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The Radio Frequency Systems Bulletin

The Clear ChoiceTM

TV Globo Brasil takes a tailored tack

WiMAX RF--cell-by-cell AWS auctions and the spectrum shuffle RRH takes `fiber-to-the-tower-top' RFS meets the press

The Clear ChoiceTM

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03 Editorial

Adding choice to the transmission line mix


Adding choice to the transmission line mix

Radio Frequency Systems has always taken great pride in being an innovator and leader in volatile nature of global commodity markets. On the one hand, we've seen wireless technology quickly evolve from one that is exclusively the domain of wealthy countries, to one that is providing emerging markets with a means of `leap frogging' communication evolutionary stages. Yet the global increase in raw material costs-- notably copper and oil-based products-- impedes such wireless `leap frog' strategies, particularly in those countries where average revenue per unit (ARPU) figures are low and margins tight. Running almost parallel with this is a need for a new generation of RF products (including transmission line) that is easier to handle, quicker to install and physically lighter and less-demanding on tower and support structures. This is most particularly the case in countries where `leap frog' strategies are being considered as, more often than not, these are the locations where tower and related civil structures Paris, is the challenge of finding new base station sites. This is all the more punishing when considering deployment of entirely new networks, such as WiMAX, in cities that may already be concurrently serviced by multiple layers of 2G and 3G services. For practical attenuation reasons, the traditional coaxial transmission line has tended to `tether' the base transmitter station (BTS) to within close proximity of the tower top. RFS's recent development of the remote radio head technology (RRH), which incorporates the traditional passive antenna plus elements of the base band radio within the antenna body, effectively `untethers' the BTS from the antenna. By providing a digital interface at the tower top, the BTS-to-tower top link can be run in fiber-optic cable for distances of many kilometers. This is the crucial ingredient in permitting the `base station hotel' concept--one where the the RF sector--not least in the RF transmission line market. Our CELLFLEX transmission line solution bears testament to this leadership-- a brand that is globally recognized as the benchmark transmission line technology. Yet change is afoot in this mainstay element of our industry--a new wave of choice is engulfing the RF transmission line market. The reasons behind this revolution are many. Significant among these are the end-to-end network performance pressure associated with third-generation (3G) and 3.5G broadband wireless data technologies, and the increasing

4 What's New

Double cell size with 1800-MHz booster W4A `WiMAX-ready' adaptive antenna series Penetrator takes on 700-MHz public-safety radio RFS in-line diplexers offer flexibility-plus CELL-Tape--a colorful solution to a sticky situation CELLFLEX L-series--world's first corrugated aluminum transmission line Tailored antenna solution for TV Globo São Paulo One of the world's largest broadcast groups-- TV Globo--opts for a complete tailored VHF and UHF antenna solution from Radio Frequency Systems at its new São Paulo headquarters.


7 Cover Story

Tailored antenna solution for TV Globo São Paulo

PUBLISHER'S NOTE: To celebrate this, our 30th issue of STAY CONNECTED, we have given our magazine a subtle makeover. You'll notice a greater prominence of RFS's `wave' logo and `wave' theme, and we've also introduced a tighter and richer style to the internal page layouts. We hope you like our new look, and continue to enjoy reading STAY CONNECTED.

8 Viewpoint

RFS meets the press

RFS meets the press Radio Frequency Systems' involvement at the forefront of today's mobile communications and broadcast industries means that a high level of media interest simply `comes with the territory'.

demand to reduce network capex and opex. With every element in the cellular link under performance and cost scrutiny, RFS is evolving the RF transmission line into new forms to shoulder the burden. The coaxial transmission line fulfils a vital role in the wireless sector. Making the crucial radio frequency (RF) link between the ground-based active radio elements and the antenna at the tower top, it represents the wireless network's

10 WiMAX

WiMAX RF--cell-by-cell




11 RF Conditioning

`Fiber-to-the-tower-top' with RFS remote radio head WiMAX RF--cell-by-cell As WiMAX evolves into its mobile variant, carriers the world over are welcoming this important new technology. STAY CONNECTED explores the RF issues that will ultimately define WiMAX.


BTS is clustered with other BTS in a convenient location, often many kilometres from the actual antenna/tower site. RFS's RRH solution promises a great deal. The prospective savings in network planning and site acquisition costs, plus

Stéphane Klajzyngier Radio Frequency Systems President



Radio Frequency Systems

WorldWideWeb: Publisher: Jörg Springer Executive Editor/Editor Asia Pacific South: Peter Walters Editor EMAI: Regine Suling Editor Americas North: Ann Polanski Editor Americas South: Luciana Del Nero Editor Asia Pacific North: Sammie Qian Managing Editor: Allan Alderson Production Editor: Christian Michatsch Art Director: Marilu Krallmann Authors: Allan Alderson, Prue Gallagher, Dr. Ellen Gregory, Ben Lazzaro, Mary-Therese Rizkalla Photos: RFS archives, Mick Bennett, Getty Images, photo disc, Tony Koopmans, Ann Polanski, Sammie Qian, Regine Suling, Jaime Yiang, Ulrich Bock Film Cover art: Matthias Schwedt Cover image: Tony Koopmans Print: Print Design, Minden Layout and Graphics: inform Advertising, Hannover Editorial Services: Relate Technical Communications, Melbourne On the cover: RFS's new purpose-built 611 CP circularly polarized Band I VHF antenna will soon sit atop TV Globo's brand new corporate headquarters in Almeda Santos, São Paulo. Trademarks: CELLFLEX®, BDA®, FLEXWELL®, MicroTennaTM, Optimizer®, RADIAFLEX®, Radio Frequency Systems®, RFS®, RFS CompactLine®, SlimLine®, RGFLEX® and The Clear ChoiceTM are trademarks, service marks or registered trademarks of Radio Frequency Systems.

final hardware link before embarking on the air interface. What has really tipped the balance in the transmission line equation is the performance demands of broadband wireless data technologies, such as worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX), high-speed uplink packet access (HSUPA), 3G/long-term evolution (LTE) and so on. Quite simply, broadband wireless data technologies are acutely sensitive to signal-to-noise levels and, as a result, every decibel (dB) counts. This has inspired the development of RFS's recently launched CELLFLEX `A' Premium Attenuation transmission line--an entirely new are often loaded very close to design tolerance. This has led RFS to explore alternative transmission line materials, and has resulted in the exciting new CELLFLEX L-series: an aluminum-outer/copper-inner transmission line. Globally launched in mid-2006, CELLFLEX L-series promises to find wide application the world over--not just in emerging markets, but wherever an alternative cost/performance ratio and ultra-lightweight transmission solution might be needed. RFS is particularly proud of CELLFLEX L-series: one of the lightest foamdielectric coaxial transmission line solutions on the market today. By far the most relentless pressure and cost associated with wireless networks in the major city centres such as New York, London and

12 Wireless Solutions

Nortel/RFS multi-beam `smart' antenna collaboration

13 Regional Focus

Taiwan: an East Asian tiger earns its stripes `Fiber-to-the-tower-top' with RFS remote radio head Radio Frequency Systems unveils a `BTS to antenna' fiber-optic solution that promises new levels of network planning flexibility for high call-density in inner urban areas.


reduction in network roll-out times, are huge. While carriers have expressed enthusiasm for the new transmission line choices offered by RFS, it is clear that the greatest enthusiasm is not for any single transmission line technology over another, but for choice itself. Carriers now recognize that, in today's fast-moving wireless market, what is most crucial is to have a mix of transmission line technologies on hand. Quite simply, the provision of a rich mix of RF solutions permits carriers to more precisely optimize network performance and maximize return on investment. Choice in the RF solution is vital to our customer's business case, and RFS is committed to providing and extending this choice.

