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ROTH ENDOWMENT 2005 Two decades from its modest start, the Endowment has amassed $586,000 in capital and, after more than 200 grants and award, is pressing into new areas. Highlights of 2005: 1) An agreement with the Fulbright Commission in New Zealand by which an NZ grad student each year will receive supplemental support for work in the US in the social sciences and humanities, with a preference for American Studies; the award will bear the name of the late Founder-Trustee Robin W. Winks and Avril Flockton Winks, his New Zealander wife of more than fifty years. 2) With Turkey, a four-cornered agreement with the State University of New York and the Turkish Fulbright Commission is all but final: it will help bring an authority on Turkish Studies to the US every year, developing Turkish Studies on the SUNY campuses, with a preference for peace and security studies. 3) Discussions with the State Department indicate that a second annual award will soon be created for domestic servants of cultural diplomacy, honoring Alice IIchman and John Richardson, prominent exdirectors of Educational and Cultural Affairs. 4) An administrative move: the Scandinavian program, touching Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, will now be centered in the Department of Scandinavian and Germanic Studies of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. This year's gifts matched last year's, at $10,000, with the help of a special year-end postcard appeal. Our investments earned at the rate of 4.59%, in a conservative investment strategy. Program growth now necessitates the use of professional mailers, diminishing the personal touch the Endowment was able to manage for so many years. As of today, we count ten country programs, four translation and languagelearning projects, and two awards, soon to be three. Our mailing list, including relocated alumni, has increased by 10%. Special help was received from Mim Johnston Hallock's bequest for the Turkish project, from the Delavan Foundation for the Roth Award in State, from an anonymous donor to the Prix Coindreau support fund. The chair's book The First Resort of Kings: American Cultural Diplomacy in the Twentieth Century (Potomac, 2005) is a rich source of information in which Lois figures prominently. A paperback edition will appear in June 2006.

COUNTRY PROGRAMS Australia. After a two-year hiatus, we await candidates this Fall for two awards to supplement the work of US researchers in the social sciences and humanities in Australia. Denmark. American Scandinavian Foundation grantee Thor Mednick received a supplemental $1250 for his work on nationalism in Danish art since 1850. Finland. With the Fulbright Commission, on a post-arrival basis, we made two grants of $1250 each to Kjerstin Moody for work on contemporary Finnish literature and to Michael Jakab for a graphic design and video project for cell phones he calls "Mobile Narratives." Norway. The Fulbright Commission, now managed by Sonja Mykletun, has moved to a post-arrival approach and has skipped this year's grant. Sweden. Jeanette Lindstrom, director of the Fulbright Commission, helped us award grants of $1250 each to Garrett Bucks of his study of the Swedish approach to poverty at home and abroad and to Kjersti Knox for work on traditional medicine among the Sami people and its interaction with the public health system.

Italy. Discussions continue with the Rome Center for American Studies about the use of interest generated by our fund dedicated to the Center's use. The fund has grown to nearly $13,000. New Zealand. With Fulbright director Mele Wendt, we have agreed to support a New Zealander researcher in the social sciences or humanities, geared in the longer run to the potential growth of American Studies. By Fall 2006, the New Zealand researcher should be in the U.S. Russia. The National Peace Foundation reports that Valentina Cherevatenko, director of Women of the Don Region, has built a new inter-ethnic consortium which, with our grant of $1500, has moved into postconflictual Chechnya and Beslan, working with victims of post-traumatic stress. Earlier Roth investments have helped launch a summer camp in Ivanovo, part of the east European network of WIESCO in Wisconsin. THE MILLON AWARD In the National Gallery of Art, Dean Elizabeth Cropper reports that our contribution of $1500 is helping build the Italian Architectural and Photographic Collection initiated by Endowment Founder-Trustee Henry A. Millon. It now holds 45,000 photographs and manuscripts on pre-1900 Italian architecture. This year's grant will support Dr. Paola Modesti.

