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THESIS

BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF GREEN LACEWING, MALLADA BASALIS (WALKER) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) AND MASS REARING TECHNIQUE

NATTATINEE SIRIMACHAN

GRADUATE SCHOOL, KASETSART UNIVERSITY 2005

THESIS

BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF GREEN LACEWING, MALLADA BASALIS (WALKER) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) AND MASS REARING TECHNIQUE

NATTATINEE SIRIMACHAN

A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science (Agriculture) Graduate School, Kasetsart University 2005

ISBN 974-9843-21-5

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks are due to my committee a thesis advisor, Associate Professor Wiwat Suasa-ard, Assistant Professor Weerawan Amornsak and a minor advisor Assistant Professor Pramote Sasidnirun for their encouragement, valuable advice, suggestion and constructive comment throughout this study.

I also wish to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to the National Biological Research Center (NBCRC), Central Regional Center Kasetsart University, Kamphang Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom for providing facilities and to all staff members of NBCRC for helpful suggestion during the my study.

Finally, thank you to my family and my friends for their continuous excellent bringing up and encouragement for the successful completion for the study and their endless love, powerful supports.

Nattatinee Sirimachan May, 2005

i TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................

i

LIST OF TABLES............................................................................. iii

LIST OF FIGURES............................................................................ v

INTRODUCTION................................................................................... 1

LITERATURE REVIEWS........................................................................ 3

MATERIALS AND METHODS Biological Studies of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................. 13 Life Table Studies of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................. 13 Predatory Capacity of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................. 14 The Predator-Prey Preference of Mallada basalis (Walker).................... 14 Mass Rearing Technique of Mallada basalis (Walker)......................... 16

RESULTS Biological Studies of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................. 19 Life Table Studies of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................. 33 Predation Capacity of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................. 38

ii TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page

The Predator-Prey Preference of Mallada basalis (Walker)................... 40 Mass Rearing Processes for Mallada basalis (Walker)........................ 42 Mass Rearing Technique of Mallada basalis (Walker)........................ 43

DISCUSSION................................................................................. 52

CONCLUSION............................................................................... 56

LITERATURE CITED....................................................................... 58

iii LIST OF TABLES

Table

page

1

Average width of head capsule of Mallada basalis (Walker)............................................................ 24

2

Duration of various development stages of Mallada basalis (Walker)........................................................... 31

3

Biological life table, age-specific fecundity rate, and net reproductive rate of increase (RO) of Mallada basalis (Walker)............................................................ 34

4

Population parameters calculated as biological attributes of Mallada basalis (Walker)........................................................... 36

5

Predation capacity of Mallada basalis (Walker) in successive stages of development............................................................. 39

6

Predator-Prey preference of Mallada basalis (Walker)........................ 41

7

The larval group-rearing of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs........................... 45

iv LIST OF TABLES (Continued)

Table

8

The larval group-rearing of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs .......................... 46

9

The larval mass rearing method of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs which provided at 1st, 6th and 8th days ............................................................. 48

10

The larval mass rearing method of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs which provided at 1st, 6th and 9th days.............................................................. 48

11

The comparison of the two mass rearing methods of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................................................................ 49

12

The comparison of the four mass rearing process of Mallada basalis (Walker)............................................................................... 51

v LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Page

1

Stock culture of adults and lavae of Mallada basalis (Walker)............... 12

2

Preys of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................................ 15

3

Egg of Mallada basalis (Walker).................................................. 20

4

Feeding behavior of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................. 21

5

The larval of Mallada basalis (Walker).......................................... 23

6

The relationship between the width of head capsules and the larval instar of Mallada basalis (Walker)........................................ 25

7

The cocoon of the pupa of Mallada basalis (Walker).......................... 26

8

The pupa of Mallada basalis (Walker)........................................... 26

9

Adult of Mallada basalis (Walker)................................................ 28

10

Abdomen shape of male (A) and female (B) adults of Mallada basalis (Walker)....................................................... 29

11

Life cycle of Mallada basalis (Walker).......................................... 32

vi LIST OF FIGURES (Continued)

Figure

Page

12

Egg curve of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Aphis craccivora Koch........................................................ 37

1 BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF GREEN LACEWING, MALLADA BASALIS (WALKER) (NEUROPTERA: CHRYSOPIDAE) AND MASS REARING TECHNIQUE

INTRODUCTION

Biological control has been the first control measure that many commercial growers paid attention to. Implementing of these organisms was safe to humans and environment where as the chemical usage affects to the environment, beneficial insects and human and also make the resistance of pests.

The green lacewings Mallada basalis (Walker) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is an important predator which is considered particularly effective at reducing several preys including of aphids, mites, thrips, whiteflies, eggs of leafhoppers, small caterpillars, scale and mealybugs. This predator has been commercially released as biological control agent for control many serious insect pests both in the open-field and especially in green houses in many countries. Mallada basalis has shown a good potential biological control agent in both areas. Although some aspects of the biology of M. basalis has been known, the others remain poorly understand, among these the prey preference in each larval instars and mass-rearing procedure has not been extensively studied in Thailand.

Thus, major of Neuroptera are predators in agroecosystem. The green lacewings Chrysopidae and Hemerobiidae are important to Integrated Pest

2 Management (IPM). Chrysopidae is the best studied Neuropteran and it had been extensively used as biological control agent, such as M. basalis. Furthermore, green lacewings, M. basalis can be mass reared in laboratory. Thus, the objective of this investigation emphasized on the biological attributes of the green lacewings, M. basalis and its role as a biological control agent. This investigation included biological study, life table study, predatory capacity, prey preference and mass rearing technique for used in augmentative biological control and IPM programme.

3 LITERATURE REVIEW

The Neuroptera (antlions and lacewings) is a small and ancient order of biologically diverse endopterygote (holometabolous) insects. Neuroptera consists of 18 families and about 6,000 described species (McEwen et al., 2001). Neuroptera has been inferred to have relevance in the biological control of a variety of arthropod pests and play a role in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Integrated Crop Management (ICM). Adults and larvae of most families are free-living predators. Many of them are generalist feeders and attack a wide variety of small arthropod preys (McEwen et al., 2001). The green lacewings, Chrysopidae, is the best studied Neuroptera and the most important in agricultural programmes of biological control (Henry, 1979; McEwen et al., 2001).

