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BORGHI DYNAMOMETERS Last modification : 26/10/2006

Page 1 of 36

Eddy Current Brake

User Manual

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

ROTRONICS 39, Impasse de l'étang Z..I des Dragiez F74800 LA ROCHE SUR FORON

Tel : +33 (0)450.030.859 Fax : +33 (0)450.030.597 E-mail : [email protected] http://www.rotronics.com

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BORGHI DYNAMOMETERS Last modification : 26/10/2006

Page 2 of 36

Table of contents

1 2 EDDY CURRENT DYNAMOMETER SPECIFICATIONS............................................................................................... 4 LIMITS OF POWER RANGES............................................................................................................................................. 5 2.1 2.2 3 4 EXPLANATION OF THE LIMITS OF POWER RANGES OF THE BRAKE :.................................................................................... 5 BRAKES POWER RANGES LIMITS :...................................................................................................................................... 5

SHAFT GUARD FOR ENGINE DYNAMOMETER DRIVE SHAFT .............................................................................. 7 WATER FLOW TO EDDY CURRENT DYNAMOMETERS : ......................................................................................... 8 4.1 NECESSARY WATER FLOW ................................................................................................................................................. 8 4.1.1 Open circuit................................................................................................................................................................. 9 4.1.2 Closed circuit .............................................................................................................................................................. 9 4.2 CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COOLING WATER ........................................................................................................... 9 4.3 FILTERS ........................................................................................................................................................................... 10

5 6 7 8 9 10

ENGINE-BRAKE DRIVE SHAFT ...................................................................................................................................... 11 DETERMINATION OF THE MAXIMUM RADIAL LOADING ON THE DRIVE SHAFT PLATFORM ............... 11 DYNAMOMETERS CALIBRATION TABLE .................................................................................................................. 12 GENERAL INFORMATION FOR A CORRECT INSTALLATION ............................................................................. 13 SPEED SENSOR ................................................................................................................................................................... 14 WATER PRESSURE SAFETY............................................................................................................................................ 15 10.1 10.2 TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS TECHNIQUES ................................................................................................................... 15 ELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS .......................................................................................................................................... 15

11 12 13

WATER TEMPERATURE SAFETY.................................................................................................................................. 16 FORCE SENSOR ASSEMBLING....................................................................................................................................... 17 LABYRINTHS CLEANING ................................................................................................................................................ 18 13.1 13.2 13.3 GENERALITIES : .............................................................................................................................................................. 18 HOW TO USE VERTICAL AXIS PUMPS WITH TANKS ........................................................................................................... 19 DESCALING SYSTEM DRAWING :..................................................................................................................................... 19

14 15 16 17

ROTOR SHAFT BEARINGS LUBRICATION ................................................................................................................. 20 INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE ASSEMBLE OF THE "SPIETH" ADJUSTABLE RING NUT...................................... 21 GREASE VOLUME IN THE BEARINGS ......................................................................................................................... 23 BRAKE BODY DISASSEMBLY FROM BASE................................................................................................................. 24 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 17.6 17.7 GENERAL PROCEDURE..................................................................................................................................................... 24 ASSEMBLING TOOL FOR WATER INLET AND OUTLET ........................................................................................................ 25 LINING-UP OF WATER INLET AND OUTLET PIPES DYNOS .................................................................................................. 26 TRUNNION SUPPORT BEARINGS DISASSEMBLY ................................................................................................................ 27 HOW TO DISASSEMBLE THE BEARINGS OF THE SHAFT OF THE ROTOR .............................................................................. 28 BEARING ASSEMBLY TOOL .............................................................................................................................................. 29 TOOL FOR BEARING BOX ASSEMBLY................................................................................................................................ 30

18

COUPLING FLANGE ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY ............................................................................................ 31

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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18.1 FLANGE ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY TOOL ON HYDRAULIC CONES : ........................................................................... 31 18.2 ASSEMBLY AND DISASSEMBLY PROCEDURE :.................................................................................................................. 31 18.2.1 Flange assembly ................................................................................................................................................... 31 18.3 FLANGE DISASSEMBLY .................................................................................................................................................... 32 18.4 USE OF INJECTOR SKF 226270 ....................................................................................................................................... 32 18.5 TECHNICAL DATA OF COUPLING FLANGE ........................................................................................................................ 32 19 AIR GAP ADJUSTMENT. ................................................................................................................................................... 33 19.1 19.2 19.3 20 21 TOOL FOR AIR GAP ADJUSTMENT ..................................................................................................................................... 33 AIR GAP ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURE ................................................................................................................................. 34 TABLE OF AIR GAP VALUE ............................................................................................................................................... 34

GENERAL TIGHTENING TORQUE ................................................................................................................................ 35 FAILURE ANALYSIS .......................................................................................................................................................... 36

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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1 Eddy current dynamometer specifications

Acceptable Moment Water Net mass in of inertia flow weight connection kg 0,8 m .kg 0,0072 0,0343 1,3 0,0210 0,0470 0,1540 9,0 19,0 32,5 3,0 19,0 2,2 8,0 0,6180 2,8560 9,8100 0,2870 1,1680 5,6000 25,3100 0,4500 1,3900 1,5000 5,0 230 m ./h 0,5

3

Shaft Number Rotor diameter of rotors diameter Brake FA 3/30 SLV FA 10/30 SLV FA 20/30 SLV FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 100 SV FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 350 S FE 350 SA FE 600 S FE 600 SP FE 900 S FE 600 SD FE 600 SDP FE 600 DV FE 900 DV FE 1000 ST FE 1200 ST FE 1200 ST 1200 mm mm 175 35 280 1

Max. Torque Nm 19,5 28 36 130 210 235 610

Max. speed rpm 15 000 13 000 17 000 13 000

Power rating hp 5 10 20 60 100 150 300 350 400 600 kW 3,68 7,36 14,72 44,11 73,52 110,89 220,00 257,40 294,12 441,30

kg 120

9,5 11,0 18,8 28,2 16,0 19,0 31,1 47,4 28,5 31,1 38,0 723 1 300 2 280 650 2 200 4 200 1 200 1 500 1 530