ROTH AWARD, DEPARTMENT OF STATE The Roth prize of $1500, unique as a private-based recognition of excellence in educational and cultural diplomacy, went in 2005 to a mentoree of Lois, Jean Manes, just returned from a heroic performance in Montevideo; a week later, she was broadcasting about her award via VOA's Spanish-language program. Runner-up Orna Blum's fine performance prompted the selection committee to recommend Honorable Mention. She and Jean Manes received copies of the chair's book on cultural diplomacy, as did outgoing Assistant Secretary Patrica Harrison, for her fine stewardship over the preceding four years. Seeds from long ago sprouted this year: the Endowment has proposed a second grant, to honor domestic servants of cultural diplomacy, bearing the names of Alice S. Ilchman and John Richardson Jr., exdirectors of State's Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. It is hoped to offer this second award in Spring 2006.

TRANSLATION AND LANGUAGE EDUCATION MLA-Roth Award for Literary Translation. This year's prize of $1000, given in alternate years, went to Joel Agee for his sensitive and beautifully printed translation of The End: Hamburg 1943, a haunting text on the destruction of the great German port city. Institute of Iranian Studies Award. At this year's meeting of the American Institute of Iranian Studies, held this year in the UK because of US visa difficulties, the sixth annual prize of $1500 was given to Oxford's Jawid Mojadeddi for his translation of Book I of Jalal al-Din Rumi's Masnavi The Maurice Coindreau Prize, raised this year to $200 to offset shortfalls on the French side, went to Antoine Caze for his translations of Nicholson Baker's A Box of Matches and The Size of Thoughts. Our efforts to raise a sub-fund of $25,000 have reached the one-quarter mark, thanks to continued gifts by an anonymous donor and others. Jeanne Varney Pleasants Award. In May 2005, Columbia University's French Department awarded our prize of $600 to Monika Keister. She is reported to be a superb teacher who is also a gifted operatic soprano, performing roles like Mozart's Susanna and Zerlina and Strauss' Adele. Earlier laureates are spreading out around the country, teaching at prestigious universities.

Roth Endowment History 19892004 For the first time in our eighteen years of existence, we suspended our habit of addressing all friends of the endowment personally. Having accepted the consuming job of leading Americans for UNESCO, at the moment the U.S. returned to that organization after a deplorable 19-year absence, the chairman found every minute of the day had disappeared. We hope that next year things will be a bit easier and that we can resume our traditional style of communication. A second explanation of the time problem flows from the fact that the chairman's book on US cultural diplomacy in the 20th century has gone to a publisher and may appear in January `05 . We suffered an overwhelming loss this year when Robin Winks died in April. As a founding director, he helped us until the moment of his death. We are exploring a permanent project in his memory. We have decided to honor Robin, as well as Evelyn Swarthout Hayes and Griselle Cohen, with the title of Founding Director Emeritus. Another sadness: Jerome Clinton died a long illness--Jerry was the principal progenitor of the Roth translation prize of the Institute of Iranian Studies; he himself won the prize in 2002. Meanwhile Louise Taylor has moved to Michigan and has stepped down from the board. For the moment, we have not filled either vacancy. Gifts in 2003-2004 passed $11,500, surpassing last year's contributions by about 20%, with only a 5% increase in donors. As markets regained their composure, health returned to our portfolio; it earned just under $20,000--a shade below last year's earnings, owing to lower interest rates on fixed assets. Still, in February our prudent portfolio (40% in equities and 58% in fixed assets, with 2% in cash) briefly passed the elusive half-million dollar mark, after a growth of over 12% in net value in 2003. Administrative costs dropped below 10%. This year we were fortunate to have two sizable matching grants. First. the Delavan Foundation pledged a five-year 1-2 matching grant of $1000, to help us build up the sub-fund which supports the annual Lois Award at the State Department. Second, the Faulkner Society shared its mailing list to help us build the sub-fund supporting the Condreau Prize; this brought several gifts, most notably an anonymous ongoing matching pledge of $1000 per year, enabling us to increase our grant to the struggling Coindreau Prize. Our program continues to flourish, thanks to our strategy of cooperative grants in fields of Lois' interest. As the years pass, we are more and more open to new fundable ideas. In this sense, we offer a bargain: a start-up gift of $10,000 for an agreed-upon idea will earn our commitment to indexed project support beginning at $1200, hopefully in perpetuity.

