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A new methodology for the Wartegg Completion Test (WDCT) in the Clinical, Selection and Guidance fields Alessandro Crisi ­ Psy.D. Italian Institute of Wartegg ­ Rome University of Rome "La Sapienza" II School of Specialization in Clinical Psychology

Abstract A new methodology of scoring and interpretation of the Wartegg Drawing Completion Test is illustrated. It was born in the clinical field thanks to the administration of the WDCT in a continuous combination and comparison with the Rorschach test. From this combination it was possible a) to confirm significant similitudes between the two tools; b) to elaborate a new scoring but above all c) to provide the WDCT with exhaustive theoretical model of reference. Such a methodology was born in Italy where is applied by the Armed Forces in their Selection and Guidance Career proceedings. Presented values and norms are derived from the most recent Italian standardization conducted on about 2300 subjects (Crisi, 2007). A clinical case is illustrated to demonstrate the convergent validity of the new methodology with the clinical observations. ------------------------The Wartegg Drawing Completion Test (WDCT) is a projective drawing technique used not only in the Clinical assessment but also in the field of Selection and the Career or School Guidance. In German-speaking countries the WDCT is known as "Wartegg Zeichentest" (the test of the signs of Wartegg) or WZT. It was created in 1926 by the German Psychologist Ehrig Wartegg but the book on WDCT was published only in 1953.

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The Wartegg Drawing Completion Test consists of a form that contains eight panels (P) or squares, numbered 1 to 8, arranged in two parallel rows of four. There is a different graphic sign in each panel (see Figure 1).

Figure 1 The Wartegg form

Many Authors, in different countries, wrote an handbook on WDCT: ""In Sweden (Wass & Mattlar, 2000), in Switzerland (Avé-Lallement, 1994), in Finland (Gardziella, 1985) and in Italy (Crisi, 2007 II edition)." (Roivanen, 2009). Compared to so huge number of handbooks we find few articles: "PsycInfo reports 88 articles on WDCT. 1 in the '30, 3 in the `40, 33 in the `50, 19 in the `60, 14 in the `70 and, at the end, 16 between 1981-2006. " (Roivanen, 2009). Such a scarce number of articles can be explained by two factors. By one side, the WDCT in the English-speaking countries is almost unknown although in the '50 the American-Belgian psychologist Kinget (1952) published in the USA an WDCT handbook and Buros (1959) spoke

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very well about it. By the other side, the original Wartegg method presents many difficulties and deficiencies. Why a new methodology? According to the rules proposed by its Author, the WDCT presents 2 difficulties that gigantically limit its use in the clinical context: the modes of scoring conceived by E. Wartegg are very complex and arduous for the psychologist; the theoretical model of reference to which E. Wartegg referred (the Psychology of the Totality), is mainly not enough to fully support his ingenious ideas. The starting point of this new methodology is represented by the administration of the WDCT to more than 20.000 subjects and in 1.500 of them I've administered Wartegg and Rorschach tests together. This huge experience with Rorschach and Wartegg together applied has furnished the most remarkable contribution to the realization of this new methodology. This huge experience also permitted a) to find similitudes and analogies between the two tools; b) to create a new scoring and interpretation system . The first step was to apply to WDCT the scoring system of the Rorschach (according to the Bohm method, 1969) for the aim of allowing an easier comparison between the two tests. In this first step, were applied to WDCT same categories of Rorschach scoring system (the Formal Quality; the Contents; the Frequency; Peculiar Phenomena; the Movement; the Impulse Responses). So a first scoring system was born and it was experimented and standardized for the developmental age (Bianchi, Crisi, Di Renzo, 1993). In a second step, with the increasing of the clinical experience, two original categories of scoring for each panel were introduced: the Evocative Character and the Affective Quality. In the third step the new methodology enriched itself trough the study of the order of execution; in other words the study of how the subject performance the WDCT. This evaluation of the Order of Succession is called the "Analysis of Succession" that represents the most important opportunity of the interpretation of the test and it permit us to describe the organization of the personality.

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The new methodology. In the new scoring form (figure 2) the drawing made in each panel is valued on the ground of defined scoring categories. Figure 2 The Scoring Form P 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 E.C. 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0,5 A.Q. 0 1 1 0 0 0,5 1 1 F.Q. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CONT. PR. SE. PAT H H ANA OBJ OBJ CIB CIB FR. SPECIAL PHENOMENA CS BO CS RA CS CS BO II CS CS BO RA CS BO CS BO M m m


t e


V o O o


The scoring is that of the Clinical case

The categories are: Evocative Character (EC); Affective Quality (AQ); Formal Quality (FQ); Content (CONT) divided in: Primary (Pr) and Secondary (Se); Frequency (FR): Popular responses; Presence of Particular Phenomena or Special Scores (SP); Movement Responses divided in: Main (M) and Secondary (m); Impulse Responses (IR). Each category of scoring is transformed in calculations and/or formal indexes and aids in depicting the psychological structure of the examined subject. Here is not possible to illustrate the whole scoring system and so we'll focus our attention over the most original contributes: the Evocative Character, the Affective Quality and the Analysis of Succession. The Evocative Character. The term "evokes" comes from the Latin "ex-vocare" and means "call out, bring again to the mind". It points to the capacity of a specific stimulus (in our case a graphic sign) to recall and facilitate the projection of particular psychic contents. Such an argument has been studied also in the Rorschach test by some Authors (Merei, 1947; Andronikov, 1995) but, at first, it was examined

