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Handbook of Thermoset Resins

Description: Handbook of Thermoset Resins is intended to be a self-sufficient guide dedicated to "thermoset resins", an important class of polymer materials. The book begins with a general introduction to thermoset and is ended with thermoset nanocomposites, a subject of current interest. Use this to make a knowledge-base in the subject OR to plan future research works. Many objectives of this book have been achieved, and include; providing detailed information on synthesis, characterizations, applications and toughening of thermoset resins. The review of the recent advances on thermoset-based composites and nanocomposite is presented. It also highlights highlight the future directions of research in various areas of thermoset resins. With these objectives in mind, Handbook of Thermoset Resins will be extremely useful for the scientists and researchers in the field of polymer science in general and thermoset resins in particular. With such broad technical contents covering the basic concepts and recent advances, this handbook is intended to serve as a useful textbook for students, researchers, engineers, R & D scientists from academia, research laboratories and industries (related to resins, fibre composites, adhesive, paints, rubbers, printing ink etc).


1 General Introduction to Thermoset Networks 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Network Concept 1.3 Gelation 1.4 Cure Characteristics 1.5 Effect of Vitrification on Polymerisation Rate 1.6 Effect of Cure Conversion on Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) 1.7 Crosslinked Density (Xc) 1.8 Additives for Thermoset Resins 1.8.1 Antioxidants 1.8.2 Fillers 1.8.3 Blowing Agents 1.8.4 Coupling Agents 1.8.5 Surfactants 1.8.6 Colorants 1.8.7 Other Additives 1.9 Processing of Thermoset Resins 1.9.1 Die Casting 1.9.2 Rotational Casting 1.9.3 Compression Moulding 1.9.4 Reaction Injection Moulding Process (RIM) 1.10 Characterisation of Thermoset Resins 1.10.1 Titration 1.10.2 IR Spectroscopy 1.10.3 NMR Spectroscopy 1.10.4 Distribution of Molecular Weights Viscometry End-Group Analysis Vapour Pressure Osmometry Membrane Osmometry Light Scattering Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) 1.10.5 Morphological Characterisation Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 1.10.6 Thermal Analysis Differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) Time­Temperature Superposition (TTS) Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) 1.10.7 Rheological Characterisation 1.11 Testing and Evaluation of Thermoset Resins 1.11.1 Mechanical Properties Tensile Test Flexural Test Creep Test Fatigue Test 1.11.2 Fracture Toughness (K1c) 1.11.3 Impact Test Pendulum Impact Test Falling Weight Impact Test 1.11.4 Heat Distortion Temperature (HDT) 1.11.5 Electrical Properties Electrical Conductivity Dielectric strength Arc resistance 1.11.6 Flammability and Smoke Tests UL-94 Flammability Test Cone Calorimetry LOI Test 2 Chemistry, Properties and Applications of Thermoset Resins Introduction 2.1 Phenolic resins 2.1.1 Novolac 2.1.2 Synthesis of Resole 2.1.3 Difference Between Novolac and Resole 2.1.4 Characterisation of Phenolic Resin 2.1.5 Crosslinking of Phenolic Resins 2.1.6 Properties of Phenolic Resins 2.1.7 Applications of Phenolic Resins 2.1.8 Phenolic Resin as Additives Additives for Rubber Modifier for Poly(Ethylene Oxide) (PEO) 2.2 Amino Resins 2.3 Furan Resins 2.4 Epoxy Resins 2.5 Unsaturated Polyester Resins 2.5.1 Unsaturated Polyesters 2.5.2 Polyester Structure 2.5.3 Polyesterification Kinetics 2.5.4 Types of Polyester General Purpose Resin Speciality Polyester Resins 2.5.5 Reactive Diluents or Monomers 2.5.6 Inhibitors 2.5.7 Curing of UPE Resin 2.5.8 Properties of UPE Resins 2.5.9 Application of UPE Resin 2.6 Vinyl Ester (VE) Resins 2.6.1 Properties of VE Resins 2.6.2 Applications of VE Resins 2.7 PU 2.7.1 Polyols 2.7.2 Isocyanates 2.7.3 PrePolymers