60 90 100 50 90 100 50 60 2 4 3

506 700 916 380 700 320 484

1 400 1 500 2 850 3 670 4 000 850 1 800 4 700 10 000 850 1 800

8 000 10 000 5 500 4 000 13 500 10 000 5 500 5 000 18 000 10 000

900 662,00 500 368,00 600 441,20 1 000 735,00 1 700 1 250,00 800 588,00 1 000 735,00 1 200 882,00

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

ROTRONICS 39, Impasse de l'étang Z..I des Dragiez F74800 LA ROCHE SUR FORON

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2 Limits of power ranges

2.1 Explanation of the limits of power ranges of the brake :

Limits are represented by lines on a log-log diagram. The limits of power ranges stand for :

Puissance Ch Couple mdaN / Power Ch Torque mdaN

C B

Puissance Power

D

B A

Couple Torque

A

C

D E E

Régime tr/mn Speed rpm

A Max. power at low speed (max. excitation current to dynamometer). B Max. torque of the brake. C HP rating : max. HP rating of the dynamometer determined by max capability of thermic dissipation. D Max. speed : we accept no responsibility for possible damages if the indicated max. speed is exceeded; limit determined by bearings and system stiffness. E Minimum power absorption of the dyno : minimum power absorption needed to overcome the internal friction (no excitation current).

N.B To guarantee efficient performance of the brake for a long time, we suggest its use not at power, torque and speed limits.

2.2

Brakes power ranges limits :

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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BORGHI DYNAMOMETERS Last modification : 26/10/2006

Birotor

FE 900-DV

Page 6 of 36

Quadrirotor

Monorotor

1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 450 400

Trirotor

FE 1200-ST-1200 FE 600-DV FE 900-S FE 1200-ST FE 1000-ST FE 900-ST FE 600-SP FE 600-SDP-650 FE 600-SDP FE 600-SDP-2 FE 600-SD FE 350-SA FE 350-S FE 300-S

300 250 200

FE 6

350

00

-S

Power (kW)

FE

-S

FE 3

00

150

26

0-

S-

80

FE 260-S

-S

0

100 90 80 70 60 50 45 40 35 30 25 20

FE 2

FE 150-S

60

FE 100-S

FE 100-SV

FE 60-S

15

FA 20/30SL

Puissance en kW

10 9 8 7 6 5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 FA 3/30SL FA 10/30SL

1.5

1

100 150 200 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 11000 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000 18000 20000

Vitesse en tr/mn

Speed (rev/min)

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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3 Shaft guard for engine dynamometer drive shaft

NB : Optional upon request : different dimensions of « L » may be supplied with an extra charge.

Brake type FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 350 S FE 600 S FE 600 DV FE 600 SD FE 900 S FE 900 ST FE 1200 ST

A 29 63 59.5 92 62.5 45 58.5 60

B 296 393 408.5 620 295.5 633 299.5 408

C 156 220 272 426 220 486 220 272

D 156 220 272 426 220 486 220 272

L 325 456 468 712 358 678 358 468

Weight kg 12 24 44 90 20 110 20 44

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

ROTRONICS 39, Impasse de l'étang Z..I des Dragiez F74800 LA ROCHE SUR FORON

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4 Water flow to Eddy current dynamometers :

4.1 Necessary water flow

Q = rate of water flow in the dyno at the given pressure with open circuit Pa = inlet pressure to the dynamometer (bar) Pu = outlet pressure from the dynamometer upstream of calibrated orifice (bar) Po = outlet pressure from the dynamometer downstream from orifice. Po=0 bar with open circuit Pc = Pa - Pu = loss of pressure through the dynamometer T = Difference in temperature between water inlet and outlet from the dyno (from 20 to 25 °c) T = The water inlet temperature to the dynamometer must not exceed 30 °c.

Dynamometer type FA 3/30 SL FA10/30 SL FA 20/30 SL FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 350 S FE 600 S FE 600 SD FE 600 SDP FE 600 DV FE 900 S FE 900 ST FE 1020 ST FE 1018 ST FE 1200 ST

Water pressure inlet bar (Pa) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Water pressure outlet bar (Pu) 0.9 0.44 0.69 0.62 0.6 0.55 0.53 0.59 0.62 0.37 0.62 0.6 0.45

Rated rate of water flow (Q) Lt/min m³/h 11 83 145 158 183 313 267 313 518 470 383 500 518 0.632 4.98 8.7 9.48 11 18.8 16 18.8 31.2 28.3 23 30.00 31.2

In case of tests where the max power of the brake is not used, it is possible to reduce the water flow, but for that, it is necessary to contact the Rotronics technical service.

N.B. We recommend to install, upstream of the dynamometer, a precision manometer with a max. full scale of 3 Bar.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

ROTRONICS 39, Impasse de l'étang Z..I des Dragiez F74800 LA ROCHE SUR FORON

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4.1.1 Open circuit The above table allows calculation of the necessary rate of flow to cool the dynamometer. In this table, the flow rates are indicated according to the relevant pressure, for each type of dynamometer. Knowing the value of the power to dispose of and fixing a T in a value of 20 to 25 degrees, it is possible to define the flow rate using the formula indicated. Pressure must have a value between 1 and 2 Bar. In the dynamometer water outlet, there is a calibrated diaphragm which allows the necessary rate of water flow at the minimum fixed pressure. Max. dyno water inlet temperature : 30°C. the water pressure must be constant. A lack of flow rate of the cooling water can cause very heavy damage to the dynamometer. 4.1.2 Closed circuit In this case, it is necessary to determine the P load loss existing at the the dynamometer outlet with the necessary rate of flow, and to add this value to the value indicated in the above table. You obtain the necessary feeding pressure. For closed water supply system, to cool the dyno, (water inlet/outlet under pressure), the installation of a differential pressure switch and suitable degassing devices is compulsory. To calculate the necessary feeding pressure, in the case of closed circuit, it is necessary to determine the Po pressure at dynamometer outlet with nominal flow rate. As first approximation we find the Pa pressure by adding the Po value to the pressure of 1 Bar, necessary for the open circuit (Pa = 1 Bar + Po). These values must be verified on the installation. That's why we advise you to measure the flow rate and pressure to verify if values are ok with the above table.

