recovery and purification using electrolysis (such as electrowinning) or various gaseous reduction or precipitation processes. Many of these unit operations can be induce galvanic or stress related corrosion to metals. Consequently, FRP has a long history of successful use in hydrometallurgical applications. Potable Water Piping, tanks and other components used to contain or to process potable water must conform to increasingly stringent requirements, such as those of the National Sanitary Foundation (NSF), Standards 61 and 14. Standard 61 entails a risk assessment to be performed by NSF on extracted organics and other health related features. It is always the responsibility of composite products to ensure that such standards are met. Composites based on the DION® IMPACT 9102 series of vinyl esters have conformed to requirements of NSF/ ANSI Standard 61 as applicable to drinking water components. Resins, such as DION® 6631 also conform to international standards associated with drinking water, such a British Standard 6920. When manufacturing composites for drinking water applications it is good practice to obtain a good cure, including post-curing and to wash exposed surfaces thoroughly with a warm non-ionic detergent before placing the equipment into service. It is also good to use minimal amounts of plasticizers or solvent carriers during fabrication. Radioactive Materials Polymer-matrix composites in general have very low neutron cross-section capture efficiency. Therefore, they are very well-suited to the containment of radioactive materials, even at relatively high levels of radioactivity. Testing of uncured DION® 382 by Atlas Chemical Laboratories demonstrated that this resin is highly resistant to molecular weight changes at dosages up to 15 million rads. Extrapolations based on this study estimate that DION® 382 may be able to withstand 50 to 100 million rads. For reference, the lethal radiation dose is about 400 rads. Given the hazardous nature of radioactive material, testing is recommended before actual use in high radiation environments.

22

Selected Application Recommendations

Sodium Hydroxide and Alkaline Solutions Alkaline solutions can attack the resin, usually by hydrolysis of any ester groups. Glass fibers and other silica based materials can also be attacked or digested. This leads to a very characteristic type of wicking and blistering, as well as fiber blooming. Dilute sodium hydroxide is often more aggressive than the more concentrated solutions. This relates to the fact that NaOH is a very strong base, but at higher concentration there is equilibrium between dissolved and solid phase NaOH, which reduces the caustic effects. Epoxy based vinyl esters and bisphenol-A based polyesters display exceptional resistance to caustic. Even though novolac based vinyl esters are wellregarded for excellent corrosion and thermal resistance in many applications, it is often observed that novolac based resins can show somewhat inferior caustic resistance. Laminated based on novolac vinyl esters exposed to caustic have a tendency to develop a pinkish color incipient to failure. It is speculated this is due to formation of phenolates from the novolac structure. There is widespread belief that it is advisable to use synthetic surfacing veils versus C-glass in caustic applications. However, controlled laboratory tests usually reveal no clear-cut or distinct advantages to a synthetic veil, and there is a long history of use of C-veil in alkaline environments. The synthetic veil allows an increased resin content at the surface to ostensibly afford more protection. On the other hand, the resin rich areas can make the surface more prone to cracking and can, at times, present more fabrication difficulties. Solvents Organic solvents can exert a variety of corrosive effects on composites. Small polar molecules, such as methanol and ethanol, for example, may permeate the corrosion liner, causing some swelling and blistering. Chlorinated solvents, chlorinated aromatics, as well as lower aldehydes and ketones, are especially aggressive and can cause swelling and spalling of the corrosion liner surface. Corrosive environments containing low levels of solvents may still exert significant effects depending on the solvent involved and the properties of any other material present. Best results in solvent environments are obtained by using resins with high crosslink density, such as DION® IMPACT 9400, DION® 6694, and DION® 490. Static Electricity Resin/ glass composites are non-conductive materials, and high static electric charges can develop inducting and piping. Static build-up can be reduced by using conductive graphite fillers, graphite veils or continuous carbon filaments in the surface layer. Use of copper should be avoided because it can inhibit the resin cure.

FDA Compliance ® ® ® ® ® ® The various versions of DION 382, DION 6631, DION 490, DION 9102, DION 6334, and DION 9100 conform to the formulation provisions specified for food contact in FDA title 21, CFR 177.2420. These resins may be used for food contact when properly formulated and cured. It is good practice to follow the general curing and surface preparation techniques that apply to potable water, as described herein. It is the responsibility of the manufacturer of composite material to ensure conformance to all FDA requirements. UDSA Applications USDA approvals must be petitioned directly form the USDA by the fabricator. Typically, any product which conforms to the requirements of FDA Title 21, CFR 177.2420 will be approved.

23

Common Types of Metal Corrosion

Fiber reinforced composites do not match the characteristically high elastic modulus and ductility of steel and other metals, yet they display lower density, this often translates to favorable strength/ weight ratio which, in turn leads to favor in transportation and various industrial and architectural applications. Composites can present other advantages over steel, such as low thermal conductivity and good dielectric or electrical insulating properties. However, an overwhelming advantage to composites rests with corrosion resistance. When the cost and benefits of FRP and special resins are considered for particular environments, it is useful to understand the common mechanisms by which metals are oxidized or corroded. FRP is immune or otherwise quite resistive to many of these influences, at least within the range of practical limits of temperature and stress. Oxygen Cell-Galvanic Corrosion The most commonly observed instances of corrosion to carbon steel involve oxidation-reduction galvanic couplings in the presence of molecular oxygen and hydrogen ion associated with acids. Most forms of steel corrosion relate to some variation of these mechanisms, as hereby the steel effectively functions as an anode and becomes oxidized. Dissolved salts and ionic components can accelerate this type of corrosion by increasing electrical conductivity. It can also occur in the presence of stray leaks of direct current, such as in the vicinity of mass transit systems. Galvanic corrosion of steel is accelerated in the vicinity of metals such as copper which are cathodic to steel. Due to impurities, as well as various metallurgical or geometric factors, steel substrates are not always uniform There can be numerous microscopic anode-cathode couplings along the surface or cross-sectional gradients of the steel, and each can effectively function as a galvanic oxidation cell. Apart from paints and other protective or dielectric coatings, various forms of cathodic protection are often employed with steel. For small structures, sacrificial anodes may be located near to the steel, so that these anodes corrode selectively, or preferentially, to the steel. Sacrificial anodes employ metals which are more electronegative than iron within the galvanic series. Examples include zinc, magnesium, or various aluminum alloys. For larger structures, such as tanks, impressed current methods are frequently used. This involves use of separate anodes and DC current to reverse or alter polarity, allowing the steel to function as a cathode rather than as an anode, which is where the oxidation occurs. Galvanic corrosion is exceptionally severe in wet acidic environments where free oxygen is present. Flue gas desulfurization is a good example of where the conditions strongly favor this type of corrosion. This is due to the presence of sulfuric acid in combination with oxygen associated with the excess air ordinarily employed in coal combustion. Polyesters and vinyl esters display excellent acid resistance and common galvanic corrosion mechanisms do not influence properly designed FRP.

Oxidation (anode) Fe ­ 2e- Fe2+ Reduction (cathode) O2 + 2H2O + 4e- 4OH2H+ + 2e- H2

24

Common Types of Metal Corrosion

Passive Alloys and Chloride Induced Stress Corrosion To avoid galvanic corrosion to steel, it is common practice to employ stainless steel or other passive alloys. Stainless steel contains at least 10.5% chromium, which passivates the surface with a very thin chrome-oxide film. This, in turn, serves to protect against acids and other inducers of galvanic corrosion. The most practical limitations occur in environments where this chrome-oxide film can be broken down. Very typically this occurs in the presence of the chloride ion, particularly in the vicinity of areas such as welds, where tensile stress is present. Although the mechanism can be complex, the corrosion is accompanied by a distinctive destruction of grain boundaries, which characterize the morphology or metallurgical structure of the stainless steel. This is ordinarily manifested as pitting, crevice corrosion, or corrosion stress-cracking, which may proceed rapidly once initiated. Chlorides can often be present at exceptionally high levels, especially in applications such as flue desulfurization, where there is a net evaporation of water as well as leaching of coal ash. Thus, even though stainless steel will display quite good acid resistance, the corrosion can be severe due to chlorides. Chlorides tend to be quite prevalent in industrial environments, even in places where they might not be obvious, so it is always important to be wary in the use of stainless steel. Another corrosive limitation to stainless steel relates to oxygen depletion. Since the passivity of stainless steel depends on a thin protective chrome-oxide film, it is important to keep the surface in an oxidized state. The passive film may no longer be preserved in certain reducing environments, or where the surface is insulated from oxygen by scale or other strongly adhering deposits. The class of stainless steel most commonly considered in corrosive environments is known as austenite, but the other types (martensetic and ferritic) are also common. Over the years, many grades have been developed to improve resistance to chloride and to afford better strength, heat resistance, and welding properties to minimize the effects of stress induced corrosion. Characteristically, increased nickel content alloys are favored for high chloride applications, such as type 317L stainless steel, HastelloyTM, Inconel, or the various Haynes series alloys, such as C-276. Since these alloys are expensive, applications often involve cladding or thin "wallpapering" procedures. The use of these selections involves a great deal of welding, which must be done with a high degree of expertise, expense, and high level inspections with attention to detail, since welds are especially susceptible to stress corrosion. Sulfide Stress-Cracking Somewhat akin to chloride-induced stress corrosion is sulfide stress corrosion-cracking. This is common in oilfield and other applications, such as geothermal energy recovery and waste treatment. Carbon steel as well as other alloys can react with hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is prevalent in sour oil, gas, and gas condensate deposits. Reaction products include sulfides and atomic hydrogen which forms by a cathodic reaction and diffuses into the metal matrix. The hydrogen can also react with carbon in the steel to form methane, which leads to embrittlement and cracking of the metal. CO2 Corrosion Carbon dioxide can be quite corrosive to steel (at times in excess of thousands of mils per year) due to the formation of weak carbonic acid as well as cathodic depolarization. This type of corrosion is especially devastating in oil and gas production and is apt to receive even more attention in the future due to increased use of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery. Additionally, various underground sequestering processes are being inspired by concerns over global warming. Turbulence, or gas velocity, can be a big factor in the CO2 induced corrosion of steel due to the formation and/ or removal of protective ion carbonate scale. On the other hand, FRP is not affected by these mechanisms of corrosion. Other Types of Stress Corrosion Sometime internal stress corrosion-cracking of steels may occur unexpectedly due to mechanisms which are not yet completely understood. For example, there is some evidence this occurs with ethanol in high concentrations, especially around welds. Likewise, anhydrous methanol can be corrosive to aluminum as well as titanium. Hydrogen Embrittlement Atomic hydrogen can diffuse or become absorbed into steel. It then reacts with carbon to form methane or microscopic gas formations which weaken and detract from ductility. Usually this happens at high temperature under conditions where FRP is ordinarily not considered. The same type of mechanism of attack is associated at lower temperatures with various forms of galvanic or stress induced corrosion. Quite often hydrogen embrittlement can be a problem for steel which has been electroplated or pickled, especially when done improperly or inefficiently. Some of these matters are receiving more attention due to future considerations of hydrogen in fuel cell and other energy applications.