16 Microwave

US auctions spawn spectrum shuffle

17 Wireless Indoor Solutions

Hybrid coverage solution for Shanghai Metro

18 In Touch

RFS introduces transmission line surcharge scheme RFS Doing dialog at BroadcastAsia 2006 SlimLine on Swan Lake Fourth edition of RFS Products calalog Dr. Q's noble prize! US auctions spawn spectrum shuffle As the USA re-allocates microwave backhaul spectrum for 3G advanced wireless services, incumbent carriers needing to relocate will need flexible radio link solutions that can be deployed quickly.

selection of transmission line solutions that strips


dB losses from the `final link', and adds this to performance at the tower top. The challenge for any transmission line manufacturer addressing this `premium performance' demand is to retain the mechanical handling integrity of the transmission line, while still achieving significant line-loss reductions. It is about striking the optimal balance--that balance is CELLFLEX `A' Premium Attenuation. Another important factor is the changing needs of the global wireless market, coupled with the

Double cell size with 1800- MHz booster

To support new 1800-MHz global system for mobile communications (GSM) deployments, Radio Frequency Systems has developed a compact and lightweight tower-mounted booster (BTM184515S) with high power output. Ideal for extending cell coverage in regions with low subscriber density--such as major roads, coastlines and rural areas--the new booster provides 46-dBm output power, which compensates for system loss and doubles the size of the cell. "With this booster, there's `no loss, only gain'," said Erik Wille, RFS Area Product Manager for RF conditioning. "It will suit those carriers with new 1800-MHz licenses in places such as Africa, the Middle East, Russia, Eastern Europe and Brazil, where there are large open spaces to cover. By using boosters, carriers can deploy fewer base stations, so ultimately there's a huge cost-saving involved." The IP66 enclosure-rated RFS 1800-MHz booster operates at 40 watts, weighs just 16 kilograms, and is the most compact unit of this powerrating available. It also features selectable gain in both uplink and downlink, which facilitates cell optimization and optimizes handover. "By amplifying the signal on both uplink and downlink, signal strength and cell coverage are dramatically improved," said Wille. "This means better quality of service and fewer dropped calls." Designed for tower-mounting to achieve optimum performance, the booster is used in conjunction with a power distribution unit (PDU) station located in the base cabinet. Along with the booster, the RFS PDU The new Penetrator BPS10 series offers all the benefits of Radio Frequency Systems' popular Penetrator range in an antenna supporting the (PDU48400D) is the only system on the market with an integrated bias-T. This permits the coaxial cable to transmit DC power to the booster, streamlining installation by eliminating the need for a separate power line. A single PDU can support two boosters for dualcarrier systems, plus monitor their performance and activate external base station alarms if required. Also available from RFS is a booster for GSM 900-MHz applications (BTM904515S).

R F S i n - l i n e d i p l e x e rs offer flexibility-plus

A new in-line variant of Radio Frequency Systems' FDGW diplexer series is now available, offering enhanced flexibility in US personal communications services (PCS 1900-MHz)/ Cellular (800-MHz) band network overlays. The new `in-line' variant of the popular FDGW diplexer series features low- and high-frequency ports positioned on one side, and the dual-band port on the other--all in a rugged IP67-rated housing. Developed in response to the needs of a North American `Tier 1' carrier, this practical design adaptation supports feeder cable sharing in dual-band `806- to 960-MHz/1710- to 2170-MHz' systems. The in-line diplexer's unique polymer coated housing achieves an IP67 enclosure rating, making it ideal for outdoor use in any climate. Weighing 1.3 kilograms, it is ideally suited for pole-mounting.

Penetrator takes on 700-MHz public-safety radio



The RFS power distribution unit (PDU48400D)




public-safety radio frequency band. With a frequency range of 746 to



W 4 A ` Wi M A X - re a d y ' adaptive antenna series

One of the world's first `WiMAX-ready' adaptive antenna systems has been unveiled by Radio Frequency Systems. Specially designed to meet the exacting needs of emerging IEEE 802.16 worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) broadband wireless data networks, the new RFS W4A series antenna system features precision beam-pattern shaping. The new adaptive antenna--which is part of a broad and growing WiMAX suite of solutions from RFS--provides network managers with a powerful tool to ensure optimal data throughput and a reduction in overall cell-to-cell interference across the WiMAX network. "WiMAX technology promises us a new era in broadband wireless connectivity across fixed, nomadic and, eventually, mobile platforms," said RFS WiMAX Business Development Director, Martial Guillaume. "It also poses new challenges on the network management and RF fronts--most particularly as subscriber demand increases and greater network capacity is required. The new W4A series WiMAX adaptive antenna system specifically addresses these challenges, by providing the precision beam-pattern shaping required to dynamically support the evolving needs of the WiMAX network." Available in 2.5 and 3.5-GHz models (W4A2590ANV and W4A35-90ANV), the heart of each W4A series adaptive antenna system is a four-element antenna array. Flexible beampattern tailoring is achieved by applying phase and amplitude modulation to each element. As a result, the shape of the beam-pattern can be modified in response to changing subscriber traffic and interference sources, or as part of a longer-term strategy to ensure optimal data throughput, spectrum use or network capacity. Commercial launch of the new RFS W4A series WiMAX antenna is planned for the second half of 2006.

806 MHz, the Penetrator BPS10 antenna series provides extremely high gain (12.14 to 16.44 dBi, depending on selected beam pattern and tilt) coupled with heavy null fill. This ensures optimal signal coverage both close to and distant from the base station. By leveraging the Penetrator's unique, patented dipole configuration, the BPS10 beam (360 can be provided in a selection of four unique horizontal patterns: degrees), omni-directional bi-directional or

C E L L - Ta p e -- a c o l o r f u l s o l u t i o n to a sticky situation

Radio Frequency Systems' new CELL-Tape weather sealant and marking tape is an innovative alternative to traditional butyl rubber sealant tapes. CELL-Tape is made of self-adhesive silicone that fuses firmly to produce UV-protected air- and water-tight bonds--all via an `easy-on/easy-off' mess-free application. With six color options for cable easy tower-top identification, hundred percent, CELL-Tape attaches easily where needed-- without leaving residue--and can be cut-away cleanly from cables and junctions when making repairs. Available in six colors, CELL-Tape can be used to color-code tower top cable installations, making it easier to locate cables for monitoring and repair purposes. Able to withstand temperatures from -54 to 260 degrees Celsius (-60 to 500 degrees Fahrenheit) and appropriate for applications up to 12,000 Volts, CELL-Tape ensures air- and watertight bonds are easy to apply, easy to identify and easy to repair. connectors,

`peanut' pattern, 120 degrees, and 220 degrees, allowing the network planner to optimize coverage of the target area and reduce the total base station count. Measuring 4.26 meters (14 feet) tall, the Penetrator BPS10's robust fiberglass and aluminum construction has a rated wind speed of 160 km/h (100 mph), underscoring the Penetrator's proven `site tough' track record.