4.2

Chemical characteristics of cooling water

The cooling water must fulfil the following characteristics : Unit PH Overall hardness (CaCO3) Overall salt contents(NaCI) Nitrates Chlorides Sulphates (SO3) Manganese Organic substances Coarse solids Suspended solids Oxygen in solution Carbonic anhydride (in solution) Iron Oils Growth of algae Total alkalinity TH mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l mg/l CaCO3 Open circuit >7.2<9 <15 <1 500 <50 <100 <150 <0.1 <2 Absent <2 <0.05 <5 <0.2 0 Absent <450 Closed circuit >7.2<9 <15 <1 500 <50 <100 <150 <0.1 <1 Absent <2 <0.05 <2 <0.2 0 Absent <450

Should your values not fall within the over listed parameters, we kindly ask you to contact a company specialized in this field. DH TH eH German hardness degree French hardness degree English hardness degree American hardness degree = 10 mg CaO/litre = 10 mg CaCO3/litre = 1 g CaCO3/gallon = 1 mg CaCO3/litre Correspond to : 1 1,79 1,25 -

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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4.3

Filters

It is advised that a filter on the water feeding line of the dynamometer is installed, in order to avoid impurities deposited inside labyrinths. The filtration threshold must be 100µ.

Brake type

FE 150 S

FE 260 S MFGH 150 510 230 180 146 R 1 ½" 810 190 12 150 20

FE 300 S FE 350 S MFGH 200 590 290 190 146 R 2" 950 190 13 200 20

FE 600 SD MFGH 300 650 340 146 R 2" 1150 190 18 300 10

MFGH 100 a 460 b 180 c 175 eØ 146 f R 1 ¼" g 700 h 190 kg 11 l/min 100 bar 20 Filter pressure loss : 0,1 bar

FE 600 S FE 900 ST FE 1000 ST MFGH 400 850 430 146 R 2" 1550 190 23 400 10

FE 900 S FE 600 DV FE 1200 ST MFGH 600 650 230 160 146 1150 370 60 600 10

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

ROTRONICS 39, Impasse de l'étang Z..I des Dragiez F74800 LA ROCHE SUR FORON

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Page 11 of 36

5 Engine-brake drive shaft

To connect the engine under test to the Eddy current dynamometer, it is necessary to use exclusively drive shafts which allow angular and axial movements and can absorb fluctuations of transmission. It is advisable to study the application of the drive shaft according to the engine and brake characteristics, as well for torsion vibrations as in bending. For further information, contact the Rotronics engineering department. The drive shaft must be balanced, with Q = 2.5 mm/s. Fixing done with 12.9 quality screws, and the tightening torque adequate (see table of chapter 20 General tightening torque, page 35 of this manual). The drive shaft must comply with the established weight (see chapter 6 Determination of the maximum radial loading on the drive shaft , page 11). The drive shaft must be checked daily and kept a sufficient lubrication. Each additional counter flange must be balanced with grade Q = 2.5 mm/s. The coupling shafts must be provided with guards, (see table 6 Determination of the maximum radial loading on the drive shaft platform.) The maximum allowable values, regarding the torque, the speed and the axis displacement must be carefully respected. The maximum RPM number is reduced with heavy coupling shafts (see table in chapter 6 Determination of the maximum radial loading on the drive shaft page 11).

6 Determination of the maximum radial loading on the drive shaft platform

Determination of the maximum radial loading on the drive shaft counter flange on rating different to those indicated in the table in the chapter 1 Eddy current dynamometer page 4. Example : Eddy Current Brake FE 260 S type At 12000 rpm is corresponding the value P = 3.3 kg (see table in chapter 1 Eddy current dynamometer page 4...) If you want to know the load P at 10000 rpm, it is necessary to calculate with this formula :

P=

(12000) .3.3=4.75kg (10000)

2

The real weight at a given rate corresponds to the weight given in the table in chapter 1 Eddy current dynamometer page 4., multiplied by the square of the rated real ratio at 10000 rpm.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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Page 12 of 36

7 Dynamometers calibration table

Control lever for dynamometer calibration with sample weight (optional).

Important : In order to avoid irreparable damage to the force sensor, it is recommended the weight values indicated in the table below are used. *P.kg = Max weight on the control lever, to avoid damage. *Control lever ratio : With ratio 1:1, placing a P = 1kg, the display indicates 10 Nm With ratio 1:1.5, placing a P = 1 kg, the display indicates 15 Nm With ratio 1:2, placing a P = 1 kg, the display indicates 20 Nm Dyno type FA 3/30 SLV FA 10/30 SLV FA 20/30 SV FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 350 S FE 600 S FE 600 SD FE 600 DV FE 900 S FE 900 ST FE 1200 ST FE 1000 ST FE 1017 ST FE 1018 ST R mm 1019.7 1019.7 1019.7 1019.7 1019.7 1019.7 1019.7 1019.7 1529.6 1529.6 1019.7 1529.6 2039.4 1019.7 1529.6 1019.7 1019.7 * control lever ratio 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1 : 1.5 1 : 1.5 1:1 1 : 1.5 1:2 1:1 1 : 1.5 1:1 1:1 *P kg 2 3.5 5 14 21 28 70 70 93 187 91 313 210 91 122 91 91 Q mm 146 146 146 286.5 286.5 286.5 365 365 384.7 526.6 301 526.6 647 301 368 301 301 B mm 105 105 105 208 208 208 260 260 326 422 260 422 542 260 326 240 240

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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8 General information for a correct installation