The green lacewings, Chrysopidae, is the most diverse family in Neuroptera. Three subfamilies, Nothochrysinae, Chrysopinae and Apochrysinae are in the family Chrysopidae. More than 79 genera are divided in Chrysopidae in which Chrysopinae is the most well known chrysopid species. The genera noted as of possible value as biological control agents are Anomalochrysa Maclachlan, Apertochrysa Tjeder, Brinckochrysa Tjeder, Ceratochrysa Tjeder, Chrysoperla Steinmann, Dichochrysa Yang, Meleoma Fitch, Nineta Navas, Plesiochrysa Adams and Rexa Navás (McEwen et al., 2001).

The green lacewings species of Chrysopidae which are the potential biological control agents are Chrysoperla carnae Stephens, Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister),

4 Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder), Chrysoperla oculata (Say)(Talisalo and Tuovinen, 1975; Marrec et al., 2002; Breene et al., 1992; Legaspi, 1994). Another important green lacewing named Mallada basalis (Walker) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is a predaceous insect in various agroecosystems in many countries and widely distributed from central Japan, Taiwan and Pacific coast (Yang et al., 1998).

Green Lacewing Biology

Green lacewings are generally green in body color and wings often with delicate tints of pink, green or blue. The wings of chrysopids are distinctive in that they have two seemingly zigzag veins (Mahr, 2000). The eyes are bright golden, brassy or reddish and called golden eyes (Sopa, 2003). Chrysopid adults may feed on honeydew, nectar, pollen and other insects (Riddway and Murphy, 1984). But the genus Mallada, adults feed on nectar and pollen, and the debris-carrying larvae are predator (Horne et al., 2001). The eggs are laid singly or in batches, with the form of deposition. Eggs are commonly stalked and often laid generally on vegetation or other substrate, but are sometime more associated with supplies of larval food. The larvae of most species are free-living predators. Many of green lacewings larvae are generalist feeders and take a wide variety of small arthropod prey. They are three larval instars during the developmental period. Pupation takes place within a silken cocoon. Pupae are decticous and exarate, and both the form of the cocoon. Adult are mostly fully winged and generally capable of flight. Many green lacewings are characteristically crepuscular or nocturnal (New, 2001).

5 The green lacewings, M. basalis is a natural enemy of several agricultural pests. This insect could complete an average of 10 generation in a year. On the average, the egg, larva and pupa took 4.4, 11.8 and 11.9 days, respectively to complete its stage. The life span of the female was 70.8 days and of the male was 76.9 days. Mallada basalis needed 28.1days to complete a life cycle. On average, each female adult could lay a total of 736.3 eggs. Under temperature from 15-30 oC. The time to complete a life cycle decreased with an increase of temperature, with the shortest at 30 oC (Chang, 2000).

Feeding of Green Lacewing

Saminathan et al. (1999) studied the biology and predatory potential of the green lacewing, C. carnae fed on different prey insects. The results showed that C. carnae feed on neonate larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (HÜbner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) had the longest duration of egg through pupal period while fed on Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), C. carnae would have the shortest duration of egg through pupal period. Bansod et al. (2000) reported that unsterilized eggs of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) were the most suitable food for rearing of C. carnea. Larval and pupal development was rapid when fed eggs of C. cephalonica and prolonged on neonates of H. armigera but duration of the adult period was greater when fed neonate larvae of H. armigera. Chrysoperla carnea fed more on eggs of the rice moth than on the nymphs of the other pests. The third instar of C. carnea was more voracious than the 1st and 2nd instars on all pests (Kamath et al., 2001). The larvae of C. carnea were raised on immature stages of the

6 greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). All stages of whitefly were consumed, but none of the lacewings survived to pupation. First instar of the green lacewings fed on whitefly eggs survived the longest. Eggs and first larval instar whitefly were eaten in the greatest quantities. They did not survive longer than those fed on whitefly eggs alone (Senior and McEwen, 1998). Mani and Krishnamoorthy (1999) studied on the development and predatory potential of Mallada astur (Banks) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) indicated that developmental time of M. astur larvae was longer when the nymphs of spiralling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) were provided as compared to developmental period when provided with eggs of the rice moth. The duration of larvae was the shortest when fed C. cephalonica and chrysopid larva consumed a total of 234.9 nymphs of A. dispersus during its larval development. Tesfaye and Gautum (2002) studied the survival of C. carnae larvae fed on A. craccivora, Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and C. cephalonica were 51.85, 80.95 and 86.67%, while cocoon weight as 11, 22 and 8 mg, respectively. Furthermore C. carnae that feed on leaf beetle eggs, Galerucella pusilla Duftschmidt (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) had lower survival rates, long developmental time and reduced adult weight. Galerucella pusilla eggs were suitable prey of C. carnae larvae completed developed (Wiebe and Obrycki, 2002). Moreover the hatchability of eggs of C. carnea was > 80% when on A. craccivora and eggs of C. cephalonica and Earias vittella (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Seminathan et al., 1999). The most suitable prey of C. carnae and Chrysoperla oculata Say (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) when C. carnae were fed European corn borer eggs, Ostrinia nubilalis (HÜbner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and black cutworm eggs, Agrotis

7 ipsilon Hufnagel (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The results showed that 65% of C. carnae died when reared on A. ipsion neonates and all died when fed O. nubilalis neonates. The most suitable prey, Rhapalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae) was most favorable of C. oculata (Obrycki et al., 1989). The first larvae of Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were fed Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae), larvae developed to adulthood. All larvae died prematurely when they were fed Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) (Homoptera: Aphididae) (Chen and Liu, 2001).

Oviposition of Green Lacewing

The female begins to move the tip of the abdomen up and down repeatedly. Then the tip of the abdomen touches the surface and a drop of clear gelatinous substance is placed on the surface. Then it raises the tip of the abdomen carefully and the liquid pulled out to form a thin, longish and colourless thread. Now the egg appears and is held on the tip of the harden stalk and the female moves away (Manomuth, 1997). The females of Chrysoperla comanche (Banks) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) showed a significant preference for ovipositing on plants bearing aphids, but only C. comanche distinguished between the two aphid species Monellia caryella (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Homoptera: Aphididae). Both aphid species were suitable for larval development and developmental time was not affected by aphid treatment (Petersen and Hunter, 2002).

