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Saeco's Modisette Dies







Spotting Scope. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 6 Dear Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 American Gunmakers . . . . . . . 1 2 Rifle Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 4 Aiming for Answers.. . . . . . . . 15 Book Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 NBRSA News . . . . . . . . . . . .. 3 4 a Classic Rifles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Product Proofing.. . . . . . . . . .. 6 1 . Trophy Pointers . . . . . . . . . . .. 6 6

Model L Falling-Block Action


Frank d e H a a s

The Properties a n d Curing of Gunstock Woods Ruger's Red Label

. . . . . . . . . . . .John Bivins

Bob Hagel Bill Corson

...................................... ............................... ..........................

The .240 (Original) Cobra

26 28 30 32 36 40

Blaser Bergstutzen Two-Caliber Rifle That One Accurate Rifle.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .W e r n e r Reb

James K. Geddes

2 2 Benchrest Cartridge from Remington


.................... Jon Leu ................................. LayneSimpson


Africa's Booming Bertha - T h e

. . . . . . . . . . . . . B. del Savio Iohn


This cosmopolitan, repatriated WinchestBr Model 1886 began as any other .45-90 in this model. An ocean voyage took i t t o England as an import of a great English gunrnaking firm. After passing English proofing, away it went on another voyage; this time, t o India, where it was apparently used for hunting tigers. Transparency by Bob Hills.

Adopted in August 1969 as Official Publication For National Bench Rest Shooters Association

Rille Magazine copyright 1979 is published bi monthly by Wolfe Publishing Co Inc (Dave Wolfe President) P 0 Box 3030 Prescott Arizona 86302 Telephone (602) 4457810 Second Class Postage paid at Prescott Arizona and additional mailing offices Single copy price of current issues $1 50 Subscription price six issues $775 12 issues $1300 18 issues $1700 (Outside U S possessions and Canada $9 00 $15 00 and $20 00) Recommended foreign single copy price $1 75 Advertising rates furnished o n request All rights reserved Publisher o f Rille is not responsible for mishaps 01 any nature which might occur from use of published data or from recommendations by any member of The Staff No part of this publication may be reproduced without written permission from the edilor Manuscripts from free lance writers must be accompanied by stamped self addressed envelope and the publisher cannot accept responsibility for losl or mutilated manuscripts Change of address please give six weeks notice Send both old and new address plus mailing label i f possible l o Circulation Dept Rille Magazine P 0 Box 3030 Prescott Arizona 86302

The Staff

Dave Wolfe, Publisher Ralph Tanner, Jr., VP, Sales Director Ken Howell, Editor Dave LeGate, Art Director Barbara Pickering, Production Supervisor Lynda Ritter. Editorial Assistant Richard Aldis, Staff Photographer Joyce Bueter. Circulation Manager Terry Bueter. Circulation Jana Kosco. Executive Secretary Wanda Hall, Accounting R.T. Wolfe, Ph.D.. Consultant

Technical Editors

John Bivins Bob Brackney Bob Hagel A1 Miller Stuart Otteson Homer Powley Ken Waters Don Zutz



what? After two or three firings with even the mildest load, opening the bolt became a real challenge. The cases extracted easily enough, but they were just getting too darned long. Annealing didn't help either. -or metallic silhouette, as we Anglos now :all it, has crossed not only the borders o f 3ur neighboring countries but also the ,orders between rifie a n d pistol :ompetitions. The latest such borderxossing brings airgunners into this new :ield o sport competition, thanks t o f Beeman's Precision Airguns and the NRA Vetallic Silhouette Committee. Beeman designed the course, scaleddown from the centerfire course for rifleShooters, for high-power air rifles like the Feinwerkbau 124 or the Beeman HW35. The chicken range is twenty meters, the boar thirty meters, the turkey thirty-eight and a half, and the ram fi& meters, indoors or outdoors. Targets meet NRA f specs and are made o eleven-gauge steel with welded bases. Twenty silhouettes five of each size - make up a set. The course retails for about fifty dollars. Details are available from Beeman's Precision Airguns, Inc.; 47 Paul Drive; San Rafael, California 94903. Sometime this year, t h e NRA Metallic Silhouette Committee will have regulations for the airgun metallic-silhouette course. - Ken Howell Then came the Discovery. W e had a match at our local range, and I was complaining about the problem to Larry Baggett, a fellow benchrest freak from El Paso, Texas. Larry said he hadn't had a tight-case problem with his rifles, and he mentioned .that one possible reason might be that he doesn't polish the chamber much when he fits a barrel. His theory is that a polished chamber can't grip the case as well.


