Read Natural Disasters Story Sampler text version


Understanding Natural Disasters


Support for Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. comes from corporations, foundations, government, and other national service organizations. RIF is affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution and has been accorded tax-exempt status under Section 501 (c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Contributions to RIF are tax-deductible to the fullest extent of the law. Reading Is Fundamental, RIF, and the logo design showing the open book with a smiling face on it and the words Reading Is Fundamental underneath it are all registered service marks of Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. All rights reserved. Created and developed by Kathy Broderick, Consultant and Sara Horwitz, Reading Is Fundamental, Inc.

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N. W. Suite 400 Washington, D.C. 20009-5726 Toll free: 877-743-7323 Web site: © 2001 Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. All rights reserved.


What Is a Story Sampler?

A Story Sampler makes books come alive for children. It is a book-based thematic approach to reading designed to engage children in the book experience. Each Story Sampler includes hands-on, cross-curricular activities for books that are linked by a common theme.

to support language and literacy development. Children who are read to from infancy associate reading with pleasant, warm feelings. When you invite children to participate in reading, ask open-ended questions that promote creative thinking and learning, and plan activities and experiences that allow children to expand their understanding of the story, you help them develop a love of reading.

What Are the Standard Elements of a Story Sampler?

Each section of the Story Sampler includes a featured book plus additional titles and resources.* The activities that accompany each section will help you develop a literacy-rich environment that contributes significantly to a child's enjoyment of reading. The standard elements in the Story Sampler include:

Questions to ask Things to do

Family involvement Community connections

*The ISBN listed indicates a specific edition of the book. However, other editions may also be available through the public library or other publishers.

Why Use a Story Sampler?

Motivational activities are an important part of every Reading Is Fundamental program. And these motivational activities are an easy way to excite children's interest in reading and help them associate books and reading with positive experiences and that means fun! The ideas you will find in each Story Sampler show you how to build anticipation and excitement in your RIF programs. Scores of studies show that students learn more and do better in school when their parents are involved in their education. Different types of hands-on activities enable all children to learn in different ways. Particular questions before, during and after read aloud activities can develop high order thinking skills. Family members can encourage children to become life-long readers by reading aloud with them everyday. Reading aloud to children is one of the most effective ways

Who Should Use a Story Sampler and Where?

Some Story Samplers are age-specific, but most can be adapted to a broad range of ages. Teachers, families, and child-care providers can use them in classrooms, community centers, homes, and in Head Start sites. And most importantly, parents can extend the story beyond the classroom with home-based projects and field trips. Story Samplers can forge relationships and shared experiences within the family and the community. Through the family, children can be introduced to many kinds of books. Books can explain and reinforce concepts; allow children to build positive self-images; stimulate discussions and thinking; increase children's understanding of various concepts; and expand their imagination. The age range for a Story Sampler is indicated at the beginning of each set of activities.


When and How Should I Use a Story Sampler?

Story Samplers can be used within or as a supplement to a curriculum or an after-school program. They can be part of reading challenges, reading weeks, and family involvement events. Your imagination and the interests of the children who participate in the RIF program will help determine the best way to use the Story Sampler. Enjoy and have fun!

Understanding Natural Disasters



Tips for Reading Aloud

Before You Read a Story...

Make sure everyone is comfortable Show the cover and read the title and author of the book Ask the children about the cover Suggest things the children can look or listen for during the story


by Darleen Bailey Beard with illustrations by Nancy Carpenter, Farrar, 1999 ISBN: 0374379777


During a Story...


by David Wiesner, Clarion, 1990 ISBN: 0395543827

Change your voice to fit the mood or action Move your finger under the words as you read them Show the pictures and talk about the book as you read Add information or change words to help kids understand more words and explain the meaning of a new word Ask children to make predictions about the plot, the characters, and the setting Share your own thoughts about the story Follow the cues of the children


Earthquake! A Story of Old San Francisco

by Kathleen V. Kudlinski with illustrations by Ronald Himler, Puffin, 1993 ISBN: 0140363904

After You Read a Story...