CELL-Tape can elongate three stretching tight budgets as well as delivering tight protection for the life of the connection. Used as redundant protection in combination with RFS's RAPID FIT cable

CELLFLEX L-series -- w o r l d 's f i rs t corrugated aluminum t ra n s m i s s i o n l i n e

Radio Frequency Systems has expanded its range of transmission line solutions with the release of CELLFLEX LIGHT (CELLFLEX L-series)-- a foam-dielectric corrugated coaxial cable with an aluminum outer conducter and a copper inner conductor. CELLFLEX L-series offers an alternative price point and performance combination for establishing the base station to antenna RF link, and represents a world-first in transmission line technology. Developed at RFS headquarters in Hannover, Germany, and manufactured in select locations around the world, CELLFLEX L-series is available now and offered in a 7/8-inch diameter size. Its robust construction and advanced electrical return-loss and intermodulation performance. "The electrical performance of CELLFLEX L-series is superior to some copper transmission cables offered by our competitors," he said. The introduction of CELLFLEX L-series offers wireless carriers a long-awaited alternative to copper transmission line. Owing to the continued increase in raw material costs--particularly copper--CELLFLEX L-series represents a cost effective alternative to copper transmission lines. "CELLFLEX L-series addresses this growing market concern," said Behrens. "With aluminum sharing similar electrical, mechanical and RF properties to copper, RFS has been able to develop an RF transmission line that provides a new combination of performance and affordability." CELLFLEX L-series offers a light-weight solution based on RFS's popular `RAPID FIT 2' design provide users with familiar connection technology, enabling trouble-free installation and operation. The development of additional CELLFLEX L-series cable sizes is also anticipated, and will complement RFS's already-comprehensive array of transmission line products. RFS continues to lead the RF transmission revolution by addressing evolving global market requirements with cutting-edge technologies. "Despite wireless infrastructure being at varying stages of development throughout the world, RFS continually endeavors to provide universal solutions," said Behrens. "CELLFLEX L-series represents a truly RFS's global existing solution palette and of complements

RFS's 611CP VHF circularly polarized Band I VHF antenna, which was purpose-built for TV Globo's new São Paulo HQ site.

RFS's involvement in a landmark 2004 DTV project co-developed with consultant S. Merrill Weiss at the Mt Wilson broadcast site in Los Angeles. Here, RFS and Weiss designed and realized an impressive four-broadcaster/sevenchannel shared broadcast facility. A visit to the RFS broadcast center of excellence in Melbourne, Australia, in June 2005 confirmed to TV Globo what the Mt Wilson project had led it to believe. "RFS is able to offer the best solution to meet our requirements," said TV Globo's Engineering Manager, Carlos Fini. "They are technically a very advanced company."

Demonstrated strengths

According to RFS Vice President Broadcast and Defense Systems, Mike Dallimore, the TV Globo project demonstrates RFS's specific strengths. "While RFS has circularly polarized antennas in bands II and III, we had not manufactured such an antenna in band I," Dallimore said. "Being able to address such situations is what sets RFS apart. Our team of skilled broadcast professionals,



performance herald CELLFLEX L-series as the next generation in RF transmission development. According to VP Global Product Management Transmission Lines, Siegfried Behrens, the introduction of CELLFLEX L-series reinforces RFS's industry-leading position. "CELLFLEX LIGHT complements RFS's existing CELLFLEX, and CELLFLEX `A' Premium Attenuation copper transmission lines and presents users with an additional transmission line option. Retaining the superior mechanical performance of CELLFLEX, CELLFLEX L-series provides increased transmission line choice and flexibility," said Behrens. Weighing only 330 g/m (3.5 oz/ft), CELLFLEX L-series offers a 34-percent reduction in weight when compared with CELLFLEX `A', making it easy to transport, handle and install. Behrens, explained: "CELLFLEX L-series is the world's first corrugated aluminum transmission line and lightest RF transmission cable on the market today. Its light-weight design coupled with its single and multiple bending-radius capabilities, allow fast installation and make it ideal for congested tower-top applications." According to Behrens, CELLFLEX L-series has been optimized to deliver world-class attenuation,

to assist the rapid roll-out of wireless network infrastructure. "With the rate of wireless network deployment at an all-time high, network providers in certain markets are continuingly looking for alternative ways of delivering quality mobile services and coverage to users," said Behrens. Complementing RFS's broad suite of transmission line products, CELLFLEX L-series offers userfriendly compatibility with RFS's existing range of grounding kits and clamps, as well as trimming and preparation tools. Redesigned connectors


backed by arguably the world's most advanced interactive computer modeling and development system, allows us to swiftly realize effective


Ta i l o re d a n t e n n a s o l u t i o n f o r T V G l o b o S ã o Pa u l o

One of the world's largest broadcast groups--TV Globo--opts for a complete tailored VHF and UHF antenna solution from Radio Frequency Systems for its new São Paulo headquarters.

TV Globo, Brazil's leading television group, has enlisted Radio Frequency Systems to provide a tailored VHF broadcast antenna solution, along with UHF infrastructure to meet the needs of future digital television services, for its premier São Paulo market. The new antenna is a key element in a major relocation for TV Globo: one that will see its current Mt Jaraguá broadcast facility moved to a brand new multi-story facility in the financial sector's Alameda Santos. The RFS solution is founded on a VHF antenna specifically developed for the new TV Globo Alameda Santos site--the purpose-built 611CP VHF antenna. This all-new circularly polarized Band I VHF antenna provides unrivaled pattern circularity and premium voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) performance--all in a corrosionresistant pole-mounted structure.

solutions such as this--even in areas where we may not have an immediate off-the-shelf solution." With factory acceptance testing successfully completed in late February 2006, the new VHF antenna arrived in São Paulo in April 2006, and is expected to be fully operational in the latter half of 2006.

transmission line technologies."

CELLFLEX LIGHT--at a glance

When: Where: Attenuation:

CELLFLEX L-series launched in mid-2006 CELLFLEX L-series feeder cable in 7/8-inch diameter plus associated connectors, are now available globally. CELLFLEX L-series boasts an attenuation of less than 6.25 dB/100m @ 2 GHz.

Connector size and range: DIN 7-16 male and female Jacket options: UV-resistant polyethylene (JL) or flame-retardant jackets (JFNL) Return loss (VSWR): CELLFLEX L-series and RAPID FIT L-series connector pair

offers return loss performance equal to that of CELLFLEX `A'.

Global choice

Selected from a global field of contenders, RFS impressed TV Globo with its engineering excellence, advanced computer design and modeling facilities, and proven broadcast-sector RF expertise. TV Globo first became aware of RFS's broadcast system expertise as a result of

TV Globo's Engineering Manager, Carlos Fini (center), inspects the new TV Globo 611CP VHF circularly polarized Band I VHF antenna. He is accompanied by RFS Area Product Manager, Verônica Cuchnir (left), and RFS Vice President Broadcast and Defense Systems, Mike Dallimore.

Intermodulation (IM) performance:

The CELLFLEX L-series cable and connector pair exhibits consistently low and stable IM levels.

R F S m e e t s t h e p re s s

Radio Frequency Systems' involvement at the forefront of today's mobile communications and broadcast industries means that a high level of media interest simply `comes with the territory'.

As a technology innovator with a unique communications perspective, RFS booths at major trade fairs always attract a stream of editors and staff writers. At 3GSM Barcelona, Telexpo São Paulo, SVYAZ-Expocomm Moscow, and CTIA Wireless Las Vegas, RFS was quizzed on emerging technologies and asked its opinion on various media `hot topics'. STAY CONNECTED shares some of these interview dialog from around the globe. services. While today's conventional narrowband wireless LAN (WLAN) infrastructure may suffice for simple single-purpose applications, the genuinely future-proof in-building solution will match tomorrow's handset functionality. Wireless infrastructure will need to support the entire spectrum of in-building wireless applications, right up to emerging worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) applications. Our in-building wireless solutions are truly broadband and indeed `WiMAXready', supporting contemporary global system for mobile communications (GSM) 900, GSM 1800 and WLAN plus `VoIP on UMA' and WiMAX--seamlessly.