Next time you go shooting, use Sonics. Unlike muffs, Sonics don't hinder aiming shoulder arms, and don't interfere with glasses, hats or hair. Sonics are more comfortable, too. Sonics let you hear everything as you would normally. And they're just as effective in protecting your hearing as muffs. That's not just hearsay, either. An independent test was conducted on a police firing range, and the resultsavailable t o you- prove it.

I pondered the whole situation that evening when I got home, since we had another match the following day. The thought o scratching u p a nice, shiny f chamber wasn't very appealing, but maybe if the chamber and brass were completely dry, it might have the same effect. Like most people, I take a swipe at the chamber with a dry patch when I clean the barrel, but this leaves a film o Hoppe's. The case f is also a little greasy, since I use a patch with Hoppe's o n it to clean the case necks before sizing.

The idea o shooting a dry chamber isn't f anything new, but maybe it's something a lot of us have forgotten about. Remember the Model 53 Smith & Wesson chambered for the .22 Jet? One o the standard bits o f f advice for that gun was to keep the chambers completely free of oil. Otherwise, cartridge setback would tie u p the cylinder. With all this in mind, I full-length-sized my brass to the point that just gave a nice feel when the bolt was closed. Then I screwed a .45 mop o n the end o a n old f cleaning rod, and put a clean rag and a bottle o degreaser (l,l,l-trichloroethane) f in the shooting box. The next day, after each barrel cleaning,

Solving the Tight-CaseProblem with the 6mm BR

The new Remington 6 m m BR cartridge

is proving to be a fine performer, but many shooters have complained o excessive f

case stretching. In some rifles, it gets to the point that opening and closing the bolt is almost a two-handed proposition.

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I've been told that I'm always a t least two years behind the times, and I just started shooting a BR this winter. I figured the f case stretching had to be caused by one o two things: either people were trying to shoot them too hot, or the brass was being work-hardened from all the case-forming operations, and the shoulder was springing back, increasing the head-to-shoulder length. The solution should be simple: burn less powder, and if that didn't work, then anneal the case neck and shoulder. Well, I built. a brand new rifle, chambered it for 6 m m BR, and went shooting, all smug with the thought that I wasn't going to have that problem. Guess

I swabbed the chamber with the mop

dampened with tri-chlor and wiped off the cases after reloading, using the clean cloth dampened with the same stuff. By George, it worked! After loading the same five record cases twelve times, I can't tell that they are any tighter than they were f right after full-length sizing. My load o thirty grains o IMR-4895 behind a 68f grain bullet is a fairly warm one, and the brass chambered and extracted all day long just like it does in a faithful old .222. Most any solvent would probably d o the

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job, but it should be something that will evaporate out of the chamber rather quickly. 1,1,l-trichloroethane is sold under several trade names, including Carbo-Chlor and Hy-thane. It should be used with care around stocks painted with acrylic lacquer and enamel, since it can soften the finish if a spill isn't wiped off quickly. All this doesn't explain why the 6 m m BR case stretches when others don't. The most commonly expressed theory is that the case is unusually thick in the shoulder, since it is formed from .308-length brass. If this is true, then the problem will remain until one o the factories gets around to f making formed cases on brass drawn especially for that cartridge. In the meantime, it appears that the cure is a simple one, and something we can all live with. - Bob Brackney

from a Remington ,17 twenty-five grain tb a Nosier ,375 three-hundred-grain. Bullet brands represented include the expected well-knowns like Hornady, Sierra, and Speer, but also some less common brands like Colt, Sisk. Norma, CIL, and RWS. Chances are, the bullets you're using are in Homer's list.

f The guide also includes a number o additional bullet characteristics such as length, location o the center o gravity, f f f f height o head, rounding o head, meplat diameter, and sectional density.