As ever, we owe far more than we can say to many quiet friends. Ambassador and Mrs. William Harrop arranged Delavan's assistance. Swarthmore's Philip Weinstein helped us remind the Faulkner Society that Coindreau's translations gave Faulkner to the world. Legal counsel Jeffery Yablon and Michael Weiser Associates put their heads together to deal with reporting questions raised by the growth of our holdings. Sweden alumnus Bill Rivera is helping locate lost alumni. Drs. Arndt-Briggs and Millon continue their sturdy job of selections. And Shawn O'Reilly of Ferris, Baker Watts steered our portfolio out of the years of slump.

2003 At the close of our seventeenth year, amidst national and international tumult, our program continued its modest contribution to strengthening the human structures of America's engagement with the rest of our planet. We nearly doubling 2002 contributions. The Delavan Foundation strengthen the sub-fund supporting State's annual Lois Roth Award, with a grant over five years to be matched on a 2-1 basis. Still economic disarray kept earnings low and total worth fell 4.2 % to $438,677. Our prudent portfolio (32% in equities, 54% in fixed income and 14% in cash) kept income flowing, but even fixed income was down. Administrative costs, including our website experiment, climbed to 11% of program. Joining our board was Dr. Patti McGill Peterson, former president of St. Lawrence University and Wells College, now directing IIE's Council for International Exchange of Scholars, administering the post-doctoral Fulbright Program. This year we also added our first alumnus, William A. Rivera of the Department of Health and Human Services, an early grantee in Sweden. Our efforts to reach former laureates began beginning: Angela Crowley, early Swedish grantee, sent us her first "pay-backer," as she called it- she is now working in Texas with Habitat for Humanity. And Stanford's John Felstiner, 2001 MLA Prize winner for his brilliant translations of Paul Celan, sent a gift. Our mailing-list loss of 10% focuses mainly among our alumni/ae.

2002

Our sixteenth year was saddened by the September 11 catastrophe. World turmoil in 2001 meant that our holdings were buffeted. Total return slipped to 1.55%, and total worth to $457,750. While our prudent portfolio (36% in equities, 62% in fixed income and 2% in cash) kept income flowing, equityholdings fell by 9.8%. Contributions declined as well to $5400, amounting to an alarming 3-year slide of 42% since calendar-year 1999. With our fixed income assets earning at 7.5%, this brought income to over $26,000. The gradual program expansion set off by the Carroll bequest has continued. Administrative costs, including this website experiment, have stayed at a low rate of 8.7% of program. Among other indicators of cost, our program outgrew the traditional two-page annual review and turned into a handsome brochure. A dedicated board stands firmly committed to riding out the turbulence. This year we continue to explore longer-range Endowment questions, looking over the horizon. We are seeking younger members for the board and thinking about additional sub committees, e.g. for help with alumni relations. We are convinced that our work, investing in the human structures which underpin any imaginable world of peace, is moving in the right direction. And our management continues to maintain its low-load quality, with 95% of income available for program. Donors ask whether their contributions might be earmarked for specific projects. We have already established several free-standing sub-funds. New funds, thematic or country-oriented, can be set aside when we have accumulated $1000 or more for that purpose; sub-funds grow at the same rate as our portfolio.

2001 The Endowment lost two beloved trustees: founder-member Evelyn Swarthout Hayes and new member John B. Hurford. Joining us in their stead are Harriet Fulbright, Federico Mayor and Louise Taylor. We survived turbulent markets but gifts declined by 16%. Total asset yield was 5.2%, fixed asset 8.3%; total portfolio value was up by 1.7%. A new investment strategy keeps 60% of assets in fixed-income and moves 40% into growth. Administrative costs remain under 0.3% of assets, 2% of program.

It was a vigorous program year. In Australia, Mark Darby replaced exec John Lake; we plan to continue helping Fulbrighters move around that giant continent. With the ASF, we assisted architect Kathryn McCamant in exploring "co-housing" for senior citizens in Denmark. In Finland, Frog looked at the Finnish national epic, The Kalevala. In Italy, the Aquarone Prize went to Matteo Pratelli of Florence, for work on Fascist cells in the U.S. 1920-41; our sub-fund for the Rome American Studies Center grew slowly. In Norway, we helped Columbia University composer Douglas Geers work on a "largescale multimedia piece for live musicians, computer music and computerassisted puppetry." Working with the National Peace Foundation, we assisted a delegation from Russia's leading women's magazine in visiting the U.S. and explore ways of enriching substantive content. In Sweden, Gregory Webb worked on Scandinavian literature and Jennifer Mack on urban development.