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by Wartegg himself. He wrote about "the archetypical function" of the 8 graphic elements, that is, the internal and universal ability of the signs to evoke unconscious experiences. He also asserted that the choice of the 8 stimulus-signs was made taking in consideration the "capability of the graphic elements very poor by a quantitative point of view but the most prominent qualitatively" (1953). This sentence permit us to analyse two important points. At first, Wartegg deliberately created an easy test. Looking the Wartegg form we are struck by its linear structure so immediate, easy and almost disarming. The principle of simplicity is the logical criterion of WDCT. According to the ideas of Mc Cully (1988) it's possible to say that the simplicity of the 8 stimulus-signs is the way in which we can bypass the defensive mechanisms of the subject. At second, the WDCT is a projective drawing technique, whose graphic elements are hemistructured signs on which the individual is prone "to project contents and specific dynamics of his personality which are, then, revealers of his organization" (Rapaport, 1977). The WDCT can be also classified as a performance based personality test an, according to Bornstein's proposal (2007), as an stimulus-attribution test in which the examinees attribute meaning through interpretation. The scoring of the Evocative Character. Score = 1 if the client picks the implicit suggestion of the panel stimulus-sign and graphically realizes a drawing corresponding with the evocative character. Score = 0.5: Drawings in which the evocative character is partially picked up. Score = 0: Drawings completely inadequate; the subject does not pick up the suggestion of the stimulus-sign. The psychic areas evoked by the 8 graphic element-signs of the WDCT are illustrated in the following figure 3 (Crisi, 2007):

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Wavy line, round-edged




Three increasing lines PERCEPTIVE APPEARANCES



Little black square


Two opposite lines, contrary oriented Two lines intended at the right angle Dotted, half-circular







Curved line turned low



The Affective Quality. It is a kind of evaluation exclusively based on the subject's affective connotation of each drawing. In part, the affective quality (QA) can be compared with the GHR and PHR scores of the CS. But, in WDCT, it concerns drawings of all contents not only the Human representations. The Scoring of the Affective Quality. Equivalent elements of the Rorschach CS are in brackets. Score = 1: For positive contents (this concept is similar to GHR score and it also includes COP). That is: H = human (H, (H), Hd, (Hd), Hx, Ay); A = animal (A, (A), Ad, (Ad); NAT = natural

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elements (Ge, Ls, Na); BOT = botanical (Bt); CIB = food; (Fd) FIG =i.e. pictures, sculptures; (Art); SEX = sexual contents (Sx). Score = 0.5: For neutral contents (such evaluation represents an intermediate position between GHR and PHR; we should call it NHR). That is, OBJ = objects (Cg, Hh, Sc, Ay); SIG = letters, numbers, symbols; MIN = mineral; ARC = architectural (Sc); ABS = abstract (Ab). Score = 0: For negative contents (similar to PHR score and it also includes AG, MOR). That is: ANA = anatomical (An, Xy, Bl); AM = weapons; ESP = explosion (Ex); PAT = pathological; NUB = smoke, cloud and rain (Cl). But, in the clinical practice, things are not so linear and so, in order to score this category, immediately it appears that was necessary create and apply a fixed and defined list. And being awake of the difficulties and dangers involved in facing the thematic analysis, a list of the contents was arranged. In order to do it, the list was based, in part, on the psychodynamic writings of various Authors; in part, on factors more strictly socio-cultural, on cultural appearances connected to history,

traditions, fairs and proverbs of Italy. Where the contents were ambiguous and in need of explicit clarification of the subject during the inquiry, it was preferred to give a value of 0,5: is the case of contents like moon, sunset, night, clowns, cross, etc. At the same time, great consideration it is given to the verbalization so, for example, a score of 0 is given to all those contents that belong to a positive or neuter categories, but were represented in negative sense: for example: "a cold and desolate landscape"; "a fierce dog"; "a sad face"; "a broken leaf," "an abandoned house," "a broken toy," or to all those contents defined in a pejorative or derogatory manner. To the contrary, it has appraised as positive those neuter or negative contents accompanied with verbalizations characterized by diminutive or endearing words. For example, "pig" or "tiger," has a Q.A. = 0 while "piglet", "tiger-cub" becomes Q.A. = 1.