8 Oviposition period and oviposition rate were affected significantly due to variations in prey species, while pre-oviposition and post-oviposition periods, hatchability and sex ratio were unaffected, such as C. carnea adults laid a maximum of 1,079.0 eggs per female when reared on C. cephalonica followed by D. melanogaster and A. craccivora with 582.0 and 172.8 eggs per female, respectively. Based on these studies, D. melanogaster appears to be promising for mass production of the predator (Tesfaye and Gautam, 2002) but C. carnea adults oviposited a maximum of 318.40 eggs when reared on A. craccivora collected from cowpeas (Saminathan et al., 1999).

Mass Rearing of Green Lacewing

The aphid predator, Chrysopa pallens Rambur (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), was reared on artificial diets containing chicken egg yolk, yeast hydrolysate, brewer's yeast or Vanderzant's vitamin mixture, sucrose and/or bee honey, casein hydrolysate, and cholesterol. Twenty to seventy percent of the 1st-instar larvae developed to apparently normal adults (Young et al., 1999). Okada et al. (1974) reported that six successive generations of Chrysopa septempunctata Wesmale (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were reared by feeding only pulverized drone honeybee brood and water. The maximum life span was 166 days, and the maximum number of eggs per F3 female was 2,228. Ye and Cheng (1986) studied the eggs of C. cephalonica were sensitive to ultraviolet light and exposure of 24-h-old eggs to a 20-W ultraviolet-light source at a distance of 20 cm for 25 min produced 100% mortality. The result showed that the green lacewings, Chrysopa sinica (Tjeder) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) reared on such irradiated eggs developed normally for 3 successive generations and

9 average rate of cocoon formation and adult emergence were 73.3-80.0 and 82.686.9%, respectively. Manomuth (1997) studied the efficiency of the larval grouprearing method. The result showed the highest percentage for mature adult production, pupation and emergence was obtained from the larval feeding-pupation unit (LFOU) containing shredded tissue paper for Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), C. sinica and M. basalis.

Using Green Lacewings in Augmentation Biological Control Programmes and IPM

The predatory chrysopid, M. basalis has recently been used as biological control agent primarily against Acari spp. on several crops in Taiwan (Cheng and Chen, 1996). Change and Huang (1995) studied to evaluate the effectiveness of using the predator M. basalis for the control of tetranychid mites on strawberries and the

results showed that 60 to 90% of Tetranychus kanzawai (Arachnida: Tetranychidae) population and 50 to 90% of the Tetranychus urticae Koch (Arachnida: Tetranychidae) population were suppressed by the green lacewings. This result was not only saved the cost of control up to more than US $233/hactare, but also increased fruit production by 15% and that of first class fruit by 7.7%. Broadley and Thomas (1995) reported that Mallada signata (Schneider) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were used controlling aphids, two spotted mites T. urticae, green house whitefly T. vaporariorum, moth eggs and small caterpillars. Release rates were 500-1000 lacewing larvae per hectare in field crop. For nurseries, a release rate of 1-5 lacewings larvae per plant were recommended. Tulisalo and Tuovinen (1975)

10 reported that C. carnea were used in the greenhouse in Finland for the biological control of M. persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) (Homoptera: Aphididae) on green peppers and for successful control, a ratio of one egg to 1.3 aphids was necessary. Methew et al. (1999) C. carnea is highly predaceous to cardamom aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa f. caladii (Homoptera: Aphididae). The second instar larvae of C. carnea and adult aphids were released into glass bottles containing cardamom leaves. The resulted showed that predator: prey ratio of 1: 5 was significantly superior to the other ratios, with 78.33% predation. Marrec et al. (2002) reported that Ministry of Agriculture in Brittany (Northwestern France) has been studying IPM on strawberries with green lacewings. Chrysoperla kolthoffi (Navás) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) has been studied on the early crop in greenhouses. Adult releases of C. kolthoffi were tested for the first time. Chrysoperla kolthoffi eggs and larvae were observed in the crop for ten weeks after adult release. Chrysoperla kolthoffi can establish in the greenhouse. Furthermore the first and second instar larvae, Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were evaluated as biological control agent for sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), on Hibiscus rosa-sinnensis L. in greenhouse. Bemisia tabaci were control by releases of 25 or 50 C. rufilabris larvae per plant at an interval of 2 weeks (Breene et al., 1992). Riddway and Murphy (1984) reported that the release of second instar of chrysopid larvae on peppers to control the green peach aphid, and the cowpea aphid, A. craccivora was highly successful. The result showed that the aphid numbers were reduced 94 to 98% six days after colonization, and yields of peppers were increased by 13%.

11 MATERIALS AND METHODS

Stock Culture of Aphis craccivora Koch

The original stock culture of A. craccivora was collected from yard-long bean plantation. Aphis craccivora was reared on cowpea in nursery. By this method it was possible to maintain a stock culture of A. craccivora as adequacy as a food source preys of M. basalis for other experimental purposes.

Stock Culture of Mallada basalis (Walker)

Larvae of M. basalis were collected from fields and were kept in the cylindrical plastic boxes, 23 cm diameter by 11 cm height, with tightly fitting lids having a 10cm diameters circular wire-mesh screen for ventilation (Figure 1A). All stages of A. craccivora were daily provided as food for M. basalis larvae until they became pupae. When M. basalis adults emerged, they were transferred to the cylindrical poly vinyl chloride tube (PVC tube), measuring of 30 cm diameter by 40 cm height for mating and oviposition (Figure 1B). Both side of each tube were covered with fine cotton clothes and held by round rubber. Mallada basalis adults were fed by honey mixed with yeast (1:1) and water supplied on cotton pads that were hung on the top of the tube. Adult diet was supplied daily.

12

A

B

Figure 1 Stock culture of the adults and the lavae of Mallada basalis (Walker) under laboratory condition (25+2 °C and 75±2 % RH). A = The plastic boxes for rearing the larval stage B = The PVC tubes for the adults rearing and oviposition

13 Biological Studies of Mallada basalis (Walker)

The life history of M. basalis was studied by using 20 newly eggs from the stock culture and placed the eggs in petri-dish, 9 cm diameter, until the larvae hatched. The neonate larvae were placed individually into plastic cups, 8 cm diameter by 5 cm height. Ten, 30 and more than 50 of A. craccivora nymphs were provided to the first, second and third larval instars of M. basalis, respectively. The observation was done daily and life history data was recorded throughout the developmental period. Body measurements of each stage were measured by micrometer under compound microscope.