In literary translation and language, the Modern Language Association's second bi-annual award will be given in December 2001. The 19th Coindreau Prize went to Anne Damour for her translation of Michael Cunningham's The Hours; a major seminar on American writing, with embassy assistance, took place in June. The first translation prize of the American Institute of Iranian Studies, with our assistance, went to Dick Davis of Ohio State for his version of Iraz Pezeshkhzad's comic My Uncle Napoleon. At Columbia University, the annual Jeanne Pleasants Prize went to language-teacher Barbara Szlanic for inventive ways of involving literature in early language instruction. In its new home in the Department of State, the Lois Roth Award was given by the office of the Undersecretary for Public Diplomacy, into which USIA was folded: Marjorie Ransom was the laureate. The new project for 2001 was an annual grant of $1500, named for trustee Henry A. Millon and his wife Judith Rice Millon, to help scholars utilize and develop the unique archive of world architectural drawings which Dean Millon launched at the Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Arts of the National Gallery. We are exploring a program, in consultation with trustee Robin Winks, involving the New Zealand Fulbright Commission and Yale University. With the National Humanities Center in North Carolina, we have discussed a plan for an annual lecture-colloquium-publication program in honor of John Hurford. We are still searching for an appropriate memorial to honor foundertrustee Evelyn Swarthout Hayes. Alumni News: Laura Grasso Otis (Finland '96) works with a law firm in Washington. William Rivera (Sweden OE89) is at the Department of Justice. Michael Pippenger returned from Australia to work on Southeast Asia at the Institute for International Education in New York. Three Lois Roth Award

laureates have done well at State: Adrienne O'Neal is Consul General in Rio de Janeiro; Harriet Elam is ambassador to Senegal; and Mary Carlin Yates is ambassador to Burundi. Sadly this year's laureate Marjorie Ransom, ambassador-designate to Yemen, after Senate approval was inexplicably delayed for more than a year, decided to resign from the Foreign Service.

1999 Contributions rose by 33% but capital fell short of $200,000. We earned at 7.1%, a lean year. Faithful Grisselle Cohen resigned from the board, to our deep regret: she managed our funds from Day I and has been indispensable. Technical progress: we established an e-mailbox: [email protected] In program, translation grew as a theme: negotiations for the first Lois Roth bi-annual MLA Prize in Literary Translation, to be given in December 1999, were completed with the help of David L. Rubin of the University of Virginia. The Coindreau Prize in France went to Michèle Albert-Maatsch for her translation of Lewis Nordan,s Wolf Whistle. Discussions began on a third translation prize, with the American Institute of Iranian Studies, for translations from modern or ancient Persian. In language-teaching, the first Jeanne Varney Pleasants Prize at Columbia went to graduate student Ames Hodges. The USIA-WAO Lois Award for cultural and informational diplomacy went to a close friend of Lois, Louise Taylor, who described Lois in her remarks as "the perfect career woman professionally organized, personally engaged, and overflowing with humanity." Country programs advanced. In Sweden, Fulbrighter Erik Thomson worked on the politics of commercial reform in 17th-century Sweden. In Finland grants went to Fulbrighters Natasha Seeley, for work on Finnish anti-racist strategies, and Dorothy Berinstein, for work on Finland's women artists 1880-1910. In Norway, Fulbrighter Merrill Kaplan studied the manipulation of rune-stone legends to form political myths. In Australia two Carroll traveling fellowships were awarded to Donna Heath, for work on British book imports and their relationship to Australian publishing and censorship, and to Erik Shibuya, for a study of island states in international environmental policy. In Italy, the Aquarone Prize went to Simone Cinotto, as the Endowment contributed again to the Prize's endowment fund in Italy; two alumni of the Aquarone Prize volunteered to help organize funding on the Italian side.