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This list acts as a guide for the administrator for the purpose of guaranteeing a standard for the administration and of scoring and to increase the reliability of the WDCT. This list was not created for the purpose to categorically define positive versus negative; nothing being totally "written in stone", however it was created to provide the psychologist with a consistent standard for clinical assessment. The reader will certainly have understood the delicacy and complexity of scoring these two categories. To ensure uniformity of scoring between psychologists and consequently increase the reliability of the test one can find scoring material in the handbook (Crisi, 2007) but the reader will find a huge list of drawings accompanied by their scoring on the website of the Italian Institute of Wartegg ( The list is continually updated in due time and is based on judgments of a group of eight psychologists, all expert in the WDCT. For obvious constraints of time, it's not possible here to illustrate such a list. To concluding it's important to keep in mind that the affective quality doesn't intend make a wild analysis of the contents: it is obvious that the same content could engage different meanings according to age, to sex, to cultural background of the subject etc. But it was necessary. The conclusive element is not the list itself but to succeed in understanding the climate, the atmosphere, the emotional tone of the drawings. For example, the flowers belong to the botanical category and must be scored with number 1 and yet verbalizations like "A very beautiful exotic flower", "a chrysanthemum" or "a dry flower, without petals" depict completely different meanings and therefore their affective quality is scored differently. The Analysis of Succession. The subject is free to choose the order of succession of the drawings and the connection of panels with which effects the test. The Order of Performance, for its high diagnostic meaning, has been the object of attention of many Authors; Wartegg himself affirmed that: "the succession of the drawings must no considered coincidental because they have a connection with the archetypical signs."

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A very special phenomenon happens in this respect: the WDCT panels are numbered from 1 to 8 (see figure 1) and such an strong conditioning let us think that the most of the subjects during the performance follows the numerical order of the panels. At the contrary, psychologists who use the WDCT in the clinical assessment know that it's not so. We observe the numerical (or normal) Order of Succession (from 1 to 8) only in the 15% of the subjects in the developmental age and only in 7% of the adults (Crisi, 2007). Therefore, the Evocative character of the 8 panels of the WDCT represents a press so strong that in 92% of administrations is able to subvert the conditioning of the panels numbering. The subject in front of WDCT is inspired by the Evocative Character or better by the meaning of the psychic areas connected to each panel (see figure 3) and, doing so, he follows his/her personal gifts, preferences or aversions. The experimental data affirms that the order of performance represents an extremely personal and individualized way and therefore must be analyzed each time subject by subject. It has been possible to analyze in a deeper way the Order of Succession and this analysis permitted to individuate two different procedures called Analysis of Succession 1 and Analysis of Succession 2. Analysis of Succession 1. We depart from the following assumption shared by all the scholars of the Wartegg: the panels that the subject draws in the first half of the test (from the I to the IV panel in the Order of Performance) represent CHOICES; those drawn in the second half (from the V to the VIII panel in the order of succession), represent DELAYS. The subject draws at first those panels that feels closer to him/her while draws at least the panels that don't harmonize with him/her. It is a significant data but is too much vague and not available by a clinical point of view. On the ground of such considerations, a different procedure has been worked out( see figure 4).

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Figure 4 The Analysis of Succession 1


I 8 0,5 1 S 1 1:1 *

ANALYSIS OF SUCCESSION 1 II III IV V VI 5 3 6 2 7 1 0 SA 1 0:1 0 1 SA 1 1:1 1 0,5 S 1 0,5:1 1 1 CP 1 1:1 1 1 CP 1 1:1 *

The scoring is that of the Clinical case

VII 1 1 0 RA 1 0:1

VIII 4 0 0 R 1 0:1

On the first raw we write the Order followed by the subject during the performance: in the example of the figure 4 the subject drawn at first the Panel 8, as second the panel 5 and so on. In the two rows below we write the valuation that each panel obtained in the scoring of the Evocative Character and in the Affective Quality. So in the example, the subject in Panel 8 (the first drawn) obtained 0,5 in the Evocative Character and 1 as Affective Quality. On the base of the scoring got in the Evocative Character and in the Affective Quality we score in the following way: A) if the Panel has been drawn in the first half we appraise it as: · Choice (S), if the score, obtained by adding the given values in the Evocative Character and in the Affective Quality, is greater than 1; · Ambivalent choice (SA), if the score is equal to 1;

· Negative compensation (CN), if the score is less than 1;

B) if the Panel is drawn in the second half we appraise it as: · · · Delay (R), if the score is less than 1; Ambivalent delay (RA), if the score is equal to 1; Positive compensation (CP), if the score is greater than 1.

