Read Primer3.pdf text version

Learn to Read Hmong Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob

White Hmong

Primer

Developed by Judy Lewis & Lue Vang, 1999 Supported by the Central Valley Foundation, Sacramento CA, Southeast Asia Community Resource Center, 2460 Cordova Lane, Rancho Cordova CA 95670

Introduction

Thousands of Hmong have learned to read from the simple Hmong primer developed by Yves Bertrais in the 1960s and copied over and over again. With the generous support of the Central Valley Foundation, a nonprofit organization that promotes issues of free speech and immigrant access to the American dream, we have developed this new primer. It is similar to the original in many ways and is also based on the White Hmong dialect. However, it is organized to reveal the regular patterns of the Hmong orthography, to promote the formation of linguistic generalizations. This primer is for older children, teens, and adults who have learned to read English or another roman-based alphabetic language. It can also be used by nonnative Hmong, as long as the instructor is a native speaker. It is based on the most frequently used 425 Hmong words. This primer provides the raw materials for learning to decode Hmong and for developing vocabulary in Hmong. There are 25 practice readers that accompany this primer. The stories are based on Aesop's fables or authentic Hmong stories and each one uses only the phonemes learned up to that point in the primer. In the primer, the actual words are black, and the high frequency words are red; nonsense words are grey. The power of the primer and the practice readers is in the ability of the instructor to engage the learners in the adventure of learning Hmong. Although the development of comprehensive teaching guides was not part of this project, there is a teacher's kit. The kit contains teaching suggestions, blending cards, and high frequency word cards that can be used on an overhead, in games, or in a pocket chart. The Summer Institute of Linguistics (www.sil.org) has resources for organizing literacy development programs. The instructor's guide contains accounts of SIL literacy programs in Africa and Latin America. All materials are free, via the internet, or at cost, from our center. The Southeast Asia Community Resource Center's website is http://mills.fcusd.k12.ca.us/ ctrsite/index.html (online resources>literacy development). They are in pdf format (you will need Adobe Acrobat 3.0 to open and print them). If you prefer, master sets to copy or printed matereials are available at cost from the Southeast Asia Community Resource Center, 2460 Cordova Lane, Rancho Cordova CA 95670, phone (916) 635-6815. All we ask in exchange for free use is that you provide credit and contact information on the distributed materials, that you provide us with information to make future editions better, and that your students contribute to a reservoir of written Hmong.

2

Vowels a ai au aw e ee i ia o oo u ua w

simple vowels

i e

w o a

nasal vowels

u

ee ia ai aw

oo ua au

3

diphthongs (complex) vowels

Initials (consonants)

plain

aspirated pre-nasalized both

c d f h k l m ml n p pl q r s t ts tx v x xy y z

4

ch dh

nc

nch

kh

nk

nkh hl hm hml hn

ph plh qh rh th tsh txh

np npl nq nr nt nts ntx

nph nplh nqh nrh nth ntsh ntxh

ny

hny

Tone Marks

5 4 3 2 1

b

(blank)

j v s g m d

vocal cords vibrate

If English was a tonal language, then this would be an example of how tone carries meaning. v j Now? (question) Now (neutral answer) Now! (exclamation)

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 1

5

Using the materials: level 2, "t" (page 11)

Background: Use `o' as a neutral vowel for pronouncing the initial consonant (`o'­`to'­`tov'). Students who do not pronounce phonemes or tones correctly have not had enough auditory practice. Use the command "point to" or "circle" as much as you use "say" or "read." Use writing as a way for students to learn and perform; analyze mistakes to monitor which students are experiencing trouble with which phonemes ­ and use that information to plan the next lesson. Warm up (5-10 minutes): "Follow along while I read these words: tab, taj, tav, ta, tas, tam, tad, tag... (keep going to the end). Okay, now point to `tas.' Point to `te.' Now `tes.' Point to the word that means `answer'." (Continue, watch to see if students are able to recognize the word you read. If not, read words that are next to each other until students can tell which one you are pronouncing.) "Okay, now read the words aloud." (Ask students to read a line all together, then one at a time. Go across; go down). Point to words: "Read this." Vocabulary (15 minutes): "All these could be words but they're not. The lightest ones are not real words. The dark ones are real words. Let's see if you know what they mean." (Talk about the meanings; use Heimbach's dictionary; emphasize high frequency words--in red, if you have color.) Dictate real words. Practice quick recognition with flash cards. Use word cards to build multipart words, phrases, or sentences. Have students copy these to study for the next day's dictation. Reader (20 minutes): Go to the reader after all the primer pages for that level have been done. Ask students to read together; ask students to read a line or a page; ask students to predict what happens on the next page; read and re-read until students can recognize chunks of text. Spend time discussing what the text means. Use the questions to encourage students to understand and extend the story and its lesson (assign each student one of the questions before the story begins.)

6

Reader Level

Phonemes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

a, e, i, o, u, w t l d, m, p f, h, k s, v, x n, y, z q, r c ts tx nk, np nt, nts, ntx nc, nr ny, xy nq dh, kh, ph, th ch, qh, rh tsh, txh pl, plh hl, hm hn, hny ml, hml nch, nph, npl, nplh, nqh, nrh, nth ntsh, ntxh