Ask questions about what happened in the story Encourage the group to relate the story to their own experiences Ask children how they might feel or act if they were one of the characters

Volcano: The Eruption and Healing of Mount St. Helens

by Patricia Lauber, Aladdin, 1986 ISBN: 0689716796

Encourage children to share their thoughts about the story and pictures Extend the story with an activity or another book


Come a Tide

by George Ella Lyon with illustrations by Stephen Gammell, Orchard, 1990 ISBN: 0531058549


Tornado Trouble


by Darleen Bailey Beard with illustrations by Nancy Carpenter Farrar, 1999 ISBN: 0374379777

This picture book begins with a familiar scene: a brother and sister sit on their porch swing licking orange Popsicles; Mama hangs laundry out to dry on the line; and an elderly neighbor, Mr. Lyle, comes to visit. But the weather changes suddenly, and Mama hurries her children down into the cellar. The middle portion of this book is set there, the siblings braving the tornado together alone, while Mama makes sure Mr. Lyle is safe. The book ends with the children emerging safely from the cellar (and Mama and Mr. Lyle from under his porch), taking in the destruction, but knowing that life--and their community--will go on.

What To Do Before Reading the Story

Hold up the cover of the book and ask the children if they can guess what this book is about. Do they know what a twister is? See if they can think of other names for twisters (tornadoes, cyclones). Ask if any of the children have ever witnessed a tornado. Suggest the children draw a picture of a storm or a tornado. Talk about the colors they chose for their drawings, or what moment of the storm (or its aftermath) they have chosen to illustrate. Write down the words they use to describe their pictures; in many books about extreme weather, the descriptive language is very interesting. Point out to the children that they should look for these descriptions when reading the books on the Additional Titles list.

What To Talk About During the Story

Explain the meaning of "gully washer" (or let the children guess what it means). A common detail found in books about natural disasters is how animals behave during bad weather. In this case, the children worry about a rabbit. Take time to examine the illustrations carefully, so the children really see what the setting is like prior to the storm. Then, at the end of the book, have the children point to the changes. What has happened to the clothes hanging on the line? The porch swing? The red truck, the telephone poles, etc.?


What You Can Do When You Finish Reading the Story

Additional Titles

Tornado by Betsy Byars. Illus. by Doron Ben-Ami, HarperTrophy, 1996 ISBN: 0064420639 While waiting out a tornado in the storm cellar, Pete the farm hand tells stories about a tornado he experienced earlier in his life. That tornado carried a dog--in a doghouse--right to his front yard, and he named the dog Tornado. Each chapter of this short novel is a different story about this very special dog. The Bravest of Us All by Marsha Diane Arnold. Illus. by Brad Sneed, Dial, 2000 ISBN: 0803724098 In this picture book, Ruby Jane discovers that her fearless older sister is afraid of the storm cellar. When she refuses to enter the cellar during a tornado, Ruby Jane must calm her down and lead her to safety. One Lucky Girl by George Ella Lyon. Illus. by Irene Trivas, DK Publishing, 2000 ISBN: 0789426137 When a tornado hits a trailer park, young Nick relates how his baby sister landed across the field unharmed, and still in her baby carriage. Lyon's straightforward text ("in the roar I could hear metal being torn apart" . . . "parts of our trailer made a line across the field like a road of crumpled tinfoil") doesn't downplay the power of a tornado, despite the happy ending of this picture book. Tornadoes by Seymour Simon, HarperTrophy, 1999 ISBN: 0064437914 This nonfiction book holds amazing photographs of real tornadoes, which contrast remarkably with illustrations in the picture books on this list. It also shows photographs of the type of damage a tornado can do. Simon explains why tornado season occurs in the spring, where "tornado alley" is, and what the F-Scale is. He also exposes some myths about tornadoes. Tornado Alert by Franklyn M. Branley. Illus. by Giulio Maestro, HarperTrophy, 1988 ISBN: 0064450945 One of the "Let's-Read-and-Find-Out Science" books for young children, this nonfiction title states how tornadoes form and explores how scientists keep track of weather systems to help warn people of approaching tornadoes. The author also explains how to find a safe spot during a tornado--whether you are in a house with a basement, a mobile home, in school, or out in the country.