This new Compendium, which makes the ballistics system in Rifle 26 vastly more usable, is available from Homer Powley; Petra Lane, RR 1; Eldridge, Iowa 52748, for thirteen dollars. If you don't have a f copy o Rifle 26, there's sad news: we don't have any back-issues here, except our own file copies. But for a couple o f bucks, our Circulation Department will Xerox a copy o Homer's original article. f - Ken Howell

Awards for First-Timers at Super Shoot VI1

Benchrest competitors firing their first Unlimited Heavy benchrest match at the 1979 Super Shoot will be eligible for some special awards a n d trophies. The f organizers o the shoot hiope to stimulate more activity and interest in "the big gun." This year, Super Shoot VI1 will be competition in Unlimited Heavy a n d Heavy Varmint classes. For information on the shoot, which is scheduled for May 25-28 at Kelbly's Range in Marshalville, Ohio, get in touch with Skip Gordon: N-73 Stedwick Village Drive; Budd Lake, New Jersey 07828. Skip has registration forms, and registration will be accepted through Thursday. May 24 for both classes, and for Heavy Varmint class for one hour on Saturday. May 26. after the UNL-BH competition - Ken Howell

Books for Gunfolk

Questions from readers and answers from our technical editors make fascinating reading. After a while, without trying, we come up with something like a poll o f readers' interests. For example, we frequently get queries about sources for gun books - sometimes requests for information on how to locate certain books and other times, requests for good sources o gun books in general. f Intense interest in any hobby feeds well f on a good collection o books,-md gun hobbies are by no means without good book coverage. No matter whether your interests a r e in gunsmithing or handloading, in ballistics or firearms history, in rifles or shotguns, in casual sport shooting or in organized competition shooting, a number o experts have f labored to produce a library for you. Unfortunately, more than a few good ones f are out o print. Fortunately, even these are sometimes available from booksellers specializing in gun books. Seldom does the average bookstore have any gun books at all, let alone a selection or the specific one you're looking for. Three well known specialists in gun books carry virtually every gun book in print - and some out-of-print books as well. Their booklists are well worth having in any shooter's reference pile. Probably the oldest and most famous among shooter-readers is Ray Riling Arms Books Company; P . O . Box 1 8 9 2 5 ; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19119. Two f other deservedly well known sellers o gun books are the Rutgers Book Center; 127 Raritan Avenue; Highland Park, New Jersey 08904, and the Fairfield Book Company; Box 289; Brookfield Center, Connecticut 06805. - Ken Howell

Exterior-Ballistics Reference

In Rifle 26 (March-April 1973). Homer Powley presented a new system of exterior-ballistics calculations specifically devised for small-arms bullets. Since Homer's equations were not based on the s a m e standard projectiles used for calculating t h e ballistics of artillery projectiles, ballistic coefficients based on the Siacci and Ingalls systems don't work in Homer's equations. This is true o any two f systems, not a praise or criticism o f Homer's methods, since systems based on different standards necessarily use different values for comparable ballistics parameters. Homer's article in Rifre 26 listed the ballistic coefficients o a number o popular f f sporting bullets - but not for every component bullet available to handloaders. Now Homer has a sixteen-page guide, which includes the drag and ballistic coefficients o a great variety o bullets, f f




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HE RANGE BUZZER sounded loudly, The recoil never seemed to quit and felt as almost ominously, as I approached the if I'd just been hammered on the shoulder shooting bench. The range was clear for with an eight-pound sledge. I had to take a firing. Before me lay several large brass- full step backward to keep my 160-pound cased cartridges sporting quarter-pound frame on a n even keel. When the smoke projectiles and hefty charges o Fg black cleared, there was a large hole on the f powder. To one side stood a battered paper cutting the eight-inch black at 12 military 50-caliber ammo box containing o'clock. loading paraphernalia for the large-bore Though I've had extensive experience cases. To the other was the rifle designed shooting big doubles on game as well as to fire them. targets, I certainly wasn't ready for this Methodically, I cinched up my shooting brute. For several years and as many jacket, adjusted my safety glasses and ear extended safaris, my two standbys for protection, then reached for the heavy taking thick-skinned game up close were a double rifle. Unlike most Twentieth f Century doubles, this one was a back- duo o Westley Richards doubles in ,450 3 1/4-inch and ,577 three-inch Nitro action, under-lever model - circa 1860 a lovely Holland & Holland with hammers. Express. The big ,577 throws a 750-grain I inserted a cartridge into the right barrel slug and generates over seven thousand f and eased the action closed. Cocking the foot pounds o energy at the muzzle. It's hammer back, I checked the stability of my usually more than enough to knock an stance and took airh at a smallbore rifle irate tusker back on his hunkers with a target fifty yards downrange. The trigger properly placed frontal shot. It recoils, to had an extremely hard pull, almost three be sure, even with its fifteen-pound weight, times that on a modern sporting rifle, but but it doesn't compare in any way with the the hammer finally released, and the shell piece o artillery I'd just fired. This was no f f fired, belching a huge cloud o acrid white ordinary "lightweight" in the .450-,500 smoke from the muzzle. I was shoved back class, nor a hot-rock super-duper, modern violently as the barrels continued to climb. pachyderm poleaxer. No sireee! This