Conformity with the following instructions is essential for the correct operation of the Eddy current dynamometers - Never exceed the maximum speed indicated on the curve of power absorption. - The maximum speed must be reduced in the case of heavy driving shaft use. For the allowed weights, refer to the specifications of the Eddy current dynamometers (see chapter 1 Eddy current dynamometer page 4. ). The maximum torque values, axial speed and movements must be scrupulously respected. The coupling must always be installed in a protection tunnel. (see chapter 3). For the assembly of specific couplings, contact the Rotronics engineering department. - The dynamometer safety must be connected to the control system or at the engine itself as it is indicated in chapters 10 and 11 of this handbook. - An insufficiency of cooling water food will involve serious damage to the dynamometer; for correct use, follow these instructions : - Chapter 4.1 page 8 for the water flow rate Q in l/min or in irP/h, - Chapter 4.2 page 9 for cooling water characteristics. Thereafter, refer to the maintenance handbook for the labyrinths cleaning (Chapter 14 page 20). - Before starting a test, check the assembly of the engine on the bench and all the connections. - To avoid accidents with the operators and damage of the materials, take care with preparation and control that all the elements are correctly connected and fitted. - It is forbidden to dismount the moving parts of the Eddy current dynamometer, under penalty of guarantee loss. - Before any operation on the electric components, it is necessary to switch off the power. - All the electric and electronic components must be protected from humidity. - In case of malfunction of the Eddy current dynamometer, the investigation and repair must always be carried out by personnel approved by our technical team. - Never run the dynamometer without water, even without excitation on the reel, with a water flow lower than the quarter of the necessary maximum value. - The electric specifications correspond to IP 40 rules (reference given by the CEI 64/8).

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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9 Speed sensor

The rpm measuring device consists of a 60 toothed wheel placed on the dynamometer flange and a pickup. The pickup impulses are converted by a frequency/voltage converter to a d.c. voltage and transmitted to the regulation rack. Technical data of the pickup type sen 8D(64820083) Air gap on toothed wheel : Temperature range : Measure field : Dimensions : 0,7 mm -40 to +125°c from 50 to 15000 rpm total length 38mm

0,7 mm Capteur Sensor

Roue dentée 60 dents 60 teeth wheel

N.B. : Keep always clean the pickup contact and the wheel teeth. Check that the pick up is at a distance of 0,7 mm from wheel tooth Z=60.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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Page 15 of 36

10 Water pressure safety

The mechanical energy developed by the engine under test during braking is converted into heat which is dissipated by water put into the dynamometer. The water supply is necessary on braking, and it is very important to provide for safety systems on water mains of the dynamometer, both at inlet and outlet, in order to guarantee perfect efficiency. On water outlet pipe a pressure switch is assembled and it operates when the inlet water pressure is not sufficient.

10.1 Technical characteristics techniques

Conformity to 17-12 IEC 337-I CEI Max. temperature of the controlled fluid : 120 °C Max. temperature of pressure switch body : 120 °C

10.2 Electric characteristics

Quick release microswitch with contacts in silver-Cadmium Insulation rated voltage : Ui = 380 V Rated current of continuous service : Lth = 15 A

The pressure switch has an adjustable intervention pressure from 0,15 to 1 bar. These adjustments is carried out at our factory during final test. DO NOT TAMPER THESE ADJUSTMENTS : IF YOU DO SO, THE GURANTEE WILL BE INVALID.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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Page 16 of 36

11 Water temperature safety

On the two outlet pipes the thermal switches are assembled, with fixed adjustment at 60 centigrade degrees, to check the water outlet temperature. If the water outlet temperature exceeds 60 centigrade degrees, safety systems will come into operation. ATTENTION: The thermial probes give an indication of the water outlet temperature. To allow correct operation of probes keep the passage of water into labyrinths clean. If there is no correct thermial exchange, the probes will not indicate that there is over temperature. Refer to page 20 for labythinth cleaning. TEMPERATURE DETECTOR :

N.B. If the probe is replaced, cover the thread with OKS90 paste and screw with torque of 1,5Kmg; do not bond the two male contacts for the cable connection.

All safety sytems are managed by the regulation rack RRN104. For more details on the Regulation Rack safeties management, look at the Regulation Rack manual.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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Page 17 of 36

12 Force sensor assembling

D C

couple de serrage des écrous : 2 m.kg nut screw with 2 m.kg

H A I

E F G

couple de serrage des écrous : 2 m.kg nut screw with 2 m.kg

L

The force sensor is protected during transport against damage. A blocking bracket connects the two fastening screws of the sensor during transport. This must be reinstalled if the brake must be moved. After the installation of the test stand, install the force sensor as follows : 1 ­ Remove the force sensor packing ; 2 ­ Unscrew nuts D, remove washers C, shim E and blocking brackets F; 3 ­ Assemble washer A ; 4 ­ Install the force sensor G with ball joints H in suitable pins I and L ; 5 ­ Assemble washer C and fix the unit with nuts D as per explanatory drawing.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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13 Labyrinths cleaning