25

Common Types of Metal Corrosion

Sulfate Reducing Bacteria and Microbially Induced Corrosion (MIC) Colonies of microorganisms, especially aerobic and anaerobic bacteria contribute greatly to corrosion of steel through a wide variety of galvanic and depositional mechanisms. Usually the corrosion is manifested in the form of pitting or sulfide induced stress-cracking. Perhaps the most significant type of such corrosion involves sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which metabolize sulfates to produce sulfuric acid or hydrogen sulfide. Such bacteria are prolific in water (including seawater), mud, soil, sludge, and other organic matter. These bacteria are a major reason why underground steel storage tanks are corroded, and this has lead to widespread use of FRP as an alternative or as an external protective barrier to steel. Various manifestations of MIC are seen far and wide, including industrial environments which inadvertently serve as warm or nutrient-rich cultures for biological growth. FRP is unaffected by many of the mechanisms associated with MIC. Apart from sulfate reducing bacteria, other forms of microbial corrosion which affect metals include acid producing bacteria, slime forming organisms, denitrifying bacteria which generate ammonia, and other corrosion associated with various species of algae and fungi. It is expected that biologically induced corrosion will receive increased attention as more applications and technologies evolve in field of energy production associated with biomass and renewable resources. Processing will include such things as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, fermentation, enzymatic hydrolysis and conversion of cellulose, lignin, or polysaccharides to sugars, which in turn may be converted to ethanol. Carbon and stainless steels are not the only metals affected by MIC. Also routinely corroded are copper and various alloys as well as concrete. The most common example of which involves sewage and waste water treatment applications in the presence of the thiobacillus bacteria, with oxidizes H2S to sulfuric acid. FRP has a long history of successful use in these environments.

26

Alternate Materials

Thermoplastics There are numerous commercially available thermoplastics. In the context of most industrial corrosion-resistant applications, the more common competitive encounters with vinyl ester or polyester composites involve the use of thermoplastics which are glass reinforced. Apart from specialized and costly socalled engineered plastics, most of these reinforced thermoplastics are polyolefins, such as isotactic polypropylene or polyethylene. These polymers tend to be high in molecular weight and display good resistance to solvents and many other chemical environments. A major disadvantage to thermoplastics involves restrictions to the size of equipment. Thermoplastics normally require extrusion, injection molding, blow molding, or other methods either impractical or prohibitively costly for some of the sizes commonly involved with lay-up or filament-wound composites. However, fairly large diameter extruded plastic pipe (usually not reinforced) is commonly used. Often plasticizers are necessary, which in some cases can detract from chemical or thermal resistance, and furthermore may introduce extraction concerns in the final application. Glass and other fibrous reinforcement can be difficult to wet-out or bind with thermoplastics. Special coupling agents are normally required. Longer fibers improve physical properties, but extrusion and molding operating degrade longer fibers. Thus, glass reinforced thermoplastics are limited to fairly short fibers and cannot be employed with many of the directional or multi-compositional reinforcements common to the composites industry. Although reinforcement greatly improves heat distortion and thermal expansion properties, thermoplastic resins differ quite distinctly from thermosetting resins (such as crosslinked vinyl esters or polyesters). Thermoplastics display distinct glass transition temperatures and can melt or distort at elevated temperatures, so quite often they cannot be considered in high temperature applications. Another problem with thermoplastics relate to water absorption or permeation, which plagues even expensive and highly corrosion-resistant plastics such at fluoro-polymers. Due to water permeation, cracks or other damages with thermoplastics are difficult, if not impossible, to repair. Cracking of thermoplastics is common due to loss of ductility especially at low temperatures, and secondary bonding or painting can be a big problem. Some relatively large thermoplastic tanks are mass produced by roto-molding techniques. These can be made from thermoplastic powders by thermal rotational casting methods, to avoid sophisticated high pressure injection equipment. Most often, the polymer is a crosslinkable polyethylene. High temperature peroxide initiators are used to crosslink through vinyl unsaturation incorporated into the polymer. Most often, these tanks are used in municipal applications (such as for storage of hypochlorite) or for agricultural uses and liquid transport. Common problems involve cracking and difficulties in repair. A variety of hybrids or combined technologies have evolved. Sheet stocks or specially reinforced thermoplastics can be bonded to FRP surfaces during manufacturing, to make so-called dual laminates. Various thermoplastic coatings are also quite common. At times, thermoplastic piping may be filament-wound with a thermosetting composite to improve structural strength. Other Thermosetting Polymers Epoxy The composites described in this guide are focused on resins based on vinyl esters and polyesters. Although vinyl esters employ epoxies in their formulation, the epoxy (glycidal) functionality is extended and chemically modified for vinyl curing, and should not be confused with direct use of epoxy resins. Both bisphenol-A as well as novolac epoxies may be used directly in fiber reinforced composites. They are cured on a two-component basis with aromatic or aliphatic amines, diamines, or polyamides. Most epoxy composite applications involve high glass content filament-wound pipe used largely in oil recovery applications. Generally speaking, viscosities are higher, and glass wet-out and compatibility is always a concern. At times solvents or reactive diluents are used to reduce viscosity. Toughness is good, but thermal properties are inferior to those of premium vinyl esters and polyesters. A medium viscosity general purpose aliphatic amine cured epoxy heat distortion temperature can be typically only 155 - 160° F/ 68 - 71° C. Alkali and solvent resistance are generally good, but acid resistance can sometimes present limitations and is highly dependent on the curing systems. Curing and hardness development can be another limitation, which may require heat activation and post-curing.

27

Alternate Materials

Phenolic Resins Phenolic resins have been used for a long time. They are highly crosslinked resins based on reaction between phenol and formaldehyde. Advantages include very good heat resistance as well as low smoke generation due to ablative or carbonizing properties. The ratio of phenol to formaldehyde primarily determines the properties. Novolac resins are based on deficiency of formaldehyde and are supplied as solid powders typically used in reactive injection molding applications. They are then cured with hexa methylene tetramine, which provides a formaldehyde source. Resoles, on the other hand, are made with an excess of formaldehyde and are normally supplies as low viscosity liquids dissolved in water. They are normally cured by application of heat and catalysis by an acid. Composite applications employ the resole versions. A big disadvantage to resole resins is the out-gassing of water vapor which occurs during the cure. This leads to porosity and voids as well as odor problems during processing. These voids detract from composite properties including corrosion resistance. Glass wet-out is another problem. Quite often glass reinforcement commonly used in the composites industry is not compatible with phenolic resin. Since resoles are water soluble, corrosion resistance to water or aqueous based solutions can be very poor if the cure is not conducted properly. Care should also be taken to avoid contact of phenolic composites with carbon steel in the final application. Over time, the acid catalyst can leach out and severely corrode the steel. Rubber and Elastomers Rubber often displays good chemical resistance, especially to sulfuric acid. It is sometimes used in FGD applications for lining of steel piping and process equipment. Rubber liners have also been used in various bleaching applications. Apart from corrosion resistance, rubber can offer good abrasion resistance. In the case of rubber linings, skilled and specialized installation is required, which tends to make them expensive. Many of the linings are difficult, if not impossible, to install around restrictive geometry. It is essential to obtain good bonding between the rubber and steel since any permeation or damage to the liner can cause the steel to quickly corrode. The low glass transition temperature of rubber restricts use to moderate temperatures. Some rubbers and elastomers can become embrittled if subjected to cyclic wet and dry conditions. Solvents present swelling problems, and water permeation can be an important consideration. Acid Resistant Brick and Refractories Both castable and mortar block chemically resistant refractories have been used extensively. A good example is in chimney construction, to withstand sulfuric acid dew point corrosion. Usually steel is used for structural support along with appropriate buckstays. Installation costs can be high. Castable products must be anchored to the steel structure by studs or Yanchors. Refractories are not ductile and concerns involve thermal cycling and cracking. Block must be skillfully placed with proper acid resistant mortar. High weight is a factor as well as seismic considerations. The biggest problems involve operation of wet stack in conjunction with flue gas desulfurization. Moisture leads to absorption and swelling, which may eventually induce leaning. It is also common practice with wet stack to employ pressurized membranes to prevent condensation onto the cold external steel surface. This can also be expensive.

28

Alternate Materials

Concrete Without a doubt, concrete represents the world's most extensively used material of construction. However, it is subject to direct corrosive attack as well as spalling, or cavitation. Good examples of corrosive attack involve acids, including even dilute acid associated with acid rain. Sulfates are also especially aggressive to concrete, which presents problems when used in the vicinity of FGD applications. Protection of concrete floors with a layer of FRP is common practice. Acid resistant grades of concrete have been developed, as well as so-called polymer concrete wherein resin is used to replace all, or a portion, of the Portland cement used in the concrete formulation. Almost all concrete is reinforced with steel mesh or rebar due to the low tensile strength of concrete. Upon cracking and permeation by acids or salt solutions the steel is attacked by galvanic corrosion. This then spalls and weakens the structure due to high tensile stress in the vicinity of the corroding steel. Dangerous situations sometimes exist with concrete used in infrastructure applications. Composite structures including composite rebar offer novel approaches. Another corrosion mechanism associated with concrete is carbonation. It occurs when carbon dioxide from the surrounding air reacts with calcium hydroxide contained in the concrete, to produce calcium carbonate. Because calcium carbonate is more acidic than the parent material, it effectively depassivates the alkaline environment of concrete. At pH levels below about 9.8, the concrete mass can reduce the passive film which serves to protect the steel reinforcement. This type of attack is commonly observed with concrete hyperbolic cooling towers, where elevated temperature and high humidity promote the progression of a carbonation front. The same conditions promote diffusion inside of the hyperbolic tower. This can lead to corrosion of steel, especially around cracks or in the vicinity of joints associated with slip forms used in construction. Due to water conservation as well as scarcity of fresh water, greater use of evaporative cooling is leading to new designs in cooling towers. As a result, more scale formation along with higher salt concentrations favors composites which can be used more extensively as an alternative to concrete.