Newly emerged M. basalis female and male adults were coupled in an opened cylinder, 11x18 cm, which covered by with fine cotton clothes and held by round rubber gauge on both ends. Honey mixed with yeast (1:1) was provided as a diet to adults. Oviposition performance and longevity of mated female and male were investigated.

Life Table Study of Mallada basalis (Walker)

Biological Life Table

Study on biological life table of M. basalis was carried out by using 200 newly laid eggs and provided A. craccivora as a food source of the larvae.

14 In each set of the study was reared as the method as described. The number of larvae and adults survived and the number of laid eggs was recorded every day until the adults died. The recorded data was used for the construction of the biological life table using technique given by Laughlin (1965).

Predatory Capacity of Mallada basalis (Walker)

The evaluation of an effectiveness of M. basalis larvae under the laboratory conditions were studied by determining its capacity of predation. The twenty individuals of M. basalis larvae were confined individually in the cylindrical plastic boxes, 8 cm diameter and 5 cm in height with a lids having hole. The known number of first stage of A. craccivora was provided as a food source of M. basalis larvae at approximately the same time everyday. The number of A. craccivora which were consumed during each larval stage were observed and recorded daily.

The Predator-Prey Preference of Mallada basalis (Walker)

The prey preference of M. basalis was studied by using 100 larvae of the first, second and third instars from stock culture. The larva was placed individually in petridish, 9 cm diameter, with twenty nymphs of A. craccivora, Thrips palmi Karny, Tetranychus sp. and Meconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) each as preys (Fiture 2).

15

A

B

C

D

Figure 2 Preys of Mallada basalis (Walker) A. Aphis craccivora Koch B. Thrips palmi Karny C. Tetranychus sp. D. Meconellicoccus hirsutus (Green)

16 The observation was focused on the first species of three consumed by M. basalis. The frequency of each chosen was recorded.

Mass Rearing Technique of Mallada basalis (Walker)

The mass rearing technique of M. basalis was constructed with 300 newly hatched larvae fed by the U.V.-sterilized Corcyra cephalonica eggs. The experiment comprised of four food providing processes:

Process 1: Eight gram of C. cephalonica eggs and 300 newly eggs of M. basalis were together put in the rearing box and let the rearing through pupation and adult emergence.

Process 2: Nine gram of C. cephalonica eggs and 300 newly eggs of M. basalis were together put in the rearing box and let the rearing through pupation and adult emergence.

Process 3: Nine gram of C. cephalonica eggs were separated into 2 methods which the prey eggs were separated fed twice.

Method 1: The eggs of C. cephalonica were separated into 3 g and 6 g. Three gram C. cephalonica eggs were provided together with 300 newly eggs of M. basalis in the first

17 day and the 6g was provided in 5, 6 and 7 days later. The different second fed dates were investigated.

Method 2: The eggs of C. cephalonica were separated into 4.5 g and 4.5 g. Four point five gram C. cephalonica eggs were provided together with 300 newly eggs of M. basalis in the first day and the rest 4.5g was provided in 5, 6 and 7 days later. The different second fed dates were investigated.

Process 4: Nine gram of C. cephalonica eggs were separated into three methods which provided into 3 times.

Method 1: The eggs of C. cephalonica were separated into 1, 4 and 4 g. One gram of C. cephalonica eggs and 300 eggs of M. basalis were together provided in the first day. Another 4 g were provided in the sixth day and the rest 4 g were provided in the eighth and the ninth days later. The different third fed dates were investigated.

Method 2: The eggs of C. cephalonica were separated into 2, 3 and 4 g. Two gram of C. cephalonica eggs and 300 eggs of M. basalis were together provided in the first day. The 3 g were provided in sixth day and the rest of 4 g were

18 provided in the eighth and the ninth days later. The different third fed dates were investigated.

Method 3: The eggs of C. cephalonica were evenly separated into 3 g. Three gram of C. cephalonica eggs and 300 eggs of M. basalis were together provided in the first day. Another 3 g were provided in sixth day and the rest of 3 g were provided the eighth and the ninth days later. The different third fed dates were investigated.

The amount of pupae and the emerged adults in the different third fed dates were investigated in the latter methods.

PLACES AND DURATION

All studied were conducted in the laboratory at the National Biological Control Research Center (NBCRC), Central Regional Center (CRC), Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom during May 2004 to March 2005

19 RESULTS

Biological Studies of Mallada basalis (Walker)

Egg

Eggs of M. basalis (Figure 3) were laid in single and in loose groups with the stalk attached on plant leaves and stem. The individual egg was oval, long slender stalk, pale green in color and gray before hatch. The stalk measured 3.4±0.532 mm in length and the egg measured 0.343±0.01 mm in width and 0.74±0.015 mm in length. A micropyle was presented on the apical end of the egg.

Larva

The larva of M. basalis had three larval instar. Larva was campodeiform but sometime what fusiform. The head was prognathous. Each eye had composed of six dark stemmata. They were modified mandibulate mouthparts, mandibles and maxillae were curved and closely associated on each side to form a channel for passage of food (Figure 4). The tips of mouthparts on each side were medially convergent thorax had three segments. The abdomen covers with more numerous long hooked setae to help retention of the packet of debris. There were nine pairs of spiracles, one on the between

20

1 mm

Figure 3 The egg stage of Mallada basalis (Walker)

21

Figure 4 Feeding behavior of Mallada basalis (Walker) larvae

22 prothorax and mesothorax and eight on the abdominal segments. There were three pairs of subequal legs and are characterize by a trumpet-shaped empodium between the paired claws, enabling the tips of the legs to be anchored to the substrate. The larvae were predatory immediately after emergence. The first larva which newly hatched were pale brown (Figure 5A). The body measured 0.316±0.044 mm in width and 1.133±0.129 mm in length. The second instar larva was brown (Figure 5B), thorax and abdomen had many setae. The body measured 0.958+0.188 mm in width and 3.540±0.664 mm in length. The third instar larva was turbid white (Figure 5C). The body measured 1.088±0.104 mm in width and 0.864±0.328 mm in length. The larva was light white and it curled up before pupation. Larvae in each subsequent instar assumed the grow increment as expressed by the increasing width of head capsule. A geometric progression with an average ratio was 2.417 (Table 1), and conformed the Dyar 's Law (pooled 2 = 0.091, df = 2; P< 0.01). The linear relationship of the width of head capsule and the larval stage of development was obtained through the three instar as illustrated in Fiture 6.