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At this point, to complete the Analysis of the Succession 1, we write also the scores obtained, in each individual Panel, in some categories of scoring (Formal Quality, Report A/F, Impulse Responses). At last we have 6 different categories of evaluation, each one with a peculiar diagnostic meaning: The CHOICE (S) represents the maximum of the positive evaluation that a panel can obtain and it points out the areas of development and integration. In other words the strongest points on which has been evolving and structuring the organization of individuality of the subject. The choices indicate areas of development and integration but a very high score (2 for the precision) can point out to a their excessive predominance in the subject individuality. The excessive predominance of a area can disturb other functions detracting their psychic energies. For example, in panel 1, a high score represents certainly, awareness and faith in the subject's own ability but also traits of accentuated narcissism and of egocentricity with difficulty in social relationship (always if in accordance with all the other elements of evaluation). In prognostic context, the choices are revealed to be the flags in the areas in which, during the psychotherapy, it will be more possible to trust. The AMBIVALENT CHOICE (SA): it points out the existence of a certain degree or level of ambivalence that demonstrate intense polar feelings within the subject. It indicate a certain level of conflict that, generally, is perceived by the subject as conscious and experienced as such. For example, always in panel 1, an Ambivalent Choice points out the presence of a certain quantity of indecision, of insecurity and of traits of self-devaluation lived to a conscious level connected to a desire for affirmation and of autonomy. In other words, it testifies to the existence of a conflict in the axle dependency-autonomy (to demonstrated, I have often found panel 1 to be valued as Ambivalent Choice in teen-agers). The NEGATIVE COMPENSATION (CN). It is a index of a greatest degree of ambivalence and of accentuated conflict in the psychic area revealed by the specific panel. These feelings, in general,

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are not perceived in a conscious manner by the subject, but instead they are exposed in an unconscious way. These evaluations point out the presence of real deficiency and as such, in prognostic sense, their meaning is rather negative. For example, the subject draws at first panel 7 but the values of the Evocative Character and of the Affective Quality are = 0. That means that the relationship with the female, with sexuality, is strongly ambivalent and in conflict on a unconscious level, disguised on a behavioural level by mechanisms of hyper compensation. While the Ambivalent Choices could be, with relative facility, obvious and sorts understandable to the subject (consciously perceived), the Negative Compensations require a deeper

psychotherapeutic work. When the ambivalent choice is prevailing, the indication for a psychotherapy could be of the cognitive type, when the Negative Compensations are predominate it indicates a psychotherapy of dynamic orientation. The POSITIVE COMPENSATION (CP): it represent a lesser negative degree amongst the various types of delay because is characterized by high values in the Evocative Character and in the Affective Quality. Similar to the negative compensation, for the high degree of conflict of the unconscious nature, it is different in that it has fierce, positive characteristics. In Positive Compensation the characteristics represent latent potentialities and the base on which to work, in psychotherapy, in order to realize a higher and more functional degree of organization in the structure of individuality. The Positive Compensation points out to the therapist the problem of the subject but also the way in which to resolve it! For example, if Panel 5 is drawn in the second half obtaining an evaluation greater than 1 in the C.E. and in the Q.A., it points out that the aggressive energy is deeply repressed but, at the same time, on a prognostic level, good potentiality for resolution exists and, just in working on them, the subject will succeed to be able to use it in ego-functional way. The Positive Compensation testifies, also to the existence in the subject of sthenic characteristics (positive prognosis).

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AMBIVALENT DELAY (RA). Also in this case it is possible to create a twin ship with the ambivalent choice; but, to the contrary of it, the Ambivalent Delay is unconscious. The ambivalent delay points out, in the psychic area evoked by the panel, the existence of ambivalent unconscious elements. These elements are deeply repressed and represent the origin of generalized strains, and of reactive behaviours, of a malaise that invades a great part of the behaviour. Prognostically, it indicates a more negative value and points out the necessity of a psychoanalytic treatment. DELAY (R). It constitutes the more negative evaluation that a panel can obtain. It represent therefore elements that the subject tends to delete, to eliminate; they are, therefore, areas that are completely unconscious and that in latent way determine and affect all the behaviours of the subject. The Delays are conflicting areas, problematic kernels assets that affect, unconsciously, the operation of the complete individuality. More over the score draws near to zero and it points out a complete repression of the areas interested. The six categories represents a continuum along with which we go from an elevated level of integration to a lesser level, from a lesser degree of conflict to a greater, from a state in which the awareness is present to one in which it is absent (see figure 5). Figure 5 The characteristics of the six valuations LEVEL OF INTEGRATION S SA CN CP RA R MAXIMUM HIGH LOW-HIGH MEDIUM-HIGH LOW/ABSENT ABSENT LEVEL OF CONFLICT ABSENT LOW ­ MEDIUM ABSENT-HIGH ABSENT/LOW HIGH MAXIMUM LEVEL OF AWARENESS PRESENT PRESENT ABSENT ABSENT ABSENT ABSENT