". . . the sky looks green, like Mama's guacamole." Hail "bounces in the grass like popcorn popping." "Hailstones sparkle like glittering diamonds." The language in these descriptions makes the storm sound beautiful. Why is that? Ask the children to describe something beautiful about a storm they have experienced. Ask the children to draw another picture of a tornado. Then let them take a second look at the drawings they made earlier. Compare the two pictures to see if the drawings have become more detailed. Talk about how different illustrators draw stormy skies and how they capture the energy of a tornado. Read one of the nonfiction titles from the Additional Titles list to introduce the science behind tornadoes. Talk with the children about how tornadoes appear to be too big (too powerful) to understand, but really the natural process which causes them to form is simple. Talk about how in olden days, there was no way to warn people when a storm was coming. Nowadays, scientists have sensitive equipment that helps alert people. Hold a tornado drill, so the children understand where it is safe to go in the case of a tornado.

Family Involvement

Suggest that the children ask their parents to rent the movies The Wizard of Oz or Twister to see how moviemakers use special effects to replicate a tornado. Keep in mind that Twister was made more than 50 years after The Wizard of Oz, and so the visual effects are much more realistic. Have the children organize a tornado drill at home, so that their families know how to be safe. Make a tornado: Fill a small jar with water. Dab your finger into a bit of liquid soap. Then dip your finger into the water in the jar. Screw the lid on the jar tightly. Hold the jar upside down in the palm of your hand and swirl the jar in small, tight circles. A tornado will appear. (Remember though, that real tornadoes are made of swirling wind, not water.)

Community Connection

Seek out eyewitness accounts of tornadoes. Ask the children to find out if there is anyone in their neighborhoods or wider community that has experienced a tornado first hand. Then, ask to listen to their story. Find out if a tornado ever hit your community. Check the library for photographs of various places taken before and after a tornado. In many parts of the country, tornadoes have done huge amounts of damage. Invite a meteorologist to come talk about tornado warnings and tornado safety.


Hurricane Havoc


by David Wiesner Clarion, 1990 ISBN: 0395543827

What To Do Before Reading the Story

Show the cover of this book. Ask the children what they think the boys are waiting for. Have the children think of some other names for hurricanes (typhoons, cyclones, willy-willies). Ask the children if they know what a hurricane is, or if they have ever experienced one first hand. On the first page of the book is a cat. When you turn the page, the children can see one of the boys in the backyard wearing a yellow rain jacket. What is he looking for? Carefully examine this scene--this is how things look before the storm. Notice the two tall elm trees at the left.

In this picture book by a Caldecott-winning illustrator, David, George, and their parents ride out a hurricane together inside their home. The next day, the family realizes one of their giant elm trees has been knocked down during the storm. The boys accept the damage, and then spend many hours playing in this new landscape, until a work crew comes to chop up the tree and carry it away. This non-threatening treatment about experiencing a hurricane shows that children understand the natural world and can adapt to its whims.


What To Talk About During the Story

Carefully examine Wiesner's illustrations. They contain many details that are not in the text of the book. Notice the groceries Mom brings into the kitchen (batteries for the flashlight). Why is the father "securing everything in the yard"? What things could be secured? What things could not? Why is the door taped? Ask the children what they notice about the tape. The boys seem to always be near a window or door looking out. Ask the children if they think David and George are scared. Do they think this is something the boys have been through before? The brothers use their imaginations to create new worlds within the fallen tree. Ask the children how they would use the fallen tree.

What You Can Do When You Finish Reading the Story

Introduce the word "evacuate". Some people leave when a hurricane comes. But some people stay put. Write down on a chalkboard or on a piece of paper what the pros and cons would be for leaving or staying. Read one of the nonfiction titles from the Additional Titles list. Ask the children if they have ever heard of the phrase "the eye of the storm"? What is the eye of a hurricane? Why does the storm seem to hit, stop, and then hit again? Construct a chart or graph that compares the speeds of tornado and hurricane winds to the speeds of cars, airplanes, and rocket ships.

Family Involvement

Additional Titles

Hurricanes: Earth's Mightiest Storms by Patricia Lauber, Scholastic, 1996 ISBN: 0590474065 This nonfiction title shows amazing photographs of hurricane storms and the damage they've made. It describes in detail how hurricanes begin and how they move across great distances. It also discusses how science and technology help alert people that hurricanes are coming. The Magic School Bus Inside a Hurricane by Joanna Cole. Illus. by Bruce Degen, Scholastic, 1995 ISBN: 059044686X Inside the familiar format of this series, readers will find Ms. Frizzle and her class flying the Magic School Bus into the eye of a hurricane, while Arnold experiences the storm from land. Sergio and the Hurricane by Alexandra Wallner, Holt, 2000 ISBN: 0805062033 This picture book tells of Sergio, who lives in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and anticipates his first experience of a hurricane. Only when he sees the destruction and helps clean up does he understand that life will go on and that things will return to normal.