13.1 Generalities :

In this section, you will find useful information for labyrinth cleaning. It is a necessary precaution in order to lengthen dyno life. If the labyrinths are not cleaned, there will be overheating and deformation with consequent damage. The dyno cooling circuit must be cleaned periodically with suitable scale-remover. The interval depends on the water outlet temperature and the acidity grade and alkalinity of the same. We suggest cleaning every 50 service hours in the presence of very hard water and water outlet temperature of 50°C (122 °F). This interval can increase if the water feeding installation is provided with a special filter or if it has been decalcified with water-softener. For the cleaning of the cooling circuit we suggest the use of the following scale-remover : exopengar. It is especially suitable for central heating and when the encrustations are covered with residual oily grease products. Usage : Put the cleaner into the installation diluted in water at 20 %. Precautions : AGRESSIVE PRODUCT, AVOID CONTACT WITH EYES AND SKIN ; IN CASE OF CONTACT WASH ABUNDANTLY WITH WATER AND THEN ALKALINE SOLUTION. WE SUGGEST THE USE OF GLOVES AND PROTECTIVE GLASSES. KEEP AWAY FROM CHILDREN. After the descaling, the dyno must be immediately rinsed with fresh water. The rinsing must be from 5 to 10 minutes. The descaling solution which is concentrated liquid is mostly used to eliminate totally the limestone encrustations, rust, oily and grease substances. In spite of it's strong acidity, it is guaranteed protection against corrosion of steel, cast iron and steels with chrome and copper alloys, because of passivating products which inhibit corrosion. The cleaning of the water cooled installations is carried out through a decalcification pump. The decalcification pump station can be provided on request. With this solution, there is no need to disassemble the installation to clean it, so it is a inexpensive way of working. The pump has been made with acid-proof parts. The washing time depends on the amount of encrustation. 4 hours for each kg of encrustation may be necessary. DISCHARGE OF DESCALING SOLUTION After use, the product must be considered as « special waste » and therefore subject to DPR 10/9/82 n°915 and 475/88 laws which provide for discharging through authorised company. PARTICULARATES Deposits consisting mainly of chalk or silicate are not dissolved by the scale-remover. When the dyno is disassembled for complete overhaul, the labyrinths can be immersed in a suitable container for 4 hours using the same solution. Whenever the descaling of labyrinths is carried out, it is necessary to check the clamps and the rubber pipes and if necessary, replace them, removing the inspection cover.

ATTENTION :

During the cleaning of the test stand, do not spray water with descaling liquid on the Eddy current dyno. To connect the descaling unit it is necessary to assemble on the dyno base, into the inlet pipe, the group sphere valves A and B as shown. N. B. Valves must not have the sphere in chronium plated steel, it is incompatible with the descaling liquid.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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13.2 How to use vertical axis pumps with tanks

Fill the tank with a quantity of scale-remover and enough water to keep the pump body covered during operation. THE PUMP MUST NEVER WORK WITHOUT WATER. THE DESCALING SOLUTION MUST NEVER EXCEED THE TEMPERATURE OF 50°C. Screw the ends of the flexible pipes to the pipe which must be descaled. Connect the feeding cable to a current-tap 220V single phase. During operation keep the tank cap open to allow breathing of gases created by the descaling process and check the foam does not go over the max filling level. For the type with FLOW REVERSE GEAR (« GEL » patent ; for attacking encrustations from both the inlet circuit) operate each ½ hour the lever from one point to the other, manually. There is also the automatic flow reverse gear version. As a matter of fact, attacking the encrustations from both sides, it is possible to descale pipes almost totally obstructed and this reduces the intervention time. The descaling can be considered over when, in the flow return hose, there will be no more development of bubbles and the solution is still acid. In case the pump is not used for more than 1 week, it is necessary to wash with limpid water. Our equipment is made by anti-acid materials of best quality and to allow intensive working way for several weeks. Maintenance and working are not a problem following these instructions. If spare parts are requested, it is necessary to mention the pump model, code and part number and number of parts requested. To wash the tank, use hot water at 30 or 40 degrees C. This process is advisable when transparency is lost and it is not possible to see the foam and the change of the liquid colour.

13.3 Descaling system drawing :

The pipe length must be adjusted as required. Parts 1, 2 and 3 do not form part of the standard supply.

1 Raccord 1/2" Pipe fitting from 1/2"

2

3

Sortie d'eau Water outlet

Entrée d'eau Water inlet

Alimentation 220V Main supply 220V

Bouchon de mise à l'air libre Breather cap

Durite de retour Flow return hoses Réservoir Tank

Type BOY C.130

Durite d'alimentation Delivery hoses Raccord 3/4" Pipe fitting 3/4"

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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14 Rotor shaft bearings lubrication 1 Bearing lubrication has important and definite functions such as : - A lubricating film in order to prevent the direct contact of rolling bodies - dissipation of the heat generated by friction - protection from infiltration of extraneous substances - protection from corrosion of surfaces 2 the maximum operating temperature of the bearings is 90°C. This temperature can be detected on the rear and front bearing with a thermocouple type K that is in contact of the external ring. This can be offered as an option. 3 The systems we use is grease lubrication because it does not require particular maintenance. 4 We recommend checking the bearings condition every 500 hours of operation, with the instrument SPM A2010. It is a very fast and effective check; it does not require dismantling and the instrument provides accurate information on lubrication conditions and wear of the bearings. 5 The length of grease use is the time which pass between starting and exhaustion of lubricating. It depends on : - type of grease - type and dimensions of bearing - size and kind of load - element of rotation at speed 6 We have set this length at approx. 5000 hours of dynamometer operation, after, which it is necessary to lubricate again, disassembling the bearings and proceeding as follows : - washing the bearing with a detergent type Kluber TCA 30, - do not dry with compressed air, - greasing the bearings with Kluber Isoflex NBU 15 ; for quantity of grease, see table in chapter 16 « Grease volume in the bearings » page 23, - reassemble bearings. 7 The lubricated bearings must pass through a period of running-in in order to obtain a homogeneous distribution of grease and avoid the overheating of the bearing during operating. To carry out correct running-in it is necessary to start from the minimum speed (about 1000 rpm) increasing by 1000 rpm each time till reaching the max. speed and remain for 10 minutes at each speed. N. B. After the bearing washing, carry out an accurate examination to check the condition of the bearing , otherwise replace it. - the couple bearings are packed into single boxes tied together and therefore must not be exchanged with the other bearings. - the assembling operations must be done in clean conditions. - to carry out assembling and disassembling operations, it is necessary to use a special equipment which we can supply on request. see table in chapter 17.5 « Bearing assembly tool » page 28 and chapter 17.6 « Bearing assembly tool » page 29 to avoid damaging the bearings. The trunnion support bearings (stator) has the function to support the brake unit (stator) and make it oscillate in the most sensitive way to increase reading accuracy. Therefore, in this case, the presence of lubricatiion has the following functions : create a lubricating film of KLUBER ISOFLEX NBU15, to prevent the direct contact of rolling bodies diminishing friction, protection from infiltration of extraneous substances, protection from corrosion of surfaces.