29

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 DION® IMPACT 9400 Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

A

Acetaldehyde Acetic Acid Acetic Acid, Glacial Acetic Anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acetophenone Acetyl Chloride Acrylic Acid Acrylic Latex Acrylonitrile Acrylontirile Latex Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid Alkyl Benzene C10 - C12 Allyl Alcohol Allyl Chloride Alpha Methyl Styrene Alpha Olefin Sulfates Alum Aluminum Chloride Aluminum Chlorohydrate Aluminum Chlorohydroxide Aluminum Citrate Aluminum Fluoride1 Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum Nitrate Aluminum Potassium Sulfate Aluminum Sulfate Amino Acids Ammonia, Liquified Ammonia Aqueous (see Ammonium Hydroxide) Ammonia (Dry Gas) Ammonium Acetate Ammonium Benzoate Ammonium Bicarbonate Ammonium Bisulfite Black Liquor Ammonium Bromate Ammonium Bromide Ammonium Carbonate Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Citrate Ammonium Fluoride3 100 10 25 50 100 100 10 100 100 100 100 0-25 All 100 All 92 100 100 All 100 100 All All All 50 All All All All All All All All 1 All 65 All 100 --40 40 All All All All NR 210/100 180/80 140/60 NR NR 180/80 NR NR NR NR 100/35 120/45 NR --120/45 150/65 NR NR NR 120/45 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 80/25 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 100/35 NR 200/90 100/35 100/35 180/80 150/65 180/80 160/70 160/70 150/65 210/100 160/70 150/65 NR 210/100 180/80 140/60 NR -NR NR NR NR NR 100/35 150/65 NR 150/65 120/45 150/65 NR NR NR 120/45 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 200/90 110/40 160/70 180/80 200/90 200/90 100/35 NR 200/90 200/90 110/40 180/80 150/65 180/80 160/70 160/70 150/65 210/100 160/70 120/45 NR 210/100 180/80 140/60 NR 100/35 180/80 NR NR NR NR 110/40 120/45 NR --120/45 --NR NR NR 120/45 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 200/90 80/25 160/70 180/80 210/100 210/100 100/35 NR 210/100 180/80 80/25 180/80 150/65 180/80 150/65 150/65 150/65 210/100 140/60 120/45 NR 210/100 180/80 140/60 NR 110/40 180/80 NR NR NR NR 100/35 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR NR NR 120/45 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 110/40 160/70 180/80 210/100 210/100 100/35 NR 200/90 200/90 110/40 180/80 150/65 210/100 160/70 160/70 150/65 210/100 160/70 120/45 NR 210/100 180/80 140/60 NR 110/40 180/80 NR NR NR NR 100/35 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 --NR NR NR 120/45 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 120/45 210/100 180/80 220/105 220/105 100/35 NR 200/90 200/90 100/35 180/80 170/75 180/80 160/70 160/70 150/65 210/100 170/75 150/65 NR 170/75 150/65 --NR NR NR NR NR NR NR -130/55 NR ------NR NR NR --170/75 170/75 150/65 150/65 170/75 NR NR 170/75 170/75 175/80 --NR NR -80/25 140/60 120/45 NR ----140/60 170/75 120/45 NR NR 170/75 150/65 --NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR --NR ------NR NR NR --170/75 170/75 150/65 150/65 170/75 NR NR 140/60 170/75 170/75 --NR NR --NR --120/45 NR ----80/25 170/75 120/45 NR --120/45 120/45 120/45 NR --NR --------NR ------------------150/65 150/65 --120/45 120/45 --150/65 --150/65 150/65 --NR --NR NR ----------NR 150/65 NR NR NR 210/100 210/100 140/60 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 80/25 NR 80/25 120/45 100/35 NR NR NR 80/25 200/90 210/100 165 NR 150/65 150/65 NR --210/100 220/105 --NR NR NR 80/25 150/65 130/55 195/90 150/65 150/65 150/65 200/90 --150/65

30

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 200/90 180/80 150/65 150/65 100/35 120/45 --200/90 180/80 210/100 210/100 120/45 150/65 210/100 110/40 100/35 NR 120/45 150/65 120/45 NR 180/80 210/100 NR 100/35 180/80 DION® IMPACT 9400 210/100 170/75 170/75 150/65 100/35 120/45 --200/90 180/80 180/80 210/100 110/40 150/65 200/90 100/35 100/35 100/35 200/90 150/65 120/45 NR 180/80 210/100 NR 100/35 180/80 Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

1 Ammonium Hydroxide (Aqueous Ammonia) 5 10 20 29 Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate Ammonium Ligno Sulfonate Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Persulfate Ammonium Phosphate (Di or Mono Basic) Ammonium Sulfate Ammonium Sulfide (Bisulfide) Ammonium Sulfite Ammonium Thiocyanate Ammonium Thiosulfate Amyl Acetate Amyl Alcohol Amyl Alcohol (Vapor) Amyl Chloride Aniline Aniline Hydrochloride Aniline Sulfate Aqua Regia (3:1 HCl-HNO3) Arsenic Acid Arsenious Acid 30 50 All All All All All All 20 50 60 All All --All All All Sat'd All 80 20

200/90 180/80 140/60 150/65 100/35 120/45 160/70 200/90 180/80 180/80 200/90 110/40 150/65 210/100 110/40 100/35 NR 150/65 180/80 --NR 180/80 200/90 NR 110/40 180/80

200/90 180/80 170/75 150/65 100/35 120/45 180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 220/105 110/40 150/65 220/105 110/40 150/65 NR 210/100 210/100 --NR 180/80 220/105 NR 110/40 180/80

200/90 180/80 150/65 140/60 100/35 120/45 160/70 220/105 180/80 180/80 210/100 110/40 150/65 200/90 150/65 110/40 NR 150/65 210/100 --NR 180/80 200/90 NR 110/40 180/80

NR NR NR NR NR ----140/60 140/60 140/60 170/75 --80/25 140/60 80/25 --NR 170/75 100/35 NR NR 140/60 140/60 NR 80/25 80/25

NR NR NR NR NR ----140/60 NR 140/60 170/75 NR NR 140/60 80/25 NR NR 80/25 100/35 NR NR --140/60 NR --80/25

NR NR NR NR NR ----NR NR 150/65 150/65 NR NR 150/65 --NR NR NR 150/65 NR ----120/45 NR --NR

NR NR NR NR NR ----200/90 150/65 180/80 220/105 120/45 150/65 180/80 180/80 180/80 NR 200/90 100/35 NR ----200/90 --110/40 180/80

B

Barium Acetate Barium Bromide Barium Carbonate Barium Chloride Barium Cyanide Barium Hydroxide Barium Sulfate Barium Sulfide Beer Beet Sugar Liquor Benzaldehyde Benzene Benzene, HCl (wet) Benzene Sulfonic Acid Benzene Vapor Benzoic Acid Benzoquinones Benzyl Alcohol Benzyl Chloride All All All All All All All All --All 100 100 All All All All All All All 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 150/65 150/65 210/100 180/80 --180/80 NR NR NR 210/100 NR 210/100 150/65 NR NR 180/80 180/80 200/90 200/90 150/65 160/70 200/90 180/80 --180/80 /R NR NR 200/90 NR 200/90 180/80 110/40 NR 180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 150/65 150/65 210/100 180/80 --180/80 NR NR NR 150/65 NR 210/100 180/80 NR NR 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 150/65 160/70 210/100 180/80 --180/80 NR NR NR 210/100 NR 210/100 180/80 110/40 NR 180/80 180/80 220/105 220/105 150/65 170/75 220/105 180/80 --180/80 NR NR NR 210/100 NR 220/105 180/80 100/35 NR 140/60 --80/25 175/80 --NR 175/80 NR --175/80 NR NR NR 140/60 NR 170/75 --80/25 NR NR --80/25 170/75 --NR 170/75 NR 80/25 110/40 NR NR NR NR NR 170/75 --NR NR NR --150/65 150/65 --NR 150/65 NR ------NR --NR --150/65 --NR --180/80 NR NR NR 200/90 NR 220/105 ----NR 200/90 200/90 --NR ----180/80

31

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 180/80 180/80 DION® IMPACT 9400 180/80 160/70 Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Biodiesel Fuel Black Liquor (pulp mill) Bleach Solutions (See Selected Applications) Calcium Hypochlorite Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine Water Chlorite Hydrosulfite Sodium Hypochlorite Borax Boric Acid Brake Fluid Brine, salt Bromine Bromine Water Brown Stock (pulp mill) Bunker C Fuel Oil Butanol Butanol, Tertiary Butyl Acetate Butyl Acrylate Butyl Amine Butyl Benzoate Butyl Benzyl Phthalate Butyl Carbitol Butyl Cellosolve Butylene Glycol Butylene Oxide Butyraldehyde Butyric Acid

All All

180/80 200/90

180/80 210/100

180/80 200/90

175/80 NR

140/60 NR

-----

175/80 NR

All --All 50 --15 All All --All Liquid 5 --100 All All 100 100 All 100 100 80 100 100 100 100 50 85

180/80 160/70 180/80 100/35 180/80 125/50 210/100 210/100 110/40 210/100 NR 180/80 180/80 210/100 120/45 --NR NR NR --180/80 100/35 100/35 160/70 NR NR 210/100 80/25

200/90 160/70 200/90 110/40 190/85 125/50 200/90 200/90 110/40 210/100 NR 180/80 180/80 200/90 120/45 NR NR NR NR --180/80 --100/35 180/80 NR NR 210/100 110/40

180/80 160/70 180/80 100/35 180/80 125/50 210/100 210/100 110/40 210/100 NR 180/80 180/80 210/100 120/45 --80/25 80/25 NR 100/35 180/80 100/35 100/35 180/80 NR 100/35 180/80 110/40

210/100 160/70 200/90 110/40 190/85 125/50 210/100 210/100 110/40 210/100 NR 180/80 180/80 210/100 110/40 110/40 NR NR NR NR 210/100 NR 120/45 180/80 NR NR 210/100 110/40