behemoth was the granddaddy o them all f - the mighty 4-bore elephant gun. Major H . C . Maydon, famed early African hunter-sportsman, in his excellent book, Big Game Shooting In Africa, classified these early big bores as "large bores;" that is, any rifle with a bore larger than the .600 Nitro Express, and referred to them as NB's or the number o lead balls f o that bore diameter it takes to equal a f pound in weight (similar to our method o f determining a shotgun's gauge). He first made this classification around l m 9 , but even at that early date, he openly admitted that the large-bore elephant guns had seen their day and were obsolete for hunting. The more modern ,450 3 1/4-inch had taken the throne as the standard for thickskinned game. But there was a time in African and Indian hunting when the largebore doubles were the only game in town, and if one wanted to take up hunting elephant and rhino for sport or ivory and horn, he had to employ a 4, 6, or 8-bore blackpowder rifle. The large-bore double evolved when African hunting was in its infancy, around the 1840s. The European and English

explorer-hunters soon realized that the relatively small-caliber blackpowder rifles they had used so successfully oh their homeland's fauna proved ineffective on Africa's thick-skinned game. They needed a rifle that could deliver a smashing blow with enough penetration to reach the vitals on elephant, rhino, and buffalo. It stood to reason that a large-diameter, hardened projectile was necessary, along with a heavy charge o coarse black powder. The f only guns at that time with actions large enough to accommodate such a loading were the already existing large-gauge smoothbores used by t h e market wildfowlers. By reinforcing the massive breeches on 4, 6, and 8-gauge guns and substituting a single ball for shot, the early hunters soon had a solution to their problem. The large and long barrels were trimmed to twenty or twenty-four inches for handiness and to keep the weight down to a minimum. Depending upon the barrel length and density o the stock wood, a f typical 4-bore would tip the scales anywhere from eighteen to twenty-four pounds. This was just about enough weight to absorb some o the brutal recoil f the heavy twelve to sixteen-dram powder loads generated. The early 4-bores were, of course,

muzzleloaders. Breechloaders didn't debut until the 185Os, when centerfire cartridges became the rage after the early pinfires based on the Lefaucheux and Bastin LePage actions. They were manufactured by such prominent gunmakers as Purdey, Gibbs o Bristol, Westley Richards, and f Holland & Holland.

T h e muzzleloaders were generally smoothbore instead of rifled, for a number of sound reasons. To begin with, a smoothbore was quicker to load from the muzzle than a rifle owing to its less-critical tolerances. To facilitate loading with the Accuracy at fifty yards was sufficient to rifles, a two-grooved number was take most game. Field trials run by Holland manufactured and called a "cape gun" (not & Holland around 1883 against other to be confused with the later side-by-side manufacturers' rifles proved their product rifle-shotgun combinations), probably to be superior to all others. They called for stemming from their widespread use in the a 4-bore rifle whose weight was not to f vicinity o Cape Colony in South Africa. exceed twenty-four pounds and whose They fired a special winged or belted barrels were not to exceed twenty-four projectile that was made to fit exactly inches. The powder charge had to be between the grooves, thus eliminating the heavier than eleven drams and the range difficulty when reloading and aiding in set at fifty yards. After ten shots (which stabilization. This probably originated from had to be fired at a range other than the the early English Brunswick military rifle one used for the smaller rifles, because o f that also sported two grooves and fired a irate neighbors) the group measured under belted ball that was easy to load under three inches center-to-center. battle conditions. Greener, Gibbs, and Of the recoil generated by these Jeffery were among the champions of this wheelless field cannons, the legendary system. Frederick Courteney Selous in his book, A The heavy charges that were used in Hunter's Wanderings In Africa, wrote:

these rifles often caused the ball or slug to. blast down the barrel, ignoring the rifling, and stripping itself before exiting. Since most shots were at point-blank range, under twenty-five yards, the smoothbore was more than accurate enough to place its mercury, tin, or pewter-hardened balls in f the vitals o the large game it was primarily intended for. Some also believed that the projectiles traveled at a higher velocity when fired down a smooth barrel and had a greater hitting energy than the fully rifled version.





From Lyman research comes . . .