It is a good rule, when rotor bearings are lubricated again or replaced, also to change the trunnion support bearings (stator). For preparation, follow the same instruction already established. For disassembling and assembling, see tables in chapters 17.4 to 17.6

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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15 Instructions for the assemble of the "SPIETH" adjustable ring nut

Important for the operator who assembles the ring nut : The Spieth ring nut is an element for machines with which it is possible to assure a locked screw connection or with fixed clearance. For this reason the ring nut has the advantage that the « A » contact surface can be lined up till few perpendicular (perfectly orthogonal). The ring nut screwing is carried out with a key in the front holes.

Assemble instructions : 1 2 3 4 With the tightening screws D loose, screw the ring nut on the threaded shaft C by hand or by key till few mm from surface E, Screw alternatively the tightening screws D, one at a time, with the same force to compensate for the clearance on the sides of the threads. In this position the ring nut axis coincides with the shaft axis and the surface A is perpendicular to the axis (picture 2), Now, put the ring against surface E and secure through the tightening and locking of screws D (picture 3). Check the shaft rotation to determine as possible eccentricity of the shaft - this can happen because of an accumulation of small errors in the flatness of parts that are in contact, and needs to be eliminated. When releasing of the ring nut, the screws D must be at first slightly loose alternatively one at a time and when completely released.

For the torque to apply to ring nuts and screws, refer to next chapter.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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Torque table to apply to ring nuts and screws : FE 60 S FE 190 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 600 SD FE 900 ST FE 1020 ST FE 350 S FE 1200 ST Screw ring nut Type MSR 35x1.5 Code 3.024.027 With key code 2-1406 1.5m.kg Screw ring nut Type MSR 50x1.5 Code 3.024.028 With key code 2-1409 3m.kg Screw ring nut Type MSR 60x1.5 Code 3.024.017 With key code 2-1507 6m.kg Screw ring nut Type MSR 90x2 Code 3.024.035 With key code 2-1510 10m.kg Screw ring nut Type MSR 100x2 Code 3.024.036 With key code 2-2165 12m.kg Screw ring nut screws 0.29m.kg

*

Screw ring nut screws 0.29m.kg

*

Screw ring nut screws 0.6m.kg

* FE 600 S FE 600 DV * FE 900 S *

Screw ring nut screws 1m.kg

Screw ring nut screws 1m.kg

* : Tool code number : All request must specify the dyno type and its serial number.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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16 Grease volume in the bearings

DYNO TYPE FA 3/30 SL FA 10/30 SL FA 20/30 SL FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 350 S FE 600 S FE 900 S FE 300 SD FE 600 SD FE 900 ST FE 600 SDP FE 1200 ST F 23 F 23 S F 23 HS F 23 SPV F 29 F 29 S F 29 SV F 29 HS F 39 F 39 HS F 47

FRONT BEARING 1207 CTDULP4 (72x35x17) 7007CTDULP4 (62x35x14) 7210CTDULP4 (90x50x20) 7212CTDULP4 (110x60x22) 7218CTDULP4 (160x90x30) 7220CTDULP4 (180x100x34) E250NS7PE1DDL (90x50x20) E260NS7PE1DDL (110x60x22) 6212TBRP4 (110x60x22) 6216TBRP4 (140x80x26) 6022TBRP4 (170x110x28) 6024TBRP4 (180x120x28)

GREASE VOLUME in cm³ 3,6 2,1 6 10 26 40 3 4 10

REAR BEARING 6207TBRP4 (72x35x17) 6007TBRP4 (62x35x14) 6210TBRP4 (90x50x20) 6212TBRP4 (110x60x22) 7218CTDULP4 (160x90x30) 7220CTDULP4 (180x100x34) E250NS7PE1DDL (90x50x20) E260NS7PE1DDL (110x60x22) 6212TBRP4 (110x60x22) 6216TBRP4 (140x80x26) 6022TBRP4 (170x110x28) 6024TBRP4 (180x120x28)

GREASE VOLUME in cm³ 3,6 2,1 6 10 26 40 3 4 10

TRUNNION BEARING 6209 (75x45x16) 16016 (125x80x14) 16020 (150x100x16) 16024 (180x120x19) 16030 (225x150x24) 6036 (280x180x46) 16020 (150x100x16) 16024 (180x120x19) 16024 (180x120x19) 16030 (225x150x24) 61836MA (225x180x22) 61836MA (225x180x22)

19

19

26 27

26 27

The values listed in this table refer to one bearing only. N.B. : Before greasing the bearings, it is necessary to wash them by immersion for a short period (5 seconds) in a solution of R TCA30 and after that let the bearing dry on a flat and clean surface. It is forbidden to dry the bearings with compressed air or roll them even manually, to avoid damage. Then lubricate with a good volume of grease : kluber isoflex NBU15. Turn the bearings several times on the right and on the left to install them on the shaft. All these operations must be done in a very clean environment.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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17 Brake body disassembly from base

17.1 General procedure

Anneau de levage Eyebolt

To remove the brake body from base : - Disassemble the load sensor, - Remove the inlet and outlet water flange, - Remove pipes, - Disconnect temperature probes, - Disconnect coil from electric box, - Disassemble pick-up, - Remove screws and trunnion support pins, - Install an eyebolt. IMPORTANT: Before screwing in the eyebolt, check that the length "L" of the thread corresponds to quote on table. Not following these instructions can damage the coil irreparably. Screws type M12 M16 M20 M24 M27 Length = L 21 22 27 29 23

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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17.2 Assembling tool for water inlet and outlet

OUTIL N° ... (voir tableau) TOOL N°... (see table)

Brake type FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 350 S FE 600 S FE 600 DV FE 600 SD FE 900 S FE 900 ST FE 1200 ST

Tool N° * 2-1535 2-1538 2-1541 2-1544 2-1668 2-1669 2-1958 2-1669 2-1668

If required when placing order, please specify dyno type and serial number.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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17.3 Lining-up of water inlet and outlet pipes dynos