1998

Finances were discouraging. Contributions dropped 23% below 1997 and our earnings slipped to 7.2%. We hovered close to $200,000 in total capital. For cultural and informational diplomacy, the annual Lois Roth Award, cosponsored by the Women,s Action Organization, went to Mary Lou Edmondson, of USIA's New York Press Center. Our translation program took another step: with the support of my Fulbright Difference co-editor David L. Rubin, we entered discussions with the Modern Languages Association of America, to the end of a bi-annual prize for literary translation, beginning in December 1999. Professor Rubin pledged to get this project off the ground with a generous contribution over three years; he negotiated terms and funding, designed to establish a freestanding bi-annual award by 2008 to allow MLA to continue the prize in perpetuity. The Coindreau Prize in France went to Bernard Hoepffner for his translation of Gilbert Sorrentino,s Red the Fiend; the prize was co-sponsored for the first time by the Société des Gens de Lettres. In USIA, the Lois Roth With Columbia University, we continued discussion about an award for a graduate student in language-teaching methodology, honoring Professor Jeanne Varney Pleasants. Country problems moved forward. In Italy, the Aquarone Prize encountered serious funding difficulties: we agreed to have our contributions set aside in an Italy-based "endowment" for no less than ten years, to ensure the award,s continuation of the award--because it is the prestige award for practitioners of US history in Italy, it seemed especially important to help in the most useful way. This year, Mario Del Pero worked on US policy towards Italy in the period 1945-55. In Italy we also began discussion with the Rome Center for American Studies about a sub-fund within our holdings for their endowment purposes, to be matched by us up to $2000 per year. In Norway, Roth-Thomson helped Fulbrighter Sarah Petersson study socio-medical policy on reproductive health. In Sweden, Roth-Thomsons went to Erik Banks, working on Swedish choral-singing theory and practice and Matthew Roy, on homosexual themes in literature. In Denmark our first grant went to Andrew Buckser, granteee of the American Scandinavian Foundation- Lois, home in 1955-66, studying Copenhagen' s Jewish community. In Finland, RothThomson helped Fulbrighter Nicholas Hill with his sociological study of the Finnish military. Our experiment with post-arrival grants to help with research costs did not work well and we returned to a pre-arrival grant for American Fulbrighters. Two outstanding Fulbright post-doctoral researchers in Australia were given larger in-country travel stipends, matched by the Commission: Kelly Amis worked on diversity and excellence problems in education, and Asher Cutter studied ant behavior as a way of understanding threats to bio-diversity.

1997

Gifts just matched those of 1996. Capital approached $200,000, earning at nearly 8%. Skyler Arndt-Briggs joined the board.

In our country programs, we launched with the Australian Fulbright Commission the jointly-funded Martin C. Carroll travel grants, helping Michael Pippenger to study the Australian literary canon and Matthew Sherman to look at Australian-US trade relations in the light of NAFTA. In Sweden, Roth-Thomson grants helped Angela Karstadt in a longitudinal study of Swedish-American English and Timothy Cramer in his work on the Swedish reactions to Willa Cather. In Norway, Roth-Thomson helped Ellen Berg research Norwegian migration to the US, second in numbers only to the Irish. We agreed to begin a program with Denmark, in collaboration with the American Scandinavian Foundation, to honor Lois, friend and pupil, the late Sonja Bundgaard-Nielsen. In translation, the Aquarone award in Italy went to Alessandro Gazzini, studying US foreign policy towards Indonesia in the period 1945-60. In France, the Coindreau prize went to Jean Pavrans for his translation of Edith Wharton,s autobiography. A new development in language teaching: when our pilot program with the Free University of Rome failed, we asked Dr. Alba Della Fazia to follow through on an idea to honor Prof. Jeanne Varney Pleasants, a great and inventive teacher at Columbia and Barnard. The USIA Award for cultural and informational diplomacy went to Mary Carlin Yates, for remarkable service in Zaire. Now serving in Paris, she wrote: "I recommit myself to trying to live up to (Lois') high standard."