7

ia, ua ee, oo ai, au aw

a

av

ab

aj

av

a

as

am

ad

ag

e

ev

eb ej ev e es em ed eg

8

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 1

ib

i

ib

ij

iv

i

is

im

id

ig

o

os

ob oj ov o os om od og

9

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 1

u

ub

ub

uj

uv

u

us

um

ud

ug

w

wb wj wv w

wb

ws

wm

wd

wg

10

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 1

t

tub

tab teb tib tob tub twb

taj tej tij toj tuj twj

tav tev tiv tov tuv twv

ta te ti to tu tw

tas tes tis tos tus tws

tam tem tim tom tum twm

tad ted tid tod tud twd

tag teg tig tog tug twg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 2

11

l

lov

lab leb lib lob lub lwb

laj lej lij loj luj lwj

lav lev liv lov luv lwv

la le li lo lu lw

las les lis los lus lws

lam lem lim lom lum lwm

lad led lid lox lud lwd

lag leg lig log lug lwg

12

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 3

d

dev

dab deb dib dob dub dwb

daj dej dij doj duj dwj

dav dev div dov duv dwv

da de di do du dw

das des dis dos dus dws

dam dem dim dom dum dwm

dad ded did dod dud dwd

dag deg dig dog dug dwg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 4

13

m

miv

mab maj meb mib mob mej mij moj

mav mev miv mov muv

ma me mi mo mu

mas mes mis mos mus mws

mam mem mim mom mum mwm

mad med mid mod mud mwd

mag meg mig mog mug

mub muj

mwb mwj mwv mw

mwg

14

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 4

p

paj

pab peb pib pob pub pwb

paj pej pij poj puj pwj

pav pev piv pov puv pwv

pa pe pi po pu pw

pas pes pis pos pus pws

pam pem pim pom pum pwm

pad ped pid pod pud pwd

pag peg pig pog pug pwg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 4

15

f

fab

fab feb fib fob fub fwb

faj fej fij foj fuj fwj

fav fev fiv fov fuv fwv

fa fe fi fo fu fw

fas fes fis fos fus fws

fam fem fim fom fum fwm

fad fed fid fod fud fwd

fag feg fig fog fug fwg

16

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 5

h

hu

hab heb hib hob hub hwb

haj hej hij hoj huj hwj

hav hev hiv hov huv hwv

ha he hi ho hu hw

has hes his hos hus hws

ham hem him hom hum hwm

had hed hid hod hud hwd

hag heg hig hog hug hwg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 5

17

k

kev

kab keb kib kob kub kwb

kaj kej kij koj kuj kwj

kav kev kiv kov kuv kwv

ka ke ki ko ku kw

kas kes kis kos kus kws

kam kem kim kom kum kwm

kad ked kid kod kud kwd

kag keg kig kog kug kwg

18

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 5

ia

iav

iab iaj iav ia ias iam iad iag

diab fiab hiab kiab liab miab piab tiab

diaj fiaj hiaj kiaj liaj miaj piaj tiaj

diav fiav hiav kiav liav

dia fia hia kia lia

dias fias hias kias lias mias pias tias

diam fiam hiam kiam liam miam piam tiam

diad fiad hiad kiad liad miad piad tiad

diag fiag hiag kiag liag miag piag tiag

miav mia piav tiav pia tia

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 6

19

ua

ua

uab uaj uav ua uas uam uad uag

duab duaj fuab fuaj

duav fuav huav kuav luav

dua fua hua kua lua

duas fuas huas kuas luas

duam fuam huam kuam luam

duad fuad huad kuad luad muad puad tuad

duag fuag huag kuag luag muag puag tuag

huab huaj kuab luab kuaj luaj

muab muaj puab tuab puaj tuaj

muav mua puav pua tuav tua

muas muam puas tuas puam tuam

20

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 6

s

suab

sab seb sib sob sub swb

saj sej sij soj suj swj

sav sev siv sov suv swv

sa se si so su sw

sas ses sis sos sus sws

sam sem sim som sum swm

sad sed sid sod sud swd

sag seg sig sog sug swg

siab suab

siaj suaj

siav suav

sia sua

sias suas

siam suam

siad suad

siag suag

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 6

21

v

vab

vab veb vib vob vub vwb

vaj vej vij voj vuj vwj

vav vev viv vov vuv vwv

va ve vi vo vu vw

vas ves vis vos vus vws

vam vem vim vom vum vwm

vad ved vid vod vud vwd

vag veg vig vog vug vwg

viab vuab

viaj vuaj

viav

via

vias vuas

viam vuam

viad vuad

viag vuag

vuav vua

22

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 6

x

xauv

xab xeb xib xob xub xwb

xaj xej xij xoj xuj xwj

xav xev xiv xov xuv xwv

xa xe xi xo xu xw

xas xes xis xos xus xws

xam xem xim xom xum xwm

xad xed xid xod xud xwd

xag xeg xig xog xug xwg

xiab

xiaj

xiav

xia

xias xuas

xiam xuam

xiad xuad

xiag xuag

xuab xuaj

xuav xua

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 6

23

ee

eeb nees

eeb eej eev ee

deev feev heev keev leev dee fee hee kee lee

ees

dees fees hees kees lees

eem

deem feem heem keem leem meem peem seem teem veem xeem

eed

deed feed heed keed leed

eeg

deeg feeg heeg keeg leeg meeg peeg seeg teeg veeg xeeg

deeb deej feeb heeb feej heej

keeb keej leeb leej

meeb meej peeb peej

meev mee mees peev seev teev pee see tee pees sees tees vees xees

meed peed seed teed veed xeed

seeb seej teeb teej veeb veej xeeb xeej

veev vee xeev xee

24

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 7

oo

iab oo

oob ooj oov oo oos

doos foos koos hoos loos moos poos soos toos voos xoos

oom

doom foom koom hoom loom moom poom soom toom voom xoom

ood

dood food kood hood lood mood pood sood tood vood xood

oog

doog foog koog hoog loog moog poog soog toog voog xoog

doob dooj doov doo foob fooj koob kooj foov koov foo koo hoo loo moo poo

hoob hooj hoov loob looj loov

moob mooj moov poob pooj soob sooj toob tooj voob vooj xoob xooj poov

soov soo toov too voov voo xoov xoo

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 7

25

n

nas

nab neb nib nob nub nwb

naj nej nij noj nuj nwj

nav na nev ne niv ni nov no nuv nu nwv nw

nas nes nis nos nus nws

nam nem nim nom num nwm neem noom niam nuam

nad ned nid nod nud nwd need nood niad nuad

nag neg nig nog nug nwg neeg noog niag nuag

neeb neej neev nee nees noob nooj noov noo noos niab niaj niav nia nias nuab nuaj nuav nua nuas

26

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 7

y

puav ya

yab yeb yib yob yub ywb

yaj yej yij yoj yuj ywj

yav yev yiv yov yuv ywv

ya ye yi yo yu yw

yas yes yis yos yus yws yees yoos

yam yem yim yom yum ywm yeem yoom

yad yed yid yod yud ywd yeed yood

yag yeg yig yog yug ywg yeeg yoog

yeeb yeej yoob yooj

yeev yee yoov yoo

yiab yiaj yiav yia yias yiam yiad yiag yuab yuaj yuav yua yuas yuam yuad yuag

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 7

27

z

hav zoov

zab zeb zib zob zub zwb zeeb zoob ziab zuab

zaj zej zij zoj zuj zwj zeej zooj ziaj zuaj

zav zev ziv zov zuv zwv

za ze zi zo zu zw

zas zes zis zos zus zws zees zoos zias zuas

zam zem zim zom zum zwm zeem zoom ziam zuam

zad zed zid zod zud zwd zeed zood ziad zuad

zag zeg zig zog zug zwg zeeg zoog ziag zuag

zeev zee zoov zoo ziav zuav zia zua

28

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 7

ai

dais

aib

daib faib haib kaib laib maib naib paib saib taib vaib xaib yaib zaib

aij

daij faij haij kaij laij maij naij paij saij taij vaij xaij yaij zaij

aiv

ai

ais

aim

aid

aig

daiv dai dais daim daid daig faiv fai fais faim faid faig haiv hai hais haim haid haig kaiv kai kais kaim kaid kaig laiv lai lais laim laid laig maiv mai mais maim maid maig naiv nai nais naim naid naig paiv pai pais paim paid paig saiv sai sais saim said saig taiv tai tais taim taid taig vaiv vai vais vaim vaid vaig xaiv xai xais xaim xaid xaig yaiv yai yais yaim yaid yaig zaiv zai zais zaim zaid zaig

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 8

29

au

haus

aub

daub faub haub laub kaub maub naub paub saub taub vaub xaub yaub zaub

auj

dauj fauj hauj lauj kauj mauj nauj pauj sauj tauj vauj xauj yauj zauj

auv

au

aus

aus

aud

aug

dauv dau daus daum daud daug fauv fau faus faum faud faug hauv hau haus haum haud haug lauv lau laus laum laud laug kauv kau kaus kaum kaud kaug mauv mau maus maum maud maug nauv nau naus naum naud naug pauv pau paus paum paud paug sauv sau saus saum saud saug tauv tau taus taum taud taug vauv vau vaus vaum vaud vaug xauv xau xaus xaum xaud xaug yauv yau yaus yaum yaud yaug zauv zau zaus zaum zaud zaug

30

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 8

q

qaib

qab qeb qib qob qub qwb

qaj qej qij qoj quj qwj

qav qa qev qe qiv qi qov qo quv qu qwv qw qeev qee qoov qoo

qas qes qis qos qus qws qees qoos

qam qem qim qom qum qwm qeem qoom qiam quam

qad qed qid qod qud qwd qeed qood qiad quad qaid qaud

qag qeg qig qog qug qwg qeeg qoog qiag quag qaig qaug

qeeb qeej qoob qooj qiab qiaj quab quaj qaib qaij qaub qauj

qiav qia qias quav qua quas

qaiv qai qais qaim qauv qau qaus qaum

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 8

31

r

roob

rab reb rib rob rub rwb

raj rej rij roj ruj rwj

rav rev riv rov ruv rwv

ra re ri ro ru rw

ras res ris ros rus rws

ram rem rim rom rum rwm

rad red rid rod rud rwd

rag reg rig rog rug rwg

reeb reej reev ree rees reem reed reeg roob rooj roov roo roos room rood roog riab riaj riav ria rias ruab ruaj ruav rua ruas raib raij raub rauj raiv rai rauv rau riam ruam riad ruad raid raud riag ruag raig raug