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The Analysis of the Succession 2. On the base of the clinical experience it was possible to create a theoretical model for which the normal subject should follow the succession of the panels. Such idea was borne by the observation that the panels of the Wartegg, according to their specific diagnostical meaning, can be grouped in 4 couples The first pair consists of Panels 1 and 8: panel 1 evokes feelings and evaluations of the Ego, the eighth furnishes us with information on the type of relationship lived with one's surroundings; the second pair consists of panels 3 and 6: these panels point out, respectively, the levels of the subject psychic energy and the ability to apply it effectively to the process of adaptation. The third pair consists of panels 2 and 4. Panel 2 is connected to dynamics of the objectual-relation with the maternal figure, panel 4 is connected to the relationship with the father figure. The fourth and last pair, consists of panels 5 and 7: the 5th is connected to the ability to overcome an obstacle, to react to a frustrating situation, it demonstrates our aggressive energy, it is connected to the survival of the mankind; panel 7 evokes dynamics tied to the female, to the sensivity and, finally, to sexual energy. Because these two panels represents aggressive energy and libidinal energy, respectively, in my judgement they can be considered a pair. These four pairs can be further on grouped in two pairs. A) the first two pairs (1-8 and 3-6) are formed by the conscious part of the subject. They, in fact, include multivarious functions of the Ego: those which are strictly perceptive-associational, to those which regulate the mental operation (formation of the concepts, memory, anticipation, planning etc.), functions which include self evaluation, also include social relationships and the levels of activity in the ability to adapt to one's surrounding (function of judgment, examination of reality etc.). B) the seconds two pairs (2-4 and 5-7) have in common the characteristic of be tied panels by less conscious appearances; are tied to the unconscious and are connected to both collective unconscious and individual unconscious.

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Then, on one hand, we have 4 panels (1, 3, 6 and 8) concerning the Ego and its process of adaptation with its surroundings; on the other hand, we have 4 panels (2, 4, 5 and 7) that are concerned more specifically with the sphere of Affectivity. According to this model, the subjects should draw in the first four drawings, the panels 1,8, 3 and 6 and the remaining 4 panels in the second half. That is to say: Panels 1- 8: in the first two places in the Order of Performance; Panels 3- 6: in the third and fourth place; Panels 2- 4: in the fifth and sixth place; Panels 5- 7: in the next to last and the last place. Figure 6 The Analysis of Succession 2 Area of the Ego (1 - 8) 8 5 S SA Area of the Ego (3 - 6) 3 6 SA S Area of Affectivity (5 - 7) 1 4 RA R

The scoring is that of the Clinical case

Area of Affectivity (2 - 4) 2 7 CP CP

Such an hypothesis has been confirmed by the clinical practise that demonstrated that in about 75% of cases, in the first 4 drawings of the subjects we find panels 1,3,6 and 8. This distribution reached a statistical significance with p<0,0001.

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The Meaning of the Analysis of the Succession 2 The order to succession in this theoretical model is very important. It is of great psychodiagnostic relevance when the subject strays from this model of succession. In practice, referencing to always this example, the examiner will write his evaluations. The pairs in parenthesis represent the model of theoretical succession, the pairs without parenthesis are the panels that the subject has drawn. Beneath, the examiner writes the evaluation obtained by each panel. In a normal individual, the performance of Wartegg should be as characterized: panels 1 and 8 drawn in the first half and valued like choices; panels 3 and 6 drawn in the first half and still valued like choices or at most as ambivalent choices; panels 2 and 4 in the second half and valued as positive compensations; panels 5 and 7 in the second half and valued as positive compensations. In a theoretical viewpoint, then, the normal subject would not ever present the ambivalent delays and the delays. Validity and reliability. The effectiveness of the instrument has been verified through a series of tests. One of the most important (Italian Navy, 1999) made a comparison between the output data of the WDCT and those of the psychological tests used by the Italian Navy for the admission to the Naval Academy of Livorno. Results were: 1) High concordance between the general evaluations of the Selection Department and the data from the WDCT test; 2) Concordance (86.4 %) between WDCT and MMPI-2 and concordance (89.2 %) between WDCT and Guilford-Zimmermann. 3) Other researches have found a very high (k = 0.91) inter-scorer agreement between expert psychologists in the scoring proceeding.

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A clinical case

THE CASE OF SAMUEL This clinical case is a "blind" valuation: Stephen Finn administered the Wartegg test to one client of his. Then he sent the WDCT to Alessandro Crisi who, without knowing anything about the client (except the name, the gender and the age), scored and interpreted the WDCT of the subject. Below you'll find the Wartegg form: all the words in black are from Wartegg report; all the words in blu are the observations that Finn made on the base of the therapeutic assessment.