1996 On the tenth anniversary of Lois' death, we noted that contributions to the Endowment rose by 13%, with earnings just over 7%. Return on the USIA Fund's capital, after its merger into the Endowment, nearly doubled in its new home. It was an interesting program year. For Australia, a particular love of Lois, our discussions with the Fulbright Commission turned up the idea of a matched grant helping US Fulbrights travel around that vast island continent. Donor Faye Carroll (widow of USIA,s Martin C. Carroll) offered to help and we suggested that these grants be dedicated to the memory of her late husband, cultural diplomat and Fulbright to Australia in the 1950s. In Italy, Aquarone laureate Marco Mariani received book-support for US study of the historiography of Arthur J. Schlesinger, Jr. With inadequate

cooperation from the Free University of Rome, we began discussing an alternate project for Dr. Della Fazia's gifts. In France, the Coindreau Prize went to Paol Keineg for his translations of the poetry of William Bronk. In Finland, Dawn Fowkes looked at contemporary ceramic design and Melinda Scott sought unpublished Sibelius scores on Roth-Thomson grants. Meanwhile, OE95 grantee Anna Minkinnen's film Home Cooking was shown on Finnish TV. In Sweden, Roth-Thomson helped Fulbrighter Angela Crowley study military sales as part of the balance between the global economy and the interstate system. And Sheilagh Riordan looked at Mme de Stael's stay in Sweden (1812-13), while ASF grantee Susan Vroman of the Georgetown University economics faculty studied Sweden's gender gap. In Norway, Fulbrighter Nels Kloster with Roth-Thomson help studied regulatory policy in public health, focusing on electromagnetic fields as a potential cause of cancer. A second conference on Iran-U.S. Relations by the US-Iranian Council received a small support grant. The Lois Roth Award for cultural and informational diplomacy at USIA went to Arlene Jaquette, then serving in Addis Ababa; five other nominees received commendations. At the ten-year stage, the Endowment's program showed signs of jelling into a policy: we assisted exchanges with selected foreign in cooperation with Fulbright and allied NGOs, we helped a prize for translation (Lois herself was a translator from the Swedish), and gave occasional support for projects involving Iran, or other cases of exceptional interest.

1995 This year the USIA Fund merged into the Endowment, on approval of USIA. Combined capital totaled over $156,00 but we hit a low in annual contributions. Earnings held near 7.5%. In our program, the USIA Lois Award, co-funded by the WAO, raised its stipend to $1500; the award went to Kiki Munshee, cultural officer in Dar esSalaam. In Finland, Fulbright Laura Grasso received an additional Roth-Thomson stipend to enable her to complete a film for Finnish TV. This suggested a change in our approach: to award Roth-Thomson grants to American Fulbrights in Finland also went to Anna Minkinnen to film her work on women's identity, to Diana Ben Aron to compare Swedish immigration policies with Finland's, and to Tracy Popowicz for sophisticated technology applications to the study of prehistoric mammalian feeding patterns. In Sweden, Fulbright's Kristen Walstedt studied the rune-stones of Gotland and Teresa Napolitano worked on city-based defense systems in the Baltic. ASF's

Susan Holmberg also studied immigration policies in Sweden with our help. In Norway, we helped Fulbrighter Julia Olsen study coastal ecoenvironments. In Italy, the Aquarone laureate was Tiziana Stella, working on Clarence Streit and Federal Union in the 1930s. In Italy Dr. Alba Della Fazia helped co-fund a grant to a student at the Libera Università Italiana, on a trial basis. In France, Michèle Herpe-Voslinski won the Coindreau award for her translation of Ernest Gaines.

1993 For finances, it was another recession year. The Fund, with no growth, was earning less than 3%. The Endowment's earnings, on a capital of $128,000, dropped to 7.5%. In program, the Fund-WAO Lois Award went to Voice of America's Eva Janie Fritzman. The Endowment opened a new program with Norway's Fulbright Commission, splitting one Roth-Thomson grant to assist the work of Bendek Hansen on philosophy and theory of action and Christian Kull's work on alpine geomorphic processes. In Sweden, Roth-Thomson helped Fulbright's Michael Le Roy to work on political party response to social change and Lynn Santelman to observe children's language acquisition; ASF's Marika Lindholm with our help studied gender factors in the Swedish political economy. In Finland, Roth Thomson grants helped Fulbrighter Laura Rozelle work on Finnish sign language and Alaskan Heather Huelsmann to analyze public administration training in northern cultures. In Italy, book-support went to Aquarone-laureate Riccardo Serri, looking at European security in the 1950s. In France, the Coindreau Prize went to Pierre Gault for translating Annie Dillard. To match a proposal by Professor E.B. Smith of the University of Maryland's history department and past-president of the US Fulbright Association, we made an exceptional grant to help bring a Russian woman historian to Maryland.