Pupa

Mature larvae were spin a ovoid cocoon of white silk. The antennae are rolled laterally near the wingpads and over debris on cocoon. The cocoon of the pupa measured 2.694±0.059 mm in width and 3.078±0.187 mm in length (Figure 7). The pupa is exarate with freely moveable legs (Figure 8). The pupa was developed inside the ovoid cocoon which consisted of numerous layers of whitish silk and fiber varies in thickness. The cocoon was firmly stuck on the leaf or fastened to the substrate

23

A

0.4 mm

B

1 mm

C

1 mm

Figure 5 The larval stages of Mallada basalis (Walker) A. First instar larva of M. basalis B. Second instar larva of M. basalis C. Third instar larva of M. basalis

Table 1 Average width head capsule of Mallada basalis (Walker) in successive three larval instars (n=20)

Width of head capsule (mm) Larval instar Mean±S.D. Range

Head capsule growth ratio

Calculated width of head capsule (mm) 2

Instar I

0.154±0.139

0.033-0.300 3.409

0.154

0

Instar II

0.525±0.072

0.400-0.650 1.425

0.372

0.0629274

Instar III

0.748±0.036

0.700-0.800

-

0.899

0.0284302

Mean geometric progression = 2.417

Pooled 2 = 0.0913576

24

25

WIDTH OF HEAD CAPSOLE (mm)

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 I II III

LARVAL INSTARS

Figure 6 The relationship between the width of head capsules and the larval instar of Mallada basalis (Walker)

26

0.5 mm

Figure 7 The cocoon of the pupa of Mallada basalis (Walker)

1 mm

Figure 8 The pupa of Mallada basalis (Walker) taken out from cocoon

27 by a loose irregular web. The pupae had chitinised mandiles which bite a round lid in the cocoon for emergence.

Adult

Adult of green lacewing (Figure 9) is pale green in body. The head has not ocelli but the bright golden compound eyes were prominent. The antennae are long, multisegmented and filifrom. The scape has stripes on the basal segment of the antennae. Adult has chewing mouthpart. The maxillary palps are pale with 5-segmented and the labial palps with 3-segmented. The wings are large, broadly oval, though the hind wing in rather narrower. The wings are roof like on the thorax when at rest. The legs are long, slender with 5-segmented, tarsi and cursorial legs. The abdomens has 9-segmented in both sexes. The spiracles are present on the first to eight segments. The female is slightly larger than the male in size. Abdomen shape of male and female adult showed (Figure 10A, 10B). The average size of male M. basalis from head to the tip of abdomen was 9.021±0.812 mm, ranging from 8.125 to 10 mm in length and average width from thorox was 0.979±0.051 mm, ranging from 0.875 to1 mm. The average size of female from head to the tip of abdomen was 10.179±0.305 mm, ranging from 9.750 to 10.625 mm in length and average width from thorox was 1.536±0.157 mm, ranging from 1.250 to 1.750 mm. The preoviposition period was 5.400±1.095 days, ranging from 4 to 7 days.

28

2 mm

Figure 9 Adult of Mallada basalis (Walker) male

29

A

0.5 mm

B

0.5 mm

Figure 10 The abdomen shape of male (A) and female (B) adults of Mallada basalis (Walker)

30 Duration of Developmental Stages

The oviposition period of M. basalis was 43.667±6.506 days, ranging from 37 to 44 days. The number of eggs laid per female averaged 466.333±74.389 eggs, ranging from 418 to 552 eggs. The incubation period was 2.300±0.483 days, ranging from 2 to 3 days under laboratory condition (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH).

The larva of M. basalis has three larval instars. The duration of each successive instar from the first to the third larval instar were 2.383±0.515 days, ranging from 2 to 3 days; 2.230±0.439 days, ranging from 2 to 3 days; 4.444±1.013 days, ranging from 3 to 5 days respectively. The total period of larval stage was 8.570±0.750 days, ranging from 7 to 10 days. The duration of prepupa stage was 1.350±0.490 days, ranging form 1 to 2 days. The duration of pupal stage was 9.200±0.447 days, ranging from 9 to 10 days. The longevity of adult male and female were 26.667±12.858 days, ranging from 15 to 39 days and 42.669±13.590 days, ranging from 35 to 71 days respectively. The duration of developmental period of M. basalis was illustrated in Table 2 and Figure 11.

31 Table 2 Duration of various developmental stage of Mallada basalis (Walker) under laboratory condition (25+2 °C and 75+2 % RH).

Stage of development

No. of Insects

Mean±S.D. (days)

Range (days) 2-3

Egg: Larvae: Instar I Instar II Instar III Total larval period: Prepupa Pupa: Adult: Male Female

20

2.300±0.483

20 20 18 18 18 14

2.383±0.515 2.230±0.439 4.444±1.013 8.570±0.750 1.350±0.490 9.200±0.447

2-3 2-3 3-5 7-10 1-2 9-10

5 9

29.667±12.858 52.667±13.590

15-39 35-71

32

Egg

2-3 days 4-7 days

Larva

1st

Adult

2-3 days

2nd

9-10 days

2-3 days

3-5 days

3rd

Pupa

Figure 11 Life cycle of Mallada basalis (Walker)

33 Life Table Study of Mallada basalis (Walker)

Biological Life Table

The biological life table of M. basalis obtained in this study was illustrated in Table 3 when it fed with A. craccivora. Various population parameters calculated from this table were: the net reproductive rate of increase (Ro) = 97.905, the capacity for increase (rc) = 0.133, the finite rate of increase () = 1.142 and the cohort generation time (Tc) = 34.525 days. From these parameters it was calculated that the population of M. basalis could multiply 97.05 times in each generation or the population could multiply 1.142 times in three days. The mean length of a generation time was 34.525 days. The population parameter in term of biological attributes of M. basalis was illustrated in Table 4.

The egg curves of M. basalis from biological life table when fed with A. craccivora constructed by plotting lxmx against age intervals (x) was illustrated in Figure 12. The oviposition period was about 45 days when fed with A. craccivora. The number of eggs laid was maximum in the 6th days of the oviposition period and the eggs deposition declined thereafter.