2.7.4 Extenders 2.7.5 Application of PU Resins General Applications Shape Memory Applications Shape Memory PU 2.8 Polyimides 2.8.1 Addition polyimides 2.8.2 In situ Polymerisation of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) 2.8.3 Crosslinking of polyimides 2.8.4 Curing of Polyimide Resins 2.8.5 Application of Polyimide Resins 2.9 Bismaleimide Resins 2.9.1 Curing of Bismaleimides 2.9.2 Properties of Bismaleimide Resins 2.9.3 Applications of Bismaleimide Resins 2.10 Cyanate Ester Resins 2.10.1 Curing of CE resin 2.10.2 Properties of CE resins 2.10.3 Applications of CE resins 3 Epoxy Resins 3.1 Analysis and Characterisation of Epoxy Resins 3.1.1 Determination of Epoxy Equivalent 3.1.2 Spectroscopic Characterisation 3.1.3 Solubility Parameter 3.2 Epoxy Formulation 3.2.1 Curing Agents 3.3 Gelation and Vitrification 3.4 Thermomechanical Properties 3.5 Chiral epoxy resins 3.6 Liquid crystalline epoxy 3.7 Rubbery epoxy 3.8 Applications of epoxy resin 3.8.1 Vibration damping applications 4 Toughened Thermoset Resins 4.1 Toughening of Thermoplastics 4.1.1 Mechanism of Toughening of Brittle Polymers Shear Yielding Rubber Cavitation Crazing 4.1.2 Morphological Aspects 4.2 Toughening of Thermosets 4.3 Liquid Rubber Toughening 4.3.1 Reaction-Induced Phase Separation 4.3.2 Mechanism of Toughening of Thermosets Rubber Bridging and Tearing Crazing Shear Yielding and Crazing Cavitation and Shear Yielding 4.3.3 Microstructural Features Volume Fraction Particle Size Matrix Ligament Thickness (MLT) Interfacial Adhesion 4.4 Toughening of Vinyl Ester (VE) Resins 4.4.1 Liquid Rubber Toughening 4.5 Modification of unsaturated polyester (UPE) resins 4.6 Toughening of phenolic resins 4.7 Toughening of polyimide, bismaleimide and cyanate ester resins 5 Toughened Epoxy Resins 5.1 Chemical Modification

5.2 Rubber Toughening 5.2.1 Commercial Toughening Agents 5.2.2 Rubber-based Toughening Agents 5.2.2 Acrylate-Based Toughening Agents Synthesis of Functionalised Acrylate Rubbers Acrylate-Modified Epoxy 5.2.3 Hyperbranched polymer (HBP) - based toughening agents 5.3 Core-Shell Particle Toughening 5.4 Thermoplastic Toughening 5.4.1 Engineering Thermoplastics 5.4.2 Amorphous Thermoplastics 5.4.3 Crystalline Thermoplastics 5.4.4 Morphology and Microstructural Aspects 5.4.5 Mechanism of Toughening 5.4.6 Effect of Matrix Crosslink Density 5.6 Rigid Particle Toughening of Epoxy 5.7 Summary and Conclusion 6 Thermoset Composites Introduction 6.1 Constituents of FRP Composites 6.2 Composite Interface 6.2.1 Surface Tension and Contact Angle 6.2.2 Fibre Surface Treatment Glass Fibre Carbon Fibre Polymeric Fibre 6.3 Processing of Composites 6.3.1 Contact Moulding 6.3.2 Compression Moulding 6.3.3 Resin Transfer Moulding 6.3.4 Reaction Injection Moulding (RIM) 6.3.5 Pultrusion 6.3.6 Filament Winding 6.3.7 Prepreg Moulding Prepreg Moulding of Prepregs 6.4 Analysis and Testing of Composites 6.4.1 Determination of Glass Content 6.4.2 Mechanical Testing of Composites 6.4.3 Interlaminar Shear Stress (ILSS) 6.5 Prediction of Composite Strength and Rigidity 6.6 Thermomechanical Properties of Thermoset Composites 6.6.1 Thermal Properties 5 6.6.2 Mechanical Properties 6.7 Toughened Composites 6.7.1 Resin Toughening 7 Thermoset Nanocomposites Introduction 7 Themoset Nanocomposites 7.1 Thermoset/clay nanocomposites 7.1.1 Principle of polymer/clay nanocomposite formation 7.1.2 Methods of nanocomposite synthesis 7.1.3 Characterisation of PCN 7.1.4 Controlling Factors for nanocomposite formation 7.1.6 Properties of PCN 7.2 POSS and silica-based nanocomposites 7.3 Block copolymer-based nanocomposite 7.4 CNT-based nanocomposites 7.5 Nanoreinforcement and toughening 7.6 Nanotechnology and flammability 7.6.1 Mechanism of flame retardancy

7.6.2 Conventional flame retardants Inorganic flame retardants Halogen containing flame retardants Phopshorus Containing Flame Retardant Nanoclay Based Flame Retardant Combination Organoclay and Other Flame-Retardants 7.7 Application of nanocomposites 7.8 Summary and Outlook Abbreviations and Acronyms


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