rais raim raus raum

32

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 8

aw

kawm

awb

dawb fawb hawb kawb lawb nawb pawb qawb rawb sawb tawb vawb xawb yawb zawb

awj

dawj fawj hawj kawj lawj nawj pawj qawj rawj sawj tawj vawj xawj yawj zawj

awv

dawv fawv hawv kawv lawv nawv pawv qawv rawv sawv tawv vawv xawv yawv zawv

aw

daw faw haw kaw law naw paw qaw raw saw taw vaw xaw yaw zaw

aws

daws faws haws kaws laws naws paws qaws raws saws taws vaws xaws yaws zaws

awm awd

dawm fawm hawm kawm lawm nawm pawm qawm rawm sawm tawm dawd fawd hawd kawd lawd nawd pawd qawd rawd sawd tawd vawd xawd yawd zawd

awg

dawg fawg hawg kawg lawg nawg pawg qawg rawg sawg tawg xawg yawg zawg

mawb mawj mawv maw

maws mawm mawd mawg

vawm

vawg

xawm yawm zawm

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 9

33

c

cuam

cab ceb cib cob cub cwb

caj cej cij coj cuj cwj

cav cev civ cov cuv cwv

ca ce ci co cu cw

cas ces cis cos cus cws cees coos cias cuas cais caus caws

cam cem cim com cum cwm ceem coom ciam cuam caim caum cawm

cad ced cid cod cud cwd

cag ceg cig cog cug cwg

ceeb ceej ceev cee coob cooj coov coo ciab ciaj ciav cia cuab cuaj cuav cua caib caij caiv cai caub cauj cauv cau cawb cawj cawv caw

ceed ceeg cood coog ciad cuad ciag cuag

caid caig caud caug cawd cawg

34

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 9

Vowels & tones

ab eb ib ob ub wb aj ej ij oj uj wj av ev iv ov uv wv a e i o u w as es is os us ws am em im om um wm ad ed id od ud wd ag eg ig og ug wg

ee b ee j oob ooj

ee v

ee

ee s oo s

ee m oom

ee d ood

ee g oog

oov oo

ia b

ia j

ia v ua v

ia ua

ia s ua s

ia m ua m

ia d ua d

ia g ua g

ua b ua j

ai b

ai j

ai v au v

ai au

ai s au s aw s

ai m au m aw m

ai d au d aw d

ai g au g aw g

au b au j aw b aw j

aw v aw

35

Single consonants, "a" & tones

cab dab fab hab kab lab caj daj faj haj kaj laj cav dav dav hav kav lav mav nav pav qav rav sav tav vav xav yav zav ca da fa ha ka la ma na pa qa ra sa ta va xa ya za cas das fas has kas las mas nas pas qas ras sas tas vas xas yas zas cam dam fam ham kam lam mam nam pam qam ram sam tam vam xam yam zam cad dad fad had kad lad mad nad pad qad rad sad tad vad xad yad zad cag dag fag hag kag lag mag nag pag qag rag sag tag vag xag yag zag

mab maj nab pab qab rab sab tab vab xab yab zab

36

naj paj qaj raj saj taj vaj xaj yaj zaj

ts

tsov

tsab tseb tsib tsob tsub tswb

tsaj tsej tsij tsoj tsuj tswj

tsav tsev tsiv tsov tsuv tswv

tsa tse tsi tso tsu tsw

tsas tses tsis tsos tsus tsws

tsam tsem tsim tsom tsum tswm

tsad tsed tsid tsod tsud tswd tseed tsood

tsag tseg tsig tsog tsug tswg tseeg tsoog

tseeb tseej tsoob tsooj

tseev tsee tsoov tsoo

tsees tseem tsoos tsoom

tsiab tsiaj tsiav tsia tsuab tsuaj tsuav tsua

tsias tsiam tsiad tsiag tsuas tsuam tsuad tsuag tsaim tsaum tsawm tsaid tsaud tsawd tsaig tsaug tsawg

tsaib tsaij tsaiv tsai tsais tsaub tsauj tsauv tsau tsaus tsawb tsawj tsawv tsaw tsaws

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 10

37

tx

txivneej

txab txaj txav txa txas txam txad txag txeb txej txev txe txes txem txed txeg txib txij txiv txi txis txim txid txig txob txoj txov txo txos txom txod txog txub txuj txuv txu txus txum txud txug txwb txwj txwv txw txws txwm txwd txwg txeeb txeej txeev txee txoo txees txoos txeem txoom txeed txood txiad txuad txeeg txoog txiag txuag

txoob txooj txoov

txiab txiaj txiav txia txias txiam txuab txuaj txuav txua txuas txuam txaib txaij txaiv txai txaub txauj txauv txau txawb txawj txawv txaw txais txaus txaws txaim txaum txawm

txaid txaig txaud txaug txawd txawg

38

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 11

nk

nkoj

nkab nkeb nkib nkob nkub nkwb

nkaj nkav nka nkas nkam nkad nkag nkej nkev nke nkes nkem nked nkeg nkij nkiv nki nkis nkim nkid nkig nkoj nkov nko nkos nkom nkod nkog nkuj nkuv nku nkus nkum nkud nkug nkwj nkwv nkw nkws nkwm nkwd nkwg

nkeeb nkeej nkeev nkee nkees nkeem nkeed nkeeg nkoob nkooj nkoov nkoo nkoos nkoom nkood nkoog nkiab nkiaj nkiav nkia nkias nkiam nkiad nkuab nkuaj nkuav nkua nkuas nkuam nkuad nkaib nkaij nkaiv nkai nkais nkaub nkauj nkauv nkau nkaus nkawb nkawj nkawv nkaw nkaws nkaim nkaum nkawm nkiag nkuag

nkaid nkaig nkaud nkaug nkawd nkawg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 12

39

np

npua

npab npeb npib npob npub npwb

npaj npav npa npas npam npad npag npej npev npe npes npem nped npeg npij npiv npi npis npim npid npig npoj npov npo npos npom npod npog npuj npuv npu npus npum npud npug npwj npwv npw npws npwm npwd npwg npeeg npoog

npeeb npeej npeev npee npees npeem npeed npoob npooj npoov npoo npoos npoom npood

npiab npiaj npiav npia npias npiam npiad npiag npuab npuaj npuav npua npuas npuam npuad npuag npaib npaij npaiv npai npais npaim npaid npaig npaub npauj npauv npau npaus npaum npaud npaug npawb npawj npawv npaw npaws npawm npawd npawg

40

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 12

nt

ntaus

ntab ntaj ntav nta ntas nteb ntej ntev nte ntes ntib ntij ntiv nti ntis ntob ntoj ntov nto ntos ntub ntuj ntuv ntu ntus ntwb ntwj ntwv ntw ntws nteeb nteej nteev ntee ntoob ntooj ntoov ntoo ntiab ntiaj ntiav ntia ntuab ntuaj ntuav ntua ntaib ntaij ntaub ntauj ntawb ntawj ntees ntoos ntias ntuas

ntam ntem ntim ntom ntum ntwm nteem ntoom ntiam ntuam ntaim ntaum ntawm

ntad nted ntid ntod ntud ntwd nteed ntood ntiad ntuad ntaid ntaud ntawd

ntag nteg ntig ntog ntug ntwg nteeg ntoog ntiag ntuag ntaig ntaug ntawg

ntaiv ntai ntais ntauv ntau ntaus ntawv ntaw ntaws

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 13

41

nts

ntses

ntsab ntseb ntsib ntsob ntsub ntswb

ntsaj ntsej ntsij ntsoj ntsuj ntswj

ntsav ntsa ntsev ntse ntsiv ntsi ntsov ntso ntsuv ntsu ntswv ntsw ntseev ntsee ntsoov ntsoo ntsiav ntsia ntsuav ntsua