200/90 160/70 200/90 110/40 190/85 125/50 210/100 220/105 110/40 200/90 NR 180/80 180/80 210/100 110/40 110/40 NR NR NR NR 210/100 NR 120/45 200/90 NR NR 210/100 100/35

NR NR NR NR NR NR 175/80 175/80 --175/80 NR 80/25 --175/80 100/35 --80/25 NR NR NR 175/80 NR NR 175/80 NR NR 210/100 NR

NR NR NR NR --NR 170/75 170/75 --170/75 NR --NR 140/60 NR --NR NR NR --NR NR NR 150/65 NR NR 80/25 NR

NR NR NR NR 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 --150/65 NR NR --------NR ----------NR ------150/65 NR

--180/80 200/90 110/40 ------200/90 --220/105 NR ----175/80 100/35 100/35 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR 80/25 120/45 ----120/45 ---

C

Cadmium Chloride Calcium Bisulfite Calcium Bromide Calcium Carbonate Calcium Chlorate (See Selected Applications) Calcium Chloride Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Hypochlorite (See Selected Applications) Calcium Nitrate Calcium Sulfate Calcium Sulfite Cane Sugar Liquor and Sweet Water Capric Acid All All All All All Sat'd All All All All All All All 180/80 180/80 200/90 180/80 210/100 210/100 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 180/80 180/80 180/80 190/85 180/80 190/85 200/90 200/90 210/100 160/70 200/90 200/90 200/90 180/80 180/80 180/80 180/80 180/80 210/100 180/80 210/100 210/100 120/45 180/80 210/100 210/100 190/85 180/80 110/40 190/85 180/80 210/100 220/105 210/100 190/85 160/70 210/100 210/100 210/100 190/85 180/80 210/100 180/80 200/90 210/100 200/90 220/105 190/85 210/100 200/90 220/105 220/105 200/90 180/80 160/70 140/60 140/60 --160/70 150/65 175/80 160/70 NR 170/75 175/80 --175/80 140/60 140/60 140/60 --160/70 150/65 170/75 160/70 NR 170/75 170/75 --110/40 --150/65 150/65 150/65 80/25 NR 150/65 150/65 --------120/45 150/65 150/65 200/90 180/80 220/105 220/105 NR 180/80 200/90 220/105 180/80 180/80 180/80

32

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 180/80 210/100 NR 210/100 100/35 100/35 150/65 160/70 160/70 --160/70 180/80 180/80 180/80 NR 210/100 160/70 180/80 180/80 100/35 NR NR NR NR NR 100 5 20 20:20 All All All All All All All 15 All All All All All All All All NR 110/40 NR --150/65 180/80 210/100 180/80 180/80 150/65 150/65 120/45 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 200/90 DION® IMPACT 9400 180/80 300/145 NR 300/145 100/35 120/45 180/80 160/70 180/80 --160/70 180/80 180/80 180/80 NR 210/100 160/70 180/80 180/80 100/35 NR NR NR NR NR NR 110/40 NR --150/65 150/65 220/105 180/80 180/80 150/65 150/65 120/45 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 --210/100 210/100 200/90 Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Caprylic Acid (Octanoic Acid) Carbon Dioxide Gas Carbon Disulfide Carbon Monoxide Gas Carbon Tetrachloride Carbowax7 Carbowax7 Polyethylene Glycols Carboxy Methyl Cellulose Carboxy Ethyl Cellulose Cashew Nut Oil Castor Oil Chlorinated Pulp (See Selected Applications) Chlorinated Washer Hoods Chlorinated Waxes Chlorine (liquid) Chlorine Gas (wet or dry) Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine Water Chloroacetic Acid Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chloropyridine Chlorosulfonic Acid Chloroethylene (1,1,1-trichloroethylene) Chlorotoluene Chromic Acid (see selected applications) Chromic:sulfuric acid Chromium Sulfate Chromous Sulfate Citric Acid Cobalt Chloride Cobalt Citrate Cobalt Naphthenate Cobalt Octoate Cobalt Nitrate Coconut Oil Copper Acetate Copper Chloride Copper Cyanide Copper Fluoride Copper Nitrate Copper Sulfate Corn Oil

All --100 --100 100 All All 10 All All ----All 100 ----All 25 50 100 100 100 All

160/70 200/90 NR 200/90 100/35 120/45 180/80 150/65 150/65 200/90 160/70 180/80 180/80 160/70 NR 200/90 160/70 200/90 --140/60 NR NR NR NR NR NR 110/40 NR --140/60 140/60 200/90 180/80 180/80 150/65 150/65 180/80 200/90 180/80 200/90 200/90 --200/90 200/90 200/90

180/80 300/145 NR 300/145 100/35 100/35 180/80 160/70 160/70 200/90 160/70 200/90 180/80 180/80 NR 210/100 160/70 200/90 210/100 140/60 NR NR NR NR NR NR 120/45 NR --140/60 140/60 220/105 180/80 180/80 150/65 150/65 180/80 200/90 210/100 210/100 210/100 --210/100 200/90 200/90

210/100 300/145 NR 300/145 100/35 100/35 ------200/90 160/70 180/80 180/80 160/70 NR 200/90 160/70 200/90 200/90 150/65 NR NR NR NR NR NR 110/40 NR --180/80 180/80 200/90 180/80 --150/65 150/65 180/80 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 170/75 220/105 240/115 200/90

140/60 210/100 NR 210/100 NR 120/45 ------140/60 80/25 --NR 150/65 NR --NR NR 80/25 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR NR 80/25 NR --140/60 140/60 175/80 --------170/75 --170/75 170/75 140/60 NR 170/75 175/80 175/80

--210/100 NR 210/100 NR --------------NR 150/65 NR --NR NR NR --NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR --140/60 140/60 160/70 --------170/75 --170/75 170/75 130/55 NR 170/75 170/75 170/75

150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 NR ----------------120/45 NR NR NR NR 80/25 NR NR ----------NR NR ----150/65 150/65 ----------120/45 150/65 150/65 150/65 NR 150/65 150/65 ---

140/60 210/100 NR 160/70 NR --150/65 --150/65 ----180/80 150/65 150/65 NR 200/90 160/70 --80/25 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR NR 200/90 195/90 180/80 150/65 180/80 --------120/45 ----200/90 200/90 170/75 140/60 220/105 175/80

33

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 210/100 210/100 210/100 NR NR 210/100 120/45 NR DION® IMPACT 9400 210/100 210/100 200/90 NR NR 210/100 150/65 NR Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Corn Starch Corn Sugar Cottonseed Oil Cresol Cresylic Acid Crude Oil, Sour or Sweet Cyclohexane Cyclohexanone

All All All 10 All 100 100 100

200/90 200/90 200/90 NR NR 200/90 NR NR

210/100 210/100 200/90 NR NR 200/90 120/45 NR

210/100 210/100 200/90 NR NR 200/90 110/40 NR

175/80 --175/80 NR NR 170/75 80/25 ---

------NR NR 170/75 NR NR

------NR NR 150/65 NR NR

200/90 200/90 175/80 NR NR 210/100 140/60 ---

D

Decanol Dechlorinated Brine Storage Deionized Water Demineralized Water Detergents, Organic Detergents, Sulfonated Diallylphthalate Diammonium Phosphate Dibasic Acids (FGD Applications) Dibromophenol Dibromopropanol Dibutyl Ether Dibutyl Phthalate Dibutyl Sebacate Dichlorobenzene Dichloroethane Dichloroethylene Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) Dichloropropane Dichloropropene Dichloropropionic Acid Diesel Fuel Diethanol Amine Diethyl Amine Diethyl Ether (Ethyl Ether) Diethyl Ketone Diethyl Formamide Diethyl Maleate Di 2-Ethyl Hexyl Phosphate Diethylenetriamine (DETA) Diethylene Glycol Diisobutyl Ketone Diisobutyl Phthalate Di-isobutylene Di-isopropanol Amine Dimethyl Formamide Dimethyl Phthalate Dioctyl Phthalate 100 All All All 100 All All 65 30 --All 100 100 All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 120/45 180/80 200/90 200/90 160/70 200/90 180/80 210/100 180/80 NR NR NR 180/80 200/90 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR --NR 200/90 NR 120/45 100/35 110/40 NR 150/65 180/80 150/65 --200/90 200/90 160/70 200/90 210/100 180/80 180/80 NR NR NR 180/80 200/90 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 110/40 NR NR NR NR NR 200/90 NR 200/90 NR 180/80 NR 100/35 NR 150/65 180/80 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 160/70 180/80 180/80 210/100 180/80 NR NR 110/40 200/90 200/90 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 110/40 NR NR NR NR NR --NR 200/90 110/40 120/45 100/35 120/45 NR 150/65 180/80 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 180/80 210/100 180/80 180/80 180/80 NR NR 110/40 180/80 210/100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 120/45 NR NR NR NR NR 210/100 NR 220/105 NR 180/80 NR 100/35 NR 150/65 180/80 180/80 180/80 200/90 200/90 180/80 210/100 180/80 210/100 180/80 NR NR 110/40 200/90 210/100 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 110/40 NR NR NR NR NR 210/100 NR 210/100 NR 180/80 NR 100/35 NR 170/75 180/80 ----175/80 175/80 100/35 120/45 175/80 120/45 180/80 NR NR NR 175/80 --NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 175/80 NR NR NR NR NR NR --NR 175/80 NR --NR --NR NR 150/65 ----170/75 170/75 --120/45 110/40 120/45 170/75 NR NR NR 150/65 --NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 140/60 NR NR NR NR NR NR --NR 170/75 NR --NR --NR 80/25 150/65 ------------140/60 NR ------NR 100/35 ----------------150/65 NR --------------140/60 ----------NR 120/45 NR NR NR NR ------175/80 110/40 --------------100/35 NR 80/25 ----NR 80/25 80/25 --180/80 200/90 200/90 100/35 200/90 120/45 --180/80 NR NR NR 80/25

34

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 NR 80/25 --200/90 200/90 NR --DION® IMPACT 9400 NR 100/35 --200/90 210/100 NR --Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Dioxane Diphenyl Ether Dipiperazine Sulfate Solution Dipropylene Glycol Distilled Water Divinyl Benzene Dodecyl Alcohol