Lining-up of water inlet and outlet pipes dynos with specific tool (See previous chapter page 25) When disassembling the inlet and outlet water pipes from the brake body, it is necessary to carry out a suitable control operation during assembly in order to guarantee correct lining-up and reduce to a minimum the hysteresis of the dynamometer. The flange support is fixed to the base through screws and positioned with pins, then its position is fixed. For the pipes assembly procedure is as follows : 1 2 3 4 5 Put the pipes in their position and slightly lock them with flanges screws; Put the control tool till inside the terminal flange of thepipe (it is necessary to remove the inside OR ring); To do this operation, it will be necessary to rectify the pipe position loosening the fixing screws; When the pin reaches its position as indicated on the picture page 25, chapter 17.2, the pipe is lined-up; Tighten the screws, material class 8.8, with the torque indicated in chapter 20 « General tightening torque » page 35.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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17.4 Trunnion support bearings disassembly

To remove trunnion supports, a standard two sliding arm extractor, of sufficient opening size for the type of dynamometer can be used. The extractor size depends on the brake type. Lift the shaft end using a safe-center small block, as indicated in picture 1. It is advisable to do this operation with the dyno shaft in vertical position to avoid the trunnion support falling on the conical part of the shaft, ruining its surface, when the bearing has got out of its housing,. If it is not possible to put the dynamometer in the indicated position, take the precaution to cover it with an adequate guard for the terminal part of the shaft. To remove the bearing from the trunnion support, use the same extractor using a pad as indicated in picture 2.

EXTRACTEUR EXTRACTOR CALE PAD

PIECE DE PROTECTION SMALL BLOCK

Dyno type FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 600 SD FE 900 ST FE 350 S FE 1200 ST FE 600 S FE 600 DV FE 900 S

Tool N° * 2-2217 2-2218 2-2219 2-2220 2-2221

* If required when placing order please specify type of dyno and its serial number.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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17.5 How to disassemble the bearings of the shaft of the rotor

To remove the front and rear bearing box, use a suitable tools as shown in pictures 1 and 2.

To remove the bearings from the box, use the tool shown in picture 3, plus a spacer TA for the front part and a spacer TP for the rear part (see picture 4).

Dyno type FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 600 SD FE 900 ST FE 350 S FE 1200 ST FE 600 S FE 600 DV FE 900 S

Tool code * 2,2204 2,2205 2,2205 2,2207 2,2208

* If required when placing order please specify type of dyno and its serial number.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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17.6 Bearing assembly tool

Tool for trunnion support bearing (stator) assembly :

OUTIL N° (voir tableau) TOOL N° (see table)

Dyno type FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 350 S FE 600 S FE 600 DV FE 600 SD FE 900 S FE 900 ST FE 1200 ST

Tool N° * 2-1379 2-1383 2-1392 2-1400 2-1383 2-1956 2-1383 2-1392

* If required when placing order please specify type of dyno and its serial number.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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17.7 Tool for bearing box assembly

OUTIL N° ... (voir tableau) TOOL N°... (see table)

Dyno type FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 600 SD FE 900 ST FE 350 S FE 600 S FE 600 DV FE 900 S FE 1200 ST

Tool N° * 2-1353 2-1365 2-1387 2-1395 2-1957 2-1387

* If required when placing order please specify type of dyno and its serial number.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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18 Coupling flange assembly and disassembly

18.1 Flange assembly and disassembly tool on hydraulic cones :

Enrouleur de Téflon Teflon coiler

Comparateur Comparator

Voir tableau See table

Enroulement de Téflon Teflon coil

Plateau Flange

OUTIL N°... (Voir tableau) TOOL N°... (See table)

18.2 Assembly and disassembly procedure :

For the assembly and disassembly of the coupling flange, an oil injector type SKF 226270 which uses an hydraulic oil, type SHELL HLP 100 or its equivalent, must be used. 18.2.1 Flange assembly · Dynamometer shaft and flange must be the same temperature. · Conical parts to couple must be perfectly clean, slightly oiled and with no superficial defects. · Put the flange on shaft till reaching the coupling without clearance. · Remove the threaded protection dowel in the oil delivery hole. · Assemble the tool as shown on the previous picture and place an antirotation device at the opposite end of the dynamometer. · During the assembly of connector 4, it is necessary to wind the thread part with teflon take guarantee a seal.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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· Insert the comparator for the exact reading of stroke A of flange introduction. See the next table for different A values depending on the brake type. · Assemble the check valve 6 type SKF 226272. · Produce the required pressure on the injector and at the same time rotate the ring nut 3 till the fixed stroke A reading the value on comparator is obtained. · Disconnect the injector and connection 4. · Remove the ring nut 3 only after 1 hour from the assembly, this is to allow the settling of the flange and ejection of assembling oil. · After the time mentioned above, remove the complete tool and the antirotation device and plug the threaded hole with suitable dowel. · It is advisable not to subject the flange to torsion at loads for at least two hours after the assembly.

18.3 Flange disassembly

· Insert the tool (see previous picture). · Keep a distance of 5 mm between spacer end 1 and the flange. · Produce the required pressure (see next table) and wait 10 to 30" till the disconnection of the flange. The ring nut 3 is assembles as safety.

18.4 Use of injector SKF 226270

· Unscrew the outside bush, remove the piston and fill the housing with the oil suggested. · Replace the piston and screw with outside bush. · In case only one oil filling is not sufficient to complete the operation, it is necessary to top up oil following the above mentioned operation.

18.5 Technical data of coupling flange

Brake type FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 600 SD FE 900 ST FE 350 S FE 600 S FE 600 DV FE 900 S FE 1200 ST * see previous picture. Torque Nm 130 210 235 610 850 1400 2350 4700 4100 1800 Oil pressure Bar MPa 1000 1500 1500 1300 1250 1150 1300 100 150 150 130 125 115 130 Stroke "A" coupling 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.7 2.3 3.2 1.7 Tool N° * 2-1939 2-1940 2-1940 2-1941 2-1942 2-1943 2-1943

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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19 Air gap adjustment.