1994 New contributions to the Endowment topped $5500, including our first gift of appreciated securities. Total Endowment capital stood around $133,000, with earnings down to just over 7%. The USIA Fund was stagnant, with even lower yields. As a result, both sets of Trustees agreed to merge the two funds and sought USIA approval to do so.

In program, for Sweden, with Fulbright Roth-Thomson helped Brian Martin study Swedish response to AIDS; with ASF we helped Karen Anderson look at the impact of international economics on the welfare state. In Finland, RothThomson awards went to Fulbrighter Laura Grasso, for work on refugee assistance programs, and Linda Helmig, looking at women's health care. In Norway, Fulbrighter Ellen Rees worked on the writer Cora Sandel. In France the Coindreau Prize went to Michel Lederer for his translations of James Welch and Harold Brodkey. The Aquarone book-support prize went to Giovanni Fabbi, working on the US South in World War I. A small grant helped the American Iranian Council carry out a conference on the future of US-Iran relations.

1993 For finances, it was another recession year. The Fund, with no growth, was earning less than 3%. The Endowment's earnings, on a capital of $128,000, dropped to 7.5%. In program, the Fund-WAO Lois Award went to Voice of America's Eva Janie Fritzman. The Endowment opened a new program with Norway's Fulbright Commission, splitting one Roth-Thomson grant to assist the work of Bendek Hansen on philosophy and theory of action and Christian Kull's work on alpine geomorphic processes. In Sweden, Roth-Thomson helped Fulbright's Michael Le Roy to work on political party response to social change and Lynn Santelman to observe children's language acquisition; ASF's Marika Lindholm with our help studied gender factors in the Swedish political economy. In Finland, Roth Thomson grants helped Fulbrighter Laura Rozelle work on Finnish sign language and Alaskan Heather Huelsmann to analyze public administration training in northern cultures. In Italy, book-support went to Aquarone-laureate Riccardo Serri, looking at European security in the 1950s. In France, the Coindreau Prize went to Pierre Gault for translating Annie Dillard. To match a proposal by Professor E.B. Smith of the University of Maryland's history department and past-president of the US Fulbright Association, we made an exceptional grant to help bring a Russian woman historian to Maryland.

1992

On new letterhead designed by Cooper Union's Charles Nix, we reported the sad death of benefactor Ann Thomson. In finances, while the Endowment's capital had soared to $120,000, the USIA Fund stood still at $22,000. A weaker economy dropped the Endowment's earnings to 8.9% and the Fund's to 4%. In program, the Fund-WAO's Lois Award went to Harriet Elam, long- time friend of Lois. Sweden received three grants, two to Fulbrighters Bill Rivera for study of the social welfare system and Claire Sahlin for work on the theology of St. Brigitte, and one to ASF grantee Brian Hazlehurst, for study of the socio economic functioning of a northern fishing village. In Finland, Fulbrighter Sally Kux studied the Bulgarin holdings in the Finnish archives and Lisa Dasiger looked at language-learning in Finnish children aged 3-7 on Roth Thomson grants. In Italy, Stefano Lucconi, Aquarone laureate, received a book-purchase award; in light of its financial difficulties, we decided to seek ways to invest in the funding of the Aquarone Prize itself. With the Italian Fulbright, we helped Cristina Pausani, at Brown, to study US women writers. In France, the Coindreau Prize went to Beatrice Vierne for her translation of James McPherson's Battle Cry of Freedom, the first work of history so honored; the ceremony took place at Coindreau's birthplace in the Vendée. The Coindreau committee with USIS assistance, for its tenth anniversary, gathered all former laureates for a conference on US literature, to which we contributed.