100 100 All All All 100 100

NR 120/45 100/35 200/90 210/100 NR ---

NR 120/45 100/35 210/100 210/100 NR ---

NR 120/45 --220/105 210/100 NR ---

NR 120/45 80/25 175/80 175/80 NR ---

NR NR --170/75 170/75 NR ---

--NR -----------

NR ------200/90 NR 150/65

E

Embalming Fluid Epichlorohydrin Epoxydized Soya Bean Oil Esters of Fatty Acids Ethanol Amine Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Acrylate Ethyl Alcohol (Ethanol) Ethyl Benzene Ethyl Benzene/ Benzene Blends Ethyl Bromide Ethyl Chloride Ethyl Ether (Diethyl Ether) Ethylene Chloride Ethylene Chloroformate Ethylene Chlorohydrin Ethylene Diamine Ethylene Dibromide Ethylene Dichloride Ethylene Glycol Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid Ethylene Oxide Eucalyptus Oil All 100 All 100 100 100 100 10 50 95-100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 All 100 All 100 100 100 100 110/40 NR 150/65 180/80 NR NR NR 120/45 100/35 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 100/35 NR NR NR 200/90 100/35 100/35 NR 140/60 110/40 NR 200/90 180/80 NR NR NR 140/60 100/35 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 110/40 NR NR NR 200/90 100/35 110/40 NR 140/60 110/40 NR 150/65 180/80 80/25 NR NR 150/65 150/65 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 100/35 NR NR NR 210/100 100/35 100/35 NR 140/60 110/40 NR 200/90 180/80 NR NR NR 150/65 120/45 110/40 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 110/40 NR NR NR 210/100 100/35 110/40 NR 140/60 110/40 NR 200/90 180/80 NR NR NR 140/60 110/40 110/40 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 110/40 NR NR NR 210/100 100/35 110/40 NR 140/60 NR NR --150/65 NR NR NR 110/40 100/35 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 NR NR NR --NR NR --150/65 NR NR NR ----80/25 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 170/75 --NR NR ----------------NR NR NR --------------NR --NR --150/65 --------110/40 NR 150/65 120/45 NR NR NR 110/40 125/50 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 100/35 NR NR NR 210/100 NR -------

F

Fatty Acids Ferric Acetate Ferric Chloride Ferric Nitrate Ferric Sulfate Ferrous Chloride Ferrous Nitrate Ferrous Sulfate Fertilizer, 8,8,8 Fertilizer, URAN Flue Gases Fluoboric Acid Fluoride Salts & HCl All All All All All All All All ------10 30:10:00 210/100 180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 120/45 120/45 --210/100 --200/90 180/80 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 110/40 110/40 --180/80 120/45 200/90 180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 120/45 120/45 --180/80 --220/105 180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 110/40 110/40 --180/80 120/45 200/90 180/80 220/105 220/105 220/105 220/105 220/105 220/105 120/45 120/45 --220/105 --175/80 --170/75 170/75 170/75 170/75 170/75 170/75 120/45 120/45 --150/65 --170/75 --170/75 170/75 170/75 170/75 170/75 170/75 120/45 120/45 --150/65 --150/65 --150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 ------120/45 --210/100 ----210/100 ----210/100 210/100 -----------

35

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 150/65 100/35 180/80 --150/65 180/80 100/35 --210/100 100/35 NR DION® IMPACT 9400 120/45 100/35 180/80 --110/40 180/80 100/35 NR 210/100 100/35 NR Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

10 Fluosilicic Acid Fly Ash Slurry (See Selected Applications) Formaldehyde Formic Acid Freon7 11 Fuel Oil Furfural 35 Fumes --All 10 50 100 100 10 50-100

150/65 100/35 180/80 180/80 110/40 150/65 110/40 NR 210/100 110/40 NR

150/65 100/35 180/80 180/80 110/40 150/65 110/40 NR 210/100 110/40 NR

150/65 100/35 180/80 --110/40 150/65 110/40 NR 210/100 110/40 NR

NR NR NR --NR 120/45 80/25 NR 175/80 NR NR

NR NR NR --NR 100/35 NR NR 140/60 NR NR

NR NR NR --100/35 NR NR --150/65 NR ---

180/80 160/70 ----110/40 180/80 100/35 NR 175/80 80/25 80/25

G

Gallic Acid Gasoline (SeeSelected Applications) Premium Unleaded Regular Unleaded Alcohol-Containing Gluconic Acid Glucose Glutaric Acid Glycerine Glycolic Acid (Hydroxyacetic Acid) Glyoxal Green Liquor (pulp mill) 100 110 50 All 50 100 10 35 70 40 --110/40 110/40 160/70 210/100 120/45 210/100 180/80 140/60 80/25 100/35 180/80 110/40 110/40 160/70 180/80 120/45 210/100 --140/60 --110/40 200/90 100/35 110/40 160/70 210/100 120/45 210/100 200/90 140/60 100/35 100/35 180/80 1110 110/40 160/70 180/80 120/45 210/100 --140/60 --110/40 200/90 110/40 110/40 160/70 210/100 120/45 210/100 200/90 140/60 100/35 110/40 210/100 110/40 110/40 100/35 110/40 --180/80 --140/60 --80/25 NR 110/40 110/40 100/35 110/40 --170/75 ------80/25 NR 150/65 --------------100/35 150/65 110/40 110/40 140/60 180/80 200/90 150/65 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 NR 110 110/40 110/40 110/40 110/40 110/40 110/40 110/40 110/40 Sat'd 100/35 100/35 100/35 100/35 100/35 ---------

H

Heptane Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Hexachloropentadiene Hexamethylenetetramine Hexane Hydraulic Fluid Hydrazine Hydrobromic Acid 100 100 100 65 100 100 100 18 48 10 Hydrochloric Acid 15 25 37 Hydrochloric Acid and Organics Hydrocyanic Acid Hydrofluoric Acid --10 1 10 20 200/90 ------150/65 150/65 NR 180/80 150/65 210/100 210/100 160/70 110/40 NR 180/80 125/50 100/35 100/35 200/90 110/40 --110/40 140/60 150/65 NR 200/90 150/65 200/90 200/90 150/65 110/40 NR 200/90 125/50 100/35 100/35 200/90 110/40 ----150/65 150/65 NR 180/80 150/65 210/100 210/100 160/70 110/40 NR 200/90 125/50 100/35 100/35 200/90 110/40 110/40 110/40 140/60 150/65 NR 210/100 150/65 210/100 210/100 150/65 110/40 NR 210/100 125/50 100/35 100/35 210/100 100/35 ----150/65 150/65 NR 210/100 150/65 210/100 210/100 150/65 110/40 NR 170/75 125/50 100/35 100/35 150/65 80/25 80/25 80/25 80/25 NR NR 140/60 80/25 160/70 140/60 140/60 80/25 NR 140/60 NR NR NR 140/60 NR NR NR 80/25 NR NR --110/40 160/70 110/40 110/40 80/25 NR 80/25 NR NR NR --NR ----80/25 80/25 --100/35 100/35 ----NR NR --NR NR NR NR 200/90 80/25 --NR --150/65 NR ---150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 110/40 NR 200/90 --80/25 80/25

36

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 180/80 100/35 180/80 210/100 150/65 150/65 100/35 210/100 150/65 120/45 DION® IMPACT 9400 160/70 100/35 150/65 210/100 150/65 150/65 100/35 210/100 150/65 120/45 Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Hydrofluosilicic Acid Hydrogen Bromide, vapor Hydrogen Chloride, dry gas Hydrogen Fluoride, vapor Hydrogen Peroxide (storage) Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrogen Sulfide, gas Hydroiodic Acid Hypophosphorus Acid

10 35 All 100 All 5 30 All 10 50

150/65 110/40 --180/80 150/65 150/65 150/65 200/90 -----

150/65 110/40 210/100 210/100 180/80 150/65 100/35 210/100 150/65 120/45

150/65 120/45 210/100 200/90 180/80 150/65 100/35 170/75 150/65 ---

NR NR 140/60 150/65 80/25 80/25 NR 140/60 80/25 ---

NR NR 170/75 150/65 80/25 NR NR 140/60 80/25 ---

--NR 100/35 150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR NR

180/80 160/70 140/60 210/100 80/25 150/65 100/35 210/100 --120/45

I

Iodine, Solid Isoamyl Alcohol Isobutyl Alcohol Isodecanol Isononyl Alcohol Isooctyl Adipate Isooctyl Alcohol Isopropyl Alcohol Isopropyl Amine Isopropyl Myristate Isopropyl Palmitate Itaconic Acid All 100 All All 100 100 100 All All All All All 150/65 120/45 120/45 120/45 ------120/45 100/35 200/90 200/90 120/45 150/65 120/45 125/50 150/65 125/50 180/80 100/35 110/40 --200/90 200/90 125/50 140/60 120/45 120/45 180/80 140/60 130/55 140/60 120/45 120/45 200/90 200/90 120/45 150/65 120/45 125/50 180/80 125/50 180/80 150/65 110/40 --210/100 210/100 125/50 170/75 120/45 125/50 180/80 125/50 --150/65 120/45 120/45 210/100 210/100 125/50 ----120/45 140/60 ------80/25 ----180/80 80/25 NR ------------80/25 --------------Ambient ------NR ----150/65 --------150/65 125/50 ----120/45 ------95/35

J

Jet Fuel Jojoba Oil --100 180/80 180/80 180/80 180/80 180/80 180/80 180/80 180/80 210/100 180/80 175/80 175/80 140/60 140/60 ----175/80 180/80

K

Kerosene 100 180/80 180/80 180/80 180/80 210/100 175/80 140/60 150/65 175/80

L

Lactic Acid Latex Lauric Acid Lauryl Alcohol Lauryl Mercaptan Lead Acetate Lead Chloride Lead Nitrate Levulinic Acid Lime Slurry Linseed Oil Lithium Bromide Lithium Carbonate Lithium Chloride Lithium Sulfate All All All 100 All All All All All All All All All All All 210/100 120/45 210/100 150/65 --210/100 --210/100 210/100 180/80 210/100 210/100 --210/100 210/100 200/90 150/65 200/90 160/70 150/65 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 --200/90 200/90 --200/90 --210/100 150/65 210/100 180/80 150/65 210/100 220/105 200/90 220/105 170/75 210/100 220/105 150/65 210/100 210/100 220/105 150/65 210/100 180/80 150/65 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 180/80 200/90 210/100 --210/100 210/100 210/100 150/65 210/100 180/80 150/65 220/105 210/100 220/105 210/100 210/100 220/105 220/105 --220/105 210/100 140/60 120/45 180/80 ----140/60 140/60 140/60 140/60 170/75 180/80 170/75 --180/80 --130/55 --------110/40 110/40 110/40 --160/70 160/70 170/75 --170/75 150/65 150/65 --------150/65 ------80/25 150/65 150/65 --150/65 --200/90 120/45 180/80 ----160/70 200/90 200/90 200/90 NR 200/90 ---------