Find out what time of year hurricanes come. Keep track of all the hurricane names in the current hurricane season. As a family, watch news stories about hurricanes. Or, have younger children ask their parents to read them news stories about hurricanes.

Community Connection

Ask a local librarian to help determine the name of the hurricane that came closest to your community. Invite a meterologist in your community to come talk about hurricanes. Organize a hurricane relief site to collect books or money for hurricane victims.


Earthquake Energy

Earthquake! A Story of Old San Francisco

by Kathleen V. Kudlinski with illustrations by Ronald Himler Puffin, 1993 ISBN: 0140363904

What To Do Before Reading the Story

Point out San Francisco on a map. Also, show the children where the San Andreas Fault lies. Ask if any of the children have been to San Francisco. Ask if any of the children have spent a lot of time around horses. Try to put the year 1906 into perspective (the Golden Gate Bridge was not built yet, few automobiles existed, etc.).

In this historical novel, Phillip tends the horses while his father takes the rest of the family to a safe place during the great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. The author recreates what that day must have been like, back before people could be warned, and before earthquake-proof buildings had been invented. This is also a horse story--in which Phillip's way with horses helps them to survive the disaster.


Family Involvement

Visit San Francisco, if possible. Or, as a family, look at a travel guide to San Francisco together. Why do so many people want to live there, despite its location along the San Andreas Fault? Have the children ask their parents to talk about the 1989 San Francisco earthquake, if they remember it. Suggest that the children ask their parents to rent Superman with Christopher Reeve. The premise of the movie is that Lex Luthor wants to blow off all the land west of the San Andreas Fault so that his property will be the new, very valuable beachfront. Is this a realistic premise? Do some of the experiments in Earthquakes, Franklyn M. Branley's book on the Additional Titles list.

Community Connection

Invite a structural engineer or an architect in to discuss how earthquake-proof buildings are constructed. Contact a university to see if a seismologist (a geologist who studies earthquakes) can come to talk with your group.

What To Talk About During the Story

Additional Titles

Earthquakes by Franklyn M. Branley. Illus. by Richard Rosenblum, HarperTrophy, 1990 ISBN: 0064451356 This "Lets-Read-and-Find-Out Science" book discusses how gigantic plates underneath the Earth's surface are slowly but constantly moving. It introduces the Richter scale and offers a couple of experiments. It also talks about the San Andreas Fault (through San Francisco) and what to do in case of an earthquake. Earthquakes by Sally M. Walker, Carolrhoda, 1996 ISBN: 0876148887 This nonfiction title starts with an actual photograph from San Francisco's famous 1906 earthquake. It also includes interesting maps, and discussions of different types of seismic waves, among other topics. Earthquakes by Seymour Simon, Morrow, 1991 ISBN: 068814022X With high-quality photographs and a fluid text, Simon shows what happens to manmade structures during an earthquake. But he also comforts the reader by stating that one's chance of being hurt is slight. Earthquake in the Early Morning by Mary Pope Osborne, Random House, 2001 ISBN: 067989070X This title is number 24 in the popular Magic Tree House series, in which siblings Jack and Annie travel back in time to the great San Francisco Earthquake.

Phillip is very aware of how animals are behaving in the first chapter. Dogs are barking, mice are running away, and the horses are skittish. Ask the children what they think Phillip is feeling. How does Phillip know that something truly horrible has happened? (The comment by Phillip's father to "never mind the horses" shocks Phillip. In 1906 horses would not only be valuable, but they would be a way of life for families, especially families in the livery business.) Why does Phillip have to stay? The black-and-white drawings give a good impression of what it must have been like in 1906 during the earthquake. What details make these pictures convincing?

What You Can Do When You Finish Reading the Story

Folk wisdom says animals are able to predict earthquakes, and there are reports of wildlife and pets acting strangely before a tremor. Discuss with the children whether or not this is a reliable predictor of earthquakes. Talk about the other earthquake in San Francisco in 1989 during the World Series. If you can remember watching that on television, tell the children what you saw, or what you felt as it was happening. Earthquakes happen all over the world, of course (not just in California), but on a smaller scale. Find out how close your community is to a fault line.