The line between fixed and mobile services is becoming increasingly blurred. What is RFS's view on this convergence of fixed and mobile services?


many more. Rather than merely offering technology elements, RFS addresses these issues from a total solutions standpoint, bringing our cumulative RF knowledge and experience to every individual situation and delivering a bespoke end-to-end solution.

We specialize in broadband multi-channel broadcast systems, customized according to specific coverage requirements, existing infrastructure and future capacity. In digital broadcasting we offer world-leading channel combining and filtering technologies, flexible air-dielectric transmission lines, RF switching frames, digital monitoring systems and a range of antenna options, including tailored panel arrays. A full solutions package.

we're actively exploring and investing R&D resources in this area. The RFS W4A adaptive antenna system for WiMAX that you see on display here is a prime example. Here, within a compact form-factor, the W4A offers advanced beam and forming maximize to minimize interference and coverage, capacity


It is true that, in many parts of the world, mobile subscriptions are out-numbering fixed-line services--especially in countries lacking full and reliable landline infrastructure. In countries such as India, for example, it is actually cheaper to address the telephony roll-out challenge with wireless technologies. Aware of the economic and functional advantages of wireless, many fixed-line carriers are moving into mobile. They realize that technologies such as wireless fidelity (WiFi), WiMAX, and VoIP over UMA, offer their existing subscriber base some level of mobility, and also present an attractive, competitive option for wireless-based service subscribers. The fast-developing

Care to comment on mobile television--will it be the domain of broadcasters or mobile network operators?


signal-to-noise factor. Similarly, at the Nortel booth you can see the new multi-beam adaptive antenna beam selection (AABS) planar phased array. A joint RFS/Nortel development, the AABS is the first of what we believe will be a revolution in smart antenna technologies, tailored for the more demanding high call-density urban applications. And you can expect to see more innovative and exciting base station antenna solutions of this ilk from RFS in the very near future.




platforms--notably `digital video broadcasthandheld' (DVB-H)--are undoubtedly a hot topic in 2006. But it's still unclear as to whether DVB-H will be dominated by broadcasters or by the mobile telecommunication industry. Possibly, these industries are headed towards some form of convergence or cooperation. There is a wide

You have featured adaptive antenna systems (AAS) at the RFS booth. Do you think we'll be seeing increasing use of `smart' and `semi-smart' antennas in conventional wireless networks?



We get asked this a lot by the press, which has devoted considerable column inches to the `smart antenna' concept since it first



Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) and `VoIP over unlicensed mobile access (UMA)' have particular relevance to the corporate sector. Where does RFS fit in with the deployment of these technologies?




First, it should be clear that many of these applications will be in-building--an area where we offer great expertise and superior total application solutions. From an RF coverage perspective, in-building environments present unique challenges. The aim is for ubiquitous coverage across the enterprise, so that users experience true high-speed data transferences in every corner of the building, campus or wherever. Location-to-location transition should have no discernible impact on this end-user experience. The RF coverage solution should also be genuinely broadband. The centerpiece of nearfuture in-building wireless will be multi-mode handsets that seamlessly support a range of second-generation (2G), 2.5G, 3G and 3.5G

What do you say to concerns about Quality of Service (QoS) and security in UMAs?



Similarly, the high data throughput offered by emerging 3G and 3.5G broadband wireless technologies permits wireless carriers to challenge the wired world's conventional broadband wired solutions, such as digital subscriber line (DSL)-based systems and fiber. `Data over the air' is now a reality.

variety of proposed distribution or delivery models; some based on a cellular base station model, others on central broadcast sites supported by translator sites (similar to digital terrestrial television or DTT). We believe technology isn't the issue here--all the models proposed are more or less proven and viable technically. At the end of the day, it will be a case of which delivery model(s) proves most

emerged some four or five years ago. However, the real-world development path hasn't been quite as fast-paced as media and marketing hype might suggest. The reality is that realizing a truly cost-effective `smart antenna' solution for global wireless networks has proven an R&D challenge. This is particularly so for voice-centric 2G and 2.5G networks such as GSM or Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). But, as the wireless sector moves further into the realm of high-speed data, we believe that a real business case can be made for more advanced high-performance base station antenna solutions. It's important to understand that what we're talking about here is true nextgeneration advanced antenna technologies. In co-operation with global OEMs and carriers,

Security is largely a software/encoding challenge and outside our realm. But QoS, on the other hand, is of primary importance in any wireless indoor solution (WINS). UMAs are just that--unlicensed and largely unregulated-- so there is the potential for co-channel interference from other close-proximity users within the UMA band. With UMAs largely in the lower microwave bands, attenuation within the in-building environment (walls, windows, ceiling material and so on) is certainly more challenging and, unchecked, can impact on QoS. At RFS, we meet these challenges by drawing on both passive and active in-building technologies, tailoring in-building RF coverage for an optimal outcome.

Is this the way of the future for cellular base station antennas in the wireless sector?



What we are witnessing is, indeed, the next stage in the evolution of the wireless antenna system--a logical evolution in which RFS has played a central role since the birth of wireless telephony in the early seventies. This is what RFS is all about--the development of innovative and tailored end-to-end RF solutions that are genuinely cost-effective and performance-driven.


How does this impact RF infrastructure?


economic--something that could well be decided on a case-by-case, region-by-region basis. What is clear is that appropriate and complete end-to-end broadband RF solutions will be essential, regardless of the distribution model adopted. RFS is already working closely with broadcasters the world over in early trials and roll-outs of both mobile and fixed digital television.

Well, for starters, in a merged market, the wired/wireless QoS must be equivalent-- and ever-improving! And there are other challenges--interference, system reliability, average revenue per unit (ARPU) issues and

Wi M A X R F -- c e l l - b y - c e l l

As WiMAX evolves into its mobile variant, carriers the world over are welcoming this important new technology. STAY CONNECTED explores the RF issues that will ultimately define WiMAX.

There is no denying the hype and excitement surrounding the worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) broadband wireless technology. Strongly standards-based (and policed by industry body, the WiMAX Forum), WiMAX is predicted to satisfy a wide range of applications that can currently only be supported by wired or fibered broadband connections. A cell-based technology, WiMAX in its fixed/ portable variant operates over cells of three to 10 kilometres (two to nine miles) radii and supports capacities of up to 40 Mbps per channel. Ratified in late-2005, the mobile variant (IEEE 802.16e) is expected to achieve around 15 Mbps in cells up to three kilometers (two miles) in diameter. The technology still faces many challenges: the incompatibility requirements," he says. "This will mean that WiMAX filters will need to be tailored to suit the unique frequencies, channel bandwidths, and so on, of each region." RFS is currently working with OEMs and carriers in both Europe and North America to develop a range of WiMAX filters--classic cavity filters, ceramic or hybrids-- to meet these unique needs. "RFS is already well-practised in addressing such situations with OEMs and operators," Addra says. The service's elevated frequency, coupled with the addition of `multiple input/multiple output' (MIMO) functionality to the latest version of the WiMAX standard, have inspired some powerful base station antenna multiple arrays, and full MIMO/beam forming. In conjunction with OEMs and carriers, RFS is developing a WiMAX antenna suite with offerings that cover all variants at the major WiMAX frequencies."

