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Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences 2011, 2(2): 354-356

Physico-chemical Analysis of Soil and Industrial Effluents of Sanganer Region of Jaipur Rajasthan

Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur ­ 302 004, Rajasthan, India

e-mail: [email protected]

Nidhi Joshi and Ashwani Kumar

ABSTRACT

The physico-chemical properties of soil of agricultural region and the water used for irrigation in sanganer area of Jaipur were analyzed. A wide variation in the physico-chemical properties of soil of agricultural region and the water in sanganer area were found in the present study. The physico-chemical characteristics of the effluent water and soil samples adjoining the textile effluent, of agricultural region of sanganer were found to have great variation in the physico-chemical properties. The pH of the effluents ranged from 7.6 - 7.9 and electrical conductivity from 3.5 - 4.55 mmhos/cm and temperature 25.0 - 29.0°C. Cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+) and anions (HCO3-, CO3- and Cl-) concentration of the water also shows a wide variation. The pH of the soil samples ranged from 7.6 - 9.2 and EC from 0.83 - 1.20 mmhos/cm. organic carbon and organic matter of the soil samples were ranged from 0.18 - 0.42 and 0.31 - 0.72%, respectively. Values of nitrogen, phosphate and potash concentration in the soil samples were also have great variability. Key words: Physico-chemical analysis, Soil, Industrial effluents, Sanganer India's environment is becoming fragile and environmental pollution is one of the undesirable side effects of industrialization, urbanization, population growth and unconscious attitude towards the environment. Though industrialization and development in agriculture are necessary to meet the basic requirement of people, at the same time it is necessary to preserve the environment. Textile is an important industry for Rajasthan, representing over 20 per cent of the investment made in the state. Rajasthan contributes over 7.5 per cent of India's production of cotton and blended yarn (235,000 tones in 2002-03) and over 5 per cent of fabrics (60 million m2). There are estimated to be around 500 block and screen printing units in Sanganer. A huge volume of mostly untreated textile dye wastewater (10,000 15,000 kl/day) is discharged into various pools and drains adjoining the textile printing units. A number of azo dyes (direct, reactive, rapid, mordant and premetalised etc) are used in textile printing industries at Sanganer. As a result, the textile wastewaters are loaded with them, along with other chemicals used during printing and fixing of dyes on cloth. Many scientists have documented adverse effects of different industrial effluents on the growth of plants dye waste water has also been found toxic to several crop plants. Adverse effects on seed germination and seedling growth of many crops have been reported by several workers in their experimental studies. Impact of water pollution on the aquatic organisms has recently become a favourite subject for investigation in the country (Gopal and Zutshi 1998). Among plants, the effects of water pollution on algae have been investigated in detail (Mallick and Rai 1990, Rai et al. 1990, Rai and Mallick 1993, Chaturvedi et al. 1999). Dye waste water in Sanganer has been reported to contain heavy metals like Zn, Ni, Cr Cd and Pb in more than permissible limits Its use in irrigation is increasing heavy metal contents in crop plants which may result in serious health hazards such as kidney damage, anemia, disorder of CNS and renal failure. However, very limited efforts have been made by the industries so far to improve the quality or reduce the quantity of wastewater generated most of which is discharged without any pre treatment into the Amaanisha Nallah. Despite of enforcement of water (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974, the textile wastewaters in the country are discharged mostly untreated over the land or in watercourses. The physicochemical treatment methods used are in general inefficient, costly and of limited applicability, while some produce large amount of toxic waste, which is difficult to dispose off. Therefore, decolorization of textile wastewaters by bioremediation is becoming important.

STUDY AREA

Jaipur, a city located at the central part of Rajasthan, is undergoing rapid urbanization and industrialization. Sanganer town (26o 49-26o51 N latitude and 75o46-75o50 E longitude) lies about 16 Km south of Jaipur city The total area of Sanganer is about 635.5 Sq. km out of which, 12.9 Sq. km

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Joshi and Kumar comprises the urban area. The objectives of the present study is to analyze the physico-chemical properties of soil and water (adjoining the textile effluent) of agricultural region and the water used for irrigation in sanganer area of Jaipur. This can help in identification of environmental impacts because of release of effluents and wastes. water and soil were done by standard methods (APHA 1992).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The physico-chemical properties of soil (adjoining the textile effluent) of agricultural region and the water used for irrigation in sanganer area of jaipur were analysed in the present study. The physico-chemical characteristics of the effluent water showed that water analysed in this study had pH 7.6-7.9. The physicochemical characteristics of the effluents differed substantially from one another with respect to chemical characteristics, as expected due to a relatively wide spectrum of dyes manufacturing sources. The pH of the effluents ranged from 7.6-7.9 and electrical conductivity (EC) from 3.5-4.55 mmhos/cm and temperature 25.0-29.0° C. Cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+) and anions (HCO3-, CO3- and Cl-) concentration of the water also show a wide variation. The results exhibited that cations ranged from: Ca2+ (8.8-11.3 mg/L), Mg2+ ((8.8-11.4 mg/L), Na+ (25.2-28.7 mg/L) and K+ (0.1-0.5 mg/L) and anions ranged from: HCO3(10.8-13.1 mg/L), CO3- (0.4-2.0 mg/L) and Cl- (21.026.3 mg/L) (Table 1).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The soil (adjoining the textile effluent) and water effluent samples were collected from three different sites of sanganer region during different periods of the year. The collected samples have been analyzed to determine their physico-chemical characteristics. The water and soil samples were collected in morning time during August 2008 and May 2009. Temperature and pH was recorded on the field. Samples were collected in cleaned acid washed plastic bottles and sterilized plastic bags and stored at 4°C. The soil samples have been analyzed for various parameters as pH, electrical conductivity (EC); percent organic carbon (OC); nitrogen (N) and organic matter (OM); available phosphate (P) and potash (K). The effluent samples were analyzed for pH; electrical conductivity (EC); cations and anions. Physicochemical parameters of