For yourself or for someone you know who enjoys shotgun shooting or black powder or game cooking, one of Lyman's three Gift Packs is a fine idea for a giftwhatever the occasion. The Cookbook Gift Pack contains The Wild Gourmet [with more than 300 tested recipes for large and small game],andFish Cookery of North America (with over 200 recipes and advice on'smoking, drymg, and other unusual preparation techniques), plus a hardwood book rack. An excellent gift for the outdoors family. Our new Shotshell Gift Pack contains the popularShotshe11Handbook, Second Edition, (with all the technical reloading data a shotgunner might need, including over 2,000 tested loads]; The American Shotgun (240 pages of fascinating history on the American smoothbore);and the valuable new Lyman Data Log [for collecting your own specific reloading data and keeping it orderly and close at hand). And at the special Gift Pack price, you're actually getting The American Shotgun free!

The new Black Powder Gift Pack cpptains the authoritative Black Powder Handbook (themost comprehensive load information ever published for the modern black powder shooter]; the popular, best-sellingMuzzleloaders'Handbook (covering everything from kit assembly to hunting avariety of game, plus a big prodkA dC~ catalog section]; and the valuable new Ep SK tN uct Data Log. And when you buy these three it helpful books as a Gf Pack, it means you're getting the Muzzleloaders' Handbook h e ! Is the Gift Pack another innovative Lyman idea? Of course. An idea that comes from Lyman's helpful technical library. An idea made possible by Lyman'scontinuing research and testing programs. And only Lyman could have done it. Take a look for yourself. See your dealer for these and other Lyman titles. Look again-you'll find a whole new Lyman in our FREE 1979 catalog. Send for it.

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"The four bore kicked most frightfully, and in my case the punishment I received from W are THE e books and these guns has affected my nerves to such titles. Save on our BAKER'S DOZEN FREE PREan extent as to have materially influenced MIUM PLAN and "UNBEATABLE VALUES." Send $1.00 for year-round mailings. my shooting ever since, and I am heartily Ray Riling Arms Books Co. sorry that I had anything to d o with them."

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was so great that 1 didn't feel the recoil, though afterwards I found my forefinge; broken and my right cheek covered with blood." After reading these accounts, you might well realize my apprehension when the opportunity came to shoot and evaluate a 4-bore double. As I mentioned earlier, the rifle was a lovely Holland & Holland. That's where all the loveliness stopped. The twin barrels were fully rifled and twenty-four inches long. Made o finely f etched Damascus steel, they seemed to look much shorter than they were because of their bulk. The smooth lines o the f massive breech were offset by a pair o f large hammers complete with stalker safeties. The action was opened by an under-lever that had to be swung completely to the right before the barrels and breech separated. The stock was made o straight-grained f walnut, n o doubt for added strength. Both the forearm and pistol grip were checkered eighteen lines to the inch for a better grip as well as for appearance. A solid soft-rubber recoil pad protected the butt as well as the shooter's shoulder from damage. With a f length o pull approaching 13 7/8 inches from the front trigger to the butt, 1 found the rifle fit just as well as my ,577 Nitro double. This particular rifle was made for hunting in India and had the Maharajah's name for whom it was built inlaid in gold script on the top rib. Scroll engraving adorned the action and breech in a tasteful, yet not ostentatious way. The rear sights consisted o a series o f f fine folding leaves set at fifty, one-hundred, two hundred, and three hundred yards. I seriously questioned their practicality. On a gun that was only effective up to fifty yards and rarely, if ever, shot at distances greater than that, I couldn't see the need for more than one fixed fifty-yard sight. After the first few shooting sessions, I found that this rifle was regulated - that is, designed to shoot both barrels to a common point o impact - for a fourteenf dram load o Fg black powder and a f quarter-pound spherical ball. Much to our surprise, it also grouped well with finer FFg and FFFg! Those who have had any experience handloading for the big doubles know how rare this is. Most doubles are as fickle as a society debutante at her coming out if anything but the factory loading is used. There is more o a chance o lowf f velocity cartridges regulating with different loads because of the lesser barrel vibrations as the projectile passes down the barrel. Hence, the slow-moving 4-bore should stand more o a chance with different loads f than, say, a higher-velocity ,350 Rigby flanged. Actually loading the 4-bore was an experience in handloading at its most literal and basic form. Cases were unobtainable.