`Fiber-to-the-tower-top' with RFS remote radio head

Radio Frequency Systems unveils a `BTS to antenna' fiber-optic solution that promises new levels of network planning flexibility for high call-density in inner urban areas.

At this year's CTIA Wireless exhibition in Las Vegas, USA, Radio Frequency Systems demonstrated a remote radio head (RRH) unit that is believed to exhibit the fastest bit-rate of any `fiberto-the-tower-top' solution to President Product Management RF Conditioning. "OBSAI-compatibility ensures that our RRH solution will easily be modified to support the widest range of third-generation (3G) and 3.5G wireless technologies, including worldwide interoperability access predicted for that microwave It is emerging (WiMAX)."

WINs and QoS

A significant market sector for WiMAX will inevitably be in the in-building (wireless indoor solutions (WINs)) domain, where RFS is actively involved. "There are a number of elements in play in the WiMAX WINs arena," says Addra. "There is no denying that WiMAX transmit mobile's

Reliability will be the vital ingredient in realizing the true date. Compatible with the benefits of any RRH solution open base station architecture ...our design efforts are tightly initiative (OBSAI) RP3-01 focussed [here].

interface definition, the



landmark RFS development underpins important new wireless network deployment and management strategies. By leveraging the bandwidth and flexibility of fiber-optic technologies, the RFS RRH system

WiMAX broadband wireless data networks will have specific needs for such active tower-top solutions--particularly in the early stages of network deployment in dense inner-city areas.

diversity and MIMO functionality--



between the new mobile standard and its fixed predecessor; complexities (and controversy) surrounding allocated spectrum in North America and Europe; and the long road ahead to full commercialization. Radio Frequency Systems Chief Technology Officer, Modeste Addra, points out that WiMAX carriers actually face similar network planning challenges to those presented by conventional second-generation (2G) and 3G mobile networks. "Cell sizes will vary according to the subscriber density," Addra says. "We will see large cells, micro-cells and pico-cells. This will be driven by capacity versus coverage issues." evolutions. The reduced wavelength of WiMAX (deployed at 2.3, 2.5 or 3.5 GHz) allows antenna diversity (`transmit diversity') to be incorporated within the WiMAX handset. "Currently, OEMs are applying receive diversity in the base transmitter stations, but the latest-version WiMAX mobile/ MIMO standard introduces terminal-side diversity," Addra explains. Terminal-side diversity will reduce interference and allow carriers to increase the coverage achieved. In addition, the MIMO and beamforming base station antennas will permit powerful beam forming, targeting the coverage where it is most required and creating nulls where interference might be detected. "Interestingly, MIMO functionality is being incorporated into the third-generation partnership project's (3GPP) next evolutionary stage--3G-LTE so this issue is very important," Addra says. "We find that WiMAX carriers want a mix of different antenna types: conventional singlepolarized (single array), cross-polarized single array sector antennas, beam forming with coupled with new technologies like remote radio head (macro and micro/pico) --will permit the outdoor network to provide better indoor coverage. Conversely, the higher frequencies of WiMAX mean it suffers far greater signal attenuation, due to walls and building material. We need to understand the final outcome here, and the prospective business case for the wireless indoor solutions (WINs) coverage." The indoor and outdoor WiMAX coverage issues are, according to Addra, inextricably linked--a multi-variable situation that needs to be understood before it is addressed. "RFS is currently conducting a range of WiMAX feasibility studies in this area to better understand the impact of outdoor on indoor. Like all things in broadband wireless, the central issue will be quality of service (QoS). Carrier market share in WiMAX broadband wireless data will be strongly impacted by QoS. Our prime focus is there, right now."


permits base transmitter station (BTS) to antenna separation distances of up to 15 kilometers (10 miles). This allows the BTS to be located in more easily acquired sites, remote from the mast and radio head/antenna assembly. In addition, the RFS RRH fiber-optic link offers ongoing opex savings, courtesy of the


AISG and OBSAI compatible

The robust and weatherproof RFS RRH unit provides a digital interface to the BTS, plus modulation/demodulation and amplification of both transmit and receive RF signals. In addition, all antenna interface standards group (AISG)-

OBSAI-compatibility ensures [the RFS] RRH solution loss-free `BTS-to-tower top' will be easily modified to fiber link. support the widest range of 3G and 3.5G wireless 3-Gbps plus technologies...

almost The unit's `3-Gbps plus' total throughput capacity ensures that the RFS RRH is well-placed to support powerful RRH networking topologies, such as `daisy chain', `ring' and `tree-and-branch'. The RFS RRH is believed to be one of the world's first to be fully compatible with the OBSAI RP3-01 interface definition. OBSAI is an organization of leading base station vendors, module and component manufacturers, which aims to establish a more open base station market, by creating a set of open specifications for base station architecture. "We are delighted to have achieved this important milestone," said André Doll, RFS Vice onboard the unit.


compliant antenna control and monitoring functionality is supported via the RFS RRH and the fiber link. All essential data and channel serialization data de-serialization,


buffering, redundancy coding and clock synchronization can be handled "As is the case with any outdoor base station technology, we are firmly convinced that reliability will be the vital ingredient in realizing the true benefits of any RRH solution," Doll said. "To this end, our design efforts are tightly focused on achieving premium RRH reliability, along with optimal link bit-rate and power efficiency." Commercial launch of the new RFS RRH system is planned for 2007.

Filters, beam-forming and MIMO

The key RF challenges Addra cites in the WiMAX roll-out will be issues surrounding RF filtering and base station antenna requirements. From the filtering perspective, the complexity of what Addra describes as "the broad radio panorama" of WiMAX sets interesting challenges. "For example, the ruling spectrum bodies in Europe (European Economic Community (ECC)) and North America (Federal Communications Commission (FCC)) are stipulating different

Nortel/RFS multi-beam `smart' a n t e n n a c o l l a b o ra t i o n

A Nortel/RFS joint-venture development has produced a multi-beam `smart' antenna that achieves a two-fold increase in IS-95 voice capacity, when compared with conventional single-beam sector antennas.

At the CTIA Wireless exhibition held in Las Vegas in April this year, leading communications technology and infrastructure vendor, Nortel, exhibited a multi-beam `smart' antenna solution specifically designed to meet the needs of next-generation --a multi-beam personal adaptive communications antenna beam services (PCS) 1900-MHz networks. The antenna selection (AABS) planar phased array, has been developed in conjunction with Radio Frequency Systems. The co-developed Nortel/RFS multi-beam antenna produces four precision beams-- narrow left, center and right lobes, plus a full-sector beam (see Figure 1). The AABS system's advanced array signal processing and adaptive Development Group (CDG) Service Operator Requirements for Smart Antenna Technology. The multi-beam antenna solution has been precision-developed by RFS to meet Nortel's exacting performance specifications. Along with achieving the required individual beam widths, beam shapes and `crossovers', electrical downtilts and gains, the antenna has been designed to ensure premium beam-to-beam isolation, return loss and minimal passive intermodulation distortion. "This solution enables valuable spectrum to be used in a highly-efficient manner," said Doug Wolff, general manager, CDMA Nortel. "By creating efficiencies with adaptive antenna technology, operators can support network capacities that were not previously possible." azimuthal side-lobe levels, elevation beamwidths and electrical downtilts that most accurately match those of conventional sector antennas. "We are delighted to work with Nortel in this important development for next-generation CDMA networks," said Curtis Cadrain, RFS Global Key Account Manager. "The Nortel AABS solution is truly state-of-the-art. We believe

The Nortel/RFS multi-beam antenna

Ta i w a n : a n E a s t A s i a n tiger earns its stripes

Taiwan's `economic miracle' belies its brief 60-year existence. Now offering a genuine broadband mobile communications environment, this mature wireless market serves as a `must watch' model for the rest of the world.