The Wartegg of Samuel

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Time of performance: 15'5"

P 1 - eye P 2 - some guy looking at the eye (in 1) P 3 - a guy and his car P 4 - a skull P 5 - a sword, it had to be a sword P 6 - a battery P 7 - a frying pan with 2 eggs P 8 - a waffle cone with ice cream Drawing liked most: 6, because it is more interesting. It's not the whole battery, just the important part Drawing liked less: 4, it's overly cartoony for some reason Stimulus liked most: 8, it has a curve Stimulus liked less: 4, it's just a square in a corner, too big Patient turn form?: No Use additional instruction?: No

Samuel is a 19-year-old boy referred by his parents for a psychological assessment on the advice of their neighbour who is a psychologist I know. The parents are concerned because S. is not working or going to school, and spends a great deal of time playing video games in his room at home. He went to university last year, but did terribly in his courses and came back home. This year, he tried take a course at a local community college, but he also did not complete this course. Some of the parents' questions for the assessment are: What gets in the way of S. succeeding at school? How can we help S. become independent? Why is he so angry and irritable all the time? How can S. come to form long term goals, believe he can achieve them, and work to reach them? The Wartegg Report The Therapeutic Assessment by Alessandro Crisi by Stephen Finn 1) INTELLIGENCE: this client has a very good intelligence. The theoretical and practical aspects are well balanced and integrated each other although, through a closer examination, it seems to prevail more the practical attitudes than the abstract one. Surely this client has very high characteristics of originality and creativity. WAIS-IV: FSIQ = 115; VCI = 110; PRI: 125; WM = 114; PSI = 94 Block Design = 17; Vocabulary = 15; Arithmetic = 14; Matrix Reasoning = 14 2) THOUGHT PROCESSES ORGANIZATION: The ability to deal reality is generally adequate (no special scores of serious

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entity) and the client is related to the reality mainly using rational and intellectualized modalities. He is very intellectualized in his presentation. Rorschach: Intell Index = 4 Modalities of hyper vigilance have appeared during the performance of the test. In this case, the hyper vigilance of the client must be interpreted as something caused by his deep insecurity; the client is very attentive to the reactions of others (maybe we can find some He began the assessment fairly guarded, but is aspects of susceptibility and touchiness). starting to open up more. During the intelligence testing, his deep insecurity has been very apparent. Even on tests he did incredibly well on (e.g., Block Design) he doubted his performance and was very selfcritical. Rorschach: Vista = 4; MOR = 5 Deep down, he feels defective and ashamed There is a moderate tendency to interpret reality in not always adequate and functional ways. In fact, we've found some special scores that usually occur in subjects who tend to modify the reading of the reality through inner schemes. So their adaptive modes tend above all to modify the Rorschach: X-% = .50; Popular = 2; He does external rather than the internal schemes. express a lot of "unique" opinions that don't really make sense. He spends hours in his room playing an online fantasy role playing game that is mainly played by much younger children (e.g., 10-year-old boys). I think he sticks with this game because he has a number of "credits" from having played it so much, and thus he is ranked 13,000 among 8 million players. However this client participates in the way of thinking of the society and is adherent to it; indeed very pronounced traits of dependence on people of the surrounding emerge. Such a dependence can lead continually the client to seek support and reassurance of others. Levels so high of dependency could determine also incongruent behaviours because this client can modify his reactions on the base of the people he is frequenting. He clearly is quite dependent on his parents, and is frightened of many things such as job interviews or meeting new people. But he presents himself as "his own person," not acknowledging how terrified he is of the world, and is more likely to be angry at his parents when they try to get him to do something new, rather than saying that he is afraid. 3) ACTIVITY (AVAILABLE ENERGY): In general, the ability of this client to pursue goals

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and to achieve targets is well organized and efficacy. But at the present we observe a fairly small efficiency or at least very small if compared to his excellent potential capabilities. It's possible that this situation can be determined by the strong state of anxiety and depression that appeared in the test and on which we will discuss He appears quite depressed and anxious on later. the MMPI-2 and on the Rorschach there were signs of a serious underlying depression (DEPI = 6; S-CON = 7). He clearly is not living up to his considerable potential, and will need a great deal of support to do so. 4) SOCIALIZATION or INTERPERSONAL: As was said before this client shows a general attitude of dependence on the point that it is possible to envisage a limited ability to think and operate themselves in autonomy or a certain contradiction in behaviour caused by constant He really "feels" like a 10- or 11-year old boy use of imitation as a means of acceptance social. when I am with him. He has a number of friends from high school that he spends time with, and he talks about them and what they are doing sometimes with me. It's probable that at the basis of such dependence is found a marked insecurity, a lack of selfconfidence in his own abilities and a very high level of sensitivity. This situation leads the client to assume an attitude towards the environment of high vigilance to what is said or done by others. It's also possible that sometimes the reactions to situations of frustration are characterized by scarce functionality (aggressive dependence by He gets very angry and shouts when his others). parents press him about doing more. They are very passive in general, but then become very critical. The shame that is revealed on the Rorschach is very marked. 5) PSYCHOAFFECTIVE SPHERE: We are facing a young man with great intellectual ability and creativity but characterized by significant problems in terms of affection and social adaptation. Beneath a facade in which rationality plays a major role, in fact, this client presents traits of deep insecurity, some emotional immaturity and a strong ambivalence towards all the significant This is perfectly correct. relationships in his life. The emotional life of the young seems to be dominated by the following characteristics: a deep dependence which limits the performance Clearly and adaptation; some inadequate reactions to the frustrations and, one of his parents' main concerns at least, a relationship with both the parental figures