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Selous also wrote o being actually f knocked offa large anthill when shooting at elephant with the 4-bore. It was from accounts like this that the rumors o bonef crushing recoil began. Sir Samuel Baker, famed for his husband-wife Search for the Source of the Nile Expedition of 1860, did much hunting in both Ceylon and Africa with the big guns. He even had a 2-bore, which became known amongst the natives in the Sudan as "Jenab al Mootfah," or "Child of the Cannon." Baker was a giant of a man and could handle both the recoil o the f large guns as well as their tremendous weight. H e wrote: "My battery consisted o one four bore single rifle weighing f twenty one pounds and one long two ounce rifle weighing sixteen pounds (a 2bore) . . . . . ." To give the reader some idea o the f hazards encountered while shooting big game with the 4-bore, Baker writes: "I took a rest on a man's shoulder (common practice in those days when a gunbearer was a necessity rather than a luxury) with the four bore, and, putting the last sight up, I aimed at the leading buffalo, who was walking in the water parallel to us. I aimed at the throat, to allow for his pace at this great distance (which he estimated at over four hundred yards). The recoil o the rifle f cut the man's ear open, as there were sixteen drachms o powder in the charge." f (Baker said he hit the animal, and the ball passed completely through.) William Baldwin, another early African hunter, was also forced to use the largebore rifles for his hunting in the late 1850s. He wrote that once, while galloping after an elephant, "The top o my powder flask f came off and the powder was loose in my pocket and I haphazardly loaded by the handful. I gave him a final shot with, I should say, about twelve drams o powder. f Down he came with a crash, his shoulder blade smashed to atoms. My excitement

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The few that still exist are cherished by The ball was then seated in the case and collectors and too valuable to shoot, as lubricated by a coating of Crisco they are prone to splitting after repeated shortening, which doubled as a sealant. A firing. To remedy this situation, 1 milled mixture o Alox and beeswax can also be f cases from steel on a lathe, complete with used. single-flash-hole primer pockets to handle Ballistically, the light twelve-dram load American primers instead of the twin-flashwas n o great shakes when compared to hole Berdan primers. These would then be epoxied to the remainder o the case that more modern heavyweights. It generated f f f was fashioned from a joined length o brass a little over 7,200 foot-pounds o muzzle curtain rod to a length o 20mm shell for energy, less than the modern Bertha, the f When I upped the added strength, then cut to the proper size. .460 Weatherby. charge to the normal fourteen-dram load, I Ordinary CCI large-rifle primers worked found a decided increase in recoil, with the perfectly for ignition and were seated into energy peaking out at 7,800 foot-pounds. the large cases by hand and set with the Why the tremendous increase is beyond f thumb. A premeasured charge o powder me. Understandably, the heaviest sixteenwas then poured into the case, followed by dram load would increase the energy and a small wad o tissue paper to keep the velocity, but I believe that it would be f powder relatively packed. Regular fiber almost too much for a man to handle with An wads could be used, but I didn't have the a n y accuracy or handiness. f time to cut any before my shooting session. acquaintance o mine, who owns a 4-bore In any case, the tissue worked just fine regulated for the sixteen-dram loading, experienced this increase in an unfortunate Most 4-bores were able to shoot both way. While shooting conical slugs under conical and spherical slugs, but this rifle the shelter o an aluminum roof, he f used mostly round balls because we touched off a round, and the rifle recoiled couldn't find a mould that could produce so violently that the front sight rose sharply conical projectiles. As it was, I had to and dented the corrugated roof above him! f borrow a spherical mould and cast all o my balls in one sitting. They were cast with tin I shot several strings with the 4-bore for hardness at a ratio o one to fifteen, not using the fourteen-dram loads. Firing right f so much for any penetration but to resist and left barrels alternately, I found I was f stripping when fired down the rifled barrel. able to keep most o my shots in a twelve-

inch circle at fifty yards. Out o necessity; f because o the great weight o the rifle, I f f had to shoot from a sitting position, as my arms just couldn't hold the gun up for the required time. I wasn't able to roll with the punches as easily, but my nerves were accustomed to heavy recoil after the first few shots, and I believe there is a point where pain cannot be measured any longer. As the day wore on, I found my groups were becoming increasingly larger. This was no reflection on the rifle, rather my quickly fraying nerves. After twenty well spaced rounds, I couldn't take any more that day. For comparison, I tried a few rounds with my ,460 Weatherby bolt gun from a benchrest. My nerves were so shot, and I flinched so badly, that I completely missed the paper, though the ,460 seemed like a .22 in comparison! During those early years of African and Indian big-game hunting, it took an iron man with an iron will to touch off fourteen to sixteen drams o powder behind a f quarter-pound ball. Modern hunters should be thankful for the advances that were made in technoloqv and brouqht about the ,458 and ,460 Weatherby. Compared to the antique booming Bertha, the 4-bore, they are just toys for tots by comparison! 0




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