ntsas ntses ntsis ntsos ntsus ntsws ntsees ntsoos ntsias ntsuas

ntsam ntsem ntsim ntsom ntsum ntswm ntseem ntsoom

ntsag ntseg ntsig ntsog ntsug ntswg ntseeg ntsoog

ntseeb ntseej ntsoob ntsooj ntsiab ntsuab ntsiaj ntsuaj

ntsiam ntsiag ntsuam ntsuag

ntsaib ntsaij ntsaiv ntsai ntsaub ntsauj ntsauv ntsau ntsawb ntsawj ntsawv ntsaw

ntsais ntsaim ntsaig ntsaus ntsaum ntsaug ntsaws ntsawm ntsawg

42

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 13

ntx

ntxuav tes

ntxab ntxeb ntxib ntxob ntxub ntxwb

ntxaj ntxej ntxij ntxoj ntxuj ntxwj

ntxav ntxa ntxas ntxam ntxag ntxev ntxe ntxes ntxem ntxeg ntxiv ntxi ntxis ntxim ntxig ntxov ntxo ntxos ntxom ntxog ntxuv ntxu ntxus ntxum ntxug ntxwv ntxw ntxws ntxwm ntxwg ntxeev ntxoov ntxee ntxoo ntxees ntxoos ntxias ntxuas ntxais ntxaus ntxaws ntxeem ntxoom ntxiam ntxuam ntxeeg ntxoog ntxiag ntxuag

ntxeeb ntxeej ntxoob ntxooj ntxiab ntxuab ntxiaj ntxuaj

ntxiav ntxia ntxuav ntxua

ntxaib ntxaij ntxaiv ntxai ntxaub ntxauj ntxauv ntxau ntxawb ntxawj ntxawv ntxaw

ntxaim ntxaig ntxaum ntxaug ntxawm ntxawg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 13

43

nc

nceb

ncab nceb ncib ncob ncub ncwb

ncaj ncej ncij ncoj ncuj ncwj

ncav nca ncas ncam ncad ncev nce nces ncem nced nciv nci ncis ncim ncid ncov nco ncos ncom ncod ncuv ncu ncus ncum ncud ncwv ncw ncws ncwm ncwd nceed ncood nciad ncuad ncaid ncaud ncawd

ncag nceg ncig ncog ncug ncwg nceeg ncoog nciag ncuag ncaig ncaug ncawg

nceeb nceej ncoob ncooj

nceev ncee ncoov ncoo

ncees nceem ncoos ncoom ncias ncuas ncais ncaus ncaws nciam ncuam ncaim ncaum ncawm

nciab nciaj nciav ncia ncuab ncuaj ncuav ncua ncaib ncaij ncaiv ncai ncauv ncau ncawv ncaw

ncaub ncauj ncawb ncawj

44

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 14

nr

nrau

nrab nreb nrib nrob nrub nrwb

nraj nrej nrij nroj nruj nrwj

nrav nra nras nram nrad nrev nre nres nrem nred nriv nri nris nrim nrid nrov nro nros nrom nrod nruv nru nrus nrum nrud nrwv nrw nreev nree nroov nroo nriav nria nruav nrua nrws nrees nroos nrwm nreem nroom nrwd nreed nrood

nrag nreg nrig nrog nrug nrwg nreeg nroog

nreeb nreej nroob nrooj nriab nriaj nruab nruaj

nrias nriam nruas nruam

nriad nriag nruad nruag nraid nraud nrawd nraig nraug nrawg

nraib nraij nraiv nrai nrais nraim nraub nrauj nrauv nrau nraus nraum nrawb nrawj nrawv nraw nraws nrawm

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 14

45

ny

nyiaj

nyab

nyaj

nyav

nya

nyas

nyam nyem nyim nyom nyum nywm nyeem nyoom nyiam nyuam

nyad

nyag

nyeb nyej nyev nyib nyij nyiv nyob nyoj nyov nyub nyuj nyuv nywb nywj nywv

nye nyes nyi nyis nyo nyos nyu nyus nyw nyws

nyed nyeg nyid nyig nyod nyog nyud nyug nywd nywg nyeed nyood nyiad nyuad nyeeg nyoog nyiag nyuag

nyeeb nyeej nyeev nyee nyees nyoob nyooj nyoov nyoo nyoos nyiab nyiaj nyuab nyuaj nyiav nyia nyias nyuav nyua nyuas

nyaib nyaij nyaiv nyai nyais nyaim nyaid nyaig nyaub nyauj nyauv nyau nyaus nyaum nyaud nyaug nyawb nyawj nyawv nyaw nyaws nyawm nyawd nyawg

46

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 15

xy

xyab

xyab

xyaj

xyav

xya

xyas

xyam xyem xyim xyom xyum xywm xyeem xyoom

xyad xyed xyid xyod xyud xywd

xyag xyeg xyig xyog xyug xywg

xyeb xyej xyib xyij xyob xyoj xyub xyuj xywb xywj xyeeb xyeej xyoob xyooj

xyev xye xyes xyiv xyi xyis xyov xyo xyos xyuv xyu xyus xywv xyw xyws xyeev xyee xyees xyoov xyoo xyoos

xyeed xyeeg xyood xyoog

xyiab xyiaj xyiav xyia xyias xyiam xyiad xyiag xyuab xyuaj xyuav xyua xyuas xyuam xyuad xyuag xyaib xyaij xyaiv xyai xyais xyaim xyaid xyaig xyaub xyauj xyauv xyau xyaus xyaum xyaud xyaug xyawb xyawj xyawv xyaw xyaws xyawm xyawd xyawg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 15

47

nq

nqaij

nqab nqeb nqib nqob nqub nqwb

nqaj nqav nqa nqej nqev nqe nqij nqiv nqi nqoj nqov nqo nquj nquv nqu nqwj nqwv nqw

nqas nqes nqis nqos nqus nqws

nqam nqem nqim nqom nqum nqwm

nqad nqed nqid nqod nqud nqwd nqeed nqood

nqag nqeg nqig nqog nqug nqwg nqeeg nqoog

nqeeb nqeej nqeev nqee nqees nqeem nqoob nqooj nqoov nqoo nqoos nqoom nqiab nqiaj nqiav nqia nquab nquaj nquav nqua nqias nqiam nquas nquam

nqiad nqiag nquad nquag

nqaib nqaij nqaiv nqai nqais nqaim nqaid nqaig nqaub nqauj nqauv nqau nqaus nqaum nqaud nqaug nqawb nqawj nqawv nqaw nqaws nqawm nqawd nqawg

48

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 16

dh

dhia

dhab dheb dhib dhob dhub dhwb

dhaj dhej dhij dhoj dhuj dhwj

dhav dhev dhiv dhov dhuv dhwv

dha dhas dhe dhes dhi dhis dho dhos dhu dhus dhw dhws

dham dhem dhim dhom dhum dhwm

dhad dhed dhid dhod dhud dhwd

dhag dheg dhig dhog dhug dhwg

dheeb dheej dheev dhee dhees dheem dheed dheeg dhoob dhooj dhoov dhoo dhoos dhoom dhood dhoog dhiab dhiaj dhiav dhia dhuab dhuaj dhuav dhua dhias dhuas dhiam dhiad dhiag dhuam dhuad dhuag

dhaib dhaij dhaiv dhai dhais dhaim dhaid dhaig dhaub dhauj dhauv dhau dhaus dhaum dhaud dhaug dhawb dhawj dhawv dhaw dhaws dhawm dhawd dhawg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 17

