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Week One Outline Lecture One--The Rise of the West? Focus of lecture: 1) The origin and impact of the "Rise of the West" mythology 2) Recent challenges to this Eurocentric narrative 3) Towards a more inclusive, polycentric history of "globalization"? I) "Rise of the West" as Master Narrative a) The Myth of European Exceptionalism i) Assumption of Western culture as inherently different ii) Dynamism vs. Paralysis (1) The shackles of tradition (a) China's Confucian Order (b) India's caste system (c) Christian view of world as "vale of tears" (2) New belief in infinite potential of human agency (a) "Only in the West..." (b) Was this dynamic spirit unique to the West? b) Worldliness in the East i) In Confucianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam c) Origin of this Myth of European Exceptionalism i) Rationalizing the uncontested supremacy of the West in the 19th century (1) Inevitable triumph of Western man (2) West as universal model of progress and modernity ii) Diffusionist Theory iii) The Denial of "Coevalness" Theory (1) West progresses; East merely pivots in place without moving ahead in time d) Do these theories still inform global politics today? i) The West's sense of "Manifest Destiny" ii) What was the world like before European hegemony II) The World Before European Hegemony a) "Globalization" in the 13th century? i) The Impact of Pax Mongolica ii) The linking of "world economies" or networks (see map) iii) Similar protocols of trade iv) Evidence of mass production (1) Signs of the "entrepreneur" spirit (a) Example from 12th century China--city of Kaifeng (i)

v) Proto-capitalist enterprises? b) "World systems" prior to European Hegemony i) Interconnected systems of mutual dependence ii) "Polycentric" globalism iii) Asia, especially China, was the "economic engine" that drove the system III) Transition from Polycentric Globalism to European Hegemony

a) Contingency, Accident, Conjuncture i) Contingency: Every new phenomenon is conditioned by earlier developments ii) Accidents: Unpredictable events beyond short term human control iii) Conjuncture: Independent local developments collide or intersect to shape the course of history b) Decisive Contingent Factors? i) Fragmentation of Eurasian network ii) Eurasian Black Death IV) Relevance for 21st century a) Why is it important to revisit all these questions? i) Understanding the current global developments in broader perspective ii) How we explain the past directly impacts how we shape the future

Outline Lecture Two--The Impact of the Mongol Conquests Focus of lecture: 1) Contingent factors behind this short-lived but consequential Mongol empire 2) Global consequences and legacy of this phenomenon I) The Age of the Nomad a) Expansion of Mongol Empire in the 13th century i) Extent of conquests ii) All without modern communications, transport, or weapons--HOW? b) Military Advantages i) Warrior-based society ii) Fighting skills and strategies (1) Equestrian skills (2) No shame in retreat (3) Use of hunting tactics like the nerge (4) Terror as a strategy of warfare c) Climate and Patterns of Nomadic Behavior Prior to 1200 i) David Ringrose's theory on the effects of climate change (Expansion and Global Interactions) (1) Significant warming trend from 800-1200 C.E. (see diagram) (2) Demographic effects on a global scale (a) Narrowed "buffer zone" between nomads and farmers (b) Major tensions on that global frontier during this period d) Nomad Incursions from 11th to 12th century i) In Western Asia, Seljuk Turks into the Iranian heartland ii) From Manchuria, the Khitans and then the Jurchens push south to Yellow River iii) Slave-soldiers serving the Abbasid Caliphate known as the Mamluks II) "The Accidental Empire" a) Conquest by default i) NOT by design but by default. (1) The traditional "outer frontier strategy" (2) Problem with this old strategy for the Mongols ii) Jurchens had established the Jin (Chin) Dynasty in northern China (1) Mongol-Jurchen conflict (2) Khwarazm Shah of Iran b) Motive Behind Mongol Expansion i) Not lust for conquest, but compulsion to punish (1) Folly of "accidental conquerors"

c) Reluctant Administrators i) Little appreciation for the value of agriculture (1) Ogodei Khan (2) Tax farming, using Uighurs and Turks as tax collectors III) The Impact of the Mongol Empire a) Four Legacies of Mongol Expansion i) Political Integration ii) Cultural Cross-fertilization iii) Religious Plurality (1) Integrated empire facilitated the spread of religious systems iv) Economic Coherence (1) Provided secure and efficient infrastructure for trade (2) Tendency for nomads to support trade (3) Mongol measures v) 1250-1350: A truly global network

