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Handbook of Yarn Production: Technology, Science and Economics

Description: Written by one of the world's leading experts, Handbook of yarn production: technology, science and economics is an authoritative and comprehensive guide to textile yarn manufacturing. The book is designed to allow readers to explore the subject in various levels of detail. The first three chapters provide an overview of yarn production, products and key principles. The major part of the book then reviews in detail the production processes for short-staple, long-staple and filament yarns.There are also chapters on quality control and the economics of staple-yarn production. The final part of the book consists of a series of appendices which provide in-depth analysis of key topics with detailed technical data and worked examples which is an invaluable reference in itself for anyone concerned with the behaviour, performance and economics of a textile mill. - A practical and authoritative new handbook for yarn manufacturing - Shows how problems can arise and how to deal with them - Includes invaluable technical data, calculations, worked examples and case studies - An essential resource for textile designers, yarn manufacturers and textile design students

Handbook of yarn production: technology, science and economics is set to become the standard work for both yarn manufacturers and those researching and studying in this important area of the textile industry. About the Author Peter R. Lord is Abel Lineberger Professor of Textiles Emeritus at North Carolina State University. He was also President of Raltex Corporation, a consulting company, and has many years of mill experience. He is the author of many books and over 50 papers and has won numerous awards for his research.


Review of yarn production Historical basis Present-day conditions Future of the means of textile production Modern production systems

Textile products and fiber production - Textile materials (Fabrics, fibers and filaments) - Natural fibers (Types and production) - Man-made fibers (Polymer extrusion and yarn production) Common principles Introduction Twist in strands Twist insertion Confined and non-confined systems Twist evenness Tension control Drawing Consequences of roller errors on the textile product Control of irregular flow in drawing or drafting Doubling Effects of shear

- Integration of sub-processes Filament yarn production Introduction Texturing filament yarns Real twist texturing False twist texturing Draw-texturing Stuffer-box texturing Air-jet texturing Other texturing techniques Industrial filaments Silk filament and staple yarns Morphology and dyeing

Carding and prior processes for short-staple fibers Introduction Opening line Bale preparation The first stage of blending and opening The process of disintegration of fiber clumps Condensation The process of cleaning Intimate blending Fiber flow Carding Waste control Safety

Sliver preparation Introduction Drawframe Combing Creel blending An industrial case study

Short-staple spinning - Ring spinning - Open-end spinning Long-staple spinning Introduction: effects of lengthening the staple Wool fibers and their preparation Worsted systems The woolen system Bast fiber spinning processes

Post-spinning processes Winding Yarn joining Ply yarns AutomationTwo-for-one twisting Two-for-one twisting Customer concerns

Staple systems and modified yarn structures


Yarns of complex structure Processes using modified twist Compact spinning Air-jet spinning Sirospun yarns and process Hollow spindle spinning processes Self-twist spinning Twisted self-twist yarns and processes

Quality and quality control Quality Quality control Yarn evenness End-breaks and quality

Economics of staple-yarn production Yarn economics Productivity Quality and economics Cost minimization Operational factors International competition

APPENDICES APPENDICES 1: Calculations I: elementary theory Yarn and strand numbering systems; Yarn diameter; Twist multiple calculations (staple spinning); Productivity of pre-spinning preparation machinery; Ring-Frame performance; Winding performance; Rotor spinning machine performance APPENDICES 2: Calculations II: worked examples Yarn numbering; Drafting; Belt transmission; Gearing; Machine speeds; Twist calculations; Production; Texturing APPENDICES 3: Advanced topics I: air conditioning and utilities Water vapor and steam; Humidity; Mill environment APPENDICES 4: Testing of textile materials Divisions in testing; Measurements on staple fibers; Measurements of linear density of staple yarns; Measurement of twist; Visual examination of yarns; Yarn hairiness in staple yarns; Tensile testing of strands; Filament yarns; Visual testing of fabrics APPENDICES 5: Staple yarn structures Theoretical yarn structures; Actual yarn structures; Yarn behavior APPENDICES 6: Textured yarn structures Yarn hysteresis; Yarn bulk; Fiber migration in textured yarns APPENDICES 7: Blending of staple fibers Introduction; Bale management; Mixing in the blow room; Theory of blending capacity; Fiber migration and blending; Real blend variation APPENDICES 8: Drafting and doubling Theories of drafting; Roller drafting; Avalanches in roller drafting; Doubling associated with roller drafting; Doubling and toothed drafting APPENDICES 9: Yarn balloon mechanics General observations; A rotating plane balloon ­ a very simplified case; Energy distribution in the balloon; Yarn tension gradients; The real balloon; Balloon collapse; Balloons in two-for-one twisting APPENDICES 10: Topics in rotor spinning

A brief history of open-end spinning; Yarn evenness; Toothed drafting; Fiber assembly ­ the formation of wrapper fibers; Twist distribution


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