Vexing Volcanoes

Volcano: The Eruption and Healing of Mount St. Helens

by Patricia Lauber Aladdin, 1986 ISBN: 0689716796

What To Do Before Reading the Story

Ask the children if they can name any famous volcanoes (such as Mount Vesuvius). Can they think of any places that were made by volcanoes (such as the Hawaiian Islands)? Point out these places on a map. Locate Mount St. Helens, as well. Have the children call out any words that come to mind when they think of volcanoes (lava, magma, molten, ash, crater).

What To Talk About During the Story

For younger readers, read the captions to the photographs if the text of the book seems too long. Ask the children why people were not afraid of Mount St. Helens, even though they knew it was a volcano. When Mount St. Helens erupted, it triggered an avalanche. Ask the children if they are familiar with that term. Reinforce why volcanoes are good for our planet.

The title of this book says it all. Mount St. Helens, a beautiful green mountain, becomes a burned, charred mess after it erupts. Awesome photographs show the mountain before it blows and then immediately afterward. But this is not the whole story: scientists come to see the mountain heal itself, and find that animals survived. Soon, plants grow back and provide shelter for other animals. The book includes a map of "the Ring of Fire," a circle of active volcanoes that surrounds the Pacific Ocean, and discusses this phenomenon. But ultimately, this book demonstrates dramatically that nature causes great destruction--and that it can heal itself.


What You Can Do When You Finish Reading the Story

Additional Titles

Why Do Volcanoes Blow Their Tops? by Melvin and Gilda Berger. 2000, Scholastic Reference ISBN: 0439148782 From Scholastic's Question & Answer series, this nonfiction book offers accessible language and style while providing brief answers to questions about natural disasters. Volcanoes by Franklyn M. Branley. Illus. by Marc Simont, HarperTrophy, 1985 ISBN: 0064450597 This "Let's-Read-and-Find-Out Science" book provides a look at the magma flowing underneath the crust of the Earth and reassures children that a volcano probably won't blow up close to home. How Mountains Are Made by Kathleen Weidner Zoehfeld. Illus. by James Graham Hale, HarperTrophy, 1995 ISBN: 0064451283 In another "Let's-Read-and-Find-Out Science" title, the author explores how the Earth's surface is built up and worn down gradually, over millions and millions of years. The Volcano Goddess Will See You Now by Dan Greenberg, Puffin, 1997 ISBN: 0448415593 This title from the Zack Files series is set in Hawaii, where Zack finds himself under the curse of a grouchy volcano goddess.

Find out what Mount St. Helens looks like today, 21 years later. Learn about what scientists are doing in Naples, a populated city in Italy, to warn people if Mt. Vesuvius erupts again. Make an acrostic with the word "volcano". Suggest the children use the most forceful, energetic words they can think of. Or, introduce them to a thesaurus to help.

Family Involvement

Visit Mount St. Helens, if possible, or some other volcano that's closer to your home. Talk about how volcanoes are shaped, and why they are shaped that way. Build a volcano that erupts. It's best to do this activity outside because of the mess. Mound up dirt or sand to make a volcano shape. Press a can into the top of the volcano. Leave it uncovered, but build up the dirt around the can so it is hidden. Place 1/4c. of baking soda into the can. In a pitcher mix 1/2c. water, 1/2c. vinegar, 1/4c. dishwashing liquid, and a few drops of red food coloring. When you are ready for the eruption, pour the vinegar mixture into the can and watch the "lava" flow. Visit a natural science museum, many of which have exhibits about volcanoes. They may have a piece of lava in the museum, too.


Furious Floods

Come a Tide

by George Ella Lyon with illustrations by Stephen Gammell Orchard, 1990 ISBN: 0531058549

What To Talk About During the Story

Point out how the father asks his neighbors if they need help. Keep track of who is staying (and why) and who is leaving. How do Gammell's rainbow-colored illustrations affect the mood of this story?