Outline Lecture Three--The Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China Key Questions: 1) What were the challenges a nomadic conqueror faced in ruling a sedentary society? 2) How were they overcome? 3) What role did global geopolitics play in shaping local history by the 13th century? I) Khubilai khan: From Nomad to Emperor of China a) The Four Khanates i) Genghis khan's death in 1227 (1) To the West--Ilkhans in Persia (Hulegu) (2) To the East--The Golden Horde in Russia (Berke) (3) Central Asia--Khanate of Chagatai (4) To the East--The Great Khanate in Mongolian heartland and China (Khubilai) b) Khubilai's Rise to Power i) Grandson of Genghis khan ii) Challenge by Arigh Boke from Karakorum (1) Costly and lengthy campaign c) Economic Recovery under Khubilai i) Devastation of northern China ii) Emergency measures (1) Office for the Stimulation of Agriculture in 1261 (2) Autonomous village organizations called she iii) Break from previous Mongol behavior d) Boost commercial infrastructure i) Support for the Muslim run merchant associations--known as ortakhs ii) Paper currency iii) Postal Stations II) The Making of a "Global" Sovereign a) The sensibilities of a modern, "globalized" sovereign i) Appreciation for not just the name but the function of diversity ii) Awareness for the power of the symbolic image iii) Finding delicate balance in his identity (1) Significance of the location of his new capital--Ta-Tu (modern Beijing) iv) How successful was he as a "global" sovereign b) Use of Foreigners as Administrators i) Establishment of the Hierarchy of Four Ethnic Classes (1) Mongols

ii) iii)

iv) v)

(2) Semuren (3) Hanren (4) Nanren The Case of Ahmad (1) Finance czar from 1262-1282 The Case of Saiyid Ajall (1) Appointed governor of strategic new territory of Yunnan (a) Why choose a Muslim for such a key post? (b) Achievements The Case of the Polos (1) Why they were welcomed as such? Spirit of pragmatic statecraft, benign tolerance, and efficient meritocracy generally prevailed in Mongol realm

c) The Impact of Global politics in 1270s and 1280s i) Geopolitical developments affecting domestic policy (1) Threat of Islamic power (2) Anti-Muslim decrees or jasaghs ii) Effect of Chinese anti-Muslim domestic sentiments? d) Conclusion: For all you art history buffs, check out this great website on Yuan Art:

Week Two Outline Lecture Four--Expeditions in the Ming Dynasty Key Point: 1) The Origin and Purpose of the Ming Treasure Fleet 2) Geopolitical Implications of the Ming Assertion and Withdrawal of Maritime Power I) The Mongol Expansionist Legacy for the Ming Dynasty a) Mongol expansionist policy i) Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Java, Sumatra) ii) Invasion of Japan in 1281 iii) Collapse of Yuan Dynasty beginning in 1320s b) Continuation of expansion under Ming Emperor Yongle (1402-1424) i) "Out and out militarist" c) Precedent for the Treasure Fleets of the Ming? i) Size of the fleet ii) Size of the largest "Treasure Ships" Bao Chuan II) The Legacy of Zheng He and the Treasure Fleet a) Personal Background b) The Purpose of the Treasure Fleets (1402-1435) i) Convenient excuses at the time ii) More compelling reasons: (1) Military: Securing trade routes and flow of tributes to China (2) Cultural: Extending cultural embassies meant increasing Ming Dynasty's prestige (3) Commercial: Demonstrating the generosity and wealth of the Ming (4) Political: Extending China's tributary system iii) "The Carrot and Stick" policy (1) Geopolitical impact throughout southeast Asia and Indian ocean c) Extent of expeditions i) Each expedition went progressively farther ii) Gavin Menzies's Theory (1) Video documentary: "1421: The Year China Discovered America?" d) Confucian Backlash i) Death of Emperor Yongle in 1424 ii) Seventh and last Expedition in 1435 during reign of Emperor Xuande iii) The Destruction of a Legacy iv) Economic Retrenchment in late Ming (1) Crucial precondition for the Portuguese entry

e) Chinese vs. Portuguese "Networks" i) Network-makers or "web-weavers" ii) Portuguese: Logic of colonial and commercial hegemony iii) Relevance for China's foreign policy today

Outline Lecture Five--Trade Networks and Empires in Africa I) Myth of the "Dark Continent" a) View of Africa through the Prism of European Colonialism i) 19th century European Justification of Empire (1) Ideology of the "White man's burden" (2) "Denial of Coevalness" idea b) Africa's integral role in the global network before European colonialism i) Overcoming the colonial legacy that has shaped our thinking about Africa II) The Advent of the Trans-Saharan Trade a) Pre-5th century Scenario b) Transport Breakthrough in 5th century i) Introduction of the Camel ii) Berbers--nomads of the Sahara (1) Sanhaja in western Sahara (2) Taureg in central and southern Sahara c) The Mediterranean-Sahel Link i) Desert as an "ocean" III) The First West African Empire--Ghana (10th to 12th centuries)