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particularly difficult.

hostile dependence describes his relationship with them perfectly.

About dependence we discussed before. About the ability to tolerate frustration is there to say that it does not seem very high and that, especially in contexts very emotionally meaningful, reactions to frustration may take the form of a scarce functionality and are not directed to solve the problem. In those situations it seems that mainly prevail the affective modalities and not the rational modalities as Yes, again, when he gets frustrated with an usual. activity or believes he is doing badly, he simply quits it and does not try to solve it. Respect to the parental figures we can understand that towards the paternal figure there is a deep and strong conflict: only through the Wartegg test is very hard to understand what is the cause or the reason of such an conflictual situation. We can make two different hypothesis. 1) An absent father (in a concrete sense or in a figurative sense as psychological absence as familiar pattern); 2) A violent father (in other words, the situation can be compatible with real violence or with negative experiences with the father). Of course, the possible presence of unconscious fantasies and defence mechanisms force us to seek confirmation of this hypothesis through further evaluations and must be The father is very shut down emotionally, and supported by other tests and interviews. "disappears" in the room when all of us meet together. He has little to do with the young man. Samuel has talked to me about wishing his father would pay more attention to him, but he also does not find his father idealizeable. Samuel tells stories of the father doing things in public that make him look like a fool or a social idiot (e.g., not being able to work the drink dispenser in a restaurant). The father seems very easily insulted and "prickly." In the past, the father is reported to have had angry explosions. Regarding the maternal figure, we can assume a her constant, continuous and insistent presence to the aim to control and criticise all the things her son does. At the same time, the client has a very close relationship with her mother with some The mother now leaves Samuel alone mainly, troubles on the axis autonomy-dependency. but she can be critical and intrusive when she gets anxious. She was very shaming and critical of him during the first joint session, and when I asked him about this later, Samuel was very protective of her and said he didn't

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experience her as critical. (I was wincing in the session.) She has had several episodes of cancer in the last 7 years and has talked about how helpful Samuel was taking care of her. I talked to the couples therapist who worked with the parents for several years and she said the marriage is very empty and has been for a And it is probably that from such a combination long time. between these two factors (omnipresent motherbad relationship with father) that the most of the difficulties of the young man arise. They say they want him to be independent, but they continue giving him money and letting him do nothing, in part because they are afraid of his anger. He feels very loyal to them and does not see that they are not very involved with him in an emotional supportive way. But clearly, he also is very angry at them. All this can only result in difficulties in giving life and support meaningful and satisfying relationships with the opposite sex. It seems that the client is able to see his relationship with He is heterosexual, but has never had a female only in a dependent way. girlfriend. It's possible the presence of phobic-obsessive traits (especially eating disorders). He is morbidly obese and has been since he was age 10 or so. Things of whom above have characteristics of structuring in the personality of the young and they must not be considered as a reactive situation to some special events. It's possible that the client presents is an archaic neurotic structure of personality. Report by the Analysis of Succession 1 and 2. The Analysis of the Succession 1 puts in evidence: In this client there are many Ambivalent Choices (SA=2) and Ambivalent Delays (RA=1). Such an situation is not usual in the normal population where the prevalence is of the evaluations Choices and Positive Compensations. We find this situation in neurotic clients. A very bad evaluation in Panel 1 (=RA) and 4 (=R). Especially the negative evaluation of Panel 4 is generally connected to real difficulties in the relationship with the authoritarian figures. The Analysis of Succession 2 indicate the following aspects: First Pair (expected panels 1-8): Performance of the client: 8 (=S, choice) and 5 (=SA, ambivalent choice). Panel 8 came first with a good evaluation and it

