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INDIA

I. I Critical Historical Junctures II. Governance and Policy-Making III. R III Representation and Participation dP IV. Political Economy V. Political Culture VI. VI Indian Politics in Transition

I. I Critical Historical Junctures

Mughal (Muslim) Empire g ( ) p British East India Company (`British Raj') Indian (S I di (Sepoy) Mutiny (1857) ) M ti Government of India Act (1858)

Direct Rule under a Viceroy Queen Victoria as `Empress of India'

India 1857

British India v. Modern India v

The Struggle for Independence

Indian National Congress (1885) Amritsar Massacre (1919) Gandhi d Independence M G dhi and I d d Movement Independence & Partition (1945)

Sectarian Violence Gandhi Assassinated (1948)

Gandhi and Nehru

Independent India

Jawaharlal Nehru (1947-64)

Parliamentary Democracy and Socialist E P li D d S i li Economy

Indira Gandhi (1966-77 and 1980-84)

Emergency Rule (1975) Operation Blue Star and Assassination (1984)

Rajiv Gandhi (1984-89)

Assassinated (1991)

Narasimah Rao (1991-96) Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1998 04) (1998-04) Manmohan Singh (2004 ­ Present)

Congress-led coalition government g g

Indira Gandhi

II. II Governance and Policy-Making Policy Making

Constitution Executive

Prime Minister &C bi P i Mi i &Cabinet President

Legislature Lok Sabha (House of the People) p Rajya Sabha (House of the States) Federalism

India's Parliament

III. Representation and Participation

Congress Party Bharatiya Janata Party y y (BJP) Communist P t of C i t Party f India -- Marxist (CPM)

Congress PM Manmohan Singh

IV. IV Political Economy

The `Permit Raj and Permit Raj' Economic Stagnation Forced Liberalization and Growth Competing in a Global Economy Limits on Indian Growth

Which is the real India?

V. V Political Culture

Ethnic and Religious Division Caste System

Brahmins, K h i B h i Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras, dalits V i S d d li (`Untouchables')

Traditional Values T diti l V l Support for Democracy Corruption

VI. VI Indian Politics in Transition

Poverty and Development Pakistan and Kashmir Nuclear Weapons Continued Sectarian Strife

"Let's make a nuclear deal"

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