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Poetry ELEMENTS OF POETRY TONE/MOOD communicates the attitude a poem expresses toward the subject. A poem may reflect sadness of death, playful, serious, joyous, happiness, rush of excitement, humorous, danger of an exhilarating moment, or nervousness. Poetry is an emotional response to the world around us. Poets use language imaginatively to create images, tell stories, explore feelings, and describe experiences. To do this, poets use a variety of specific elements and techniques. WORD CHOICE Every word counts in a poem. Choosing the right word--the one that is most vivid and precise--is essential for conveying the poem's meaning and tone. EX: use badtempered instead of upset Use giggles instead of laughs Use color of candied apples instead of red SOUND DEVICES add a musical quality to poetry. Poets use these devices to enhance a poem's mood and meaning. · Rhyme is the repetition of sounds at the ends of words, such as pool, rule, and fool. · Rhythm is the beat created by the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. · Repetition is the use of any element of language--a sound, word, phrase, clause, or sentence--more than once. · Onomatopoeia is the use of words that imitate sounds: crach, bang, hiss, splat. · Alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds in the beginning of words: lovely lonely lights. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE is writing or speech that is not meant to be taken literally. The many types of figurative language are called figures of speech. Writers use these figures of speech to state ideas in a vivid and imaginative way. · Metaphors describe one thing as it it were something else. They often point out a similarity between two unlike things. EX: The snow was a white blanket over the town. EX: The sea is a hungry dog. Giant and gray. (from "the Sea")

· Similes use like or as to compare two apparently unlike things and show similarities between the two: EX: She is as slow as a turtle. EX: His friendship was like a gift. · Personification gives human qualities to something that is nonhuman: The ocean crashed angrily during the storm. EX: The sky wept bitterly all day. (it rained all day) · Sensory language is writing or speech that appeals to one or more of the five senses--sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch. This language creates word pictures, or images. Poets often use these word pictures to help the reader experience a poem fully. FORMS OF POETRY · Narrative poetry tells a story in verse. Narrative poems often have elements similar to those in a short story, such as plot and characters. · Lyric poetry expresses the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker, often in highly musical verse. · Concrete poems are shaped to look like their subjects. The poet arranges the lines to create a picture on the page. · Haiku is a threeline Japanese verse form. The first and third lines each have five syllables, and the second line has seven. · Limerick is a humorous, rhyming, fivelined poem with a specific rhythm pattern and rhyme scheme.



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