Towering over the Manhattan-style `skyscape' of Taipei, the world's tallest building--Taipei 101-- is symbolic of Taiwan's push to reach new economic heights in a future founded upon foresight: the foresight to rapidly adopt, assimilate, and take advantage of emergent technologies. Taiwan's overall economic development has been closely linked to the liberalization of its telecommunications sector. Increased privatization and foreign investment has seen the island's communications networks evolve from analog Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS), all the way to the third-generation (3G) networks that have just commenced operation. Today, with a population of almost 23 million,

Taipei 101 towers over the capital's high-rise skyline.




telephone services had existed in Taiwan since 1989, by 1994, the network was saturated and stagnating with just half a million subscribers. Chunghwa Telecom (then the DGT) consequently launched a new digital Global System for Mobile communication (GSM)



beam algorithm directs and distributes RF energy across three of the four fixed beams (while all four beams are used to receive signals.) This `smart` base transmitter station (BTS) also simultaneously suppresses interference signals and takes advantage of the signal path diversity inherent in the multi-beam system. As a result, the complete AABS system delivers a more spectrally efficient solution, while allowing more voice and data traffic within existing spectrum. Designed to seamlessly integrate into the Nortel code division multiple access (CDMA) Metro Cell platform, the Nortel AABS solution is applicable to IS-95, CDMA2000 1X, and CDMA 1x `evolution data only' (EV-DO) air interfaces. that in RFS


Figure 1: Schematic illustration of the multi-beam adaptive antenna beam selection (AABS) planar phased array

Taiwan boasts one of the world's highest wireless telephony penetration--110 percent-- compared to a fixed-line subscription rate of just 60 percent. This figure is not only reflective of Taiwan's largely inaccessible mountainous terrain, but also of a citizenry that is constantly on the go, twenty-four/seven. This year's IDC Information Society Index rates Taiwan as having the world's highest wireless Internet penetration rate and third-best overall information structure. RFS has enjoyed an active participation in the wireless and broadcast infrastructure development


900-MHz network in 1995. The AMPS network was phased out in 2001. It was liberalization that opened the door to network development capable of supporting today's `world record' mobile subscriber levels. In 1997, the MoTC awarded eight whole-island licenses for Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) network operation, operating in two bands: 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. These licenses were secured by: Chunghwa Telecom, Taiwan Mobile, (FET), KG Telecom, MoBiTai, TransAsia Telecom and Tuntex Telecom. Since that time, there has been significant contraction, resulting not only in several

Traffic is chaotic in Taipei metropolis.




of Taiwan, where its busy Taipei sales office has been operating since 2003. In support of the Taiwanese government's staunch commitment to `ubiquitous wireless connectivity', RFS continues to advise, tender and supply RF solutions to the country's OEMs and key stakeholders. The first steps towards the liberalization of Taiwan's telecommunications sector kicked off from the 1996 Telecommunications Act, which separated the operational and regulatory functions of the Directorate General of Telecommunications (DGT). As a result, the state-run Chunghwa Telecom was established to provide telecommunications services in a (fiercely!) competitive environment, while the DGT's regulatory responsibilities fell under the auspices of the Ministry of Transport and Communications (MoTC).

optimal choice for Nortel this cooperative Successfully multi-beam and venture. the precision

developing and integrating

Florida trials

System trials of the Nortel multi-beam technology conducted at a number of Florida PCS CDMA sites over the past three years have demonstrated a two-fold increase in IS-95 voice capacity when compared with conventional single-beam sector antennas. In addition, the AABS demands no change of standards or mobile terminals to achieve these capacity increase benefits. Nortel AABS smart antenna solution conforms to CDMA

AABS planar phased array (c/w beam former) Tailored RF performance

Importantly, minimal full-sector RFS and Nortel between and have the new tailored the antenna's performance to ensure interference antennas (single-beam) multi-beam conventional located

antenna, efficient


smart BTS subsystems into an operational system demanded a very special relationship between unique technology groups. The relationship between Nortel and RFS--and the nature of the two companies themselves --has demonstrated the essential high level of partnering, shared knowledge and global expertise necessary for such a landmark development."


elsewhere in the network. To achieve this, great attention has been spent on achieving antenna

mergers and acquisitions, but new players have also come onto the field. Five years later, in February 2002, just five 3G wireless licenses were auctioned in two spectral bands: 800 MHz code division multiple access (CDMA) 1x, and 2100-MHz wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA). Far from watching from the sidelines, RFS's expertise was called into play as the company worked with OEMs and the Taiwanese government in finalizing 3G spectrum allocation to ensure minimal 2G/3G interference. By 2006, three of the five 3G license holders dominate the market: Chunghwa Telecom, Taiwan Cellular Corporation (TCC), and FarEas Tone (FET). Planning to make its move into 3.5G by making Taiwan the world's largest testing ground for worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) technology, the government will auction four WiMAX licenses by the end of 2006. The `Big Three' will, no doubt, each secure their WiMAX positions, but a fourth competitor has yet to come out in the open and declare an interest.

4000 base stations, with almost no site sharing. Now, to deliver 3G services, each operator will require 1000 to 1200 new sites to optimize coverage," says Wu. "Each 2G site is being shared by two or three 3G providers and, of course, minimizing costs of additional cabling is a critical factor. RFS is an important supplier of GSM/CDMA diplexers for feeder sharing to these sites--potentially some 18,000 sets throughout Taiwan. In a current trial project with FET, for example, some 120 diplexer sets have already been installed, with more in the pipeline once the trial is complete."



urban areas like Taipei with wireless Internet


access, but also to tie these networks together with mobile services in an M-Taiwan initiative called `Internet Beyond 3G'. To further spur the development of popular applications for

T'ai-chung Chang-hua Hua-lien

broadband Internet users, the government will have injected US$34 million into WiMAX-related R&D by the end of this year. On the mobile TV front, Taiwan is displaying similar forward vision. In an `Asia first' in July 2005, a new channel, tailor-made for mobile reception on Kao-hsiung bus services, was trialed

Traditional Chinese architecture is still evident across the island.

T'ai-nan T'ai-tung Kao-hsiung

successfully. Again, the government is providing financial assistance for developing digital 13 new DTV antenna systems installed in Taiwan, including the pilot station. Sharing infrastructure through the use of RFS's world-renowned multi-channel combiners has been a vital element in enabling the five `freeto-air' broadcasters to meet DTV transmission obligations with less initial investment. content and advanced handheld devices. "Taiwanese people--especially the younger generation that is growing up with wireless communications--want to keep in touch, stay informed, be entertained. The `community' in which this generation lives is not rooted to the ground, but is as mobile and free-moving as they are," Wu says.

For the Taiwan Rail Authority (TRA) tunnels project,

Even more ground-breaking is a project underway for Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) Tuchen line extension, which will ensure commuters on the 400 trains traveling the tunnels daily will receive GSM/CDMA/UMTS services. This fully engineered WINS solution, founded on RADIAFLEX RLKU158 radiating



According to RFS Taiwan area sales director, Jason Wu, in the island's intensely competed communications market, the key drivers are user demands for high-quality, diversified, seamless services, and high-speed data.

RFS supplied 162 kilometers (100 miles) of RLVL114 and RLK114 RADIAFLEX radiating cable.