M

Magnesium Bicarbonate Magnesium Bisulfite Magnesium Carbonate Magnesium Chloride Magnesium Hydroxide All All 15 All All 180/80 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 170/75 180/80 180/80 200/90 200/90 180/80 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 170/75 180/80 180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 180/80 210/100 220/105 210/100 130/55 140/60 130/55 140/60 130/55 130/55 130/55 130/55 140/60 150/65 ------150/65 80/25 --180/80 180/80 210/100 NR

37

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 210/100 ------210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 NR 210/100 210/100 --200/90 --NR NR 80/25 NR NR 180/80 210/100 210/100 DION® IMPACT 9400 220/105 140/60 210/100 210/100 200/90 220/105 200/90 200/90 200/90 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 NR --210/100 110/40 --150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 --210/100 Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium Silica Fluoride Maleic Acid Maleic Anhydride Manganese Chloride Manganese Sulfate Mercuric Chloride Mercurous Chloride Mercury Methyl Alcohol (Methanol) Methyl Bromide (Gas) Methyl Ethyl Ketone Methyl Isobutyl Ketone Methyl Methacrylate Methyl Styrene Methyl Tertiarybutyl Ether(MTBE) Methylene Chloride Milk and Milk Products Mineral Oils Molasses and Invert Molasses Molybdenum Disulfide Molybdic Acid Monochloroacetic Acid Monochlorobenzene Monoethanolamine Monomethylhydrazine Morpholine Motor Oil Mustard Myristic Acid

All 37.5 All 100 All All All All --100 10 All 100 All 100 All 100 All 100 All All 25 80 100 100 100 100 100 All All

200/90 140/60 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 NR --200/90 110/40 --150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 --200/90

210/100 140/60 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 NR 200/90 210/100 110/40 --150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 210/100 210/100

210/100 140/60 210/100 210/100 220/105 210/100 220/105 220/105 220/105 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 NR 210/100 220/105 110/40 --150/65 NR NR NR NR NR 210/100 --210/100

175/80 --140/60 140/60 140/60 150/65 170/75 170/75 170/75 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 NR 100/35 175/80 80/25 --140/60 NR NR NR NR NR 140/60 175/80 80/25

150/65 --140/60 140/60 130/55 150/65 170/75 150/65 170/75 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 NR 100/35 170/75 80/25 ----NR NR NR NR NR 170/75 140/60 80/25

150/65 ----80/25 ----150/65 150/65 150/65 NR --NR ----------150/65 150/65 --------NR -------------

200/90 140/60 200/90 ----150/65 210/100 210/100 200/90 80/25 NR NR NR NR NR 180/80 NR 100/35 80/25 ------NR NR NR -----------

N

Naphtha, Aliphatic Naphtha, Aromatic Naphthalene Nickel Chloride Nickel Nitrate Nickel Sulfate Nicotinic Acid (Niacin) 100 100 All All All All All 2 Nitric Acid 5 35 Fumes Nitrobenzene Nitrogen Tetroxide 100 100 180/80 --180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 ----175/80 120/45 180/80 NR NR 150/65 110/40 --200/90 200/90 200/90 110/40 200/90 175/80 ----NR NR 200/90 120/45 200/90 210/100 210/100 210/100 --180/80 150/65 110/40 --NR NR 180/80 120/45 200/90 210/100 210/100 210/100 110/40 210/100 175/80 ----NR NR 150/65 120/45 220/105 220/105 220/105 220/105 ----170/75 140/60 --NR NR 130/55 120/45 130/55 180/80 180/80 180/80 80/25 150/65 150/65 NR 120/45 NR NR 110/40 120/45 130/55 140/60 140/60 140/60 80/25 150/65 150/65 NR 120/45 NR NR ----150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 --NR NR NR NR ----180/80 ----180/80 180/80 180/80 110/40 180/80 180/80 140/60 180/80 NR NR

O

Octylamine, Tertiary Oil, Sweet or Sour Crude Oleic Acid Oleum (Fuming Sulfuric Acid) Olive Oil 100 100 All --100 --210/100 210/100 NR 210/100 110/40 200/90 200/90 NR 200/90 110/40 180/80 200/90 NR 210/100 110/40 210/100 210/100 NR 200/90 100/35 210/100 210/100 NR 220/105 80/25 175/80 175/80 NR 175/80 --140/60 140/60 NR 170/75 ----150/65 --150/65 --175/80 200/90 NR ---

38

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 DION® 9102 DION® 9300 210/100 140/60 210/100 80/25 DION® IMPACT 9400 210/100 150/65 210/100 --Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Orange Oil (limonene) Organic Detergents, pH<12 Oxalic Acid Ozone (< 4 ppm in water phase) (See Special Applications)

100 All 100 ---

200/90 150/65 200/90 80/25

200/90 150/65 210/100 80/25

220/105 150/65 210/100 80/25

175/80 100/35 175/80 ---

170/75 100/35 170/75 ---

--NR 150/65 ---

----210/100 80/25

P

Palm Oil Palmitic Acid Paper Mill Effluent (typical) Pentasodium Tripoly Phosphate Perchloroethylene Perchloric Acid Phenol (Carbolic Acid) Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Phosphoric Acid Phosphoric Acid Vapor & Condensate Phosphorous Trichloride Phthalic Acid Phthalic Anhydride Picric Acid (Alcoholic) Pine Oil Pine Oil Disinfectant Piperazine Monohydrochloride Plating Solutions (See Special Applications) Cadmium Cyanide Chrome Gold Lead Nickel Platinum Silver Tin Fluoborate Zinc Fluoborate Polyphosphoric Acid (115%) Polyvinyl Acetate Adhesive Polyvinyl Acetate Emulsion Polyvinyl Alcohol Potassium Aluminum Sulfate Potassium Amyl Xanthate Potassium Bicarbonate Potassium Bromide Potassium Carbonate Potassium Chloride Potassium Dichromate 120 ----------------All All All All 5 10 50 All 10 50 All All 100 100 100 10 100 10 30 5 >5 All 80 ----100 100 10 100 All ----200/90 120/45 --------------210/100 --120/45 120/45 210/100 --150/65 140/60 210/100 150/65 140/60 210/100 210/100 200/90 130/55 200/90 200/90 200/90 180/80 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 120/45 150/65 150/65 200/90 150/65 160/70 140/60 200/90 150/65 110/40 200/90 200/90 210/100 130/55 210/100 210/100 210/100 180/80 210/100 210/100 200/90 210/100 120/45 140/60 120/45 220/105 150/65 150/65 140/60 --150/65 100/35 210/100 210/100 210/100 130/55 210/100 210/100 210/100 180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 120/45 150/65 150/65 210/100 150/65 160/70 140/60 210/100 150/65 110/40 210/100 210/100 210/100 130/55 210/100 210/100 210/100 180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 120/45 140/60 150/65 220/105 150/65 170/75 140/60 210/100 180/80 140/60 220/105 220/105 80/25 80/25 140/60 80/25 140/60 80/25 140/60 80/25 140/60 140/60 --120/45 80/25 170/75 140/60 80/25 80/25 150/65 80/25 NR 175/80 170/75 --NR 120/45 80/25 120/45 80/25 --80/25 120/45 140/60 --120/45 80/25 170/75 --80/25 80/25 150/65 80/25 110/40 170/75 210/100 ----------------------80/25 --150/65 ------150/65 NR NR 150/65 NR --200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 180/80 180/80 --120/45 80/25 200/90 150/65 80/25 80/25 150/65 110/40 110/40 210/100 200/90 210/100 210/100 --200/90 100/35 150/65 100/35 NR NR 100/35 210/100 210/100 NR 210/100 210/100 --------200/90 200/90 150/65 200/90 110/40 ----NR NR 120/45 200/90 180/80 NR 200/90 200/90 110/40 150/65 120/45 110/40 210/100 210/100 --200/90 110/40 150/65 100 NR NR 120/45 210/100 220/105 NR 210/100 210/100 110/40 ------200/90 210/100 150/65 210/100 110/40 150/65 100/35 110/40 NR 120/45 210/100 190/85 NR 210/100 210/100 110/40 150/65 120/45 110/40 220/105 220/105 150/65 210/100 100/35 150/65 100/35 80/25 NR 120/45 210/100 190/85 NR 210/100 210/100 110/40 150/65 120/45 110/40 175/80 175/80 NR 140/60 80/25 NR NR NR NR 80/25 140/60 170/75 NR 170/75 170/75 80/25 NR NR --170/75 170/75 NR 120/45 NR NR NR NR NR 80/25 140/60 170/75 NR 170/75 170/75 NR NR NR ----150/65 150/65 --NR NR NR NR NR --80/25 150/65 ----150/65 NR ------210/100 100 ------175/80 --NR --110/40 80/25 --110/40 100/35 --210/100 210/100 NR

39

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 210/100 210/100 150/65 110/40 --210/100 210/100 210/100 --210/100 200/90 180/80 210/100 --NR DION® IMPACT 9400 210/100 210/100 150/65 110/40 150/65 210/100 210/100 210/100 150/65 200/90 200/90 180/80 210/100 210/100 NR Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Potassium Ferricyanide Potassium Ferrocyanide Potassium Hydroxide Potassium Iodide Potassium Nitrate Potassium Permanganate Potassium Persulfate Potassium Pyrophosphate Potassium Sulfate Propionic Acid Propylene Glycol i-Propyl Palmitate Pyridine