34 Table 3 Biological life table, age-specific fecundity rates, and the net reproductive rate of increase (R0) of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Aphis craccivora Koch under laboratory condition (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH). Pivotal Age in days (x) 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63 Proportion at1/ birth of female being alive at age (x)(lx) 1.000 0.955 0.815 0.720 0.660 0.660 0.660 0.660 0.620 0.610 0.575 0.550 0.500 0.435 0.340 0.275 0.245 0.245 0.135 0.105 0.085 0.065 Age-specific2/ fecundity (egg//x) (mx) 20.089 28.426 24.957 22.355 20.280 18.529 24.675 12.182 20.612 10.939 10.296 7.476 3.882 8.308 Immature stage 298.920 468.180 430.500 405.735 365.040 314.340 352.380 150.750 242.400 136.680 75.060 44.745 19.800 34.020 Egg-curve3/ (lxmx) lxmx.x

12.455 17.340 14.350 12.295 10.140 8.060 8.390 3.350 5.050 2.680 1.390 0.785 0.330 0.540

35 Table 3 (continued)

Pivotal Age in days (x)

Proportion at1/ birth of female being alive at age(x) (lx)

Age-specific2/ fecundity (egg//x) (mx)

Egg-curve3/ (lxmx) lxmx.x

66 69

0.020 0.020

18.750 18.750

0.375 0.375 Ro = lxmx 97.905

24.750 25.875 3389.175

1/ 2/ 3/

The probability of individual being alive at the beginning of the age-interval The number of female eggs or offspring for each age-interval After Laughlin (1965)

36 Table 4 Population parameters calculated as biological attributes of Mallada basalis (Walker)

Biological attribute

Formula

Calculated value

Net reproductive rate of increase (Ro)

lxmx

x=0

97.905

Capacity for increase (rc)

loge RO Tc

0.133

Finite rate of increase ()

antiloge rc

1.142

Cohort generation time (Tc)(days)

lxmx.x lxmx

x=0

34.525

37

20 15

lxm x 10

5 0

0 15 30 x (days) 45 60

Figure 12 Egg curve of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Aphis craccivora Koch under laboratory condition (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH).

38 Predation Capacity of Mallada basalis (Walker)

Predation capacity of M. basalis at various stages was illustrated in Table 5. The first instar larva consumed on average 18.33±7.33 aphids, ranging from 9 to 32 aphids. The second instar larva consumed on average 44.85±16.80 aphids, ranging from 26 to 75 aphids. The third instar larva consumed on average 223.08±77.23 aphids, ranging from 100 to 315 aphids. Throughout the larval period each larval consumed on average 284.92±86.77 aphids, ranging from 9 to 315 aphids, respectively. The difference between predation capacity mean of the larval each stage were highly significant from Duncan 's New Multiple Range Test.

39 Table 5 Predation capacity of Mallada basalis (Walker) in successive three stages of development as expressed by number of Aphis craccivora Koch consumed under laboratory condition (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH). Insect No. I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Mean **1/ S.D. Range C.V. 15 11 13 18 10 17 15 20 20 14 18 24 21 22 20 11 20 9 15 15 16.400a 4.272 9-22 26.049 Larval Instars II 56 56 45 54 55 48 60 57 58 49 53 69 51 55 42 43 56 64 57 59 54.350b 6.638 42-69 12.296 III 362 280 207 289 306 318 358 317 281 299 300 272 286 239 258 329 238 301 254 319 295.650c 40.678 207-362 13.759

**1/ Difference between any two means not followed by the same subscripts are significant at 0.01 level.

40 Predator-Prey Preference of Mallada basalis (Walker)

The predator-prey preference of each larval instar of M. basalis was evaluated. The results showed that the first instar larvae preferred M. hirsutus, A. craccivora, Tetranychus sp. and T. palmi and the consumed rates were 45, 27, 25 and 3 preys, respectively. The second instar larvae preferred M. hirsutus, A. craccivora, Tetranychus sp. and T. palmi and the consumed rates were 45, 38, 13 and 4 preys, respectively. While the third instar larvae preferred A. craccivora, M. hirsutus, Tetranychus sp., they were not consumed T. palmi. The consumed rates were 74, 23 and 3 preys, respectively.

These indicated that the first and second instar larvae preferred as same as the prey series and M. hirsutus was the most prefer consumption. On the other hand, the third instar larvae preferred A. craccivora for consumption (Table 6).

41 Table 6 Predator-prey preference of Mallada basalis (Walker) in the choice test consisted of Aphis craccivora Koch, Thrips palmi Karny, Tetranychus sp.and Meconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) under laboratory condition (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH). No. of M. basalis Kind of pests Instar I 27 3 25 45 Instar II 38 4 13 45 Instar III 74 0 3 23

A. craccivora T. palmi Tetranychus sp. M. hirsutus

Total

100

100

100

42 Mass Rearing Processes for Mallada basalis (Walker)

1. Eggs of M. basalis 300 (0.025 g of weight) were kept in cylindrical plastic boxes, 23 cm diameter by 11 cm height, with tightly fitting lids having a 10 cm diameters circular wire-mesh screen for ventilation. Each cylindrical plastic box had been filled with shredded tissue paper to prevent cannibalism of larvae. 2. U.V.- sterilized C. cephalonica eggs were provided as food for M. basalis larvae until they became papae (about 9 g/plastic boxes). 3. Newly emerged M. basalis adults were kept in cylindrical Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC) tube, measuring of 30 cm diameter by 40 cm height for mating and oviposition. Both side of each tube were covered with fine cotton clothes and held by round rubber. Water and yeast: honey, 1:1 were daily provided as a diet to adults.

4. After 4-7 days emeraged of M. basalis adults were transferred to new cylinders boxes. Mallada basalis adults were provided by water and yeast: honey, 1:1 everyday. 5. The old cylindrical PVC tubes were dipped into sodium hypochlorite solution for 30 seconds and remove to the water bath. The sodium hypochlorite solution loosen the eggs and the eggs fall to bottom and are carried out of the water bath to be collected on the organza filter. Finally, the organza filter was dried and the eggs were collected and stored. 6. The green lacewings eggs were stored at 10±2 °C.

43 Mass rearing technique of Mallada basalis (Walker)

Quantitative data from all experiments were analyzed with Anova (SAS for Window 1997). Comparisons among all treatment means were made with the Duncan 's New Multible Test. The mass rearing of M. basalis were showed as the results as below:

Process 1: When provided 8 g of C. cephalonica eggs and 300 eggs of M. basalis in one time. The result showed that the mean number of pupae and adults of M. basalis were 178.333±15.503 and 137±14.526, respectively.

Process 2: When provided 9 g of C. cephalonica eggs and 300 eggs of M. basalis in one time. The result showed that the means number of pupae and adults of M. basalis were 166.333±7.024 and 128.333±13.868 respective.