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indicates a great attention to the surrounding and its requests (trait of dependence and of complacency). Panel 5 came second but with a negative evaluation (SA). This means that aggressive energy (in the sense of assertiveness, decision) are generally well organized and allow the youth to achieve the goals that usually arises but, at present, there is a situation of blockage due to a depressive condition. Second Pair (expected panels 3-6): Performance of the client: 3 (=SA) and 6 (=S). The performance is that expected. The negative evaluation of Panel 3 is connected to the negative evaluation of panel 5. It's possible that in this moment could be difficulties in the achievement of a goal Third Pair (expected panels 2-4): Performance of client: 2 (=CP) and 7 (=CP). Panel 2 is in the expected place while the panel 7 is moderately advanced. In total there are possible difficulties in the relationship with the female (in both meanings of relationship with the mother figure and with the girls as interpersonal relationship). These difficulties are mainly represented by behaviours characterized by strong dependence. Fourth Pair (expected panels 5-7): Performance of the client: 1 (=RA) and 4 (=R). Panel 1 is too much retarded with a negative evaluation (traits of deep insecurity and scarce self-confidence). Panel 4 is retarded with the worst evaluation: great difficulties in the As a teen, he saw a male psychoanalyst for 3 relationship with the father and with the authority. years, 3 times a week. The family and he said he made little progress, but the analyst says he became less angry and more socially connected and successful at school. Samuel went to an "alternative" high school and was well liked by his teachers. He collected a group of friends there who were also "misfits." The family also did some family therapy with an excellent colleague of mine, but dropped out after she began to focus on the parents' marriage. Again, the family says the therapy was not helpful and so they stopped. The parents said they have a happy relationship.

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References Andronikof-Sanglade, A. (1995). Interpretazione e processo di risposta. [Interpretation and response process]. Rorschachiana, 20, 49-63. Bianchi F., Crisi A., Di Renzo M. (1997): L'ordine di esecuzione o

successione nel test di Wartegg. [The Order of Succession in the Wartegg test] Roma: Babele, II, 3 Bianchi, F., Crisi, A., Di Renzo, M. (1993). Il test di Wartegg nell'età evolutiva. Un contributo psicodiagnostico allo studio clinico della balbuzie, della sordità e dei disturbi dell'apprendimento. [The Wartegg test in the developmental age. A psychodiagnostic contribution to the study of stammering, deafness and learning disorders]. Roma, Armando Armando. Bohm, E. (1969). Manuale di Psicodiagnostica Rorschach. [Handbook of psychodiagnostic Rorschach]. Firenze: Giunti. Buros, O. K. (1959). The fifth mental measurements yearbook. . Highland Park: Gryphon Press. Crisi A., Shorey H.S.. (2009). Comparing Projective Measures: a case study using the Wartegg and the Rorschach. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality Assessment, Chicago, IL. Crisi, A. (2007). Manuale del test di Wartegg. [ Handbook of the Wartegg test] Roma: E.S. Magi. Crisi A. (2005) A new instrument for Selection and Career Guidance: the Wartegg test . Paper presented at the XVIII meeting of the International Society of Rorschach, Barcellona.

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Crisi A. (2001). Sperimentazione del Test di Wartegg nei processi di selezione del personale. [Experimentation of the Wartegg test in the proceedings of Selection] , Roma,Notiziario Ordine Psicologi Lazio, 5, 32 Crisi A. (1999 July). Some similitudes between the Evocative Character of the Wartegg Panels and that of the Rorschach Plates. Paper presented at the XVI meeting of the International Society of Rorschach, Amsterdam, NL. Finn S. (2007). In our client's shoes. Theory and techniques of therapeutic assessment. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Kinget, G.M. (1952). The drawing completion test: a projective technique for investigation of personality. New York: Grune & Stratton. Mattlar, C.E. (2005a). An overview of the Wartegg Zeichentest (WZT), the structure and use thereof, and of research supporting its utility. Paper presented at the XVIII ISR Congress, Barcellona. Mattlar, C.E. (2005b). Interpretative use of the Rorschach Comprehensive system when analysing the Wartegg. Paper presented at the XVIII ISR Congress, Barcellona. Mc Cully, R. (1988). Jung e Rorschach. [Jung and Rorschach] Milano: Mimesis. Merei, F. (1947). Der Auffoerderungscharakter der Rorschach-Tafeln. [The Evocative Character of the Rorschach cards]. Magyar Psycological Szemle 3-4 (trad. Ge Neiger, S. (1953), Innsbruck: Institut fur Psychodiagnostik und angewandte Psychologie). Rapaport, D. (1977). Il modello concettuale della psicoanalisi. [The conceptual model of psychoanalysis]. Milano: Feltrinelli. Roivanen, E. (2009). A brief history of the Wartegg Drawing test.. Gestalt Theory, 31, 1, 55-71.

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(1971). L'interpretazione psicoanalitica del Rorschach. [The

psychoanalitic interprettaion of the Rorschach]. Torino, Boringhieri. Wartegg, E. (1972). Il reattivo di disegno. [The test of drawing] Firenze: OS. Wartegg, E. (1953). Schichtdiagnostik. Der Zeichentest (WZT).[Differential assessment. The drawing test]. Gottingen: Verlag fur Psychologie Hogrefe.


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