49

kh

khiav

khab khaj khav kha kheb khej khev khe khib khij khiv khi khob khoj khov kho khub khuj khuv khu khwb khwj khwv khw

khas khes khis khos khus khws

kham khem khim khom khum khwm

khad khag khed kheg khid khig khod khog khud khug khwd khwg kheed khood khiad khuad kheeg khoog khiag khuag

kheeb kheej kheev khee khees kheem khoob khooj khoov khoo khoos khoom khiab khiaj khuab khuaj khiav khia khias khuav khua khuas khiam khuam

khaib khaij khaiv khai khais khaim khaub khauj khauv khau khaus khaum khawb khawj khawv khaw khaws khawm

khaid khaig khaud khaug khawd khawg

50

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 17

ph

phau

phab phaj pheb phej phib phij phob phoj phub phuj phwb phwj

phav pha phev phe phiv phi phov pho phuv phu phwv phw

phas phes phis phos phus phws

pham phem phim phom phum phwm pheem phoom

phad phag phed pheg phid phig phod phog phud phug phwd phwg pheed phood pheeg phoog

pheeb pheej pheev phee phees phoob phooj phoov phoo phoos phiab phiaj phuab phuaj

phiav phia phias phiam phiad phiag phuav phua phuas phuam phuad phuag phais phaim phaid phaig phaus phaum phaud phaug phaws phawm phawd phawg

phaib phaij phaiv phai phaub phauj phauv phau phawb phawj phawv phaw

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 17

51

th

thawv

thab theb thib

thaj thej thij

thav thev thiv

tha the thi

thas thes this thos thus thws thees thoos thias thuas thais thaus thaws

tham them thim thom thum thwm theem thoom thiam thuam thaim thaum thawm

thad thed thid thod thud thwd

thag theg thig thog thug thwg

thob thoj thov tho thub thuj thuv thu thwb thwj thwv thw theeb theej theev thee thoob thooj thoov thoo thiab thiaj thuab thuaj thiav thuav thia thua

theed theeg thood thoog thiad thiag thuag

thuad

thaib thaij thaiv thai thaub thauj thauv thau thawb thawj thawv thaw

thaid thaig thaud thaug thawd thawg

52

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 17

ch

choj

chab cheb chib

chaj chej chij

chav chev chiv

cha che chi

chas ches chis

cham chem chim chom chum chwm

chad ched chid

chag cheg chig

chob choj chub chuj chwb chwj

chov cho chos chuv chu chus chwv chw chws

chod chog chud chug chwd chwg cheed cheeg chood choog chiag chuag

cheeb cheej cheev chee chees cheem choob chooj choov choo choos choom chiab chiaj chiav chia chua chias chiam chuam

chiad chuad

chuab chuaj chuav

chuas

chaib chaij chaiv chai chais chaim chaid chaig chaub chauj chauv chau chaus chaum chaud chaug chawb chawj chawv chaw chaws chawm chawd chawg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 18

53

qh

qhia

qhab qhaj qhav qha qhas qham qhad qhag qheb qhej qhev qhe qhes qhem qhed qheg qhib qhij qhiv qhi qhis qhim qhid qhig qhob qhoj qhov qho qhos qhom qhod qhog qhub qhuj qhuv qhu qhus qhum qhud qhug qhwb qhwj qhwv qhw qhws qhwm qhwd qhwg qheeb qheej qheev qhee qhees qheem qheed qhood qheeg qhoog

qhoob qhooj qhoov qhoo qhoos qhoom qhiab qhiaj qhuab qhuaj qhiav qhia qhias qhuav qhua qhuas

qhiam qhiad qhiag qhuam qhuad qhuag

qhaib qhaij qhaiv qhai qhais qhaim qhaid qhaig qhaub qhauj qhauv qhau qhaus qhaum qhaud qhaug qhawb qhawj qhawv qhaw qhaws qhawm qhawd qhawg

54

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 18

rh

rhau

rhab rheb rhib rhob rhub rhwb

rhaj rhej rhij rhoj rhuj rhwj

rhav rha rhas rham rhad rhag rhev rhe rhes rhem rhed rheg rhiv rhi rhis rhim rhid rhig rhov rho rhos rhom rhod rhog rhuv rhu rhus rhum rhud rhug rhwv rhw rhws rhwm rhwd rhwg rhees rhoos rheem rhoom rheed rhood rheeg rhoog

rheeb rheej rheev rhee rhoob rhooj rhoov rhoo rhiab rhiaj rhuab rhuaj

rhiav rhia rhias rhiam rhiad rhiag rhuav rhua rhuas rhuam rhuad rhuag

rhaib rhaij rhaiv rhai rhais rhaim rhaid rhaig rhaub rhauj rhauv rhau rhaus rhaum rhaud rhaug rhawb rhawj rhawv rhaw rhaws rhawm rhawd rhawg

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 18

55

tsh

tsheb

tshab tsheb tshib tshob tshub tshwb

tshaj tshav tsha tshej tshev tshe tshij tshiv tshi tshoj tshov tsho tshuj tshuv tshu tshwj tshwv tshw

tsheev tshee

tshas tshes tshis tshos tshus tshws

tshees

tsham tshem tshim tshom tshum tshwm

tsheem tshoom tshiam tshuam tshaim tshaum

tshad tshag tshed tsheg tshid tshig tshod tshog tshud tshug tshwd tshwg

tsheed tshood tshiad tshuad tshaid tshaud tshawd tsheeg tshoog tshiag tshuag tshaig tshaug tshawg

tsheeb tsheej tshoob tshooj tshiab tshiaj

tshoov tshoo tshoos tshiav tshia tshuav tshua tshaiv tshai tshauv tshau tshias tshuas tshais tshaus

tshuab tshuaj tshaib tshaij

tshaub tshauj

tshawb tshawj tshawv

tshaw tshaws tshawm

56

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 19

txh

txha

txhab txheb txhib txhob txhub txhwb

txhaj txhav txha txhas txham txhad txhag txhej txhev txhe txhes txhem txhed txheg txhij txhiv txhi txhis txhim txhid txhig txhoj txhov txho txhos txhom txhod txhog txhuj txhuv txhu txhus txhum txhud txhug txhwj txhwv txhw txhws txhwm txhwd txhwg

txhee txhees txheem txheed txhood txhiad txheeg txhoog txhiag txhuag txhaig txhaug txhawg

txheeb txheej txheev txhoob txhooj txhoov txhiab txhiaj

txhoo txhoos txhoom txhias txhiam

txhiav txhia txhuav txhua txhaiv txhai txhauv txhau

txhuab txhuaj txhaib txhaij txhaub txhauj

txhuas txhuam txhais txhaus txhaim txhaum

txhuad txhaid txhaud txhawd

txhawb txhawj txhawv txhaw

txhaws txhawm

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 19

57

pl

plis

plab pleb plib plob plub plwb

plaj plej plij ploj pluj plwj

plav pla plev ple pliv pli

plas ples plis

plam plem plim

plad pled plid plod plud plwd

plag pleg plig plog plug plwg pleeg ploog pliag pluag

plov plo plos plom pluv plu plus plum plwv plw plws plwm pleev plee ploov ploo pliav plia

pleeb pleej ploob plooj pliab pluab pliaj pluaj

plees pleem pleed ploos ploom plood plias pluas pliam pluam pliad pluad

pluav plua

plaib plaij plaiv plai plais plaim plaid plaig plaub plauj plauv plau plaus plaum plaud plaug plawb plawj plawv plaw plaws plawm plawd plawg

58

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 20

plh

plhaub qes

plhab plheb plhib plhob

plhaj plhav plha plhas plham plhad plhag plhej plhev plhe plhes plhem plhed plheg plhij plhiv plhi plhis plhim plhid plhig plhoj plhov plho plhos plhom plhod plhog plhus plhws

plhees

plhub plhuj plhuv plhu plhwb plhwj plhwv plhw

plheeb plheej plheev plhee

plhum plhwm

plhud plhug plhwd plhwg

plheeg plhoog plhiag plhuag plhaig plhaug plhawg

plheem

plheed plhood plhiad plhuad plhaid plhaud

plhoob plhooj plhoov plhoo plhoos plhoom plhiab plhiaj plhiav plhia plhias plhuas plhais plhaus plhiam plhuam plhaim plhaum

plhuab plhuaj plhuav plhua plhaib plhaij plhaiv plhai

plhaub plhauj plhauv plhau plhawb plhawj plhawv

plhaw

plhaws plhawm

plhawd

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 20

59

hl

hli

hlab hleb hlib hlob hlub hlwb

hlaj hlej hlij hloj hluj hlwj

hlav hla hlev hle hliv hli hlov hlo hluv hlu hlwv hlw

hlas hles hlis hlos hlus hlws

hlam hlad hlag hlem hled hleg hlim hlid hlig hlom hlod hlog hlum hlud hlug hlwm hlwd hlwg

hleeb hleej hleev hlee hlees hleem hleed hleeg hloob hlooj hloov hloo hloos hloom hlood hloog hliab hliaj hluab hluaj hlaib hlaij hlaub hlauj hlawb hlawj hliav hlia hluav hlua hlaiv hlai hlauv hlau hlawv hlaw hlias hluas hlais hlaus hlaws hliam hliad hluam hluad hlaim hlaum hlawm hlaid hlaud hlawd hliag hluag hlaig hlaug hlawg