All All 10 25 All All All All 60 All 20 50 All All 100

200/90 200/90 150/65 110/40 150/65 200/90 200/90 200/90 150/65 200/90 200/90 180/80 200/90 200/90 NR

210/100 210/100 150/65 140/60 150/65 210/100 210/100 210/100 150/65 210/100 200/90 180/80 210/100 210/100 NR

220/105 210/100 150/65 110/40 150/65 210/100 210/100 210/100 150/65 210/100 200/90 180/80 220/105 210/100 NR

130/55 140/60 NR NR 140/60 170/75 140/60 80/25 --175/80 ----175/80 --NR

210/100 130/55 NR NR --170/75 80/25 140/60 --170/75 ----170/75 --NR

150/65 150/65 ------150/65 NR NR --150/65 ----150/65 150/65 ---

200/90 200/90 NR NR 200/90 150/65 200/90 150/65 200/90 ----180/80 --NR

Q

Quaternary Ammonium Salts All --150/65 --150/65 150/65 120/45 ----80/25

R

Radioactive Materials, solids (See Special Applications) Rayon Spin Bath ----------150/65 --140/60 --140/60 --140/60 --NR --NR ------180/80

S

Salicylic Acid Sea Water Sebacic Acid Selenious Acid Silicic Acid (hydrated silica) Silver Cyanide Silver Nitrate Sodium Acetate Sodium Alkyl Aryl Sulfonates Sodium Aluminate Sodium Benzoate Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Bichromate Sodium Bifluoride Sodium Bisulfate Sodium Bisulfite Sodium Borate Sodium Bromate Sodium Bromide Sodium Carbonate (Soda Ash) Sodium Chlorate (See Selected Applications Sodium Chloride Sodium Chlorite Sodium Chromate Sodium Cyanide All --All All All All All All All All All All 100 100 All All All 5 All 10 35 All All 10 50 5 15 140/60 210/100 210/100 210/100 220/105 200/90 210/100 210/100 --120/45 180/80 180/80 210/100 120/45 210/100 210/100 210/100 --210/100 180/80 160/70 210/100 210/100 160/70 210/100 210/100 150/65 150/65 210/100 --180/80 --200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 150/65 180/80 180/80 --120/45 200/90 200/90 200/90 110/40 200/90 180/80 160/70 200/90 200/90 160/70 200/90 200/90 150/65 150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 200/90 200/90 210/100 210/100 180/80 120/45 180/80 150/65 --120/45 210/100 210/100 210/100 110/40 200/90 150/65 --210/100 210/100 160/70 210/100 210/100 150/65 150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 --210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 150/65 180/80 180/80 210/100 120/45 210/100 210/100 210/100 110/40 210/100 180/80 160/70 210/100 210/100 160/70 210/100 210/100 150/65 150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 220/105 200/90 220/105 220/105 210/100 150/65 180/80 210/100 220/105 120/45 210/100 220/105 220/105 110/40 210/100 180/80 160/70 210/100 220/105 160/70 210/100 220/105 --140/60 170/75 --140/60 170/75 140/60 170/75 170/75 80/25 140/60 170/75 100/35 140/60 --175/80 170/75 170/75 --170/75 NR NR NR 130/55 NR --140/60 80/25 140/60 170/75 ----170/75 140/60 170/75 170/75 80/25 --170/75 100/35 140/60 --170/75 170/75 170/75 --170/75 NR NR NR 130/55 NR --80/25 ----------150/65 --150/65 150/65 ----150/65 120/45 NR --150/65 80/25 150/65 --150/65 NR NR --NR NR ------200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 --200/90 200/90 200/90 120/45 NR 180/80 140/60 200/90 120/45 200/90 170/75 170/75 100/100 200/90 80/25 NR 175/80 200/90 160/70 180/80 200/90 150/65

40

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 210/100 210/100 ----210/100 210/100 180/80 120/45 150/65 160/70 150/65 150/65 150/65 150/65 200/90 --180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 180/80 --150/65 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 200/90 --180/80 180/80 210/100 --180/80 210/100 ----210/100 210/100 210/100 NR 120/45 120/45 100/35 210/100 210/100 150/65 --200/90 DION® IMPACT 9400 210/100 200/90 ----210/100 210/100 180/80 120/45 150/65 180/80 140/60 140/60 140/60 140/60 ----160/70 210/100 210/100 210/100 200/90 --150/65 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 170/75 180/80 180/80 150/65 200/90 210/100 180/80 200/90 --150/65 200/90 200/90 210/100 NR 120/45 120/45 100/35 210/100 210/100 150/65 180/80 180/80 Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Sodium Dichromate Sodium Diphosphate Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate Sodium Ethyl Xanthate Sodium Ferricyanide Sodium Ferrocyanide Sodium Fluoride Sodium Fluorosilicate Sodium Hexametaphosphate Sodium Hydrosulfide

All 100 All 5 All All All All 10 20 1 5

200/90 180/80 200/90 150/65 200/90 200/90 180/80 120/45 150/65 180/80 200/90 150/65 150/65 150/65 200/90 --160/70 200/90 200/90 200/90 180/80 200/90 150/65 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 200/90 170/75 160/70 --150/65 200/90 200/90 180/80 200/90 --150/65 200/90 200/90 200/90 NR 120/45 120/45 110/40 190/85 200/90 150/65 180/80 200/90

210/100 200/90 210/100 150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 120/45 150/65 180/80 210/100 150/65 150/65 160/70 210/100 200/90 160/70 200/90 210/100 210/100 200/90 210/100 150/65 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 170/75 180/80 --150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 200/90 110/40 150/65 200/90 200/90 210/100 NR 120/45 120/45 110/40 190/85 210/100 150/65 180/80 210/100

220/105 210/100 210/100 150/65 220/105 210/100 180/80 120/45 150/65 180/80 210/100 160/70 160/70 160/70 210/100 210/100 200/90 210/100 210/100 210/100 200/90 --150/65 210/100 200/90 210/100 210/100 220/105 210/100 180/80 180/80 150/65 210/100 --180/80 200/90 ----200/90 200/90 210/100 NR 120/45 120/45 110/40 210/100 210/100 150/65 180/80 210/100

140/60 170/75 --140/60 170/75 170/75 80/25 ------NR NR NR NR NR 170/75 --170/75 170/75 170/75 ----140/60 80/25 NR 180/80 80/25 80/25 170/75 --140/60 140/60 140/60 140/60 175/80 170/75 80/25 80/25 170/75 170/75 175/80 NR ----80/25 140/60 150/65 110/40 80/25 140/60

140/60 170/75 --140/60 210/100 170/75 80/25 ------NR NR NR NR NR 170/75 --170/75 170/75 170/75 ------80/25 NR 170/75 80/25 170/75 170/75 --140/60 140/60 120/45 80/25 170/75 170/75 ----170/75 170/75 170/75 NR ------140/60 150/65 110/40 --NR

NR 150/65 ----150/65 150/65 NR ------NR NR NR NR NR ----150/65 150/65 150/65 ------NR NR 150/65 NR NR 150/65 ------80/25 NR 150/65 ------80/25 150/65 150/65 NR --------------150/65

200/90 200/90 120/45 --200/90 200/90 180/80 ----160/70 ----NR NR NR 150/65 ----200/90 200/90 ------NR NR 80/25 140/60 200/90 170/75 ------125/50 150/65 --200/90 NR --80/25 200/90 200/90 NR 80/25 80/25 --200/90 200/90 160/70 160/70 NR

Sodium Hydroxide

10 25 50

Sodium Hyposulfite Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Sodium Monophosphate Sodium Nitrate Sodium Nitrite Sodium Oxalate Sodium Persulfate Sodium Polyacrylate Sodium Silicate, pH <12 Sodium Silicate, pH >12 Sodium Sulfate Sodium Sulfide Sodium Sulfite Sodium Tetraborate Sodium Tetrabromide Sodium Thiocyanate Sodium Thiosulfate Sodium Triphosphate Sodium Xylene Sulfonate Sorbitol Soybean Oil Soy Sauce Spearmint Oil Stannic Chloride Stannous Chloride Stearic Acid Styrene Styrene Acrylic Emulsion Styrene Butadiene Latex Succinonitrile, Aqueous Sucrose Sulfamic Acid Sulfanilic Acid Sulfite/Sulfate Liquors (pulp mill)

20 All All All All All 20 All 100 100 All All All All All 57 All All 40 All All All All All All All 100 All All All All 10 25 All ---

41

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 --NR NR 210/100 --210/100 210/100 180/80 180/80 120/45 NR 210/100 ----NR 210/100 DION® IMPACT 9400 180/80 NR NR 200/90 --200/90 210/100 180/80 160/70 100/35 NR 200/90 200/90 180/80 NR 210/100 Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Sulfonated Animal Fats Sulfonyl Chloride, Aromatic Sulfur Dichloride Sulfur DioxideH (dry or wet gas) (See Selected Applications) Sulfur, Molten Sulfur Trioxide Gas (dry) (See Selected Applications)

100 ----5 --trace 0-25 50 70 75 93 Dry Fumes

180/80 NR NR 200/90 150/65 200/90 200/90 200/90 190/85 110/40 NR 200/90 200/90 180/80 NR 200/90

180/80 NR NR 210/100 220/105 210/100 210/100 210/100 170/75 110/40 NR 200/90 210/100 180/80 NR 210/100

180/80 NR NR 220/105 220/105 220/105 220/105 200/90 180/80 110/40 NR 200/90 210/100 180/80 NR 210/100

140/60 NR NR 170/75 --NR 175/80 160/70 NR NR NR 175/80 ----NR 140/60

--NR NR 140/60 --NR 170/75 140/60 NR NR NR 170/75 ----NR 120/45

NR NR --NR --NR 120/45 NR NR --NR 150/65 ---------

180/80 NR NR 200/90 150/65 200/90 200/90 200/90 190/85 175/80 NR 200/90 200/90 200/90 NR 200/90

Sulfuric Acid

Sulfuric Acid/Ferrous Sulfate Sulfuric Acid/Phosphoric Acid Sulfuryl Chloride Superphosphoric Acid (105% H3PO4)