Process 3: Nine gram of C. cephalonica eggs were separated into two batches.

Method 1: Three gram of C. cephalonica eggs and 300 eggs of M. basalis were provided in the first day and the rest of 6 g of C. cephalonica eggs were provided 5, 6 and 7 days later. The result showed that non significant difference. Means of the number of pupae and adults of M. basalis were shown in Table 7.

44 Method 2: Four point five gram of C. cephalonica eggs and 300 eggs of M. basalis were provided in the first day and the rest of 4.5 g of C. cephalonica eggs were 5, 6 and 7 days later. The results showed that non significant difference. Means of the number of pupae and adults of M. basalis obtained were illustrated in Table 7.

When compared the 2 methods of rearing, the result showed that significant difference. Means of the number of pupae and adults of M. basalis obtained were illustrated in Table 8.

45 Table 7 The larval group-rearing of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs consumed under different rearing methods under laboratory conditions (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH).

Time intervals (days) Amount of food (g) Second time from the first time (days) 5 6 7 F-test Two batches (4.5 and 4.5 g) 5 6 7 F-test Pupa

Mean±S.D Adult 147.000±14.799 123.330±24.786 131.670±3.055 ns 169.667±7.234 176.000±7.937 172.000±3.464 ns

Two batches (3 and 6 g)

158.670±15.177 129.670±26.312 139.670±3.215 ns 135.667±11.935 189.667±8.083 180.000±2.000 ns

ns = non significant difference (P>0.05)

46 Table 8 The larval group-rearing of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs consumed under different rearing methods under laboratory conditions (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH).

Amount of food (g) Pupa 3 and 6 g 4.5 and 4.5 g F-test 142.667±19.900a 185.111±8.403b *

Mean±S.D Adult 134.000±17.854a 172.556±6.287b *

Values in columns followed by same letter are not significantly different (Duncan 's New Multible Test, P<0.05)

47 4. 9 g C. cephalonica eggs were separated into 3 different batches of 1-4-4 g, 2-3-4 g and 3-3-3 g and provided in the 1st, 6th and 8th days. The result showed that non significant difference were found between number of pupae and number of adults of three batches. Means of the number of pupae and adults of M. basalis obtained were illustrated in Table 9.

The method which separated the food source into 3 batches as of 1-4-4 g, 2-34 g and 3-3-3 g and provided them in the 1st, 6th and 9th days. The result showed that non significant difference were found between number pupae and number adults of three group. Means of the number of pupae and adults of M. basalis obtained were illustrated in Table 10.

The comparison of the two methods in the method 4 showed that when the separated batches 2-3-4 g of food provided in the 1st-6th-8th days and 1st-6th-9th days were highly significant difference.

The batch 3-3-3g provided in the 1st-6th-8th days and 1st-6th-9th days showed significant difference. While the batch 1-4-4 g which provided in two kinds time into showed non significant difference for Duncan 's New Multible Test (Table 11).

48 Table 9 The larval mass rearing method of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs which provided at 1st, 6th and 8th days consumed under different rearing methods under laboratory conditions (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH).

Mean±S.D of M. basalis obtained Amount of food (g) series Pupa 1, 4 and 4 2, 3 and 4 3,3 and 3 F-test 226.333±13.051 260.000±66.214 245.330±23.502 ns Adult 217.667±9.866 241.330±16.289 228.670±12.342 ns

Table 10 The larval mass rearing method of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs which provided at 1st, 6th and 9th days consumed under different rearing methods under laboratory conditions (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH).

Mean±S.D of M. basalis obtained Amount of food (g) series Pupa 1, 4 and 4 2,3 and 4 3,3 and 3 F-test 162.333±50.895 164.330±75.935 159.970±34.152 ns Adult 144.333±44.814 153.330±48.787 134.330±33.710 ns

ns = non significant difference (P>0.05)

49 Table 11 The comparison of the two mass rearing methods of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs under laboratory conditions (25±2°C and 75±2% RH).

Amount of food (g) series Time intervals (days) Second 6 1, 4 and 4 6 F-test 6 2, 3 and 4 6 F-test 6 3, 3 and 3 6 F-test 8 9 8 9 Third 8 9 Mean±S.D of M. basalis obtained Pupa 226.333±13.051 162.333±50.895 ns 260.000±66.214a 164.330±75.935b ** 245.330±23.502a 159.970±34.152b * Adult 217.667±9.866 144.333±44.814 ns 241.330±16.289a 153.330±48.787b ** 228.670±12.342a 134.330±33.710b *

ns = non significant difference (P>0.05)

Values in columns followed by same letter are not significantly different (Duncan 's New Multible Test, P<0.05)

50 When compared between 4 process of mass rearing of M. basalis including 8 g eggs provided only one time, 9 g eggs provided only one time, separated into a half (4.5 and 4.5 g) provided twice and separated into 2, 3, 4 g provided on 1st, 6th, 8th days after larvae hatched showed the result in significant difference (Table 12).

The indicated that the method which separated C. cephalonica eggs into three batches (2, 3, 4 g) and provided to the larvae in the 1st, 6th, 8th days was the best process for mass rearing of this study. When used this process, we could obtained 260.000+66.214 pupae and 241.330+16.289 adults from 300 eggs of M. basalis with adult received rate of 80.44%.

51 Table 12 The comparison of the four mass rearing process of Mallada basalis (Walker) when fed with Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton) eggs under laboratory conditions (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH).