60

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 21

hm

hma

hmab hmeb hmib hmob hmub hmwb

hmaj hmej hmij hmoj hmuj hmwj

hmav hma hmas hmam hmad hmag hmev hme hmes hmem hmed hmeg hmiv hmi hmis hmim hmid hmig hmov hmo hmos hmom hmod hmog hmuv hmu hmus hmum hmud hmug hmwv hmw hmws hmwm hmwd hmwg

hmeed hmeeg

hmeeb hmeej hmeev hmee hmees hmeem hmoob hmooj hmoov hmoo hmiab hmiaj hmiav hmia

hmoos hmoom hmiam

hmood hmiag hmuag hmaig hmaug hmawg

hmoog

hmias

hmiad hmuad hmaid hmaud hmawd

hmuab hmuaj hmuav hmua hmuas hmuam hmaib hmaij hmaiv hmai hmais hmaim

hmaub hmauj hmauv hmau hmaus hmaum hmawb hmawj hmawv hmaw hmaws hmawm

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 21

61

hn

hnub

hnab hneb hnib hnob hnub hnwb

hnaj

hnav

hna

hnas

hnam

hnad

hnag

hnej hnev hnij hniv hnoj hnov hnuj hnuv hnwj hnwv

hne hnes hnem hned hneg hni hnis hnim hnid hnig hno hnos hnom hnod hnog hnu hnus hnum hnud hnug hnw hnws hnwm hnwd hnwg hnees hneem hneed hneeg hnoos hnoom hnood hnoog

hneeb hneej hneev hnee hnoob hnooj hnoov hnoo

hniab hniaj hniav hnia hnias hniam hniad hniag hnuab hnuaj hnuav hnua hnuas hnuam hnuad hnuag hnaib hnaij hnaiv hnai hnais hnaim hnaid hnaig hnaub hnauj hnauv hnau hnaus hnaum hnaud hnaug hnawb hnawj hnawv hnaw hnaws hnawm hnawd hnawg

62

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 22

hny

hnyav

hnyab hnyaj hnyav hnya hnyas hnyam hnyad hnyag hnyeb hnyej hnyev hnye hnyes hnyem hnyed hnyeg hnyib hnyij hnyiv hnyi hnyis hnyim hnyid hnyig hnyob hnyoj hnyov hnyo hnyos hnyom hnyod hnyog hnyub hnyuj hnyuv hnyu hnyus hnyum hnyud hnyug hnywb hnywj hnywv hnyw hnyws hnywm hnywd hnywg

hnyeeb hnyeej hnyeev hnyee hnyees hnyeem hnyoob hnyooj hnyoov hnyoo hnyoos hnyoom hnyiab hnyiaj hnyiav hnyia hnyias hnyiam hnyeed hnyood hnyiad hnyuad hnyaid hnyaud hnyawd hnyeeg hnyoog hnyiag hnyuag hnyaig hnyaug hnyawg

hnyuab hnyuaj hnyuav hnyua hnyuas hnyuam hnyaib hnyaij hnyaiv hnyai hnyais hnyaim

hnyaub hnyauj hnyauv hnyau hnyaus hnyaum hnyawb hnyawj hnyawv hnyaw hnyaws hnyawm

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 22

63

ml

mloog

mlab mleb mlib mlob mlub mlwb

mlaj mlej mlij mloj mluj mlwj

mlav mlev mliv mlov mluv mlwv

mla mle mli mlo mlu mlw

mlas mles mlis mlos mlus mlws mlees mloos mlias

mlam mlem mlim mlom mlum mlwm mleem mloom mliam

mlad mled mlid mlud mlwd

mlag mleg mlig mlod mlug mlwg mlog

mleeb mleej

mleev mlee

mleed mleeg mlood mliad mliag mluad mluag mloog

mloob mlooj mloov mloo mliab mliaj mliav mlia

mluab mluaj mlaib mlaij

mluav mlaiv

mlua

mluas

mluam mlaid

mlai

mlais mlaus mlaws

mlaim mlaum mlawm

mlaig

mlaub mlauj

mlauv mlau

mlaud mlaug mlawd mlawg

mlawb mlawj mlawv mlaw

(also "nloog")

64 Learn to Read Hmong, Level 23

hml

hmlos

hmlab hmlaj hmleb hmlej hmlib hmlij hmlob hmloj hmlub hmluj hmlwb hmlwj

hmlav hmla hmlev hmle hmliv hmli hmlov hmlo hmluv hmlu hmlwv hmlw

hmlas hmlam hmlad hmlag hmles hmlem hmled hmleg hmlis hmlim hmlid hmlig hmlos hmlom hmlod hmlog hmlus hmlum hmlud hmlug hmlws hmlwm hmlwd hmlwg

hmlees hmloos hmleem hmloom hmleed hmlood hmleeg hmloog

hmleeb hmleej hmleev hmlee hmloob hmlooj hmloov hmloo

hmliab hmliaj hmliav hmlia hmlias

hmliam

hmliad hmluad hmlaid hmlaud

hmlawd

hmliag hmluag hmlaig hmlaug

hmlawg

hmluab hmluaj hmluav hmlua hmluas hmluam hmlaib hmlaij hmlaiv hmlai hmlais hmlaim

hmlaub hmlauj hmlauv hmlau hmlaus hmlaum

hmlawb hmlawj hmlawv hmlaw hmlaws hmlawm

(also "hnlos")

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 23 65

nch

ncho

nchab nchaj ncheb nchej nchib nchij nchob nchoj nchub nchuj

nchav ncha nchev nche nchiv nchov nchi ncho

nchas nches nchis nchos nchus nchws

nchees nchoos

ncham nchem nchim nchom nchwm nchum

nchad nched nchid nchod nchwd

ncheed nchood

nchag ncheg nchig nchog nchug nchwg

ncheeg nchoog

nchuv nchu

nchud

nchwb nchwj nchwv nchw

ncheeb ncheej ncheev nchee nchoob nchooj nchoov nchoo

ncheem nchoom

nchiab nchiaj nchiav nchia nchuab nchuaj nchaib nchaij nchaub nchauj

nchawb nchawj

nchias

nchiam

nchiad nchuad nchaid nchaud

nchawd

nchiag nchuag nchaig nchaug

nchawg

nchuav nchua nchuas nchuam nchaiv

nchawv

nchai

nchaw

nchais

nchaws

nchaim

nchawm

nchauv nchau nchaus nchaum

66

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 24

nkh

nkhaus

nkhab nkhaj nkheb nkhej nkhib nkhij nkhob nchoj nkhub nkhuj

nkhav nkha nkhev nkhe nkhiv nkhi nkhov nkho nkhuv nkhu

nkhas nkhes nkhis nkhos nkhus nkhws

nkhees

nkham nkhim nkhom

nkhad nkhed nkhid nkhod nkhud nkhwd

nkheed

nkhag nkhig

nkhem

nkheg nkhog nkhug nkhwg

nkheeg nkhoog

nkhum nkhwm

nkheem

nkhwb nkhwj nkhwv nkhw

nkheeb nkheej nkheev nkhee nkhoob nkhooj nkhoov nkhoo

nkhoos

nkhoom

nkhood

nkhiab nkhiaj nkhiav nkhia

nkhias

nkhiam

nkhiad nkhuad nkhaid

nkhiag nkhuag nkhaig nkhaug

nkhawg

nkhuab nkhuaj nkhuav nkhua nkhuas nkhuam nkhaib nkhaij nkhaiv nkhai nkhaub nkhauj nkhauv nkhau