What You Can Do When You Finish Reading the Story

"Last March it snowed and then it rained for four days and nights." When the flooding comes, the family in this picture book heads for Grandma's house on top of the hill. Then after the rains subside, the family heads back to see the damage, dig out their "buried treasure," and clean up. The community helps each other, shares meals at the rescue wagon, and celebrates their connections when it's all over. Gammell's colored-pencil illustrations show how these people adapt to their surroundings and make peace with nature.

Look for signs of flooding in the basements of buildings or on the exteriors of buildings. Research global warming. Many scientists are now concerned that in the next 100 years, because of global warming, the glacier melt will cause flooding all over the world. Discuss with the children which populations will be most affected if this should occur.

What To Do Before Reading the Story

Ask the children if they have ever experienced flooding (even a small basement flood). What did it make them feel like? Did anyone lose a special possession in the flood? Ask the children if they can think of rivers that flood in the U.S. (such as the Mississippi River) or somewhere else on the planet (such as the Yangtze River in China or the Nile River in Egypt). Point out these places on a map. This book is set in Appalachia. Show the children where the Appalachian Mountains are and talk for a few minutes about life there.


Additional Titles

River Friendly, River Wild by Jane Kurtz. Illus. by Neil Brennan, Simon & Schuster, 2000 ISBN: 0689820496 The author wrote many of these poems in the days immediately following the 1997 flooding of her home in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Her poetry captures the intensity of sandbagging, fleeing to higher ground, and then moving higher still. The strong emotions of returning home are also included. In her introduction, she salutes "anyone who has done the amazing job of picking up life after a flood, tornado, hurricane, fire, or other natural disaster." Nature's Fury: Eyewitness Reports of Natural Disasters by Carole G. Vogel, 2000, Scholastic ISBN: 0590115022 This book of nonfiction is full of historical eyewitness accounts of natural disasters. Vogel interviews survivors, some of whom were children at the time the disasters occurred. Ben's Dream by Chris Van Allsburg, Houghton, 1982 ISBN: 039587470X While studying for a geography test, Ben dreams that flood waters carry his house around the world, past such historic monuments as the Great Wall of China, the Leaning Tower of Pisa, the Taj Mahal, and the Sphinx. A very interesting book by a Caldecottwinning artist. Flood: Wrestling with the Mississippi by Patricia Lauber, National Geographic Society, 1996 ISBN: 079224141X As Lauber has done in her other nonfiction titles, she blends science with news. With photographs and a gripping text, she captures the inevitable conflict between uncontrollable nature and the people who want to control it.

Family Involvement

Have the children set up a rain gauge in their back yards to measure how much rain falls during the rainy season. Compare that amount to the rainfall in areas that have flooded. Suggest the children ask people in their families about a flood they have experienced. Ask if they have ever lost something special in a flood.

Community Connection

If there is flooding in your area, volunteer to help sandbag. Contact FEMA (the Federal Emergency Management Agency) for any information they can pass on. Of, ask if they have anyone who could come talk to your group.



Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. (RIF) develops and delivers children's and family literacy programs that help prepare young children for reading and motivate older children to read. Through a national network of teachers, parents, and community volunteers, RIF programs provide books and other essential literacy resources to children at no cost to them or their families. RIF's highest priority is the nation's neediest children, from infancy to age 11.


Founded in 1966 in Washington, D.C., RIF is the nation's oldest and largest nonprofit children's literacy organization, with programs operating nationwide in 18,000 schools, child-care centers, libraries, hospitals, clinics, migrant worker camps, Head Start and Even Start programs, homeless shelters, and detention centers. RIF serves more than 4.3 million children through a network of more than 310,000 volunteers. Two-thirds of the children served by RIF have economic or learning needs that put them at risk of failing to achieve basic educational goals. Through a contract with the U.S. Department of Education, RIF provides federal matching funds to thousands of school and community-based organizations that sponsor RIF programs. RIF also receives private support from hundreds of corporations and foundations, thousands of local organizations and businesses, and countless individuals. RIF distributes about 14 million books a year. This year, RIF is celebrating its 35th anniversary and the milestone of placing more than 200 million books in the hands and homes of America's children.

Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. 1825 Connecticut Avenue, N. W., Suite 400 Washington, D.C. 20009-5726 Toll free: 877-743-7323 Web site: ©2001 Reading Is Fundamental, Inc. All rights reserved.


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Natural Disasters Story Sampler