Processes

Mean±S.D of M. basalis obtained Pupa Adult 137.000±14.526a 128.333±13.868a 172.556±6.287b 241.330±16.289c

1. 8 g provided 2. 9 g provided 3. 4.5 and 4.5 provided 4. 2, 3 and 4 provided (1st , 6th, 8th days) F-test

178.333±15.503a 166.333±7.024a 185.111±8.403b 260.000±66.214c

*

*

Values in columns followed by same letter are not significantly different (Duncan 's New Multible Test, P<0.05)

52 DISCUSSION

The study on feeding of the green lacewings, Mallada basalis (Walker) on A. craccivora in laboratory conditions at 25+2 °C and 75±2 % RH. The egg incubation period was 2-3 days. The larval period was 7-10 days. The pupal period was 9-10 days. The longevity of male and female adult were 15-39 days and 35-71 days. Female was capable of laying 418-552 eggs. Form this study obtained similar to studied by Sopha (2003) at 25±5 °C and 57±5 % RH found that the larval period was 8.12 days, the pupal period was 9.15 days. The longevity of female and male were 39.83 and 41.31 days. Female was capable of laying 143.61 eggs when fed on corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum madis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae) from corn strain Roundup Ready Corn. The different result obtained, Chang (2000) studied in laboratory at 15-30 °C, the egg, larva and pupa stages was 4.4, 11.8 and 11.9 days, respectively. The longevity of male and female adults were 76.9 and 70.8 days respectively. Each female adult could lay a total of 736.3 eggs/days. These difference could be due to the laboratory condition and the use of different preys. Chrysoperla carnae Stephens, egg, larval, pupa average were 2.35, 8.22 and 8.02 days when reared on A. craccivora. Female adults oviposited a maximum of 318.40 eggs (Saminathan et al., 1999). This result different to Tesfaye and Gautum (2002), who reported that C. carnae adult laid a maximum of 172.8 eggs per female when reared on A. craccivora.

53 The biological life table studies and calculation of biological attribute revealed that M. basalis, when fed with A. craccivora had the net reproductive rate of increase (Ro) = 97.905. From this study obtained different to studied by Sopa (2003) at 25±5

°

C and 57±5 % RH found that M. basalis fed on corn leaf aphid, R. madis had the net

reproductive rate of increase (Ro) = 20.96. These differences may come from the difference laboratory conditions, size of aphids, stage of aphids and prey-preference. Results of this study indicate that A. craccivora were suitable prey for M. basalis because they survived successfully to adult emergence.

Predation capacity of M. basalis in this investigation when fed with A. craccivora. The first, second and third instars consumed on average 18.333, 44.846 and 223.077 aphids respectively. The number of aphids obtained varied greatly from study by Sopa (2003) at 25±5 °C and 57±5 % RH when fed on corn leaf aphid, R. madis. The first, second and third instars consumed on average 23.92, 50.64 and 389.80 aphids, respectively. These differences could be due to the laboratory condition and the use of different preys. The investigation on predation capacity of M. basalis revealed that the second and third instar was feeding high. So, the second instar was suitable for controlling A. craccivora. Thus, M. basalis has great potential as a predator of A. craccivora and soft-bodied arthropod in agroecosystems.

The predator-prey preference of each larval instar of M. basalis was evaluated. This indicated that larvae majority preference is A. craccivora and M. hirsutus. The lacewings larvae did not prefer T. palmi. These could be utilized for

54 further on biological control for controlling A. craccivora, M. hirsutus and Tetranychus sp. on vegetable crop and orchard crop in Thailand.

The mass rearing of M. basalis for used in augmentative biological control and IPM programme. Food quality has a major influence on the success of mass rearing. Results of biological life table indicated that A. craccivora were suitable prey for M. basalis. But food (A. craccivora) and labor costs were an important aspect of mass production because the A. craccivora must be changed every one or two days due to the high humidity from leaf of cowpea and make the rearing boxes susceptible to mold that effect larvae and pupae. Moreover, predaceous insect are difficult to rear together in large numbers because of cannibalism. Finally, the rice moth eggs, C. cephalonica were used as food for mass rearing of green lacewings larvae. Bansod and Sarode (2000) also reported that unsterilized eggs of C. cephalonica were the most suitable food for rearing of C. carnea from which larval and pupal development was rapid. Furthermore, Kamath et al. (2001) studied on the efficiency of C. carnea by comparing several of pests and found that C. carnea fed more on eggs of the rice moth than on the nymphs of the other pests. Corcyra cephalonica eggs were provided for only one time. Results of this study indicated that amount of pupae and the emerged adults lower provided two times and three times. Because the food are not enough from quality of C. cephalonica. Thus, the effect cannibalism of larvae or failed to spin cocoons.

55 This indicated that the method which separated C. cephalonica eggs into three batches (2, 3, 4 g) and provided to the larvae in three times intervals; 1st, 6th, 8th days was the best process for mass rearing of this study. Within this process, could obtain around 260 pupae and 241 adults from 300 eggs of M. basalis with adult received rate of 80.44%. As the result obtained by Tesfaye et al. (2002) who found that the survival of C. carnae larvae fed on C. cephalonica were 86.67%. Moreover, the hatchability of eggs of C. carnea was > 80% when fed on eggs of C. cephalonica (Seminathan et al., 1999).

With this rearing technique, it should be fit in augmentation of M. basalis mass production in order to utilize as a biological agent for aphid control.

56 CONCLUSION

The green lacewing, M. basalis was carried out under laboratory conditions (25±2 °C and 75±2 % RH). The eggs of M. basalis were laid in single in loose groups with the stalk on plant leaves and stem. Adults was capable of laying 466.333±74.389 eggs, during an oviposition period of 43.667±6.506 days. The eggs stage was 2.300±0.483 days. The duration of developmental stages from first instar to third instar average 2.383±0.515, 2.230±0.439, 4.444±1.013 respectively. The larva moulted three times and the total period of larval stage was 8.570±0.750 days. The growth increment of larva based on the width of the head capsule, assumed a geometric progression with a ratio being 2.417. The pupal stage was 9.200±0.447 days. The longevity of adult male and female were 29.667±12.858 days and 52.669±13.590 days respectively. The life cycle from eggs to adults stage was 21.42±4.103 days.

The analysis of the biological life table of M. basalis when fed with A. craccivora, revealed that the net reproductive rate of increase (Ro) were 97.905, the cohort generation time (Tc) were 34.617 days, the capacity for increase (rc) were 0.132, and the finite rate of increase () were 1.141.

Predation capacity of M. basalis in each larval when fed with A. craccivora were 18.33±7.33, 44.85±16.80 and 223.08±77.23 aphids per individual, respectively. Throughout the larval period, each larval consumed on average 284.92±86.77 aphids.

57

The predator-prey preference of each larval instar of M. basalis was evaluated. These indicated that the first and second instar larvae preferred M. hirsutus, A. craccivora, Tetranychus sp. and T. palmi, respectively. While the third instar larvae preferred A. craccivora, M. hirsutus, Tetranychus sp., respectively and they did not consumed any T. palmi.

The best process for mass rearing technique of M. basalis when reared with C. cephalonica eggs is the batch of 2, 3, and 4 g provided to the larvae in the 1st, 6th, and the 8th days, respectively.

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