"At work, on the street, on the train, in buildings or outdoors these users will want information and entertainment dropped right into their hands. And whether this is via 3G cell phone, WLAN or WiMAX applications, or even mobile TV, RFS will definitely be in the picture, helping to deliver the solutions that deliver the services." Taiwan is proving to the world that a mature market is not a market that has stopped

Mobile and moving

"With mobile subscription at such a saturation point, our mobile phone operators are all working aggressively to develop data and value-added services, which boost average revenue per unit (ARPU). Mobile Internet, mobile office, mobile banking, mobile information services, ring-tones and music downloads-- these are the kinds of offerings for which users are prepared to pay. With such desirables at their fingertips, Taiwan's 3G user base is expected to number two million by the end of 2006," he says. Establishing the infrastructure to support 3G roll-outs--and complying with a Government policy of minimizing the numbers and locations of new base stations--has led to increasing carrier collaboration and infrastructure sharing. "By 2005, we had seen explosive growth in the sector and an island-wide network of some

Wonders of WINS

Not surprisingly in a country characterized by high-rise urban developments sited above largely subterranean rail systems, wireless indoors solutions (WINS) are of particular importance. The first integrated WLAN/GSM services were rolled out by Taiwanese operators during the first quarter of 2005 and were initially available in three cities--Taipei, T'ai-chung and Kao-hsiung. These are to be expanded to a further seven cities by 2008. By then, the government expects to see more than 4 million wireless subscribers in Taiwan using dual-mode handsets that support WLAN and GSM networks. Again, RFS is stepping up to the plate with wireless in-building and in-tunnel solutions. An in-tunnel solution for Kao-hsiung Rapid Transit Corporation

(KRTC) is currently under construction, to provide a 380 - 400 MHz Terrestrial Trunked Radio system (TETRA) for emergency and safety services. RFS's solution--based on RADIAFLEX radiating cable-- addresses 25 kilometers (15 miles) of tunnel across 37 stations within the city's central business district. "One of the reasons for RFS selection as a supplier was that our radiating cables achieved endorsement by Taiwan's National Fire Authority, meeting low-smoke, low-halogen requirements," explains Wu. The project is scheduled for completion in the fourth-quarter of 2007. In another important in-tunnel TETRA project-- this time for Taiwan Rail Authority--RFS last year supplied 162 kilometers (100 miles) of RLVL114 and RLK114 RADIAFLEX radiating cable.

cable, is consolidating RFS's reputation in the region for supplying superior WINS solutions. RFS Taiwan is also participating in tenders, on a project-by-project basis, for indoor WLAN applications in hospitals, airports, universities, shopping centers and key public buildings.

"Especially in Taiwan's varied terrain, every location is different," says Wu. "RFS provides more than just equipment. RFS works with local broadcasters to provide full technical solutions that ensure optimal coverage in the desired service areas. In the near future we expect to be even busier, as the broadcast network is expected to double in size, with each broadcaster operating

flourishing. Indeed, as this `East Asian tiger' advances into the 21st century, pundits predict it will remain a pace-setter. Be sure, too, that RFS will continue to act as a conduit for these technological changes as they evolve.

DTV reaching new heights

In digital broadcast too, as in mobile communications, Taiwan has been an early-runner. The European Digital Video BroadcastingTerrestrial (DVB-T) standard was formally adopted in 2001, enabling the establishment of Single Frequency Networks (SFN) in which more than one transmitting site may service the same coverage area. RFS came in on the ground, providing end-to-end RF solutions for 11 of the

two channels via the coast-to-coast SFN."

Government goes beyond 3G

As part of an ambitious NT$37 billion (US$1.1 billion) project, called M-Taiwan, Taiwan's government plans to blanket the island's cities with broadband wireless data networks that are integrated with existing mobile phone services by 2008. The project aims to not only cover

US auctions spawn spectrum shuffle

As the USA re-allocates microwave backhaul spectrum for 3G advanced wireless services, incumbent carriers needing to relocate will need flexible radio link solutions that can be deployed quickly.

The planned mid-2006 auction of advanced wireless services (AWS) spectrum in the USA is generating great enthusiasm on the part of commercial mobile phone carriers hoping to deploy third-generation (3G) services in the newly allocated bands. However, for those incumbents already using the 1700 and 2100-MHz spectrum for wireless backhaul applications, a tough decision lies ahead. They must find new backhaul routes--and quickly-- to allow them to vacate the spectrum without disrupting existing services. The spectrum being auctioned by the US federal communications commission (FCC) comprises the 1710 to 1755-MHz band, currently utilized by federal government organizations, and relocation of wireless backhaul services to different bands. "It will most likely come down to each and all of these options being considered on a case-by-case basis," says Zoberi. "Each link will be assessed in terms of interference, available infrastructure and available capacity." Of the options available, microwave radio links remain the most flexible. Although T1 lines present a speedy solution, they incur ongoing leasing costs that dramatically increase overall cost of the system. Fiber networks are fast and high-capacity, but are difficult and expensive to deploy--especially over rugged terrain--plus "Although it might be faster and more costeffective to use existing microwave antenna systems, there's also the chance these might already be capacity-limited, or consist of old equipment. This is really a huge opportunity to upgrade to digital technology, where capacity is much less of an issue. The 4, 6 and 7-GHz bands are, for the most part, ideal for high-capacity, long-distance microwave links; while the higher frequency bands are more applicable for links over medium or short-distances," says Zoberi.

Suite of Solutions

RFS designs and delivers complete microwave antenna systems for radio link networks in each of the bands being considered. This includes an extensive suite of antennas--including standard,

H y b r i d c o v e ra g e s o l u t i o n f o r S h a n g h a i M e t ro


Shanghai's new Metro Line `M9' comes to life with the help of RFS wireless indoor solutions, underpinning the line's vital train radio communication system.

In 2006/2007, joint-venture railway infrastructure development group, Shanghai Hong Kong Metro Construction Management, will incorporate Radio Frequency Systems' wireless indoor solutions (WINS) to support an in-tunnel communications system for Shanghai Metro line `M9'. The new section of the metro will include 13 new stations from Song Jiang to Yi Shan Road in Shanghai's south west, and incorporate twin-bore 12-kilometer (7-mile) tunnels. Each tunnel bore will be equipped with a terrestrial trunked radio (TETRA) 800-MHz network to support the metro's train radio communications of 2007. To achieve the desired in-tunnel coverage, the hybrid solution will use a combination of RFS's T-RU series optical repeaters and RADIAFLEX system. This system is scheduled for completion in the first half RLKU series radiating cable. Fifteen optical repeaters positioned along the length of the tunnels will support a fiber optic backbone system. Each high-power remote unit will convert the optical signal into RF and amplify it through each tunnel--maintaining the signal levels along the entire tunnel. In this particular installation, the optical repeaters will be positioned approximately two kilometers (1.2 miles) apart through the longest stretches of transmission. Jacky Tang, RFS Senior Regional Sales Manager, said that a key design feature was the customization of the distances between each optical unit to minimize overall system loss. "Some stations were more than two kilometers (1.2 miles) apart," he said. "We needed to individually assess each subsection of the line--in terms of distance and strength of signal--to determine the number of optical repeaters to be used. In the longest sections, we need to put as many as three repeaters between stations to ensure the signal remains strong." Scheduled for operation in early 2009, the Shanghai Metro M9 will be the third RFS has worked on in the city. Over the past few years, RFS's customized WINS technology was used to create a 450-MHz train radio communications system and public communications system for Shanghai Metro M1, M2, and their extensions.