19.1 Tool for air gap adjustment

OUTIL N°... (voir tableau) TOOL N°... (see table)

Comparateur Comparator

OUTIL N°... (voir tableau) TOOL N°... (see table)

* If required when placing order please specify type of dyno and its serial number.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

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19.2 Air gap adjustment procedure

When it is necessary to overhaul the dyno, it is essential to assemble the rotor in central position as regards the two stators. In dynos, this position is obtained on putting a shim, thickness R, between the bell and the rear box. To obtain this value R ; proceed as follows : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Assemble the tool in the rear side of the dynamometer as shown on the previous picture. Remove the screws A in the front side. Disassemble the two shims B. Space the ring nut G-2 from the end by at least 5 mm and screwing the ring nut G-1, move the rotor against the labyrinth without forcing on. During this operation, slowly turn the rotor so as to realise when it is against the labyrinth (it does not turn anymore). Insert the comparator on the end of the rear shaft. Loosen the ring nut G-1 and using the ring nut G-2 bring the rotor to the opposite side against the labyrinth using the same system mentioned before. On the comparator movement S is read (it must correspond to the TR value indicated in the following table). Note T with the decimal gauge. The exact R thickness of shim to put in is :

10 Insert the two shims and lock with screws A. 19.3 Table of air gap value Brake type FE 60 S FE 100 S FE 150 S FE 260 S FE 300 S FE 350 S FE 600 S FE 600 DV FE 600 SD FE 900 S FE 900 ST FE 1200 ST Air gap TR (mm) 1.2 1.3 1.5 2 3 3 4 3 4

+ 0.2 0 + 0.2 0 + 0.2 0 + 0.2 0 + 0.2 0 + 0.2 0 + 0.2 0 + 0.2 0 + 0.2 0

R=T - 1 S 2

Tool N° * 2-1753 2-1766 2-1766 2-1954 2-1876 2-1766 2-1955 2-1766 2-1954

* If required when placing order please specify type of dyno and its serial number.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

ROTRONICS 39, Impasse de l'étang Z..I des Dragiez F74800 LA ROCHE SUR FORON

Tel : +33 (0)450.030.859 Fax : +33 (0)450.030.597 E-mail : [email protected] http://www.rotronics.com

R:\DOCSTD\PAO\FREINS_B&S_M_08_05\FREINS_B&S_UKM_09_06.DOC

BORGHI DYNAMOMETERS Last modification : 26/10/2006

Page 35 of 36

20 General tightening torque

Tightening torque for cylindrical screws with metric thread ­ Material class 8.8 - 10.9 - 12.9 Diameter thread M4 M5 M6 M8 M10 M12 M14 M16 M18 M20 M22 M24 M27 M30 Tightening torque Material class 8.8 KGM Nm 0.29 2.80 0.60 5.90 1.00 9.80 2.50 24.50 4.90 48.00 8.60 84.00 13.50 132.00 21.00 206.00 29.00 284.50 41.00 402.00 55.00 539.50 71.00 696.50 105.00 1030.00 145.00 1422.00 Tightening torque Material class 10.9 KGM Nm 0.41 4.20 0.80 7.80 1.40 13.70 3.50 34.30 6.90 67.90 12.00 117.70 19.00 186.30 29.50 289.30 40.50 397.30 58.00 568.90 78.00 765.10 100.00 981.00 150.00 1471.50 200.00 1962.00 Tightening torque Material class 12.9 KGM Nm 0.53 5.20 1.03 10.10 1.78 17.50 4.24 41.60 8.62 84.60 14.57 143.00 23.24 228.00 35.27 346.00 48.72 478.00 68.70 674.00 91.44 897.00 119.26 1170.00 173.30 1700.00 235.50 2310.00

Screws must be tightened only with dynamometric key.

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

ROTRONICS 39, Impasse de l'étang Z..I des Dragiez F74800 LA ROCHE SUR FORON

Tel : +33 (0)450.030.859 Fax : +33 (0)450.030.597 E-mail : [email protected] http://www.rotronics.com

R:\DOCSTD\PAO\FREINS_B&S_M_08_05\FREINS_B&S_UKM_09_06.DOC

BORGHI DYNAMOMETERS Last modification : 26/10/2006

Page 36 of 36

21 Failure analysis

EDDY CURRENT BRAKE FAILURE Rotor bearings noisiness Alarm of over temperature of the rotor bearings (signal from the probes) Rotor locked Excessive radial or axial play of the rotor PROBABLE CAUSE Bearings damage Insufficient lubrication CURE Substitution Re-lubrication Substitution Check Check Check alignment, or seals substitution. Trunnion support bearing substitution Check Centre of the rotor. Descal the loss plates. Check rate of flow. Descale the loss plates Replace the load cell Overhaul of the brake Reverse (every now and then), the magnetic field reversing the brake coil terminals (screw clamps 2 and 3 on the terminal board)

Bearing seizure Bearing damage. Ring nut loosened Coupling flange eccentricity Weight excessive and unbalanced Hysteresis on ZERO indication of torque Brass tubes tying. Trunnion support. Bearing damage. Intermittent indication of speed Pick-up clearance incorrect. Bending of the shaft end. Difference in loss plate temperatures Rotor centring incorrect. Scale in one of the loss plates Loss plates over temperature (signal Insufficient amount of water to the from probes) brake. Scale in the loss plates. Intermittent torque indication Load cell fault Water leakage from the drain hole of the Lack of sealing because of distortion brake of the loss plates. Loss plate cracks because of thermal shock. Increase in the power absorption of the Magnetisation of the shaft brake without braking current

(Technical specification subject to change without notice)

ROTRONICS 39, Impasse de l'étang Z..I des Dragiez F74800 LA ROCHE SUR FORON

Tel : +33 (0)450.030.859 Fax : +33 (0)450.030.597 E-mail : [email protected] http://www.rotronics.com

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