nkhawb nkhawj nkhawv nkhaw

nkhais

nkhaim

nkhaus

nkhaws

nkhaum

nkhawm

nkhaud

nkhawd

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 24

67

nph

nphuab

nphab nphaj npheb nphej nphib nphob nphij nphoj

nphav nphiv nphov

npha nphi npho

nphas nphes nphis nphos nphus nphws

npham nphem nphim nphom nphwm nphum

nphad nphed nphid nphod nphud nphwd

npheed

nphag npheg nphig nphog nphwg nphug

nphev nphe

nphub nphuj nphwb nphwj

nphuv nphu

nphwv nphw

npheeb npheej npheev nphee nphoob nphooj

nphees

npheem

npheeg nphoog

nphoov nphoo

nphoos

nphoom

nphood

nphiab nphiaj nphiav nphia

nphuab nphuaj nphuav nphua

nphias

nphuas

nphiam

nphuam

nphiad

nphuad

nphiag

nphuag

nphaib nphaij nphaiv nphai

nphaub nphauj nphauv nphawb nphawj nphawv nphaw

nphais

nphaim

nphaid

nphaig

nphaug nphawg

nphau

nphaus nphaws

nphaum nphawm

nphaud nphawd

68

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 24

npl

nplooj

nplab npleb nplib nplob nplub nplwb

nplaj nplav npla nplas nplam nplad nplag nplej nplev nple nples nplem npled npleg nplij npliv npli nplis nplim nplid nplig nploj nplov nplo nplos nplom nplod nplog npluj npluv nplu nplus nplum nplud nplug nplwj nplwv nplw nplws nplwm nplwd nplwg

nplees nploos nplias npluas nplais npleem nploom npliam npluam nplaim nplaum npleed nplood npliad npluad nplaid nplaud nplawd npleeg nploog npliag npluag nplaig nplaug nplawg

npleeb npleej npleev nplee nploob nplooj npliab npliaj nploov nploo npliav nplia npluav nplua nplaiv nplai

npluab npluaj nplaib nplaij

nplaub nplauj nplauv nplau nplawb nplawj nplawv nplaw

nplaus

nplaws nplawm

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 24

69

nplh

nplhaib

nplhab nplhaj nplhav nplha nplheb nplhej nplhev nplhe nplhib nplhij nplhiv nplhi nplhob nplhoj nplhov

nplhas nplhes nplhis

nplham nplhem nplhim nplhum

nplhad nplhed nplhid nplhud nplhwd

nplhag nplheg nplhig nplhog nplhug nplhwg

nplho

nplhos

nplhom

nplhod

nplhub nplhuj nplhuv nplhu

nplhus

nplhwb nplhwj nplhwv nplhw nplhws nplhwm

nplheeb nplheej nplheev nplhee nplhees nplheem nplhoob nplhooj nplhoov nplhoo nplhoos nplhoom

nplheed nplhood

nplheeg nplhoog

nplhiab nplhiaj nplhiav nplhia

nplhias

nplhiam

nplhiad nplhuad

nplhiag nplhuag

nplhuab nplhuaj nplhuav nplhua nplhuas nplhuam

nplhaib

nplhaij nplhaiv nplhai

nplhais

nplhaim

nplhaid nplhaud nplhawd

nplhaig nplhaug nplhawg

nplhaub nplhauj nplhauv nplhau nplhaus nplhaum nplhawb nplhawj nplhawv nplhaw nplhaws nplhawm

70

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 24

nqh

nqhis dej

nqhab nqhaj nqheb nqhej nqhib nqhij nqhob nqhoj nqhub nqhuj

nqhav nqhiv nqhov

nqha nqhi nqho

nqhas nqhes nqhis nqhos nqhus nqhws

nqhees

nqham nqhim nqhom

nqhad nqhed nqhid nqhod nqhud nqhwd

nqheed

nqhag nqheg nqhig nqhog nqhug nqhwg

nqheeg nqhoog

nqhev nqhe

nqhem

nqhuv nqhu

nqhum nqhwm

nqheem

nqhwb nqhwj nqhwv nqhw

nqheeb nqheej nqheev nqhee nqhoob nqhooj nqhoov nqhoo

nqhoos

nqhoom

nqhood

nqhiab nqhiaj nqhuab

nqhiav

nqhia

nqhias nqhuas

nqhiam nqhuam

nqhiad nqhuad

nqhiag nqhuag

nqhuaj nqhuav nqhua

nqhaib nqhaij

nqhaiv nqhai

nqhais nqhaus

nqhaim nqhaum nqhawm

nqhaid nqhaud nqhawd

nqhaig nqhaug nqhawg

nqhaub nqhauj nqhauv nqhau

nqhawb nqhawj nqhawv nqhaw nqhaws

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 24

71

nrh

nrhiav

nrhab nrhib nrhub

nrhaj nrhij nrhuj

nrhav nrhiv nrhov

nrha nrhi nrho

nrhas nrhes nrhis nrhos nrhus nrhws

nrhees nrhoos

nrham nrhem nrhim nrhom nrhum nrhwm

nrheem nrhoom

nrhad nrhed nrhid nrhod nrhud nrhwd

nrheed nrhood

nrhag nrheg nrhig nrhog nrhug nrhwg

nrheeg nrhoog

nrheb nrhej nrhob nrhoj

nrhev nrhe

nrhuv nrhu

nrhwb nrhwj nrhwv nrhw

nrheeb nrheej nrhoob nrheev nrhee

nrhooj nrhoov nrhoo

nrhiab

nrhiaj

nrhiav

nrhia

nrhias nrhuas

nrhiam nrhuam

nrhiad nrhuad

nrhiag nrhuag

nrhuab nrhuaj

nrhuav nrhua

nrhaib

nrhaij

nrhaiv nrhauv

nrhai

nrhais

nrhaim nrhaum nrhawm

nrhaid nrhaud nrhawd

nrhaig nrhaug nrhawg

nrhaub nrhauj nrhawb

nrhau nrhaw

nrhaus nrhaws

nrhawj nrhawv

72

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 24

nth

kaus nthuav

nthab ntheb nthib nthob nthub nthwb

nthaj nthav nthej nthev nthij nthiv nthoj nthov nthuj nthuv nthwj nthwv

ntha nthas ntham nthad nthag nthe nthes nthem nthed ntheg nthi nthis nthim nthid nthig ntho nthos nthom nthod nthog nthu nthus nthum nthud nthug nthw nthws nthwm nthwd nthwg

nthees ntheem ntheed ntheeg nthoog

ntheeb ntheej

ntheev nthee

nthoob nthooj nthoov

nthoo

nthoos

nthoom

nthood

nthiab

nthiaj

nthiav

nthia

nthias

nthiam nthuam

nthiad nthuad

nthiag nthuag

nthuab nthuaj

nthuav

nthua

nthuas

nthaib

nthaij

nthaiv

nthai

nthais nthaus

nthaim nthaum

nthaid nthaud

nthaig nthaug nthawg

nthaub nthauj

nthauv nthau

nthawb nthawj nthawv

nthaw

nthaws

nthawm

nthawd

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 24

73

ntsh

nqus ntshav

ntshab ntshaj ntshib ntshij ntshob ntshoj

ntshav ntshiv

ntsha ntshi

ntshas ntshis ntshos

ntsham ntshim ntshom

ntshad ntshid ntshod ntshwd

ntshag ntshig ntshog

ntsheb ntshej ntshev ntshe

ntshes

ntshem

ntshed

ntsheg

ntshov ntsho

ntshub ntshuj ntshuv ntshu

ntshus

ntshum

ntshud

ntshug ntshwg

ntshwb ntshwj ntshwv ntshw ntshws ntshwm

ntsheeb ntsheej ntsheev ntshee ntshees ntsheem ntshoob ntshooj ntshoov ntshoo ntshoos ntshoom