a) Historical Background i) Strategic location ii) Soninke People with capital at Kumbi Saleh iii) Conduit of trade b) The Gold Trade i) Prominence by 8th and 9th centuries ii) Expedient position as "middle-men" (1) Tariffs on goods (2) Gold nuggets iii) The miners of Bambuk iv) 11th century Arab sources such as al-Bakri c) Kumbi-Saleh in the 11th century i) Dual Layout ii) Social Stratification d) Decline of Ghana i) First, rise of the Almoravids--a fundamentalist Islamic movement in North Africa

ii) Discovery of new gold fields farther east--Bure IV) The Aura of African Wealth and Power--Mali Empire (13th to 14th centuries) a) Historical Background i) Mandike People--chiefs had converted to Islam as early as 11th century (1) Al-Bakri's account of al Musulmani (2) Advantages of Elites Adopting Islam b) Like Ghana, thrived on gold trade i) Sundyata (r.1230-1255) set up capital at Niani c) Extent of Empire i) System of vassalage ii) Incredibly rich agricultural base d) Worldly Prominence under Mansa Musa (r. 1312-1337) i) Famous pilgrimage to Mecca ii) Returned with scholars, architects, poets, scientists iii) Catalan map of 1375

Outline Lecture Six--The Ottoman Empire Key Focus This Unit: 1) The Significance of Dar al-Islam or the "Abode of Islam" 2) How three Islamic empires emerged, thrived, and fell into decline? 3) What impact they had on each other and on the world systems? I) The Extent of Islamic Realms in the 1300s a) The Link Between Trade Networks or World Systems i) Moving from western edge to east (show map) ii) Three Emerging Islamic Empires b) The Travels of Ibn-Battuta: A Case for Coherence? i) Personal Background ii) Born Abu Abdullah Muhammed Ibn-Battuta in Tangiers, Morocco (1304 C.E.; year 703 A.H.) iii) Trained as an Islamic scholar and also occasionally served as a judge (Qadi) iv) Map of travels

c) The Implications of the "Abode" of Islam i) Salient Traits within Dar Al Islam II) The Rise of Ottomans a) Humble Beginnings i) Buffer state between the Seljuks and Byzantines in late 13th century ii) Osman Bey exploited the rivalry between the two b) Ottoman Expansion i) By 1300s over-ran Asia Minor and the Balkans (Serbia, Albania, Bulgaria) (1) Mehmet II led conquest and city becomes Istanbul ii) Greatest expansion in 1500s under Suleiman the Magnificent (or "Law-giver") III) Ottoman Imperial System

a) Establishing a Centralized Bureaucracy i) Three sources of influence for organization (1) Combined the ghazi (Islamic warrior) ideal with Turkic nomadic sense of allegiance, and Persian elaboration of Islamic social order (2) De Busbecq's observations on Suleiman's bureaucracy in 1529 (a) Anti-aristocratic ethos b) Sultan's Civil Service--The Ghulam System i) System of Devshirme

ii) Why Christian slaves instead of Muslim freemen? iii) Trained as administrators and soldiers--the Janissary Corps (1) Inner Service (2) Outer Service (3) Janissary ideal at its best iv) Impact of Janissaries' new elite status c) Provincial Administration--The Timar System i) Timars (1) Sanjaks (2) Beblerbeglik ii) Organized according to military structure (1) Third party oversight by qadis iii) Inheritance of timar grants (1) Drift from meritocracy to nepotism, from openness to exclusivity d) Ethnic and Religious Communities--The Millet System i) At first, religious or ethnic affiliation not a prerequisite for timar grants ii) Millet system of local religious communities iii) Religious Tolerance (1) Contrast to growing anti-Semitism in Europe (2) Accommodating to its dhimmi subjects (3) With decline, also came greater intolerance (a) Division of Askeri (ruling class) and Reaya (ruled class) (b) By 18th century, greater discrimination against non-Muslim subjects