1991 Financially, the fifth anniversary of Lois' death saw a spurt of growth, primarily because of a $60,000 living bequest from Ann O. Thomson, Lois' "second mother." The Thomson sub-fund was dedicated to exchanges with Sweden, Finland and Norway. Endowment earnings held at over 9% and the Fund, with no new contributions, rose above 6%. In program, the Fund's first annual Lois Award, with USIA's Women's Action Fund help, went to long-time cultural staffer Nan Bell. But the MESAB program fell short, through no fault of MESAB; we looked for an alternate possibility in southern Africa. In Sweden, the Endowment helped Fulbrighter Kristina Hill's work in landscape ecology and ASF grantee Susan Brantly's exploration of the contemporary Swedish novel. In Italy, there was no Aquarone grantee, but we completed our two-year support to the bibliographic project of the Center for American Studies in Rome. In France

the Coindreau prize went to Claire Malroux for her translations of Edith Wharton and Emily Dickinson. A new country program was added with the Finnish Fulbright Commission, thanks to Mrs. Thomson's bequest: we helped Amy Thomas study gender differentiation, and Deborah Jacobs looked at identity patterns in Finnish Jews.

1991 Financially, the fifth anniversary of Lois' death saw a spurt of growth, primarily because of a $60,000 living bequest from Ann O. Thomson, Lois' "second mother." The Thomson sub-fund was dedicated to exchanges with Sweden, Finland and Norway. Endowment earnings held at over 9% and the Fund, with no new contributions, rose above 6%. In program, the Fund's first annual Lois Award, with USIA's Women's Action Fund help, went to long-time cultural staffer Nan Bell. But the MESAB program fell short, through no fault of MESAB; we looked for an alternate possibility in southern Africa. In Sweden, the Endowment helped Fulbrighter Kristina Hill's work in landscape ecology and ASF grantee Susan Brantly's exploration of the contemporary Swedish novel. In Italy, there was no Aquarone grantee, but we completed our two-year support to the bibliographic project of the Center for American Studies in Rome. In France the Coindreau prize went to Claire Malroux for her translations of Edith Wharton and Emily Dickinson. A new country program was added with the Finnish Fulbright Commission, thanks to Mrs. Thomson's bequest: we helped Amy Thomas study gender differentiation, and Deborah Jacobs looked at identity patterns in Finnish Jews.

1989 Financially, combined asets for both funds stood at $60,000, still earning at 9% for the Endowment and 5% for the Fund, total earnings around $4000. For the program, we worked with Medical Education for South African Blacks, splitting our small Fund grant to help four black nursing students inside South Africa. In Italy, the Endowment with the Italian Fulbright Commission helped bring a woman landscape architect to Harvard's Graduate School of Design. With ASF, we helped historian Madeleine Hurd study suffrage alliances in two Swedish and two German cities. And we began a new project with the Swedish Fulbright commission by helping Harvard's Brian Palmer study Swedish approaches to arms-control negotiation. Additionally we made a small contribution to a conference at Trinity College in Hartford on Iran's ancient Tazieh theatre, in honor of Lois' love for Persia.

1988 Financially, the Endowment,s holdings stood at $35,000, the Fund at $22,000. While the Endowment was earning at around 9%, the Fund earned only 5%. In program, cooperating with the Italian Fulbright Commission, we helped bring an Italian post-doctoral woman to Carnegie-Mellon for women's studies. In Stockholm we began discussion with the Fulbright Commission about a future program. The Fund assisted Medical Education for South African Blacks in bringing a second South African woman physician to the U.S., after the success of the first year's grantee at Harvard. We were disappointed when the 1987 MESAB grantee decided not to return to South Africa.

1987 In financial terms, the Endowment reported capital of just under $30,000, with the Fund's assets at about half of that. Endowment income earned around 9%, less than $3000. Fund income earned at less than half that rate, governed by government investment regulations.

On policy, both boards first agreed that capital would be held intact, hence that all program would be funded only from earnings. A second decision by both boards: that Endowment and Fund would work primarily in international exchanges, in countries where Lois had served or for which she had special affection. A third point: in the event of a tie among candidates, preference would go to women. Fourth, following from the first two: neither Endowment nor Fund, in these early days, could afford more than very small grants, no higher than $1000. Therefore both funds began seeking ongoing programs with which to cooperate.

We began talks with the American Scandinavian Foundation (ASF), Lois' former employer, about helping an American woman spend a post doctoral year in Sweden, but this moved slowly. With Italy we worked with the Fulbright Commission to help a young Italian pre-doctoral Fulbright student for women's studies in the U.S. The Fund decided to explore a project with Medical Education for South African Blacks (MESAB) and helped bring a woman M.D. to the U.S. from Soweto to work in community health at Harvard. ###

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