ntsheed ntshood

ntsheeg ntshoog

ntshiab

ntshiaj ntshiav

ntshia ntshua

ntshias

ntshiam

ntshiad ntshuad

ntshiag ntshuag

ntshuab ntshuaj ntshuav

ntshuas ntshuam

ntshaib ntshaij ntshaiv ntshaub ntshauj ntshawb ntshawj

ntshai

ntshais ntshaus

ntshaim ntshaum

ntshaid ntshaud ntshawd

ntshaig ntshaug ntshawg

ntshauv ntshau ntshawv ntshaw

ntshaws ntshawm

74

Kawm Nyeem Ntawv Hmoob, Level 25

ntxh

ntxhw

ntxhab ntxheb ntxhib ntxhob ntxhub ntxhwb ntxheeb ntxhoob ntxhiab ntxhuab ntxhaib ntxhaub ntxhawb

ntxhaj ntxhej ntxhij ntxhoj ntxhuj ntxhwj ntxheej ntxhooj ntxhiaj ntxhuaj ntxhaij ntxhauj ntxhawj

ntxhav ntxhev ntxhiv ntxhov ntxhuv ntxhwv ntxheev ntxhoov ntxhiav ntxhuav ntxhaiv ntxhauv ntxhawv

ntxha ntxhe ntxhi ntxho ntxhu ntxhw ntxhee ntxhoo ntxhia ntxhua ntxhai ntxhau ntxhaw

ntxhas ntxhes ntxhis ntxhos ntxhus

ntxham ntxhem ntxhim ntxhom ntxhum

ntxhag ntxheg ntxhig ntxhog

ntxhug ntxhwg

ntxhws ntxhees ntxhoos ntxhias ntxhuas ntxhais

ntxhwm

ntxheem ntxheeg ntxhoom ntxhoog ntxhiam ntxhiag

ntxhuam ntxhuag ntxhaim ntxhaig

ntxhaus ntxhaws

ntxhaum ntxhaug ntxhawm ntxhawg

Learn to Read Hmong, Level 25

75

76

Near-equivalents in English

a ai au aw c ch d dh e ee f h hl hm hml hn hny i ia k kh l m ml n nc nch nk nkh np nph npl nplh nq nqh

father ai sle ow d og ei ght leng th fog h ot ee k Mar ia skill k ill l ot m an n ot ing ot on c all ga mb it imp ress inp ut inpl ausible -

nr nrh nt nth nts ntsh ntx ntxh ny o oo p ph pl plh q qh r rh s t th ts tsh tx txh u ua v w x xy y z

in d oors on t op inj ure in ch op ends on wa nts off ca ny on lot p ot pl ease saw still t ill j og ch in ad ds on ha ts off sou p purs ua ble v an sit is h uge y es az ure

77

White Hmong Phonemes & Graphemes

(Hmoob Dawb)

Two lips Teeth & lip Tongue & teeth Tongue & ridge Tongue tip & roof Tongue mid & roof Tongue curled Tongue Throat back & soft palate FLOW OF AIR

STOP

p paj

flower

t tiab

skirt

d diav

spoon

k kub

hot

q qaib

chicken

Voiceless

ph phiab

bowl

th thawb dh dhia

push jump

kh khub qh qhia

dirty teach

Voiceless and aspirated (with puff of air) Voiced (vocal cords vibrate)

np npua

pig

nt ntawv

paper

nk nkoj

boat

nq nqaij

meat

nph

nphob

faded

nth

nthuav

open (book)

nkh

nkhaus

crooked

nqh nqhis Voiced and aspirated

thirsty

CONTINUANT

f fuab

cloud

x xovtooj

telephone

s sov

warm

xy xyoob h huab

bamboo cloud

Voiceless

y yaj v vaj

garden sheep

z zos

village

l liab

monkey

Voiced (vocal cords vibrate)

hm

Hmoob

Hmong

hl hlis

moon

hny

hnyav

heavy

hn hnub

star, sun

Aspirated (with puff of air)

m me-me

little

n niam

mother

ny nyiaj

money

Nasal (air through the nose) AFFRICATE

tx txiv

father don't

c co

shake bridge

ts tsev

house car

r riam

knife pull out

txh txhob cho choj tsh tsheb rh rho ntx ntxiv

add to

Voiceless Voiceless, aspirated

nc nceb

mushroom

nts ntses nr nruas

fish

drum

ntxh

ntxhw elephant

nch ncho

smoky

ntsh

ntshav

blood

nrh

nrhiav

look for

Voiced Voiced, aspirated

a ai au aw

78

e ee

i ia

o oo

u ua

w

Green Hmong Phonemes & Graphemes

(Moob Leeg, Moob Ntsuab)

Two lips Teeth & lip Tongue & teeth Tongue & ridge Tongue tip & roof Tongue mid & roof Tongue curled Throat Tongue back & soft palate FLOW OF AIR

STOP

p paaj

flower

dl dlaab

skirt

d dav

spoon

k kub

hot

q qaib

chicken

Voiceless

ph phab

bowl

dlh xxx ndl

ndlawv

paper

dh dha

jump

kh khub qh qha

dirty teach

Voiceless and aspirated (with puff of air) Voiced (vocal cords vibrate)

np npua

pig

nk nkoj

boat

nq nqaij

meat

nph

nphob

faded

ndlh xxx

nkh

nkhaus

crooked

nqh nqhis Voiced and aspirated

thirsty

CONTINUANT

f fuab

cloud

x xuvtooj

telephone

s sov

warm

xy xyoob h xxx bamboo

Voiceless

y yaaj v vaaj

garden sheep

z zus

village

l lab

monkey

Voiced (vocal cords vibrate)

hm xx

hl hlis

moon

hn xx hn xxx ny nyaj

money

Aspirated (with puff of air) Nasal (air through the nose) AFFRICATE

m Moob

Hmong

n nam

mother

tx txwv

father don't

c cu

shake bridge

ts tsev

house car

r ram

knife pull out

txh txhob cho chuj tsh tsheb rh rho ntx ntxwv nc nceb add to ntxh

ntxhw elephant mushroom

Voiceless Voiceless, aspirated

nts ntses nr nruas fish

blood look for

ntsh nch ncho ntshaav smoky

drum nrh nrhav

Voiced Voiced, aspirated

a ai au aw

aa

e ee

i

o oo

u w ua

79

Since 1984, Folsom Cordova Unified School District (near Sacramento, California) has housed a specialty resource center for Southeast Asian students, their parents, their teachers, and community members with whom they interact. The Center's collection is owned by the Refugee Educators' Network, Inc., a 501c(3) non-profit organization. Funding for the Center's collection, circulation, and development of materials comes from conferences, subscriptions, donations, and grants.

2460 Cordova Lane, Rancho Cordova CA 95670 (916) 635-6815, fax (916) 635-0174, [email protected] Judy Lewis, Lue Vang, Nguyet Tham, Kieu Tham

http://mills.fcusd.k12.ca.us/ctrsite/index.html

Publications Context, Southeast Asians and other newcomers in California schools (newsletter). Tawm Lostsuas Mus, Out of Laos: A Story of War and Exodus, Told in Photographs (Warner, translated by Vang and others, 1996). Introduction to Vietnamese Culture (Huynh Dinh Te, 1996). Handbook for Teaching Armenian-Speaking Students (Avakian, Ghazarian, 1995). Amerasians from Vietnam: A California Study (Chung & Le, 1994). Proceedings on the Conference on Champa (Translated by Huynh Dinh Te, 1994). Minority Cultures of Laos: Kammu, Lua', Lahu, Hmong, and Mien (Lewis; Kam Raw, Vang, Elliott, Matisoff, Yang, Crystal, Saepharn. 1992). Handbook for Teaching Hmong-Speaking Students (Bliatout, Downing, Lewis, Yang, 1988). Handbook for Teaching Khmer-Speaking Students (Ouk, Huffman, Lewis, 1988). Handbook for Teaching Lao-Speaking Students (Luangpraseut, Lewis 1989). Introduction to the Indochinese and their Cultures (Chhim, Luangpraseut, Te, 1989, 1994). English-Hmong Bilingual Dictionary of School Terminology, Cov Lus Mis Kuj Txhais ua Lus Hmoob (Huynh D Te, translated by Lue Vang, 1988).

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