Week Three Outline Lecture Seven--The Safavid Empire Key Focus: 1) The Ottoman (Sunni)-Safavid (Shi'ite) split in Dar al-Islam 2) How the Safavids used religious extremism to inspire a following and gain legitimacy 3) Transition from heterodox ideology to orthodox theocracy under Shah Abbas I) The Safavid Rise to Power in Persia a) Isma'il and the Messianic Ideology of the Qizilbash i) In 1501, captured the city of Tabriz in northwestern Iran ii) How did a 14 year-old achieve this? (1) Ideology of a fanatical, militant wing of Sufi Islam--known as the Qizilbash (2) Claimed descendancy from a 13th century Sufi leader--Safi al-Din (3) Key sources of messianic ideology in Islam (a) Sect of Sh'ia known as the Twelvers (i) Belief in the return of the Mahdi "The Guided One" (b) Sufi belief in the mystical transmission of the souls of past prophets iii) Qizilbash fanaticism b) The Safavid-Ottoman Conflict i) Clash of Heterodoxy vs. Orthodoxy (1) Safavids intent on spreading their Sufi/Shiite ideology (2) Ottomans cast themselves as the defender of true Islam (a) Selim the Grim's letter to Isma'il ii) Battle of Chaldiron 1514 iii) Geo-political consequences (1) Ottoman-Safavid conflict lasted throughout the 16th to 18th centuries (2) The interruption of the Mediterranean--Middle Eastern commercial network iv) Changes in Safavid Policies (1) Religion: Shift from Sufi messianism to "Imamite Sh'ia" (2) Administration and Military: Shift from relying on the Qizilbash to the Ghulam II) Safavid Consolidation under Shah Abbas I (r.1588-1629) a) Securing the Empire i) Defeat of Uzbeks to the east and stalemate with the Ottomans to the west ii) Set up a new capital in the city of Isfahan (1) Promoted it as a cosmopolitan center of trade (2) Secured all trade routes within the Safavid realm (3) Expelled the Portuguese from Hormuz b) Pragmatic ruler "both feared and loved" i) Ruler in the Machiavellian vein ("The Prince" written in late 1400s) (1) Pragmatist not ideologue

(2) Manipulation of Public Image--"Shah of the People" (3) Conspicuous yet mysterious ii) Can these accounts be corroborated by other records? (1) Final blow to the Qizilbash and their messianic pretensions (a) Qizilbash aligned themselves with a new Sufi charismatic teacher--Darvish Khusraw of the Nuqtavi clan (b) Role of Tarkishduz iii) Triumph of Imamite Shi'a over messianic Sufism in Persia

Outline Lecture Eight--The Legacy of Muslim Rule in India Main Focus: 1) Muslim strategies of ruling a defiant Hindu majority 2) Akbar's experiment with religious syncretism I) The Initial Encounter a) Muslim entry into the Punjab in northern India as early as the 8th century b) Origin of the term "Hindu"? i) Muslim-Prejudice: 11th century Muslim account from al-Biruni ii) Cultural gap between Muslims and Hindus II) The Delhi Sultanate (1205-1526) a) First permanent Muslim foundation in northern India b) Reign of Ala-ud-din Khalji (1296-1316) i) Policy of oppressing Hindu subjects through heavy taxation ii) Religious sanction from qadis for the economic subjugation of Hindus c) The norm for most Muslim rulers in India i) Ibn-Battuta's account of another sultan's repressive policy d) Muslim-Hindu Relations i) Ibn Battuta's admiration for the minarets and mosques in Delhi ii) Awe at the generosity of the sultan iii) Muslim failure to convert Hindus III) Akbar's Syncretic Experiment

a) Reigned from 1556-1605 b) Akbar's Inclusive Method of Governing i) His Grand Vizier Birbal c) Elaboration of the "Divine Faith" or Din-i-Ilahi i) Merged the ethical foundations of Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism ii) What were his true intentions? d) Reversion to repression i) Aurangzeb, his great grandson (1659-1707)

Outline Lecture Nine: The Decline of Islamic Empires Key Focus: 1) Reasons for the decline of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals 2) Implications for the entry of Europeans into the Near East and India I) Systemic vs. Incidental Crisis a) Argument based on Inept Rulers i) Repressive and despotic successors by 17th century ii) But how could all three empires simultaneously produce such rulers? b) Argument based on Religious Conservatism i) Ottoman Sunni ulama opposed modernization and innovation ii) Safavids' increasing dependence on conservative Sh'ia imams iii) Mughals' reversion to anti-Hindu policies (1) Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi's opposition to Akbar's policy of religious tolerance iv) Cause of decline, or simply a reaction to an already imminent crisis? c) Argument based on Military Disadvantage i) Heavy cavalry eclipsed by synchronized fire-power (1) Ottoman reliance on Sipahis (2) Safavid reliance on the Qizilbash (3) Mughal reliance on the tribal nobility of central Asian stock ii) Advent of the well-drilled, professionalized infantry by the 17th century (1) Demise of the mounted military aristocracy iii) But, didn't the Ottomans and Safavids both shift to a ghulam system to replace the cavalry in the 16th century? Specifically a standing infantry? d) D'Souza's Systemic Crisis Argument i) Implications of the end of expansion ii) For systems that were sustained by the spoils of new conquests, the end of expansion also meant exposing the structural fault-lines inherent in their very constitution (1) Relied too heavily on the provincial military aristocracy (2) Imperial center's attempt to keep it in check iii) Short-term solutions, long-term cancer


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