the 2110 to 2150-MHz band, allocated to non-government organizations such as rail companies, State Governments, and several commercial carriers. The cost of relocating backhaul services will be footed by the new spectrum license-holders; and, according to Asad Zoberi, Radio Frequency Systems Microwave Area Product Manager, these are likely to want to liberate the spectrum right away. "There are certain key markets--such as New York or Los Angeles--where the new license-holders will want to make use of the AWS spectrum quickly," Zoberi says. "We expect the relocation activity here could start in a matter of months. There could even be a measure of transitional frequency sharing, providing there's no interference generated. Whatever the case, it's certain that speed of deployment will be a key factor in the choice of new backhaul mechanism." are more susceptible to natural disasters. Microwave links, on the other hand, can cover great distances without incurring extra cost, can be deployed quickly, and offer payback periods of as little as two years. Furthermore, with microwave backhaul, users have total control of the system. The frequency bands specified by the FCC for microwave backhaul relocation are illustrated in Figure 1. Federal government incumbents currently using the 1710 to 1755-MHz band can opt to use existing systems in the 1750 to 1850-MHz band, or deploy new systems in the 4 or 7-GHz bands. Similarly, non-government incumbents (2110 to 2150-MHz) can use existing 2450 to 2483-MHz systems, or move to the 6, 10, 11 or 18-GHz bands. The decision, says Zoberi, lies in the desired application. high and ultra-high performance models, and the popular RFS CompactLine, SlimLine ranges-- plus FLEXWELL elliptical waveguide, dehydration systems and accessories. "RFS is committed to providing cost-effective and high performance backhaul solutions," says Zoberi. "We've pioneered the development of small-diameter dishes that meet FCC part 101 Category A pattern requirements in the 10 and 11-GHz bands, providing more choice for users of this band. Added to that, we have a premium manufacturing facility here in the USA, enabling fast turnaround and system deployment." Although incumbents of the 1700 and 2100-MHz bands are still confronted by a lot of unknowns, there are already many RFS solutions available to meet their backhaul relocation needs, says Zoberi.

Figure 1: The backhaul relocation scenario caused by the impending AWS spectrum auctions


Backhaul case-by-case

Incumbents have a number of backhaul options: lease of existing T1 lines, deployment of fiber networks, utilization of existing microwave backhaul systems in neighboring bands, or

R F S i n t ro d u c e s t ra n s m i s s i o n l i n e s u rc h a rg e s c h e m e

Radio Frequency Systems has announced a new `raw material surcharge' that will be applied to its world-leading RF transmission line products. The new surcharge scheme has been developed in response to a sustained increase in the cost of the base materials--such as copper, aluminum, polyethylene and crude oil--that are involved in the transmission line production and supply chain processes. Effective from 1 February 2006, the surcharge applies to RFS's FLEXWELL, HELIFLEX, CELLFLEX, and RADIAFLEX products. World commodity prices have risen steadily over the past year, with the cost of copper-- considered to be the lead indicator for commodity pricing--effectively doubling since mid-2004. "Materials such as copper, aluminum and oil are integral in the construction of many of RFS's products. The commodity cost impact has reached a point where RFS can no longer shield its customers from its effects," said Mark Davies, RFS President Global Transmission Line Products. "The new RFS `raw material surcharge' minimizes the impact on our valued customers, as we all ride through these commodity cost challenges." As a leading supplier of wireless infrastructure solutions for over 30 years, RFS continually strives to offer superior RF solutions across a broad range of industry sectors. "The burden of the recent commodity price rises has reached a point where this commitment is at risk. The `raw material surcharge' alleviates this risk, and ensures that we retain and enhance the premium product quality and performance that is synonymous with the CELLFLEX, RADIAFLEX, FLEXWELL and HELIFLEX brands," Davies said. For further information regarding the RFS transmission line `raw material surcharge', contact your local RFS sales and distribution office, or the RFS website at

Fo u r t h e d i t i o n o f R F S P ro d u c t s catalog

Radio Frequency Systems has released the latest edition of its comprehensive product catalog, RFS Products: Infrastructure Solutions. The fourth edition features over 3,000 RFS products across eight product ranges. A new feature of the catalog is the incorporation of seven `industry solutions' pages. Each of these double-page spreads features a detailed system illustration that demonstrates how RFS's individual product groups can be integrated together into end-to-end RF solutions. The outlined industry applications include: Cell-based communications; radio link networks; public mobile radio; in-tunnel wireless communications; in-building wireless communications; television and radio broadcasting; and high frequency and defense communications. Complementing each system illustration is a description of how RFS provides real-world solutions to meet the specific challenges faced by each of these wireless industries. In addition, the new catalog provides easy-to-access supplementary information, such as performance charts, explanations of technical terms and concepts in the technical information section, plus a detailed model number index for all products featured. The printed version of the fourth RFS Products catalog is available now from your local RFS sales representative. Alternatively, order a copy on-line at



© Copyright 2006. Image used by permission of photographer.

RFS doing dialog at B ro a d c a s t A s i a 2 0 0 6

At this year's BroadcastAsia 2006 exhibition, Radio Frequency Systems will make its people a focal point. The company's team of RF broadcast system experts will be on-hand to discuss current directions in broadcast technology--particularly developments to support digital mobile television services, such as digital video broadcasting to handhelds (DVB-H) and digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB). "This is a pivotal time for the industry," said Norm Franke, RFS Manager Sales Asia. "Mobile television is a whole new ballgame, with questions still being raised about the RF and delivery aspects of the technology--such as polarization, frequency bands, indoor coverage and network topology. BroadcastAsia provides a forum for the face-to-face discussions that underpin the adoption of such new technologies. RFS is here to talk!"

RFS at BroadcastAsia 2006: Singapore Expo 20 to 23 June 2006 Hall 8, booth 8K3-01

SlimLine on S w a n L a ke

High atop Swan Lake Mountain in the South-Central Oregon Ranges, USA, RFS SlimLine SU series microwave antennas bear the brunt of a snowy winter. At an elevation of 2139 meters (7018 feet), Swan Lake Mountain can experience temperatures ranging from -26 degrees Celsius (-15 degrees Fahrenheit) in the winter through to 38 degrees Celsius (100 degrees Fahrenheit) in the summer, and wind speeds gusting up to 104 kilometers per hour (65 miles per hour).


Dr. Q's noble prize!

In an international field of more 400 entries, Radio Frequency Systems last month garnered a Silver Award in the prestigious World Media Festival Awards 2006 for a short film titled Q's Wonderful World of Science. The film--an inventive and amusing mix of animation and live action--was submitted to the World Media Festival by well-known German production company, Ulrich Bock Film, from a script and concept by advertising agency B & B Werbeagentur GmbH. Q's Wonderful World of Science quirkily introduces the world of wireless communications and broadcast technology, and explains RFS's important role in these industries. It was created for use at exhibitions, trade fairs, and for customer demonstrations. The World Media Festival Awards recognize excellence in modern communications media, and are acknowledged internationally as symbols of the highest production standards in modern communication.

According to Franke, BroadcastAsia is an ideal opportunity for broadcasters to meet with the team behind RFS's world-renowned RF broadcast systems. "It's a relaxed atmosphere and, whether the interest is in mobile television, or digital terrestrial TV, or digital radio, or analogue expansions, specific we can By listen to broadcasters' needs. understanding these, we can work with broadcasters to develop the most practical solutions--on a case-by-case basis." The broadcast division of RFS specializes in the design, manufacture and installation of end-toend broadband antenna systems and associated multi-channel combining systems.



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