Table 1 Physico-chemical properties of various water effluent samples Period Sample pH Temp EC. Cations (mg/L) o No. C (mmhos/cm) Ca 2+ Mg2+ Na+ W1 7.6 25.0 3.84 10.9 09.3 27.0 August W2 7.9 26.0 4.55 11.3 11.4 28.7 W3 7.8 25.0 4.45 11.2 10.8 28 W1 7.5 28.0 3.50 10.8 10.8 25.2 May W2 7.6 29.0 3.50 11.0 11.0 25.4 W3 7.9 29.0 3.60 08.8 08.8 27.4 The soil samples adjoining the textile effluent, of agricultural region of sanganer were also show great variation in the physico-chemical properties. The pH of the soil samples ranged from 7.6-9.2 and EC from 0.831.20 mmhos/cm. organic carbon (OC) and organic matter (OM) of the soil samples were ranged from 0.18Table 2 Physico-chemical properties of various soil samples Period Sample pH EC. % No. (mmhos)/cm O.C. S1 7.6 0.84 0.32 August S2 8.1 1.20 0.42 S3 7.9 1.08 0.34 S1 9.2 0.78 0.18 May S2 8.8 1.03 0.20 S3 9.2 0.83 0.24

K+ 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.2

Anions (mg/L) HCO3CO3- Cl13.1 2.0 24.2 12.5 1.9 26.3 12.4 1.8 25.4 12.0 1.8 21.2 12.2 1.6 21.0 10.8 0.4 23.8

0.42 and 0.31-0.72%, respectively. Values of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P) and potash (K) concentration in the soil samples were also shows to have great variability. NPK concentration of soil samples exhibited that N, P and K concentration ranged: N (0.016-0.029 %), P (2844 kg/ha) and K (180-245 kg/ha) (Table 2).

% Nitrogen 0.028 0.029 0.029 0.016 0.017 0.021

% O.M. 0.55 0.72 0.59 0.31 0.34 0.41

Phosphate (kg/ha) 32 35 29 28 36 44

Potash (kg/ha) 195 230 245 180 260 190

EC= Electrical conductivity; OC= Organic carbon; OM= Organicmatter

Long-term irrigation with such effluents can increases EC, organic carbon content and heavy metals accumulation in soils (Olaniya 1998, Brar and Arora

1997, Narwal et al. 1993). The present investigations were in agreement with the results of the survey conducted by Gupta et al. (1994). EC is the capacity of

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Physico-chemical Analysis of Soil and Industrial Effluents water to carry ions, so it depends on the presence of ions and their concentration. Concentration of ions also shows variation in sanganer area which might be the reason of variability of EC in the samples of water and soil. A wide variation in the physico-chemical properties of soil of agricultural region and the water in sanganer area were found in the present study. Different samples of soils and water from the sanganer area showed difference in the physico-chemical characteristics from one another with respect to chemical characteristics, as expected due to a relatively wide spectrum of dyes manufacturing sources and due to presence of dyes and chemical in the textile effluent.

LITERATURE CITED

APHA 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. American Public Health Association th 18 Ed. Academic Press, Washington D.C. pp214- 218. Brar M S and Arora C L. 1997. Concentration of microelements and pollutant elements in cauliflower (Brassica olesacea var. Botrytis). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 67: 141-143. Chaturvedi RK, Sharma K P, Kamayani Sharma, Bhardwaj S M and Subhasini S. 1999. Plankton community of polluted waters around Sanganer, Jaipur. Journal of Environmental Pollution 6: 77-84. Gopal B and Zutshi D P. 1998. Fifty years of hydrobiological research in India. Hydrobiologia 384: 267-290. Gupta S K, Gupta R C and Seth A K. 1994. Reversal of clinical and dental fluorosis. Industrial Pedia 31(4): 439. Mallick N and Rai L C. 1990. Effects of heavy metals on the biology of N2 fixing cyanobacterium, Anabaena doliolum. Toxicity Assessment 5: 207-219. Narwal R P, Gupta A P, Singh A and Karwasra S P S. 1993. Composition of some city waste waters and their effect on soil characteristics. Annuals of Biology 9: 239-245. Olaniya M S. 1998. Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soil and vegetation due to application of municipal solid waste-A case study. International Journal of Environmental Health 40(2): 160-168. Rai L C and Mallick N. 1993. Heavy metal toxicity to algae under synthetic microcosm. Ecotoxicology 2: 1-12. Rai L C, Raizada M, Mallick N, Husaini Y, Singh A K and Dubey S K. 1990. Effect of four heavy metals on the biology of Nostoc muscorum. Biology of Metals 2: 229-234.

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