10/Sat'd 10/20 100 100

T

Tall Oil Tannic Acid Tartaric Acid Tert-Amylmethyl Ether(TAME) Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloropentane Tetrachloropyridine Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate Tetrasodium Ethylenediamine Tetracetic Acid Salts Tetrasodium Ethylenediammine Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate Textone7 Thioglycolic Acid Thionyl Chloride Tobias Acid (2-Naphthylamine Sulfonic Acid) Toluene Toluene Di-isocyanate (TDI) Toluene Sulfonic Acid Transformer Oils Tributyl Phosphate Trichloroacetaldehyde Trichloroacetic Acid Trichloroethane Trichlorophenol Tridecylbenzene Tridecylbenzene Sulfonate Triethanolamine All All All All 100 100 --60 All --5 60 --10 100 --100 100 Fumes All 100 100 100 50 100 100 All All All 150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 NR NR NR 125/50 --120/45 125/50 125/50 --100/35 NR --NR NR 80/25 210/100 210/100 --NR 210/100 --NR --210/100 --150/65 200/90 200/90 180/80 NR NR NR 125/50 120/45 --125/50 125/50 200/90 120/45 NR 180/80 NR NR 80/25 200/90 210/100 140/60 NR 200/90 NR NR 200/90 200/90 150/65 150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 NR NR NR 120/45 ----120/45 120/45 ----NR 200/90 NR NR 80/25 210/100 210/100 120/45 NR 210/100 NR NR --200/90 120/45 150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 NR NR NR 125/50 120/45 120/45 125/50 125/50 210/100 120/45 NR 210/100 NR NR 80/25 210/100 210/100 140/60 NR 210/100 NR NR 210/100 210/100 150/65 150/65 210/100 210/100 180/80 NR NR NR 125/50 --120/45 150/65 150/65 --140/60 NR 210/100 NR NR 80/25 210/100 210/100 140/60 NR 220/105 NR NR --210/100 --140/60 170/75 170/75 170/75 NR NR NR 80/25 --80/25 -80/25 140/60 80/25 NR --NR NR 80/25 --175/80 --NR 80/25 NR NR --140/60 120/45 140/60 170/75 170/75 170/75 NR NR NR 80/25 ----130/55 80/25 80/25 80/25 NR --NR NR --100/35 140/60 --NR 80/25 NR NR ----110/40 NR --------NR ------------150/65 150/65 --------NR ----NR ----------NR 150/65 200/90 200/90 170/75 NR NR NR 80/25 80/25 ----------NR --NR NR 80/25 100/35 175/80 ------NR NR --120/45 ---

42

Additional Reference Sources

Suggested Temperature Limit, °F/ °C Vinyl Ester Chemical Environment % Concentration DION® 9100 ® DION 9102 DION® 9300 ------NR 130/55 ----175/80 --DION® IMPACT 9400 --120/45 180/80 NR ------190/85 --Bisphenol Fumarate Terephthalic Isophthalic Chlorendic

DION® 9800

DION® 6694

DION® 382

DION® 490

DION® 6631

DION® 6246

DION® 797

Triethanolamine Lauryl Sulfate Triethylamine Triethylene Glycol Trimethylamine Chlorobromide Trimethylamine Hydrochloride Triphenyl Phosphite Tripropylene Glycol Trisodium Phosphate Turpentine

All All 100 --All All 100 50 ---

110/40 125/50 180/80 NR 130/55 --180/80 175/80 150/65

110/40 125/50 180/80 NR 130/55 --180/80 175/80 150/65

------NR 130/55 100/35 --175/80 150/65

80/25 80/25 --NR NR NR --140/60 80/25

------NR 100/35 NR --120/45 NR

--------150/65 NR --NR NR

-------------------

U

Uranium Extraction (See Selected Applications) Urea --All --150/65 180/80 150/65 --150/65 180/80 170/75 --150/65 --80/25 --120/45 --80/25 NR ---

V

Vegetable Oils Vinegar Vinyl Acetate Vinyl Toluene All All All 100 210/100 210/100 NR NR 200/90 200/90 NR NR 210/100 210/100 NR NR 200/90 210/100 NR NR 220/105 210/100 NR NR 170/75 150/65 NR NR 170/75 150/65 NR NR --150/65 ----170/75 200/90 -----

W

Water, Deionized (see Selected Applications) Water, Distilled (See Selected Applications) Water, Sea Whiskey White Liquor (pulp mill) (See notes) Wine4 All All All All All All 210/100 210/100 210/100 --180/80 --200/90 200/90 200/90 --180/80 --200/90 200/90 200/90 --180/80 --210/100 210/100 210/100 110/40 200/90 110/40 200/90 200/90 200/90 ------175/80 175/80 175/80 --NR 80/25 170/75 170/75 170/75 --NR 80/25 --------------NR --NR ---

X

Xylene All NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR

Z

Zeolite Zinc Chlorate Zinc Chloride Zinc Cyanide Zinc Nitrate Zinc Sulfate Zinc Sulfite All All All All All All All --210/100 210/100 --210/100 210/100 210/100 200/90 200/90 200/90 --200/90 200/90 200/90 210/100 210/100 210/100 160/70 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 180/80 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 210/100 180/80 220/105 220/105 220/105 --170/75 170/75 --170/75 175/80 170/75 --170/75 170/75 --170/75 170/75 170/75 ----------------200/90 200/90 --200/90 200/90 ---

43

ASTM Reinforced Plastic Related Standards

Calculating stress in plastic pipe under internal pressure Apparent tensile strength of ring or tubular plastics by split disk method Classification for machine-made reinforced thermosetting resin pipe Underground installation of flexible thermoplastic sewer pipe Tensile properties of glass fiber strands, yarns, and roving used in reinforced plastics Apparent horizontal shear strength of reinforced plastics by short beam method External loading properties of plastic pipe by parallelplate loading Classification of soils for engineering purposes Reinforced thermosetting plastic gas pressure pipe and fittings Classifying visual defects in glass-reinforced plastic laminate parts Indentation hardness of plastics by means of a Barcol Impressor Ignition loss of cured reinforced resins Preparation and tension testing of filament-wound pressure vessels Hydrostatic compressive strength of glass reinforced plastics cylinders Interlaminar shear strength of structural reinforced plastics at elevated temperatures Underground installation of thermoplastic pressure piping Test for external pressure resistance of plastic pipe Beam deflection of reinforced thermoset plastic pipe under full bore flow Tensile and compressive creep rupture of plastics Stress relaxation of plastics Obtaining hydrostatic design basis for reinforced thermosetting resin pipe Specification for filament-wound reinforced thermosetting resin pipe Specification for centrifugally cast reinforced thermosetting resin pipe Reinforced plastic mortar sewer pipe Classification of soil-aggregate mixtures for highway construction purposes Filament-wound glass fiber-reinforced polyester chemical-resistant tanks Specification for reinforced plastic mortar pressure pipe Determining dimensions of reinforced thermosetting resin pipe and fittings Test for chemical resistance of thermoset molded compounds used in manufacture Chemical resistance of reinforced thermosetting resin pipe in the deflected condition Glass fiber-reinforced polyester manholes Specification for reinforced plastic mortar sewer and industrial pressure pipe Recommended practice for underground installation of flexible RTRP and RTMP Specification for RP mortar pipe fittings for nonpressure applications Specification for contact molded glass fiber-reinforced thermoset resin chemical-resistant tanks

ANSI/ ASTM E 84 ASTM D 229 ASTM D 256 ASTM F 412 ANSI/ ASTM D 445 ASTM D 543 ANSI/ ASTM D 570 ASTM D 579 ASTM C 581 ASTM D 618 ASTM D 621 ANSI/ ASTM D 635 ANSI/ ASTM D 638 ASTM D 648 ASTM D 671 ASTM D 674 ANSI/ ASTM D 695 ASTM D 696 ASTM D 747 ASTM D 759 ASTM D 785 ASTM D 790 ASTM D 792 ASTM D 883 ASTM D 1045 ASTM D 1180 ANSI/ ASTM D 1200 ANSI/ ASTM D 1598 ASTM D 1599 ASTM D 1600 ASTM D 1694 ASTM D 2105 ANSI/ ASTM D 2122 ASTM D 2143 ASTM D 2150

Surface burning characteristics of building materials Testing rigid sheet and plate materials used in electrical insulation Impact resistance of plastic and electrical insulating materials Standard definition of terms relating to plastic piping systems Kinematic viscosity of transparent and opaque liquids Resistance of plastics to chemical reagents Water absorption of plastics Woven glass fabrics Chemical resistance of thermosetting resins used in glass fiber-reinforced structures Conditioning plastics and electrical insulating materials for testing Deformation of plastics under load Rate of burning and/or extent and time of burning of self-supporting plastics in a horizontal position Tensile properties of plastics Deflection temperature of plastics under flexural load Flexural fatigue of plastics by constant-amplitude-offorce Long-time creep or stress-relation test of plastics under tension or compression loads at different temperatures Compressive properties of rigid plastics Coefficient of linear thermal expansion of plastics Stiffness of plastics by means of cantilever beam Determining the physical properties of plastics at subnormal and supernormal temperatures Rockwell harness of plastics and electrical insulating materials Flexural properties of plastics Specific gravity and density of plastics by displacement Definition of terms relating to plastics Sampling and testing plasticizers used in plastics Bursting strength of round rigid plastic tubing Viscosity of paints, varnishes and lacquers by the Ford viscosity cup Fine-to-failure of plastic pipe under constant internal pressure Short-time rupture strength of plastic pipe, tubing, and fittings Abbreviation of terms related to plastics Threads of reinforced thermoset resin pipe Longitudinal tensile properties of reinforced thermosetting plastic pipe and tube Determining dimensions of thermoplastic pipe and fittings Cyclic pressure strength of reinforced thermosetting plastic pipe Specification for woven roving glass fiber for polyester glass laminates

ASTM D 2153 ASTM D 2290 ASTM D 2310 ANSI/ ASTM D 2321 ASTM D 2343 ASTM D 2344 ASTM D 2412 ANSI/ ASTM D 2487 ASTM D 2517 ANSI/ ASTM D 2563 ASTM D 2583 ASTM D 2584 ASTM D 2585 ASTM D 2586 ASTM D 2733 ASTM D 2774 ASTM D 2924 ASTM D 2925 ASTM D 2990 ASTM D 2991 ASTM D 2992 ASTM D 2996 ASTM D 2997 ANSI/ ASTM D 3262 ASTM D 3282 ASTM D 3299 ASTM D 3517 ASTM D 3567 ASTM D 3615 ASTM D 3681 ASTM D 3753 ASTM D 3754 ASTM D 3839 ASTM D 3840 ASTM D 4097

ASTM ­ The American Society for Testing and Materials

ANSI = The American National Standards Institute

44

Revision: 06.12.2010 (precedes 10.08.2009)

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